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Sample records for deuterium blanco fino

  1. Fine target of deuterium; Blanco fino de deuterio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Diaz, J; Granados Gonzalez, C E; Gutierrez Bernal, R

    1959-07-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 {mu} gr/cm{sup 2} thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs.

  2. Calle Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cerda Brintrup

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Importante arteria, que comunica el sector del puerto con la plaza. Las más imponentes construcciones se sucedían de un modo continuo, encaramándose a ambos lados de la empinada calle. Antes del gran incendio de 1936 grandes casonas de madera destacaban en calle Irarrázabal y en la esquina de ésta con calle Blanco, la más hermosa construcción pertenecía a don Alberto Oyarzún y la casa vecina hacia Blanco era de don Mateo Miserda, limitada por arriba con la casa de don Augusto Van Der Steldt y ésta era seguida de la casa de don David Barrientos provista de cuatro cúpulas en las esquinas y de un amplio corredor en el frontis. Todas estas construcciones de madera fueron destruidas en el gran incendio de 1936.

  3. Nevus blanco esponjoso familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Andrade Lotufo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El nevus blanco esponjoso (NBE es una rara condición autosómica dominante, caracterizada por placas blancas bilaterales en la mucosa, de aspecto esponjoso, blandas a la palpación y que pueden escamarse. Los tratamientos son paliativos; y el uso de antibióticos, en especial la tetraciclina, ha demostrando buenos resultados en su control. Este trabajo presenta tres casos clínicos de una familia afectada por NBE, donde se discuten los posibles diagnósticos diferenciales y conductas terapéuticas indicadas. Un paciente masculino de 52 años de edad acudió a la clínica aquejado de lesiones blancas bilaterales. El paciente notó las lesiones 30 años antes, sin lograr un diagnóstico final de las mismas. Después de la anamnesis y del examen clínico fue realizada una biopsia incisional. La reunión de los datos clínicos e histopatológicos llevó al diagnóstico de NBE. Se le solicitó al paciente que indagase entre sus familiares con respecto a lesiones semejantes. Se detectó que el hijo de 19 años y la hija de 25 eran portadores de placas blancas en la mucosa yugal. Como no había afectación estética, se optó por no intervenir en las lesiones. El nevus blanco esponjoso es una lesión genética que debe ser diferenciada de otras patologías localizadas y sistémicas importantes, que tienen repercusiones serias para el individuo. Como no hay un tratamiento curativo para el NBE, el papel del cirujano dentista es diagnosticar esta lesión, aclarar al paciente sobre la naturaleza benigna y autolimitante del NBE y si fuera necesario desde el punto de vista estético, aplicar diferentes modalidades terapéuticas.

  4. quebracho-blanco Schlecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Sanabria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La especie Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schlecht es la más abundante del Parque Chaqueño y no es utilizada en la producción de bienes de alto valor agregado debido a la inestabilidad dimensional de su madera. Una de las maneras de mejorar la estabilidad dimensional es el engrosado de la pared celular con polietilenglicol (PEG. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto del PEG de peso molecular 300 y 600 en la estabilidad dimensional, utilizando como parámetro de control el coeficiente de retractabilidad de la madera citada. Las muestras se impregnaron en una Planta Piloto con PEG, a través del proceso Bethell, según Norma IRAM Núm. 9511. Posteriormente se secaron hasta un contenido de humedad (CH del 10 %. Los mejores resultados se lograron impregnando la madera con PEG 600, a una concentración del 50 % en solución acuosa, a una presión de 12 kg·cm-2 durante 120 minutos, lo que permitió disminuir el coeficiente de retractabilidad de esta madera en 58.2 %.

  5. Blanco White and Walter Scott Blanco white y Walter Scott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando DURÁN LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first edition of Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley was published in Edinburgh in 1820. From the beginning of year 1823, José María Blanco White translated several excerpts from Ivanhoe in the numbers 1-3 of the magazine Variedades, owned by the publisher Rudolph Ackermann. in these articles and other later writings, the translator praised Scott as a model for a new way of painting history in a narrative. This paper studies his ideas on Scott’s historical novel, as well as his translation technique, compared with that of José Joaquín de Mora. En 1820 se publicó en Edimburgo la primera edición de Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley. Desde comienzos de 1823, en los tres primeros números de su revista Variedades, promovida por el editor Rudolph Ackermann, José María Blanco White tradujo varios fragmentos de Ivanhoe entre grandes elogios. Asimismo, Blanco White tomó a Scott como modelo de referencia de una nueva manera de pintar la historia por medio de la novela en otros varios escritos críticos de años posteriores. El artículo estudia las ideas de Blanco White acerca de la novela histórica de Scott y su técnica como traductor, comparada con la de José Joaquín Mora.

  6. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  7. BRIQUETAGEM DE FINOS DE CALCÁRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rezende Barros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aplicação da tecnologia na agricultura dentro do sistema de produção é realidade principalmente com a abertura de mercados através da globalização. Em diversas áreas da indústria moderna, o calcário é utilizado como corretor da acidez do solo. A calagem é uma prática barata, porém ainda é negligenciada quanto ao seu uso, na adoção da técnica, à definição das doses e às formas de aplicação. A briquetagem consiste na aglomeração de partículas finas através de pressão, auxiliada ou não por aglomerantes, permitindo obtenção de produtos compactados, com forma, tamanho e parâmetros mecânicos adequados. A redução de volume do material, além dos benefícios tecnológicos, permite que materiais finos possam ser transportados e armazenados de forma mais econômica. A recente preocupação ambiental, resultando em leis mais rígidas, além da necessidade de aproveitar economicamente os resíduos e as partículas finas geradas no beneficiamento de minérios fez com que a briquetagem voltasse a ser uma importante alternativa para aglomerar valor econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aglomerar finos de calcário através da briquetagem (92% abaixo de 500# ou 25 µm gerados no processamento do mesmo, variando as dosagens de água (utilizada como agente aglomerante de 0; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%. O calcário, originário de Lagamar (MG, foi classificado quimicamente como dolomítico tipo D. Os briquetes foram submetidos a testes de queda a 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 cm de altura. Os melhores resultados encontrados para ensaios de queda foram obtidos com 7,5% de umidade, com médias de 21 quedas para 30 cm e 10 quedas para 60 cm de altura. Tais resultados apresentaram-se favoráveis quando comparados à literatura, a qual cita que para briquetes sem cura, considera-se 3 quedas a 0,3 m como valor razoável.

  8. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from cloned cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is the type member of the marafiviruses within the family Tymoviridae. A cDNA clone from which infectious RNA can be transcribed was produced from a US isolate of MRFV (MRFV-US). Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of mai...

  9. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Maize rayado fino virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) causes one of the most important virus diseases of maize in regions of Mexico, Central and South America, where it causes moderate to severe yield losses. The virus is found from the southern United States. to northern Argentina where its vector, the maize leafhopper D...

  10. Deuterium and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, G.; Ursu, D.; Mihaila, A.; Szentgyorgyi, P.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography on deuterium and heavy water contains 3763 references (1932-1974) from 43 sources of information. An author index and a subject index are given. The latter contains a list of 136 subjects, arranged in 13 main topics: abundance of deuterium , catalysts, catalytic exchange, chemical equilibria, chemical kinetics, deuterium and heavy water analysis, deuterium and heavy water properties, deuterium and heavy water separation, exchange reactions, general review, heavy water as moderator, isotope effects, synthesis of deuterium compounds

  11. Project Rio Blanco: site restoration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco was a joint Government-industry experiment using nuclear explosives to stimulate the flow of natural gas from low permeability formations which could not be economically produced through conventional methods. The project consisted of the simultaneous detonation of three nuclear explosives on May 17, 1973, in a 7,000 foot well in northwestern Colorado. Gas production testing and project evaluation continued through June 1976. The site cleanup and restoration planning phase began in December 1975 and was concluded with the issuance of an operational plan, Project Rio Blanco Site Cleanup and Restoration Plan, NVO-173, in May 1976. Actual site restoration activities were conducted during the period from July to November 1976. The activities throughout the restoration period are summarized and the final site status, including the disposition of all project facilities and the status of all project related wells after plug and abandonment and recompletion work are described

  12. Heating effects in Rio Blanco rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.; Rossler, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    Samples of ''sandstone'' from near the site of the upper Rio Blanco nuclear explosion were heated in the laboratory at temperatures between 600 and 900 0 C. The composition and amount of noncondensable (dry) gas released were measured and compared to the amount and composition of gas found underground following the explosion. The gas released from the rock heated in the laboratory contained approximately 80 percent CO 2 and 10 percent H 2 ; the balance was CO and CH 4 . With increasing temperature, the amounts of CO 2 , CO, and H 2 released increased. The composition of gas released by heating Rio Blanco rock in the laboratory is similar to the composition of gas found after the nuclear explosion except that it contains less natural gas (CH 4 , C 2 H 6 . . .). The amount of noncondensable gas released by heating the rock increases from approximately 0.1 mole/kg of rock at 600 0 C to 0.9 mole/kg at 900 0 C. Over 90 percent of the volatile components of the rock are released in less than 10 h at 900 0 C. A comparison of the amount of gas released by heating rock in the laboratory to the amount of gas released by the heat of the Rio Blanco nuclear explosion suggests that the explosion released the volatile material from about 0.42 mg of rock per joule of explosive energy (1700 to 1800 tonnes per kt). (auth)

  13. Caso Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Caso Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ouro Fino Saúde Animal case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hauch Ribeiro de Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Caso Ouro Fino Saúde Animal ilustra uma tomada de decisão, pelos executivos da empresa, sobre a entrada em um novo mercado, de vacinas para bovinos. Diante da necessidade de dar um passo maior em direção ao crescimento sustentável, a empresa não poderia deixar de entrar nesse segmento, que representava mais de metade do mercado brasileiro de produtos veterinários. No entanto, era um passo arriscado. A principal questão do caso é avaliar as alternativas de comprar vacinas de terceiros ou produzir internamente suas próprias vacinas. A empresa do caso é a Ouro Fino Saúde Animal, empresa brasileira de produtos veterinários, instalada no Estado de São Paulo, com faturamento de mais de R$ 100 milhões anuais. Os dois principais personagens deste caso são os diretores financeiro e industrial da empresa. A situação passa-se em 2005. Como instrumento de ensino, o caso foi concebido para o ensino de estratégia em cursos de pós-graduação em administração, levando os alunos a avaliar vantagens e desvantagens de cada uma das alternativas. Como objetivo secundário, o caso propicia alguns elementos para uma estimativa da viabilidade financeira da opção de implantar uma nova unidade produtiva e a possibilidade de refletir sobre uma decisão já tomada, de entrada no novo mercado. Por fim, o caso traz uma série de informações sobre o mercado brasileiro e sobre o mercado mundial de produtos veterinários. É possível, com base nestes dados, trabalhar questões ligadas à segmentação e posicionamento da empresa no setor, ficando a critério do professor este tipo de uso.El Caso Ouro Fino Saúde Animal ilustra una toma de decisiones por los ejecutivos de la empresa, a la entrada en un nuevo mercado de las vacunas para el ganado. Ante la necesidad de dar un paso importante hacia el crecimiento sostenible, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal no podía dejar de entrar, ya que representaba más de la mitad del mercado de productos veterinarios

  14. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  15. Medida de espessura de filmes finos com interferometro de haidinger

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Andreoli de Oliveira

    1987-01-01

    Resumo: Apresentamos um método não destrutivo para medida de espessura de filmes finos transparentes depositados em substratos transparentes, usando um interferômetro de Haidinger. A partir das frações de interferência, medidas para vários comprimentos de onda, e do índice de refração para um único comprimento de onda, determinamos a espessura do filme e sua dispersão cromática, através de um procedimento analítico-numérico Abstract: We introduce a non-destructive method for the thickness ...

  16. Lithium in Blanco1: Implications for Stellar Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffries, R. D.; James, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    We obtain lithium abundances for G and K stars in Blanco 1, an open cluster with an age similar to, or slightly younger than, the Pleiades. We critically examine previous spectroscopic abundance analyses of Blanco 1 and conclude that while there were flaws in earlier work, it is likely that Blanco 1 is close in overall metallicity to the older Hyades cluster and more metal-rich than the Pleiades. However, we find Blanco 1 has Li abundances and rotation rates similar to the Pleiades, contradic...

  17. Environmental impacts associated with Project Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.; Whicker, F.W.; Hanson, W.C.

    Project Rio Blanco, an experiment involving deep underground detonation of three 30-kton nuclear explosives designed to stimulate natural gas flow in geologic formations of low permeability, was conducted in western Colorado on 17 May 1973. Environmental impacts associated with this experiment were divided into three categories: radiation, ground motion, and conventional physical activities. Radiation and ground motion are unique to this type experiment while conventional activities would be associated with any type of resource development. The objective of observations made at Rio Blanco was to qualitatively and, where possible, quantitatively ascertain environmental impacts associated with the project. Observations indicated that ground motion and conventional activities appeared to cause the greatest impacts. Ground motion impacts were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravine and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Following the detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Animals receiving deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs and burrows. No mortality or injury was observed in any large animals. (U.S.)

  18. Rio Blanco: nuclear operations and chimney reentry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Guido, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    Rio Blanco was the third experiment in the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Plowshare Program to develop technology to stimulate gas production from geologic formations not conducive to production by conventional means. The project was sponsored by CER Geonuclear Corporation, with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory providing the explosives and several technical programs, such as spall measurement. Three nuclear explosives specifically designed for this application were detonated simultaneously in a minimum-diameter emplacement well using many commercially available but established-reliability components. The explosive system performed properly under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. Emplacement and stemming operations were designed with the aim of simplifying both the emplacement and reentry and fully containing the detonation products. An integrated command and control system was used with communication to all three explosives through a single coaxial cable. Reentry and the initial production testing are completed. To date 98 million standard ft 3 of chimney gas have been produced. (auth)

  19. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  20. Deuterium-depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Steflea, Dumitru; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Deuterium depleted water is produced by vacuum distillation in columns equipped with structured packing made from phosphor bronze or stainless steel. Deuterium-depleted water, the production technique and structured packing are patents of National Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies at Rm. Valcea. Researches made in the last few years showed the deuterium-depleted water is a biological active product that could have many applications in medicine and agriculture. (authors)

  1. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  2. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Activity of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blanco Leaf Extracts Against Human Prostate Cancer Cell. Lines ... Keywords: Ficus pseudopalma, Cytotoxicity, Apopotic, human prostate PRST2 cancer cell, Lupeol,. Quercetin. ..... apoptosis through Fas-receptor mediated pathway in a ...

  3. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from Cloned cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C; Weiland, John J; Todd, Jane; Stewart, Lucy R

    2015-06-01

    A full-length cDNA clone was produced from a U.S. isolate of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type member of the genus Marafivirus within the family Tymoviridae. Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of maize plants and protoplasts, as well as by transmission via the known leafhopper vectors Dalbulus maidis and Graminella nigrifrons that transmit the virus in a persistent-propagative manner. Infection of maize plants through vascular puncture inoculation of seed with transcript RNA resulted in the induction of fine stipple stripe symptoms typical of those produced by wild-type MRFV and a frequency of infection comparable with that of the wild type. Northern and Western blotting confirmed the production of MRFV-specific RNAs and proteins in infected plants and protoplasts. An unanticipated increase in subgenomic RNA synthesis over levels in infected plants was observed in protoplasts infected with either wild-type or cloned virus. A conserved cleavage site motif previously demonstrated to function in both Oat blue dwarf virus capsid protein and tymoviral nonstructural protein processing was identified near the amino terminus of the MRFV replicase polyprotein, suggesting that cleavage at this site also may occur.

  4. Antitubercular constituents from Premna odorata Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Stephen B; Macabeo, Allan Patrick G; Paragas, Erickson M; Knorn, Matthias; Kohls, Paul; Franzblau, Scott G; Wang, Yuehong; Aguinaldo, Ma Alicia M

    2014-06-11

    Premna odorata Blanco (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Albay Province, in southeastern Luzon, Philippines to treat tuberculosis. This study aimed to determine the antitubercular property of the crude extract and sub-extracts of the leaves, and to isolate the bioactive principles from the active fractions. Through extraction, solvent polarity-based fractionation and silica gel chromatography purification of the DCM sub-extract, compound mixtures from the bioactive fractions were isolated and screened for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the colorimetric Microplate Alamar Blue assay (MABA). The crude methanolic extract and sub-extracts showed poor inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC≥128µg/mL). However, increased inhibitory potency was observed for fractions eluted from the DCM sub-extract (MIC=54 to 120µg/mL). Further purification of the most active fraction (MIC=54µg/mL) led to the isolation of a 1-heneicosyl formate (1), 4:1 mixture of β-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3) and diosmetin (4), which were identified through GC-MS analysis (with dereplication) and NMR experiments. The MIC of compound 1 was 8µg/mL. The results of this study provide scientific basis for the traditional use of Premna odorata as treatment for tuberculosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Rio Blanco massive hydraulic fracture: project definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A recent Federal Power Commission feasibility study assessed the possibility of economically producing gas from three Rocky Mountain basins. These basins have potentially productive horizons 2,000 to 4,000 feet thick containing an estimated total of 600 trillion cubic feet of gas in place. However, the producing sands are of such low permeability and heterogeneity that conventional methods have failed to develop these basins economically. The Natural Gas Technology Task Force, responsible for preparing the referenced feasibility study, determined that, if effective well stimulation methods for these basins can be developed, it might be possible to recover 40 to 50 percent of the gas in place. The Task Force pointed out two possible underground fracturing methods: Nuclear explosive fracturing, and massive hydraulic fracturing. They argued that once technical viability has been demonstrated, and with adequate economic incentives, there should be no reason why one or even both of these approaches could not be employed, thus making a major contribution toward correcting the energy deficiency of the Nation. A joint Government-industry demonstration program has been proposed to test the relative effectiveness of massive hydraulic fracturing of the same formation and producing horizons that were stimulated by the Rio Blanco nuclear project

  6. Caminhos da intersubjetividade: Ferenczi, Bion, Matte-Blanco Paths of intersubjectivity: Ferenczi, Bion, Matte-Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Gerber

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A Intersubjetividade é inerente à concepção freudiana de Psicanálise, mas foi Ferenczi, seu discípulo mais próximo, o pioneiro na investigação das emoções que tomam o analista na presença do analisando. Esse artigo retoma aspectos dessa investigação das próprias emoções em Ferenczi, Bion e Matte-Blanco, discutindo as relações entre a lógica racional consciente e essa outra lógica emocional e contraditória do Inconsciente.Intersubjectivity is pertinent to the freudian concept of Psychoanalysis. Yet, it was Ferenczi, his closest disciple, and the pioneer in the investigations of emotions, which come upon the analyst in the presence of the patient. This paper retakes the aspects of this investigation of Ferenczi, Bion and Matte-Blanco, discussing the relations between the rational logic and this other one which is the emotional and contradictory logic of the unconscious.

  7. Backwater Flooding in San Marcos, TX from the Blanco River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Richard; Gaenzle, Kyle G.; Hollier, Andi B.

    2016-01-01

    Large sections of San Marcos, TX were flooded in Oct. 1998, May 2015, and Oct. 2015. Much of the flooding in Oct. 1998 and Oct. 2015 was produced by overbank flooding of San Marcos River and its tributaries by spills from upstream dams. The May 2015 flooding was almost entirely produced by backwater flooding from the Blanco River whose confluence is approximately 2.2 miles southeast of downtown. We use the stage height of the Blanco River to generate maps of the areas of San Marcos that are lower than the flood peaks and compare those results with data for the observed extent of flooding in San Marcos. Our preliminary results suggest that the flooding occurred at locations more than 20 feet lower than the maximum stage height of the Blanco River at San Marcos gage (08171350). This suggest that the datum for either gage 08171350 or 08170500 (San Marcos River at San Marcos) or both are incorrect. There are plans for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to construct a Blanco River bypass that will divert Blanco River floodwaters approximately 2 miles farther downstream, but the $60 million price makes its implementation problematic.

  8. Blanco sobre blanco : la arquitectura y el cambio cromático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Marina Barba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El color tiene un impacto considerable en la percepción general del paisaje urbano. La luz resalta las superficies, la textura subraya los materiales. Cuando en un paisaje se realiza cualquier intervención, ésta se convierte en atracción visual en relación a su contexto, siendo necesario considerar los factores determinantes de esta nueva relación. El empleo del blanco brillante supone introducir un elemento perceptivo fuerte. Paradójicamente, es el color más agresivo. Los materiales naturales, como la propia naturaleza, tienden a ser complejos en su textura y en sus tonos. El uso generalizado de productos industriales está conduciendo a un empobrecimiento cromático de los paisajes urbanos. El futuro del color blanco pasa por un cambio en su concepción de elemento decorativo hasta convertirlo en fundamento del proyecto, aprovechando sus cualidades de gradación tonal, contraste, expansión espacial y composición de escalas y formas.The colour has a significant impact on the overall perception of an urban environment. Light plays on surfaces, the texture of materials are noticed. Since any object introduced into the environment becomes a visual target in relation to its context, it is necessary to considerer the factors determining that relationship. Brilliant white forms a visual target that attracts the eye. Paradoxically, is the most intrusive colour. Natural materials, like nature itself, tend to be richly textured and subtly coloured. Widely use of industrial products is leading to a chromatic impoverishment on the urbanscape. The future of white is going through a change in its conception as decorative element, until it is turned to project foundation thanks to its qualities of tonal gradation, contrast, spatial expansion and composition of scales and forms.

  9. Project Rio Blanco: detonation related activities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco is described in relation to detonation, its history, execution, and results. Topics discussed include generalized site activities, emplacement well, explosive services and operations, operational safety, environmental protection program, seismic effects and damage claims, and add-on programs. (U.S.)

  10. Identification of resistance to Maize rayado fino virus in maize inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is one of the most important virus diseases of maize in America. Severe yield losses, ranging from 10 to 50% in landraces to nearly 100% in contemporary cultivars, have been reported. Resistance has been reported in populations, but few inbred lines have been identifie...

  11. Evaluating the silencing suppressor activity of proteins encoded by maize rayado fino virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type member of the genus Marafivirus, family Tymoviridae, is transmitted in a persistent, circulative manner by leafhoppers of the genus Dalbulus. Symptoms of MRFV infection on leaves of its maize host are small chlorotic spots that coalesce into short stripes. T...

  12. Celulas solares e sensores de filme fino de silicio depositados sobre substratos flexiveis =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Emilio Sergio Marins Vieira

    Celulas solares flexiveis de filmes finos de silicio sao geralmente fabricadas a baixa temperatura sobre substratos de plastico ou a mais elevadas temperaturas sobre folhas de aco. Esta tese reporta o estudo da deposicao de filmes finos sobre diferentes substratos de plastico, transparentes e coloridos, para celulas solares do tipo sobrestrato e substrato, respectivamente. Como objetivo co-lateral, os filmes dopados depositados sobre plastico foram usados como sensores de deformacao, utilizando as suas propriedades piezo-resistivas. Elevadas taxas de deposicao dos filmes de silicio depositados sobre plastico foram obtidas a baixa temperatura do substrato (150ºC) por rf-PECVD. A influencia de diferentes parametros de deposicao sobre as propriedades e taxa de deposicao dos filmes resultantes foram estudados e correlacionados. Celulas solares de filmes finos de silicio amorfo e microcristalino foram desenvolvidas a baixas temperaturas sobre plasticos. Eficiencias de 5 - 6.5% foram alcancadas para as celulas amorfas e 7.5% para as celulas microcristalinas. Efeitos de aprisionamento da luz foram estudados atraves da texturizacao por ablacao laser de substratos de plastico e corrosao umida de TCO sobre plastico. Filmes finos de silicio microcristalino, depositados por HW-CVD, com fator piezoresistivo de -32.2, foram usados para fabricar sensores de deformacao em uma membrana plastica muito fina (15 μm). Estruturas de teste em textil e a miniaturizacao dos sensores piezoresistivos depositados sobre substratos flexiveis de poliimida foram abordados.

  13. Neutrino disintegration of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, S.; Haxton, W.; Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the rate of both neutral- and charged-current neutrino and antineutrino disintegration of deuterium. These rates are of interest for solar 8 B and hep ( 3 He + p) spectra and supernovae neutrinos, and are relevant for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO)

  14. Deuterium in atmospheric cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, M.C.

    Interest of the study concerning the deuterium content variation (HDO) in the atmospheric water. Standards and measurement methods. Molecule HDO cycle in the atmospheric water. Application to the study of hail-generating cumulus-nimbus and of the mantle of snow [fr

  15. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Michael

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation. The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  16. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D 2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  17. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, M

    2004-07-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D{sub 2} molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  18. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  19. Predicting big bang deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, N.; Scherrer, R.J.; Steigman, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, T.P. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    We present new upper and lower bounds to the primordial abundances of deuterium and {sup 3}He based on observational data from the solar system and the interstellar medium. Independent of any model for the primordial production of the elements we find (at the 95{percent} C.L.): 1.5{times}10{sup {minus}5}{le}(D/H){sub {ital P}}{le}10.0{times}10{sup {minus}5} and ({sup 3}He/H){sub {ital P}}{le}2.6{times}10{sup {minus}5}. When combined with the predictions of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, these constraints lead to a 95{percent} C.L. bound on the primordial abundance deuterium: (D/H){sub best}=(3.5{sup +2.7}{sub {minus}1.8}){times}10{sup {minus}5}. Measurements of deuterium absorption in the spectra of high-redshift QSOs will directly test this prediction. The implications of this prediction for the primordial abundances of {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li are discussed, as well as those for the universal density of baryons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  20. Modification of the colony tower for the Rio Blanco detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.; Freeman, S.A.; Honda, K.K.; Lee, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Supplemental structural bracing was designed and installed for the 180-ft-tall Colony Tower, an experimental oil shale processing retort structure, in anticipation of its lateral response to the Rio Blanco detonation. The tower is a steel structure with both horizontal and vertical diagonal bracing. Data obtained from the earlier Project Rulison detonation indicated that an evaluation study was necessary. Design criteria that would provide an adequate margin of safety were developed based on predicted Rio Blanco ground motion. The evaluation of the unmodified structure showed that several bracing members would be subjected to forces exceeding their yield strength, and some would reach a level at which failure could occur. Further analyses were made with assumed modified bracing members. A final scheme for modified vertical bracing was established and installed. After modification, the response of the tower during the Rio Blanco detonation was measured by instruments on the ground and at various locations on the tower, and no evidence of damage was discovered. The modification of the Colony Tower and the procedures used to determine these modifications show the usefulness of current ground motion and structural response prediction technology for forecasting dynamic behavior of important structures subjected to ground motion from underground nuclear explosions. (auth)

  1. Population analysis of biofilm yeasts during fino sherry wine aging in the Montilla-Moriles D.O. region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Menguiano, Miriam; Romero-Sanchez, Sandra; Barrales, Ramón R; Ibeas, Jose I

    2017-03-06

    Fino is the most popular sherry wine produced in southern Spain. Fino is matured by biological aging under a yeast biofilm constituted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Although different S. cerevisiae strains can be identified in such biofilms, their diversity and contribution to wine character have been poorly studied. In this work, we analyse the flor yeast population in five different wineries from the Montilla-Moriles D.O. (Denominación de Origen) in southern Spain. Yeasts present in wines of different ages were identified using two different culture-dependent molecular techniques. From 2000 individual yeast isolates, five different strains were identified with one of them dominating in four out of the five wineries analysed, and representing 76% of all the yeast isolates collected. Surprisingly, this strain is similar to the predominant strain isolated twenty years ago in Jerez D.O. wines, suggesting that this yeast is particularly able to adapt to such a stressful environment. Fino wine produced with pure cultures of three of the isolated strains resulted in different levels of acetaldehyde. Because acetaldehyde levels are a distinctive characteristic of fino wines and an indicator of fino aging, the use of molecular techniques for yeast identification and management of yeast populations may be of interest for fino wine producers looking to control one of the main features of this wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond,Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo,Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  3. Multiplication of maize rayado fino virus in the leafhopper vector Dalbulus maidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C; Gámez, R

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to demonstrate the increase in titer of maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) in its leafhopper vector, Dalbulus maidis. Viral antigen concentration attained a maximum in the body of the insect 25 days after virus acquisition and decreased thereafter. Substantial differences in concentration were observed among viruliferous leafhoppers. MRFV was serially passed through 5 successive leafhopper populations. The results provide further evidence of multiplication of MRFV in D. maidis.

  4. Producing deuterium-enriched products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing an enriched deuterium product from a gaseous feed stream of mixed hydrogen and deuterium, comprises: (a) combining the feed stream with gaseous bromine to form a mixture of the feed stream and bromine and exposing the mixture to an electrical discharge effective to form deuterium bromide and hydrogen bromide with a ratio of D/H greater than the ratio of D/H in the feed stream; and (b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen bromide and deuterium bromide from the mixture. (author)

  5. Photodisintegration of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, K.Y.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goko, S.

    2004-01-01

    Photodisintegration cross sections were measured for deuterium with Laser Compton scattering γ beams at E γ = 2.3 - 4.6 MeV. The present data made it possible to experimentally evaluate R(E) = N a συ for the p(n, γ)D reaction with 6% uncertainty in the energy region to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The result confirms the past theoretical evaluation and the recent calculation based on the effective field theory. The reaction rate for the p(n, γ)D reaction is presented for the BBN in the precision era. (author)

  6. BLANCO MOUNTAIN AND BLACK CANYON ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral survey of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas, California indicated that areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential exist only in the Black Canyon Roadless Area. Gold with moderate amounts of lead, silver, zinc, and tungsten, occurs in vein deposits and in tactite. The nature of the geological terrain indicates little likelihood for the occurrence of energy resources in the roadless areas. Detailed geologic mapping might better define the extent of gold mineralization. Detailed stream-sediment sampling and analysis of heavy-mineral concentrations could better define tungsten resource potential.

  7. Spin polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Several ground state properties of (electron) spin-polarized deuterium (D) such as the energy, single quasiparticle energies and lifetimes, Landau parameters and sound velocities are evaluated. The calculations begin with the Kolos-Wolneiwicz potential and use the Galitskii-FeynmanHartree-Fock (GFHF) approximation. The deuteron nucleas has spin I = 1, and spin states I/sub z/ = 1,0,-1. We explore D 1 , D 2 and D 3 in which, respectively, one spin state only is populated, two states are equally populated, and three states are equally populated. We find the GFHF describes D 1 well, but D 2 and D 3 less well. The Landau parameters, F/sub L/, are small compared to liquid 3 He and very small for doubly polarized D 1 (i.e. the F/sub L/ decrease with nuclear polarization)

  8. Burn performance of deuterium-tritium, deuterium-deuterium, and catalyzed deuterium ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Blue, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The University of Illinois hydrodynamic burn code, AFBURN, has been used to model the performance of homogeneous D-T, D 2 , and catalyzed deuterium ICF targets. Yields and gains are compared for power-producing targets. AFBURN is a one-dimensional, two-temperature, single-fluid hydrodynamic code with non-local fusion product energy deposition. The initial conditions for AFBURN are uniformly compressed targets with central hot spots. AFBURN predicts that maximum D 2 target gains are obtained for target rhoR and spark rhoR about seven times larger than the target and spark rhoR for maximum D-T target gains, that the maximum D 2 target gain is approximately one third of the maximum D-T target gain, and that the corresponding yields are approximately equal. By recycling tritium and 3 He from previous targets, D 2 target performance can be improved by about 10%. (author)

  9. Some environmental impacts associated with project Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.; Whicker, F.W.; Hanson, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco, an experiment involving deep underground detonation of three 30-kiloton nuclear explosives designed to stimulate natural gas flow in geologic formations of low permeability, was conducted in western Colorado on 17 May 1973. Environmental impacts associated with this experiment were divided into three categories: radiation, ground motion, and conventional physical activities. The objective of observations made at Rio Blanco was to qualitatively and, where possible, quantitatively ascertain environmental impacts associated with the project. Observations indicated that ground motion and conventional activities appeared to cause the greatest impacts. Ground motion impacts were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravine and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Following the detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Animals receiving deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs and burrows. No mortality or injury was observed in any large animals. Based on overall results it appears important to give adequate attention to environmental effects resulting from nuclear fracturing experiments

  10. PAISAJE NATURAL Y CULTURAL DEL CACAO FINO DE AROMA COMO OFERTA AGROTURÍSTICA EN MANABÍ

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Dionicio Andrade Alcívar; Henry Xavier Mendoza Ponce

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación fue diagnosticar los recursos turísticos que conforman los paisajes naturales y culturales asociados al circuito cacao fino de aroma en Manabí. Se desarrolló una propuesta metodológica para la obtención de los resultados, y para la determinación del potencial de esos componentes en el diseño de ofertas agroturísticas en la misma provincia. El diagnóstico situacional como primera fase para el diseño de ofertas agroturísticas, considera antecedentes de estudio...

  11. Catalyzed deuterium fueled tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Catalyzed deuterium fuel presents several advantages relative to D-T. These are, freedom from tritium breeding, high charged particle power fraction and lowered neutron energy deposition in the blanket. Higher temperature operation, lower power densities and increased confinement are simultaneously required. However, the present study has developed designs which have capitalized upon the advantages of catalyzed deuterium to overcome the difficulties associated with the fuel while obtaining high efficiency

  12. Fiebre del oro blanco: la cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Marín Argüello

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La planta de coca, Erythroxylon coca es cultivada en la zona occidental de América del Sur exigiendo condiciones de suelo muy particulares. La mezcla de las hojas de cocaína con sustancias químicas origina un polvo cristalino blanco, conocido comúnmente como cocaína. Al producto obtenido del tratamiento de la cocaína con solventes se le denomina crack. El consumo de cocaína, las formas de administración más diversas y el estado fisiológico logrado por los usuarios, es denominado flash 0 high Los efectos neuro-fisiológicos son muy variados, provocando sobre todo un fuerte estímulo al Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC, producto de la liberación de dopamina en las terminaciones nerviosas.

  13. Los sindicatos blancos de Monterrey (1931-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Ramírez Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sindicatos blancos son el equivalente mexicano a los sindicatos amarillos de Francia y España y a los planes de representación del empleado de Estados Unidos y Canadá. De ellos se dice que son organismos obreros sometidos a la voluntad de los patrones, que los crean y dirigen. En México, esta clase de sindicatos eran hasta hace poco un fenómeno regional, restringido a la ciudad de Monterrey, donde han tenido su mayor desarrollo. Sin embargo, coincidiendo con la crisis y reorganización del sindicalismo mexicano y la apertura del sistema político nacional, han crecido en número e influencia política. En este artículo se ofrece un resumen histórico de este movimiento.

  14. Cantharellus gallaecicus (Blanco-Dios Olariaga, comb. & stat. nov (Cantharellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olariaga, Ibai

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cantharellus gallaecicus comb. & stat. nov. is proposed, after the examination of its holotype and additional material. Based on the characters observed in all the studied material (i.e., thinwalled hyphae of the pileipelis, minute basidiomata with white to grey pileus, and surface that turns yellow when bruised it is considered that C. gallaecicus is more closely related to C. romagnesianus than to C. cibarius.Se propone Cantharellus gallaecicus comb. & stat. nov. tras revisar su holótipo y material adicional disponible. Dado que todo el material examinado posee hifas del pileipelis de pared delgada, basidiomas pequeños con píleo de blanco a gris, y superficie que vira a amarillo al roce, se considera que C. gallaecicus es una especie más estrechamente relacionada con C. romagnesianus que con C. cibarius.

  15. DURABILIDAD DEL CEMENTO PORTLAND BLANCO ADICIONADO CON PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA GIRALDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El pigmento Azul Ultramar (AU es un aluminosilicato polisulfurado de sodio que reacciona con el aluminato tricálcico (C3A y con el óxido de calcio (CaO del cemento Pórtland blanco en presencia de agua, generando cantidades considerables de etringita a edad temprana y en menor proporción de tobermorita. Esta etringita primaria se presenta en forma de fibras no orientadas mejorando el desempeño mecánico de los morteros, y al mismo tiempo dejando pocas cantidades de C3A disponible para la formación de etringita secundaria. En esta investigación se evalúa la durabilidad a diferentes edades de curado en morteros de cemento Portland blanco sustituidos por 0%, 10% y 20% de AU en peso, mediante pruebas de succión capilar y evaluación del cambio longitudinal de morteros expuestos a una solución de sulfato de sodio con una concentración del 5% (ASTM C1012. Los resultados evidencian una mayor resistencia a compresión y a flexión, una significativa disminución de la expansión y una reducción hasta del 800% de la absorción de agua en morteros con AU. Todo esto debido a la formación de las fases minerales adicionales (etringita primaria y tobermorita, las cuales fueron identificadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM.

  16. Characterization of a deuterium-deuterium plasma fusion neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. F.; Pienaar, J.; Hogenbirk, E.; Masson, D.; Nolte, R.; Zimbal, A.; Röttger, S.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Bruno, G.

    2018-01-01

    We characterize the neutron output of a deuterium-deuterium plasma fusion neutron generator, model 35-DD-W-S, manufactured by NSD/Gradel-Fusion. The measured energy spectrum is found to be dominated by neutron peaks at 2.2 MeV and 2.7 MeV. A detailed GEANT4 simulation accurately reproduces the measured energy spectrum and confirms our understanding of the fusion process in this generator. Additionally, a contribution of 14 . 1 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium fusion is found at a level of 3 . 5%, from tritium produced in previous deuterium-deuterium reactions. We have measured both the absolute neutron flux as well as its relative variation on the operational parameters of the generator. We find the flux to be proportional to voltage V 3 . 32 ± 0 . 14 and current I 0 . 97 ± 0 . 01. Further, we have measured the angular dependence of the neutron emission with respect to the polar angle. We conclude that it is well described by isotropic production of neutrons within the cathode field cage.

  17. Deuterium exchange between hydrofluorocarbons and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, W.B.; Bigeleisen, J.; Tuccio, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The invention consists of a process for obtaining a compound enriched in deuterium which comprises the known method of exposing a gaseous hydrofluorocarbon to infrared laser radiation of a predetermined frequency to selectively cause a chemical reaction involving hydrofluorocarbon molecules containing deuterium without substantially affecting hydrofluorocarbon molecules not containing deuterium, thereby producing, as reaction products, a compound enriched in deuterium and hydrofluorocarbon depleted in deuterium; combined with a new method, which comprises enriching the deuterium content of the depleted hydrofluorocarbon by contacting the depleted hydrofluorocarbon with an alkali metal amide and an amine having a concentration of deuterium at least that which will yield an increase in deuterium concentration of the hydrofluorocarbon upon equilibration, whereby the amine becomes depleted in deuterium

  18. Wildcat: A commercial deuterium-deuterium tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.; Baker, C.C.; Barry, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed deuterium-deuterium tokamak commercial fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing deuterium-tritium (D-T) designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete conceptual design

  19. Deuterium trapping in liquid lithium irradiated by deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, A.; Moshkunov, K.; Vizgalov, I.; Gasparyan, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid lithium was irradiated by deuterium plasma to a low fluence of 10 22 –10 23 D/m 2 , cooled down to room temperature, and then slowly heated. The temperature and release rate were measured during heating. Two plateaus on the temperature–time dependence were observed at 180 °C and 660 °C. The first one corresponds to melting of Li and the second one – either to melting or to decomposition of solid LiD. Features of deuterium release in TDS were interpreted in terms of decomposition of lithium deuterides formed during plasma irradiation

  20. Presence of a polyA tail at the 3’-end of Maize rayado fino virus RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is the type member of the genus Marafivirus in the family Tymoviridae, yet is distinct from other members of the genus in that its genome reportedly lacks a poly(A) tail at the 3’-terminus. Using naïve and targeted PCR-based approaches, we now show that the MRFV genom...

  1. Deuterium retention in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Conn, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of deuterium retention in samples of lithium exposed in the liquid state to deuterium plasma are reported. Retention was measured as a function of plasma ion dose in the range 6x10 19 -4x10 22 D atoms and exposure temperature between 523 and 673 K using thermal desorption spectrometry. The results are consistent with the full uptake of all deuterium ions incident on the liquid metal surface and are found to be independent of the temperature of the liquid lithium over the range explored. Full uptake, consistent with very low recycling, continues until the sample is volumetrically converted to lithium deuteride. This occurs for exposure temperatures where the gas pressure during exposure was both below and slightly above the corresponding decomposition pressure for LiD in Li. (author)

  2. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  3. Liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, M.; Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.

    1961-01-01

    A description is given of 1) Atmospheric pressure target: liquid hydrogen, 400 mm thickness; thermal insulation: styrofoam; the hydrogen vapors are used to improve the target cooling; Mylar windows. 2) Vacuum target: 12 liter content: hydrogen or deuterium; liquid thickness 400 mm; thermal insulation is afforded by a vacuum vessel and a liquid nitrogen shield. Recovery and liquefaction of deuterium vapors are managed in the vacuum vessel which holds the target. The target emptying system is designed for operating in a few minutes. (author) [fr

  4. Variability of geographically distinct isolates of maize rayado fino virus in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Kogel, R; Ramirez, P

    1997-12-01

    We have examined the molecular epidemiology of the leafhopper-borne maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) in Latin America. The coat protein gene and 3' non-translated region of 14 isolates of MRFV collected from Latin America and the United States were sequenced and phylogenetic relationships examined. The nucleotide sequence revealed remarkable conservation, with a sequence similarity of 88-99%. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data obtained from a 633 bp fragment showed that MRFV has diverged into three main clusters, i.e. the geographically distinct northern and southern isolates and the Colombian isolates. Significant differences between the isolates collected from Colombia, previously named maize rayado colombiana virus, based upon differences in symptomatology and serological relationships to MRFV, and the other MRFV isolates, provides additional evidence supporting its designation as a unique strain of MRFV.

  5. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating deuterium, i.e., heavy hydrogen, from certain naturally occurring sources using tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose specified classes of organic molecules (i.e., RX) into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms is described. The deuterium containing molecules are easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. The undecomposed molecules and the other reaction products which are depleted of their deuterium containing species can be catalytically treated, preferably using normal water, to restore the natural abundance of deuterium and such restored molecules can then be recycled

  6. El destierro infinito de Blanco White en la mirada de Juan Goytisolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán López, Fernando

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1970-1972, the novelist Juan Goytisolo published several studies and translations on the work of José María Blanco White, which represent a key moment in the recovery of that forgotten writer for the modern Spanish culture. The argument made in this essay is that the consciously identifying strategy applied by Goytisolo on Blanco White, in order to define a Spanish intellectual tradition throughout the centuries, marked by exile and dissent, is in fact a deformation of the figure and thought of the writer from Seville. Blanco White’s reception in Spain, however, has been conditioned by that reading.En torno a los años 1970-1972 el novelista Juan Goytisolo publica varios estudios y traducciones sobre la obra de José María Blanco White, que suponen un momento clave en la recuperación de ese olvidado escritor para la moderna cultura española. La tesis formulada en el presente artículo es que la estrategia conscientemente identificadora que aplica Goytisolo sobre Blanco White, a fin de definir una tradición intelectual española a lo largo de los siglos marcada por el exilio y la disidencia, supone de hecho una deformación de la figura y el pensamiento del escritor sevillano. La recepción de Blanco White en España ha quedado, sin embargo, condicionada por esa lectura.

  7. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150 0 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  8. Deuterium pellet injector gun design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, R.V.; Wysor, R.B.; Bryan, W.E.; Shipley, W.D.; Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Fisher, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI), an eight-pellet pneumatic injector, is being designed and fabricated for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). It will accelerate eight pellets, 4 by 4 mm maximum, to greater than 1500 m/s. It utilizes a unique pellet-forming mechanism, a cooled pellet storage wheel, and improved propellant gas scavenging

  9. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150 0 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength Kevlar/epoxy composite. This arbor has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  10. Defect trapping of deuterium implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Y.; Kakeno, M.; Yamada, K.; Hioki, T.; Kawamoto, J.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of deuterium implanted in Al was studied by the D( 3 He,p) 4 He and the D(d,p)T nuclear reactions. Changes of the depth profiles of the deuterium after heat treatments indicated that the implanted deuterium was trapped by the defect produced during the deuterium implantation and the release probability of the trapped deuterium increased as the specimen temperature was raised. Assuming a thermal equilibrium locally in the region of high defect concentration, the trapping energy of deuterium in Al was determined to be 0.12eV. Since the release probability for the single crystal was considerably larger than that for the polycrystal specimens, the deuterium was considered to be strongly trapped in the grain boundaries. Distributions of displaced Al atoms and the recovery of the lattice damage by annealing were measured by the channelling technique. (author)

  11. Deuterium - depleted water. Achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.; Saros-Rogobete, I.

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium - depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content lower than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. The research conducted at ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, regarding deuterium - depleted water were completed by the following patents: - technique and installation for deuterium - depleted water production; - distilled water with low deuterium content; - technique and installation for the production of distilled water with low deuterium content; - mineralized water with low deuterium content and technique to produce it. The gold and silver medals won at international salons for inventions confirmed the novelty of these inventions. Knowing that deuterium content of water has a big influence on living organisms, beginning with 1996, the ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, deuterium - depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effects' evaluation of deuterium - depleted water. The role of natural deuterium in living organisms was examined by using deuterium - depleted water instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: 1. deuterium - depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium - depleted water persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; -2. animals treated with deuterium - depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defence mechanism; 3, deuterium - depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions, represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system, together with increase in the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; 4. investigations regarding artificial

  12. Nevus blanco esponjoso familiar Family nevus spongiosus albus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Andrade Lotufo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El nevus blanco esponjoso (NBE es una rara condición autosómica dominante, caracterizada por placas blancas bilaterales en la mucosa, de aspecto esponjoso, blandas a la palpación y que pueden escamarse. Los tratamientos son paliativos; y el uso de antibióticos, en especial la tetraciclina, ha demostrando buenos resultados en su control. Este trabajo presenta tres casos clínicos de una familia afectada por NBE, donde se discuten los posibles diagnósticos diferenciales y conductas terapéuticas indicadas. Un paciente masculino de 52 años de edad acudió a la clínica aquejado de lesiones blancas bilaterales. El paciente notó las lesiones 30 años antes, sin lograr un diagnóstico final de las mismas. Después de la anamnesis y del examen clínico fue realizada una biopsia incisional. La reunión de los datos clínicos e histopatológicos llevó al diagnóstico de NBE. Se le solicitó al paciente que indagase entre sus familiares con respecto a lesiones semejantes. Se detectó que el hijo de 19 años y la hija de 25 eran portadores de placas blancas en la mucosa yugal. Como no había afectación estética, se optó por no intervenir en las lesiones. El nevus blanco esponjoso es una lesión genética que debe ser diferenciada de otras patologías localizadas y sistémicas importantes, que tienen repercusiones serias para el individuo. Como no hay un tratamiento curativo para el NBE, el papel del cirujano dentista es diagnosticar esta lesión, aclarar al paciente sobre la naturaleza benigna y autolimitante del NBE y si fuera necesario desde el punto de vista estético, aplicar diferentes modalidades terapéuticas.The aim of present paper is to introduce three clinical cases from a family affected from nevus spongiosus albus (NSA and also to discuss the possible differential diagnoses as well as the therapeutical behaviors to be adopted. Clinical case: A man aged 52 seen in our clinic due to bilateral white lesions noted 30 years ago without

  13. A new Cassegrain calibration lamp unit for the Blanco Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Points, S. D.; James, D. J.; Tighe, R.; Montané, A.; David, N.; Martínez, M.

    2016-08-01

    The f/8 RC-Cassegrain Focus of the Blanco Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, hosts two new instruments: COSMOS, a multi-object spectrograph in the visible wavelength range (350 - 1030nm), and ARCoIRIS, a NIR cross-dispersed spectrograph featuring 6 spectral orders spanning 0.8 - 2.45μm. Here we describe a calibration lamp unit designed to deliver the required illumination at the telescope focal plane for both instruments. These requirements are: (1) an f/8 beam of light covering a spot of 92mm diameter (or 10 arcmin) for a wavelength range of 0.35μm through 2.5μm and (2) no saturation of flat-field calibrations for the minimal exposure times permitted by each instrument, and (3) few saturated spectral lines when using the wavelength calibration lamps for the instruments. To meet these requirements this unit contains an adjustable quartz halogen lamp for flat-field calibrations, and one hollow cathode lamp and four penray lamps for wavelength calibrations. The wavelength calibration lamps are selected to provide optimal spectral coverage for the instrument mounted and can be used individually or in sets. The device designed is based on an 8-inch diameter integrating sphere, the output of which is optimized to match the f/8 calibration input delivery system which is a refractive system based on fused-silica lenses. We describe the optical design, the opto-mechanical design, the electronic control and give results of the performance of the system.

  14. Confirmação molecular do 'Maize rayado fino virus' como vírus da estria do milho

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo, Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  15. Synthesis of deuterium labelled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappon, V.J.; Halstead, G.W.; Theis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The preparations of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen and [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen are described. The deuterium was incorporated into the aromatic ring of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen which is a metabolically stable position. [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen was synthesized by the same route using [ 2 H 3 ]-CH 3 I instead of CH 3 I for use as a GC/MS internal standard in stable isotope labelled bioavailability studies. (author)

  16. Deuterium and big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burles, S.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of deuterium absorption in high redshift quasar absorption systems provide a direct inference of the deuterium abundance produced by big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). With measurements and limits from five independent absorption systems, we place strong constraints on the primordial ratio of deuterium to hydrogen, (D/H) p = 3.4 ± 0.3 x 10 -5 [1,2]. We employ a direct numerical treatment to improve the estimates of critical reaction rates and reduce the uncertainties in BBN predictions of D/H and 7 Li/H by a factor of three[3] over previous efforts[4]. Using our measurements of (D/H) p and new BBN predictions, we find at 95% confidence the baryon density ρ b = (3.6 ± 0.4) x 10 -31 g cm -3 (Ω b h 2 65 = 0.045 ± 0.006 in units of the critical density), and cosmological baryon-photon ratio η = (5.1 ± 0.6) x 10 -10

  17. PAISAJE NATURAL Y CULTURAL DEL CACAO FINO DE AROMA COMO OFERTA AGROTURÍSTICA EN MANABÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Dionicio Andrade Alcívar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue diagnosticar los recursos turísticos que conforman los paisajes naturales y culturales asociados al circuito cacao fino de aroma en Manabí. Se desarrolló una propuesta metodológica para la obtención de los resultados, y para la determinación del potencial de esos componentes en el diseño de ofertas agroturísticas en la misma provincia. El diagnóstico situacional como primera fase para el diseño de ofertas agroturísticas, considera antecedentes de estudios similares en Ecuador, la caracterización de las fincas de cacaoteros, la descripción de la localización geográfica de las áreas potenciales y localización del circuito y la evaluación de los recursos naturales y culturales asociativos del circuito; para ello se realizó recopilación documental, entrevista y cartográfica. Se concluye que el diagnóstico de los recursos constitutivos de los paisajes naturales y culturales es el sustento para precisar en un circuito: cuál es el recorrido, cuáles los atractivos y la descripción de las posibles experiencias a vivenciar.

  18. The two capsid proteins of maize rayado fino virus contain common peptide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, B W; Tsai, J H

    1986-01-01

    Virions of maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) were purified and two major capsid proteins (ca. Mr 29,000 and 22,000) were resolved by SDS-PAGE. When the two major capsid proteins were isolated from gels and compared by one-dimensional peptide mapping after digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V-8 protease, indistinguishable peptide maps were obtained, suggesting that these two proteins contain common peptide sequences. Some preparations also showed minor protein components that were intermediate between the Mr 22,000 and Mr 29,000 capsid proteins. One of the minor proteins, ca. Mr 27,000, gave a peptide map indistinguishable from the major capsid proteins. In vitro ageing of partially purified preparations or virion treatment with proteolytic enzymes failed to show conversion of the Mr 29,000 protein to a Mr 22,000. Protease inhibitors added to the buffers used for virion purification did not affect the apparent 1:3 ratio of 29,000 to 22,000 proteins in the purified preparations.

  19. Catalyzed deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium fusion blankets for high temperature process heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.M.H.; Salimi, B.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiumless blanket designs, associated with a catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion cycle and using a single high temperature solid pebble or falling bed zone, for process heat production, are proposed. Neutronics and photonics calculations, using the Monte Carlo method, show that an about 90% heat deposition fraction is possible in the high temperature zone, compared to a 30 to 40% fraction if a deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion cycle is used with separate breeding and heat deposition zones. Such a design is intended primarily for synthetic fuels manufacture through hydrogen production using high temperature water electrolysis. A system analysis involving plant energy balances and accounting for the different fusion energy partitions into neutrons and charged particles showed that plasma amplification factors in the range of 2 are needed. In terms of maximization of process heat and electricity production, and the maximization of the ratio of high temperature process heat to electricity, the catalyzed D-D system outperforms the D-T one by about 20%. The concept is thought competitive to the lithium boiler concept for such applications, with the added potential advantages of lower tritium inventories in the plasma, reduced lithium pumping (in the case of magnetic confinement) and safety problems, less radiation damage at the first wall, and minimized risks of radioactive product contamination by tritium

  20. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for separating and enriching deuterium containing molecules comprising the steps of: providing a source of organic molecules containing a normal abundance of deuterium atoms, the organic molecules having a structural formula RX, in which R is an organic radical selected from ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl and 3-cyclopentenyl, and in which X is selected from F, Cl, Br and OH, and wherein R represents 3-cyclopentenyl, X may additionally represent H; exposing the molecules to the radiation of at least one pulsed infrared laser source which has been specifically tuned and focussed to selectively decompose RX molecules containing deuterium to form an enriched olefin specie containing deuterium, and HX; and separating the deuterium enriched olefin specie from the undecomposed deuterium depleted RX molecules and HX. (author)

  1. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    A method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment using infrared laser technology in combination with chemical processes for treating and recycling the unreacted and deuterium-depleted starting materials is described. Organic molecules of the formula RX (where R is an ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl, or cyclopentenyl group and X is F, Cl, Br or OH) containing a normal abundance of hydrogen and deuterium are exposed to intense laser infrared radiation. An olefin containing deuterium (olefin D) will be formed, along with HX. The enriched olefin D can be stripped from the depleted stream of RX and HX, and can be burned to form enriched water or pyrolyzed to produce hydrogen gas with elevated deuterium content. The depleted RX is decomposed to olefins and RX, catalytically exchanged with normal water to restore the deuterium content to natural levels, and recombined to form RX which can be recycled. (LL)

  2. Effect of Coulomb screening on deuterium-deuterium fusion cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunjin

    1991-01-01

    The popular Gamow formula for the deuterium-deuterium fusion cross-section is generalized to take into account the Coulomb screening effect. The generalized formula has been used to discuss the fusion process occurring in the metal medium

  3. The hydrogen and deuterium concentrations in chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, F.; Merlivat, L.

    1978-01-01

    Water and isotopic concentration of H 2 O + are reported. It shows a correlation between the water, the deuterium concentrations and the petrologic types of chondrites. The Chainpur meteorite has been divided into several mineralogical fractions and the results are reported. The results of Orgueil are also reported. The correlation shows that as the sulfate content increases, the water and deuterium contents decrease. The terrestrial contamination is discussed and possible deuterium variation models are presented

  4. Deuterium measurement by emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, E.G.; Heilig, K.; Dumke, I.

    1978-01-01

    The method makes it possible to determine the relative deuterium content of enriched water samples. For this, the relative intensities of the Hα and Dα lines are measured which are emitted by a high-frequency discharge in water vapour. Although the method is not as exact as mass spectrometry, it has the following advantages: - Easy sample preparation (no reduction necessary); - samples of highly different enrichment can be measured one after the other without the danger of memory effects; - much lower apparatus and cost expenditure. The necessary sample size is about the same in both methods. (orig.) [de

  5. Coagulación de finos en la flotación de la fluorita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarquís, P. E.

    2011-06-01

    plantas. El agua recuperada contiene finos que al ingresar al circuito afectan notoriamente la eficiencia de la flotación. Se estudió el efecto de iones coagulantes para clarificar el agua de retorno. El problema de estos iones está relacionado con sus reacciones con el colector por la formación de compuestos y, posiblemente, sobre la selectividad. Se agregaron cantidades variables de iones Al3+, Fe3+ y Ca2+ y se evaluó la recuperación de fluorita, la selectividad y en el contenido de sólidos en el agua de los efluentes. Los resultados muestran que algunos iones no solamente no mejoran la calidad del agua sino que además son perjudiciales en la flotación. Otros, por el contrario, contribuyen a reducir el contenido de finos en suspensión. Por lo tanto, y si bien hay una pérdida en la recuperación, este efecto se puede contrarrestar con un pequeño aumento en el consumo de colector.

  6. Maize rayado fino virus capsid proteins assemble into virus-like particles in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Rosemarie W; Hammond, John

    2010-02-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV; genus Marafivirus; family Tymoviridae) is an isometric plant virus of 30 nm containing two components: empty shells and complete virus particles (encapsidating the 6.3 kb genomic RNA). Both particles are composed of two serologically related, carboxy co-terminal, coat proteins (CP) of apparent molecular mass 21-22 kDa (CP2) and 24-28 kDa (CP1) in a molar ratio of 3:1, respectively; CP1 contains a 37 amino acid amino terminal extension of CP2. In our study, expression of CP1 or CP2 in Escherichia coli resulted in assembly of each capsid protein into virus-like particles (VLPs), appearing in electron microscopy as stain-permeable (CP2) or stain-impermeable particles (CP1). CP1 VLPs encapsidated bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA, but not CP mRNA, while CP2 VLPs encapsidated neither CP mRNA nor 16S ribosomal RNA. Expression of CP1 and CP2 in E. coli using a co-expression vector resulted in the assembly of VLPs which were stain-impermeable and encapsidated CP mRNA. These results suggest that the N-terminal 37 amino acid residues of CP1, although not required for particle formation, may be involved in the assembly of complete virions and that the presence of both CP1 and CP2 in the particle is required for specific encapsidation of MRFV CP mRNA. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deuterium abundance, from ultraviolet to visible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebrard, Guillaume

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the standard Big Bang model, the primordial abundance of deuterium is the most sensitive to the baryonic density of the Universe. It was synthesized only during the primordial nucleosynthesis few minutes after the Big Bang and no other standard mechanism is able to produce any further significant amount. On the contrary, since deuterium is burned up within stars, its abundance D/H decreases along cosmic evolution. Thus, D/H measurements constrain Big Bang and galactic chemical evolution models. There are three samples of deuterium abundances: primordial, proto-solar and interstellar. Each of them is representative of a given epoch, respectively about 15 Gyrs past, 4.5 Gyrs past and present epoch. Although the evolution of the deuterium abundance seems to be qualitatively understood, the measurements show some dispersion. Present thesis works are linked to deuterium interstellar abundance measurements. Such measurements are classically obtained from spectroscopic observations of the hydrogen and deuterium Lyman series in absorption in the ultraviolet spectral range, using space observatories. Results presented here were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and FUSE, which has recently been launched. Simultaneously, a new way to observe deuterium has been proposed, in the visible spectral range from ground-based telescopes. This has led to the first detections and the identification of the deuterium Balmer series, in emission in HII regions, using CFHT and VLT telescopes. (author) [fr

  8. Rio Blanco gas composition: preproduction testing of the RBE-01 wellhead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Fontanilla, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The chemical composition and radionuclide concentration of Rio Blanco gas samples collected prior to the production testing of the RBE-01 well and analyzed at LLL are presented. The analytical procedures and their uncertainties are briefly summarized. Information that associates the analytical data with the field operations is included

  9. Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez coletados em Manaus, B

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Maria da Paz; Silva, Tatiana Maria D.; Silva, João Domingos da; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B.; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A.

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%).Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez coletada na cidade de Manaus, AM, Brasil, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-EM. Quarenta e dois compone...

  10. Elaboração e caracterização de filmes finos de amido de milho e parafina

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Janyelle Severino

    2014-01-01

    As questões ambientais têm influenciado a busca de materiais que causem menor impacto ambiental e que sejam de fácil degradação, como os materiais biodegradáveis. Os filmes à base de amido, por serem biodegradáveis, estariam colaborando e muito para a preservação do ambiente. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivos: a caracterização do amido de milho nativo e do amido de milho modificado; a elaboração e caracterização dos filmes finos produzidos a partir da mistura de amido de milho na...

  11. Reemplazo del agregado fino por escoria de horno de cubilote para la fabricación de concreto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Cruz Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las propiedades físico-mecánicas obtenidas de un concreto fabricado con escoria de horno de cubilote (EHC, la cual se utilizó como sustituto del agregado fino (arena en diferentes proporciones: 0, 10, 15 y 20 %. La evaluación de la granulometría, densidad, absorción, humedad natural y contenido de material férrico de la EHC permitió caracterizarla como arena gruesa bien gradada, con poca cantidad de finos. Para una resistencia de diseño de 14 MPa del concreto modificado (CM se realizaron ensayos de resistencia a la compresión, módulo de rotura, absorción, módulo de elasticidad y densidad de material endurecido. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian un comportamiento favorable del CM en su resistencia a compresión, al sustituir el 20 % de arena por escoria. Asimismo, se encontró que la densidad mantiene una relación proporcional con el porcentaje de sustitución y el valor de su masa unitaria se encuentra dentro del rango de valores aceptable para un concreto de peso normal.

  12. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled fluphenazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, H U; Hawes, E M; Midha, K K

    1984-01-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of fluphenazine has been labeled with two, four, and six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate ester or imide. The gamma-carbon of the propyl group was labeled with two deuterium atoms by reduction of 10- (2-methoxycarbonylethyl) -2-trifluoromethyl-10H-phenothiazine, while four deuterium atoms were incorporated into the piperazine ring by reduction of 10-[3-(3,5-dioxo-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2-trifluoromethyl-10H-pheno thiazine. The latter reduction gave the d4-labeled N-deshydroxyethyl metabolite of fluphenazine.

  13. Equilibrium deuterium isotope effect of surprising magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.J.; Pressman, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    Seemingly large deuterium isotope effects are reported for the preference of deuterium for the α-chloro site to the bridgehead or to the vinyl site in samples of anti-7-chlorobicyclo[4.3.2]undecatetraene-d 1 . Studies of molecular models did not provide a basis for these large equilibrium deuterium isotope effects. The possibility is proposed that these isotope effects only appear to be large for want of comparison with isotope effects measured for molecules that might provide even greater contrasts in local force fields

  14. Effect of deposited tungsten on deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharapov, V.M.; Gavrilov, L.E. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    Usually ion or plasma beam is used for the experiment with beryllium which simulates the interaction of plasma with first wall in fusion devices. However, the use of thermal or subthermal atoms of hydrogen isotopes seems to be useful for that purpose. Recently, the authors have studied the deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium. The experimental setup is shown, and is explained. By means of elastic recoil detection (ERD) technique, it was shown that in the exposure to D atoms at 740 K, deuterium is distributed deeply into the bulk, and is accumulated up to higher concentration than the case of the exposure to molecular deuterium. The depth and concentration of deuterium distribution depend on the exposure time, and those data are shown. During the exposure to atomic deuterium, oxide film grew on the side of a sample facing plasma. In order to understand the mechanism of deuterium trapping, the experiment was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and residual gas analysis (RGA). The influence that the tungsten deposit from the heated cathode exerted to the deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium was investigated. These results are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Permeation of deuterium implanted into vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Struttmann, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    Permeation of deuterium through the vanadium alloy, V-15Cr-5Ti, was investigated using 3-keV, D 3 + ion beams from a small accelerator. The experiments consisted of measurements of the deuterium reemission and permeation rates as a function of implantation fluence for 0.5-mm thick specimens heated to tempertures from 623 to 823 0 K. Implantation-side surface characterization was made by simultaneous measurements of sputtered ions with a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). Analyses of these measurements indicate that for the experimental conditions used, the steady-state deuterium permeation flux in V-15Cr-5Ti is approximately 18% of the implantation flux. This corresponds to approximately 1000 times that seen in the ferritic steel, HT-9, under comparable conditions. Measurement of deuterium diffusivity in V-15Cr-5Ti using permeation break-through times indicates D = 1.4 x 10 -8 exp(-.11 eV/kT) (m 2 /s)

  16. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.; Richard, J.; Godbillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dicolofenac sodium labelled with deuterium in the phenylacetic ring was prepared from [ 2 H 5 ]-bromobenzene in a six-step reaction. It was found to be suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in man. (Author)

  17. DeUterium industrial production - tome 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Some selected bibliographical references about processes for deuterium industrial production are presented, as follow: isotope exchange H 2 S-H 2 O and NH 3 -H 2 , eletrolysis and distillation. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 142 NIST Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  19. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  20. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  1. Evaluation of phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Aegiceras corniculatum Blanco (Myrsinaceae) bark

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Utpal; Bala, Vaskor; Rahman, Ahmed A.; Shahid, Israt Z.

    2010-01-01

    The methanol extract of the dried barks of Aegiceras corniculatum Blanco (Myrsinaceae) was investigated for its possible antinociceptive, cytotoxic and antidiarrhoeal activities in animal models. The preliminary studies of A. corniculatum bark showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The extract produced significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice at the oral dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.001) comp...

  2. Project Rio Blanco definition plan. Additional formation evaluation and production testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Since the multiple Rio Blanco detonation three reentry wells have been drilled for test purposes: RB-E-01 (Emplacement Well); RB-AR-2 (Alternate Reentry Well); and RB-U-4 (Formation Evaluation Well). Additional testing in all these wells is now required to resolve some remaining technical questions. A plan describing the procedures, methods, responsibilities, and scheduling of the field operations is presented

  3. Rio Blanco, Colorado, Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site, for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 13 and 14, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF THE LITHIUM DEPLETION BOUNDARY AND AGE OF THE SOUTHERN OPEN CLUSTER BLANCO 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cargile, P. A.; James, D. J.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic study of the very low mass members of the Southern open cluster Blanco 1 using the Gemini-N telescope. We obtained intermediate resolution (R ∼ 4400) GMOS spectra for 15 cluster candidate members with I ∼ 14-20 mag, and employed a series of membership criteria-proximity to the cluster's sequence in an I/I - K s color-magnitude diagram (CMD), kinematics agreeing with the cluster systemic motion, magnetic activity as a youth indicator-to classify 10 of these objects as probable cluster members. For these objects, we searched for the presence of the Li I 6708 A feature to identify the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) in Blanco 1. The I/I - K s CMD shows a clear mass segregation in the Li distribution along the cluster sequence; namely, all higher mass stars are found to be Li poor, while lower mass stars are found to be Li rich. The division between Li-poor and Li-rich (i.e., the LDB) in Blanco 1 is found at I = 18.78 ± 0.24 and I - K s = 3.05 ± 0.10. Using current pre-main-sequence evolutionary models, we determine an LDB age of 132 ± 24 Myr. Comparing our derived LDB age to upper-main-sequence isochrone ages for Blanco 1, as well as for other open clusters with identified LDBs, we find good chronometric consistency when using stellar evolution models that incorporate a moderate degree of convective core overshoot.

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Shahid, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  6. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Nararro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  7. Current and turbulence measurements at the FINO1 offshore wind energy site: analysis using 5-beam ADCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoday-Paskyabi, Mostafa; Fer, Ilker; Reuder, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    We report concurrent measurements of ocean currents and turbulence at two sites in the North Sea, one site at upwind of the FINO1 platform and the other 200-m downwind of the Alpha Ventus wind farm. At each site, mean currents, Reynolds stresses, turbulence intensity and production of turbulent kinetic energy are obtained from two bottom-mounted 5-beam Nortek Signature1000s, high-frequency Doppler current profiler, at a water depth of approximately 30 m. Measurements from the two sites are compared to statistically identify the effects of wind farm and waves on ocean current variability and the turbulent structure in the water column. Profiles of Reynolds stresses are found to be sensible to both environmental forcing and the wind farm wake-induced distortions in both boundary layers near the surface and the seabed. Production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence intensity exhibit approximately similar, but less pronounced, patterns in the presence of farm wake effects.

  8. Radiation damage and deuterium trapping in deuterium-ion-irradiated Fe–9Cr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakir, Hirotomo, E-mail: iwakiri@edu.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Faculty and Graduate School of Education, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Tani, Munechika [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyusyu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Yoshida, Naoaki [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Thermal desorption of deuterium (D{sub 2}) from deuterium-ion (D{sub 2}{sup +})-irradiated Fe–9Cr was correlated with the microstructural evolution of the alloy during irradiation with 8-keV D{sub 2}{sup +} ions following annealing to determine the retention and desorption behavior of the implanted deuterium and to identify effective traps for them, particularly at high temperature. After irradiation at 573 K, a new desorption stage formed between 650 and 1100 K at higher fluences, and cavities were observed using transmission electron microscopy. The total amount of trapped deuterium following irradiation with a fluence of 3.0 × 10{sup 22} ions/m{sup 2} was 6.8 × 10{sup 17} D{sub 2}/m{sup 2}, or approximately 0.007%. These results indicate that the deuterium atoms recombined to form D{sub 2} molecules at the surfaces of the cavities.

  9. Geologic framework, hydrostratigraphy, and ichnology of the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quadrangles, Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Golab, James A.; Morris, Robert E.

    2016-09-13

    This report presents the geologic framework, hydro­stratigraphy, and ichnology of the Trinity and Edwards Groups in the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quad­rangles in Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas. Rocks exposed in the study area are of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group and lower part of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Lower Cretaceous Edwards Group. The mapped units in the study area are the Hammett Shale, Cow Creek Limestone, Hensell Sand, and Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group and the lower portion of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Edwards Group. The Glen Rose Limestone is composed of the Lower and Upper Members. These Trinity Group rocks con­tain the upper and middle Trinity aquifers. The only remaining outcrops of the Edwards Group are the basal nodular member of the Fort Terrett Formation, which caps several hills in the northern portion of the study area. These rocks were deposited in an open marine to supratidal flats environment. The faulting and fracturing in the study area are part of the Balcones fault zone, an extensional system of faults that generally trends southwest to northeast in south-central Texas.The hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers were mapped and described using a classification system based on fabric-selective or not-fabric-selective poros­ity types. The only hydrostratigraphic unit of the Edwards aquifer present in the study area is hydrostratigraphic unit VIII. The mapped hydrostratigraphic units of the upper Trinity aquifer are (from top to bottom) the Camp Bullis, upper evaporite, fossiliferous, and lower evaporite which are interval equivalent to the Upper Member of the Glen Rose Limestone. The middle Trinity aquifer encompasses (from top to bottom) the Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone, the Hensell Sand Member, and the Cow Creek Limestone Member of the Pearsall Formation. The Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone is subdivided into six informal hydro

  10. Method of deuterium isotope separation using ethylene and ethylene dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Compounds enriched in deuterium may be obtained from ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, or propylene by laser isotope separation. Normal molecules of these organic compounds are exposed to infrared laser radiation of a suitable wavelength. Substantially all of the deuterium-containing molecules exposed to the laser can be selectively dissociated and the deuterium-containing products separated from the starting material and other reaction products. The deuterium-containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content, or pyrolized to form hydrogen gas enriched in deuterium

  11. The deuterium inventory in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.; Rohde, V.; Ramos, G; Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.; Likonen, J.; Herrmann, A.; Neu, R.

    2007-01-01

    The deuterium inventory in ASDEX Upgrade was determined by quantitative ion beam analysis techniques and SIMS for different discharge campaigns between the years 2002 and 2005. ASDEX Upgrade was a carbon dominated machine during this phase. Full poloidal sections of the lower and upper divertor tile surfaces, limiter tiles, gaps between divertor tiles, gaps between inner heat shield tiles and samples from remote areas below the roof baffle and in pump ducts were analysed, thus offering an exhaustive survey of all relevant areas in ASDEX Upgrade. Deuterium is mainly trapped on plasma-exposed surfaces of inner divertor tiles, where about 70% of the retained deuterium inventory is found. About 20% of the inventory is retained at or below the divertor roof baffle, and about 10% is observed in other areas, such as the outer divertor and in gaps between tiles. The long term deuterium retention is 3-4% of the total deuterium input. The obtained results are compared with gas balance measurements, and conclusions about tritium retention in ITER are made

  12. Deuterium desorption from tungsten using laser heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Retention and desorption of hydrogenic species need to be accurately modeled to predict the tritium inventory of next generation fusion devices, which is needed both for tritium fuel recovery and for tritium safety concerns. In this paper, experiments on thermal desorption of deuterium from intrinsic polycrystalline tungsten defects using laser heating are compared to TMAP-7 modeling. The samples during deuterium plasma exposure were at a temperature of 373K for this benchmark study with ion fluence of 0.7–1.0 ×1024Dm−2. Following plasma exposure, a fiber laser (λ= 1100nm heated the samples to peak surface temperatures ranging from ∼500 to 1400K with pulse widths from 10ms to 1s, and 1 to 10 pulses applied to each sample. The remaining deuterium retention was measured using temperature programmed desorption (TPD. Results show that > 95% of deuterium is desorbed when the peak surface temperature reached ∼950K for > 1s. TMAP-7 is used to predict deuterium desorption from tungsten for a range of surface temperatures and heating durations, and is compared to previous work on desorption from beryllium codeposits.

  13. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.) [pt

  14. Process for recovering water enriched with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, H.

    1975-01-01

    By the process proposed herewith, enrichment of deuterium in water by cooling water recirculation through series-connection of several cooling ciruits in the form of columns is obtained. With this method, conventional, open-type cooling towers without special installations can be applied, which is an important advantage as compared with a formerly proposed single-stage process with specially designed, complicated cooling towers. Series-connection of the cooling towers is carried out in such a way that the circulating water of a certain cooling circuit, which has a corresponding output value of deuterium enrichment, is conveyed to a succeeding circuit where further enrichment is achieved. The water enriched with deuterium is removed from the last cooling circuit of the series while an amount of fresch water equivalent to the water removed or evaporated altogether is fed to the first circuit of the series. (RB) [de

  15. Continuum emission from irradiated solid deuterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forrest, J.A.; Brooks, R.L.; Hunt, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new emission feature from the spectrum of irradiated solid deuterium has been observed in the very near-infrared spectral region. Experiments from three laboratories, using different excitation conditions, have confirmed the observation. Comparison of the timing and temperature dependence...... of the spectral feature to the information previously available from electron spin resonance studies of solid deuterium, points to atomic association as the underlying cause. We shall show the connection of this emission to the occurrence of thermal spikes and optical flashes, previously observed in solid...

  16. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled viloxazine. [Antidepressant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamada, Kumiko; Furuta, Takashi; Kasuya, Yasuji

    1988-06-01

    The synthesis of deuterium-labelled viloxazine with high isotopic purity is described. The synthetic procedures employ alkylation of 2-(benzyloxy)phenol with (/sup 2/H/sub 5/)ethyl iodide for the introduction of deuterium. Catalytic removal of the benzyl group of the deuterated product followed by reaction with epichlorohydrin afforded 1,2-epoxy-3-(2'-pentadeuteroethoxy-phenoxy)propane. Addition of 2-aminoethyl hydrogen sulphate to the epoxide and subsequent ring formation into a morpholine derivative produced the desired (/sup 2/H/sub 5/)viloxazine.

  17. Deuterium electrodisintegration at high recoil momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenholen, G.

    1996-01-01

    The availability of continuous electron beams made it possible to carry out various deuterium electro-disintegration experiments in kinematical domains corresponding to a high recoil momentum. Three such experiments are discussed: 1) the left-right asymmetry with respect to the direction of the momentum transfer has been measured with good precision; 2) cross sections have been obtained in a kinematical region well above the quasi-elastic peak; 3) data have been taken in quasi-elastic kinematics that can be used to study high-momentum components in the deuterium wave function [ru

  18. Quantitative analysis of deuterium by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomura, Shohei; Kaetsu, Hayato

    1981-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of deuterium concentration in water and hydrogen gas by gas chromatography is described. HD and D 2 in a hydrogen gas sample were separated from H 2 by a column packed with Molecular Sieve 13X, using extra pure hydrogen gas as carrier. A thermal conductivity detector was used. Concentrations of deuterium were determined by comparison with standard samples. The error inherent to the present method was less a 1% on the basis of the calibration curves obtained with the standard samples. The average time required for the analysis was about 3 minutes. (author)

  19. Membership, binarity, and rotation of F-G-K stars in the open cluster Blanco 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermilliod, J.-C.; Platais, I.; James, D. J.; Grenon, M.; Cargile, P. A.

    2008-07-01

    Context: The nearby open cluster Blanco 1 is of considerable astrophysical interest for formation and evolution studies of open clusters because it is the third highest Galactic latitude cluster known. It has been observed often, but so far no definitive and comprehensive membership determination is readily available. Aims: An observing programme was carried out to study the stellar population of Blanco 1, and especially the membership and binary frequency of the F5-K0 dwarfs. Methods: We obtained radial-velocities with the CORAVEL spectrograph in the field of Blanco 1 for a sample of 148 F-G-K candidate stars in the magnitude range 10 rate reaches 40% (27/68) if one includes the photometric binaries. The cluster mean heliocentric radial velocity is +5.53 ± 0.11 km s-1 based on the most reliable 49 members. The V sin i distribution is similar to that of the Pleiades, confirming the age similarities between the two clusters. Conclusions: This study clearly demonstrates that, in spite of the cluster's high Galactic latitude, three membership criteria - radial velocity, proper motion, and photometry - are necessary for performing a reliable membership selection. Furthermore, even with accurate and extensive data, ambiguous cases still remain. Based on observations collected with the Danish 1.54-m and the Swiss telescopes at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and with the old YALO 1-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, Chile. Table [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/485/95

  20. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Rick [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  1. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled prochlorperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, E M; Gurnsey, T S; Shetty, H U; Midha, K K

    1983-06-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of prochlorperazine was labeled with two, four, or six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate amide. The isotopic purity of the products after correcting for chlorine isotopes was greater than 95.7%.

  2. Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors

  3. The use of deuterium in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Sutton, J.; Marsac, J.

    1981-03-01

    Whenever a corporal function experiences a disturbance reflected either by changes in metabolic activity or modifications of the importance of pools of certain molecules the possibility exists of making use of isotopes in diagnosis. This paper discusses the use of deuterium to measure total body water and extravascular water in the lungs, and gives examples of clinical applications

  4. Deuterium in New Zealand rivers and streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Cox, M.A.; James, M.R.; Lyon, G.

    1983-07-01

    Over 750 deuterium measurements on rivers and streams in New Zealand are reported. Monthly samples were collected for periods of several years from a number of representative rivers. These show irregular storm-to-storm as well as seasonal deuterium variations. The seasonal variations range from as low as 1 per mille for lake-fed rivers to 8-10 per mille for rivers with large spring snow-melt contributions. Variations in mean annual ΔD values are believed to reflect changes in climatic variables; the present data will be used to compare with future changes. The bulk of the data are single samples; these show a geographic variation related to the altitude, latitude and climatic character of the catchments, with the highest deuterium contents (ΔD = -20 per mille) occurring in the far north, and lowest contents (-80 per mille) in the inland Otago region. Regression equations derived for the ΔD dependence on altitude (h) and latitude (l), are ΔD = -0.0169 h - 30.2 and westerly influence. Eastern climatic zones have lower deuterium contents because of rainout effects on the axial ranges. Contours of constant

  5. Deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, T.J.; Bennett, A.; Herbst, E.

    1989-01-01

    The time-dependent gas-phase chemistry of deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds ranging in temperature between 10 and 70 K was investigated using a pseudo-time-dependent model similar to that of Brown and Rice (1986). The present approach, however, considers much more complex species, uses more deuterium fractionation reactions, and includes the use of new branching ratios for dissociative recombinations reactions. Results indicate that, in cold clouds, the major and most global source of deuterium fractionation is H2D(+) and ions derived from it, such as DCO(+) and H2DO(+). In warmer clouds, reactions of CH2D(+), C2HD(+), and associated species lead to significant fractionation even at 70 K, which is the assumed Orion temperature. The deuterium abundance ratios calculated at 10 K are consistent with those observed in TMC-1 for most species. However, a comparison between theory and observatiom for Orion, indicates that, for species in the ambient molecular cloud, the early-time results obtained with the old dissociative recombination branching ratios are superior if a temperature of 70 K is utilized. 60 refs

  6. Deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, T. J.; Bennett, A.; Herbst, Eric

    1989-05-01

    The time-dependent gas-phase chemistry of deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds ranging in temperature between 10 and 70 K was investigated using a pseudo-time-dependent model similar to that of Brown and Rice (1986). The present approach, however, considers much more complex species, uses more deuterium fractionation reactions, and includes the use of new branching ratios for dissociative recombinations reactions. Results indicate that, in cold clouds, the major and most global source of deuterium fractionation is H2D(+) and ions derived from it, such as DCO(+) and H2DO(+). In warmer clouds, reactions of CH2D(+), C2HD(+), and associated species lead to significant fractionation even at 70 K, which is the assumed Orion temperature. The deuterium abundance ratios calculated at 10 K are consistent with those observed in TMC-1 for most species. However, a comparison between theory and observatiom for Orion, indicates that, for species in the ambient molecular cloud, the early-time results obtained with the old dissociative recombination branching ratios are superior if a temperature of 70 K is utilized.

  7. Potencial ganadero de Colombia para exportar cortes finos de carne de bovino a la Unión Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael López-Cepeda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Factores globales como el crecimiento sostenidon poblacional, el aumento de la demanda mundial de alimentos –particularmente de carne de res– y las restricciones productivas, por la estacionalidad climática, en algunos países del cono sur, como Argentina, Uruguay y Paraguay, hacen prever el aumento de la oferta cárnica bovina de Colombia; sin embargo, esto no es suficiente para que Colombia sea aceptado por la Unión Europea (UE como proveedor internacional de carnes especializadas y de alto valor agregado. En la actualidad, es necesario adoptar medidas que busquen mejorar la competitividad, incrementar los estándares de consumo del mercado interno, promover sistemas productivos alternativos (silvopastoriles, mejorar y mantener el estatus sanitario, garantizar la calidad y consistencia de la oferta de ganados, aplicar prácticas que garanticen el bienestar animal, implementar adecuadamente la trazabilidad, y garantizar la inocuidad, para que finalmente el país obtenga la distinción internacional de productor de carnes limpias, biológicas, orgánicas y de alto valor agregado, mejorando así la rentabilidad del negocio cárnico nacional en cada uno de sus eslabones. Para lograr lo anterior, se busca entender, apropiar y aplicar alternativas comerciales para exportar carne de res a la UE, como la Cuota Hilton, un cupo de aproximadamente 60.250 toneladas de cortes finos de carne de res, con sus respectivas especificaciones, destinado a aquellos países con condiciones productivas y de transformación cárnica como Colombia. La investigación que aquí se presenta buscó diagnosticar la implementación de un modelo comercial para la exportación de cortes finos de carne bovina a la Unión Europea.

  8. Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, lv y su residualidad en dietas artificiales

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Nelson; Reyes, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, LV y su residualidad en dietas artificiales Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, LV y su residualidad en dietas artificiales

  9. (Blanco) Benth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analytical gas chromatography (GC) and confirmation of chemical structure performed by Fourier transform infrared ... represents an essential active ingredient of P. .... injection of carbon suspension, 20 μL aliquots of ..... granular foreign body.

  10. (Blanco) Benth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    probably act by activating mononuclear phagocytic system, augmenting humoral immune response while suppressing ... whether its use in treating these diseases is due to its direct healing ..... lymphocytes and accessory cell types required.

  11. Molecular characterization of the genome of Maize rayado fino virus, the type member of the genus Marafivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Ramirez, P

    2001-04-10

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the single-stranded RNA genome of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type member of the genus Marafivirus, is 6305 nucleotides (nts) in length and contains two putative open reading frames (ORFs). The largest ORF (nt 97-6180) encodes a polyprotein of 224 kDa with sequence similarities at its N-terminus to the replication-associated proteins of other viruses with positive-strand RNA genomes and to the papainlike protease domain found in tymoviruses. The C-terminus of the 224-kDa ORF also encodes the MRFV capsid protein. A smaller, overlapping ORF (nt 302-1561) encodes a putative protein of 43 kDa with unknown function but with limited sequence similarities to putative movement proteins of tymoviruses. The nucleotide sequence and proposed genome expression strategy of MRFV is most closely related to that of oat blue dwarf virus (OBDV). Unlike OBDV, MRFV RNA does not appear to contain a poly(A) tail, and it encodes a putative second overlapping open reading frame.

  12. ORF43 of maize rayado fino virus is dispensable for systemic infection of maize and transmission by leafhoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C; Weiland, John J; Todd, Jane; Stewart, Lucy R; Lu, Shunwen

    2016-04-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) possesses an open reading frame (ORF43) predicted to encode a 43 kDa protein (p43) that has been postulated to be a viral movement protein. Using a clone of MRFV (pMRFV-US) from which infectious RNA can be produced, point mutations were introduced to either prevent initiation from three potential AUG initiation codons near the 5'-end of ORF43 or prematurely terminate translation of ORF43. Inoculation of maize seed via vascular puncture inoculation (VPI) resulted in plants exhibiting symptoms typical of MRFV infection for all mutants tested. Furthermore, corn leafhoppers (Dalbulus maidis) transmitted the virus mutants to healthy plants at a frequency similar to that for wild-type MRFV-US. Viral RNA recovered from plants infected with mutants both prior to and after leafhopper transmission retained mutations blocking ORF43 expression. The results indicate that ORF43 of MRFV is dispensable for both systemic infection of maize and transmission by leafhoppers.

  13. Partial characterization of Maize rayado fino virus isolates from Ecuador: phylogenetic analysis supports a Central American origin of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, Mauricio; Caviedes, Mario; Hammond, Rosemarie; Madriz, Kenneth; Albertazzi, Federico; Villalobos, Heydi; Ramírez, Pilar

    2007-06-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) infects maize and appears to be restricted to, yet widespread in, the Americas. MRFV was previously unreported from Ecuador. Maize plants exhibiting symptoms of MRFV infection were collected at the Santa Catalina experiment station in Quito, Ecuador. RT-PCR reactions were performed on total RNA extracted from the symptomatic leaves using primers specific for the capsid protein (CP) gene and 3' non-translated region of MRFV and first strand cDNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence comparisons to previously sequenced MRFV isolates from other geographic regions revealed 88-91% sequence identity. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Maximum Likelihood, UPGMA, Minimal Evolution, Neighbor Joining, and Maximum Parsimony methods separated the MRFV isolates into four groups. These groups may represent geographic isolation generated by the mountainous chains of the American continent. Analysis of the sequences and the genetic distances among the different isolates suggests that MRFV may have originated in Mexico and/or Guatemala and from there it dispersed to the rest of the Americas.

  14. Cosmic Deuterium and Social Networking Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Suer, T.-A.; Lubowich, D. A.; Glaisyer, T.

    2006-08-01

    For the education of newcomers to a scientific field and for the convenience of students and workers in the field, it is helpful to have all the basic scientific papers gathered. For the study of deuterium in the Universe, in 2004-5 we set up http://www.cosmicdeuterium.info with clickable links to all the historic and basic papers in the field and to many of the current papers. Cosmic deuterium is especially important because all deuterium in the Universe was formed in the epoch of nucleosynthesis in the first 1000 seconds after the Big Bang, so study of its relative abundance (D:H~1:100,000) gives us information about those first minutes of the Universe's life. Thus the understanding of cosmic deuterium is one of the pillars of modern cosmology, joining the cosmic expansion, the 3 degree cosmic background radiation, and the ripples in that background radiation. Studies of deuterium are also important for understanding Galactic chemical evolution, astrochemistry, interstellar processes, and planetary formation. Some papers had to be scanned while others are available at the Astrophysical Data System, adswww.harvard.edu, or to publishers' Websites. By 2006, social networking software (http:tinyurl.com/ zx5hk) had advanced with popular sites like facebook.com and MySpace.com; the Astrophysical Data System had even set up MyADS. Social tagging software sites like http://del.icio.us have made it easy to share sets of links to papers already available online. We have set up http://del.icio.us/deuterium to provide links to many of the papers on cosmicdeuterium.info, furthering previous del.icio.us work on /eclipses and /plutocharon. It is easy for the site owner to add links to a del.icio.us site; it takes merely clicking on a button on the browser screen once the site is opened and the desired link is viewed in a browser. Categorizing different topics by keywords allows subsets to be easily displayed. The opportunity to expose knowledge and build an ecosystem of web

  15. Double recharge of pions on a deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichitiu, F.; Falomkin, I.V.; Shcherbakov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Assumptions on the dibaryon nature of the existing narrow resonances below the threshold of the NΔ-state with masses 1935, 1965, 2015 MeV are considered. New proposals on construction of the particle systematics with a new particle (R-particle of mass 1025 MeV, J=1/2, T=3/2) are used to draw a conclusion that double charge exchange is possible on deuterium and helium-3 if dibaryons or new R-particles are born in the final state. Attention is paid to a possible decay of these particles through a weak channel. A search for double charge exchange of pions on hydrogen and deuterium using a laser-illuminated streamer chamber of high pressure is proposed

  16. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorne, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D + exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D - and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D + . The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10 30 atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD x ). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD x serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions

  17. Deuterium content of the Venus atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaux, -J.-L.; Clarke, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The abundance of deuterium in the atmosphere of Venus is an important clue to the planet's history, because ordinary and deuterated water escape at different rates. Using the high-resolution mode of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), we measured hydrogen Lyman-α-emission but found only an upper limit on deuterium Lyman-α-emission, from which we inferred a D/H ratio of less than 2-5 x 10 -3 . This is smaller by a factor of 3-8 than the D/H ratio derived from measurements by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe, and may indicate either a stratification of D/H ratio with altitude or a smaller overall ratio than previously thought. (author)

  18. Mineral resource potential map of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon roadless areas, Inyo and Mono counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Blakely, Richard J.; Rains, Richard L.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects, the mineral resource potential for gold, silver, lead, zinc, tungsten, and barite of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas is judged to be low to moderate, except for one local area that has high potential for gold and tungsten resources.

  19. Synthesis of deuterium and tritium labelled tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanska, M.; Drabarek, S.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of synthesis of tyrosine labelled with deuterium and tritium in the aromatic ring has been developed. Deuterated and tritiated tyrosine was obtained by isotope exchange between tyrosine and deuterated or tritiated water at elevated temperature in hydrochloric acid medium using K 2 PtCl 4 as a catalyst. For synthesis of tritiated tyrosine 1 Ci HTO was used; the specific activity of the product was 5 mCi/mMol. (author)

  20. Photodisintegration of deuterium and big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, K.Y.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goko, S.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Ohta, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.; Shibata, Y.; Lui, Y.-W.; Ohgaki, H.

    2003-01-01

    Photodisintegration cross sections were measured for deuterium with Laser-Compton scattering γ beams at seven energies near threshold. Combined with the preceding data, R(E)=N a σv for the p(n,γ)D reaction is for the first time evaluated based on experimental data with 6% uncertainty in the energy region relevant to the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The result confirms the theoretical evaluation on which the BBN in the precision era relies

  1. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus Confirmação molecular do 'Maize rayado fino virus' como vírus da estria do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Wahnbaeck Hammond

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The coat protein gene and 3'non-translated region of MRFV were amplified from infected tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using MRFV-specific primers, and were characterized by nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the cloned PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships between the Brazilian isolates and isolates obtained from Latin America and the United States reveals a close relationship to isolates from Brazil, Peru and Bolivia. Results support the proposal that the Brazilian corn streak virus be regarded as an isolate of MRFV and provide evidence for the presence of MRFV in "corn stunt' disease in Brazil.O vírus do rayado fino do milho (MRFV, presente em vários países da América Latina, tem mostrado semelhança ao vírus da risca do milho que ocorre no Brasil, em relação a características patogênicas, sorológicas e histológicas. No presente trabalho, ambos os vírus foram comparados molecularmente, visando confirmar a similaridade entre os mesmos. O MRFV foi identificado por hibridização de ácido nucléico em amostras de tecido que apresentavam sintomas de enfezamento, coletadas nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais. O gene da capa protéica e a região 3' não traduzida do MRFV foram amplificados, a partir de tecidos infectados, através da transcrição reversa por reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR, usando-se os iniciadores específicos para o vírus, obtendo-se a seq

  2. Initial deuterium pellet experiments on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Initial experiments have been performed with the Single Pellet INjector (SPIN) on FTU. SPIN is a two-stage cryogenic deuterium pellet injector capable of injection,a pellets with velocities up to 2.5 km/s. The nominal pellet mass for these experiments was approximately 1 x 10 20 atoms. These initial pellet experiments concentrated on studying pellet penetration under a variety of plasma conditions to compare with code predictions and to examine toroidal particle transport. The principal diagnostics used were two fast (∼1 μsec) photomultiplier tubes at nearly opposite toroidal locations with H α (D α ) interference filters (λ = 656 nm), a microwave cavity for pellet mass and velocity, a vertical array of soft x ray diodes without filters looking down onto the pellet, a DCN interferometer for electron density profiles, and a Michelson ECE system for electron temperature profiles. The time integral of the absolutely calibrated fast H α signal appears to give reasonable agreement with the expected pellet mass. Toroidal transport of deuterium ions from the pellet to nearly the opposite side of the tokamak agrees with calculated thermal deuterium velocities near the plasma edge. Comparison of the experimental results with code calculations using the Neutral Gas Shielding model show good agreement for the post-pellet electron temperature and density profiles and the H α profiles in some cases. Calculated penetration distances agree within 20%

  3. Deuterium-depleted water. Romanian achievements and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Beginning with 1996 ICSI Rm. Valcea, deuterium-depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effect's evaluation of deuterium-depleted water. These investigations lead to the following conclusions: - Deuterium-depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tonus, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tonus and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium-depleted water persist after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with deuterium-depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action; - Deuterium-depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions and increases the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with deuterium-depleted water fecundated solutions confirmed favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in subsequent growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character's variability in plants; one can remark the favourable influence of deuterium-depleted water on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages; - The deuterium depletion in seawater produces the diminution of the water spectral energy related to an increased metabolism of Tetraselmis Suecica. (authors)

  4. Desorption dynamics of deuterium in CuCrZr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Nguyen, Lan Anh; Lee, Sanghwa; Noh, S. J.; Lee, S. K.; Park, M. C.; Shu, Wataru; Pitcher, Spencer; Torcy, David; Guillermain, David; Kim, Jaeyong

    2017-12-01

    Desorption behavior of deuterium (D2) in CuCrZr alloy was investigated considering sample thickness, loading and baking temperature of deuterium followed by the ITER scopes. Cylindrical specimens of 1, 3, 5 mm thick with 4 mm diameter were exposed to deuterium at a pressure of 25 bar at 120, 240 and 350 °C for 24 h, then baked at 800 °C in a vacuum chamber maintained at a pressure lower than 10-7 Torr. Deuterium desorption characteristics such as desorption rate and amount of deuterium in the sample were estimated by analyzing the desorption peaks monitored with a residual gas analyzer (RGA), and the trapping energy of deuterium was calculated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results showed that deuterium atoms embedded in the sample at a depth of less than 15 μm and desorbed as low as 400 °C. All absorbed deuterium atoms in the specimen were completely retrieved by dynamic pumping at 800 °C in 15 min. The desorption rate of deuterium per unit area was inversely proportional to the increment of the thickness of the sample, and was proportional to the loading temperature. Based on the assumption that a uniform distribution of interstitial sites for deuterium follows the Femi-Dirac statistics, the result of TDS demonstrated that the CuCrZr alloy has two types of trapping energies, which were estimated to be 62 and 79 kJ/mol.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent

  6. Efecto de tres tipos de presas vivas en la larvicultura de bagre blanco (Sorubim cuspicaudus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Prieto-Guevara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de diferentes presas vivas en la larvicultura de bagre blanco (Sorubim cuspicaudus. Materiales y métodos. Al inicio de la alimentación exógena de Sorubim cuspicaudus, se ofreció zooplancton producido en mesocosmos (T1, zooplancton silvestre (T2 y nauplios de Artemia (T3, en concentración de 10.000 zoop/L, dos veces al día, durante seis días. Se utilizaron 18 acuarios de cinco litros de volumen útil, con densidad de 25 Larvas/L, seis réplicas por tratamiento en un diseño al azar. Se estimaron la ganancia en peso (Gp y longitud (Gl, tasa de crecimiento específico (G, sobrevivencia (S, resistencia al estrés (Re, mortalidad acumulada (Ma y mortalidad por canibalismo (Mc. Resultados. Las larvas alimentadas con mesocosmos presentaron la mayor sobrevivencia (81.3±15.9%; aunque el mejor crecimiento lo presentaron las larvas alimentadas con zooplancton silvestre (T2 las cuales presentaron la mayor mortalidad (42.0±10.7% y la menor resistencia al estrés (30.0±33.0%. El canibalismo se observó en todos los tratamientos, oscilando entre 4.0 (T2 y 14.3% (T1 sin diferencias significativas entre estos valores (p>0.05. Conclusiones. El uso de zooplancton producido bajo condiciones controladas permitió una alta sobrevivencia, adecuado desempeño y resistencia de las larvas, perfilándose como alternativa viable en la primera alimentación de bagre blanco.

  7. Views of Oedipus in the Play Tebas Land: From Sophocles to Sergio Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis García Barrientos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between myth and gaze is particularly paradoxical in the theatre, and has been so since the time of Ancient Greek theatre to the present. After all, it pertains, on the one hand, to the most substantial trait of this mode of imitation (Aristotle, which is directly linked to the stage, whereas the second means, narrative, is always mediated by a voice (the narrator or a gaze (the eye of the camera; and yet on the other hand the theatre is, even etymologically, a theatre par excellence: the fictive world is placed before the eyes of the spectator in a direct and effective manner. Since the gaze is of paramount importance to the very heart of the myth of Oedipus (from that of his parents, Laius and Jocasta, to the first-born, to the enemy-assassin, and finally to the saviour-king-spouse, and up to the unbearable one of anagnorisis, from which the only solution is blindness, in Greek tragedy, and its summit of Oedipus Rex, the impossible gaze finds substitutes in that of the choir and that of the playwright. On these bases, this paper examines the views of Oedipus which are intertwined in one of its most  recent scenic avatars, namely,  in Sergio Blanco's Tebas  Land (2013, where the protagonist, called à la Kafka “S”, encompasses at the same time the functions of the playwright and of the chorus in a perverse meta-theatrical play, while also embodying the various historical interpretations and views of the myth that exist between Sophocles and Blanco, especially that of Sigmund Freud, the third vertex of the hermeneutical triangle, or the third eye of “S”.

  8. Smart Winery: A Real-Time Monitoring System for Structural Health and Ullage in Fino Style Wine Casks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Martín, Cristian; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2018-03-07

    The rapid development in low-cost sensor and wireless communication technology has made it possible for a large number of devices to coexist and exchange information autonomously. It has been predicted that a substantial number of devices will be able to exchange and provide information about an environment with the goal of improving our lives, under the well-known paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT). One of the main applications of these kinds of devices is the monitoring of scenarios. In order to improve the current wine elaboration process, this paper presents a real-time monitoring system to supervise the status of wine casks. We have focused on a special kind of white wine, called Fino, principally produced in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The process by which this kind of wind is monitored is completely different from that of red wine, as the casks are not completely full and, due to the fact that they are not renewed very often, are more prone to breakage. A smart cork prototype monitors the structural health, the ullage, and the level of light inside the cask and the room temperature. The advantage of this smart cork is that it allows winemakers to monitor, in real time, the status of each wine cask so that, if an issue is detected (e.g., a crack appears in the cask), they can act immediately to resolve it. Moreover, abnormal parameters or incorrect environmental conditions can be detected in time before the wine loses its desired qualities. The system has been tested in "Bodegas San Acacio," a winery based in Montemayor, a town in the north of Andalusia. Results show that the use of such a system can provide a solution that tracks the evolution and assesses the suitability of the delicate wine elaboration process in real time, which is especially important for the kind of wine considered in this paper.

  9. Deuterium as a tracer in coal liquefaction. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Collin, P.J.; Barron, P.F.; Vassallo, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Deuterium has been used to trace the pathways by which hydrogen reacts with an Australian bituminous coal (Liddell) in the presence of a nickel/molybdenum catalyst. The results show that at 400 0 C extensive scrambling of hydrogen and deuterium occurs among aromatic and α to aromatic aliphatic hydrogen and deuterium substituents. Deuterium can enter all structural groups in both asphaltene and hexane-soluble fractions of the coal-derived liquids, but it enters aromatic and α to aromatic groups in preference to alkyl groups remote from aromatic rings. Thus the results indicate that hydrogen atoms are very mobile during coal hydrogenation. Deuterium from deuterium oxide generated during conversion can also be incorporated into the coal-derived liquids. During coal hydrogenation, the eventual fate of much of the hydrogen in the gas phase is to substitute for hydrogen already in the coal. (Auth.)

  10. Deuterium trapping in carbon fiber composites under high fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetov, A.A.; Begrambekov, L.B.; Kuzmin, A.A.; Shigin, P.A.; Zakharov, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of deuterium trapping in CFC, dance graphite MPG-8 and pyrolytic graphite (PG) under plasma ion- and electron irradiation. Number of specific features of deuterium trapping and retention under plasma ion and electron irradiation is presented and discussed. In particular it is shown that 1) deuterium trapping takes place even when energy of impinging ions approaches zero; 2) deuterium is trapped under irradiation by plasma electrons; 3) under irradiation at equal fluences deuterium trapping is higher, when ion flux is smaller. High energy ion penetrating the surfaces are trapped in the traps created at the expense of their kinetic energy. The process may be named 'kinetic trapping'. Under low energy (smaller than 200 eV) electron and/or ion irradiation the energy of inelastic interaction on the surface provides creation of active centers, which initiate dissociation of deuterium sorbed on the surface, penetration of deuterium atoms into graphite and their trapping in specific low energy traps. The term 'potential trapping' is proposed for this type of trapping. Under high energy irradiation such atoms can fill the traps formed through kinetic mechanism. Origination of moveable deuterium atoms from the layer of surface sorption seems to be time dependent process and it is a reason of increase of trapping along with irradiation time. New features of deuterium trapping and retention in graphite evaluated in this study offer new opportunities for analysis and correct estimation of hydrogen isotope trapping and retention in tokamaks having graphite tiles. (authors)

  11. Exportación de nibs de cacao nativo de fino aroma con niveles de cadmio <= 0.5 mg/kg

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Cruz Muñoz, Iris Magaly

    2016-01-01

    La tesis expone un plan de negocios que surge a raíz de la demanda creciente internacional del cacao debido a una demanda de un chocolate con mayor contenido de cacao, la cual debe satisfacer normas sociales, saludables, ecológicas y éticas del cual el Perú es reconocido como país productor de Cacao de Fino Aroma. Asimismo, existe la amenaza que tienen los productores latinoamericanos de cacao por haberse encontrado altos niveles de cadmio en granos de cacao, siendo este perjudicial para la s...

  12. Modified Rice Straw as Adsorbent Material to Remove Aflatoxin B1 from Aqueous Media and as a Fiber Source in Fino Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Sherif R. Mohamed; Tarek A. El-Desouky; Ahmed M. S. Hussein; Sherif S. Mohamed; Khayria M. Naguib

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alk...

  13. Infecção mista pelo Sugarcane mosaic virus e Maize rayado fino virus provoca danos na cultura do milho no estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Marcos César; Maia,Ivan de Godoy; Galleti,Sílvia Regina; Fantin,Gisèle Maria

    2007-01-01

    Os dois principais vírus que infectam o milho no Brasil são o Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) e o Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), cujos principais vetores são o afídeo Rhopalosiphum maidis e a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis, respectivamente. O MRFV é freqüentemente encontrado em infecções mistas com fitoplasmas e espiroplasmas, causando as doenças denominadas enfezamentos do milho. Em uma lavoura de milho próxima a Santo Antonio da Posse, SP, cercada por campos de cana-de-açúcar, foi encontrada alt...

  14. Biological effects of deuterium - depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Titescu, Gh.; Croitoru, Cornelia; Saros-Rogobete, Irina

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is represented by water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D + H). DDW production technique consists in the separation of deuterium from water by a continuous distillation process under pressure of about 133.3 mbar. The water used as raw material has a isotopic content of 145 ppm D/(D + H) and can be demineralized water, distillated water or condensed-steam. DDW results as a distillate with an isotopic deuterium content of 15-80 ppm, depending on the level we want to achieve. Beginning with 1996 the Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for studying the biological effects of DDW. The role of naturally occurring D in living organisms was examined by using DDW instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: - DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the DDW persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defense mechanisms; - DDW stimulates immuno-defense reactions represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system together with an increase in the number of poly-morphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance and following growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character variability in plants; one can remark the favorable influence of DDW on biological processes in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Acter, Thamina; Zherebker, Alexander; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-03-30

    The isotopic exchange approach is in use since the first observation of such reactions in 1933 by Lewis. This approach allows the investigation of the pathways of chemical and biochemical reactions, determination of structure, composition, and conformation of molecules. Mass spectrometry has now become one of the most important analytical tools for the monitoring of the isotopic exchange reactions. Investigation of conformational dynamics of proteins, quantitative measurements, obtaining chemical, and structural information about individual compounds of the complex natural mixtures are mainly based on the use of isotope exchange in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry. The most important reaction is the Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange, which is mainly performed in the solution. Recently we have developed the approach allowing performing of the Hydrogen/Deuterium reaction on-line directly in the ionization source under atmospheric pressure. Such approach simplifies the sample preparation and can accelerate the exchange reaction so that certain hydrogens that are considered as non-labile will also participate in the exchange. The use of in-ionization source H/D exchange in modern mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of molecules serves as the basic theme in this review. We will focus on the mechanisms of the isotopic exchange reactions and on the application of in-ESI, in-APCI, and in-APPI source Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange for the investigation of petroleum, natural organic matter, oligosaccharides, and proteins including protein-protein complexes. The simple scenario for adaptation of H/D exchange reactions into mass spectrometric method is also highlighted along with a couple of examples collected from previous studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Erosion and deuterium retention of CLF-1 steel exposed to deuterium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, L.; Wang, P.; Hu, M.; Gao, L.; Jacob, W.; Fu, E. G.; Luo, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel has been proposed as the plasma-facing material in remote regions of the first wall. This study reports the erosion and deuterium retention behaviours in CLF-1 steel exposed to deuterium (D) plasma in a linear experimental plasma system as function of incident ion energy and fluence. The incident D ion energy ranges from 30 to 180 eV at a flux of 4 × 1021 D m-2 s-1 up to a fluence of 1025 D m-2. SEM images revealed a clear change of the surface morphology as functions of incident fluence and impinging energy. The mass loss results showed a decrease of the total sputtering yield of CLF-1 steel with increasing incident fluence by up to one order of magnitude. The total sputtering yield of CLF-1 steel after 7.2 × 1024 D m-2 deuterium plasma exposure reduced by a factor of 4 compared with that of pure iron, which can be attributed to the enrichment of W at the surface due to preferential sputtering of iron and chromium. After D plasma exposure, the total deuterium retention in CLF-1 steel samples measured by TDS decreased with increasing incident fluence and energy, and a clear saturation tendency as function of incident fluence or energy was also observed.

  17. Liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets; Cibles a hydrogene et deuterium liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougon, M; Marquet, M; Prugne, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A description is given of 1) Atmospheric pressure target: liquid hydrogen, 400 mm thickness; thermal insulation: styrofoam; the hydrogen vapors are used to improve the target cooling; Mylar windows. 2) Vacuum target: 12 liter content: hydrogen or deuterium; liquid thickness 400 mm; thermal insulation is afforded by a vacuum vessel and a liquid nitrogen shield. Recovery and liquefaction of deuterium vapors are managed in the vacuum vessel which holds the target. The target emptying system is designed for operating in a few minutes. (author) [French] Description de: 1) Cible a pression atmospherique; hydrogene liquide, 400 mm d'epaisseur; l'isolement thermique: styrofoam; on utilise les vapeurs d'hydrogene pour ameliorer le refroidissement de la cible; hublots en Mylar. 2) Cible sous vide; contenance 12 litres; hydrogene ou deuterium; epaisseur du liquide 400 mm; l'isolement thermique est assure par une cuve a vide et un ecran d'azote liquide. Recuperation et liquefaction des vapeurs de deuterium sont effectuees dans la cuve a vide contenant la cible. Le systeme de vidange pour la cible est concu pour fonctionner en quelques minutes. (auteur)

  18. A Reexamination of Deuterium Fractionation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, A.; Paige, D. A.

    1997-07-01

    The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in the Martian atmosphere is enhanced by a factor of 5 with respect to the terrestrial value, probably due to fractionation associated with thermal Jeans escape from the top of the atmosphere. Theoretical analyses of the relative efficiency of H and D escape have suggested that the deuterium enrichment implies Mars has outgassed the vast majority of its H2O and that the Martian atmosphere is presently not exchanging water with a juvenile reservoir. However, measurements of high and variable D/H values within hydrous minerals in SNC meteorites strongly suggest that mixing between the atmosphere and juvenile water has taken place. Furthermore, the lack of any observed enrichment of atmospheric (18) O with respect to (16) O, in spite of fractionating nonthermal escape mechanisms, indicates buffering by some juvenile source of oxygen, most probably in the form of a surface or subsurface reservoir of water. We propose that this apparent paradox in the interpretation of isotopic hydrogen and oxygen fractionation --or lack thereof-- can be resolved by re-examining the standard model of deuterium fractionation efficiency on Mars. Specifically, we demonstrate the importance of using upper atmospheric temperatures more representative of the range experienced by the Martian exosphere over the course of the solar cycle. Preliminary calculations involving changes in effusion velocity and diffusive separation as a function of exospheric temperature indicate that incorporating these more representative lower exospheric temperatures will reduce the relative efficiency of D escape, in which case the observed enrichment of deuterium can indeed result from exchange with a juvenile source of water. We are in the process of confirming these computations with a one-dimensional upper atmospheric photochemical model that considers the effects of changing solar activity and exospheric temperature on ionospheric composition. If our initial calculations are

  19. Novel PEFC Application for Deuterium Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Matsushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium (D was investigated. Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange of D with protium (H in H2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. The anodic data showed that the separation efficiency was dependent on the D concentration in the source gas, whereby the water produced during the operation of the PEFC was more enriched in D as the D concentration of the source gas was increased.

  20. Lamb shift in the muonic deuterium atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutov, A. A.; Martynenko, A. P. [Samara State University, Pavlov street 1, 443011, Samara (Russian Federation); Samara State University, Pavlov Street 1, 443011, Samara, Russia and Samara State Aerospace University named after academician S.P. Korolyov, Moskovskoye Shosse 34, 443086, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    We present an investigation of the Lamb shift (2P{sub 1/2}-2S{sub 1/2}) in the muonic deuterium ({mu}D) atom using the three-dimensional quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics. The vacuum polarization, nuclear-structure, and recoil effects are calculated with the account of contributions of orders {alpha}{sup 3}, {alpha}{sup 4}, {alpha}{sup 5}, and {alpha}{sup 6}. The results are compared with earlier performed calculations. The obtained numerical value of the Lamb shift at 202.4139 meV can be considered a reliable estimate for comparison with forthcoming experimental data.

  1. Apparatus and process for deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergenc, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deuterium exchange plant is combined with an absorption refrigeration plant in order to improve the exchange process and to produce refrigeration. The refrigeration plant has a throttling means for expanding and cooling a portion of the liquid exchange medium separated in the exchange plant as well as an evaporator, in which the said liquid exchange medium is brought into heat exchange with a cold consumer device, absorption means for forming a solution of the used exchange medium and fresh water and a pump for pumping the solution into the exchange plant

  2. Synthesis of deuterium labelled cocaine and pseudococaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, J.F.; Raney, H.T. (State Bureau of Investigation, Raleigh, NC (USA). Drug Chemistry Lab.); Lewin, A.H. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)); Cooper, D.A. (Drug Enforcement Administration, McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Cocaine and pseudococaine were mass-labelled with deuterium at various positions on the tropane ring. The synthetic procedures followed were adaptations of those previously published for the unlabelled compounds. The isotopic purity was greater than 95% for 2-({sup 2}H)-, 4,4-({sup 2}H2)-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-({sup 2}H6)-cocaine and 3-({sup 2}H)-, 4,4-({sup 2}H2)-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-({sup 2}H6)-pseudococaine, while that of 3-({sup 2}H)-cocaine exceeded 90%. (author).

  3. Synthesis of deuterium labelled cocaine and pseudococaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, J.F.; Raney, H.T.; Cooper, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Cocaine and pseudococaine were mass-labelled with deuterium at various positions on the tropane ring. The synthetic procedures followed were adaptations of those previously published for the unlabelled compounds. The isotopic purity was greater than 95% for 2-[ 2 H]-, 4,4-[ 2 H2]-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-[ 2 H6]-cocaine and 3-[ 2 H]-, 4,4-[ 2 H2]-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-[ 2 H6]-pseudococaine, while that of 3-[ 2 H]-cocaine exceeded 90%. (author)

  4. Deuterium ion irradiation damage and deuterium trapping mechanism in candidate stainless steel material (JPCA2) for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashizuka, Norihiro; Kurita, Takaaki; Yoshida, Naoaki; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Muroga, Takeo

    1987-01-01

    An improved austenitic stainless steel (JPCA), a candidate material for fusion reactor, is irradiated at room temperature with deuterium ion beams. Desorption spectra of deuterium gas is measured at various increased temperatures and defects formed under irradiation are observed by transmission electron microscopy to determine the mechanism of the thermal release of deuteriums and the characteristics of irradiation-induced defects involved in the process. In the deuterium deportion spectra observed, five release stages are found to exist at 90 deg C, 160 deg C, 220 deg C, 300 deg C and 400 deg C, referred to as Stage I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Stage I is interpreted as representing the release of deuteriums trapped in point defects (presumably vacancies) formed under irradiation. The energy of desorption from the trapping sites is estimated at 0.8 eV. Stage II is concluded to be associated with the release of deuteriums trapped in a certain kind of existing defects. Stage III involves the release of deuteriums that are trapped in dislocations, dislocation loops or dislocated portions of stacking fault tetrahedra. This release occurs significantly in processed materials and other materials irradiated with high energy ion beams that may cause cascade damage. Stage IV is interpreted in terms of thermal decomposition of small deuterium clusters. Stage V is associated with the decomposition of rather large deuterium clusters grown on the {111} plane. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Permeation behavior of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; O' hira, Shigeru; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    Study on Implantation Driven Permeation (IDP) behavior of deuterium through pure beryllium was investigated as a part of the research to predict the tritium permeation through the first wall components ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The permeation experiments were carried out with two beryllium specimens, one was an unannealed specimen and the other was that annealed at 1173 K. The permeation flux was measured as a function of specimen temperature and incident ion flux. Surface analysis of specimen was also carried out after the permeation experiment. Permeation was observed only with the annealed specimen and no significant permeation was observed with unannealed specimen under the present experimental condition (maximum temperature: 685 K, detection limit: 1x10{sup 13} D atoms/m{sup 2}s). It could be attributed that the intrinsic lattice defects, which act as diffusion preventing site, decreased with the specimen annealing. Based on the result of steady and transient permeation behavior and surface analysis, it was estimated that the deuterium permeation implanted into annealed beryllium was controlled by surface recombination due to the oxide layer on the surface of the permeated side. (author)

  6. Thermal desorption of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, A.V.; Chernikov, V.N.; Zakharov, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    By means of TDS measurements it is shown that the desorption of deuterium from Be implanted with 5 keV D ions to fluences, Φ, from 1x10 20 D/m 2 to 1x10 21 D/m 2 proceeds in one high temperature stage B, while at Φ ≥ 1.2x10 21 D/m 2 one more stage A is added. The desorption maximum A is narrow and consists of two peaks A 1 and A 2 at about 460 K and 490 K, respectively. Peak A 1 is attributed to the desorption of deuterium from the walls of opened channels formed under D ion implantation. Peak A 2 is a consequence of the opening of a part of closed bubbles/channels to the outer surface. The position of maximum B shifts noticeably and nonsteadily on the fluence in a range from 850 to 1050 K. The origin of this maximum is the liberation of D atoms bound at vacancy complexes discussed previously by Wampler. The dependence of Tm(B) on the fluence is governed by the interaction of freely migrating D atoms with partly opened or fully closed gas cavity arrangements which are created under temperature ramping, but differently in specimens implanted with D ions to different fluences

  7. Deuterium transport and trapping in polycrystalline tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Trybus, C.L.; Sellers, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that deuterium permeation studies for polycrystalline tungsten foil have been conducted to provide data for estimating tritium transport and trapping in tungsten-clad divertors proposed for advanced fusion-reactor concepts. Based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microstructural characterization of the specimen material and on analyses of permeation data measured at temperatures ranging form 610 to 823 K for unannealed and annealed tungsten foil (25 μm thick), the authors note the following key results: deuterium transport in tungsten foil is dominated by extensive trapping that varies inversely with prior anneal temperatures of the foil material, the reduction in the trapped fraction correlates with a corresponding elimination of a high density of dislocations in cell-wall structures introduced during the foil fabrication process, trapping behavior in these foils can be modelled using trap energies between 1.3 eV and 1.5 eV and trap densities ranging from 1 x 10 -5 atom fraction

  8. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun

  9. Deuterium fractionation mechanisms in interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgarno, A.; Lepp, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of the fractionation of deuterated molecules is extended to include reactions with atomic deuterium. With the recognition that dissociative recombination of H + 3 is not rapid, observational data can be used in conjunction with the theory to derive upper and lower bounds to the cosmic deuterium-hydrogen abundance ratio. We find that [D]/[H] is at least 3.4 x 10 -6 and at most 4.0 x 10 -5 with a probable value of 1 x 10 -5 . Because of the reaction HCO + +D→DCO + +H, upper limits can be derived for the fractional ionization which depend only weakly on the cosmic ray flux, zeta. In four clouds, the upper limits to the fractional ionization lie between 1.1 x 10 -6 and 1.5 x 10 -6 if zeta = 10 -7 s -1 and between 3.1 x 10 -6 and 1.8 x 10 -6 if zeta = 10 -16 s -1

  10. Sputtering of solid deuterium by He-ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Stenum, B.; Pedrys, R.

    2001-01-01

    Sputtering of solid deuterium by bombardment of 3He+ and 4He+ ions was studied. Some features are similar to hydrogen ion bombardment of solid deuterium, but for the He-ions a significant contribution of elastic processes to the total yield can be identified. The thin-film enhancement is more pro...... pronounced than that for hydrogen projectiles in the same energy range....

  11. Confinement and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.

    1994-03-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has performed initial high-power experiments with the plasma fueled by deuterium and tritium to nominally equal densities. Compared to pure deuterium plasmas, the energy stored in the electron and ions increased by ∼20%. These increases indicate improvements in confinement associated with the use of tritium and possibly heating of electrons by α-particles

  12. Method of producing deuterium-oxide-enriched water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, H.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing deuterium-oxide-enriched water (e.g., as a source of deuterium-rich gas mixtures) are disclosed wherein the multiplicity of individual cooling cycles of a power plant are connected in replenishment cascade so that fresh feed water with a naturally occurring level of deuterium oxide is supplied to replace the vaporization losses, sludge losses and withdrawn portion of water in a first cooling cycle, the withdrawn water being fed as the feed water to the subsequent cooling cycle or stage and serving as the sole feed-water input to the latter. At the end of the replenishment-cascade system, the withdrawn water has a high concentration of deuterium oxide and may serve as a source of water for the production of heavy water or deuterium-enriched gas by conventional methods of removing deuterium oxide or deuterium from the deuterium-oxide-enriched water. Each cooling cycle may form part of a thermal or nuclear power plant in which a turbine is driven by part of the energy and air-cooling of the water takes place in the atmosphere, e.g., in a cooling tower

  13. Nuclear processes in deuterium/natural hydrogen-metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelensky, V.F.

    2013-01-01

    The survey presents the analysis of the phenomena taking place in deuterium - metal and natural hydrogen - metal systems under cold fusion experimental conditions. The cold fusion experiments have shown that the generation of heat and helium in the deuterium-metal system without emission of energetic gamma-quanta is the result of occurrence of a chain of chemical, physical and nuclear processes observed in the system, culminating in both the fusion of deuterium nuclei and the formation of a virtual, electron-modified excited 4He nucleus. The excitation energy of the helium nucleus is transferred to the matrix through emission of conversion electrons, and that, under appropriate conditions, provides a persistent synthesis of deuterium. The processes occurring in the deuterium/natural hydrogen - metal systems have come to be known as chemonuclear DD- and HD-fusion. The mechanism of stimulation of weak interaction reactions under chemonuclear deuterium fusion conditions by means of strong interaction reactions has been proposed. The results of numerous experiments discussed in the survey bear witness to the validity of chemonuclear fusion. From the facts discussed it is concluded that the chemonuclear deuterium fusion scenario as presented in this paper may serve as a basis for expansion of deeper research and development of this ecologically clean energy source. It is shown that the natural hydrogen-based system, containing 0.015% of deuterium, also has good prospects as an energy source. The chemonuclear fusion processes do not require going beyond the scope of traditional physics for their explanation

  14. Deuterium exchange between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1982-01-01

    The overall separation factors for the deuterium exchange between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen have been calculated over a wide range of temperature, pressure and deuterium concentrations. These data would be useful in the design and other considerations for heavy water production, based on hydrogen-water exchange. (author)

  15. Consumption of potassium permanganate by impurities in deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The titrimetric measurement of the consumption of potassium permanganate by impurities in deuterium oxide is one of the required methods intended for use in establishing whether the deuterium oxide is of sufficient purity to meet specifications. The method includes a discussion of reagents, procedure, and calculation

  16. Characterization of hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-12-07

    Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey identified Alkali Flat as an area of groundwater upwelling, with increases in concentrations of total dissolved solids, and streamflow loss, but additional study was needed to better characterize these observations. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, White River Field Office, conducted a study to characterize the hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area of Rio Blanco County, Colorado.

  17. GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in different extracts of an endemic plant Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Franelyne Pataueg Casuga; Agnes Llamasares Castillo; Mary Jho-Anne Tolentino Corpuz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and characterize the chemical composition of the different crude extracts from the leaves of Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) (B. luzonica), an endemic plant in the Philippines. Methods: The air dried leaves were powdered and subjected to selective sequential extraction using solvents of increasing polarity through percolation, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol to obtain three different extracts. Then, each of the extracts was further subjected...

  18. Irradiation effect on α- and β-caseins of milk and Queso Blanco cheese determined by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.S.; Jeong, S.G.; Lee, S.G.; Han, G.S.; Chae, H.S.; Yoo, Y.M.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, W.K.; Jo, C.

    2009-01-01

    Milk and Queso Blanco cheese were exposed to irradiation with doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 kGy to investigate the irradiation effect on α- and β-casein using a capillary electrophoresis. α S1 -Casein to total protein ratio in raw milk was decreased from 19.63% to 8.64% by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. The ratio of α S1 - to α S0 -casein was also decreased from 1.38 to 0.53, which showed α S1 -casein is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than α S0 -casein. Similarly, α S1 -casein to total protein ratio in Queso Blanco cheese was decreased from 17.48% to 7.82% and the ratio of α S1 - to α S0 -casein was decreased from 1.16 to 0.43 by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Dose-dependent reduction of β A1 -casein was also found. β A1 -Casein to total protein ratios in raw milk and Queso Blanco cheese were decreased from 22.00% to 14.16% and from 21.96% to 13.89% after 10 kGy, respectively. The ratios of β A1 - to β A2 -casein were from 1.10 to 0.64 and 0.93 to 0.57 in milk and Queso Blanco cheese, respectively. However, α S0 -, β B -, and β A3 -casein increased by irradiation at 10 kGy. The results suggest that α S1 -casein and β A1 -casein were more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and may be related to the reduction of milk allergenicity caused by gamma irradiation

  19. Irradiation effect on {alpha}- and {beta}-caseins of milk and Queso Blanco cheese determined by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.S.; Jeong, S.G.; Lee, S.G.; Han, G.S.; Chae, H.S.; Yoo, Y.M.; Kim, D.H. [Animal Food Processing Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.K. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    Milk and Queso Blanco cheese were exposed to irradiation with doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 kGy to investigate the irradiation effect on {alpha}- and {beta}-casein using a capillary electrophoresis. {alpha}{sub S1}-Casein to total protein ratio in raw milk was decreased from 19.63% to 8.64% by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. The ratio of {alpha}{sub S1}- to {alpha}{sub S0}-casein was also decreased from 1.38 to 0.53, which showed {alpha}{sub S1}-casein is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than {alpha}{sub S0}-casein. Similarly, {alpha}{sub S1}-casein to total protein ratio in Queso Blanco cheese was decreased from 17.48% to 7.82% and the ratio of {alpha}{sub S1}- to {alpha}{sub S0}-casein was decreased from 1.16 to 0.43 by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Dose-dependent reduction of {beta}{sub A1}-casein was also found. {beta}{sub A1}-Casein to total protein ratios in raw milk and Queso Blanco cheese were decreased from 22.00% to 14.16% and from 21.96% to 13.89% after 10 kGy, respectively. The ratios of {beta}{sub A1}- to {beta}{sub A2}-casein were from 1.10 to 0.64 and 0.93 to 0.57 in milk and Queso Blanco cheese, respectively. However, {alpha}{sub S0}-, {beta}{sub B}-, and {beta}{sub A3}-casein increased by irradiation at 10 kGy. The results suggest that {alpha}{sub S1}-casein and {beta}{sub A1}-casein were more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and may be related to the reduction of milk allergenicity caused by gamma irradiation.

  20. Deuterium behavior in first-wall materials for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-wall interactions play an important part while choosing materials for the first wall in future fusion reactors. Moreover, the use of tritium as a fuel will impose safety limits regarding the total amount present in the tokamak. Previous analyses of first-wall samples exposed to fusion plasma highlighted an in-bulk migration of deuterium (as an analog to tritium) in carbon materials. Despite its limited value, this retention is problematic: contrary to co-deposited layers, it seems very unlikely to recover easily the deuterium retained in such a way. Because of the difficult access to in situ samples, most published studies on the subject were carried out using post-mortem sample analysis. In order to access to the dynamic of the phenomenon and come apart potential element redistribution during storage, we set up a bench intended for simultaneous low-energy ion implantation, reproducing the deuterium interaction with first-wall materials, and high-energy micro beam analysis. Nuclear reaction analysis performed at the micrometric scale (μNRA) allows to characterize deuterium repartition profiles in situ. This analysis technique was confirmed to be non-perturbative of the mechanisms studied. We observed on the experimental data set that the material surface (0-1 μm) display a high and nearly constant deuterium content, with a uniform distribution. On the contrary, in-bulk deuterium (1-11 μm) localizes in preferential trapping sites related to the material microstructure. In-bulk deuterium inventory seems to increase with the incident fluence, in spite of the wide data scattering attributed to the structure variation of studied areas. Deuterium saturation at the surface as well as in-depth migration are instantaneous; in-vacuum storage leads to a small deuterium global desorption. Observations made via μNRA were coupled with results from other characterization techniques. X-ray μtomography allowed to identify porosities as the preferential trapping sites

  1. Evaluation of the availability of phosphorus from decalcium phosphate and rock phosphates from Patos de Minas, Tapira and Finos de Tapira for sheep, by the isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    1989-01-01

    'In vitro' and 'in vivo' assays were carried out to determine the phosphorus availability from dicalcium phosphate and rock phosphates from Patos de Minas, Tapira and Finos de Tapira. Twenty four male sheep, with 40 kg live weight, were assigned to three groups of eight animals each. The animals were housed individually in metabolism cages and received a diet containing cassava meal, urea, molasses, soybean meal and mineral mixture. Phosphate sources were added to give 4 g of phosphorus per animal per day. After two weeks on the experimental diet each sheep was injected intravenously with 200 μCi of 32 P (Na 2 HPO 4 ). Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 24 hs intervals for 8 days. The daily fecal outputs were collected for 8 days and sampled. The specific activities of plasma and feces were determined and the fecal endogenous loss and true phosphorus absorption were calculated. For 'in vitro' assay, rumen samples were collected from a fistulated steer and aliquots were incubated with 0.1 μCi 32 P (Na 2 HPO 4 ) in a medium containing the phosphorus sources. After centrifugation microorganisms were separated and phosphorus incorporation determined. The true absorption values were 58.92; 50.85; 47.99 and 42.72% for dicalcium phosphate, Finos de Tapira, Tapira and Patos, respectively. Dicalcium phosphate showed higher availability (P [pt

  2. Ex-vacuo nuclear reaction analysis of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Doyle, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    A novel technique for performing in-air d( 3 He, p) nuclear reaction analysis of deuterium using external 3 He ion beams ranging in energy from 0.3-2.0 MeV is presented. Variable on-target beam energies for the depth profiling of deuterium are obtained by varying the transmission distance of the external 3 He beam in air. The ex-vacuo nuclear reaction analysis (XNRA) apparatus is described, and unique aspects and limitations of in-air depth profiling of deuterium using the d( 3 He, p) reaction are discussed. Example analyses where XNRA has been used for the multidimensional measurement of deuterium in fusion reactor components are presented in order to illustrate the advantages of XNRA for deuterium. These advantages include nondestructive analysis of large targets, efficient depth profiling via variable air gap energy tuning, and rapid analysis of numerous samples in the absence of vacuum cycling. (orig.)

  3. Site occupation state of deuterium atoms in fcc Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Katsutoshi; Machida, Akihiko; Saitoh, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami

    2015-01-01

    The deuterization process of fcc Fe to form solid-solution fcc FeD x was investigated by in situ neutron diffraction measurements at high temperature and high pressure. In a completely deuterized specimen at 988 K and 6.3 GPa, deuterium atoms occupy the octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites with an occupancy of 0.532(9) and 0.056(5), respectively, giving a deuterium composition x of 0.64(1). During deuterization, the metal-lattice expands approximately linearly with deuterium composition at a rate of 2.21 Å 3 per deuterium atom. The minor occupation of tetrahedral site is likely driven by the intersite movement of deuterium atoms along the <111> direction in the fcc metal lattice. These results provide implications for the light elements in the Earth's core and the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement of ferrous metals. (author)

  4. Comparative transcriptional survey between self-incompatibility and self-compatibility in Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuewen; Li, Qiulei; Hu, Guibing; Qin, Yonghua

    2017-04-20

    Seedlessness is an excellent economical trait, and self-incompatibility (SI) is one of important factors resulting in seedless fruit in Citrus. However, SI molecular mechanism in Citrus is still unclear. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes related to SI reaction of 'Wuzishatangju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco). A total of 35.67GB raw RNA-Seq data was generated and was de novo assembled into 50,364 unigenes with an average length of 897bp and N50 value of 1549. Twenty-three candidate unigenes related to SI were analyzed using qPCR at different tissues and stages after self- and cross-pollination. Seven pollen S genes (Unigene0050323, Unigene0001060, Unigene0004230, Unigene0004222, Unigene0012037, Unigene0048889 and Unigene0004272), three pistil S genes (Unigene0019191, Unigene0040115, Unigene0036542) and three genes (Unigene0038751, Unigene0031435 and Unigene0029897) associated with the pathway of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis were identified. Unigene0031435, Unigene0038751 and Unigene0029897 are probably involved in SI reaction of 'Wuzishatangju' based on expression analyses. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of SI in Citrus at the transcriptional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of predicted and observed pore pressure increases on Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.; Ellett, D.M.; Pyke, R.; Winters, L.

    1976-01-01

    The RIO BLANCO event presented the opportunity to monitor, under controlled conditions in the field, the increase in pore pressures resulting from ground motion similar to an earthquake. In situ measurements of pore pressure changes were made by Sandia Laboratories and Dames and Moore. This report contains the results of laboratory tests believed to be indicative in assessing the magnitude of pore pressure increases and probability of soil liquefaction. These include triaxial load tests, gradation of grain size, and relative density. No liquefaction was observed in the field, and the increase of in situ pore pressures were much less than expected from laboratory measurements. Allied subjects presented in this report are pore pressure propagation and dissipation profiles, the previously unpublished pore pressure measurements made by Dames and Moore, and the boring logs for the various sites where measurements were taken. It is concluded that methods used to predict pore pressure increases and liquefaction potential are overly conservative, at least for these alluvial and colluvial soils found in Colorado

  6. Influence of tungsten microstructure and ion flux on deuterium plasma-induced surface modifications and deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzi, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Unterberg, B.; M. Reinhart,; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D.; Linsmeier, C.; Breuer, U.; Kreter, A.; Van Oost, G.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of surface temperature, particle flux density and material microstructure on the surface morphology and deuterium retention was studied by exposing tungsten targets (20 μm and 40 μm grain size) to deuterium plasma at the same particle fluence (1026 m−2) and

  7. Deuterium pellet injection in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazare, O.

    1985-07-01

    Injecting fresh fuel deep inside the plasma of a thermonuclear reactor appears to be necessary; the only way to do that is to inject fast solid deuterium pellets. The existing theoretical, technical and experimental aspects of this method are presented. The experiments on TFR have confirmed that injecting pellets is technically feasible; a new kind of injector is presented. The injection does not degrade stability nor confinement of the plasma. The study of the transient phenomena occuring during the injection has proved to be an efficient way to investigate particles and energy transport in the discharge; in particular, a fast transport phenomenon, similar to those occuring during disruptions, has been studied in details. Conclusions about disruptions are drawn. (Ref 101) [fr

  8. Deuterium permeation through Flibe facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, S.; Anderl, R.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Experiment of deuterium permeation through Ni facing with purified Flibe is being carried out under the Japan-US joint research project (JUPITER-II). The experiment has been proceeding in the following phases; (i) fabrication and assembly of a dual-probe permeation apparatus, (ii) a single-probe Ni/D 2 , permeation experiment without Flibe, (iii) a dual-probe Ar/Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iv) Flibe chemical purification by HF/H 2 gas bubbling, (v) physical purification by Flibe transport through a porous Ni filter, (vi) Ar/Ni/Flibe/Ni/D 2 permeation experiment using the dual Ni probe, and (vii) Ar/Ni/Flibe/Ni/HT permeation experiment. The present paper describe results until the Ar/Ni/Flibe/Ni/D 2 permeation experiment in detail. (author)

  9. Development of a powerful discharge in deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komelkov, V S; Skvortsov, U V; Tserevitinov, S S [Institute of Atomic Energy, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow (USSR)

    1958-07-01

    The investigations carried out at the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR resulted in the discovery of both neutron and hard X-ray radiation occurring under certain conditions in a powerful pulse discharge in deuterium. In the present work, the investigations in this field were continued with a view to studying these processes at greater currents and higher rates of increase of the current, by minimizing the circuit inductance and the size of the discharge chambers. Studies were made of the current distribution in the chamber, neutron radiation, electrode-metal vapour movement, and the effect of pre-ionization on the initial stages of the process.

  10. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    The application of stable Oxygen-18 (18O) and Deuterium (2H) isotopes, as a tracer for fluxes between different compartments of the water cycle was subject of the present PhD-thesis. During a three year period, temporal data from a wide range of water cycle constituents was collected from...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... development within a given lowland headwater catchment (stream water isotopes). Based on our investigations on the precipitation isotopic composition a local meteoric water line (LMWL) was constructed and expressed as: δ2H=7.4 δ18O + 5.36‰. Moreover, we showed that under maritime temperature climate influence...

  11. Point design for deuterium-deuterium compact reversed-field pinch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Dobrott, D.R.; Gurol, H.; Schnack, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactor may be made comparable in size and cost to a deuterium-tritium (D-T) reactor at the expense of high-thermal heat load to the first wall. This heat load is the result of the larger percentage of fusion power in charged particles in the D-D reaction as compared to the D-T reaction. The heat load may be reduced by increasing the reactor size and hence the cost. In addition to this ''degraded'' design, the size may be kept small by means of a higher heat load wall, or by means of a toroidal divertor, in which case most of the heat load seen by the wall is in the form of radiation. Point designs are developed for these approaches and cost studies are performed and compared with a D-T reactor. The results indicate that the cost of electricity of a D-D RFP reactor is about20% higher than a D-T RFP reactor. This increased cost could be offset by the inherent safety features of the D-D fuel cycle

  12. Deuterium depleted water. Romanian achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2002-01-01

    The deuterium depleted water (DDW) is microbiologically pure distilled water with a deuterium content lower than that of natural waters which amounts to 140 - 150 ppm D/(D+H); variations depend on geographical zone and altitude. The procedure of obtaining DDW is based on isotopic separation of natural water by vacuum distillation. Isotope concentration can be chosen within 20 to 120 ppm D/(D+H). The ICSI at Rm. Valcea has patented the procedure and equipment for the production of DDW. According to the document SF-01-2002/INC-DTCI - ICSI Rm. Valcea, the product has a D/(D+H) isotope concentration of 25 ± 5. Studies and research for finding the effects and methods of application in different fields were initiated and developed in collaboration with different institutes in Romania. The following important results obtained so far could be mentioned: - absence of toxicity upon organisms; - activation of vascular reactivity; - enhancement of defence capacity of the organism through non-specific immunity activation; - increase of salmonid reproduction capacity and enhancement of the adaptability of alevins to the environmental conditions; - radioprotective effect to ionizing radiation; - maintaining meat freshness through osmotic shock; - stimulation of growth of aquatic macrophytes; - enhancement of culture plant development in certain ontogenetic stages. Mostly, the results and practical applications of the research were patented and awarded with gold medals at international invention fairs. At present, research-development programmes are undergoing to find active biological features of DDW in fighting cancer, on one hand, and its applicability as food additive of pets or performing animals, on the other hand

  13. Method for measuring deuterium in erbium deuteride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brangan, J.R.; Thornberg, S.M.; Keenan, M.R.

    1997-09-01

    Determining the quantity of deuterium in an erbium deuteride (ErD 2 ) film is essential for assessing the quality of the hydriding process but is a challenging measurement to make. First, the ideal gas law cannot be applied directly due to high temperature (950 degrees C) and low temperature (25 degrees C) regions in the same manifold. Additionally, the metal hydride does not release all of the deuterium rapidly upon heating and metal evaporation occurs during extended heating periods. Therefore, the method developed must provide a means to compensate for temperature inhomogeneities and the amount of deuterium retained in the metal film while heating for a minimal duration. This paper presents two thermal desorption methods used to evaluate the kinetics and equilibria of the deuterium desorption process at high temperatures (950 degrees C). Of primary concern is the evaluation of the quantity of deuterium remaining in these films at the high temperature. A multiple volume expansion technique provided insight into the kinetics of the deuterium evolution and metal evaporation from the film. Finally a repeated pump-down approach yielded data that indicated approximately 10% of the deuterium is retained in the metal film at 950 degrees C and approximately 1 Torr pressure. When the total moles of deuterium determined by this method were divided by the moles of erbium determined by ICP/AES, nearly stochiometric values of 2:1 were obtained for several erbium dideuteride films. Although this work presents data for erbium and deuterium, these methods are applicable to other metal hydrides as well

  14. Process for the production of high purity deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrathoon, R.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the electrolysis of heavy water which results in the production of high purity deuterium without periodic replenishment of the electrolyte with additional deuterated compounds is defined. Electrolysis is effected through the use of an inexpensive cation-action permselective membrane which is essentially a solid polymer electrolyte and which is capable of automatically separating the evolved deuterium and oxygen gas. This cation-active permselective membrane does not introduce any intrinsic impurities or tritium contamination in the generated deuterium gas, does not require periodic revitalization with deuterated compounds or other chemical compounds, and is characterized by an unusually high electrical efficiency

  15. Viscosity and attenuation of sound wave in high density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1985-01-01

    The penetration of low frequency sound wave into the fuel deuterium is discussed as for laser fusion. The sound velocity and the attenuation constant due to viscosity are calculated for high density (n = 10 24 -- 10 27 cm -3 , T = 10 -1 -- 10 4 eV) deuterium. The shear viscosity of free electron gas and the bulk viscosity due to ion-ion interaction mainly contribute to the attenuation of sound wave. The sound wave of the frequency below 10 10 Hz can easily penetrate through the compressed fuel deuterium of diameter 1 -- 10 3 μm. (author)

  16. Method to separate deuterium isotopes using ethylene and ethylene dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of deuterium by the dissociation of ethylene vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloro-ethanes or propylene with the help of intensive, matched infrared lasers enables a relatively good yield if operated on a large scale, e.g. in refineries with large through-put. The deuterium from the laser photolysis of ethylene and vinyl chloride is found in the acetylene formed, which has to be separated off and processed. When using dichloroehtane, the deuterium is found in the vinal chloride formed. The methods are briefly described. (UWI) [de

  17. Electromigration of hydrogen and deuterium in vanadium, niobium, and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.L.

    1977-10-01

    The electric mobility and effective valence of hydrogen and deuterium in vanadium, niobium, tantalum and three niobium-tantalum alloys were measured. A resistance technique was used to directly determine the electric mobility of hydrogen and deuterium at 30 0 C while a steady-state method was used to measure the effective valence. The use of mass spectrographic techniques on a single specimen which contained both hydrogen and deuterium greatly increased the precision with which the isotope effect in the effective valence could be measured

  18. Dinámica folicular en yeguas paso fino colombiano medido por ultrasonografía en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ramírez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio surgió como medio para obtener un parámetro de crecimiento diario folicular, momento de la ovulación, y determinar cuál es el ovario con mayor número de ovulaciones en la yegua de Paso Fino Colombiano con el fin de aportar algunos datos de dinámica folicular en la yegua de esta especie, ya que la información disponible en la literatura data generalmente en otras razas y condiciones diferentes al trópico. Para el desarrollo de este proyecto se tomaron como muestra cincuenta (50 yeguas ubicadas en la sabana de Bogotá: (Chía – Cundinamarca, a una altura de 2.652 metros sobre el nivel del mar, temperatura promedio de 12° C y pluviosidad 1.500 mm; la edad de los animales osciló entre los cinco y diez años. Se realizaron ecografías periódicas día por medio por palpación rectal, con el fin de realizar un seguimiento del crecimiento folicular una vez detectado un folículo dominante (>30 mm de diámetro, hasta su ovulación. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de estadística descriptiva, con desviación estándar, además de una prueba F para varianzas desiguales e iguales para determinar diferencias en el tamaño folicular a la ovulación y crecimiento diario folicular entre el ovario derecho e izquierdo. Teniendo como resultado que la yegua de paso fino colombiano tiene un crecimiento diario folicular de 2,04+/-0,63 mm, un tamaño folicular a la ovulación de 41,34+/-2,14 mm, y que de los cincuenta ciclos estrales analizados el 60% fue por el ovario izquierdo y el 40% restante por el ovario derecho. Las diferencias en cuanto a tamaño folicular a la ovulación no fueron significativas (P>0,50 entre los ovarios, mientras que para el crecimiento diario folicular sí hubo diferencia significativa (P<0,02 lo que significa que los folículos del ovario derecho tuvieron un crecimiento mayor a los del ovario izquierdo. Con estos resultados se obtuvo que la yegua de paso fino colombiano se comporta reproductivamente de

  19. Quantitative physic behavior of fine soils: collapsible aeolian and expansive residual; Comportamiento fisico cuantitativo de los suelos finos: eolicos colapsibles y residuales expansivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert-Wiechers, L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-06-01

    In many places of the earth crust there are fine sediments of eolian origin with collapsible characteristics, and residual soils with expansive features. In general, these soils are found with very low degrees of saturation. When the degree of saturation in fine eolian sediments increases, they suffer collapse because of the leaching of the calcium carbonates and the softening of the little clay, holding the intergranular structure. In the case of residual soils of expansive characteristics, the increase in the degree of saturation produces a reduction in the bond between the grains and the swelling of the clay mineral takes place, inducing important changes in the mechanical behavior such as irregular vertical displacements of the ground surface and of the engineering constructions on top of it. It is therefore, necessary to learn the quantitative parameters that govern the static and dynamic behavior of this type of soils with respect to the moisture-related environmental changes. Basic investigation is important and required in soil mechanics and foundation engineering and it shall be performed on the different types of soils found in nature. [Spanish] En multiples lugares de la corteza terrestre existen sedimentos eolicos finos de caracteristicas colapsibles y suelos residuales con propiedades expansivas, los que en general se encuentran con grados muy bajos de saturacion. Cuando aumenta el grado de saturacion en los sedimentos eolicos finos, que sufren un colapso, debido a la lexiviacion de los carbonatos de calcio y al reblandecimiento de la poca arcilla, que sostienen la estructura intergranular. En el caso de los suelos residuales de caracteristicas expansivas, el aumento en el grado de saturacion provoca reduccion de la adherencia entre los granos e hinchamiento del mineral de arcilla, ocasionandose cambios importantes en el comportamiento mecanico. Lo anterior provoca deformacion irregularse en la superficie de los suelos y en las construcciones que se

  20. Técnicas de empleo del azul de metileno para la caracterización de finos en materiales de ingeniería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Rodríguez González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elempleo del azul de metileno en ingeniería se inició en  Francia  a  finales  de  los  años  ochenta,  con  la finalidad de caracterizar la actividad y naturaleza de los  finos  contenidos  en  las  arenas  y gravas  que  se empleaban  en  la  fabricación  de  concretos; posteriormente  se  desarrollaron  variantes  de  dicho empleo  para determinar  la  presencia  de  arcillas  en los finos de tamaños inferiores a 400 micras, para su empleo en materiales de bases, subbases y mezclascomplemento  al  ensayo  de  equivalente  de  arena,asfálticas.  En Colombia  existe  actualmente  una tendencia al uso del ensayo de azul de metileno para evaluar  las  características  de  las  partículas  finas contaminantes o nocivas en un suelo;  los diferentes procedimientos consisten, básicamente, en medir  la capacidad de adsorción de azul de metileno por una muestra  de  suelo,  capacidad  representada  como  la cantidad  de  colorante  requerido  para  recubrir  las superficies específicas de las moléculas de los finos. En nuestro país su aplicación se ha limitado a ser un dentro  de  las  especificaciones  INVIAS  y  como exigencia en las normas IDU.

  1. Polyphenolic glycosides isolated from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. as novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cao, Wei; Deng, Chao; Wu, Zhaoquan; Zeng, Guangyao; Zhou, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is historically an ancient disease that causes annual epidemics and, at irregular intervals, pandemics. At present, the first-line drugs (oseltamivir and zanamivir) don't seem to be optimistic due to the spontaneously arising and spreading of oseltamivir resistance among influenza virus. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (P. cablin) is an important traditional Chinese medicine herb that has been widely used for treatment on common cold, nausea and fever. In our previous study, we have identified an extract derived from P. cablin as a novel selective neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor. A series of polyphenolic compounds were isolated from P. cablin for their potential ability to inhibit neuraminidase of influenza A virus. Two new octaketides (1, 2), together with other twenty compounds were isolated from P. cablin. These compounds showed better inhibitory activity against NA. The significant potent compounds of this series were compounds 2 (IC50 = 3.87 ± 0.19 μ mol/ml), 11, 12, 14, 15, 19 and 20 (IC50 was in 2.12 to 3.87 μ mol/ml), which were about fourfold to doubled less potent than zanamivir and could be used to design novel influenza NA inhibitors, especially compound 2, that exhibit increased activity based on these compounds. With the help of molecular docking, we had a preliminary understanding of the mechanism of the two new compounds (1-2)' NA inhibitory activity. Fractions 6 and polyphenolic compounds isolated from fractions 6 showed higher NA inhibition than that of the initial plant exacts. The findings of this study indicate that polyphenolic compounds and fractions 6 derived from P. cablin are potential NA inhibitors. This work is one of the evidence that P. cablin has better inhibitory activity against influenza, which not only enriches the compound library of P. cablin, but also facilitates further development and promises its therapeutic potential for the rising challenge of influenza diseases.

  2. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rio Blanco underground nuclear test site, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.; Earman, S.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-10-01

    DOE is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater is part of preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations allow prioritization of test areas in terms of risk, provide a basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work, and provide a framework for assessing site characterization data needs. The Rio Blanco site in Colorado was the location of the simultaneous detonation of three 30-kiloton nuclear devices. The devices were located 1780, 1899, and 2039 below ground surface in the Fort Union and Mesaverde formations. Although all the bedrock formations at the site are thought to contain water, those below the Green River Formation (below 1000 in depth) are also gas-bearing, and have very low permeabilities. The transport scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Fort Union Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. This modeling was performed to investigate how the uncertainty in various physical parameters affect radionuclide transport at the site, and to serve as a starting point for discussion regarding further investigation; it was not intended to be a definitive simulation of migration pathways or radionuclide concentration values. Given the sparse data, the modeling results may differ significantly from reality. Confidence in transport predictions can be increased by obtaining more site data, including the amount of radionuclides which would have been available for transport (i.e., not trapped in melt glass or vented during gas flow testing), and the hydraulic properties of the formation. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. ESTABILIZACIÓN DEL PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR EN CEMENTO PÓRTLAND BLANCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN GUILLERMO MORALES RENDÓN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se prepararon muestras de cemento azul a partir de cemento Pórtland Blanco Tipo III, según Normas Técnicas Colombianas NTC y pigmento Azul Ultramar U-601 adicionado en un 2% en peso del cemento. El cemento se caracterizó químicamente por fluorescencia de rayos X, y físicamente mediante los ensayos típicos según las NTC. Al pigmento y al cemento se les determinaron sus coordenadas cromáticas por espectrofotometría mediante el sistema CIELAB. Se eligieron varios aditivos y adiciones (entre orgánicos, inorgánicos y minerales para ser adicionados al cemento azul en diferentes dosificaciones en peso. Tanto a las muestras de cemento azul sin aditivo como a aquellas con las diferentes dosificaciones de aditivos, se les determinaron sus características físicas de desempeño y coordenadas cromáticas a diferentes edades de curado en agua saturada con cal (1, 3, 7 y 28 días. Adicionalmente se les determinó el color en las mismas edades a especimenes curados a las condiciones ambientales del laboratorio. Se presentó decoloración total en todos aquellos cementos adicionados con aditivos orgánicos, y decoloración parcial en los cementos adicionados con algunos de los aditivos inorgánicos y ciertas adiciones minerales. Tanto los tiempos de fraguado, como las resistencias a la compresión y demás variables de desempeño experimentaron cambios significativos, en algunos casos positivos y en otros negativos, como consecuencia y efecto de las diferentes dosificaciones utilizadas de cada uno de los aditivos.

  4. Infecção mista pelo Sugarcane mosaic virus e Maize rayado fino virus provoca danos na cultura do milho no estado de São Paulo Mixed infection by Sugarcane mosaic virus and Maize rayado fino virus causing breaking yields in maize in São Paulo state

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos César Gonçalves; Ivan de Godoy Maia; Sílvia Regina Galleti; Gisèle Maria Fantin

    2007-01-01

    Os dois principais vírus que infectam o milho no Brasil são o Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) e o Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), cujos principais vetores são o afídeo Rhopalosiphum maidis e a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis, respectivamente. O MRFV é freqüentemente encontrado em infecções mistas com fitoplasmas e espiroplasmas, causando as doenças denominadas enfezamentos do milho. Em uma lavoura de milho próxima a Santo Antonio da Posse, SP, cercada por campos de cana-de-açúcar, foi encontrada alt...

  5. Conducting research in the middle of the ocean. Platforms FINO 1-3 supply planning data for utilising offshore wind energy in the North and Baltic Seas; Forschen mitten im Meer. Plattformen FINO 1-3 liefern Planungsdaten fuer die Offshore-Windenergienutzung in Nord- und Ostsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milles, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    In the future, a large part of Germany's electricity requirement is intended to come from offshore wind farms in order to utilise the favourable wind conditions there. This represents unknown territory in both technical and ecological terms, and is taking place in sensitive biotopes. Three largely remote-controlled research platforms have therefore been constructed in the North and Baltic Seas (FINO). In particular it is being investigated into how the wind actually behaves above the sea and how much electricity can be generated. The data will be incorporated into the planning, design and certification of future farms. (orig.)

  6. ANÁLISE DA VISCOSIDADE E SUA CORRELAÇÃO COM OS CONSTITUINTES DOS VINHOS FINOS DA REGIÃO DA CAMPANHA

    OpenAIRE

    Velcir Rubenich Schirmer

    2013-01-01

    O Rio Grande do Sul é o maior produtor de vinhos do Brasil, em 2011 produziu cerca de 90% dos vinhos nacionais. Das regiões vitivinícolas do Estado, a Região da Campanha vem se destacando na produção de vinhos finos. Cor, aroma, sabor, corpo e a composição fenólica são atributos de qualidade dos vinhos, sendo a viscosidade a propriedade que mais se correlaciona com o corpo do vinho. A concentração de etanol possui correlação com a viscosidade dos vinhos, mas outros constituintes também. Este ...

  7. Resposta molecular do endotélio pulmonar à exposição aguda de material particulado  fino

    OpenAIRE

    Mirna Alameddine

    2010-01-01

    Estudos epidemiológicos estabelecem uma associação evidente entre poluição do ar e o aumento de morbimortalidade cardiovascular e respiratória. No entanto, os mecanismos moleculares subjacentes aos efeitos do material particulado fino (MP2,5) sobre o organismo ainda estão pouco esclarecidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o impacto da exposição ao MP2,5 sobre a biologia do endotélio pulmonar e do coração, através da avaliação do perfil de expressão gênica por microarray. Camundong...

  8. Cytology is advanced by studying effects of deuterium environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Crespi, H. L.; Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Research of deuterium effects on biological systems shows deuteriation is not incompatible with life. With the successful cultivation of deuteriated bacteria, work is now being done on extraction of deuterio-compounds from bacteria.

  9. Chemical behavior of energetic deuterium implanted into silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Kazunari; Morimoto, Yasutomi; Shimada, Asako; Inuduka, Nobuo; Okuno, Kenji; Nakamura, Hirohumi; Nishi, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    Studies on chemical behavior of energetic deuterium (D) ions implanted into SiC were carried out by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS). From XPS results, it was suggested that the implanted D was attracted strongly to Si and/or C. From TDS results, two peaks corresponding to D 2 release appeared near 470 K (1st peak) and 1080 K (2nd peak). The activation energies for the two D 2 release processes were also determined. It was found from these experimental results that the 1st peak seemed to be attributed to deuterium that existed in interstitial. The 2nd peak was considered to be caused by deuterium trapped in lattice defects produced through deuterium ion implantation. (author)

  10. Pneumatic injector of deuterium macroparticles for TORE-SUPRA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyar, I.V.; Umov, A.P.; Lukin, A.Ya.; Skoblikov, S.V.; Reznichenko, P.V.; Krasil'nikov, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pneumatic injector for periodic injection of fuel-solid-deuterium pellets into the plasma of the TORE-SUPRA tokamak in a steady-state mode is described. The deuterium pellet injection with an unlimited duration is ensured by a screw extruder in which gaseous deuterium is frozen and squeezed outwards in the form of a rod with a rectangular cross section. A cutter installed on the injector's barrel cuts a cylinder with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 1.0-3.5 mm out from this rod. The movement of the cutter is controlled by a pulsed electromagnetic drive at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. In the injector's barrel, a compressed gas accelerates a deuterium pellet to a velocity of 100-650 m/s [ru

  11. Laser driven source of spin polarized atomic deuterium and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, M.; Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical pumping of potassium atoms in the presence of a high magnetic field followed by spin exchange collisions with deuterium (hydrogen) is shown to yield a high flux of spin polarized atomic deuterium (hydrogen). The performance of the laser driven source has been characterized as a function of deuterium (hydrogen) flow rate, potassium density, pump laser power, and magnetic field. Under appropriate conditions, the authors have observed deuterium atomic polarization as high as 75% at a flow rate 4.2x10 17 atoms/second. Preliminary results suggest that high nuclear polarizations are obtained in the absence of weak field rf transitions as a result of a spin temperature distribution that evolves through frequent H-H (D-D) collisions

  12. Infrared presensitization photography at deuterium fluoride laser wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geary, J.M.; Ross, K.; Suter, K.

    1989-01-01

    Near-field irradiance distributions of a deuterium flouride laser system are obtained using infrared presensitization photography. This represents the shortest wavelength region to employ this technique thus far

  13. Synthesis of deuterium labeled ketamine metabolite dehydronorketamine-d₄.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulake, Rohidas S; Chen, Chinpiao; Lin, Huei-Ru; Lua, Ahai-Chang

    2011-10-01

    A convenient synthesis of ketamine metabolite dehydronorketamine-d(4), starting from commercially available deuterium labeled bromochlorobenzene, was achieved. Key steps include Grignard reaction, regioselective hydroxybromination, Staudinger reduction, and dehydrohalogenation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deuterium content on surface waters VI to X Chile regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena C, R; Pollastri J, A.; Suzuki S, O.

    1984-01-01

    One important parameter on any sitting study for a heavy water plant installation is the deuterium content of the feed water. Deuterium data on surface waters from differents areas located in the south of Chile, are presented. These results allow to idently some potential areas for a future heavy water plant. One of these areas, Lago Llanquihue, was sampled more in detail to study the vertical distribution and spatial variations. (Author)

  15. Synthesis of regio- and stereospecifically deuterium labelled 2-benzylindanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuck, D.

    1984-01-01

    2-Benzylindenes (1, 1a) are hydrogenated to 2-benzylindanes (2) using tris-(triphenylphosphine)-rhodium(I)-chloride in benzene by a strict cis-1,2 addition of hydrogen to the double bond. Thus, stereo- and regio-specific deuterium labelling at the five-membered ring of various 2-benzylindanes has been carried out. The high selectivity of deuterium incorporation is shown independently by 1 H NMR and mass (MIKEsup(*)) spectrometry of selected 2-benzylindanes. (orig.)

  16. Implanted deuterium retention and release in carbon-coated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Oates, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 angstrom. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 angstrom revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400 degrees C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400 degrees C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 X 10 19 D/m 2 sec), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Implanted Deuterium Retention and Release in Carbon-Coated Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Longhurst, G. R.; Pawelko, R. J.; Oates, M. A.

    1997-06-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 Å. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 Å revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400°C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400°C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 × 1019 D/m2-s), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples.

  18. Equations of state for hydrogen and deuterium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, Gerald Irwin (Kerley Technical Services, Appomattox, VA)

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the complete revision of a deuterium equation of state (EOS) model published in 1972. It uses the same general approach as the 1972 EOS, i.e., the so-called 'chemical model,' but incorporates a number of theoretical advances that have taken place during the past thirty years. Three phases are included: a molecular solid, an atomic solid, and a fluid phase consisting of both molecular and atomic species. Ionization and the insulator-metal transition are also included. The most important improvements are in the liquid perturbation theory, the treatment of molecular vibrations and rotations, and the ionization equilibrium and mixture models. In addition, new experimental data and theoretical calculations are used to calibrate certain model parameters, notably the zero-Kelvin isotherms for the molecular and atomic solids, and the quantum corrections to the liquid phase. The report gives a general overview of the model, followed by detailed discussions of the most important theoretical issues and extensive comparisons with the many experimental data that have been obtained during the last thirty years. Questions about the validity of the chemical model are also considered. Implications for modeling the 'giant planets' are also discussed.

  19. Deuterium accumulation in tungsten at high fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibrov, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); FOM Institute DIFFER, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Balden, Martin; Matej, Matej [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bystrov, Kirill; Morgan, Thomas [FOM Institute DIFFER, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-01

    The data on the deuterium (D) retention in tungsten (W) at high fluences (≥ 10{sup 27} D/m{sup 2}) are scarce and the existing results are contradictory. Since retention in W is known to be flux-dependent, the laboratory experiments addressing this issue should be carried out in reactor-relevant conditions (high fluxes of low-energy ions). In this work the samples made of polycrystalline W were exposed to D plasmas in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI at temperatures ranging from 360 K to 1140 K to fluences in the range of 0.3-8.7 x 10{sup 27} D/m{sup 2}. It was observed that at exposure temperatures of 360 K and 580 K the D retention was only slightly dependent on the ion fluence. In addition, the presence of blister-like structures was found after the exposures, and their density and size distributions were also only weakly dependent on the fluence. In the case of exposure at 1140 K no surface modifications of the samples after plasma exposure were detected and the concentrations of retained D were very small. At all temperatures used the total amounts of retained D were smaller compared to those obtained by other researchers at lower ion flux densities, which indicates that the incident ion flux may play an important role in the total D retention in W.

  20. Kinetic studies on the hafnium nad deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing Wenzeng; Long Xinggui; Zhu Zuliang

    2009-04-01

    Through the method of reaction rate analysis in a constant volume reactor, the time dependence of the pressure drop of the hafnium deuteride formation are studied over a temperature range 573-873 K on a metal hydride thermodynamic and kinetic parameters measuring apparatus. The rate constants of the hafnium deuteride formation, which are 0.0530 s -1 , 0.0452 s -1 , 0.0319 s -1 , 0.0261 s -1 , are calculated at a serial temperatures of 573 K, 673 K, 773 K, 873 K and the initial pressure of 13 kPa. The activation energy of the reaction is (-10.1±1.5) kJ·mol -1 . Comparing the above results with those of titanium deuteride formation on the same measuring apparatus, the kinetic mechanism of the deuteride formation of hafnium and titanium is considered different. It is concluded that the reaction rate of hafnium absorbing deuterium may be controlled by phase transformation and surface oxidation. (authors)

  1. Capabilities of nitrogen admixed cryogenic deuterium pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharov, Igor; Sergeev, Vladimir [SPU, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lang, Peter; Ploeckl, Bernhard; Cavedon, Marco [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kocsis, Gabor; Szepesi, Tamas [Wigner RCP RMI, Budapest (Hungary); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Operation at high core density with high energy confinement - as foreseen in a future fusion reactor like DEMO - is being investigated at ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The efficiency of pellet fuelling from the high-field side usually increases with increasing injection speed. Due to the fragile nature of the deuterium ice, however, the increment of pellet mass losses and subsequent pellet fragmentations take place when the speed is increased. Studies show, that admixing of a small amount of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into D{sub 2} gas can be favorable for the mechanical stability of pellets. This might be helpful for deeper pellet penetration. Besides, seeding by N{sub 2} can enhance plasma performance due to both increasing the energy confinement time and reducing the divertor heat load in the envisaged ELMy H-mode plasma scenario. Fuelling efficiency of N{sub 2}-admixed solid D{sub 2} pellets and their nitrogen seeding capabilities were investigated. It was found that both the overall plasma density increase and the measured averaged pellet penetration depth were smaller in case of the admixed (1% mol. in the gas resulting in about 0.8% in the ice) pellet fuelling. Possibility of the N{sub 2}-seeding by admixed pellets was confirmed by CXRS measurements of N{sup 7+} content in plasma.

  2. What controls deuterium excess in global precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The deuterium excess (d of precipitation is widely used in the reconstruction of past climatic changes from ice cores. However, its most common interpretation as moisture source temperature cannot directly be inferred from present-day water isotope observations. Here, we use a new empirical relation between d and near-surface relative humidity (RH together with reanalysis data to globally predict d of surface evaporation from the ocean. The very good quantitative agreement of the predicted hemispherically averaged seasonal cycle with observed d in precipitation indicates that moisture source relative humidity, and not sea surface temperature, is the main driver of d variability on seasonal timescales. Furthermore, we review arguments for an interpretation of long-term palaeoclimatic d changes in terms of moisture source temperature, and we conclude that there remains no sufficient evidence that would justify to neglect the influence of RH on such palaeoclimatic d variations. Hence, we suggest that either the interpretation of d variations in palaeorecords should be adapted to reflect climatic influences on RH during evaporation, in particular atmospheric circulation changes, or new arguments for an interpretation in terms of moisture source temperature will have to be provided based on future research.

  3. Radiative corrections in neutrino-deuterium disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurylov, A.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.; Vogel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The radiative corrections of order α for the charged- and neutral-current neutrino-deuterium disintegration for energies relevant to the SNO experiment are evaluated. Particular attention is paid to the issue of the bremsstrahlung detection threshold. It is shown that the radiative corrections to the total cross section for the charged current reaction are independent of that threshold, as they must be for consistency, and amount to a slowly decreasing function of the neutrino energy E ν , varying from about 4% at low energies to 3% at the end of the 8 B spectrum. The differential cross section corrections, on the other hand, do depend on the bremsstrahlung detection threshold. Various choices of the threshold are discussed. It is shown that for a realistic choice of the threshold and for the actual electron energy threshold of the SNO detector, the deduced 8 B ν e flux should be decreased by about 2%. The radiative corrections to the neutral-current reaction are also evaluated

  4. Measurement of scattering cross sections of liquid and solid hydrogen, deuterium and deuterium hydride for thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The scattering cross sections for liquid and solid normal hydrogen, para-hydrogen, deuterium and deuterium hydride were measured for thermal neutrons at various temperatures. Solid samples of para-hydrogen exhibit distinct Bragg scattering. Liquid samples of deuterium and para-hydrogen also exhibit distinct coherence phenomena, which is indicative of strong local ordering of the molecules. In para-hydrogen and deuterium hydride, the threshold for scattering with excitation of rotations is distinctly visible. The positions of the thresholds show that the molecules in liquid hydrogen are not unhindered in their movement. After the beginning of the rotational excitation the scattering cross sections of liquid and solid para-hydrogen have different shapes which is to be explained by the differences in the dynamics of the liquid and the solid specimen. 22 references

  5. Metalliferous sediment and a silica-hematite deposit within the Blanco fracture zone, Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Clague, D.A.; Koski, R.A.; Embley, R.W.; Dunham, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A Tiburon ROV dive within the East Blanco Depression (EBD) increased the mapped extent of a known hydrothermal field by an order of magnitude. In addition, a unique opal-CT (cristobalite-tridymite)-hematite mound was discovered, and mineralized sediments and rock were collected and analyzed. Silica-hematite mounds have not previously been found on the deep ocean floor. The light-weight rock of the porous mound consists predominantly of opal-CT and hematite filaments, rods, and strands, and averages 77.8% SiO2 and 11.8% Fe2O3. The hematite and opal-CT precipitated from a low-temperature (???115?? C), strongly oxidized, silica- and iron-rich, sulfur-poor hydrothermal fluid; a bacterial mat provided the framework for precipitation. Samples collected from a volcaniclastic rock outcrop consist primarily of quartz with lesser plagioclase, smectite, pyroxene, and sulfides; SiO2 content averages 72.5%. Formation of these quartz-rich samples is best explained by cooling in an up-flow zone of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids within a low permeability system. Opal-A, opal-CT, and quartz mineralization found in different places within the EBD hydrothermal field likely reflects decreasing silica saturation and increasing temperature of the mineralizing fluid with increasing silica crystallinity. Six push cores recovered gravel, coarse sand, and mud mineralized variously by Fe or Mn oxides, silica, and sulfides. Total rare-earth element concentrations are low for both the rock and push core samples. Ce and Eu anomalies reflect high and low temperature hydrothermal components and detrital phases. A remarkable variety of types of mineralization occur within the EBD field, yet a consistent suite of elements is enriched (relative to basalt and unmineralized cores) in all samples analyzed: Ag, Au, S, Mo, Hg, As, Sb, Sr, and U; most samples are also enriched in Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn. On the basis of these element enrichments, the EBD hydrothermal field might best be described as a base

  6. Crecimiento en pastoreo rotacional de toretes de razas criollas Romosinuano y Blanco Orejinegro en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Quiceno A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el crecimiento de toretes de las razas Romosinuno (ROMO y Blanco Orejinegro (BON en una prueba de comportamiento en pastoreo rotacional. Materiales y métodos. La prueba fue desarrollada en la Estación Experimental El Nus, en la Región Andina Colombiana, donde se evaluaron 20 toretes BON y 16 ROMO provenientes de quince ganaderías comerciales, los cuales fueron mantenidos en un solo grupo durante 221 días en pastoreo rotacional en franjas con periodos cortos de ocupación, de los cuales 56 días fueron en pastoreo no suplementado y 165 días bajo tres diferentes fases de pastoreo suplementado en el potrero. Se realizaron pesajes cada 28 días y se evaluaron variables como: la evolución en peso, la ganancia total y diaria, la diferencia entre pesajes, la relación consumo peso vivo y la tasa de consumo. Resultados. El peso inicial en la raza BON fue 180.4±36.9 kilos con 9.6±1.74 meses de edad y en la raza ROMO fue de 171.8±32.6 kilos con 10.1±3.2 meses de edad. El incremento general de los individuos entre pesajes fue 0.497 kilos por día para los individuos de raza BON, y 0.366 kilos por día para la raza ROMO. En la prueba de eficiencia la tasa de consumo de suplemento alcanzada fue 64.8% y 71% para BON y ROMO respectivamente, equivalentes a una ingestión de materia seca de 0.47% y 0.53% con relación al peso vivo. Conclusiones. Este trabajo evidencia un mayor desempeño de los individuos de la raza BON comparados con los animales de la raza ROMO e indica una alta variabilidad en la respuesta a un manejo semi-intensivo en las poblaciones en evaluación.

  7. Compared studies of natural and artificial deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Mihacea, Sorina; Sirbovan, Alina; Butnariu, H.; Titescu, Gh.

    2001-01-01

    The biological influence of the deuterium on animals was studied insensitively in the last years. When animal cell cultures were analyzed it turned out an inhibition of the development, due to the reduced deuterium concentration. In the in vivo experiments a decreasing of the number of tumoral cells was pointed out when performing the depleted water treatment. It is obvious that the presence of deuterium in water is necessary for the development, especially for the tumoral cell proliferation. The aim of this work was to establish influence of the natural and artificial deuterium depleted water on the vegetal organisms development. For this purpose, the developmental stages of Lactuca sativa L. growth were followed. The experimental data were compared with the data obtained with distilled water. The birch, wine sap and some fruit juices are considered 'natural depleted' water sources because their deuterium content is smaller in comparison to natural water (D 2 =150 ppm). The effect of artificial deuterium depleted water (29 ppm D 2 ) was analyzed in comparison to three types of wine saps, which also have a reduced deuterium concentration (125-130 ppm D 2 ). If the deuterium depleted water was used, the germination percent and the root and shoot length were higher compared to control in the first stages. In wine sap it had a negative effect on germination and development. After three days the plants were transferred to soil and their development was followed. The foliage area was larger for all of the experimental variants compared to control. The differences were without significance when deuterium depleted water was tested but they were high and very significant in case of wine sap. The experiment pointed out a stimulative effect of the artificial deuterium depleted water. In case of wine sap the effect was negative when the contact was direct, but the growth was stimulated after the stress cessation. The first ontogenetic stages were represented by direct action

  8. Deuterium trapping in tungsten deposition layers formed by deuterium plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, V.Kh.; Roth, J.; Shu, W.M.; Komarov, D.A.; Isobe, K.; Yamanishi, T.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the influence of the deposition conditions on the surface morphology and deuterium (D) concentration in tungsten (W) deposition layers formed by magnetron sputtering and in the linear plasma generator has been carried out. Thick W layers (≥0.4 μm) deposited onto copper substrates demonstrate areas of pilling and, after post-deposition heating to 1300 K, flaking-off and fracturing. For thin W layers (≤80 nm) deposited onto stainless steel (SS) and W substrates, no areas of flaking-off and fracturing exist both after deposition and after post-deposition heating to 673 K for the SS substrate and to 1300 K for the W substrate. The concentration of deuterium in the W layers was found to decrease with increasing substrate temperature and with increasing tungsten deposition rate. For layers with relatively high concentration of oxygen (0.20-0.60 O/W), a decrease of the D concentration with increasing substrate temperature is more pronounced than that for layers deposited in good vacuum conditions. To describe the evolution of the D/W ratio with the substrate temperature and the tungsten deposition rate, an empirical equation proposed by De Temmerman and Doerner [J. Nucl. Mater. 389 (2009) 479] but with alternative parameters has been used.

  9. Measurement of the deuterium concentration in water samples using a CW chemical deuterium fluoride laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, M.

    1979-10-01

    In this study a new method for the determination of the deuterium content in water samples is described. The absorption of the radiation of a CW deuterium fluoride laser by the isotope HDO in the water vapor of the sample is measured by means of an optoacoustic detector (spectrophone). Thereby advantage is taken of the fact that H 2 O hardly absorbs the laser radiation and that D 2 O only exists in negligible concentrations. The isotope ratio of hydrogen can be calculated from the measured relative concentration of HDO. In the course of this investigation the relative absorption cross sections of HDO for the different laser lines were determined. It was thereby established that there exists a very good coincidence of an HDO absorption line with the 2P2 laser line. Using a very sensitive nonresonant spectrophone the relative concentration of HDO in natural water samples could be determined with an accuracy of about 10%. The experiments also demonstrated that with appropriate improvements made to the apparatus and using a second spectrophone as a reference it should be possible to increase this accuracy to 0,1%. (orig.)

  10. Radionuclide Migration at the Rio Blanco Site, A Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay A. Cooper; Ming Ye; Jenny Chapman; Craig Shirley

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability gas reservoirs. The third and final project in the program, Project Rio Blanco, was conducted in Rio Blanco County, in northwestern Colorado. In this experiment, three 33-kiloton nuclear explosives were simultaneously detonated in a single emplacement well in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, at depths of 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below land surface on May 17, 1973. The objective of this work is to estimate lateral distances that tritium released from the detonations may have traveled in the subsurface and evaluate the possible effect of postulated natural-gas development on radionuclide migration. Other radionuclides were considered in the analysis, but the majority occur in relatively immobile forms (such as nuclear melt glass). Of the radionuclides present in the gas phase, tritium dominates in terms of quantity of radioactivity in the long term and contribution to possible whole body exposure. One simulation is performed for {sup 85}Kr, the second most abundant gaseous radionuclide produced after tritium.

  11. Rethinking the Role of Development Banks in Climate Finance: Panama’s Barro Blanco CDM Project and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Felipe Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Development banks are key actors in climate finance. During the last decades, they have increased the funding of climate change related projects, especially those under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Defined in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, the CDM aims at contributing to climate change mitigation while assisting in achieving sustainable development. However, many CDM projects have caused environmental damage and human rights abuses that especially affect the most vulnerable people. Located in Panama, the Barro Blanco hydro-power dam exemplifies the complex interrelationship of climate financing, development policies, the political and economic national context and human rights. Through the analysis of the role of development banks in climate finance, especially in the context of CDM projects, this paper aims (1 to clarify the role of development banks in climate finance, (2 to shed light on the vulnerable situation of the people affected by these projects, (3 to highlight the gaps in both the CDM rules and the development banks’ safeguard policies concerning the protection of human rights and the prevention of environmental abuses, and (4 to give a current example of this complex situation through the Barro Blanco case study. This paper argues that the manifold and often competing national and international legal and political layers of climate change mitigation projects repeatedly leave project affected people vulnerable to human rights violations without adequate safeguards and mechanisms to effectively articulate their interests, protect their rights and promote access to justice.

  12. Advances in deuterium dioxide concentration measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Woojung [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal, E-mail: nspyim@kaeri.re.kr [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Lim; Park, Hyunmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Rag; Chung, Hongsuk [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheo Kyung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. • D{sub 2}O purity is analyzed using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). • OA-ICOS has advantages in terms of analysis of D{sub 2}O vapor. • OA-ICOS is expected that it can be used for accurate isotopic analyses in the future. - Abstract: The deuterium–tritium (D–T) reaction has been identified as the most efficient reaction for fusion devices. Deuterium can be obtained by heavy water electrolysis. Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. A D{sub 2}O isotopic analysis is thus very important. A system for a heavy water analysis was built and a newly designed isotopic analysis experiment was carried out. We tried to analyze the D{sub 2}O purity using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). We found that the OA-ICOS based on measurement via laser absorption spectroscopy shows very high sensitivity. We ameliorated the sensitivity by an order of magnitude of more than 10{sup 3}–10{sup 5}. We could make the apparatus smaller by employing very tiny diode laser and fiber optics elements of a DFB (Distributed Feedback) type. Consequently, our device has advantages in terms of maintainability and mobility even in a radioactive environment. This new method could be used for an accurate isotopic analysis in the future.

  13. Stabilization of atomic hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walraven, J.T.M.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with the first of a series of experiments done at the University of Amsterdam to study the properties of spin polarized atomic hydrogen (spa H) and deuterium (spa D) at very low temperatures (T approximately 0.3 K) and in high magnetic fields (B approximately 10 T). The experiments show that spa H and spa D may be subjected to experimental investigation like any normal (i.e. stable) gas. Chapter 2 deals with the experimental apparatus and in particular the development of a reliable method to cool atomic hydrogen to very low temperatures which turned out to be decisive for the experiments. An account of the first experiments with spa H can be found in chapter 3. These experiments showed that spa H can be stabilized for extended periods of time (at low temperature and in high magnetic fields) by covering all surfaces with a superfluid film of 4 He. The gas was detected by triggering recombination by locally breaking the helium film and measuring the heat of recombination. This method turned out to be very sensitive and easy to implement. In chapter 4 the physical picture of the gas is discussed. This includes a discussion of the density profile and the phenomenon of thermal leakage from the open structured sample cell. The density profile may be used to detect Bose-Einstein condensation. A second series of experiments is discussed in chapter 5. These measurements were aimed at achieving high densities and to study the limiting processes. They demonstrate that spa H behaves as a gas. Recombination measurements with spa D at low temperatures are discussed in chapter 6 and show that recombination predominantly occurs on the surface of the helium film. (Auth.)

  14. Deuterium/hydrogen isotope exchange on beryllium and beryllium nitride; Deuterium/Wasserstoff-Isotopenaustausch an Beryllium und Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollase, Petra; Eichler, Michael; Koeppen, Martin; Dittmar, Timo; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the fusion experiments JET and ITER, the first wall is made up of beryllium. The use of nitrogen is discussed for radiative cooling in the divertor. This can react with the surface of the first wall to form beryllium nitride (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}). The hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, which react in the fusion reaction to helium and a neutron, are used as fuel. Since the magnetic confinement of the plasma is not perfect, deuterium and tritium ions are also found on the beryllium wall and can accumulate there. This should be avoided due to the radioactivity of tritium. Therefore the isotope exchange with deuterium is investigated to regenerate the first wall. We investigate the isotopic exchange of deuterium and protium in order to have not to work with radioactive tritium. The ion bombardment is simulated with an ion source. With voltages up to a maximum of 5 kV, deuterium and protic hydrogen ions are implanted in polycrystalline Be and Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}. The samples are then analyzed in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Subsequently, samples prepared under the same conditions are characterized ex-situ by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). [German] In den Fusionsexperimenten JET und ITER besteht die erste Wand im Hauptraum aus Beryllium (Be). Zur Strahlungskuehlung im Divertor wird der Einsatz von Stickstoff diskutiert. Dieser kann mit der Oberflaeche der ersten Wand zu Berylliumnitrid (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}) reagieren. Als Brennstoff werden die Wasserstoffisotope Deuterium und Tritium eingesetzt, die in der Fusionsreaktion zu Helium und einem Neutron reagieren. Da der magnetische Einschluss des Plasmas nicht perfekt ist, treffen auch Deuterium- und Tritiumionen auf die Berylliumwand auf und koennen sich dort anreichern. Das soll aufgrund der Radioaktivitaet von Tritium unbedingt vermieden werden. Daher wird zur Regenerierung der ersten Wand der Isotopenaustausch mit Deuterium untersucht. Wir

  15. Recent experimental results on solutions of deuterium in lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, H.R.; Wu, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    The existence of a number of stable molecules containing lithium and hydrogen isotopes in the saturated vapor over dilute solutions of hydrogen isotopes in lithium causes an unexpectedly high density of hydrogen isotopes in the vapor at high temperature. An evaluation of the partial pressures of the gas species Li, Li 2 , LiD, Li 2 D, LiD 2 and D 2 over solutions of deuterium in lithium measured in the temperature range 770 to 970 0 K, and extrapolation to higher temperatures, leads to the conclusion that the ratio of the atom fraction of deuterium in the gas to its atom fraction in the liquid exceeds unity above approximately 1240 0 K; this ratio is independent of the deuterium atom fraction in the liquid at low concentrations. Therefore the thermodynamic supposition that hydrogen isotopes can be separated from lithium by fractional distillation even at extremely low concentration exists. A direct verification of this phenomenon was made by Rayleigh distillation of Li-D solutions in the temperature range 970 to 1600 0 K. These measurements yield also the ratio of the deuterium atom fraction in the gas to that in the liquid and are in good agreement with the data obtained by extrapolation of partial pressures. The enrichment and depletion of deuterium in dependence on the number of theoretical plates of a distillation column at total reflux is calculated using the results

  16. Thermodynamic and electrical properties of laser-shocked liquid deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyu; Jia, Guo; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Kui; Huang, Xiuguang; Shu, Hua; Fang, Zhiheng; Ye, Junjian; Xie, Zhiyong; Xia, Miao; Fu, Sizu

    2018-01-01

    Liquid deuterium at high pressure and temperature has been observed to undergo significant electronic structural changes. Reflectivity and temperature measurements of liquid deuterium up to around 70 GPa were obtained using a quartz standard. The observed specific heat of liquid deuterium approaches the Dulong-Petit limit above 1 eV. Discussions on specific heat indicate a molecular dissociation below 1 eV and fully dissociated above 1.5 eV. Also, the electrical conductivity of deuterium estimated from reflectivity reaches 1.3 × 105 (Ωṡm)-1, proving that deuterium in this condition is a conducting degenerate liquid metal and undergo an insulator-metal transition. The results from specific heat, carrier density and conductivity agreed well with each other, which might be a reinforcement of the insulator-metal transition and the molecular dissociation. In addition, a new correction method of reflectivity in temperature calculation was proposed to improve the accuracy of temperature results. A new "dynamic calibration" was introduced in this work to make the experiments simpler and more accurate.

  17. Selected bibliography on deuterium isotope effects and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Donde, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in using deuterium and heavy water not only in nuclear industry but also in various fields of basic as well as applied research in physics, chemistry and biology. As a result, the literature is being enriched with a large number of research papers and technical reports published each year. Thus, to enable the scientists to have an easy reference to these works, an endeavour has been made in this selected bibliography, to enlist the publications related to these fields. Since the interest is concerned mainly with heavy water production processes, deuterium isotope effects etc., several aspects (e.g. nuclear) of deuterium have not been covered here. The material in this bibliography which cites 2388 references has been classified under six broad headings, viz. (1) Production of heavy water, (2) Study of deuterium isotope effects, (3) Analysis and Properties of heavy water, (4) Laser Separation of deuterium, (5) Isotopic exchange reactions, and (6) Miscellaneous. The sources of information used for this compilation are chemical abstracts, nuclear science abstracts, INIS Atomindex and also some scattered search through journals and reports available in the B.A.R.C. library. However, in spite of sincere attempts for a wide coverage, no claim is being made towards the exhaustiveness of this bibliography. (author)

  18. Distribution of deuterium and hydrogen in Zr and Ti foil assemblies under the action of a pulsed deuterium high-temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, G. G.; Volobuev, I. V.; Eriskin, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Nikulin, V. Ya.; Peregudova, E. N.; Silin, P. V.; Borovitskaya, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    Deuteron and proton elastic recoil detection analysis is used to study the accumulation and redistribution of deuterium and hydrogen in assemblies of two high-pure zirconium or titanium foils upon pulsed action of high-temperature deuterium plasma (PHTDP) in a plasma-focus installation PF-4. It is noted that, under the action of PHTDP, an implanted deuterium and hydrogen gas impurity are redistributed in the irradiated foils in large depths, which are significantly larger than the deuterium ion free paths (at their maximum velocity to 108 cm/s). The observed phenomenon is attributed to the carrying out of implanted deuterium and hydrogen under the action of powerful shock waves formed in the metallic foils under the action of PHTDP and/or the acceleration of diffusion of deuterium and hydrogen atoms under the action of a compression-rarefaction shock wave at the shock wave front with the redistribution of deuterium and hydrogen to large depths.

  19. Effect of periodic deuterium ion irradiation on deuterium retention and blistering in Tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of periodic irradiation on Deuterium (D retention and blistering in Tungsten (W was investigated. W samples were exposed to D plasma at a fixed fluence while varying the irradiation cycle number (1-shot, 2-shots and 3-shots. Exposure energy and flux were ∼50eV and ∼1 ×1022 D m−2 s−1, respectively. Sample temperatures were 537K and 643K. At 573K, D retention and blister density decreased with increasing number of irradiation cycle. In contrast at 643K, D retention showed no dependence on number of irradiation cycle. Therefore, sample temperature during irradiation is an important parameter in comparing the results of continuous and periodic irradiation, especially in studies involving extremely-high-flux (>1024 D m−2 s−1 irradiation and fluence dependency of D retention.

  20. A GREAT search for Deuterium in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Comets are understood to be the most pristine bodies in the Solar System. Their compositions reflect the chemical state of materials at the very earliest evolutionary stages of the protosolar nebula and, as such, they provide detailed insight into the physical and chemical processes operating in planet-forming disks. Isotopic fractionation ratios of the molecular ices in the nucleus are regarded as signatures of formation processes. These ratios provide unique information on the natal heritage of those ices, and can also test the proposal that Earth's water and other volatiles were delivered by cometary bombardment. Measurement of deuterium fractionation ratios is thus a major goal in contemporary cometary science and the D/H ratio of water - the dominant volatile in comets - holds great promise for testing the formation history of cometary matter. The D/H ratio in cometary water has been measured in only eight comets. Seven were from the Oort Cloud reservoir and the D/H ratio was about twice that of the Earth's oceans. However, the recent Herschel measurement of HDO/H2O in 103P/Hartley-2 (the first from the Kuiper Belt) was consistent with exogenous delivery of Earth's water by comets. Outstanding questions remain: are cometary HDO/H2O ratios consistent with current theories of nebular chemical evolution or with an interstellar origin? Does the HDO/H2O ratio vary substantially among comet populations? Hartley-2 is the only Kuiper Belt comet with measured HDO/H2O, are there comets with similar ratios in the Oort cloud? These questions can only be addressed by measuring HDO/H2O ratios in many more suitable bright comets. We therefore propose to measure the D/H ratio in water in a suitable target-of-opportunity comet by performing observations of HDO and OH with the GREAT spectrometer on SOFIA. A multi-wavelength, ground-based observing campaign will also be conducted in support of the airborne observations.

  1. A Dosimetry Study of Deuterium-Deuterium Neutron Generator-based In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Daniel; Liu, Yingzi; Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott; Nie, Linda H

    2015-12-01

    A neutron irradiation cavity for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) to detect manganese, aluminum, and other potentially toxic elements in human hand bone has been designed and its dosimetric specifications measured. The neutron source is a customized deuterium-deuterium neutron generator that produces neutrons at 2.45 MeV by the fusion reaction 2H(d, n)3He at a calculated flux of 7 × 10(8) ± 30% s(-1). A moderator/reflector/shielding [5 cm high density polyethylene (HDPE), 5.3 cm graphite and 5.7 cm borated (HDPE)] assembly has been designed and built to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the hand irradiation cavity and to reduce the extremity dose and effective dose to the human subject. Lead sheets are used to attenuate bremsstrahlung x rays and activation gammas. A Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6) was used to model the system and calculate extremity dose. The extremity dose was measured with neutron and photon sensitive film badges and Fuji electronic pocket dosimeters (EPD). The neutron ambient dose outside the shielding was measured by Fuji NSN3, and the photon dose was measured by a Bicron MicroREM scintillator. Neutron extremity dose was calculated to be 32.3 mSv using MCNP6 simulations given a 10-min IVNAA measurement of manganese. Measurements by EPD and film badge indicate hand dose to be 31.7 ± 0.8 mSv for neutrons and 4.2 ± 0.2 mSv for photons for 10 min; whole body effective dose was calculated conservatively to be 0.052 mSv. Experimental values closely match values obtained from MCNP6 simulations. These are acceptable doses to apply the technology for a manganese toxicity study in a human population.

  2. Deuterium inventory in tungsten after plasma exposure. A microstructural survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manhard, Armin

    2012-09-01

    Tungsten is a promising material for armouring the plasma-facing wall of future nuclear fusion experiments and power plants. It has a very high melting point, good thermal conductivity and is highly resistant against physical sputtering by energetic particles from the plasma. It also has a very low solubility for hydrogen isotopes. This is important both for safety and also for economic reasons, in particular with regard to the radioactive fusion fuel tritium. Due to this low solubility, the retention of hydrogen isotopes in tungsten materials after exposure to a plasma is dominated by the trapping of hydrogen isotopes at tungsten lattice defects. Therefore, a strong dependence of the hydrogen isotope retention on the microstructure of the tungsten is to be expected. This work describes a survey study of tungsten with different microstructures exposed to deuterium plasmas under a wide range of different plasma exposure conditions. The isotope deuterium was used because its natural abundance is much smaller than that of hydrogen (i.e., 1 H). This allows detecting even very small amounts retained in the tungsten practically without background signal. Furthermore, the use of deuterium allows utilising the nuclear reaction 2 D( 3 He,p) 4 He for depth-resolved quantification of the deuterium inventory up to depths of several microns. In order to standardise the specimens as far as possible, they were all cut from the same initial material from a single manufacturing batch. After a chemo-mechanical polishing procedure, which produces a well-defined surface, the specimens were annealed at either of four different temperatures in order to modify the grain structure and the dislocation density. These were then characterised by scanning electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The specimens were subsequently exposed in a fully characterised deuterium plasma source at different specimen temperatures, ion energies and deuterium fluences. In addition

  3. Process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, E.; Desai, A.; Ilgner, H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas is described in which the enriched condensate obtained from the production of a hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas mixture is collected and subjected to a direct exchange of isotopes with the feedsteam admitted to the process. Such condensate can be brought into direct exchange of isotopes with the gas water vapor mixture within the process, viz. ahead of the CO conversion section. The exchange of isotopes may be performed according to the counter-current principle. If it is intended to maintain in the hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas a certain definite content of water vapor whose phase condition is superior to the condition achieved when using normal cooling water, this gas, at least 0.6 kg/m 3 of gas, is subjected to an exchange of isotopes with the water fed additionally into the process

  4. Thermodynamic properties of solid deuterium in premelting region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovichenko, B.G.; Esel'son, V.B.; Manzhelij, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility of solid normal deuterium are measured near the melting line under pressures up to 500 atm. The earlier measurement method is improved to operate in a wider range of working pressures. The effects are discussed which are produced by zero trranslational oscillations in the thermodynamic properties of deuterium. The change in the molar volume in the range from T=0 to the melting temperature is considered as a quantum characteristic of the crystal. The molar volumes of solid deuterium observed at the melting line at moderate P are compared and specified. At P=O and T=0 the molar volume of o-D 2 is found to be V 00 =(20.03+-0.07) cm 3 /mole which follows from the thermodynamic experiment

  5. TFTR L mode energy confinement related to deuterium influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Tokamak energy confinement scaling in TFTR L mode and supershot regimes is discussed. The main result is that TFTR L mode plasmas fit the supershot scaling law for energy confinement. In both regimes, plasma transport coefficients increased with increased edge deuterium influx. The common L mode confinement scaling law on TFTR is also inversely proportional to the volume of wall material that is heated to a high temperature, possibly the temperature at which the deuterium sorbed in the material becomes detrapped and highly mobile. The deuterium influx is increased by: (a) increased beam power due to a deeper heated depth in the edge components and (b) decreased plasma current due to an increased wetted area as governed by the empirically observed dependence of the SOL width upon plasma current. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  6. Vibrational modes of deuterium in KD2PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Kohji; Agui, Akane; Tominaga, Yasunori; Nakai, Yusuke; Ikeda, Susumu.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the deuteration effect in hydrogen-bonded compounds such as KH 2 PO 4 , hydrogen and deuterium modes in KH 2 PO 4 and K(D x H 1-x ) 2 PO 4 (x = 95 %) were investigated by means of inelastic neutron-scattering measurements over a wide energy range. By comparing Raman spectra of KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 with neutron-scattering spectra, the vibrational modes of deuterium and those of PO 4 tetrahedrons in the energy range of 30 < ε < 150 meV have been investigated. At least two deuterium modes have been found at 87 meV and 106 meV. (author)

  7. Selective deuterium ion acceleration using the Vulcan petawatt laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygier, A. G.; Morrison, J. T.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Clarke, R.; Fuchs, J.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P.; Notley, M.; Oliver, M.; Roth, M.; Vassura, L.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Freeman, R. R.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of selective acceleration of deuterium ions by target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with a high-energy petawatt laser. TNSA typically produces a multi-species ion beam that originates from the intrinsic hydrocarbon and water vapor contaminants on the target surface. Using the method first developed by Morrison et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 030707 (2012)], an ion beam with >99% deuterium ions and peak energy 14 MeV/nucleon is produced with a 200 J, 700 fs, > 10 20 W / cm 2 laser pulse by cryogenically freezing heavy water (D2O) vapor onto the rear surface of the target prior to the shot. Within the range of our detectors (0°-8.5°), we find laser-to-deuterium-ion energy conversion efficiency of 4.3% above 0.7 MeV/nucleon while a conservative estimate of the total beam gives a conversion efficiency of 9.4%.

  8. PROPAGACIÓN DE Tabebuia Donnell-Smithii Rose (GUAYACÁN BLANCO UTILIZANDO HORMONAS DE ENRAIZAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Susana Carranza Patiño

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La amplia distribución y abundancia natural de Tabebuia donnell-smithii (guayacán blanco se ha visto reducida por la tala excesiva de los árboles, lo que ha ocasionado la desaparición de genotipos valiosos así como disminución de las poblaciones naturales, existiendo además carencia de alternativas de producción de plantas a gran escala. Se hace por tanto necesario orientar la investigación a establecer una técnica para la propagación vegetativa de guayacán blanco utilizando fitorreguladores. La metodología se basó en el uso de las hormonas de enraizamiento ácido naftalenacético (ANA y ácido indolbutírico (AIB, en concentraciones de 0, 1,500 y 2,000 mg kg-1 en sustratos turba y arena. Las yemas apicales fueron colocadas en una cámara húmeda en condiciones de invernadero. Se aplicó un Diseño Completamente al Azar (DCA en un arreglo factorial 2 sustratos x 3 dosis de hormona ANA x 3 dosis de hormona AIB, con cuatro repeticiones y cuatro unidades de observación. A los 45 días se evaluó el porcentaje de sobrevivencia y el enraizamiento, el número de raíces, la longitud de la raíz mayor, el número de brotes, la longitud de brotes, y el vigor. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los distintos tratamientos para todas las variables, sin embargo para el efecto simple e interacciones se observó diferencias para las variables evaluadas, siendo el mejor sustrato turba y las concentraciones óptimas de auxinas de 0 a 1,500 mg Kg-1. Se concluye que el guayacán blanco es una especie de fácil enraizamiento, ya que con y sin la aplicación de hormonas enraizadoras en el sustrato turba y arena se logró la obtención de clones, disminuyendo el tiempo de obtención de nuevas plantas.

  9. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  10. Laser-driven polarized hydrogen and deuterium internal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    After completing comprehensive tests of the performance of the source with both hydrogen and deuterium gas, we began tests of a realistic polarized deuterium internal target. These tests involve characterizing the atomic polarization and dissociation fraction of atoms in a storage cell as a function of flow and magnetic field, and making direct measurements of the average nuclear tensor polarization of deuterium atoms in the storage cell. Transfer of polarization from the atomic electron to the nucleus as a result of D-D spin-exchange collisions was observed in deuterium, verifying calculations suggesting that high vector polarization in both hydrogen and deuterium can be obtained in a gas in spin temperature equilibrium without inducing RF transitions between the magnetic substates. In order to improve the durability of the system, the source glassware was redesigned to simplify construction and installation and eliminate stress points that led to frequent breakage. Improvements made to the nuclear polarimeter, which used the low energy 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction to analyze the tensor polarization of the deuterium, included installing acceleration lenses constructed of wire mesh to improve pumping conductance, construction of a new holding field coil, and elimination of the Wien filter from the setup. These changes substantially simplified operation of the polarimeter and should have reduced depolarization in collisions with the wall. However, when a number of tests failed to show an improvement of the nuclear polarization, it was discovered that extended operation of the system with a section of teflon as a getter for potassium caused the dissociation fraction to decline with time under realistic operating conditions, suggesting that teflon may not be a suitable material to eliminate potassium from the target. We are replacing the teflon surfaces with drifilm-coated ones and plan to continue tests of the polarized internal target in this configuration

  11. Carbon and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shattuck, Thomas Wayne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1976-07-01

    In Chapter I we present the results on a study of cross polarization dynamics, between protons and carbon-13 in adamantane, by the direct observation of the dilute, carbon-13, spins. These dynamics are an important consideration in the efficiency of proton enhancement double-resonance techniques and they also provide good experimental models for statistical theories of cross relaxation. In order to test these theories we present a comparison of the experimental and theoretical proton dipolar fluctuation correlation time τc, which is experimentally 110 ± 15 μsec and theoretically 122 μsec for adamantane. These double resonance considerations provide the background for extensions to deuterium and double quantum effects discussed in Chapter II. In Chapter II an approach to high resolution nmr of deuterium in solids is described. The m = 1 → -1 transition is excited by a double quantum process and the decay of coherence Q(τ) is monitored. Fourier transformation yields a deuterium spectrum devoid of quadrupole splittings and broadening. If the deuterium nuclei are dilute and the protons are spin decoupled, the double-quantum spectrum is a high resolution one and yields information on the deuterium chemical shifts Δω. The relationship Q(τ) ~ cos 2Δωτ is checked and the technique is applied to a single crystal of oxalic acid dihydrate enriched to ~ 10% in deuterium. The carboxyl and the water deuterium shifts are indeed resolved and the anisotropy of the carboxyl shielding tensor is estimated to be Δσ = 32 ± 3 ppm. A complete theoretical analysis is presented. The extension of cross relaxation techniques, both direct and indirect, to proton-deuterium double resonance is also described. The m = 1 → -1 double quantum transition and the m = ± 1 → 0 single quantum transitions may all be polarized and we present the derivation of the Hartmann-Hahn cross polarization conditions for each case. In addition the dynamics of the double quantum process

  12. Production of secondary Deuterium in the atmosphere at various latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    Secondary deuterium in the atmosphere are produced in interactions by primary cosmic rays. The shape of their energy spectrum depends on the primary cosmic ray spectrum incident at the top of the atmosphere. At high energies, the spectral shape depends on the primary spectrum of helium and heavy nuclei. However, at very low energies, specially below the geomagnetic cut-off, the spectral shape depends on the evaporation and recoil processes and hence almost independent of the spectral shape of the primary radiation. It is undertaken a calculation of the secondary deuterium spectrum at small atmospheric depths at various latitudes and the results will be presented.

  13. Transport of recycled deuterium to the plasma core in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Jassby, D.L.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stotler, D.P.; Strachan, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    The authors report a study of the fueling of the plasma core by recycling in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). They have analyzed discharges fueled by deuterium recycled from the limiter and tritium-only neutral beam injection. In these plasmas, the DT neutron rate provides a measure of the deuterium influx into the core plasma. They find a reduced influx with plasmas using lithium pellet conditioning and with plasmas of reduced major (and minor) radius. Modeling with the DEGAS neutrals code shows that the dependence on radius can be related to the penetration of neutrals through the scrape-off layer

  14. Reemission and permeation of deuterium implanted into metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, T.; Furuyama, Y.; Imoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    Focusing on the marked depression of deuterium permeation rate during the deuteron bombardment, implantation experiments coupled with gaseous permeation experiments are performed on pure Ni and Ni with evaporated MnO. It is concluded that the reemission of implanted deuterium is initially depressed, but it soon becomes enhanced with increase of fluence leading to a rapid decrease of permeation rate at the intermediate temperatures 600-1000 K, which is attributed to the formation of short diffusion paths from the projected range to the front surface. (orig.)

  15. Commissioning status of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, P.D.; Dooling, J.; Lorello, M.; Rathke, J.; Carwardine, J.; Godden, D.; Pile, G.; Yule, T.; Zinneman, T.

    1993-01-01

    Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Argonne National Laboratory, and Culham Laboratory are commissioning the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) in a facility at Argonne National Laboratory. CWDD is a high-brightness, high-current, 7.5-MeV negative deuterium accelerator. The 352-MHz rf accelerating cavities are cryogenically cooled with supercritical neon to reduce the rf power requirements. Installation of the accelerator into the Argonne facility began in May 1991, and first beam from the injector was extracted in February 1992. The accelerator and facility and described, and current status and future plans are discussed

  16. Deuterium isotope effects on the ring inversion equilibrium in cyclohexane: the A value of deuterium and its origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anet, F.A.L.; Kopelevich, M.

    1986-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the deuterium in cyclohexane-d 1 prefers the equatorial over the axial position by about 200 J/mol (i.e., ca. 50 cal/mol), as shown by three different kinds of NMR measurements. Such an isotope effect is unexpectedly large, and this has led the authors to reinvestigate the problem using Saunder's isotopic perturbation method. The authors thereby established that the free energy difference (the A value for deuterium) is 6.3 +/- 1.5 cal/mol, with deuterium more stable equatorial than axial. This value is supported by molecular mechanics calculations based in part on experimental vibrational frequencies. 17 references, 1 figure

  17. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  18. [Biotic and abiotic factors that affect the quality of Schinopsis balansae Engl. and Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzugaray, Claudia; Carnevale, Nélida J; Salinas, Adriana R; Pioli, Rosanna

    2007-06-01

    Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (white quebracho) and Schinopsis balansae (red quebracho) are distinctive trees of the South American Park in Argentina. Quebrachos are found in forests that have been exploited very intensively. The object of this work was the identification of biotic and abiotic factors specially fungal pathogen that affect the quality of both species and its relation with germination. Seeds where evaluated through germination test and the percentage of the incidence of fungal agents in two different years of harvest was determined. In S. balansae the germination rate was 77% and of 27% in 2000 and 2001 harvests, respectively. Associations fungi-germination were found in 2001 for Alternaria spp., Curvularia spp., and Fusarium spp., showing an coefficient of correlation = -0.84; -0.85 and -0.73 (p fruits. The incidence of pathogens was low and did not have association to germination.

  19. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of hesperetin from the dried pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Gao, Die; Xu, Wan-Jun; Li, Fan; Yin, Man-Ni; Fu, Qi-Feng; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2018-07-01

    In present study, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for hesperetin were successfully prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using functionalized Fe 3 O 4 particles as the magnetic cores. Hesperetin as the template, N-Isopropylacrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate as the crosslinker, 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile as initiator and acetonitrile-methanol (3:1, v/v) as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry were applied to characterize the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers. The adsorption experiments indicated that the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers performed high selective recognition property to hesperetin. The selectivity experiment indicated that the adsorption capacity and selectivity of polymers to hesperetin was higher than that of luteolin, baicalein and ombuin. Furthermore, the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were employed as adsorbents for extraction and enrichment of hesperetin from the dried pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco. The recoveries of hesperetin in the dried pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco ranged from 90.5% to 96.9%. The linear range of 0.15-110.72 µg/mL was obtained with correlation coefficient of greater than 0.9991. The limit of detection and quantification of the proposed method was 0.06 µg/mL and 0.15 µg/mL, respectively. Based on three replicate measurements, intra-day RSD was 0.71% and inter-day RSD was 2.31%. These results demonstrated that the prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were proven to be an effective material for the selective adsorption and enrichment of hesperetin from natural medicines, fruits and et al. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geology and metallogeny of the volcanic complex of Rio Blanco Ullum. Province of San Juan. Republica Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, N.; Weidmann, N.; Puigdomenech, H.; Weidmann, R.

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary results of a research carried out at the Complejo Rio Blanco de Ullum, San Juan. Argentina are summarized in the present paper. These studies are focused on geological and metallogenic features o f this unit. The study area is located 20 km. WNW of San Juan city with geographic coordinates of 31grades 30' South latitude and 68 grades 52' West longitude. The older rocks aotcroping in the area correspond to limestones of Ordovician San Juan Formation, the chronologic succession continues with sales and siltstones of Silurian Tambolar Formation, pelites and subgraywackes of Devonian Punta Negra Formation and finally a 1500 m thick package of piroclastics and sediments of Albarracin Formation of Tertiary age. Albarracin Formation is composed pf a Basal Member (sandstones and stilstones), a Tuffaceous Member (tuffs, tuffites and oligomictic breccia s with conglomerate interbed dings in the upper part) and a Conglomeratic Member (polimictic para conglomerates). According to piroclastics facies, relationships and spreading area of piroclastics deposits a c olapsed dome and avalanche model is proposed to be the main process for the piroclastics package outcropping in the area.Sedimentary and piroclastics rocks are intruded by five sub volcanic units as noted by Leveratto (1968) which are composed by different lithologies such as: Altered Da cite - Rhyolite, Ullum Da cite, Cerro Blanco de Zonda Andesite, Ullum Andesite and Hybrid Andesite.Detailed work on alteration assemblages and metallogenic features in the southwestern sector of the Complejo resulted in the identification of three alteration zones with characteric features of potassic, argillic and propyllitic signature. (author)

  1. Maize rayado fino virus virus-like particles expressed in tobacco plants: A new platform for cysteine selective bioconjugation peptide display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natilla, Angela; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2011-12-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) virus-like-particles (VLPs) produced in tobacco plants were examined for their ability to serve as a novel platform to which a variety of peptides can be covalently displayed when expressed through a Potato virus X (PVX)-based vector. To provide an anchor for chemical modifications, three Cys-MRFV-VLPs mutants were created by substituting several of the amino acids present on the shell of the wild-type MRFV-VLPs with cysteine residues. The mutant designated Cys 2-VLPs exhibited, under native conditions, cysteine thiol reactivity in bioconjugation reactions with a fluorescent dye. In addition, this Cys 2-VLPs was cross-linked by NHS-PEG4-Maleimide to 17 (F) and 8 (HN) amino acid long peptides, corresponding to neutralizing epitopes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The resulting Cys 2-VLPs-F and Cys 2-VLPs-HN were recognized in Western blots by antibodies to MRFV as well as to F and HN. The results demonstrated that plant-produced MRFV-VLPs have the ability to function as a novel platform for the multivalent display of surface ligands. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Determination of gluconeogenesis in man by the use of deuterium-NMR-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosian, E.

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this dissertation is the quantification of the deuterium--distribution in human glucose by the use of the deuterium NMR spectroscopy of deuteriated water. The glucose production in human organism is composed of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The quantification of the part of gluconeogenesis on the total glucose production was determined by the use of deuterium NMR spectroscopy. (boteke)

  3. Permeation of deuterium implanted into V-15Cr-5Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Struttmann, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Permeation and reemission of deuterium for the vanadium alloy, V-15Cr-5Ti, was investigated using 3 keV, D 3 + ion beams from a small accelerator. The experiments consisted of measurement of the deuterium reemission and permeation rates as a function of implantation fluence for 0.5 mm thick specimens heated to temperatures from 623 K to 823 K. Implantation-side surface characterization was made by simultaneous measurements of sputtered ions with a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). For the experimental conditions used, the steady-state deuterium permeation flux in V-15Cr-5Ti is approximately 18% of the implantation flux. This is approximately 1000 times that seen in the austenitic stainless steel, PCA, and 200 times that seen in the ferritic steel, HT-9, under comparable conditions. Measurement of deuterium diffusivity in V-15Cr-5Ti using permeation break-through times indicates that D = 1.4x10 -8 exp(-0.11 eV/kT)(m 2 /s), over the temperature range 723 K to 823 K. (orig.)

  4. Permeation of deuterium implanted into V-15Cr-5Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Longhurst, G. R.; Struttmann, D. A.

    1987-02-01

    Permeation and reemission of deuterium for the vanadium alloy, V-15Cr-5Ti, was investigated using 3 keV, D 3+ ion beams from a small accelerator. The experiments consisted of measurement of the deuterium reemission and permeation rates as a function of implantation fluence for 0.5 mm thick specimens heated to temperatures from 623 K to 823 K. Implantation-side surface characterization was made by simultaneous measurements of sputtered ions with a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). For the experimental conditions used, the steady-state deuterium permeation flux in V-15Cr-5Ti is approximately 18% of the implantation flux. This is approximately 1000 times that seen in the austenitic stainless steel, PCA, and 200 times that seen in the ferritic steel, HT-9, under comparable conditions. Measurement of deuterium diffusivity in V-15Cr-5Ti using permeation break-through times indicates that D = 1.4 × 10 -8 exp( -0.11 eV/ kT) (m 2/s), over the temperature range 723 K to 823 K.

  5. Permeation of deuterium implanted into V-15Cr-5Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Struttmann, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Permeation and reemission of deuterium for the vanadium alloy, V-15Cr-5Ti, was investigated using 3 keV, D/sub 3//sup +/ ion beams from a small accelerator. The experiments consisted of measurement of the deuterium reemission and permeation rates as a function of implantation fluence for 0.5 mm thick specimens heated to temperatures from 623 K to 823 K. Implantation-side surface characterization was made by simultaneous measurements of sputtered ions with a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). For the experimental conditions used, the steady-state deuterium permeation flux in V-15Cr-5Ti is approximately 18% of the implantation flux. This is approximately 1000 times that seen in the austenitic stainless steel, PCA, and 200 times that seen in the ferritic steel, HT-9, under comparable conditions. Measurement of deuterium diffusivity in V-15Cr-5Ti using permeation break-through times indicates that D = 1.4x10/sup -8/ exp(-0.11 eVkT)(m/sup 2/s), over the temperature range 723 K to 823 K.

  6. Some methods for labelling organic compounds by deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustapha, C.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid growth of knowledge in the fields of biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology reflects to a considerable degree the utilization of stable isotopes (specially deuterium) in the study of chemical reactions and fragmentation mechanisms in mass spectrometry, as well as in the pharmacological and biological studies. Organic compounds maybe labelled by deuterium through classic organic reactions by using special deuterated solvents and reagents. This article discusses some reactions, with examples on how to prepare labelled compounds with high isotopic purety. These reactions are: exchange reactions in acid and alkaline media (the exchange in the chromatographic column in liquid and gas phases, the exchange in homogenous medium), reduction reactions of functional groups as well as saturation of the double bounds by deuterium using hydrogenation catalystes, electrochemical reactions using KOLBE, and photochemical reactions. This article also deals with spectroscopic properties of deuterium and the methods which are used to identify its compounds such as infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. 37 refs., 2 figs

  7. Annihilation of antiprotons stopped in liquid hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalkarov, O.D.; Kerbikov, B.O.; Markushin, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed analysis is given of stopping antiproton annihilation in liquid hydrogen and deuterium. Connection between capture schedule and properties of bound states in nucleon-antinucleon system is established. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data which appeared in 1971-75

  8. Use of 60 ppm deuterium depleted water in companionship animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, Emilia; Manolescu, N.; Cranganu, D.; Militaru, Manuela; Pop, Aneta; Codreanu, M.; Panait, Marieta; Lastofka, D.

    2004-01-01

    There are presented the results of studies on the effects of deuterium depleted water in companionship animals. Based on these results, a new product was realized, 'Aqua Forte' that is a deuterium depleted potable water (60 ppm deuterium) with beneficial effects in animal's health maintaining. Aqua forte has prophylactic properties (in preventing diseases related to immune system) and therapeutic properties, as adjuvant in various therapeutic programs. The mechanism of action takes place at the cellular metabolism level by replacing the constitutional and free water of 150 ppm deuterium, this resulting in the stimulation of the immune cellular system and also of resistance at the onset of some pathological states. The non-specific stimulation implies performing both the humoral mediated immune reactions and of those cellularly mediated. Aqua forte is recommended in: - the feeding of the young weaned animals, the action being of growth stimulation, and increasing of the resistance against some diseases specific to the age; - as an adjuvant in some chronic diseases (hepatitis, pancreatitis, dermatological diseases, osteoarthropaties, hepato-renal syndrome, renal insufficiency, after surgical interventions, in antitumoral therapy); - in the feeding of the old animals for the quality of life improvement. (authors)

  9. Heterogeneous Catalysis: Deuterium Exchange Reactions of Hydrogen and Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirich, Anne; Miller, Trisha Hoette; Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Two gas phase deuterium/hydrogen exchange reactions are described utilizing a simple inexpensive glass catalyst tube containing 0.5% Pd on alumina through which gas mixtures can be passed and products collected for analysis. The first of these exchange reactions involves H[subscript 2] + D[subscript 2], which proceeds at temperatures as low as 77…

  10. Deuterium labelling studies with unsaturated acids and nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, U.V.; Mane, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    α-Deuteriated α,β-unsaturated acids have been prepared by Knoevenagel condensation of aldehydes with deuteriated malonic acid. The decarboxylation of α,β-unsaturated cyano acid with pyridine/D 2 O yields α- and γ-labelled nitriles. The deuterium incorporation is studied by pmr spectroscopy. (author). 8 refs

  11. Deuterium absorption property of Al/Zr-V/Mo multifilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haifeng; Peng Shuming; Zhang Xiaohong; Long Xinggui; Yang Benfu

    2005-01-01

    Deuterium absorption property of Al/Zr-V/Mo multifilms was studied experimentally to explore the effect of Al film. There is only one desorption peak at 320 degree C for Al film, two desorption peaks at 220 degree C and 350 degree C for Zr-V film. When the average thickness of Al film is less than 0.6 μm, the desorption property of Al/Zr-V multifilms is just as Zr-V film, when it is more than 0.6 μm, just as Al film. Deuterium absorption by Al/Zr-V multifilms decreases as the thickness of Al film increases until 0.7 μm, then the deuterium absorption no longer changes significantly. The Al film of multifilms cracks on desorbing, so the absorption rate varies as Zr-V film when the thickness of Al film is less than 0.6 μ. When the thickness of Al film is more than 0.6 μm, the deuterium absorption rate of multifilm does not change with the thickness of Al film. (author)

  12. Trapping of deuterium in krypton-implanted nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.C.; McManus, S.P.; Rehn, L.E.; Baldo, P.

    1986-01-01

    Krypton ions with energy 600 keV were implanted in nickel to fluences of 2 x 10 16 cm -2 under three different conditions. Deuterium was subsequently introduced into the implanted regions by electrolysis at room temperature. After the diffusible deuterium was permitted to escape, the 2 H( 3 He, 1 H) 4 He nuclear reaction was used to analyze for the trapped deuterium during an isochronal annealing program. The region implanted at 100 0 C with no higher temperature anneal had the largest number of traps; the region implanted at 100 0 C and annealed for 100 min at 500 0 C had considerably less; the region implanted at 500 0 C had the least. Electron diffraction patterns confirmed the existence of solid crystalline krypton in all three regions. Transmission electron microscope studies revealed precipitates with an average diameter of 8 nm in the region implanted at 500 0 C. The two regions implanted at 100 0 C contained smaller precipitates. Trap binding enthalpies were obtained by math modeling. In addition to the traps with binding enthalpy of 0.55 eV reported earlier by other investigators for helium implanted in nickel, a smaller number of traps with binding enthalpies up to 0.83 eV were also found. The trapping of deuterium by various types of imperfections, including the solid krypton precipitates, is discussed

  13. Sputtering of Thick Deuterium Films by KeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    Sputtering of thick films of solid deuterium up to several μm by keV electrons is reported for the first time. The sputtering yield increases within a narrow range of thicknesses around 1.6 μm by about 2 orders of magnitude for 1.5 keV electrons. A similar behavior has not been observed for ion...

  14. The Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) design and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M. (Grumman Space and Electronics Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Nightingale, M.P.S. (AEA Industrial Technology, Culham (United Kingdom)); Yule, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The design of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the status of the fabricated hardware is presented. The CWDD is a high brightness, 352 MHz, CW linear accelerator designed to deliver a 7.54 MeV, 80 mA D[sup [minus

  15. Laser separation of hydrogen isotopes: Tritium-from-deuterium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnotta, F.; Herman, I.P.; Aldridge, F.T.; Maienschein, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Single-step enrichment factors exceeding 15,000 have been observed in the removal of tritium-from-deuterium by 12 μm laser multiple-photon dissociation of chloroform. The photochemistry and photophysics of this process is discussed along with prospects for implementation of this method in practical heavy water reactor detritiation. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Deuterium secondary isotope kinetic effects in imine formation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L. do; Rossi, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetic α-deuterium isotope effects, K D /K H , for reaction mechanisms is studied. The reaction of pH function to m-bromobenzaldehyde, semicarbazide nucleophile, methoxy-amine and hydroxylamine are analysed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  17. Lattice dynamics of solid deuterium by inelastic neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1971-01-01

    The dispersion relations for phonons in solid ortho-deuterium have been measured at 5 °K by inelastic neutron scattering. The results are in good agreement with recent calculations in which quantum effects are taken into account. The data have been fitted to a third-neighbor general force model...

  18. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  20. Properties of thick GEM in low-pressure deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C S; Ota, S; Tokieda, H; Kojima, R; Watanabe, Y N; Uesaka, T

    2014-01-01

    Deuteron inelastic scattering (d, d') provides a promising spectroscopic tool to study nuclear incompressibility. In studies of deuteron inelastic scattering of unstable nuclei, measurements of low-energy recoiled particles is very important. In order to perform these measurements, we are developing a GEM-TPC based gaseous active target, called CAT (Center for nuclear study Active Target), operated with pure deuterium gas. The CAT has been tested with deuterium gas at 1 atm and 100-μm-thick GEMs. The low-pressure operation of CAT is planned in order to improve the detection capability for lower-energy recoil particles. A 400 μm-thick gas electron multiplier (THGEM) was chosen for the low-pressure operation of CAT. However, the properties of THGEM in low-pressure deuterium are currently undocumented. In this work, the performance of THGEM with low-pressure pure deuterium gas has been investigated. The effective gas gain of THGEM has been measured in various conditions using a 5.5-MeV 241 Am alpha source. The effective gas gain was measured for 0.2-, 0.3- and 0.4-atm deuterium gas and a gas gain of about 10 3 was achieved by a double THGEM structure at 0.2 atm. The maximum achieved gain decreased with increasing gas pressure. The dependences of the effective gas gain on the electric field strengths of the drift, transfer and induction regions were investigated. The gain stability as a function of time in hydrogen gas was also tested and a relaxation time of THGEM of about 60 hours was observed with a continuous irradiation of alpha particles, which is significantly longer than previous studies have reported. We have tried to evaluate the gas gain of THGEM in deuterium gas by considering only the Townsend ionization process; however, it turned out that more phenomenological aspects, such as transfer efficiency, should be included in the evaluation. The basic properties of THGEM in low-pressure deuterium have been investigated for the first time

  1. Properties of thick GEM in low-pressure deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Ota, S.; Tokieda, H.; Kojima, R.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Uesaka, T.

    2014-05-01

    Deuteron inelastic scattering (d, d') provides a promising spectroscopic tool to study nuclear incompressibility. In studies of deuteron inelastic scattering of unstable nuclei, measurements of low-energy recoiled particles is very important. In order to perform these measurements, we are developing a GEM-TPC based gaseous active target, called CAT (Center for nuclear study Active Target), operated with pure deuterium gas. The CAT has been tested with deuterium gas at 1 atm and 100-μm-thick GEMs. The low-pressure operation of CAT is planned in order to improve the detection capability for lower-energy recoil particles. A 400 μm-thick gas electron multiplier (THGEM) was chosen for the low-pressure operation of CAT. However, the properties of THGEM in low-pressure deuterium are currently undocumented. In this work, the performance of THGEM with low-pressure pure deuterium gas has been investigated. The effective gas gain of THGEM has been measured in various conditions using a 5.5-MeV 241Am alpha source. The effective gas gain was measured for 0.2-, 0.3- and 0.4-atm deuterium gas and a gas gain of about 103 was achieved by a double THGEM structure at 0.2 atm. The maximum achieved gain decreased with increasing gas pressure. The dependences of the effective gas gain on the electric field strengths of the drift, transfer and induction regions were investigated. The gain stability as a function of time in hydrogen gas was also tested and a relaxation time of THGEM of about 60 hours was observed with a continuous irradiation of alpha particles, which is significantly longer than previous studies have reported. We have tried to evaluate the gas gain of THGEM in deuterium gas by considering only the Townsend ionization process; however, it turned out that more phenomenological aspects, such as transfer efficiency, should be included in the evaluation. The basic properties of THGEM in low-pressure deuterium have been investigated for the first time.

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN COLORIMÉTRICA DEL MANJAR BLANCO DEL VALLE CARACTERIZAÇÃO COLORIMÉTRICA DE MANJAR BRANCO DEL VALLE COLORIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MANJAR BLANCO DEL VALLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO FABIÁN NOVOA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El Manjar Blanco del Valle originario de la región del Valle del Cauca en Colombia es considerado como símbolo gastronómico y cultural; es un tipo de dulce de leche con adición de almidón. El color es uno de los atributos más importantes en los alimentos. La medición del color tiene aplicaciones en el control de calidad y el desarrollo de nuevos productos. En esta investigación se caracteriza el color instrumental (escala CIE-L*a*b* del manjar blanco del Valle elaborado por empresas representativas y tradicionales de la región, mediante la determinación de los parámetros de color (L*, a*, b* de tres lotes de cada una de las marcas comerciales. También se caracterizó físicamente las muestras, encontrando pH entre 5,73 y 6,02 y grados Brix entre 65,16 y 76,47. Los valores promedio de los parámetros de color determinados experimentalmente para el manjar blanco fueron: L* 43,60, a* 14,58 y b* 34,67. De los datos reportados en este trabajo se concluye que existe una variabilidad considerable en el color entre lotes y marcas comerciales, lo que evidencia la necesidad de establecer procedimientos de estandarización en la producción y en la materia prima, con el fin de lograr un producto con características similares.O Manjar Branco Del Valle originário da região do Vale de Cauca na Colômbia é considerado um símbolo gastronômico e cultural; é um tipo de doce de leite com adição de amido. A coloração é um dos atributos mais importantes nos alimentos. A determinação da cor tem aplicações no controle de qualidade e no desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Neste estudo se caracterizou a cor instrumental (Sistema CIE-L*a*b* do Manjar Branco Del Valle produzido por empresas representativas e tradicionais da região, mediante a determinação dos parâmetros de cor (L*, a*, b* de três lotes de cada uma das marcas comerciais. Também se caracterizou fisicamente as amostras, encontrando pH entre 5,73 e 6,02 e graus Brix entre 65

  3. Theory of the energy development in a thermonuclear plasma of deuterium and of deuterium-tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnac-Valette, D; Lacombe, E; Cuer, P [Particle Physics Laboratory, Strasbourg (France)

    1958-07-01

    We have studied the evolution of a thermonuclear mixture for concentrations of 10{sup 18} and 10{sup 17} ions per cm{sup 3} and for temperatures of (116 and 1160) x 10{sup 6}K, taking into account the contribution from secondary reactions. It is assumed that no deuterium or tritium are supplied during the evolution time. The temperature is assumed constant and the pinching of the charged species perfect. Neutrons leave the mixture without causing any secondary reactions because of their long mean free path. Integration of the differential equations describing the evolution of the mixture yields the total nuclear power in the plasma, and the power carried off by the neutrons. The calculations were made with the aid of an electronic computer. The initial concentration is unimportant since a scaling of the concentrations changes nothing if the inverse scaling is carried out on the time variable. It is assumed, moreover, that the thermalizing time is negligible in comparison with the mean life of the particles. The calculations were performed using a successive approximation method in which the mesh size was selected such that the error was always less than 10{sup -6}. The results are presented in the paper.

  4. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled plant sterols and analysis of their side-chain mobility by solid state deuterium NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsan, M.P.; Muller, I.; Milon, A.

    1996-01-01

    Sitosterol and stigmasterol, plant sterols, were deuterated at specific positions. Orientation and mobility of the deuterated sitosterol and stigmasterol (and two of their diasteromers) on oriented lipid bilayers were analyzed by deuterium NMR spectroscopy. Orientation and mobility of the side chains was revealed by these studies

  5. Influencia del citoplasma sobre la expresión del centro blanco y temperatura de gelatinización en arroz (Oryza sativa. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baena García Diosdado

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La investigación se adelantó en el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT durante 1989-1991. No hubo influencia del citoplasma en la expresión del centro blanco y temperatura de gelatinización. El orden de dominancia El orden de dominancia de los progenitores para el carácter ausencia de centro blanco fue Colombia 1 > 1R5 = L6850 > IRAT8. El cultivo in vitro influyó sobre la expresión del centro blanco y la temperatura de gelatinización en los progenitores y posiblemente en las poblaciones segregantes. El medio ambiente influyó más sobre los progenitores LR5y L6850 (y sus progenies. La selección hacia centro blanco bajo parece no ser eficiente en generaciones tempranas, especialmente en el caso de L6850 e IRAT8, en contraste con la mayor eficiencia de la selección por temperatura de gelatinización (heredabilidad alta. Se encontró un alto índice de concordancia (79%, entre la escala 0 a 5 utilizada para calificación subjetiva de centro blanco y el área del grano afectada por centro blanco, (lectura hecha en esteroscopio con micrómetro.

    A research work was undertaken at the Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, during 1989-91. There was no maternal effect on the express ion of white center and gelatinization temperature but rather different degrees of dominance, the order of dominance was Colombia 1 > IR5 = L6850 > LRAT8; the in vitro culture influenced the express ion of white belly and the gelatinization temperature in the parents and possibly in their progenies; the influence of the environment was greater on IRAT8 and L6850 (and its progenies; selection for low white belly seemed to be not efficient in early generations; but selection for the desired gelatinization temperature is more efficient (high heritability. With the F3 samples, a subjective evaluation was carried out (zero: endosperm without white belly, and five: completely chalky, There was found a high index of concordance (79

  6. Direct depth distribution measurement of deuterium in bulk tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Taylor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding tritium retention and permeation in plasma-facing components is critical for fusion safety and fuel cycle control. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES is shown to be an effective tool to reveal the depth profile of deuterium in tungsten. Results confirm the detection of deuterium. A ∼46 μm depth profile revealed that the deuterium content decreased precipitously in the first 7 μm, and detectable amounts were observed to depths in excess of 20 μm. The large probing depth of GD-OES (up to 100s of μm enables studies not previously accessible to the more conventional techniques for investigating deuterium retention. Of particular applicability is the use of GD-OES to measure the depth profile for experiments where high deuterium concentration in the bulk material is expected: deuterium retention in neutron irradiated materials, and ultra-high deuterium fluences in burning plasma environment.

  7. Desempenho motor fino e funcionalidade em crianças com síndrome de Down Fine motor performance and functionality in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cirelli Coppede

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar crianças com síndrome de Down (SD e crianças típicas quanto ao desempenho motor fino, avaliado pela Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - Third Edition (BSITD-III, e o desempenho em autocuidado segundo o Inventário Pediátrico de Avaliação de Incapacidade (PEDI; e investigar associação entre ambos os domínios. Participaram 12 crianças típicas e 12 crianças com SD, avaliadas na idade de 2 anos. As crianças com SD apresentaram desempenho motor fino e funcionalidade inferior às crianças típicas, possivelmente por dificuldades em desempenhar tarefas que exijam destreza e coordenação manual, como as que compõem a BSITD-III. Apesar disso, sua pontuação em autocuidado foi adequada para a faixa etária, possivelmente porque as habilidades funcionais exigidas nesse período, como retirar calçados/vestimenta, impõem menor demanda motora fina do que tarefas da BSITD-III. Esse fato pode ter contribuído para o bom desempenho funcional das crianças com SD, e para a ausência de associação entre os domínios. Fatores como os cuidados oferecidos à criança pelos cuidadores, bem como ambientes estimuladores provavelmente também contribuíram para os resultados.The aim of study was to compare typically-developing children and children with Down syndrome (DS for their fine motor performance, measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - Third Edition (BSITD-III, and for their functional performance in self-care, measured by the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI. Associations between these areas were also investigated. Twelve typically-developing children and 12 children with DS were assessed at the age of 2 years. The children with DS performed poorly in fine motor skills when compared with typical children, which may be explained by the complex motor skills involved in the BSITD-III's tasks. Their self-care scores were also lower in comparison with the

  8. Deuterium absorption and material phase characteristics of Zr2Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Mosley, W.C.; Holder, J.S.; Brooks, K.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of polished surfaces, electron probe microanalysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry indicated the presence of a continuous Zr 2 Fe phase with secondary phases of ZrFe 2 , Zr 5 FeSn, α-Zr, and Zr 6 Fe 3 O. A statistically-designed experiment to determine the effects of temperature, time, and vacuum quality On activation of St 198 revealed that when activated at low temperature (350 degrees C) deuterium absorption rate was slower when the vacuum quality was pwr (2.5 Pa vs. 3x10 -4 Pa). However, at higher activation temperature (500 degrees C), deuterium absorption rate was fast and was independent of vacuum quality. Deuterium pressure-composition-temperature (P-C-T) data are reported for St 198 in the temperature range 200--500 degrees C. The P-C-T data over the full range of deuterium loading and at temperatures of 350 degrees C and below is described by: K 0e -(ΔH α /RT)=PD 2 q 2 /(q*-q) 2 where ΔHα and K 0 have values of 101.8 kJ·mole -1 and 3.24x10 -8 Pa -1 , and q* is 15.998 kPa·L -1 ·g -1 . At higher temperatures, one or more secondary reactions in the solid phase occur that slowly consume D 2 from the gas phase. XRD suggests these reactions to be: 2 Zr 2 FeD x → x ZrD 2 + x/3 ZrFe 2 + (2 - 2/3x) Zr 2 Fe and Zr 2 FeD x + (2 -1/2x) D 2 → ZrD 2 + Fe, where 0 < x < 3. Reaction between gas phase deuterium and Zr2FC formed in the first reaction accounts for the observed consumption of deuterium from the gas phase by this reaction

  9. Large wood budget assessment along a gravel bed river affected by volcanic eruption: the Rio Blanco study case (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Iroume, Andres; Lenzi, Mario; Picco, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Wood in riverine environments exerts different functions on ecological and geomorphic settings, influencing morphological processes, and increasing risks for sensitive structures. Large wood (LW) is defined as wood material, dead or alive, larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length. Natural hazards can strongly increase the presence of LW in waterways and flood events can transport it affecting the ecosystem and landscape. This study aims to increase the knowledge of wood budget, considering the effects of two subsequent slight flood events along a sub-reach of the Rio Blanco gravel bed river , in Chilean Patagonia, strongly affected by the eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The volcanic eruption affected almost 3,5 km 2 of evergreen forest on the southern (left) bank, because of primary direct effects from pyroclastic density currents and lahar-floods that caused deposition up to 8 m of reworked tephra, alluvium, and wood on floodplains and terrace along the Rio Blanco. After the eruption, there was a considerable increase of LW into the main channel: into the bankfull channel, volume exceeds 100 m 3 /ha. Field surveys were carried out in January and March 2015, before and after two slight flood events (Recurrence Intervals lower than 1 year). The pre-event phase permitted to detect and analyze the presence of LW into the study area, along a 80 m-long reach of Rio Blanco (7500 m 2 . Every LW element was manually measured and described, a numbered metal tag was installed, and the position was recorded by GPS device. In January, there was a total amount of 113 m 3 /ha, 90% accumulated in LW jams (WJ) and 10% as single logs. The LW was characterized by mean dimensions of 3,36 m height, 0,25 m diameter and 0,26 m 3 volume, respectively. The WJ are characterized by wide range of dimension: volume varies from 0,28 m 3 to 672 m 3 , length from 1,20 m to 56 m, width from 0,40 m to 8,70 m and height from 0,20 m to 3 m, respectively. After the flood events, field

  10. La cerámica Blanco sobre Rojo en el valle de Chancay y sus relaciones con el estilo Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    , realizadas en 1997. Este es uno de los pocos sitios conocidos con arquitectura monumental pública asignada a las fases iniciales del Período Intermedio Temprano y relacionada con la tradición cerámica Blanco sobre Rojo. Nuestro interés principal fue refinar la cronología del Blanco sobre Rojo en el valle bajo de Chancay mediante información estratigráfica y compararla con otros esquemas cronológicos para la costa central. Como resultado, definimos una secuencia arquitectónica de seis fases que implicaban cambios funcionales. Las tres primeras fases son de uso doméstico, con alto contenido de restos culturales. Las fases siguientes se caracterizan por la construcción de grandes muros para plataformas hechos de adobe plano-convexo. Respecto a la cerámica, tenemos una secuencia de cuatro fases netamente Blanco sobre Rojo, que guardan íntima relación con el desarrollo arquitectónico. Esta cronología puede ser correlacionada con la de Miramar, propuesta por Patterson (1961-1966. Finalmente, otro aspecto interesante era el momento de transición entre Blanco sobre Rojo y Lima. Considerando que las evidencias de ocupación Lima en Baños de Boza son escasas, revisamos la información estratigráfica de Cerro Trinidad y Playa Grande. De esta manera, observando las claras diferencias entre el Blanco sobre Rojo y Lima, suponemos que, al menos en el valle de Chancay, Lima no deriva estilísticamente del Blanco sobre Rojo sino que es un elemento foráneo. Además, ambos estilos coexisten durante un cierto período. THE WHITE-ON-RED POTTERY SEQUENCE IN THE CHANCAY VALLEY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LIMA STYLE. In the present article, we present the results of the archaeological investigations at Baños de Boza, Chancay Valley, made in 1997. This one of the few known sites with public monumental architecture ascribed to the initial phases of Early Intermediate Period that are characterized by the White-on-Red pottery tradition. Our main interest was to investigate the

  11. Detection of and response to a probable volcanogenic T-wave event swarm on the western Blanco Transform Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziak, R.P.; Fox, C.G.; Embley, R.W.; Lupton, J.E.; Johnson, G.C.; Chadwick, W.W.; Koski, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The East Blanco Depression (EBD), a pull-apart basin within the western Blanco Transform Fault Zone (BTFZ), was the site of an intense earthquake T-wave swarm that began at 1317Z on January 9, 1994. Although tectonically generated earthquakes occur frequently along the BTFZ, this swarm was unusual in that it was preceded and accompanied by periodic, low-frequency, long-duration acoustic signals, that originated from near the swarm epicenters. These tremor-like signals were very similar in character to acoustic energy produced by a shallow-submarine eruption near Socorro Island, a seamount several hundred km west of Baja, California. The ???69 earthquakes and ???400 tremor-like events at the EBD occurred sporadically, with two periods of peak activity occurring between January 5-16 and 27-31. The swarm-like character of the earthquakes and the similarity of the tremor activity to the Socorro eruption indicated that the EBD was undergoing an intrusion or eruption episode. On January 27, six CTD/rosette casts were conducted at the site. Water samples from two of the stations yielded anomalous 3He concentrations, with maxima at ???2800 m depth over the main basin. In June 1994 two camera tows within the basin yielded evidence of pillow-lava volcanism and hydrothermal deposits, but no conclusive evidence of a recent seafloor eruption. In September 1994, deployments of the U.S. Navy's Advanced Tethered Vehicle resulted in the discovery of an active hydrothermal mound on the flanks of a pillow-lava volcano. The hydrothermal mound consists of Fe-rich hydrothermal precipitate and bacterial mats. Temperatures to 60??C were measured 30 cm below the surface. This is the first discovery of active hydrothermal vents along an oceanic fracture zone. Although no conclusive evidence of volcanic activity associated with the T-wave event swarm was found during these response efforts, the EBD has been the site of recent seafloor eruptions. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical

  12. Geologic and hydrostratigraphic map of the Anhalt, Fischer, and Spring Branch 7.5-minute quadrangles, Blanco, Comal, and Kendall Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Robert R. Morris,

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the geology and hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards and Trinity Groups in the Anhalt, Fischer, and Spring Branch 7.5-minute quadrangles, Blanco, Comal, and Kendall Counties, Texas. The hydrostratigraphy was defined based on variations in the amount and type of porosity of each lithostratigraphic unit, which varies depending on the unit’s original depositional environment, lithology, structural history, and diagenesis.

  13. Ion irradiated graphite exposed to fusion-relevant deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslandes, Alec; Guenette, Mathew C.; Corr, Cormac S.; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Thomsen, Lars; Ionescu, Mihail; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Riley, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphite samples were irradiated with 5 MeV carbon ions to simulate the damage caused by collision cascades from neutron irradiation in a fusion environment. The ion irradiated graphite samples were then exposed to a deuterium plasma in the linear plasma device, MAGPIE, for a total ion fluence of ∼1 × 10 24 ions m −2 . Raman and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were used to characterize modifications to the graphitic structure. Ion irradiation was observed to decrease the graphitic content and induce disorder in the graphite. Subsequent plasma exposure decreased the graphitic content further. Structural and surface chemistry changes were observed to be greatest for the sample irradiated with the greatest fluence of MeV ions. D retention was measured using elastic recoil detection analysis and showed that ion irradiation increased the amount of retained deuterium in graphite by a factor of four

  14. Direct drive acceleration of planar liquid deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethian, J.D.; Bodner, S.E.; Colombant, D.G.; Dahlburg, J.P.; Obenschain, S.P.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Gardner, J.H.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Chan, Y.; Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T.; Klapisch, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Nike laser (∼2 - 3 kJ, ∼10 14 W/cm 2 ) has been used to ablatively accelerate planar liquid deuterium targets. These experiments are designed to test some aspects of a high gain direct drive target design. The target consists of a low-density foam that is filled with liquid deuterium and covered with a thin polyimide membrane. The measured target trajectory agrees well with one-dimensional (1D) simulations. The growth of the areal mass modulations were measured with a new, 1.26 keV x-ray backlighter. The modulations appear later and grow to a smaller amplitude when the foot of the laser pulse is made spatially smoother. A thin layer of gold on the front of the target reduces the modulations. The results are compared with 2D modeling

  15. Deuterium-depleted water. Short history and news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Tamaian, Radu; Titescu, Gheorghe

    2002-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content lower than 144 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. DDW is a non-toxic product. Knowing that deuterium content of water has a significant influence on living organisms, since 1996 NIR-DCIT ICSTI at Rm. Valcea cooperated with Romanian specialized instititutes for biological effects' evaluation of DDW. The investigations lead to the conclusion that DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects. Animals teated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sub lethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses. DDW stimulates immune defense reactions. Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in next growth stages. One can remark the favourable influence of DDW on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  16. Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    observations reveal the physical and chemical structure of water vapor close to the protostars on solar-system scales. The red-shifted absorption detected toward source B is indicative of infall. The excitation temperature is consistent with the picture of water ice evaporation close to the protostar. The low......Context. Measuring the water deuterium fractionation in the inner warm regions of low-mass protostars has so far been hampered by poor angular resolution obtainable with single-dish ground- and space-based telescopes. Observations of water isotopologues using (sub)millimeter wavelength...... interferometers have the potential to shed light on this matter. Aims: To measure the water deuterium fractionation in the warm gas of the deeply-embedded protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: Observations toward IRAS 16293-2422 of the 53,2 - 44,1 transition of H218O at 692.07914 GHz from Atacama Large...

  17. Thermal x-rays and deuterium production in stellar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    The x-ray spectrum of flares is shown to be necessarily thermal up to greater than or equal to 200 keV because the self magnetic field of any electron stream required for a thick or thin target source is inconsistently large. The resulting flare model can then be related to stellar luminosity, convection and magnetic fields to result in a maximum possible γ-burst (Mullan, 1976) and continuous x-ray flux. One of the most striking isotopic anomalies observed is the extreme enrichment of Helium (3) in some solar flares and the mysterious depletion of deuterium. It is discussed how deuterium may be produced and emitted in the largest flares associated with γ-bursts but in amounts insufficient to support the tentative conclusion of Colemen and Worden

  18. Activation analysis for LHD experiments with deuterium gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Komori, Akio; Hayashi, Katsumi

    2008-01-01

    Identification of radionuclides obtained from deuterium experiments and evaluation of dose rate level were performed on the structural materials of the Large Helical Device and the Experimental Hall. Energies of neutron sources are 2.45 MeV (D-D reaction) and 14 MeV (D-T reaction). Neutron fluence was calculated using the two-dimensional transport code DOT-3.5. Generation of radionuclides was calculated using the CINAC code. Radionuclides of 93m Nb, 63 Ni, and 60 Co for helical coils, 55 Fe and 60 Co for stainless steel, 55 Fe, 60 Co, and 93m Nb for poloidal coils, and 40 K and 55 Fe for floor concrete were dominant after a series of experiments with deuterium gases. Evaluation of dose rate level for the structural materials and air were performed taking into account a current experimental schedule. (author)

  19. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high-purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.; Riehm, M.P.; Thompson, D.A.; Smeltzer, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. Using multilayer permeation theory the effects of surface oxide were eliminated and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 =6.7x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =28.4 kJ/mol. For the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 =8.0x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =35.1 kJ/mol. (orig.)

  20. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.

    1990-05-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. A multilayer permeation theory was used in order to eliminate the surface oxide effects and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium were determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 = 6.7 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 28.4 [KJ/mol]; and for the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 = 8.0 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 35.1 [KJ/mol

  1. Hyperfine structure of S-states of muonic deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Martynenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics we calculate corrections of order $\\alpha^5$ and $\\alpha^6$ to hyperfine structure of $S$-wave energy levels of muonic deuterium. Relativistic corrections, effects of vacuum polarization in first, second and third orders of perturbation theory, nuclear structure and recoil corrections are taken into account. The obtained numerical values of hyperfine splitting $\\Delta E^{hfs}(1S=50.2814$ meV ($1S$ state and $\\Delta E^{hfs}(2S=6.2804$ meV ($2S$ state represent reliable estimate for a comparison with forthcoming experimental data of CREMA collaboration. The hyperfine structure interval $\\Delta_{12}=8\\Delta E^{hfs}(2S- \\Delta E^{hfs}(1S=-0.0379$ meV can be used for precision check of quantum electrodynamics prediction for muonic deuterium.

  2. Results from deuterium-tritium tokamak confinement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    1997-02-01

    Recent scientific and technical progress in magnetic fusion experiments has resulted in the achievement of plasma parameters (density and temperature) which enabled the production of significant bursts of fusion power from deuterium-tritium fuels and the first studies of the physics of burning plasmas. The key scientific issues in the reacting plasma core are plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and the confinement and loss of energetic fusion products from the reacting fuel ions. Progress in the development of regimes of operation which have both good confinement and are MHD stable have enabled a broad study of burning plasma physics issues. A review of the technical and scientific results from the deuterium-tritium experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is given with particular emphasis on alpha-particle physics issues

  3. Near-threshold photoproduction of {phi} mesons from deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, X., E-mail: xqian@caltech.ed [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Chen, W.; Gao, H. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Hicks, K. [Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Kramer, K. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Laget, J.M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Mibe, T. [Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Qiang, Y. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Stepanyan, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Tedeschi, D.J. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Xu, W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Adhikari, K.P.; Amaryan, M. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ball, J. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/Service de Physique Nucleaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Battaglieri, M. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Batourine, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bedlinskiy, I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117259 (Russian Federation); Bellis, M. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Biselli, A.S. [Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States); Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    We report the first, kinematically-complete measurement of the differential cross section of {phi}-meson photoproduction from deuterium near the production threshold for a proton using the CLAS detector and a tagged-photon beam in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. The measurement was carried out by a triple coincidence detection of a proton, K{sup +} and K{sup -} near the theoretical production threshold of 1.57 GeV. The extracted differential cross sections (d{sigma})/(dt) for the initial photon energy range of 1.65-1.75 GeV are consistent with predictions based on a quasifree mechanism. Our finding is different from recent LEPS results on {phi}-meson photoproduction from deuterium in a similar incident photon energy range, but in a different momentum transfer region.

  4. Deuterium retention in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hai-Shan; Xu, Yu-Ping; Sun, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Oya, Yasuhisa; Zhao, Ming-Zhong; Mao, Hong-Min; Ding, Fang; Liu, Feng; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate D retention in electrodeposition W coatings. • W coatings are exposed to D plasmas in the EAST tokamak. • A cathodic current density dependence on D retention is found. • Electrodeposition W exhibits lower D retention than VPS-W. - Abstract: Molten salt electrodeposition is a promising technology to manufacture the first wall of a fusion reactor. Deuterium (D) retention behavior in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten (W) coatings has been investigated by D-plasma exposure in the EAST tokamak and D-ion implantation in an ion beam facility. Tokamak exposure experiments demonstrate that coatings prepared with lower current density exhibit less D retention and milder surface damage. Deuterium-ion implantation experiments indicate the D retention in the molten salt electrodeposition W is less than that in vacuum plasma spraying W and polycrystalline W.

  5. Deuterium retention in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hai-Shan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xu, Yu-Ping [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Sun, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Chun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Oya, Yasuhisa [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Zhao, Ming-Zhong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Mao, Hong-Min [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Ding, Fang; Liu, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Luo, Guang-Nan, E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • We investigate D retention in electrodeposition W coatings. • W coatings are exposed to D plasmas in the EAST tokamak. • A cathodic current density dependence on D retention is found. • Electrodeposition W exhibits lower D retention than VPS-W. - Abstract: Molten salt electrodeposition is a promising technology to manufacture the first wall of a fusion reactor. Deuterium (D) retention behavior in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten (W) coatings has been investigated by D-plasma exposure in the EAST tokamak and D-ion implantation in an ion beam facility. Tokamak exposure experiments demonstrate that coatings prepared with lower current density exhibit less D retention and milder surface damage. Deuterium-ion implantation experiments indicate the D retention in the molten salt electrodeposition W is less than that in vacuum plasma spraying W and polycrystalline W.

  6. Deuterium ingress at rolled joints in Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Nervi, J. E.; Schroeter, F.

    2013-01-01

    Deuterium ingress model at the Rolled Joint has been extensively used for CANDU Nuclear Power Plants Operators in the Life Management of the Pressure Tubes. The importance of understanding the model is vital to avoid delayed hydride cracking at the Rolled Joint. This work reports the first step on develop the model presented on literature to be used in Argentinean CANDU 6, Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  7. Design of a cryogenic deuterium gas target for neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, F.T.; Waterman, F.M.; Forsthoff, H.; Skaggs, L.S.; Vander Arend, P.C.; Stoy, S.

    1976-01-01

    A cryogenic deuterium gas target operating at 80 0 K and 10 atm pressure has been designed for use with a small cyclotron; the D(d,n) reaction is used to produce a neutron beam suitable for radiation therapy. The target is cooled by circulation of the gas in a closed loop between the target and an external heat exchanger immersed in liquid nitrogen

  8. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ( 13 C-labelled PCB congeners, 13 C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D 9 -clenbuterol, D 3 -clenbuterol, D 3 -zeramol and D 3 -dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG)

  9. Effects of deuterium depleted water on reproduction of Rainbow fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Caraus, Ion; Pricop, Ferdinand

    2001-01-01

    The paper refers to an isotopic composition used to prepare fecundating solutions for artificial reproduction of fish. The solution is constituted as a mixture of deuterium depleted water and natural water (whose isotopic concentration is of 85-90 ppm D/(D+H)) in which we can add activating and energizing substances. This fecundating solution ensures an improved fecundating level of fish roe, increase life index in the next growth up stages and increase fish resistance at special medium conditions. (authors)

  10. Influence of deuterium-depleted water on living organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Titescu, Gh.; Croitoru, Cornelia; Saros-Rogobete, Irina

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) production technique consists in the separation of deuterium from water by means of an continuos distillation process under a pressure value of about 133,3 mbar. Water that is used as basic material has an isotopic content of 144 ppm D/(D+H). DDW results as distillate with an isotopic deuterium content of 15-80 ppm, depending on the level we want to achieve. Beginning with 1996 NIR and DCIT Rm. Valcea, which is a DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialised institutes for biological effects' evaluation of DDW. These investigations led to the next conclusions: - DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tonus and vascular reactivity produced by the DDW persist after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defence mechanisms; - DDW stimulate immune defence reactions, represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system, together with increase in the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in next growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative characters' variability at plants; one can remark the favourable influence of DDW on biological process at plants in various ontogenic stages. Further investigations are needed in order to establish the influence of deuterium-depleted water on living organisms. (authors)

  11. One Percent Determination of the Primordial Deuterium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.

    2018-03-01

    We report a reanalysis of a near-pristine absorption system, located at a redshift {z}abs}=2.52564 toward the quasar Q1243+307, based on the combination of archival and new data obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck telescope. This absorption system, which has an oxygen abundance [O/H] = ‑2.769 ± 0.028 (≃1/600 of the solar abundance), is among the lowest metallicity systems currently known where a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance is afforded. Our detailed analysis of this system concludes, on the basis of eight D I absorption lines, that the deuterium abundance of this gas cloud is {log}}10({{D}}/{{H}})=-4.622+/- 0.015, which is in very good agreement with the results previously reported by Kirkman et al., but with an improvement on the precision of this single measurement by a factor of ∼3.5. Combining this new estimate with our previous sample of six high precision and homogeneously analyzed D/H measurements, we deduce that the primordial deuterium abundance is {log}}10{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=-4.5974+/- 0.0052 or, expressed as a linear quantity, {10}5{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=2.527+/- 0.030; this value corresponds to a one percent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance. Combining our result with a big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculation that uses the latest nuclear physics input, we find that the baryon density derived from BBN agrees to within 2σ of the latest results from the Planck cosmic microwave background data. Based on observations collected at the W.M. Keck Observatory which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  12. In situ sampling for pressure tube deuterium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, A.J.; Kittmer, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The present method of assessing the useful life of pressure tubes in CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors requires the periodic removal and examination of a tube. Special tooling was developed at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to obtain a sample of material from a pressure tube without removing the tube from the reactor. The sampling tool concept has been successfully used by Ontario Hydro during scheduled outages at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). (author)

  13. Thermodynamics of hydrogen and deuterium solutions in α-zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinokurov, Yu.V.; Mogutnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Interaction of H 2 and D 2 with α-Zr are studied in the 700-890 K temperature range using a high-temperature colorimeter. It is shown that hydrogen and deuterium partial enthalpies in zirconium do not depend on the temperature and concentration and compose -48.9+-1.0 and -46.2+-1.2 kJ/g-at. Calculated is an excess entropy of hydrogen in a solution and analyzed are contributions composing it

  14. Deuterium Lamb shift via quenching-radiation anisotropy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Wijngaarden, A.; Drake, G.W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The Lamb shift of a hydrogenic ion can be deduced from the anisotropy in the angular distribution of the 2s/sub 1/2/-1s/sub 1/2/ electric field quenching radiation. The accuracy of our previous anisotropy measurement for deuterium is improved to about +- 150 ppm. The derived Lamb shift is (1059.36 +- 0.16) MHz. The sources of error are carefully analyzed and the prospects for further improvements in the accuracy are discussed

  15. Biological Influence of Deuterium on Procariotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Mosin; Ignat Ignatov

    2014-01-01

    Biologic influence of deuterium (D) on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates are investigated at growth on media with heavy water (D2О). The method of step by step adaptation technique of cells to D2О was developed, consisting in plating of cells on 2 % agarose nutrient media containing increasing gradient of concentration of ...

  16. Magnetic electron scattering from deuterium at low-momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.C. Jr.; Bendel, W.L.; Fagg, L.W.; Lindgren, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The elastic and inelastic cross sections of deuterium for 56.4 MeV electrons scattered at 180 0 , have been measured up to an excitation energy of 19 MeV. The experimental cross sections are compared with those calculated by Miller, by Durand, and by Arenhoevel and Fabian, and also with the sum rules of O'Connell. The results indicate that the contribution of meson exchange currents at this low-momentum transfer is significant

  17. Determination of deuterium in water by a thermometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabicar, J.

    1976-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of deuterium in water has been developed. The method is based on the change of the thermal effect of the solubility of sodium sulphate in the presence of D 2 O. The procedure is based on the measurement of the temperature of phase transition Na 2 SO 4 . 10 H 2 O reversible Na 2 SO 4 + 10 H 2 O. The sensitivity of the method proposed is comparable with mass spectrometry. (author)

  18. Laser-driven polarized sources of hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.; Holt, R.J.; Green, M.C.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which operates on the principle of spin exchange optical pumping is described. The advantages of this method over conventional polarized sources for internal target experiments are presented. Technological difficulties which prevent ideal source operation are outlined along with proposed solutions. At present, the laser-driven polarized hydrogen source delivers 8 /times/ 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization (P/sub z/) of 24%. 9 refs., 2 figs

  19. NUEVAS VÍAS DE PERMEABILIDAD Y REGULACIÓN DEL pH INTRACELULAR COMO POSIBLES BLANCOS TERAPÉUTICOS EN Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY LUZ LÓPEZ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, existe una necesidad sentida para el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos antimaláricos o de compuestos conocidos dirigidos contra blancos terapéuticos diferentes a los afectados por los medicamentos usuales. Son diversos los blancos que pueden ser aprovechados en Plasmodium, y la alteración de parámetros fisiológicos como el pH y el transporte de solutos pueden explicar la muerte del parásito cuando se usan compuestos antiplasmodiales, lo que representa una opción para el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas antiparasitarias. El propósito de esta revisión es por tanto, proporcionar una visión general de los efectos causados por esteroides, discutiendo el caso específico de los esteroides antiplasmodiales aislados de Solanum nudum y revisar dos procesos fisiológicos importantes en el parásito como posibles blancos terapéuticos, la modificación de permeabilidad del eritrocito infectado y el mantenimiento del pH intracelular de Plasmodium.

  20. PRODUÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DE BRIQUETES DE FINOS DE CARVÃO VEGETAL COMPACTADOS COM RESÍDUO CELULÓSICO PROVENIENTE DA INDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL E CELULOSE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Provedel Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar briquetes produzidos a partir de finos de carvão vegetal compactados com resíduo celulósico gerado na decantação dos efluentes da indústria de papel e celulose. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: briquetes produzidos com fino de carvão vegetal e resíduo celulósico nas proporções de 25% (T1, 30% (T2, 35% (T3, 40% (T4 e 45% (T5 e briquetes produzidos com finos de carvão vegetal com 10% de amido e resíduo celulósico nas proporções de 0% (T6, 5% (T7, 10% (T8, 15% (T9, 20% (T10 e 25% (T11. A caracterização dos briquetes foi realizada por meio de ensaios de análise química imediata, determinação do poder calorífico superior, densidade aparente e avaliação da resistência mecânica após a secagem dos briquetes em estufa ou ao ar livre. Observou-se que os briquetes com resíduo celulósico e amido em sua composição apresentaram maior densidade e resistência mecânica à compressão, concluindo-se, assim, que a presença do amido favoreceu a compactação e estabilidade dos briquetes. Observou-se, também, que o processo de secagem em estufa prejudicou a qualidade dos briquetes, de modo que a secagem ao ar livre forneceu briquetes mais resistentes e estáveis.

  1. Skull morphometrics of adult male Antartic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, and South American fur seal A. australis Morfometría craneana comparada de ejemplares machos adultos de lobo fino antártico, Arctocephalus gazella y lobo fino sudamericano, A. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Daneri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull morphometrics of adult male Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875 and South American fur seal, A. australis (Zimmermann, 1783 were investigated using a collection of 45 and 38 skulls, respectively. Eighteen measurements were taken for each specimen. Comparative univariate and multivariate statistical analyses included standard statistics, one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis. Individual variation was relatively high for some variables, as expressed by the coefficient of variation. Skulls of A. gazella were larger than those of A. australis for all but two variables: squamosal jugal suture and rostral length. Both species differed significantly as shown by both univariate and multivariate analyses. The discriminant function correctly classified all specimens. The standardized canonical coefficients showed that the variables which most contribute to the differentiation between species were, in decreasing order, the rostral length, palatal length, palatal width at postcanine 5 and braincase width. The present study corroborates that A. gazella and A. australis are phenotipically distinct species.Se estudió la morfometría craneana de especímenes machos adultos de lobo fino Antártico, Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875 y lobo fino sudamericano, A. australis (Zimmermann, 1783, consultando una colección de 45 y 38 cráneos respectivamente. Para cada ejemplar se tomó un total de 18 medidas. El análisis comparativo univariado y multivariado incluyó estadística standard, análisis de varianza, análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. La variación individual, según lo expresado por el coeficiente de variación, fue relativamente alta para algunas variables. Los cráneos de A. gazella fueron proporcionalmente más grandes que aquellos de A. australis para todas las variables estudiadas, excepto dos: longitud de la sutura escamoso-yugal y longitud

  2. The Advanced Neutron Source liquid deuterium cold source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will employ two cold sources to moderate neutrons to low energy (<10 meV). The cold neutrons produced are then passed through beam guides to various experiment stations. Each cold source moderator is a sphere of 410-mm internal diameter. The moderator material is liquid deuterium flowing at a rate of 1 kg/s and maintained at subcooled temperatures at all points of the circuit, to prevent boiling. Nuclear beat deposited within the liquid deuterium and its containment structure totals more than 30 kW. All of this heat is removed by the liquid deuterium, which raises its temperature by 5 K. The liquid prime mover is a cryogenic circulator that is situated in the return leg of the flow loop. This arrangement minimizes the heat added to the liquid between the heat exchanger and the moderator vessel, allowing the moderator to be operated at the minimum practical temperature. This report describes the latest thinking at the time of project termination. It also includes the status of various systems at that time and outlines anticipated directions in which the design would have progressed. In this regard, some detail differences between this report and official design documents reflect ideas that were not approved at the time of closure but are considered noteworthy

  3. Exploring the Origins of Deuterium Enrichments in Solar Nebular Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Harries, Tim J.

    2016-03-01

    Deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) enrichments in molecular species provide clues about their original formation environment. The organic materials in primitive solar system bodies generally have higher D/H ratios and show greater D/H variation when compared to D/H in solar system water. We propose this difference arises at least in part due to (1) the availability of additional chemical fractionation pathways for organics beyond that for water, and (2) the higher volatility of key carbon reservoirs compared to oxygen. We test this hypothesis using detailed disk models, including a sophisticated, new disk ionization treatment with a low cosmic-ray ionization rate, and find that disk chemistry leads to higher deuterium enrichment in organics compared to water, helped especially by fractionation via the precursors CH2D+/CH3+. We also find that the D/H ratio in individual species varies significantly depending on their particular formation pathways. For example, from ˜20-40 au, CH4 can reach {{D}}/{{H}}˜ 2× {10}-3, while D/H in CH3OH remains locally unaltered. Finally, while the global organic D/H in our models can reproduce intermediately elevated D/H in the bulk hydrocarbon reservoir, our models are unable to reproduce the most deuterium-enriched organic materials in the solar system, and thus our model requires some inheritance from the cold interstellar medium from which the Sun formed.

  4. Deuterium Excess of Waters in Slovenia. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, M.; Torkar, A. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vreca, P. [Jozef Stefan Institut, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    In climatic and hydrological studies, deuterium excess has proven to be a useful parameter; therefore this parameter has been investigated in the waters of slovenia - positioned in central europe. All the data were acquired from publicly available data sources (e.g. journals, databases). Data were collected for four different parts of the water cycle: precipitation, surface water, groundwater and water in the unsaturated zone. For precipitation the value for deuterium excess ranges between -19.9 per mille and 28.8 per mille with the median at 10.1 per mille. Surface water has the minimum at 2.9 per mille, the maximum at 22.4 per mille and the median at 13.2 per mille. Values for groundwater vary between -17.7 per mille and 34.9 per mille with the median at 11.8 per mille. Median for deuterium excess for the unsaturated zone is 15.1 per mille and the values are between -2.8 per mille and 17.6 per mille. (author)

  5. Fractionation of deuterium and protium between water and methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolston, J.H.; Gale, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The overall deuterium-protium separation factor, α, between hydrogen gas and aqueous methanol mixtures has been measured over the full composition range at temperatures between 25 and 55 0 C. At each temperature α increases smoothly with increasing mole fraction of methanol but the values fall significantly below the straight line joining the separation factors for the methanol-hydrogen and water-hydrogen systems. The equilibrium constant, K 1 (1), for exchange of a deuterium atom tracer between the hydroxyl groups of methanol and liquid water, calculated from the values of α for each solution, is independent of composition within experimental error. The value of K 1 (1) at 25 0 C is 0.54 +/- 0.02, so that deuterium favors the methanol environment rather than water. The dependence of k 1 (1) on absolute temperature, T, is given by the expression 1n K 1 (1) = -0.776 + 52.6/T, which corresponds to a reaction enthalpy of -0.43 kJ mol -1 . 24 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  6. Deuterium depth profiles in metals using imaging field desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Depth profiles of 80 eV deuterium ions implanted in-situ into (110) tungsten have been measured by Imaging, Field-Desorption Mass Spectrometry. The relative abundance of deuterium was measured from the surface to a depth of 300A with less than 3A depth resolution by controlled field-evaporation of the specimen, and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The position of the depth distribution maximum (57 +- 3A from the surface) is shown to be in close agreement with that predicted theoretically for low energy deuterium implants using an amorphous-solid model. Structure in the distribution is attributed to surface morphology and channeling phenomena in the near surface region. Implanted impurity species from the ion source and tungsten surface have also been observed. For C + , C 2+ and 0 + , penetration is limited to less than 30A, with abundance decreasing exponentially from the surface. These results are interpreted in the context of the CTR first-wall impurity problem, and are used to suggest a novel method for in-situ characterization of low energy plasma species in operating CTR devices

  7. Changes in bacterial radiation sensitivity due to deuterium substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, A.; Weiss, H.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of deuterium substitution for hydrogen on radiation sensitivity was measured under various conditions for E. coli B/r irradiated by 450 kev electrons in single intense pulses. Cells were grown in a nutrient medium made from a deuterium oxide based solution. They were suspended in a D/sub 2/O based buffered saline and plated in thin aqueous layers on membrane filters and irradiated in 100% N/sub 2/ or 100% O/sub 2/. Comparisons were made to cells similarly plated and irradiated but grown instead in a water based nutrient medium and suspended in either a water based or a D/sub 2/O based buffered saline. For the conventionally grown cells, D/sub 2/O increased the radiation sensitivity in both gases by about 10%. For cells grown and suspended with D/sub 2/O based media, a 50% reduction of radiation sensitivity was found with both gas and an increased extrapolation number was observed. In this latter method, deuterium is more fully substituted for hydrogen in the molecular substrate of the cell. These cells were also irradiated over a temperature range of 2 0 C to 43 0 C after being suspended in deuterated ethanol. Speculations for the changes induced by the substitution are presented

  8. Molecular deuterium behaviour in tungsten divertor on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergienko, G., E-mail: g.sergienko@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research –Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Arnoux, G. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S.; Clever, M.; Huber, A.; Kruezi, U. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research –Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Meigs, A.G. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Mertens, Ph.; Samm, U. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research –Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Stamp, M. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Molecular spectroscopy was used to observe molecular deuterium at the outer strike point of the new bulk tungsten JET divertor. The rotational and vibrational populations of the deuterium molecules in the ground state were determined from the deuterium Q-branches of Fulcher-α band emission (d{sup 3}Π{sub u}{sup -}→a{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) in the 600–640 nm spectral range. For L-mode plasmas in the low recycling regime the molecular emission maximum is located in the vicinity of the strike point. The spatial profile of the emission was strongly modified during plasma detachment in both L- and H-mode plasmas. The rotational temperature of excited molecules reached 2760 K in L-mode. The vibrational population has a peculiarity: a remarkably high population of the d{sup 3}Π{sub u}{sup -}(v = 0) vibrational level indicating a non-Boltzmann vibrational distribution of D{sub 2} in tungsten environment.

  9. Results of neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina; Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Skakov, Mazhyn; Zaurbekova, Zhanna; Lyublinski, Igor; Vertkov, Alexey; Mazzitelli, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1M research reactor are described. • At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10 9 exp(−144/RT). • The T 2 molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise. - Abstract: This paper describes the results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The neutron flux at the reactor core center at 2 MW was 5 10 −13 cm −2 s −1 . The efficiency coefficients of helium and tritium release from lithium saturated with deuterium were calculated. The tritium interaction with lithium atoms (formation and dissociation of lithium tritide) has an effect on tritium release. An increment of sample’s temperature results in tritium release acceleration due to rising of the dissociation rate of lithium tritide. At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10 9 exp(-144/RT). The T 2 molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise.

  10. Determination of deuterium concentration by falling drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Fujii, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    Falling drop method for determination of deuterium concentration in water sample was studied. The principle is the same as that developed by Kirshenbaum, I. in 1932. One drop of water sample falls down through a column filled with o-fluorotoluene at temperature of nearly 25 0 C. The falling time is, instead of using a stop-watch, measured with two light pulses led to a photomultiplier with mirrors, which make two pulse marks on moving chart paper. Distance between the two pulse marks is proportional to falling time. Instead of water filled double chambers of constant temperature equipped with heaters, thermostats and propellers for stirring, the column is dipped in circulating water supplied from a ''Thermoelectric'' made by ''Sharp'' company, which can circulate constant temperature water cooled or heated with thermoelements. Variation of the temperature is about 0.01 0 C. The range of deuterium concentration in our case was 20 -- 60D%. Sensitivity increased as the medium temperature decreased and as deuterium concentration of water sample increased. (auth.)

  11. Temperature dependence of deuterium retention mechanisms in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roszell, J.P. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6 (Canada); Davis, J.W., E-mail: jwdavis@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6 (Canada); Haasz, A.A. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    The retention of 500 eV D{sup +} was measured as a function of implantation temperature in single- (SCW) and poly-crystalline (PCW) tungsten. The results show a decrease in retention of {approx}2 orders of magnitude over the temperature range of 350-550 K in SCW and a decrease of an order of magnitude over the temperature range of 600-700 K in PCW. Inspection of the TDS spectra showed a shift in peak location from 600 to 800 K as temperature was increased above 350 K in SCW and above 450 K in PCW specimens. TMAP modeling showed that the change in peak location corresponds to a change in trapping energy from 1.3 eV for the 600 K peak to 2.1 eV for the 800 K peak. It is proposed that for implantations performed above 350 K in SCW and 450 K in PCW, deuterium-containing vacancies are able to diffuse and combine to create stable nano-bubbles within the crystal lattice. The formation of nano-bubbles due to the annihilation of deuterium-vacancy complexes results in a change in the trapping energy from 1.3 to 2.1 eV as well as a decrease in retention as some of the deuterium-vacancy complexes will be destroyed at surfaces or grain boundaries, decreasing the number of trapping sites available.

  12. Temperature dependence of deuterium retention mechanisms in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszell, J.P.; Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The retention of 500 eV D + was measured as a function of implantation temperature in single- (SCW) and poly-crystalline (PCW) tungsten. The results show a decrease in retention of ∼2 orders of magnitude over the temperature range of 350–550 K in SCW and a decrease of an order of magnitude over the temperature range of 600–700 K in PCW. Inspection of the TDS spectra showed a shift in peak location from 600 to 800 K as temperature was increased above 350 K in SCW and above 450 K in PCW specimens. TMAP modeling showed that the change in peak location corresponds to a change in trapping energy from 1.3 eV for the 600 K peak to 2.1 eV for the 800 K peak. It is proposed that for implantations performed above 350 K in SCW and 450 K in PCW, deuterium-containing vacancies are able to diffuse and combine to create stable nano-bubbles within the crystal lattice. The formation of nano-bubbles due to the annihilation of deuterium-vacancy complexes results in a change in the trapping energy from 1.3 to 2.1 eV as well as a decrease in retention as some of the deuterium-vacancy complexes will be destroyed at surfaces or grain boundaries, decreasing the number of trapping sites available.

  13. Temperature dependence of deuterium retention mechanisms in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszell, J. P.; Davis, J. W.; Haasz, A. A.

    2012-10-01

    The retention of 500 eV D+ was measured as a function of implantation temperature in single- (SCW) and poly-crystalline (PCW) tungsten. The results show a decrease in retention of ˜2 orders of magnitude over the temperature range of 350-550 K in SCW and a decrease of an order of magnitude over the temperature range of 600-700 K in PCW. Inspection of the TDS spectra showed a shift in peak location from 600 to 800 K as temperature was increased above 350 K in SCW and above 450 K in PCW specimens. TMAP modeling showed that the change in peak location corresponds to a change in trapping energy from 1.3 eV for the 600 K peak to 2.1 eV for the 800 K peak. It is proposed that for implantations performed above 350 K in SCW and 450 K in PCW, deuterium-containing vacancies are able to diffuse and combine to create stable nano-bubbles within the crystal lattice. The formation of nano-bubbles due to the annihilation of deuterium-vacancy complexes results in a change in the trapping energy from 1.3 to 2.1 eV as well as a decrease in retention as some of the deuterium-vacancy complexes will be destroyed at surfaces or grain boundaries, decreasing the number of trapping sites available.

  14. Measurement of the deuterium Balmer series line emission on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C. R.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Zhang, P. F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Gao, W.; Gao, W.; Chang, J. F.; Xu, J. C.; Duan, Y. M.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhang, L.; Wu, Z. W.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Hou, Y. M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Volume recombination plays an important role towards plasma detachment for magnetically confined fusion devices. High quantum number states of the Balmer series of deuterium are used to study recombination. On EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), two visible spectroscopic measurements are applied for the upper/lower divertor with 13 channels, respectively. Both systems are coupled with Princeton Instruments ProEM EMCCD 1024B camera: one is equipped on an Acton SP2750 spectrometer, which has a high spectral resolution ∼0.0049 nm with 2400 gr/mm grating to measure the D{sub α}(H{sub α}) spectral line and with 1200 gr/mm grating to measure deuterium molecular Fulcher band emissions and another is equipped on IsoPlane SCT320 using 600 gr/mm to measure high-n Balmer series emission lines, allowing us to study volume recombination on EAST and to obtain the related line averaged plasma parameters (T{sub e}, n{sub e}) during EAST detached phases. This paper will present the details of the measurements and the characteristics of deuterium Balmer series line emissions during density ramp-up L-mode USN plasma on EAST.

  15. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-12-25

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed.

  16. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed

  17. Selective deuterium ion acceleration using the Vulcan petawatt laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krygier, A. G. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palasiseau (France); Physics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Morrison, J. T. [Propulsion Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Lab, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Jung, D. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Clarke, R.; Notley, M. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Fuchs, J.; Vassura, L. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palasiseau (France); Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H. [The John Adams Institute, Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Norreys, P. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Oliver, M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Zepf, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Helmholtz Institute Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Freeman, R. R. [Physics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We report on the successful demonstration of selective acceleration of deuterium ions by target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with a high-energy petawatt laser. TNSA typically produces a multi-species ion beam that originates from the intrinsic hydrocarbon and water vapor contaminants on the target surface. Using the method first developed by Morrison et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 030707 (2012)], an ion beam with >99% deuterium ions and peak energy 14 MeV/nucleon is produced with a 200 J, 700 fs, >10{sup 20}W/cm{sup 2} laser pulse by cryogenically freezing heavy water (D{sub 2}O) vapor onto the rear surface of the target prior to the shot. Within the range of our detectors (0°–8.5°), we find laser-to-deuterium-ion energy conversion efficiency of 4.3% above 0.7 MeV/nucleon while a conservative estimate of the total beam gives a conversion efficiency of 9.4%.

  18. Selective deuterium ion acceleration using the Vulcan petawatt laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krygier, A. G.; Morrison, J. T.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Clarke, R.; Notley, M.; Fuchs, J.; Vassura, L.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P.; Oliver, M.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Freeman, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of selective acceleration of deuterium ions by target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with a high-energy petawatt laser. TNSA typically produces a multi-species ion beam that originates from the intrinsic hydrocarbon and water vapor contaminants on the target surface. Using the method first developed by Morrison et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 030707 (2012)], an ion beam with >99% deuterium ions and peak energy 14 MeV/nucleon is produced with a 200 J, 700 fs, >10 20 W/cm 2 laser pulse by cryogenically freezing heavy water (D 2 O) vapor onto the rear surface of the target prior to the shot. Within the range of our detectors (0°–8.5°), we find laser-to-deuterium-ion energy conversion efficiency of 4.3% above 0.7 MeV/nucleon while a conservative estimate of the total beam gives a conversion efficiency of 9.4%

  19. Counter-diffusion and -permeation of deuterium and hydrogen through metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Kaname; Tanabe,; Tetsuo, [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The first experiments for counter-diffusion and -permeation of deuterium and hydrogen through palladium were performed. Deuterium permeation rates against D{sub 2} pressure were measured under the condition where hydrogen permeated to opposite direction by supplying H{sub 2} gas at the permeated side of D{sub 2}. It was found that not a small amount of deuterium was clearly permeated even if the deuterium pressure was much smaller than the hydrogen pressure. Deuterium permeation rate was gradually reduced by increasing the counter H permeation. The deuterium permeation rate under the counter H permeation is well represented by a simple model in which the ratio of the deuterium permeation rates with and without the counter H permeation was proportional to the fractional concentration of deuterium in the bulk. As increasing the hydrogen counter flow, however, the deuterium permeation rate deviates from the model. This means that adsorption (absorption) of D{sub 2} from gas phase is inhibited and surface recombination of deuterium is blocked by hydrogen. (author)

  20. Deuterium retention and desorption behavior in an advanced reduced-activation alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, S.J., E-mail: sjnoh@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics, Dankook University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S.; Byeon, W.J.; Shin, H.W. [Department of Applied Physics, Dankook University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Eui [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.K. [Nuclear Fusion Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We present the first experimental results of the deuterium retention and desorption behavior in an advanced reduced-activation alloy (ARAA) under development in Korea. For the in-situ measurement of desorbed gases from samples immediately after irradiation, a thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) system clustered with an inductively coupled plasma ion source has been built. Samples were and were not irradiated with helium ions at energies of 1.4, 3.5, and 5.0 keV and then continuously irradiated with 1.7-keV deuterium ions. TDS measurements were performed in situ immediately after deuterium irradiation and after exposure to air for one week. The amount of desorbed deuterium is the largest for the sample without helium irradiation from the TDS results measured in situ immediately after irradiation. Further, the amount of desorbed deuterium is significantly lowered when the helium energy is increased to 3.5 keV with no significant changes thereafter, indicating that the layer formed by implanted helium at near or deeper than the stopping range for 1.7-keV deuterium ions effectively acts as a barrier against deuterium diffusion into the depth. Because of the strong diffusivity of deuterium into the ambient atmosphere, the amounts of desorbed deuterium are greatly reduced for the samples without helium irradiation and with 1.4-keV helium irradiation after exposure to air for one week. In addition, our deuterium results for the ARAA are also compared with the results for F82H by other authors. - Highlights: •The first result of the deuterium retention and desorption in an ARAA is presented. •The ARAA was irradiated with helium and then continuously irradiated with deuterium. •TDS measurements were performed in situ immediately after deuterium irradiation. •TDS measurements were performed after exposure to air for one week. •The effects of helium irradiation and exposure to air were investigated.

  1. Influencia del contenido de finos del hormigón en la respuesta estructural a flexión y cortante de vigas de hormigón armado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the flexural and shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams with a fines content (275 kg/m3 higher than the limit value allowed by the Spanish Concrete Code EHE-08 (175 kg/m3. In the studied range, the fines content scarcely affected the flexural response. The shear strength of the beams with a high content of fines was lower than that of the beams cast with conventional concrete, especially for those with a high longitudinal internal reinforcement ratio and with transversal stirrups, where the reduction of the ultimate load was up to 23 %. Such a reduction is considered due to the reduction of mechanical properties of concrete and that of the aggregate interlock along the crack length. Finally, the experimental results have allowed verifying a numerical model for the non-linear analysis of RC members to accurately predict the influence of the amount of fine aggregate on the structural response.Este artículo presenta un estudio experimental sobre el comportamiento a flexión y cortante de vigas de hormigón armado con un contenido de finos (275 kg/m3 superior al límite permitido por la Instrucción EHE-08 (175 kg/m3. En el rango estudiado, el contenido de finos apenas afectó a la respuesta a flexión. La resistencia a cortante de vigas con alto contenido de finos fue menor que la de las vigas de hormigón convencional, en especial para las vigas con cuantía alta de armadura longitudinal y con armadura de cortante, con una reducción de hasta el 23 % en la carga última. Esta reducción se considera debida a la disminución de propiedades mecánicas del hormigón que afecta especialmente al cortante resistido por fricción en la fisura. Por último, los ensayos realizados han permitido verificar un modelo numérico de análisis no lineal evolutivo para predecir el comportamiento de estructuras de hormigón con distintos contenidos de finos.

  2. Quantificação e caracterização físico-química do material particulado fino (MP2,5): queima de biomassa em fornos de pizzaria na cidade de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Daniel Mota Lima

    2015-01-01

    A queima de biomassa em fornos de pizzaria se constitui como importante fonte de poluição do ar. Entre outros tipos de poluentes emitidos, o material particulado finoMP2,5 se destaca como o mais agressivo à saúde humana, além de poder interferir no balanço radiativo global. Objetiva-se, desta forma, através de estudo de caso em três pizzarias na cidade de São Paulo, quantificar e caracterizar o MP2,5 emitido pela queima da biomassa na área interna (indoor) e externa (junto á chaminé). Dentre ...

  3. Rho GTPasas como blancos terapéuticos relevantes en cáncer y otras enfermedades humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lorenzano Menna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Rho GTPasas son una familia de proteínas clave en la transmisión de señales provenientes del exterior celular hacia efectores intracelulares tanto citoplasmáticos como nucleares. En los últimos año ha habido un desarrollo vertiginoso de múltiples herramientas genéticas y farmacológicas, lo que ha permitido establecer de manera mucho más precisa las funciones específicas de estas proteínas. El objetivo de la presente revisión es hacer foco en las múltiples funciones celulares reguladas por las Rho GTPasas, describiendo en detalle el mecanismo molecular involucrado. Se discute además la participación de estas proteínas en diversas enfermedades humanas haciendo énfasis en su vinculación con el cáncer. Por último, se hace una actualización detallada sobre las estrategias terapéuticas en experimentación que tienen a las Rho GTPasas como blancos moleculares.

  4. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity.

  5. Identification of protoplast-isolation responsive microRNAs in Citrus reticulata Blanco by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyong; Xu, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yipeng; Zeng, Shaohua; Kong, Weiwen

    2017-01-01

    Protoplast isolation is a stress-inducing process, during which a variety of physiological and molecular alterations take place. Such stress response affects the expression of totipotency of cultured protoplasts. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the underlying mechanism of miRNAs involved in the protoplast totipotency remains unclear. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence two populations of small RNA from calli and callus-derived protoplasts in Citrus reticulata Blanco. A total of 67 known miRNAs from 35 families and 277 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these miRNAs, 18 known miRNAs and 64 novel miRNAs were identified by differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) analysis. The expression patterns of the eight DEMs were verified by qRT-PCR. Target prediction showed most targets of the miRNAs were transcription factors. The expression levels of half targets showed a negative correlation to those of the miRNAs. Furthermore, the physiological analysis showed high levels of antioxidant activities in isolated protoplasts. In short, our results indicated that miRNAs may play important roles in protoplast-isolation response.

  6. Indios, blancos y negros. Relaciones interétnicas en la frontera de Chiquitos con Mato Grosso, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Martínez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe la situación de la frontera entre los imperios español y portugués en el alto río Paraguay en las épocas jesuítica y colonial tardía (siglo XVIII. Señala las transformaciones en la cartografía étnica que tuvieron lugar a partir de la tardía conquista y colonización de la región. Se tienen en cuenta procesos sociohistóricos como las incursiones esclavistas de los bandeirantes portugueses, la guerra chiquito-guaycurú, la disputa territorial entre ambas coronas ibéricas, y los cambios en la administración de la provincia de Chiquitos después de la expulsión de los jesuitas. Se analizan los cambios socioculturales y en las relaciones interétnicas, provocados por esos procesos históricos, prestando especial atención en la incidencia que tuvieron entre los grupos indígenas que poblaban las zonas aledañas al río, así como también en la vinculación de éstos con otros actores sociales blancos y negros, provenientes del reino de Portugal.

  7. Effects of Combined Heat and Preservative Treatment on Storability of Ponkan Fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan during Postharvest Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment and preservative application have been widely used during postharvest storage of many fresh products, but the effect of their combination on citrus storage has rarely been investigated. In this study, the optimal heat treatment (HT conditions and HT combined with preservative treatment were investigated for Ponkan fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan storage. Results indicated that HT at 55°C for 20 s can significantly reduce the decay rate of Ponkan fruit, and a combination of HT and 25% of the preservative dosage used in production of iminoctadine tris (albesilate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and imazalil significantly reduced the decay rate without affecting fruit quality. In addition, the increased fiber contents in fruit receiving the HT combined with preservative treatments may be a response preventing fungus infection and enhancing fruit storability and resistance. The above results suggested that the combination of HT and 25% of the preservative production dosage was optimal for controlling Ponkan fruit decay during storage.

  8. Application of Edible Films Containing Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essential Oil on Queso Blanco Cheese Prepared with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdian, Cristhiam; Chouljenko, Alexander; Solval, Kevin Mis; Boeneke, Charles; King, Joan M; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Fortification of queso blanco (QB) with flaxseed oil (FO) containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a functional food with health benefits such as improved cell, brain, and retina functionality, and protection against cardiovascular and immune-inflammatory diseases. However, QB experiences a short shelf life because of the early development of yeasts and molds and addition of FO may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but due to its intense flavor compounds it may not be suitable for direct incorporation into QB. Thus, incorporation of OEO into an edible film prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) may improve the shelf life of QB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that FO was successfully retained by the cheese after homogenization. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) and yeast and mold counts (YMC) of the wrapped cheeses were analyzed during 60 d of refrigerated storage. The oxidation rate increased significantly for nonwrapped QB containing FO (QBFO) during storage, however wrapping with WPI edible films containing OEO (WOF) significantly limited lipid oxidation and prevented growth of yeasts and molds. This study demonstrated the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of WOF for preservation of QBFO during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Factores que influyen en la producción de planta de Pinus cooperi blanco en vivero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Á. Prieto Ruíz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de tres factores en el crecimiento y supervivencia de Pinus cooperi Blanco en vivero, se realizó un experimento en el Campo Experimental Valle del Guadiana-INIFAP, Durango, Dgo., México. Los tratamientos se distribuyeron en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con un arreglo en parcelas subdivididas y consistieron en: a dos tamaños de envase: 80 y 170 cm3 de volumen, b tres rutinas de fertilización, con diferentes proporciones de nitrógeno (N, fósforo (P y potasio (K, con dosis que variaron en las tres fases de crecimiento de las plantas y c tres frecuencias de riego aplicadas cada 48, 96 y 168 horas durante la fase de preacondicionamiento. A los ocho meses de edad se encontró que la planta producida en el envase de 170 cm3 fue estadísticamente superior en las variables altura, diámetro y producción de fitomasa. En cambio, las rutinas de fertilización no tuvieron efectos significativos en las variables estudiadas. El riego cada 48 horas en la fase de preacondicionamiento también influyó significativamente en las variables medidas. La supervivencia no mostró diferencias significativas a las fuentes de variación estudiadas.

  10. Change of mitotic behavior and ultra structure of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) stem-apex clones after space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rujian; Huang Jinghao; Wen Shouxing; Cai Zijian; Luo Tuyan; Chen Liangfeng; Wang Zhouwen

    2011-01-01

    By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco), which had been carried by China's seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone '08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone '08004' was 0.34%, 0.669%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasmolysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone '08004', suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD. (authors)

  11. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project; Syntese af deuterium-maerkede forbindelser til FOeTEK projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-06-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ({sup 13}C-labelled PCB congeners, {sup 13}C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D{sub 9}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-zeramol and D{sub 3}-dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG).

  12. Deuterium implantation into Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped and pure tungsten: Deuterium retention and blistering behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Jacob, W., E-mail: wolfgang.jacob@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Manhard, A.; Gao, L.; Balden, M.; Toussaint, U. von [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Zhou, Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The blistering and near-surface deuterium retention of a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped tungsten (W) and two different pure W grades were studied after exposure to deuterium (D) plasma at elevated temperatures (370, 450 and 570 K). Samples were exposed to a deuterium fluence of 6 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2} applying a moderate ion flux of about 9 × 10{sup 19} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} at an ion energy of 38 eV/D. Morphological modifications at the surface were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The D depth profiles and the accumulated D inventories within the topmost 8 μm were determined by nuclear reaction analysis. Blistering and deuterium retention were strongly dependent on the implantation temperature. In addition, blistering was sensitively influenced by the used tungsten grade, although the total amount of retained D measured by nuclear reaction analysis was comparable. Among the three different investigated tungsten grades, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped W exhibited the lowest degree of surface modification despite a comparable total D retention. - Highlights: •Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped W and 2 pure W were exposed to D plasma at 370, 450 and 570 K. •D retention in all 3 materials is comparable. •D plasma exposure leads to blister formation on all investigated W grades. •Blister morphology and size distribution depend strongly on W grade. •Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped W shows the lowest degree of surface modification.

  13. Influence of tungsten microstructure and ion flux on deuterium plasma-induced surface modifications and deuterium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzi, Luxherta [IEK - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (Netherlands); Ghent University (Belgium); Temmerman, Greg de [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (Netherlands); Reinhart, Michael; Matveev, Dmitry; Unterberg, Bernhard; Wienhold, Peter; Breuer, Uwe; Kreter, Arkadi [IEK - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); Oost, Guido van [Ghent University (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten is to be used as plasma-facing material for the ITER divertor due to its favourable thermal properties, low erosion and fuel retention. Bombardment of tungsten by low energy ions of hydrogen isotopes, at different surface temperature, can lead to surface modifications and influence the fuel accumulation in the material. This contribution will assess the impact of material microstructure and the correlation between the particle flux, surface modifications and deuterium retention in tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to deuterium plasma at a surface temperature of 510 K, 670 K and 870 K, ion energy of 40 eV and ion fluence of 10{sup 26} m{sup -2}. The high and low ion flux ranges were in the order 10{sup 24} m{sup -2}s{sup -1} and 10{sup 22} m{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Depth profiling of deuterium in all the samples was done by secondary ion mass spectroscopy technique and a scanning electron microscope was used to investigate the surface modifications. Modelling of the D desorption spectra with the coupled reaction diffusion system model will be also presented.

  14. Development of a new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    A new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been developed by Adelphi Technology for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and fast neutron radiography. The generator makes an excellent fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron source for laboratories and industrial applications that require the safe production of neutrons, a small footprint, low cost, and small regulatory burden. The generator has three major components: a Radio Frequency Induction Ion Source, a Secondary Electron Shroud, and a Diode Accelerator Structure and Target. Monoenergetic neutrons (2.5MeV) are produced with a yield of 10(10)n/s using 25-50mA of deuterium ion beam current and 125kV of acceleration voltage. The present study characterizes the performance of the neutron generator with respect to neutron yield, neutron production efficiency, and the ionic current as a function of the acceleration voltage at various RF powers. In addition the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) simulation code was used to optimize the setup with respect to thermal flux and radiation protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deuterium gas-driven permeation and subsequent retention in rolled tungsten foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhou, Haishan; Li, Xiao-Chun; Xu, Yuping; An, Zhongqing; Mao, Hongmin; Xing, Wenjing; Hou, Qing; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Experiments concerning deuterium gas-driven permeation through rolled tungsten foils in the temperature range of 850–950 K and subsequent deuterium retention have been performed. The steady state permeation flux of deuterium is proportional to the square root of the driving pressure. The permeability of deuterium is in an order of 10 −14 mol m −1 s −1 Pa −1/2 in this temperature range and the activation energy for permeation is 1.21 eV. Measurements of diffusivity are significantly affected by the driving pressure, which can be well explained by a saturable-trap model. Thermal desorption spectra of samples feature a single deuterium release peak at about 873 K. TMAP 4 modeling of this peak gives a detrapping energy of 1.70 eV, which fits the dissociation enthalpy of deuterium desorbing from the inner wall of vacancy clusters or pores in tungsten

  16. Deuterium gas-driven permeation and subsequent retention in rolled tungsten foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhou, Haishan; Li, Xiao-Chun; Xu, Yuping; An, Zhongqing; Mao, Hongmin; Xing, Wenjing; Hou, Qing; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2014-12-01

    Experiments concerning deuterium gas-driven permeation through rolled tungsten foils in the temperature range of 850-950 K and subsequent deuterium retention have been performed. The steady state permeation flux of deuterium is proportional to the square root of the driving pressure. The permeability of deuterium is in an order of 10-14 mol m-1 s-1 Pa-1/2 in this temperature range and the activation energy for permeation is 1.21 eV. Measurements of diffusivity are significantly affected by the driving pressure, which can be well explained by a saturable-trap model. Thermal desorption spectra of samples feature a single deuterium release peak at about 873 K. TMAP 4 modeling of this peak gives a detrapping energy of 1.70 eV, which fits the dissociation enthalpy of deuterium desorbing from the inner wall of vacancy clusters or pores in tungsten.

  17. Two Variants in SLC24A5 Are Associated with “Tiger-Eye” Iris Pigmentation in Puerto Rican Paso Fino Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Mack

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A unique eye color, called tiger-eye, segregates in the Puerto Rican Paso Fino (PRPF horse breed and is characterized by a bright yellow, amber, or orange iris. Pedigree analysis identified a simple autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS with 24 individuals identified a locus on ECA 1 reaching genome-wide significance (Pcorrected = 1.32 × 10−5. This ECA1 locus harbors the candidate gene, Solute Carrier Family 24 (Sodium/Potassium/Calcium Exchanger, Member 5 (SLC24A5, with known roles in pigmentation in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Humans with compound heterozygous mutations in SLC24A5 have oculocutaneous albinism (OCA type 6 (OCA6, which is characterized by dilute skin, hair, and eye pigmentation, as well as ocular anomalies. Twenty tiger-eye horses were homozygous for a nonsynonymous mutation in exon 2 (p.Phe91Tyr of SLC24A5 (called here Tiger-eye 1, which is predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Additionally, eight of the remaining 12 tiger-eye horses heterozygous for the p.Phe91Tyr variant were also heterozygous for a 628 bp deletion encompassing all of exon 7 of SLC24A5 (c.875-340_1081+82del, which we will call here the Tiger-eye 2 allele. None of the 122 brown-eyed horses were homozygous for either tiger-eye-associated allele or were compound heterozygotes. Further, neither variant was detected in 196 horses from four related breeds not known to have the tiger-eye phenotype. Here, we propose that two mutations in SLC24A5 affect iris pigmentation in tiger-eye PRPF horses. Further, unlike OCA6 in humans, the Tiger-eye 1 mutation in its homozygous state or as a compound heterozygote (Tiger-eye 1/Tiger-eye 2 does not appear to cause ocular anomalies or a change in coat color in the PRPF horse.

  18. Evidence for Nuclear Tensor Polarization of Deuterium Molecules in Storage Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Brand, J.; Bulten, H.; Zhou, Z.; Unal, O.; van den Brand, J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Botto, T.; Bouwhuis, M.; Heimberg, P.; de Jager, C.; de Lange, D.; Nooren, G.; Papadakis, N.; Passchier, I.; Poolman, H.; Steijger, J.; Vodinas, N.; de Vries, H.; van den Brand, J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Lang, J.; Alarcon, R.; Dolfini, S.; Ent, R.; Higinbotham, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium molecules were obtained by recombination, on a copper surface, of deuterium atoms prepared in specific hyperfine states. The molecules were stored for about 5ms in an open-ended cylindrical cell, placed in a 23mT magnetic field, and their tensor polarization was measured by elastic scattering of 704MeV electrons. The results of the measurements are consistent with the deuterium molecules retaining the tensor polarization of the initial atoms. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target

  20. SAIDE: A Semi-Automated Interface for Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Maria T; Miller, Danny E; Fenton, Aron W; Artigues, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Deuterium/hydrogen exchange in combination with mass spectrometry (DH MS) is a sensitive technique for detection of changes in protein conformation and dynamics. Since temperature, pH and timing control are the key elements for reliable and efficient measurement of hydrogen/deuterium content in proteins and peptides, we have developed a small, semiautomatic interface for deuterium exchange that interfaces the HPLC pumps with a mass spectrometer. This interface is relatively inexpensive to build, and provides efficient temperature and timing control in all stages of enzyme digestion, HPLC separation and mass analysis of the resulting peptides. We have tested this system with a series of standard tryptic peptides reconstituted in a solvent containing increasing concentration of deuterium. Our results demonstrate the use of this interface results in minimal loss of deuterium due to back exchange during HPLC desalting and separation. For peptides reconstituted in a buffer containing 100% deuterium, and assuming that all amide linkages have exchanged hydrogen with deuterium, the maximum loss of deuterium content is only 17% of the label, indicating the loss of only one deuterium molecule per peptide.

  1. Correlation between abnormal deuterium flux and heat flow in a D/Pd system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Tian Jian; Wei Qingming; Zhou Rui; Yu Zhiwu

    2003-01-01

    Deuterium flux through the thin wall of a palladium tube has been studied by monitoring gas pressure and temperature. A high-precision calorimeter (Calvet) was used to detect heat flow when the heater was shut down and the palladium tube was cooling down slowly. At certain temperatures an abnormal deuterium flux appeared. This deuterium flux reached a peak when the temperature of the palladium was decreasing. This abnormal deuterium flux differs from the monotonic feature of a normal diffusive flux and is accompanied by a heat flow

  2. Neutron production with mixture of deuterium and krypton in Sahand Filippov type plasma focus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, M.A.; Sobhanian, S.; Rawat, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    This Letter reports the order of magnitude enhancement in neutron yield from Sahand plasma focus device with krypton seeded deuterium operation. The highest average neutron yield of 2.2x10 9 neutrons per shot was achieved at 1.00 Torr deuterium with 3% krypton which is higher than the best average neutron yield of 3.18x10 8 neutrons per shot for pure deuterium operation. Estimation of average neutron energy showed that the maximum and minimum average energies are 2.98±0.6 MeV at 16 kV in 0.25 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr and 2.07±0.2 MeV at 18 kV operation in 0.5 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr, respectively. The anisotropy of neutron emission from Sahand DPF showed that the neutrons are produced mainly by beam-target mechanisms. -- Highlights: → The highest average neutron yield of 2.2x10 9 neutrons per shot was achieved at mixture of deuterium and krypton. → In the krypton seeding of deuterium also anisotropy of neutron emission deuterium is found. → The krypton seeding of deuterium made the neutron emission more reliable over wider operating pressure ranges.

  3. Production of polarized negative deuterium ion beam with dual optical pumping in KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsho, M.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Y.

    1997-02-01

    To obtain highly nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam, a dual optically pumped polarized negative deuterium ion source has been developed at KEK. It is possible to select a pure nuclear-spin state with this scheme, and negative deuterium ion beam with 100% nuclear-spin vector polarization can be produced in principle. We have obtained about 70% of nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam so far. This result may open up a new possibilities for the optically pumped polarized ion source. (author)

  4. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-05-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target. 15 references, 10 figures

  5. Long Term Retention of Deuterium and Tritium in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FIORE, C.; LABOMBARD, B.; LIPSCHULTZ, B.; PITCHER, C.S.; SKINNER, C.H.; WAMPLER, WILLIAM R.

    1999-01-01

    We estimate the total in-vessel deuterium retention in Alcator C-Mod from a run campaign of about 1090 plasmas. The estimate is based on measurements of deuterium retained on 22 molybdenum tiles from the inner wall and divertor. The areal density of deuterium on the tiles was measured by nuclear reaction analysis. From these data, the in-vessel deuterium inventory is estimated to be about 0.1 gram, assuming the deuterium coverage is toroidally symmetric. Most of the retained deuterium is on the walls of the main plasma chamber, only about 2.5% of the deuterium is in the divertor. The D coverage is consistent with a layer saturated by implantation with ions and charge-exchange neutrals from the plasma. This contrasts with tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components (PFC's) where long-term retention of tritium and deuterium is large and mainly in the divertor due to codeposition with carbon eroded by the plasma. The low deuterium retention in the C-Mod divertor is mainly due to the absence of carbon PFC's in C-Mod and the low erosion rate of Mo

  6. Deuterium depth profiling in JT-60U W-shaped divertor tiles by nuclear reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Ochiai, K.; Masaki, K.; Gotoh, Y.; Kutsukake, C.; Arai, T.; Nishitani, T.; Miya, N.

    2006-01-01

    Deuterium concentrations and depth profiles in plasma-facing graphite tiles used in the divertor of JAERI Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) were investigated by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The highest deuterium concentration of D/ 12 C of 0.053 was found in the outer dome wing tile, where the deuterium accumulated probably through the deuterium-carbon co-deposition. In the outer and inner divertor target tiles, the D/ 12 C data were lower than 0.006. Additionally, the maximum (H + D)/ 12 C in the dome top tile was estimated to be 0.023 from the results of NRA and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Orbit following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) simulation showed energetic deuterons caused by neutral beam injections (NBI) were implanted into the dome region with high heat flux. Furthermore, the surface temperature and conditions such as deposition and erosion significantly influenced the accumulation process of deuterium. The deuterium depth profile, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and OFMC simulation indicated the deuterium was considered to accumulate through three processes: the deuterium-carbon co-deposition, the implantation of energetic deuterons and the deuterium diffusion into the bulk

  7. Serological and molecular studies of a novel virus isolate causing yellow mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS - PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78-82% and 91-95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV.

  8. Project Rio Blanco: project scientist's summary report of production test data and preliminary analysis of top chimney/cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, J.

    1975-03-01

    The reentry drilling established communication with the top Rio Blanco detonation region at a depth of 1704 meters, or about 76 meters above the top detonation center. A total of 2.8 x 10 6 m 3 of dry gas at standard conditions has now been produced during two separate test periods. Radioactive and chemical analysis of this gas and the modeling of the stimulated reservoir shows the following main results: (1) No permeable connection exists between the top and the middle detonation regions, since no significant amount of the tracer incorporated in the center explosive canister was detected in the produced gas. As a consequence, results for the top detonation region only are available at this time. (2) The initial cavity radius is deduced to be 20 m or well within expectations. (3) Integration of the 85 Kr produced indicates a yield of 34 +- 3 kt for the top explosive. (4) Of the approximately 1000 Ci of tritium produced in the top explosion region, about 5 percent is incorporated in the gas phase. (5) Pressure drawdown and buildup data are best reproduced by a two-layer reservoir model showing stimulated permeabilities about 10 and 30 times original formation permeabilities, and extending to a distance of about three cavity radii from the wellbore. (6) The capacity of the reservoir intercepted by the top explosive is deduced to be about 0.2 millidarcy-meters, as contrasted with preshot estimates ranging from 1.3 md-m to 2.3 md-m. (U.S.)

  9. Electron scattering from high-momentum neutrons in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Bueltmann, S.; Careccia, S.L.; Dharmawardane, K.V.; Dodge, G.E.; Guler, N.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Klein, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Weinstein, L.B.; Zhang, J.; Butuceanu, C.; Griffioen, K.A.; Baillie, N.; Fersch, R.G.; Funsten, H.; Egiyan, K.S.; Asryan, G.; Dashyan, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    We report results from an experiment measuring the semiinclusive reaction 2 H(e,e ' p s ) in which the proton p s is moving at a large angle relative to the momentum transfer. If we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred. This method, known as spectator tagging, can be used to study electron scattering from high-momentum (off-shell) neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer. A reduced cross section was extracted for different values of final state missing mass W*, backward proton momentum p → s , and momentum transfer Q 2 . The data are compared to a simple plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) spectator model. A strong enhancement in the data observed at transverse kinematics is not reproduced by the PWIA model. This enhancement can likely be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that were not incorporated into the model. Within the framework of the simple spectator model, a 'bound neutron structure function' F 2n eff was extracted as a function of W* and the scaling variable x* at extreme backward kinematics, where the effects of FSI appear to be smaller. For p s >0.4 GeV/c, where the neutron is far off-shell, the model overestimates the value of F 2n eff in the region of x* between 0.25 and 0.6. A dependence of the bound neutron structure function on the neutron's 'off-shell-ness' is one possible effect that can cause the observed deviation

  10. Results of neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Skakov, Mazhyn; Zaurbekova, Zhanna [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Lyublinski, Igor [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU «MEPhI», Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Alexey [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, Giuseppe [ENEA, RC Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1M research reactor are described. • At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(−144/RT). • The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise. - Abstract: This paper describes the results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The neutron flux at the reactor core center at 2 MW was 5 10{sup −13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The efficiency coefficients of helium and tritium release from lithium saturated with deuterium were calculated. The tritium interaction with lithium atoms (formation and dissociation of lithium tritide) has an effect on tritium release. An increment of sample’s temperature results in tritium release acceleration due to rising of the dissociation rate of lithium tritide. At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(-144/RT). The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise.

  11. Process and device for stage by stage enrichment of deuterium and/or tritium in a material suitable for isotope exchange of deuterium and tritium with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniotakis, N.; Decken, C.B. von der.

    1983-01-01

    Water containing deuterium and/or tritium is first introduced into a carrier gas flow and reduced for the stage by stage enrichment of deuterium and/or tritium. A hydrogen partial pressure of a maximum of 100 millibar is set in the carrier gas flow. The carrier gas flow is taken along the primary side of an exchange wall suitable for the permeation of hydrogen, and a further carrier gas flow flows on its secondary side, which contains water or hydrogen. Reaction products formed after isotope exchange of deuterium and/or tritium with hydrogen are removed by the secondary carrier gas flow. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Hot muonic deuterium and tritium from cold targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, G.M.; Beveridge, J.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A.; Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M.; Huber, T.M.; Pippitt, B.; Jacot-Guillarmod, R.; Schellenberg, L.; Martoff, C.J.; Petitjean, C.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments are described which use a solid hydrogen layer to form muonic hydrogen isotopes in vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from protium to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections, and may be emitted from the surface of the layer. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes. A target has been constructed which exploits muonic atom emission in order to study the energy dependence of transfer and muon molecular formation

  13. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Helium and deuterium permeability in O-rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    To obtain more information on gas permeation through elastomeric O-rings, studies were performed on Parker Seal Company O-rings, Nos. 2-113, 2-006, 3-904, and 3-906, all made of a nitrile rubber. Also included in the tests was a valve packing (Autoclave Engineers) encased in AE Valve 20A-2142. Permeation experiments were run usually in duplicate to 82.7 MPa (12,000 psi) with helium and deuterium at room temperature. The data are extrapolated to give values for tritium

  15. Isotopic scaling of transport in deuterium-tritium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.D.; Adler, H.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Bush, C.E.; Chang, Z.; Duong, H.

    1995-01-01

    Both global and thermal energy confinement improve in high-temperature supershot plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) when deuterium beam heating is partially or wholly replaced by tritium beam heating. For the same heating power, the tritium-rich plasmas obtain up to 22% higher total energy, 30% higher thermal ion energy, and 20-25% higher central ion temperature. Kinetic analysis of the temperature and density profiles indicates a favorable isotopic scaling of ion heat transport and electron particle transport, with τ Ei (a/2) ∝ (A) 0.7-0.8 and τ pe (a) ∝ (A) 0.8

  16. Relativistic description of the Fermi motion effects on deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusno, D.

    1979-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the inconsistencies of the conventional, non-relativistic approach, which has been used so far in the extraction of neutron data from deuterium targets, is given. A new approach dealing with the smearing effects, due to the nucleon's Fermi motion inside the deuteron, is developed as an alternative to the conventional one. This new approach is a spin-less, relativistic, simple and consistent approach. A new covariant model of the elastic electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the impulse approximation is also presented. The treatment includes spin and allows for a possibility of determining completely the two elastic structure functions

  17. Pontecorvo reactions of two-body antiproton annihilation in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Rare annihilation reactions for stopped antiprotons in deuterium, p-bard→π - p; K + Σ - ; K 0 Λ, are considered using the two-step model described by the triangle diagram. It was found that the probabilities, W, of these processes are very sensitive to the behaviour of the deuteron wave function at small distances as well as to the meson form factors. It appears that the ratios R(KX)=W(KX)/W(π - p) are much less model-dependent and are about 10 -2 for R(K 0 λ) and 10 -4 for R(K + Σ - ). 17 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  18. Thermodynamics of hydrogen and deuterium solutions in. cap alpha. -zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokurov, Yu V; Mogutnov, B M [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1979-09-01

    Interaction of H/sub 2/ and D/sub 2/ with ..cap alpha..-Zr are studied in the 700-890 K temperature range using a high-temperature colorimeter. It is shown that hydrogen and deuterium partial enthalpies in zirconium do not depend on the temperature and concentration and compose -48.9+-1.0 and -46.2+-1.2 kJ/g-at. Calculated is an excess entropy of hydrogen in a solution and analyzed are contributions composing it.

  19. Diagnosing radiative shocks from deuterium and tritium implosions on NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, A; Divol, L; Weber, S; Döppner, T; Kyrala, G A; Kilne, J; Izumi, N; Glenn, S; Ma, T; Town, R P; Bradley, D K; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    During the recent ignition tuning campaign at the National Ignition Facility, layered cryogenic deuterium and tritium capsules were imploded via x-ray driven ablation. The hardened gated x-ray imager diagnostic temporally and spatially resolves the x-ray emission from the core of the capsule implosion at energies above ~8 keV. On multiple implosions, ~200-400 ps after peak compression a spherically expanding radiative shock has been observed. This paper describes the methods used to characterize the radial profile and rate of expansion of the shock induced x-ray emission.

  20. Rapid deuterium exchange-in time for probing conformational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, K.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Isotopic exchange of protein backbone amide hydrogens has been used extensively as a sensitive probe of protein structure. One of the salient features of hydrogen exchange is the vast range of exchange rates in one protein. Isotopic exchange methods have been used to study the structural features including protein folding and unfolding (1), functionally different forms of proteins (2), protein-protein complexation (3), and protein stability parameter. Many backbone amide protons that are surface accessible and are not involved in hydrogen bonding undergo rapid deuterium exchange. In order to study, fast exchanging amide protons, fast exchange-in times are necessary

  1. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner; Pundt, Astrid A.

    2012-01-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction of graphite with a hot, dense deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desko, J.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The erosion of ATJ-S graphite caused by a hot, dense deuterium plasma has been investigated experimentally. The plasma was produced in an electromagnetic shock tube. Plasma characteristics were typically: ion temperature approx. = 800 eV (approx. 1 x 10 7 0 K), number density approx. = 10 16 /cm 3 , and transverse magnetic field approx. = 1 tesla. The energetic ion flux, phi, to the sample surfaces was approx. 10 23 ions/cm 2 -sec for a single pulse duration of approx. 0.1 usec. Sample surfaces were metallographically prepared and examined with a scanning electron microscope before and after exposure

  3. Thermonuclear reaction rates in a deuterium-tritium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, L.

    1978-12-01

    In a deuterium-tritium plasma six thermonuclear reactions take place between the deuterons, tritons and the 3 He-particles formed in about half of the d-d-reactions. The rate constants for these six reactions have been calculated from the latest evaluations of the reaction cross sections which were available. In some cases, notably the reactions t+t, t+ 3 He and 3 He+ 3 He, the number of published cross section measurements is small, and the uncertainty in the calculated rate constants consequently large. Analytical expressions for the rate constants as functions of the plasma temperature have been set up. (author)

  4. Measurement and interpretation of triton burnup in Jet deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Kallne, J.; Sadler, G.; van Belle, P.; Gorini, G.; Conroy, S.; Verschuur, K.

    1989-01-01

    The confinement and slowing down of fast tritons in JET deuterium plasmas is investigated. The ratio of 14 MeV and 2.5 MeV neutron production rates is measured. This ratio is equal to the fraction of tritons which burnup. The 2.5 MeV neutron emission is obtained from a set of fission chambers for which the calibration uncertainty is about 10%. The absolute calibration of the activation technique is calculated. The comparison between experimental and theoretical burnup ratios, for JET 1987 data, is shown. The range of conditions over which measurements of triton burnup fraction were obtained, is illustrated

  5. Structural transformations in austenitic stainless steel induced by deuterium implantation: irradiation at 100 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymyr; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Rud, Aleksandr; Chernyak, Nikolay; Progolaieva, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium thermal desorption spectra were investigated on the samples of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi preimplanted at 100 K with deuterium ions in the dose range from 3 × 10(15) to 5 × 10(18) D/cm(2). The kinetics of structural transformation development in the implantation steel layer was traced from deuterium thermodesorption spectra as a function of implanted deuterium concentration. At saturation of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi with deuterium by means of ion implantation, structural-phase changes take place, depending on the dose of implanted deuterium. The maximum attainable concentration of deuterium in steel is C = 1 (at.D/at.met. = 1/1). The increase in the implanted dose of deuterium is accompanied by the increase in the retained deuterium content, and as soon as the deuterium concentration attains C ≈ 0.5 the process of shear martensitic structural transformation in steel takes place. It includes the formation of bands, body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. Upon reaching the deuterium concentration C > 0.5, the presence of these molecules causes shear martensitic structural transformations in the steel, which include the formation of characteristic bands, bcc crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. At C ≥ 0.5, two hydride phases are formed in the steel, the decay temperatures of which are 240 and 275 K. The hydride phases are formed in the bcc structure resulting from the martensitic structural transformation in steel.

  6. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  7. Infecção mista pelo Sugarcane mosaic virus e Maize rayado fino virus provoca danos na cultura do milho no estado de São Paulo Mixed infection by Sugarcane mosaic virus and Maize rayado fino virus causing breaking yields in maize in São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César Gonçalves

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os dois principais vírus que infectam o milho no Brasil são o Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV e o Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, cujos principais vetores são o afídeo Rhopalosiphum maidis e a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis, respectivamente. O MRFV é freqüentemente encontrado em infecções mistas com fitoplasmas e espiroplasmas, causando as doenças denominadas enfezamentos do milho. Em uma lavoura de milho próxima a Santo Antonio da Posse, SP, cercada por campos de cana-de-açúcar, foi encontrada alta incidência de plantas apresentando mosaico, riscas, nanismo e espigas com falhas no enchimento de grãos. Análises serológicas com anti-soros específicos detectaram a presença do SCMV e MRFV nessas plantas. A infecção pelo SCMV também foi confirmada por RT-PCR com primers específicos e análise de seqüências. Em observações de preparações contrastadas negativamente em TEM, partículas flexuosas (ca.770 nm e isométricas (ca.30 nm foram detectadas. Em cortes ultrafinos, inclusões citoplasmáticas, típicas de Potyviridae, foram observadas; não foi encontrada a presença de espiroplasmas nem de fitoplasmas. Esses resultados mostram que a infecção conjunta por SCMV e MRFV pode ser responsável pelos danos encontrados nessa lavoura.The two main viruses infecting maize in Brazil are Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV and Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, whose main vectors are the aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis and the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis, respectively. MRFV is frequently found in mixed infections with phytoplasms and spiroplasms causing the so-called corn stunting diseases. In a maize commercial field close to Santo Antonio da Posse, São Paulo state, surrounded by sugarcane fields, it was found a high incidence of plants showing mosaic, striping, stunting and cobs with decreased number of grains. Serological analysis with specific antisera detected the presence of SCMV and MRFV in these plants. SCMV infection was also confirmed by RT

  8. Experimental Determination of the Possible Deuterium - Deuterium Fusion Reaction Originated in a Single Cavitation Bubble Luminescence System Using CDCL3 and D2 O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaglia, Mario; Florido, Pablo; Mayer, Roberto; Bonetto, Fabian

    2003-01-01

    We focus this work on the measurement of the possible Deuterium - Deuterium reaction in a SCBL (Single Cavitation Bubble Luminescence) system.We measure the possible reaction at the bubble generation time and at the bubble collapse time. We use a Nd:YAG laser and CDCl 3 and D 2 O as a medium to generate the bubble. Since CDCl 3 accommodation coefficient is best than that of D 2 O, it is expected a greater collapse force than using D 2 O.To benefit the bubble collapse violence, we diminish the temperature of the liquids.To avoid false neutron detection, we developed a measuring system with high background reject using the characteristic experiment times.No neutrons attributable to Deuterium - Deuterium fusion reaction were measured

  9. Proton and deuterium NMR experiments in zero field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    High field solid-state NMR lineshapes suffer from inhomogeneous broadening since resonance frequencies are a function of molecular orientation. Time domain zero field NMR is a two-dimensional field-cycling technique which removes this broadening by probing the evolution of the spin system under zero applied field. The simplest version, the sudden transition experiment, induces zero field evolution by the sudden removal of the applied magnetic field. Theory and experimental results of this experiment and several variations using pulsed dc magnetic fuelds to initiate zero field evolution are presented. In particular, the pulsed indirect detection method allows detection of the zero field spectrum of one nuclear spin species via another (usually protons) by utilizing the level crossings which occur upon adiabatic demagnetization to zero field. Experimental examples of proton/deuteron systems are presented which demonstrate the method results in enhanced sensitivity relative to that obtained in sudden transition experiments performed directly on deuterium. High resolution 2 H NQR spectra of a series of benzoic acid derivatives are obtained using the sudden transition and indirect detection methods. Librational oscillations in the water molecules of barium chlorate monohydrate are studied using proton and deuterium ZF experiments. 177 refs., 88 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Transport of deuterium, tritium and helium in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, J.H.H.M.

    1984-02-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model for determining steady-state radial profiles of the densities of the particles, including neutrals, in a multispecies toroidal plasma is described. For prescribed temperature profiles, the coupled momentum and particle balances of the ions are solved numerically with a newly developed compact finite difference scheme for a non-equidistant mesh. Neutral densities are obtained by solving the Boltzmann equations, using a collocation method. The model is applied to deuterium-tritium plasmas without and with a helium admixture. For the charged particles, Pfirsch-Schlueter transport, including the highly collisional extension, and either of two anomalous transport models are adopted. For equal densities of deuterons and tritons in the plasma centre, the neutral tritium density in front of the wall is found to be 1.3 to 1.6 times higher than that of deuterium, depending on the plasma density, the temperature profile and the transport model. Secondly, it is found that pumping neutral helium, originating from fusion alpha particles, out of a cold plasma/gas blanket surrounding the hot plasma is not feasible, as the helium gas density, corresponding to a relative abundance of alpha-particles in the plasma core below 10%, is very low. Although depending strongly on the ion transport model and being increased by elastic collisions between neutral helium and charged hydrogen isotopes, the neutral helium enrichment ratio is always much less than unity. (Auth.)

  11. Deuterium lamps as transfer standards for spectral radiance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, P.J.; Nettleton, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the work carried out at NPL and PTB to improve the performance of a low pressure deuterium discharge lamp, so that it can be used as a transfer standard in the spectral range 120 to 350 nm. To this end it was necessary: - to replace the original quartz windows by magnesium fluoride single crystal plates, which were cut perpendicular to the c-axis of the crystal and which had to be free of impurities, - to construct the lamps in that way that the directional uniformity of the emitted radiation is within the demands, - to age the lamps and to preselect only those of which the irradiance was stable within ± 1% during a thirty minute period after warm-up, - to improve the commercially available electrical power supply to meet the operational needs of the lamps. Thus, the deuterium lamps drifted by about 3% over a period of 100 h at all wavelengths except at 250 nm, where the ageing increased to 4.5%. A liquid nitrogen trap has been developed which can be installed between the vacuum system and the lamp. This reduced to about 2% the decrease of the window's transmission during the first hour of operation, caused by the deposition of oil from the vacuum system

  12. Trapping of deuterium in argon-implanted nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.C.; Rehn, L.E.; Baldo, P.

    1985-01-01

    Argon ions with energy 250 keV were implanted at fluences of 2 x 10 16 cm -2 at temperatures of 500, 250, and 21 0 C, in the specimen of relatively pure polycrystalline nickel. Deuterium was introduced into the surface and implanted regions by making the specimen the negative electrode of an electrolytic cell containing 1-N pure deuterated sulfuric acid. Deuterium trapped in the vacancy complexes of the implanted regions was analyzed as a function of temperature using the vacancy complexes of the implanted regions was analyzed as a function of temperature using the 2 H( 3 He, 1 H) 4 He nuclear reaction during an isochronal annealing process. The results indicate that the types of traps and trap densities found in the regions implanted at 21 and 250 0 C were essentially identical while the trap density found in the region implanted at 500 0 C was approximately 40% of that found in the other regions. Math model comparison with the experimental results suggests the existence of at least two types of traps in each region. Trap binding enthalpies used in the math model to fit the experimental data were slightly higher for the region implanted with argon at 500 0 C than for the regions implanted at the lower temperatures. TEM studies revealed the presence of small voids in the region implanted at 500 0 as well as dislocation loops similar to those found in the regions implanted at the lower temperatures. 20 references, 2 figures

  13. Method to separate and enrich molecules containing deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    Organic molecules having a normal H and D content and the general formula RX, in which R is chosen from ethyl, isopropyl, tert. butyl or cyclopentenyl groups and X is a functional group such as F, Cl, Br or OH and can even be H in the special case of cyclopentene, are exposed to an infra-red laser radiation. By careful adjustment, bundling and pulsing of an infrared laser, D-contained RX molecules exposed to the laserbeam, can dissociate or decompose. A D-contained olefin and HX is formed under suitable conditions after exposure to laser radiation. The D-contained olefin is drawn off and combusted to obtain D-contained water or D-contained hydrogen. The non-decomposed or non-reacted RX molecules which are deuterium-impoverished can be decomposed to deuterium impoverished olefins and HX in a further process step by heating on a catalyst. The latter products can then be separated off and be catylytically exchanged with normal water in order to reproduce the normal isotopic composition. They may then where necessary be catalytically recombined to form normal RX which can be recycled. (GG) [de

  14. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  15. Measurement of anomalous neutron from deuterium/solid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Wang Xiaozhong; Lu Feng; Luo Longjun; He Jianyu; Ding Dazhao; Menlove, H.O.

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments on both D 2 O electrolysis and thermal cycle of deuterium absorbed Ti Turnings are designed to examine the anomalous phenomena in Deuterium/Solid System. A neutron detector containing 16 BF 3 tubes with a detection limit of 0.38 n/s for two hour counting is used for electrolysis experiments. No neutron counting rate statistically higher than detection limit is observed from Fleischmann and Pons type experiments. An HLNCC-II neutron detector equipped with 18 3 He tubes and JSR-11 shift register unit with a detection limit of 0.20 n/s for a two hour run are employed to study the neutron signals in D 2 gas experiments. Ten batches of dry fusion samples are tested, among them, seven batches with neutron burst signals occur roughly at the temperature from -100 degrees centigrade to near room temperature. In the first four runs of a typical sample batch, seven neutron bursts are observed with neutron numbers from 15 to 482, which are 3 and 75 times, respectively, higher than the uncertainty of background. However, no bursts happened for H 2 dummy samples running in-between and afterwards and for sample batch after certain runs

  16. A laser-driven source of polarized hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.; Holt, R.J.; Gilman, R.A.; Kowalczyk, R.; Coulter, K.

    1989-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which operates on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumping is being developed. This source is designed to operate as an internal target in an electron storage ring for fundamental studies of spin-dependent structure of nuclei. It has the potential to exceed the flux from existing conventional sources (3 times 10 16/ s) by an order of magnitude. Currently, the source delivers hydrogen at a flux of 8 times 10 16 atoms/s with an atomic polarization of 24% and deuterium at 6 times 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 29%. Technical obstacles which have been overcome, with varying degrees of success are complete Doppler-coverage in the optical-pumping stage without the use of a buffer gas, wall-induced depolarization and radiation-trapping. Future improvements should allow achievement of the design goals of 4 times 10 17 atoms/s with a polarization of 50%. 8 refs., 2 figs

  17. A study of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of inclusive neutrino and antineutrino interaction on deuterium nuclei are presented. The use of deuterium as a target provides a mean to study proton and neutron scattering separately. The presently accepted theory of electro-weak interactions is reviewed. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nucleons are summarized. The concept of scaling and its consequences are treated, together with some sources of violation of scaling. The properties of the CERN wide-band neutrino beam and an overview of the elements of this beam are given. The method to determine the energy distribution and the composition of the neutrino and antineutrino beam is described. The technique employed to separate neutrino interactions on protons and neutrons is discussed. Results of the measurement of the total nucleon charged-current cross-sections and differential cross-sections are presented. The relative contributions of quarks and antiquarks to the neutrino cross-sections are deduced from y-distributions and compared to those obtained from the total cross-section measurements. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is given. (Auth.)

  18. A high deuterium abundance at redshift z = 0.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J K; Carswell, R F; Lanzetta, K M; Ferlet, R; Lemoine, M; Vidal-Madjar, A; Bowen, D V

    1997-07-17

    Of the light elements, the primordial abundance of deuterium relative to hydrogen, (D/H)p, provides the most sensitive diagnostic for the cosmological mass density parameter, omegaB. Recent high-redshift D/H measurements are highly discrepant, although this may reflect observational uncertainties. The larger primordial D/H values imply a low omegaB (requiring the Universe to be dominated by non-baryonic matter), and cause problems for galactic chemical evolution models, which have difficulty in reproducing the steep decline in D/H to the present-day values. Conversely, the lower D/H values measured at high redshift imply an omegaB greater than that derived from 7Li and 4He abundance measurements, and may require a deuterium-abundance evolution that is too low to easily explain. Here we report the first measurement of D/H at intermediate redshift (z = 0.7010), in a gas cloud selected to minimize observational uncertainties. Our analysis yields a value of D/H ((2.0 +/- 0.5) x 10[-4]) which is at the upper end of the range of values measured at high redshifts. This finding, together with other independent observations, suggests that there may be inhomogeneity in (D/H)p of at least a factor of ten.

  19. Spin-polarized hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium : I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, M.; Ostgaard, E.

    1989-01-01

    The ground-state energy of spin-polarized hydrogen, deuterium and tritium is calculated by means of a modified variational lowest order constrained-variation method, and the calculations are done for five different two-body potentials. Spin-polarized H is not self-bound according to our theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy. For spin-polarized D, however, we obtain theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy per particle from -0.4 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.25 σ -3 or a molar volume of 121 cm 3 /mol to +0.32 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.21 σ -3 or a molar volume of 142 cm 3 /mol, where σ = 3.69 A (1A = 10 -10 m). It is, therefore, not clear whether spin-polarized deuterium should be self-bound or not. For spin-polarized T, we obtain theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy per particle from -4.73 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.41 σ -3 or a molar volume of 74 cm 3 /mol to -1.21 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.28 σ -3 or a molar volume of 109 cm 3 /mol. (Author) 27 refs., 9 figs., tab

  20. Deuterium isotope composition of palaeoinfiltration water trapped in speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.

    1987-05-01

    Analytical and methodological aspects of combined isotope investigations of carbonate cave deposits are thoroughly discussed in the report. Weight is put on isotope analyses of fluid inclusions (D and 18 O content) extracted from speleothems of known age. Dating was done by the 230 Th/ 234 U ratio method. Isotopic analyses of speleothems originating from European caves allowed some important conclusions to be formulated regarding past climatic and environmental conditions prevailing over the European continent during the last 300,000 yrs: a) δD values of fluid inclusions suggest a remarkable constancy of the heavy-isotope content of European palaeoinfiltration waters recharged during interglacial periods, b) a climate-induced, long-term changes in isotopic composition of precipitation and surface air temperature over Europe can be characterized by the deuterium gradient of ca.1 4 deg./oo/deg. C, c) an apparent constancy of the continental gradient in deuterium content of European palaeoinfiltration waters as judged from the fluid inclusion data suggests that atmospheric circulation over Europe did not undergo substantial changes for at least 300,000 years

  1. 3400 m/s deuterium pellet injector for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, J.P.; Geraud, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the Tore Supra high velocity pellet injector which was built in Grenoble and after qualification tests installed on Tore Supra Tokomak where it is used for plasma and ablation studies. By using a two stage light gas gun (TSG) and two cells (φ = 3 mm or 4 mm), unsupported pellets pellets (1 to 3.5 10 21 atoms) made directly in the gun by > [1] have been launched into Tore Supra plasma at speeds between 2400m/s and 3400m/s with a reliability of 80%. These higher pellets velocities (> 2500 m/s) [2] are obtained by the optimization of a TSG and the search for the cryogenic conditions of freezing deuterium with good mechanical properties. In particular, the impurities concentration in deuterium during the condensation process has been studied. Several tens pellets have been injected into ohmically and ICR heated plasma and during LH current drive experiments with a good reliability in the range of 3000m/s. These experiments allowed us to extend significantly the ablation data base. Central penetrations can be reached even for high temperatures plasma (3-5 keV) and very peaked density profiles have been obtained in ohmically and ICR heated plasmas A transient improved confinement regime is then observed, which presents some features similar to the PEP regime obtained on JET. (orig.)

  2. Implantation driven permeation behavior of deuterium through pure tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi E-mail: nakamura@tpl.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Hayashi, Takumi; Nishi, Masataka; Arita, Makoto; Okuno, Kenji

    2001-09-01

    Implantation driven permeation behavior of deuterium through pure tungsten has been investigated to estimate the amount of tritium permeation through its barrier in a thermo-nuclear fusion device. The permeation experiments were performed on pure tungsten foil of 25 {mu}m thickness under conditions of incident flux of 1.9x10{sup 18}-1.1x10{sup 19} D{sup +}/m{sup 2}s, incident ion energy of 200-2000 eV, and specimen temperature of 512-660 K. As a result of this steady-state permeation experiment, the rate-determining process of deuterium permeation was found to be controlled by diffusion at both implanted and permeated sides. On the other hand, transient permeation was strongly affected by trap effect in the specimen. Simulation analysis using TMAP code on transient permeation behavior indicates the existence of a trap site with a trap energy of nearly 1eV and with a trap density of over several ten's ppm in tungsten.

  3. Implantation driven permeation behavior of deuterium through pure tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Nishi, Masataka; Arita, Makoto; Okuno, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    Implantation driven permeation behavior of deuterium through pure tungsten has been investigated to estimate the amount of tritium permeation through its barrier in a thermo-nuclear fusion device. The permeation experiments were performed on pure tungsten foil of 25 μm thickness under conditions of incident flux of 1.9x10 18 -1.1x10 19 D + /m 2 s, incident ion energy of 200-2000 eV, and specimen temperature of 512-660 K. As a result of this steady-state permeation experiment, the rate-determining process of deuterium permeation was found to be controlled by diffusion at both implanted and permeated sides. On the other hand, transient permeation was strongly affected by trap effect in the specimen. Simulation analysis using TMAP code on transient permeation behavior indicates the existence of a trap site with a trap energy of nearly 1eV and with a trap density of over several ten's ppm in tungsten

  4. Study of liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, H.D.

    1969-01-01

    In view of the plant of the cold neutron source for a high flux reactor (maximal thermal flux of about 10 15 n/cm 2 s) an experimental study of several cold sources of liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium has been made in a low power reactor (100 kW, about 10 12 n/cm 2 s). We have investigated: -cold neutron sources of liquid hydrogen shaped as annular layers of different thickness. Normal liquid hydrogen was used as well as hydrogen with a high para-percentage. -Cold neutron sources of liquid deuterium in cylinders of 18 and 38 cm diameter. In this case the sources could be placed into different positions to the reactor core within the heavy water reflector. This report gives a general description of the experimental device and deals more detailed with the design of the cryogenic systems. Then, the measured results are communicated, interpreted and finally compared with those of a theoretical study about the same cold moderators which have been the matter of the experimental investigation. (authors) [fr

  5. Hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium isotope exchange experiments in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, L.D.; Andrew, P.; Bracco, G.; Conroy, S.; Corti, S.; Ehrenberg, J.; Goodall, D.H.J.; Jarvis, O.N.; Lomas, P.; Loughlin, M.; Peacock, A.T.; Saibene, G.; Sadler, G.; Sartori, R.; Stamp, M.F.; Thomas, P.R.; Belle, P. van (JET Joint Untertaking, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom))

    1992-12-01

    Isotope exchange experiments have been performed in JET using hydrogen, deuterium, and, in the recent preliminary tritium experiment (PTE), tritium. The rate of change-over from one isotope to another involves two quite different time constants. We have modelled this behaviour using a multireservoir model which splits the accessible hydrogenic particles into two groups, each having a different rate of exchange of particles with the plasma. By applying this model to the sequence of discharges during and after the PTE, we can determine the parameters in the model. The resulting fit also gives a good representation of hydrogen/deuterium change-over experiments, indicating that the tritium behaves in the same manner as other hydrogen isotopes, at least as far as recycling is concerned. Discrepancies between the model and the actual measurements of tritium recovery after the PTE lead us to conclude that isotope exchange processes resulting from collisions of molecules with the vessel walls play a significant role in spreading tritrium around the machine. (orig.).

  6. El viaje al norte y el peso de la historia. Las identidades de Blanco White en sus Letters from Spain (1822 = The Journey to the North and the Importance of History. Blanco White’s Identities in Letters from Spain (1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Andreu Miralles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn las primeras décadas del siglo XIX, José María Blanco White reescribió y reconstruyó sus múltiples identidades, individuales y colectivas, e intentó fijar en relación con ellas un relato de su vida, siempre inestable. Este texto sitúa su obra y, en particular, sus Letters from Spain (1822, en el marco del debate europeo sobre los caracteres nacionales. Un debate que descansaba, en buena medida, en esa concepción escindida de Europa en la que el Sur mediterráneo «atrasado» funcionaba como una contrapartida especular del Norte «moderno». La obra de Blanco White nos permite analizar cómo dicha concepción influyó en cómo se pensaron y construyeron las identidades en la Europa de principios del siglo XIX.AbstractAt the beginning of the nineteenth-century, José María Blanco White rewrote and reconstructed his multiple identities, individual as much as collective. He tried to lay down the tale of his life, a tale that was always unsteady. This article connects his work, and especially his Letters from Spain (1822, with the European debate on national characters. To a large extent, this debate was based on an understanding of Europe in which the Mediterranean backward South worked as an opposite mirror for the modern North. Through the work of Blanco White we can analyse how this understanding influenced the way in which identities were designed and constructed in the Europe of the first decades of the nineteenth century.

  7. Multiplicación in vitro de segmentos nodales del clon de ñame Blanco de Guinea (Dioscorea cayenensis - D. rotundata ) en sistemas de cultivo semiautomatizado

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Cabrera Jova; Rafael Gómez Kosky; Sergio Rodríguez Morales; Jorge López Torres; Aymé Rayas Cabrera; Milagros Basail Pérez; Arletys Santos Pino; Víctor Medero Vega; Germán Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Con el empleo del sistema de inmersión temporal fue posible incrementar la multiplicación in vitro de los segmentos nodales en el clon de ñame Blanco de Guinea. Con este tipo de sistema de cultivo se obtuvieron los más altos valores para la altura de la planta, número de entrenudos por planta, así como para la masa fresca y seca de las mismas. Las condiciones de cultivo creadas en el sistema de inmersión temporal para la multiplicación in vitro de los segmentos nodales lograron el más alto co...

  8. Primeros registros del ibis blanco (Eudocimus albus en el Altiplano de San Luis Potosí, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia de Gortari-Ludlow

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos dos observaciones visuales del ibis blanco (Eudocimus albus de la Laguna de Los Coyotes, un afluente natural del manantial la Media Luna que se localiza en el municipio de Rioverde, San Luis Potosí, México. Los avistamientos ocurrieron en septiembre de 2011 y febrero de 2012. Este es el primer reporte de la presencia de esta ave en dicha localidad, y es importante porque la especie ha sido escasamente encontrada en ambientes no ribereños del Altiplano Mexicano.

  9. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy for investigating deuterium decorated voids in neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.N., E-mail: chase.taylor@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Shimada, M.; Merrill, B.J. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Akers, D.W. [Experimental Programs, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The present work is a continuation of a recent research to develop and optimize positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for characterizing neutron-irradiated tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and damaged to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa. Subsequently, they were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. The implanted deuterium was desorbed through sample heating to 900 °C, and Doppler broadening (DB)-PAS was performed both before and after heating. Results show that deuterium impregnated tungsten is identified as having a smaller S-parameter. The S-parameter increases after deuterium desorption. Microstructural changes also occur during sample heating. These effects can be isolated from deuterium desorption by comparing the S-parameters from the deuterium-free back face with the deuterium-implanted front face. The application of using DB-PAS to examine deuterium retention in tungsten is examined.

  10. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy for investigating deuterium decorated voids in neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. N.; Shimada, M.; Merrill, B. J.; Akers, D. W.; Hatano, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The present work is a continuation of a recent research to develop and optimize positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for characterizing neutron-irradiated tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and damaged to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa. Subsequently, they were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. The implanted deuterium was desorbed through sample heating to 900 °C, and Doppler broadening (DB)-PAS was performed both before and after heating. Results show that deuterium impregnated tungsten is identified as having a smaller S-parameter. The S-parameter increases after deuterium desorption. Microstructural changes also occur during sample heating. These effects can be isolated from deuterium desorption by comparing the S-parameters from the deuterium-free back face with the deuterium-implanted front face. The application of using DB-PAS to examine deuterium retention in tungsten is examined.

  11. Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Sunehag, Agneta L.; Sharma, Susan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Haymond, Morey W.

    We report a new method to measure the fraction of glucose derived from gluconeogenesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and positive chemical ionization. After ingestion of deuterium oxide by subjects, glucose derived from gluconeogenesis is labeled with deuterium. Our calculations of

  12. Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a new method to measure the fraction of glucose derived from gluconeogenesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and positive chemical ionization. After ingestion of deuterium oxide by subjects, glucose derived from gluconeogenesis is labeled with deuterium. Our calculations of gluc...

  13. Synthesis of seven deuteromethyl-caffeine analogues observation of deuterium isotope effects on CMR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falconnet, J.B.; Brazier, J.L.; Desage, M.

    1986-03-01

    The synthesis of all 7 N-trideuteromethyl isotopomers of caffeine by reaction of trideuteromethyl iodide (C/sup 2/H/sub 3/I) with the appropriate xanthine molecules is described. The use of proton, deuterium and carbon-13-NMR as a first step in purity assessment revealed /sup 13/C-NMR deuterium isotope effects on the resonance of perdeuteromethyl carbons.

  14. Atmospheric influence on the deuterium excess signal in polar firn - implications for ice core interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlosser, Elisabeth; Oerter, H.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Reijmer, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal deuterium excess signal of fresh snow samples from Neumayer station, coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, was studied to investigate the relationship between deuterium excess and precipitation origin. An isotope model was combined with a trajectory model to determine the relative

  15. Effect of noble gas ion pre-irradiation on deuterium retention in tungsten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; Zhao, Z. H.; De Temmerman, G.; Yuan, Y.; Morgan, T. W.; Guo, L. P.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B. Y.; Zhang, P.; Cao, X. Z.; Lu, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Impurity seeding of noble gases is an effective way of decreasing the heat loads onto the divertor targets in fusion devices. To investigate the effect of noble gases on deuterium retention, tungsten targets have been implanted by different noble gas ions and subsequently exposed to deuterium

  16. The sensitizing phenomenon of X-ray film in the experiment of metals loaded with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suhe; Wang Dalun; Chen Wenjang; Li Yijun; Fu Yibei; Zhang Xinwei

    1993-01-01

    The sensitizing phenomenon of X-ray film was studied, in metals loaded with deuterium, by a cycle method of temperature and pressure (CMTP). The experimental results showed that the sensitization of X-ray film was derived from the chemical reaction and the anomalous effect of metals loaded with deuterium. (author)

  17. Performance of a Polarized Deuterium Internal Target in a Medium-Energy Electron Storage Ring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Z.L.; Ferro Luzzi, M.M.E.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Alarcon, R.; van Bommel, R.; Botto, T.; Bouwhuis, M.; Buchholz, M.; Choi, S.; Comfort, J.; Doets, M.; Dolfini, S.; Ent, R.; Gaulard, C.; de Jager, C.W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D.J.; Miller, M.A.; Passchier, E.; Passchier, I.; Poolman, H.R.; Six, E.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Unal, O.; de Vries, H.

    1996-01-01

    A polarized deuterium target internal to a medium-energy electron storage ring is described in the context of spindependent (e, e′d) and (e ,e′p) experiments. Tensor polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell target. A Breit-Rabi polarimeter was used

  18. The need for accurate deuterium analysis in a heavy water plant and its achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.R.; Pradhan, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Importance of Mass Spectrometer as an analytical tool for deuterium analysis in heavy water plants is discussed. Some of the important requirements such as memory effect and H 3 + correction are described with reference to the Mass Spectrometer used at HWP (Talcher). For achieving the accuracy required, use of international deuterium standards and error estimation found by intercalibration are discussed. (auth.)

  19. Evidence of emission of neutrons from a titanium-deuterium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninno, A. de; Frattolillo, A.; Lollobattista, G.; Martinis, L.; Martone, M.; Mori, L.; Podda, S.; Scaramuzzi, F.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of deuterium gas with titanium has produced a flow of neutrons in two experiments reported here. This seems to show that it is not necessary to use electrolysis in order to obtain a low-temperature fusion reaction between deuterium nuclei. The experiment confirms also that nonequilibrium conditions are necessary in order to produce such a phenomenon

  20. Thermal desorption of deuterium from modified carbon nanotubes and its correlation to the microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.F.; Keim, Enrico G.; van den Berg, A.H.J.; Smithers, Mark A.; Smithers, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The process of deuterium desorption from single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) modified by atomic (D) and molecular (D2) deuterium treatment was investigated in an ultrahigh vacuum environment using thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDMS). Microstructural and chemical analyses of SWNT material,

  1. Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated graphite plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C. N. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Allain, J. P. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Luitjohan, K. E. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Krstic, P. S. [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); TheoretiK, Knoxville, Tennessee 379XX (United States); Dadras, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Laboratory experiments have been used to investigate the fundamental interactions responsible for deuterium retention in lithiated graphite. Oxygen was found to be present and play a key role in experiments that simulated NSTX lithium conditioning, where the atomic surface concentration can increase to >40% when deuterium retention chemistry is observed. Quantum-classical molecular dynamic simulations elucidated this oxygen-deuterium effect and showed that oxygen retains significantly more deuterium than lithium in a simulated matrix with 20% lithium, 20% oxygen, and 60% carbon. Simulations further show that deuterium retention is even higher when lithium is removed from the matrix. Experiments artificially increased the oxygen content in graphite to ∼16% and then bombarded with deuterium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed depletion of the oxygen and no enhanced deuterium retention, thus demonstrating that lithium is essential in retaining the oxygen that thereby retains deuterium.

  2. Deuterium trapping at vacancy clusters in electron/neutron-irradiated tungsten studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, T.; Ami, K.; Inoue, K.; Nagai, Y.; Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Hatano, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Deuterium trapping at irradiation-induced defects in tungsten, a candidate material for plasma facing components in fusion reactors, was revealed by positron annihilation spectroscopy. Pure tungsten was electron-irradiated (8.5 MeV at ∼373 K and to a dose of ∼1 × 10-3 dpa) or neutron-irradiated (at 573 K to a dose of ∼0.3 dpa), followed by post-irradiation annealing at 573 K for 100 h in deuterium gas of ∼0.1 MPa. In both cases of electron- or neutron-irradiation, vacancy clusters were found by positron lifetime measurements. In addition, positron annihilation with deuterium electrons was demonstrated by coincidence Doppler broadening measurements, directly indicating deuterium trapping at vacancy-type defects. This is expected to cause significant increase in deuterium retention in irradiated-tungsten.

  3. Some experiments on cold fusion by deuterium hydrogen gas infusion in titanium metal alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik Filho, J.; Geraldo, L.P.; Pugliese, R.; Saxena, R.N.; Morato, S.P.; Fulfaro, R.

    1990-05-01

    New results on cold fusion are reported where three different experimental situations have been tried: a) deuterium gas loaded titanium; b) deuterium gas loaded Ti 0.8 Zr 0.2 CrMn alloy and c) titanium and the Ti 0.8 Zr 0.2 CrMn alloy loaded with a mixture of deuterium and hydrogen gases. With these experiments, new thermodynamical non equilibrium conditions were achieved and the possibility of cold fusion between protons and deuterons was also tested. Three independent neutron detectors and one NaI(Tl) were utilized. Despite some large values reported in the literature for the fusion rate, an upper limit of only 8 x 10 -24 fusions/sper deuterium pair or per deuterium-hydrogen pair was determined within the attained accuracy. (author) [pt

  4. Deuterium trapping in ion implanted and co-deposited beryllium oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, A.V.; Gorodetsky, A.E.; Zakharov, A.P.; Wu, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium trapping in beryllium oxide films irradiated with 400 eV D ions has been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). It has been found that for thermally grown BeO films implanted in the range 300 - 900 K the total deuterium retention doesn't depend whereas TDS spectra do markedly on irradiation temperature. For R.T. implantation the deuterium is released in a wide range from 500 to 1100 K. At implantation above 600 K the main portion of retained deuterium is released in a single peak centered at about 1000 K. The similar TDS peak is measured for D/BeO co-deposited layer. In addition we correlate our implantation data on BeO with the relevant data on beryllium metal and carbon. The interrelations between deuterium retention and microstructure are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium in niobium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herro, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    Lattice dilation studies and direct pressure experiments gave comparable values for the partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium in niobium and vanadium. Small isotope effects in the partial molar volume of hydrogen were measured in both metals by the differential isotope method. Hydrogen had a larger partial molar volume than deuterium in niobium, but the reverse was true in vanadium. The isotope effect measured in niobium can be represented as being due to the larger amplitude of vibration of the hydrogen atom than the deuterium atom in the metal lattice. Since hydrogen has a larger mean displacement from the equilibrium position than does deuterium, the average force hydrogen exerts on the metal atoms is greater than the force deuterium exerts. The isotope effect in vanadium is likely a result of anharmonic effects in the lattice and local vibrational modes

  6. Use of deuterium labelled glucose in evaluating the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.N.; Masuoka, L.K.; deRopp, J.S.; Jones, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Deuterium labelled glucose has been used to study the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis during the fasted-refed transition in rats. Deuterium enrichment of liver glycogen was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance as well as mass spectroscopy. Sixty minutes after oral administration of deuterated glucose to fasted rats, the portal vein blood was fully enriched with deuterated glucose. Despite this, less than half of the glucose molecules incorporated into liver glycogen contained deuterium. The loss of deuterium label from glucose is consistent with hepatic glycogen synthesis by an indirect pathway requiring prior metabolism of glucose. The use of deuterium labelled glucose may prove to be a useful probe to study hepatic glycogen metabolism. Its use may also find application in the study of liver glycogen metabolism in humans by a noninvasive means

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    An explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma emission (10.82MeV) following radiative neutron capture by (14)N nuclei. The explosive detection system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D-D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF) driven ion source and nominal yield of about 10(10) fast neutrons per second (E=2.5MeV). Polyethylene and paraffin were used as moderators with borated polyethylene and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The shape and the thickness of the moderators and shields are optimized to produce the highest thermal neutron flux at the position of the explosive and the minimum total dose at the outer surfaces of the explosive detection system walls. In addition, simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3-based γ-ray detectors to different explosives is described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutron cross-sections of deuterium in the energy range 0.0001eV-15MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazazyants, N.O.; Zabrodskaya, A.S.; Larina, A.F.; Nikolaev, M.N.

    1978-08-01

    The paper describes the evaluation of deuterium neutron cross-sections, the spectra of neutrons from the reaction D(n,2n)P and the angular distributions of neutrons from this reaction and of neutrons elastically scattered on deuterium. The evaluation results are presented in the SOCRATOR format. The 26-group system of constants for deuterium is also presented. (author)

  9. El rol de las ONG de España en el internacionalización de la causa de las Damas de Blanco. Estudio de caso: Solidaridad Española con Cuba (2005-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Tenjo Montes, Jineth Milena

    2014-01-01

    El interés de este estudio de caso es demostrar el rol de la ONG Solidaridad Española con Cuba en la creación de una red transnacional de defensa de las Damas de Blanco, un movimiento social cubano disidente. Esto, tras reconocer que el apoyo por parte de ésta y otras organizaciones e instituciones internacionales es de gran importancia para lograr las reivindicaciones sociales propuestas por las Damas de Blanco, a partir de los hechos ocurridos en la Primavera Negra en el año 2003. Tanto las...

  10. Frantz Fanon y la Enajenación del Negro y del Blanco en el Sistema Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Zema de Resende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen A partir de la lectura de Piel negra, máscaras blancas, propongo en este artículo reflexionar sobre las ideas de Frantz Fanon a cerca de la enajenación del negro y del blanco en el sistema colonial. El objetivo es recuperar algunos de los principales aportes de Fanon para la comprensión del racismo colonial desde su teoría de la enajenación. Fanon presenta la enajenación como un paso previo a la esclavitud y al colonialismo, necesario para el mantenimiento de la explotación económica y analiza las conductas identitarias de "vergüenza de sí" como el resultado de la dominación colonial. Él describe con precisión el impacto del racismo y del colonialismo y sus efectos destructivos mostrando cómo los mecanismos de enajenación determinan la relación entre el blanco y el negro y cómo se reproducen las jerarquías que rigen estas relaciones. Retomar el pensamiento de Fanon y reconocer la pertinencia y actualidad de sus contribuciones es esencial para poder reubicar la lucha contra todas las formas de dominación en la continuación de la lucha contra el colonialismo en una época en que la identidad racial y el racismo han más que probado su capacidad de persistir en el tiempo y el espacio. Palabras clave: Frantz Fanon; Enajenación; Racismo; Sistema Colonial. Frantz Fanon and the Alienation of Black and White in the Colonial System Abstract From the reading of Black Skin, White Masks, in this article I propose to reflect on Frantz Fanon's ideas about alienation of black and white in the colonial system. The goal is to recover some of his most important contributions to the understanding of colonial racism from his theory of alienation. Fanon presents alienation as a prior step to slavery and colonialism, necessary for the maintenance of economic exploitation and analyzes the identity conducts of self shame as a result of colonial domination. Fanon accurately describes the impact of racism and colonialism and its destructive

  11. Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    In Sylhet region of Bangladesh it is locally known as Zara lemon and available in the local. *Corresponding ... While the lemon or orange are peeled to consume their pulpy and juicy segments, the citron's pulp is ... Then washing of the explant took place with distilled water for. 3 to 4 times. Before inoculation soaking of the ...

  12. mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL4

    between 'Shatangju' and 'Wuzishatangju' based on establishing an optimization of ..... plant species (Han et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2010). In this study, 153 pairs of SRAP .... Wang XP, Wang YJ, Zhang JX, Xu Y, Yang KQ (2003). Randomly.

  13. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... Bheemagani1, Prem Kumar1, Venkatesh K1 and Anupalli Roja Rani1. 1Department ... Human infections caused by microorganisms and fungi are rampant ... gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes).

  14. Filmes finos de LaNiO3 e PZT preparados pelo métodos das soluções precursoras poliméricas e depositados em substratos de silício

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Éder Carlos Ferreira de [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    Nesta tese estudou-se a preparação de filmes finos de PZT não dopados e dopados com Nióbio, depositados sobre substratos de Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si para aplicações em memórias não voláteis de acesso randômico (NVRAM) e memórias ferroelétricas de acesso randômico (FeRAM). A dopagem dos filmes de PZT com Nióbio foi realizada visando obter valores ótimos nas propriedades ferroelétricas para a aplicação destes filmes como memórias ferroelétricas. Todavia, problemas como imprint, corrente de fuga e fadiga n...

  15. Essential oil composition of leaf and fine stem of Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez from Manaus, Brazil Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez coletados em Manaus, B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Paz Lima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%.Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez coletada na cidade de Manaus, AM, Brasil, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-EM. Quarenta e dois componentes foram identificados, dos quais 1-nitro-2-feniletano, como esperado, foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (71,2%-68,2%.

  16. Deuterium sputtering of Li and Li-O films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew; Buzi, Luxherta; Kaita, Robert; Koel, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    Lithium wall coatings have been shown to enhance the operational plasma performance of many fusion devices, including NSTX and other tokamaks, by reducing the global wall recycling coefficient. However, pure lithium surfaces are extremely difficult to maintain in experimental fusion devices due to both inevitable oxidation and codeposition from sputtering of hot plasma facing components. Sputtering of thin lithium and lithium oxide films on a molybdenum target by energetic deuterium ion bombardment was studied in laboratory experiments conducted in a surface science apparatus. A Colutron ion source was used to produce a monoenergetic, mass-selected ion beam. Measurements were made under ultrahigh vacuum conditions as a function of surface temperature (90-520 K) using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Results are compared with computer simulations conducted on a temperature-dependent data-calibrated (TRIM) model.

  17. Activation analysis for LHD experiments with deuterium gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Komori, Akio

    2008-01-01

    Identification of radionuclides and evaluation of dose rate level have been carried out on the structural materials of the Large Helical Device and the Experimental Hall. The neutron fluence was calculated using two-dimensional transport code DOT-3.5. Energies of neutron sources are 2.45 MeV (D-D reaction) and 14 MeV (D-T reaction). Generations of radionuclides were calculated using CINAC code. Radionuclides of 93m Nb, 63 Ni and 60 Co for helical coils, 55 Fe and 60 Co for stainless steel, 55 Fe, 60 Co and 93m Nb for poloidal coils, 40 K and 55 Fe for floor concrete were dominant after a series of experiments with deuterium gases. Evaluation of dose rate level for the structural materials and air were calculated taking account a present experimental schedule. (author)

  18. In-medium modification of pion-pairs on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugert, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the quasi free photo production of pion pairs on bound nucleons γ+A→ ππ(A-1)+N is analyzed for liquid Deuterium. A pioneering experiment with a photon beam was performed by the TAPS collaboration at the accelerator facility MAMI-B in Mainz in 1999. This measurement observed an invariant mass shift of the isoscalar π 0 π 0 channel with increasing atomic number as well. Due to the poor statistics, the significance of the data was however limited. The experiment described in this work reached a much higher statistical significance, allowing a review of the old data. In this experiment, the TAPS detector was used as a forward wall in combination with the Crystal Ball detector to achieve almost the complete 4π solid angle coverage for particle detection at the MAMI accelerator facility. The installation of the experimental setup started at the end of 2003. The new readout electronics for the BaF 2 crystals was used for the first time. Between June 2004 and April 2005 measurements on several targets were performed, including the lD 2 data which has been analyzed in this work. The analysis of the Deuterium data is an essential contribution to understanding the ongoing processes for two reasons. Firstly, there is the possibility to compare the solid targets and Hydrogen to the lightest nucleus having Fermi motion included but the lowest possible nuclear volume, the Deuterium. For the second reason, there are no data for the mass differential cross section on the neutron available for the mentioned channels. Analyzing the Deuterium data and subtracting the published proton data, the cross section on the neutron gets accessible. An essential question for the theory is whether the cross section on neutron and proton are the same or how much they differ in the relevant energy regime. To determine the absolute cross section, the efficiency of the detector system is required. To provide this efficiency, I also developed the MonteCarlo simulation using a

  19. Θ"+ search at HERMES with deuterium and hydrogen targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Siguang; Schnell, Gunar

    2016-01-01

    The previous search at HERMES for narrow baryon states excited in quasi-real photo-production, decaying through the channel Θ"+ → pK_S"0 → pπ"+ π"-, has been extended. Improved decay-particle reconstruction, more advanced particle identification, and increased event samples are employed. The structure that was observed earlier at an invariant mass of 1528 MeV shifts to 1522 MeV in the new analysis of data with a deuterium target, with a drop of statistical significance to about 2σ. The number of events above background is 68_-_3_1"+"9"8(stat)±13(sys). No such structure is observed in the hydrogen data set. (author)

  20. Deuterium Abundance in the Local ISM and Possible Spatial Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1998-01-01

    Excellent HST/GHRS spectra of interstellar hydrogen and deuterium Lyman-(alpha) absorption toward nearby stars allow us to identify systematic errors that have plagued earlier work and to measure accurate values of the D/H ratio in local interstellar gas. Analysis of 12 sightlines through the Local Interstellar Cloud leads to a mean value of D/H = (1.50 +/- 0.10) x 10(exp -5) with all data points lying within +/- l(delta) of the mean. Whether or not the D/H ratio has different values elsewhere in the Galaxy and beyond is a very important open question that will be one of the major objectives of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission.

  1. Diffusion of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusiewicz, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The diffusion of hydrogen in niobium was investigated over the temperature range 148 to 500 degrees Kelvin, using measurements of the elastic after effect caused by long range diffusion (the Gorsky Effect). Relaxation curves for pure annealed niobium were generally not of the single exponential form expected from the Gorsky Effect theory, but were described well by a sum of two exponential curves with different amplitudes and relaxation times. The effects of oxygen and nitrogen interstitials on the diffusion were studied and were not in agreement with conventional trapping models. Deuterium and tritium diffusion in niobium were also studied, and a non-classical isotope effect was observed. Hydrogen diffusion coefficients in several Nb-Ta alloys were measured, and the diffusivity in all these alloys exhibited a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence. Experimental results were compared to several models for diffusion and trapping. A model is presented which can account for the form of the relaxation curves observed in pure, annealed niobium

  2. Deuterium isotope separation factor between hydrogen and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolston, J.H.; den Hartog, J.; Butler, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The overall deuterium isotope separation factor between hydrogen and liquid water, α, has been measured directly for the first time between 280 and 370 0 K. The data are in good agreement with values of α calculated from literature data on the equilibrium constant for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and water vapor, K 1 , and the liquid-vapor separation factor, α/sub V/. The temperature dependence of α over the range 273-473 0 K based upon these new experimental results and existing literature data is given by the equation ln α = -0.2143 + (368.9/T) + (27,870/T 2 ). Measurements on α/sub V/ given in the literature have been surveyed and the results are summarized over the same temperature range by the equation ln α/sub V/ = 0.0592 - (80.3/T) +

  3. Catalyzed deuterium fueled reversed-field pinch reactor assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrott, D.

    1985-01-01

    This study is part of a Department of Energy supported alternate fusion fuels program at Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of this portion of the study is to perform an assessment of a conceptual compact reversed-field pinch reactor (CRFPR) that is fueled by the catalyzed-deuterium (Cat-d) fuel cycle with respect to physics, technology, safety, and cost. The Cat-d CRFPR is compared to a d-t fueled fusion reactor with respect to several issues in this study. The comparison includes cost, reactor performance, and technology requirements for a Cat-d fueled CRFPR and a comparable cost-optimized d-t fueled conceptual design developed by LANL

  4. In-medium modification of pion-pairs on deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugert, Stefan

    2007-11-23

    In this thesis the quasi free photo production of pion pairs on bound nucleons {gamma}+A{yields} {pi}{pi}(A-1)+N is analyzed for liquid Deuterium. A pioneering experiment with a photon beam was performed by the TAPS collaboration at the accelerator facility MAMI-B in Mainz in 1999. This measurement observed an invariant mass shift of the isoscalar {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} channel with increasing atomic number as well. Due to the poor statistics, the significance of the data was however limited. The experiment described in this work reached a much higher statistical significance, allowing a review of the old data. In this experiment, the TAPS detector was used as a forward wall in combination with the Crystal Ball detector to achieve almost the complete 4{pi} solid angle coverage for particle detection at the MAMI accelerator facility. The installation of the experimental setup started at the end of 2003. The new readout electronics for the BaF{sub 2} crystals was used for the first time. Between June 2004 and April 2005 measurements on several targets were performed, including the lD{sub 2} data which has been analyzed in this work. The analysis of the Deuterium data is an essential contribution to understanding the ongoing processes for two reasons. Firstly, there is the possibility to compare the solid targets and Hydrogen to the lightest nucleus having Fermi motion included but the lowest possible nuclear volume, the Deuterium. For the second reason, there are no data for the mass differential cross section on the neutron available for the mentioned channels. Analyzing the Deuterium data and subtracting the published proton data, the cross section on the neutron gets accessible. An essential question for the theory is whether the cross section on neutron and proton are the same or how much they differ in the relevant energy regime. To determine the absolute cross section, the efficiency of the detector system is required. To provide this efficiency, I also

  5. Isotopic scaling of transport in deuterium-tritium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.D.; Murakami, M.; Adler, H.; Chang, Z.; Duong, H.; Grisham, L.R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Grek, B.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Jassby, D.L.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Loughlin, M.J.; Mansfield, D.K.; McGuire, K.M.; Meade, D.M.; Mikkelsen, D.M.; Murphy, J.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schivell, J.; Skinner, C.H.; Strachan, J.D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M.E.; Wieland, R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Both global and thermal energy confinement improve in high-temperature supershot plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) when deuterium beam heating is partially or wholly replaced by tritium beam heating. For the same heating power, the tritium-rich plasmas obtain up to 22% higher total energy, 30% higher thermal ion energy, and 20-25% higher central ion temperature. Kinetic analysis of the temperature and density profiles indicates a favorable isotopic scaling of ion heat transport and electron particle transport, with τ Ei (a/2) ∝ left angle A right angle 0.7-0.8 and τ pe (a) ∝ left angle A right angle 0.8 . (orig.)

  6. Ion-driven deuterium permeation through tungsten at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Golubeva, A. V.; Mayer, M.; Pisarev, A. A.; Roth, J.

    2009-06-01

    The ion-driven permeation (IDP) through 50 μm thick pure tungsten foils was measured in the temperature range of 823-923 K during irradiation by 200 eV/D + ion beam with a flux of 10 17-10 18 D/m 2s. Gas driven permeation (GDP) from the deuterium background gas was observed as well. Calculations using both the analytical formula for the diffusion limited regime (DLR) and the TMAP 7 code gave good agreement with the experimental data. Defects with a detrapping energy of (2.05 ± 0.15) eV were found to limit the permeation lag time in our experimental conditions.

  7. Ion-driven deuterium permeation through tungsten at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparyan, Yu.M., E-mail: yury.gasparyan@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmanstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Golubeva, A.V. [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Ac. Kurchatov sq., 1/1, Moscow RU-123182 (Russian Federation); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmanstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pisarev, A.A. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Roth, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmanstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The ion-driven permeation (IDP) through 50 mum thick pure tungsten foils was measured in the temperature range of 823-923 K during irradiation by 200 eV/D{sup +} ion beam with a flux of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} D/m{sup 2}s. Gas driven permeation (GDP) from the deuterium background gas was observed as well. Calculations using both the analytical formula for the diffusion limited regime (DLR) and the TMAP 7 code gave good agreement with the experimental data. Defects with a detrapping energy of (2.05 +- 0.15) eV were found to limit the permeation lag time in our experimental conditions.

  8. Ion-driven deuterium permeation through tungsten at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparyan, Yu.M.; Golubeva, A.V.; Mayer, M.; Pisarev, A.A.; Roth, J.

    2009-01-01

    The ion-driven permeation (IDP) through 50 μm thick pure tungsten foils was measured in the temperature range of 823-923 K during irradiation by 200 eV/D + ion beam with a flux of 10 17 -10 18 D/m 2 s. Gas driven permeation (GDP) from the deuterium background gas was observed as well. Calculations using both the analytical formula for the diffusion limited regime (DLR) and the TMAP 7 code gave good agreement with the experimental data. Defects with a detrapping energy of (2.05 ± 0.15) eV were found to limit the permeation lag time in our experimental conditions.

  9. Pion Electroproduction form Helium 3, Deuterium, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Stephen Milton [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2002-05-01

    A series of measurements for pion electroproduction from helium-3, deuterium, and hydrogen were completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility by the NucPi Collaboration. E91003 began taking data in February 1998 and was completed in April 1998. The longitudinal and transverse parts of the differential cross section were extracted, by means of a Rosenbluth type separation, in the direction parallel to the virtual photon, at Q 2 = 0.4 GeV 2 , for W = 1.15 and W = 1.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the longitudinal cross section should provide insight into the surprising apparent absence of any significant cross section enhancement due to excess pions in the nuclear medium.

  10. Hydrogen/deuterium substitution methods: understanding water structure in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogen/deuterium substitution method has been used for different applications, such as the short range order between water molecules in a number of different environments (aqueous solutions of organic molecules), or to study the partial structure factors of water at high pressure and temperature. The absolute accuracy that can be obtained remains uncertain, but important qualitative information can be obtained on the local organization of water in aqueous solution. Some recent results with pure water, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solutions are presented. It is shown that the short range water structure is not greatly affected by most solutes except at high concentrations and when the solute species has its own distinctive interaction with water (such as a dissolved small ion). 3 figs., 14 refs

  11. Substituição de areia de quartzo por finos de gnaisse em massa cerâmica para telhas: teste industrial Replacing quartz sand for gnaisse fines waste into roofing tile body: industrial test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. F. Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da substituição de areia por um resíduo de beneficiamento de rocha ornamental, finos de gnaisse, em uma massa de cerâmica vermelha utilizada para fabricação de telhas. Foram preparadas telhas prensadas, do tipo "portuguesa", para queima a 900 ºC em forno industrial. As seguintes propriedades foram determinadas: retração linear, absorção de água e carga de ruptura na flexão. Além disso, avaliaram-se as características das matérias-primas e a plasticidade das composições por meio dos limites de Atterberg. Os resultados indicaram que a utilização de finos de gnaisse em substituição à areia possibilitou uma melhoria na trabalhabilidade/plasticidade da massa cerâmica e acarretou uma pequena redução na absorção de água das telhas. A resistência mecânica não se alterou, dentro da precisão estatística das medidas.The effect of replacing sand for gnaisse sawing waste into a red ceramic body used for roofing tile fabrication was evaluated. Pressed roofing tiles, "portuguese" style, were prepared before firing at 900 ºC in an industrial furnace. The following properties were evaluated: linear shrinkage, water absorption and load rupture strength. The plasticity of the elaborated compositions was determined by the Atterberg limits. The results show that the use of gnaisse fines replacing the sand, improved the workability of the ceramic body and promoted a slight decrease on the water absorption of the roofing tiles. The mechanical strength was not changed within the statistical error.

  12. Experiments regarding organism behaviour under deuterium-depleted water influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Titescu, Gh.

    1999-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is water that has an deuterium content D/(D+H) lower than 145 ppm. The role of naturally occurring D in living organisms was examined by using DDW instead of natural water. The DDW significantly decreased the growth rate of the L 929 fibroblast cell line and also inhibited the tumour growth. These suggest that the naturally occurring D has a central role in signal transduction involved in cell cycle regulation. Beginning with 1996, Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Separation, a DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for evaluation of biological effects of DDW. These investigation lead to the following conclusions: 1. DDW caused a tendency of increasing the basal tone, accompanied by intensification of vasoconstrictor effects of phenylephrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by DDW persists after removing the vascular in endothelium. 2. DDW stimulates immunodefence reactions, represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system, together with increase in the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. 3. Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to the sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action. 4. Investigation regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favourable influence both in embryo growth stage and resistance in the following growing stages. 5. It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character variability of two genotypes of Avena Sativa; one can remark the favourable influence of DDW on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  13. Physics of high performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, K.M.; Batha, S.

    1996-11-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production, isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high-I i ) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF- heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-I i discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier. It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed

  14. Deuterium ion irradiation induced blister formation and destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jaemin; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Kim, Hyun-Su; Jin, Younggil; Roh, Ki-Baek; Kim, Gon-Ho, E-mail: ghkim@snu.ac.kr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The areal number density of blisters on the grain with (1 1 1) plane orientation increased with increasing ion fluence. • No more blisters were created above the temperature about 900 K due to high thermal mobility of ions and inactivity of traps. • The destruction of blister at the boundary induced by sputtering is proposed. • The blisters were destructed at the position about the boundary by high sputtering yield of oblique incident ions and thin thickness due to plastic deformation at the boundary. - Abstract: The blisters formation and destruction induced by the deuterium ions on a polycrystalline tungsten were investigated with varying irradiation deuterium ion fluence from 3.04 × 10{sup 23} to 1.84 × 10{sup 25} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} and an fixed irradiated ion energy of 100 eV in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, which was similar to the far-scrape off layer region in the nuclear fusion reactors. Target temperature was monitored during the irradiation. Most of blisters formed easily on the grain with (1 1 1) plane orientation which had about 250 nm in diameter. In addition, the areal number density of blisters increased with increasing the ion fluence under the surface temperature reaching to about 900 K. When the fluence exceeded 4.6 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2}, the areal number density of the blister decreased. It could be explained that the destruction of the blister was initiated by erosion at the boundary region where the thickness of blister lid was thin and the sputtering yield was high by oblique incident ions, resulting in remaining the lid open, e.g., un-eroded center dome. It is possible to work as a tungsten dust formation from the plasma facing divertor material at far-SOL region of fusion reactor.

  15. Pebble bed blanket design for deuterium burning tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, S.P.; Dhir, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    The UCLA tandem mirror reactor, SATYR, was developed around the capability of tandem mirrors with thermal barriers to burn deuterium at reasonable efficiency levels. The pebble bed concept has been incorporated into our blanket design for the following reasons: 1) Large area-to-volume ratio for purposes of heat removal; 2) Large volume of structure for high thermal capacity thus increasing the safety margin during off-normal incidents; 3) Relatively inexpensive manufacturing costs because of large acceptable tolerances and lack of exotic materials (i.e., lithium). A simplified stress analysis of the blanket module was performed to optimize and simplify the design. The pre-specified stress intensity limitations used were based upon a 30-year predicted lifetime for each module. Along with stress analysis of the vessel a detailed thermal hydraulic analysis of the pebble bed has been completed. Parameters affecting the pebble bed design are fluidization velocity, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient, thermally induced stress in the spheres and spatial variation of the power density. Although reasonable gross thermal efficiencies of the 2 designs has been achieved (28% for H 2 O and 39% for He) the high net recirculating power fraction for heating and neutral beams results in relatively low net plant efficiencies (21% and 27%). The results show that a blanket can be designed with good thermal efficiency and a relative-ly simple configuration. However, application of this concept to the high Q deuterium-tritium fuel cycle would have difficulties resulting from the need for continuous removal of the tritium. (orig./HP)

  16. Residual stress in deuterium implanted nominal copper coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inal, M. Y.; Alam, M.; Peascoe, R. A.; Watkins, T. R.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of deuterium (D) implantation on the residual stresses in Cu and CuAl 2 phases present in nominal Cu coatings (containing Al) deposited on Al-alloy (Al-6061) substrates were measured using an x-ray diffraction technique. The coatings were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a pure Cu target under identical conditions and Al was incorporated in the coatings during growth by diffusion from the substrate. Deuterium was implanted in the coatings at energies of 40 or 40+120 keV with fluences of 1x10 21 , 2x10 21 , or 3x10 21 D + /m 2 . Pole figures of the Cu phase in the coatings prior to and after implantation indicated no effect of implantation on the fibrous texture. Triaxial stress analysis indicated the surface normal stress component to be negligible in Cu and slightly tensile in CuAl 2 under all conditions. Furthermore, under all conditions, the in-plane residual stresses in both phases were found to be compressive and nearly isotropic. The magnitude of the isotropic compressive stress was always higher in CuAl 2 as compared to Cu. The compressive residual stresses in the Cu phase changed only mildly with increasing coating weight, ion energy, and fluence. However, in the CuAl 2 phase the compressive residual stresses changed markedly with increasing ion energy (initial decrease followed by leveling off) and increasing ion fluence (initial decrease followed by an increase), but remained unaffected by increasing coating weight. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Multiple Paths of Deuterium Fractionation in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Yuri; Furuya, Kenji; Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric

    2018-03-01

    We investigate deuterium chemistry coupled with the nuclear spin-state chemistry of H2 and {{{H}}}3+ in protoplanetary disks. Multiple paths of deuterium fractionation are found; exchange reactions with D atoms, such as HCO+ + D, are effective in addition to those with HD. In a disk model with grain sizes appropriate for dark clouds, the freeze-out of molecules is severe in the outer midplane, while the disk surface is shielded from UV radiation. Gaseous molecules, including DCO+, thus become abundant at the disk surface, which tends to make their column density distribution relatively flat. If the dust grains have grown to millimeter size, the freeze-out rate of neutral species is reduced and the abundances of gaseous molecules, including DCO+ and N2D+, are enhanced in the cold midplane. Turbulent diffusion transports D atoms and radicals at the disk surface to the midplane, and stable ice species in the midplane to the disk surface. The effects of turbulence on chemistry are thus multifold; while DCO+ and N2D+ abundances increase or decrease depending on the regions, HCN and DCN in the gas and ice are greatly reduced at the innermost radii, compared to the model without turbulence. When cosmic rays penetrate the disk, the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H2 is found to be thermal in the disk, except in the cold (≲10 K) midplane. We also analyze the OPR of {{{H}}}3+ and H2D+, as well as the main reactions of H2D+, DCO+, and N2D+, in order to analytically derive their abundances in the cold midplane.

  18. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzi, Luxherta, E-mail: l.buzi@fz-juelich.de [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Bvd. des Aiguillettes, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Temmerman, Greg De [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Unterberg, Bernhard; Reinhart, Michael; Litnovsky, Andrey; Philipps, Volker [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oost, Guido Van [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Möller, Sören [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER – relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER – like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux densities (high: 3.5–7 · 10{sup 23} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s and low: 9 · 10{sup 21} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s). Particle fluence and ion energy, respectively 10{sup 26} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} and ∼38 eV were kept constant in all cases. The experiments were performed at three different surface temperatures 530 K, 630 K and 870 K. Experimental results concerning the deuterium retention and surface modifications of low flux exposure confirmed previous investigations. At temperatures 530 K and 630 K, deuterium retention was higher at lower flux density due to the longer exposure time (steady state plasma operation) and a consequently deeper diffusion range. At 870 K, deuterium retention was found to be higher at high flux density according to the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements. While blisters were completely absent at low flux density, small blisters of about 40–50 nm were formed at high flux density exposure. At the given conditions, a relation between deuterium retention and blister formation has been found which has to be considered in addition to deuterium trapping in defects populated by diffusion.

  19. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzi, Luxherta; Temmerman, Greg De; Unterberg, Bernhard; Reinhart, Michael; Litnovsky, Andrey; Philipps, Volker; Oost, Guido Van; Möller, Sören

    2014-01-01

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER – relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER – like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux densities (high: 3.5–7 · 10 23 D + /m 2 s and low: 9 · 10 21 D + /m 2 s). Particle fluence and ion energy, respectively 10 26 D + /m 2 and ∼38 eV were kept constant in all cases. The experiments were performed at three different surface temperatures 530 K, 630 K and 870 K. Experimental results concerning the deuterium retention and surface modifications of low flux exposure confirmed previous investigations. At temperatures 530 K and 630 K, deuterium retention was higher at lower flux density due to the longer exposure time (steady state plasma operation) and a consequently deeper diffusion range. At 870 K, deuterium retention was found to be higher at high flux density according to the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements. While blisters were completely absent at low flux density, small blisters of about 40–50 nm were formed at high flux density exposure. At the given conditions, a relation between deuterium retention and blister formation has been found which has to be considered in addition to deuterium trapping in defects populated by diffusion

  20. Standards for deuterium analysis requirements of heavy water plants (Preprint No. CA-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, B N; Gopalakrishnan, V T; Alphonse, K P; Pawar, P L; Sadhukhan, H K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Heavy Water Div.

    1989-04-01

    Accurate analysis of deuterium, covering the entire range, is of great importance in production of heavy water. Most of the methods for determination of deuterium in gas or liquid samples require appropriate standards. Since density of pure protium oxide and pure deuterium oxide has been determined very accurately by a large number of workers and density of mixtures of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O follows a linear relation, it is possible to use accurate density determination for measurement of deuterium content. Float method for density measurements was improved further and used for the preparation of primary heavy water standards in high and low deuterium ranges. Heavy water plant laboratories require gas standards (ammonia synthesis gas matrix), in addition to low deuterium water standards, for calibration of mass spectrometers. SLAP (Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation, D/D+H = 89.02+-0.05ppm) and SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water, D/D+H =155.76+-0.05ppm) available from IAEA, Vienna, along with water practically free from deuterium, were used as standards to prepare secondary liquid standards. These secondary standards were subsequently reduced and mixed with pure nitrogen to obtain D/D+H standards in syngas matrix. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.; LaBombard, B.; Lehmer, R.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Ra, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Deuterium plasma recycling and chemical erosion behavior of selected graphite materials have been investigated using the PISCES-A facility. These materials include: Pyro-graphite; 2D-graphite weave; 4D-graphite weave; and POCO-graphite. Deuterium plasma bombardment conditions are: fluxes around 7 /times/ 10 17 ions s/sup /minus/1/cm/sup /minus/2/; exposure time in the range from 10 to 100 s; bombarding energy of 300 eV; and graphite temperatures between 20 and 120/degree/C. To reduce deuterium plasma recycling, several approaches have been investigated. Erosion due to high-fluence helium plasma conditioning significantly increases the surface porosity of POCO-graphite and 4D-graphite weave whereas little change for 2D-graphite weave and Pyro-graphite. The increased pore openings and refreshed in-pore surface sites are found to reduce the deuterium plasma recycling and chemical erosion rates at transient stages. The steady state recycling rates for these graphite materials can be also correlated to the surface porosity. Surface topographical modification by machined-grooves noticeably reduces the steady state deuterium recycling rate and the impurity emission from the surface. These surface topography effects are attributed to co-deposition of remitted deuterium, chemically sputtered hydrocarbon and physically sputtered carbon under deuterium plasma bombardment. The co-deposited film is found to have a characteristic surface morphology with dendritic microstructures. 18 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Trapping behaviour of deuterium ions implanted into tungsten simultaneously with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Suzuki, Sachiko; Wang, Wanjing; Kurata, Rie; Kida, Katsuya; Oya, Yasuhisa; Okuno, Kenji; Ashikawa, Naoko; Sagara, Akio; Yoshida, Naoaki

    2009-01-01

    The trapping behaviour of deuterium ions implanted into tungsten simultaneously with carbon ions was investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The D 2 TDS spectrum consisted of three desorption stages, namely desorption of deuterium trapped by intrinsic defects, ion-induced defects and carbon with the formation of the C-D bond. Although the deuterium retention trapped by intrinsic defects was almost constant, that by ion-induced defects increased as the ion fluence increased. The retention of deuterium with the formation of the C-D bond was saturated at an ion fluence of 0.5x10 22 D + m -2 , where the major process was changed from the sputtering of tungsten with the formation of a W-C mixture to the formation of a C-C layer, and deuterium retention as the C-D bond decreased. It was concluded that the C-C layer would enhance the chemical sputtering of carbon with deuterium with the formation of CD x and the chemical state of carbon would control the deuterium retention in tungsten under C + -D 2 + implantation.

  3. Deuterium release from Li-D films exposed to atmospheric gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparyan, Yu. M., E-mail: YMGasparyan@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S.; Krat, S.A.; Pisarev, A.A.; Vasina, Ya. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I.E. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); JSC “Red Star”, Electrolitniy proezd 1a, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.V. [JSC “Red Star”, Electrolitniy proezd 1a, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The major part of deuterium desorbs from Li-D films in a very sharp peak at 670–710 K. • Exposure on air leads to intensive deuterium release from the Li-D film at room temperature. • Interaction with water vapor plays a major role in deuterium release from lithium films in the air. - Abstract: Deuterium release from Li-D films co-deposited on a Mo substrate at room temperature in magnetron discharge was investigated by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy. The deuterium concentration in the films was estimated to be D/Li = (14 ± 4)%. TDS from Li-D films just after co-deposition had a sharp peak at 670–710 K. Exposure of deposited Li-D films in the air at room temperature led to deuterium release. Comparison of release in air, water vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen demonstrated that water plays a major role in deuterium release in the air at low temperatures.

  4. Effects of hydrogen mixture into helium gas on deuterium removal from lithium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Akihito, E-mail: tsuchiya@frontier.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Hino, Tomoaki; Yamauchi, Yuji; Nobuta, Yuji [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Akiba, Masato; Enoeda, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebbles were irradiated with deuterium ions with energy of 1.7 keV and then exposed to helium or helium–hydrogen mixed gas at various temperatures, in order to evaluate the effects of gas exposure on deuterium removal from the pebbles. The amounts of residual deuterium in the pebbles were measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy. The mixing of hydrogen gas into helium gas enhanced the removal amount of deuterium. In other words, the amount of residual deuterium after the helium–hydrogen mixed gas exposure at lower temperature was lower than that after the helium gas exposure. In addition, we also evaluated the pebbles exposed to the helium gas with different hydrogen mixture ratio from 0% to 1%, at 573 K. Although the amount of residual deuterium in the pebbles after the exposure decreased with increasing the hydrogen mixture ratio, the implanted deuterium partly remained after the exposure. These results suggest that the tritium inventory may occur at low temperature region in the blanket during the operation.

  5. Energy properties of deuterium cluster impacts on TiD targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori

    1992-01-01

    In order to know the energy properties of deuterium atoms in the cluster impact region, the deuterium cluster impact phenomena have been simulated by using the time-evolution Monte Carlo simulation code DYACAT, where the (D) n (n being 100 to 500 ) with energy 500eV/atom are bombarded on TiD targets. For comparison, the energy properties of 500 eV/atom (Al) 500 cluster impacts on amorphous Au targets have also been simulated. In the case of the deuterium cluster impacts on TiD targets, the high energy tail of the energy distribution of deuterium atoms drops so fast. The temperature of the deuterium cluster impact region is less than 100 ev, and it decreases slightly as the cluster size increases due to the enhanced energy removal with reflected deuterium atoms and sputtered deuterium atoms. While in the case of 500 eV/atom (Al) 500 cluster impacts on Au the high-energy tail of the energy distribution of Al atoms due to the big cluster impact can be well described in terms of the Maxwell-Boltzmann function whose temperature is 270 ev. (author)

  6. Process for the separation of deuterium and tritium from water using ammonia and a hydrogen-nitrogen-mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrin, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    A multistage process for separation of deuterium and tritium from water using ammonia and a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture. In a first stage isotopic exchange takes place between water containing deuterium and tritium, and ammonia depleted in deuterium and tritium. The molar ammonia throughput is chosen to be greater than two third of the molar throughput of water. The advantage of the process consists in the fact that the main product is water almost entirely free from deuterium and tritium. The byproducts are compounds enriched in deuterium and tritium, and nitrogen enriched in N-15

  7. Thermal desorption of deuterium from Be, and Be with helium bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, A.V.; Van Veen, A.; Busker, G.J. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.

    1998-01-01

    Deuterium desorption measurements carried out on a single-crystalline beryllium sample are presented. Deuterium ions were implanted at room temperature at the energy of 0.7 and 1.2 keV up to doses ranging from 10{sup 19} to 3.6 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -2}. In order to eliminate the influence of the beryllium-oxide surface layer, before the implantation the surface of the sample was cleaned by argon sputtering. After the implantation the sample was annealed up to 1200 K at a constant rate of 10 K/s. Deuterium released from the sample was monitored by a calibrated quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The desorption spectra revealed two different contributions. One is a well defined and very narrow peak centered around 450 K. This peak is observed only at high implantation doses > 7.8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -2}, which is close to the deuterium saturation limit of 0.3 D/Be and is related to deuterium release from blisters or interconnected bubbles. The activation energy of 1.1 eV and the threshold implantation dose are consistent with the values reported in literature. The second contribution in the release spectra is found in the temperature range from 600 to 900 K and is present throughout the whole range of the implantation doses. The activation energies corresponding to this release lie in the range between 1.8 and 2.5 eV and are ascribed to the release from deuterium-vacancy type of defects. In a number of experiments the deuterium implantation was preceded by helium implantation followed by partial annealing to create helium bubbles. The resulting deuterium desorption spectra indicate that deuterium detrapping from helium bubbles is characterized by an activation energy of 2.7 eV. (author)

  8. Deuterium used as artificial tracer in column studies under saturated water flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeniger, P.; Geiges, M.; Leibundgut, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    In contrast to numerous investigations using deuterium as an environmental tracer, hydrological investigations with deuterium-labelled water are rather rare. Currently applications in groundwater studies are restricted due to increasing costs of spiking large water quantities but an application as intelligent tracer might be of advantage especially in combination with other tracers and under distinct environmental conditions. Therefore deuterium was applied as artificial tracer in column experiments that are well proved as a tool to characterise tracer behaviour in recent studies. Deuterium was tested in comparison to the more familiar conservative tracer fluorescein. Varying experimental conditions, e.g. column length (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 m), initial tracer concentration (0.01, 0.02, 0.2 mg) and flow velocity (1.5 to 6.0 m/d) were used to investigate tracer behaviour under saturated water flow conditions. Deuterium was analysed using an H/Device with chrome reduction connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and expressed in relative concentrations [per mill V-SMOW]. Theoretical tracer breakthrough curves were calculated using a one dimensional dispersion model. The results indicate higher mean transport velocities and smaller dispersion for deuterium in all experiments. Due to different molecule properties that also determine the interaction of soil substrate and tracer, deuterium indicates a more conservative transport behaviour. Deuterium is non-toxic, completely soluble, chemically and biologically stable and not subject to light-influenced decay. Furthermore, it shows promise for investigations of water flow in the unsaturated zone, and of interactions of water in soil-plant-atmosphere systems. A further discussion of problems, together with possibilities for applying deuterium as an artificial tracer, will be presented.

  9. Determination of dew absorption by coffee plant through deuterium concentrations in leaf water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopoldo, P R [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil); Salati, E; Matsui, E [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    1975-12-01

    The effect of dew falling on leaves on the water metabolism of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica) is examined. The use of natural stable isotopes variations in plant physiological studies is demonstrated. Water extracted from leaf samples is analysed by mass spectrometry. Analyses of deuterium concentrations in water extracted from plant leaves, dew and nutrient solutions are made. Determination of changes in deuterium concentration in the water of leaves from plants exposed to dew, compared with leaves not exposed to dew, is carried out. Results show that during daytime there is an enrichment in deuterium in water contained in the leaves, while at night the opposite occurs.

  10. Extraction of deuterium from D-rich process condensate of ammonia plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldar, T K; Kumar, Manoj; Ramamurty, C B [Heavy Water Board, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy water plants based on ammonia-hydrogen exchange process receives feed synthesis gas from the adjacent fertilizer plants. The production capacity of such heavy water plants is directly proportional to the deuterium-content in feed synthesis gas. The chemical process involved in gas generation section of the fertilizer plant includes catalytic steam-reforming of natural gas/naphtha/fuel oil followed by shift conversion, alternatively coal classification followed by shift conversion. Effective extraction of deuterium from the deuterium-rich process condensate can boost the production capacity of heavy water plants considerably. This paper discusses various possible methods to achieve this objective. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. On line determination of deuterium in hydrogen water exchange reaction by mass spectrometry. IRP-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.D.; Alphonse, K.P.; Mishra, Sushama; Prabhu, S.A.; Mohan, Sadhana; Tangri, V.K.

    2007-01-01

    The Deuterium (D)/Hydrogen (H) analysis at low Concentration is generally carried out by Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometer is specially designed for the measurement of Mass 2 and 3 ratio. The Deuterium analysis of water and hydrogen in concentration range of a few ppm to about 1% plays an important role in the Heavy Water Production Plants. For the enrichment of the Deuterium concentration in H 2 O by H 2 - H 2 O exchange a catalyst is essential as reaction is relatively slow. Heavy Water Division has developed in house Platinum based catalyst for the isotopic exchange of Hydrogen and Water

  12. Comparative study of heavy and deuterium-depleted water on platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haulica, I.; Neagu, B.; Boisteanu, C.P.; Bild, W.; Mihaila, C.; Bajenariu, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of timed incubation of PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma) with various concentrations of deuterium-depleted or deuterated water were tested. Aggregation curves were obtained under constant stirring at 20 deg.C and at 37 deg.C, using 5 - 10 μM ADP as aggregation trigger, using a Specord photo colorimeter. Incubation with 10 % deuterated water showed a significant decrease in the aggregation curves, an effect consistent with the data in the literature. Incubation with deuterium depleted water in the same conditions showed a marked increase in the aggregation curves, which suggests a powerful pro-aggregating effect of deuterium depleted water. (authors)

  13. Growth acceleration and photosynthesis of the scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae in deuterium water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wang Wenqing

    1998-01-01

    In order to find new way to treat the radioactive tritium waste water, scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae are cultured in medium which contains 30% (w) deuterium water. During different time, activities of photosymthesis, absorption spectrum, growth rate and low-temperature fluorescence spectrum are measured. Accelerated growth is found in the deuterium water compared to the normal water. Activities of photosynthesis show the similar result (F v /F m ) to the growth data. It is also concluded from low-temperature fluorescence spectra that algae activities in the deuterium water, which are expressed by PS I/PS II, are more sensitive than those in the normal water

  14. Monte Carlo calculations of thermodynamic properties of deuterium under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levashov, P R; Filinov, V S; BoTan, A; Fortov, V E; Bonitz, M

    2008-01-01

    Two different numerical approaches have been applied for calculations of shock Hugoniots and compression isentrope of deuterium: direct path integral Monte Carlo and reactive Monte Carlo. The results show good agreement between two methods at intermediate pressure which is an indication of correct accounting of dissociation effects in the direct path integral Monte Carlo method. Experimental data on both shock and quasi-isentropic compression of deuterium are well described by calculations. Thus dissociation of deuterium molecules in these experiments together with interparticle interaction play significant role

  15. Determination of dew absorption by coffee plant through deuterium concentrations in leaf water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of dew falling on leaves on the water metabolism of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica) is examined. The use of natural stable isotopes variations in plant physiological studies is demonstrated. Water extracted from leaf samples is analysed by mass spectrometry. Analyses of deuterium concentrations in water extracted from plant leaves, dew and nutrient solutions are made. Determination of changes in deuterium concentration in the water of leaves from plants exposed to dew, compared with leaves not exposed to dew, is carried out. Results show that during daytime there is an enrichment in deuterium in water contained in the leaves, while at night the opposite occurs [pt

  16. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...... enhancing DD and D3He fusion reactions. Modelling and measuring the fast deuterium tail accurately is essential for quantifying the fusion products. This paper presents the modelling of the D distribution function resulting from the NBI+ICRF heating scheme, reinforced by a comparison with dedicated JET fast...

  17. Deuterium oxide as a tool for the study of amino acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, R.; Burton, J.; Varner, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    We have used deuterium oxide in nontoxic concentrations to study, in intact seedlings, the biosynthesis of amino acids. The extent and pattern of deuteration, as determined by a gas--liquid chromatograph--mass spectrometer system, permits conclusions about the biosynthesis of individual amino acids and also about their exposure to transaminases and other enzymes that might introduce deuterium into specific positions of the amino acid by exchange. This method could be used to study amino acid biogenesis in any organism that can tolerate 20 to 40 percent deuterium oxide for a period of a few hours to a few days

  18. Prospects for a deuterium internal target, tensor polarized by optical pumping: spin exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) appropriate for nuclear physics studies in medium and high energy particle storage rings are discussed. Using the technique of electron spin exchange with an optically pumped sodium (or potassium) vapor, we hope to polarize deuterium at a rate approx. 10 17 atoms/sec. Predictions for the deuterium polarization for a particular target cell design will be presented leading to the identification of the required optical pumping power and cell wall depolarization probability to attain optimum performance. The technical obstacles to be surmounted in such a target design will also be discussed

  19. Use of steam condensate exchange process for recovery of deuterium from condensate of ammonia plant as adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher (Paper No. 2.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, S.; Saha, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper highlights the use of steam-condensate exchange system for recovery of deuterium from condensate of ammonia plant, which is adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher. Deuterium concentration in the condensate leaving the steam-condensate exchange column can be brought down very close to the deuterium concentration in water thereby achieving practically complete deuterium recovery. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Phenomenological nuclear reaction description in deuterium-saturated palladium and synthesized structure in dense deuterium gas under γ-quanta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Wisniewski, R.

    2012-01-01

    The observed phenomena on the changes of chemical compositions in our previous reports allowed us to develop a phenomenological nuclear fusion-fission model with taking into consideration the elastic and inelastic scattering of photoprotons and photoneutrons, heating of surrounding deuterium nuclei, following D-D fusion reactions and fission of middle-mass nuclei by 'hot' protons, deuterons and various-energy neutrons. Such chain processes could produce the necessary number of neutrons, 'hot' deuterons for explanation of the observed experimental results. The developed approach can be a basis for creation of deuterated nuclear fission reactors (DNFR) with high-density deuterium gas and so-called deuterated metals. Also, the developed approach can be used for the study of nuclear reactions in high-density deuterium or tritium gases and deuterated metals

  1. Tests of a polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium based on spin-exchange optical pumping and a storage cell for polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.; Gilman, R.; Kinney, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which is based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumping has been developed at Argonne. The advantages of this method over conventional polarized sources for internal target experiments is discussed. At present, the laser-driven polarized source delivers hydrogen 8 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 24% and deuterium at 6 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 25%. A passive storage cell for polarized deuterium was tested in the VEPP-3 electron storage ring. The storage cell was found to increase the target thickness by approximately a factor of three and no loss in polarization was observed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Depth concentrations of deuterium ions implanted into some pure metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Wisniewski, R.; Kitowski, K.; Wilczynska, T.; Hofman, A.; Kulikauskas, V.; Shiryaev, A.A.; Zubavichyus, Ya.V.

    2011-01-01

    Pure metals (Cu, Ti, Zr, V, Pd) and diluted Pd alloys (Pd-Ag, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh) were implanted by 25-keV deuterium ions at fluences in the range (1.2-2.3) x 10 22 D + /m 2 . The post-treatment depth distributions of deuterium ions were measured 10 days and three months after the implantation by using Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). Comparison of the obtained results allowed us to make conclusions about relative stability of deuterium and hydrogen gases in pure metals and diluted Pd alloys. Very high diffusion rates of implanted deuterium ions from V and Pd pure metals and Pd alloys were observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed formation of nanosized defects in implanted corundum and titanium

  3. Nuclear micro-beam analysis of deuterium distribution in carbon fibre composites for controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson, P.; Kreter, A.; Possnert, G.; Rubel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Probes made of carbon fibre composite NB41 were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak and in a simulator of plasma-wall interactions, PISCES. The aim was to assess the deuterium retention and its lateral and depth distribution. The analysis was performed by means of D( 3 He, p) 4 He and 12 C( 3 He, p) 14 N nuclear reactions analysis using a standard (1 mm spot) and micro-beam (20 μm resolution). The measurements have revealed non uniform distribution of deuterium atoms in micro-regions: differences by a factor of 3 between the maximum and minimum deuterium concentrations. The differences were associated with the orientation and type of fibres for samples exposed in PICSES. For surface structure in the erosion zone of samples exposed to a tokamak plasma the micro-regions were more complex. Depth profiling has indicated migration of fuel into the bulk of materials.

  4. Reactor prospects of muon-catalyzed fusion of deuterium and tritium concentrated in transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    It is conjectured that the number of fusion events catalyzed by a single muon is orders of magnitude greater for deuterium and tritium concentrated in a transition metal than in gaseous form and that the recent observation of 2.5-MeV neutrons from a D 2 O electrolytic cell with palladium and titanium cathodes can thereby be interpreted in terms of cosmic muon-catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fusion. This suggests a new fusion reactor reactor consisting of deuterium and tritium concentrated in transition metal fuel elements in a fusion core that surrounds an accelerator-produced muon source. The feasibility of net energy production in such a reactor is established in terms of requirements on the number of fusion events catalyzed per muon. The technological implications for a power reactor based on this concept are examined. The potential of such a concept as a neutron source for materials testing and tritium and plutonium production is briefly discussed

  5. Deuterium migration and trapping in uranium and uranium dioxide during D+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium and UO 2 have been implanted with deuterium ions in the energy range 30-85 keV. Subsequently, the near surface regions (100-90000 Angstroem) of these samples were quantitatively profiled for deuterium oxygen using the method of ion beam microanalysis. Mean ranges and widths of the implanted ions were measured and compared with theoretical predictions. Fully oxidized samples were compared with those having only thin oxide films on their surfaces. While the deuterium appeared to migrate during its implantation in uranium, little or no migration appeared either during or after implantation in UO 2 . Further measurements suggest that thin surface oxide films strongly trap the deuterium migrating beneath the surface. It is suggested that the electronic energy loss of the ion beam lowers the effective activation energy for the formation of OD bonds near the target surface. (orig.)

  6. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  7. Simulation for Synthesis of Tritiated Styrene by Catalyzed Addition of Deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Xiao-jing;KANG Yi;HU Shi-lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tritiated styrene plays an important role in the organic tritium lights, which could be made by selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene. A simulated reaction of the preparation of tritiated styrene was studied by using deuterium instead of tritium and using the Lindlar catalyst instead of Pd/C catalyst to improve the conversion and selectivity of the reaction. Experiment results showed that stirring speed, temperature and the amount of deuterium were the most important factors to effect the conversion and selectivity of the reaction. The relative stronger stirring speed and higher temperature could improve the conversion rate of the reaction, but could not change the selectivity. When the excessive or less deuterium was added in the reaction, the selectivity was decreased significantly, since the over deuterium promoted the reaction toward ethylbenzene. Lindlar catalyst exhibited higher selectivity toward styrene than Pd/C.

  8. Commissioning experiment of the polarized internal gas target with deuterium at ANKE/COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    In order to conduct the production experiments with polarized deuterium target and (un)polarized proton beam at ANKE/COSY, a commissioning experiment of the polarized internal target with deuterium is imperative. The commissioning experiment includes the measurements of both the vector (Q{sub y}) and tensor (Q{sub yy}) polarization of the deuterium gas target through the nuclear reactions with large and well known analyzing powers, which can be detected in ANKE. The dependence of the polarizations along the storage cell is also determined. The poster presents the physics case for the experiments with deuterium polarized internal target and the apparatus needed for the commissioning experiment, as well as the procedure of extraction for spin observables.

  9. The effects of deuterium-depleted water on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Jurca, Elena M.; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.

    2000-01-01

    Due to their adaptability the bacteria are ubiquitous, occurring in a large variety of habitats. Most of them are saprotrophs or parasites. Bacteria are agents causing many diseases in animals and humans. The main purpose of this work was to reveal the deuterium-depleted water bactericidal effect. Nonpathogenic Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus) and pathogenic Gram-negative (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia amylovora and Escherichia coli) bacteria were used. The variant deuterium depleted (DDW) eater was compared with distilled water eater one. The diffusometric method was found the proper way of investigation. The bacteria culture was developed in Petri dishes (diam = 70 mm) at a temperature of 25 deg. C. After 24 h, 48 h and 72 h the clear area was measured. The clear area was one in which the bacteria were killed. The surface was determined by the area of the small disc on the filter paper. The statistical data were determined by variance analysis. The results pointed out a large response to DDW presence. The data were classified in: 1. without response when no clear area occurred; - 2. with response when a clear area of under 5 mm 2 occurred; - 3. strong response when the clear area was higher than 10 mm 2 . The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria behaviours were not in correlation with the DDW bactericidal effect. The Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli were scored as without response and we presume that they were very tolerant. No clear area was induced by DDW. Bacillus subtilis and Erwinia amylovora showed weak response. After 24 h the killed bacteria were extended on the same area, namely, 2.89 mm 2 . Even if the DDW effect seems to be small it was significantly in comparison with the control case (s d = 2.78 mm 2 > 0.1). After 48 h and 72 h the clear surface remained the same. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens' response was very strong. The bacteria were killed on 22.50 mm 2 after 24 h and on 26.95 mm 2 after 48 h, being very

  10. Low temperature internal friction in pure iron charged with hydrogen or deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.; Dufresne, J.F.; Ritchie, I.G.

    1977-01-01

    The search for the elusive hydrogen Snoek-peak in pure iron has been continued with specimens charged with either hydrogen or deuterium. The peaks observed are attributed to deformation produced during charging and can be classified as an α-type peak and a Snoek-Koester type peak. The detailed behavior of these peaks during systematic outgassing of hydrogen or deuterium is described

  11. Measurements of neutron intensity from liquid deuterium moderator of the cold neutron source of KUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takeshi; Ebisawa, Toru; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Tasaki, Seiji

    1990-01-01

    The neutron spectra from the liquid deuterium moderator of the cold neutron source of KUR were measured by the time of flight (TOF) method similar to the previous measurements for the liquid hydrogen moderator. The cold neutron gain factor is found to be about 20 ∼ 28 times for the wavelength longer than 6 A. Cold neutron intensities from the liquid deuterium moderator and from the liquid hydrogen moderator are compared and discussed. (author)

  12. Holographic interferometry of isolated deuterium plasmas produced by a CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatenby, P.V.; Walker, A.C.

    1978-10-01

    The application of double exposure fractional fringe holographic interferometry to measurements of electron density in a plasma generated by irradiation of a freely falling pellet of solid deuterium with a focused CO 2 laser pulse is discussed. A particularly simple technique is used for processing and reconstructing the holograms and this is described in detail. A summary and discussion of the results is included with the emphasis on the observed evolution of the deuterium plasma over the duration of the laser irradiation. (author)

  13. High-energy neutrino background: Limitations on models of deuterium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    1979-01-01

    It is pointed out that Epstein's model for deuterium production via high-energy spallation reactions produces high-energy neutrinos in sufficient quantity to stand out above those that are produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the Earth's atmosphere. That the Reines experiment detected neutrinos of atmospheric origin without detecting any cosmic component restricts deuterium production by spallation reactions to very high redshifts (z> or approx. =300). Improved neutrino experiments may be able to push these limits back to recombination

  14. Analysis technique of impurity in high purity deuterium by cryogenic gas-chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Junbo; Gao Liping

    2007-01-01

    A veracious and applicable quantitative analysis method of O 2 , N 2 and H 2 , HD in high purity deuterium by the chromatogram columniation filled with 5A molecular sieve and alumina was researched and constituted at natural temperature and 77 K, respectively. Minimum detecting limit of the present method is (150-200) x 10 -6 for H 2 and HD, and it can meet the need of quantitative analysis of the impurity during high purity deuterium preparation. (authors)

  15. Estimation of deuterium content in organic compounds by mass spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Goomer, N.C.

    1979-01-01

    Many organic sompounds are finding increasing importance in heavy water enrichment programme. New methods based on quantitative chemical conversion have been developed and standardized in for estimating deuterium contents of the exchanging organic molecules by mass spectrometry. The methods have been selected in such a way that the deuterium contents of both exchangeable as well as total hydrogens in the molecule can be conveniently estimated. (auth.)

  16. Evidence for neutron production in deuterium gas with a pyroelectric crystal without tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Shafroth, S. M.; Brownridge, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    We present evidence for the production of 2 H(d,n) 3 He neutrons in gaseous deuterium by using a pyroelectric crystal as positive ion accelerator. In contrast to previous studies, neutrons were generated without a tip attached to the crystal and without using a solid deuterated target. The deuterium gas provided both the projectile and target nuclei. On the average, 1 neutron/s was obtained in our ''hot fusion'' experimental setup. No neutrons were detected when a tip was used

  17. El día más blanco o el país de la memoria de Raúl Zurita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Fischer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio la adscripción genérica de El día más blanco del poeta chileno Raúl Zurita, así como la significación de los epígrafes, otra forma de enmarcación del volumen. Entre la novela y la autobiografía, el libro se propone cubrir la grieta que existe entre la memoria personal y la memoria traumática del país. Describo la especial calidad visual de las imágenes del texto y su relación con las dificultades de construir una versión de la historia subjetiva y personal que se aúne a la historia del país, cuando ambas están quebradas.

  18. Thermally induced outdiffusion studies of deuterium in ceramic breeder blanket materials after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Maria, E-mail: maria.gonzalez@ciemat.es [LNF-CIEMAT, Materials for Fusion Group, Madrid (Spain); Carella, Elisabetta; Moroño, Alejandro [LNF-CIEMAT, Materials for Fusion Group, Madrid (Spain); Kolb, Matthias H.H.; Knitter, Regina [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Surface defects in Lithium-based ceramics are acting as trapping centres for deuterium. • Ionizing radiation affects the deuterium sorption and desorption processes. • By extension, the release of the tritium produced in a fusion breeder will be effective. - Abstract: Based on a KIT–CIEMAT collaboration on the radiation damage effects of light ions sorption/desorption in ceramic breeder materials, candidate materials for the ITER EU TBM were tested for their outgassing behavior as a function of temperature and radiation. Lithium orthosilicate based pebbles with different metatitanate contents and pellets of the individual oxide components were exposed to a deuterium atmosphere at room temperature. Then the thermally induced release of deuterium gas was registered up to 800 °C. This as-received behavior was studied in comparison with that after exposing the deuterium-treated samples to 4 MGy total dose of gamma radiation. The thermal desorption spectra reveal differences in deuterium sorption/desorption behavior depending on the composition and the induced ionizing damage. In these breeder candidates, strong desorption rate at approx. 300 °C takes place, which slightly increases with increasing amount of the titanate second phase. For all studied materials, ionizing radiation induces electronic changes disabling a number of trapping centers for D{sub 2} adsorption.

  19. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.A.; Ehle, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    In three experiments patterns of water turnover and body composition estimated by deuterium oxide were studied in Holstein cows. In the first experiment, four lactating cows were infused with deuterium oxide, and blood samples were taken during 4-d collection. Milking was stopped; cows were reinfused with deuterium oxide and resampled. Slopes of deuterium oxide dilution curves indicated lactating cows turned water over more rapidly than nonlactating cows. In the second experiment with the same four cows, during 4-d collection, deuterium oxide concentrations in milk, urine, and feces showed dilution patterns similar to deuterium oxide in blood. Sampling milk may be an alternative to sampling blood. In the third experiment, 36 Holstein cows were fed 55, 65, or 75% alfalfa, smooth bromegrass, or equal parts of each forage as total mixed rations; remaining portions of rations were a grain mixture. Body composition was estimated at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mo postpartum. Empty body water, protein, mineral, fat, and fat percentage decreased from prepartum to postpartum. First calf heifers contained less empty body water, protein, and mineral than older cows. Cows fed diets with 55% forage had more body fat than those fed diets with 75% forage. Cows fed alfalfa-based diets had more gastrointestinal fill regardless of grain than cows fed diets that contained alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Gastrointestinal fill of cows increased from prepartum to 5 mo postpartum

  20. Catalytic isotope exchange reaction between deuterium gas and water pre-adsorbed on platinum/alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Itsuo; Kato, Junko; Tamaru, Kenzi.

    1976-01-01

    The catalytic isotope exchange reaction between deuterium gas and the water pre-adsorbed on Pt/Al 2 O 3 was studied. At reaction temperatures above 273 K, the exchange rate was proportional to the deuterium pressure and independent of the amount of adsorbed water, which suggests that the rate determining step is the supply of deuterium from the gas phase. Its apparent activation energy was 38 kJ mol -1 . Below freezing point of water, the kinetic behaviour was different from that above freezing point. At higher deuterium pressures the rate dropped abruptly at 273 K. Below the temperature the apparent activation energy was 54 kJ mol -1 and the exchange rate depended not on the deuterium pressure but on the amount of the pre-adsorbed water. At lower pressures, however, the kinetic behaviour was the same as the above 273 K, till the rate of the supply of deuterium from the gas phase exceeded the supply of hydrogen from adsorbed water to platinum surface. These results suggest that below 273 K the supply of hydrogen is markedly retarded, the state of the adsorbed water differing from that above 273 K. It was also demonstrated that when the adsorbed water is in the state of capillary condensation, the exchange rate becomes very small. (auth.)