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Sample records for detrusor overactivity induced

  1. Muscarinic receptors mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

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    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Gautam, Sudha Silwal; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    This study determined if muscarinic receptors could mediate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity induced in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. Ten-week-old female Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (n = 12) and Wister Kyoto non-diabetic rats (n = 12) were maintained on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric investigations of the unanesthetized rats were carried out at room temperature (27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. They were intravenously administered imidafenacin (0.3 mg/kg, n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6). After 5 min, the rats were transferred to a low temperature (4 ± 2°C) for 40 min where the cystometry was continued. The rats were then returned to room temperature for the final cystometric measurements. Afterwards, expressions of bladder muscarinic receptor M3 and M2 messenger ribonucleic acids and proteins were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats, imidafenacin did not reduce cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats, just after transfer to a low temperature, the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in imidafenacin-treated rats was reduced compared with vehicle-treated rats. Within the urinary bladders, the ratio of M3 to M2 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was significantly higher than that of the non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. The proportion of muscarinic M3 receptor-positive area within the detrusor in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was also significantly higher than that in non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. Imidafenacin partially inhibits cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. In this animal model, muscarinic M3 receptors partially mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Pathways Involving Beta-3 Adrenergic Receptors Modulate Cold Stress-Induced Detrusor Overactivity in Conscious Rats.

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    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate pathways involving beta-3 adrenergic receptors (ARs) in detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress, we determined if the beta-3 AR agonist CL316243 could modulate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in normal rats. Two days prior to cystometric investigations, the bladders of 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were cannulated. Cystometric measurements of the unanesthetized, unrestricted rats were taken to estimate baseline values at room temperature (RT, 27 ± 2 °C) for 20 min. They were then intravenously administered vehicle, 0.1, or 1.0 mg/kg CL316243 (n = 6 in each group). Five minutes after the treatments, they were gently and quickly transferred to the low temperature (LT, 4 ± 2 °C) room for 40 min where the cystometric measurements were again made. Afterward, the rats were returned to RT for final cystometric measurements. The cystometric effects of CL316243 were also measured at RT (n = 6 in each group). At RT, both low and high dose of CL316243 decreased basal and micturition pressure while the high dose (1.0 mg/kg) significantly increased voiding interval and bladder capacity. During LT exposure, the high dose of CL316243 partially reduced cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity characterized by increased basal pressure and urinary frequency. The high drug dose also significantly inhibited the decreases of both voiding interval and bladder capacity compared to the vehicle- and low dose (0.1 mg/kg)-treated rats. A high dose of the beta-3 agonist CL316243 could modulate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. Therefore, one of the mechanisms in cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity includes a pathway involving beta-3 ARs. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. The novel β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron reduces carbachol-induced contractile activity in detrusor tissue from patients with bladder outflow obstruction with or without detrusor overactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Nordling, Jørgen; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    prostatic hyperplasia undergoing cystoscopy and from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy/cystectomy (in total 33 donors). Detrusor contractility was evaluated by organ bath studies and strips were incubated with carbachol (1μM) to induce and enhance tension. Both mirabegron and isoprenaline reduced...... preparations from patients with bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) with and without detrusor overactivity (DO), and from patients with normal bladder function. We compared the effects to those of isoprenaline, a non-selective β-adrenoceptor agonist. Detrusor specimens were obtained from patients with benign...

  4. Botulinum Toxin in Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity

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    Carlos Arturo Levi D'Ancona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin on urodynamic parameters and quality of life in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Methods Thirty four adult patients with spinal cord injury and detrusor overactivity were selected. The patients received 300 units of botulinum toxin type A. The endpoints evaluated with the episodes of urinary incontinence and measured the maximum cystometric capacity, maximum amplitude of detrusor pressure and bladder compliance at the beginning and end of the study (24 weeks and evaluated the quality of life by applying the Qualiveen questionnaire. Results A significant decrease in the episodes of urinary incontinence was observed. All urodynamic parameters presented a significant improvement. The same was observed in the quality of life index and the specific impact of urinary problems scores from the Qualiveen questionnaire. Six patients did not complete the study, two due to incomplete follow-up, and four violated protocol and were excluded from the analyses. No systemic adverse events of botulinum toxin type A were reported. Conclusions A botulinum toxin type A showed a significantly improved response in urodynamics parameters and specific and general quality of life.

  5. Combined treatment with a β3 -adrenergic receptor agonist and a muscarinic receptor antagonist inhibits detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nagai, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Saito, Tetsuichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Masaki; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    This study determined if combined treatment with the muscarinic receptor (MR) antagonist solifenacin and the β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist mirabegron could inhibit detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty-two female 10-week-old SHRs were fed an 8% NaCl-supplemented diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric measurements of the unanesthetized, unrestricted rats were performed at room temperature (RT, 27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. The rats were then intravenously administered vehicle, 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin alone, 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron alone, or the combination of 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron and 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin (n = 8 each group). Five minutes later, the treated rats were exposed to low temperature (LT, 4 ± 2°C) for 40 min. Finally, the rats were returned to RT. After the cystometric investigations, the β 3 -ARs and M 3 -MRs expressed within the urinary bladders were analyzed. Just after transfer from RT to LT, vehicle-, solifenacin-, and mirabegron-treated SHRs exhibited detrusor overactivity that significantly decreased voiding interval and bladder capacity. However, treatment with the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron partially inhibited the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity patterns. The decreases of voiding interval and bladder capacity in the combination-treated rats were significantly inhibited compared to other groups. Within the urinary bladders, there were no differences between expression levels of M 3 -MR and β 3 -AR mRNA. The tissue distribution of M 3 -MRs was similar to that of the β 3 -ARs. This study suggested that the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron act synergistically to inhibit the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in SHRs. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1026-1033, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Detrusor overactivity in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: is there a difference?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golabek, Tomasz

    2013-07-22

    To compare urodynamic characteristics in patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) with those of an age matched cohort with diabetes mellitus (DM) and detrusor overactivity (DO). Secondly, to determine whether urodynamic features could help distinguish these two groups of patients.

  7. Urinary ATP may be a dynamic biomarker of detrusor overactivity in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

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    Miguel Silva-Ramos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nowadays, there is a considerable bulk of evidence showing that ATP has a prominent role in the regulation of human urinary bladder function and in the pathophysiology of detrusor overactivity. ATP mediates nonadrenergic-noncholinergic detrusor contractions in overactive bladders. In vitro studies have demonstrated that uroepithelial cells and cholinergic nerves from overactive human bladder samples (OAB release more ATP than controls. Here, we compared the urinary ATP concentration in samples collected non-invasively from OAB women with detrusor overactivity and age-matched controls. METHODS: Patients with neurologic diseases, history of malignancy, urinary tract infections or renal impairment (creatinine clearance <70 ml/min were excluded. All patients completed a 3-day voiding diary, a 24 h urine collection and blood sampling to evaluate creatinine clearance. Urine samples collected during voluntary voids were immediately freeze-preserved for ATP determination by the luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay; for comparison purposes, samples were also tested for urinary nerve growth factor (NGF by ELISA. RESULTS: The urinary content of ATP, but not of NGF, normalized to patients' urine creatinine levels (ATP/Cr or urinary volume (ATP.Vol were significantly (P<0.05 higher in OAB women with detrusor overactivity (n = 34 than in healthy controls (n = 30. Significant differences between the two groups were still observed by boosting urinary ATP/Cr content after water intake, but these were not detected for NGF/Cr. In OAB patients, urinary ATP/Cr levels correlated inversely with mean voided volumes determined in a 3-day voiding diary. CONCLUSION: A high area under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC curve (0.741; 95% CI 0.62-0.86; P<0.001 is consistent with urinary ATP/Cr being a highly sensitive dynamic biomarker for assessing detrusor overactivity in women with OAB syndrome.

  8. Urinary ATP may be a dynamic biomarker of detrusor overactivity in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

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    Silva-Ramos, Miguel; Silva, Isabel; Oliveira, Olga; Ferreira, Sónia; Reis, Maria Júlia; Oliveira, José Carlos; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a considerable bulk of evidence showing that ATP has a prominent role in the regulation of human urinary bladder function and in the pathophysiology of detrusor overactivity. ATP mediates nonadrenergic-noncholinergic detrusor contractions in overactive bladders. In vitro studies have demonstrated that uroepithelial cells and cholinergic nerves from overactive human bladder samples (OAB) release more ATP than controls. Here, we compared the urinary ATP concentration in samples collected non-invasively from OAB women with detrusor overactivity and age-matched controls. Patients with neurologic diseases, history of malignancy, urinary tract infections or renal impairment (creatinine clearance overactivity (n = 34) than in healthy controls (n = 30). Significant differences between the two groups were still observed by boosting urinary ATP/Cr content after water intake, but these were not detected for NGF/Cr. In OAB patients, urinary ATP/Cr levels correlated inversely with mean voided volumes determined in a 3-day voiding diary. A high area under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve (0.741; 95% CI 0.62-0.86; Poveractivity in women with OAB syndrome.

  9. Age and bladder outlet obstruction are independently associated with detrusor overactivity in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelke, Matthias; Baard, Joyce; Wijkstra, Hessel; de la Rosette, Jean J.; Jonas, Udo; Hoefner, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Background: Detrusor overactivity is one known cause of lower urinary tract Symptoms and has been linked to bladder storage symptoms (urgency, frequency, or urge incontinence). Objective: To determine clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with detrusor overactivity in patients with suspected

  10. Chapter 5: Clinical data in neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and overactive bladder (OAB).

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    Cruz, Francisco; Nitti, Victor

    2014-07-01

    Following use of botulinum toxin in the 1980s for the treatment of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), the potential therapeutic value of this neurotoxin in urology has been the subject of much interest. The DIGNITY (Double-blind InvestiGation of purified Neurotoxin complex In neurogenic deTrusor overactivitY) clinical research program aimed to compare onabotulinumtoxinA with placebo in terms of efficacy and safety in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to SCI or multiple sclerosis. The EMBARK clinical research program mirrored these aims in patients with overactive bladder with urinary incontinence (UI). Each program comprised two phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. In all four trials, primary efficacy endpoints were met, and significant benefits of onabotulinumtoxinA versus placebo were demonstrated across a range of secondary endpoints, including measures of health-related quality of life. The most common adverse event across both programs was urinary tract infection. Interim analyses of data from ongoing long-term extensions to these phase III trials have provided promising evidence for the efficacy of repeated injections. While further investigation is recommended to enrich the dataset, the available evidence indicates that onabotulinumtoxinA provides an effective treatment option for these two populations, which were previously considered very difficult to treat. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Acute urodynamic effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with MS.

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    Fjorback, M.V.; Rey, F. van; Pal, F. van der; Rijkhoff, N.J.M.; Petersen, T.; Heesakkers, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether acute electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve could suppress detrusor contractions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. METHODS: Two successive slow-fill cystometries (16 ml/min) were

  12. Effect of pelvic floor interferential electrostimulation on urodynamic parameters and incontinency of children with myelomeningocele and detrusor overactivity.

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    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Sharifi-Rad, Lida; Baradaran, Nima; Nejat, Farideh

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate safety and efficacy of transcutaneous interferential (IF) electrostimulation on voiding symptoms and urodynamic variables in children with myelomeningocele (MMC)-induced refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Thirty MMC children (18 girls, 12 boys; mean age 5.6 +/- 2.7) with moderate to severe intractable incontinency, detrusor overactivity, and high maximal detrusor end-fill pressure were enrolled and then randomly allocated to treatment (IF stimulation, 20 children) and control (sham stimulation, 10 children) groups. They underwent urodynamic study (UDS) before and after IF and 6 months later, with attention to mean maximal detrusor pressure (MMDP), maximum bladder capacity (MBC), mean detrusor compliance (MDC), postvoiding residue (PVR), and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD). Daily incontinence score, voiding frequency, and enuresis were also assessed. Eighteen courses of pelvic floor IF electrostimulation for 20 minutes 3 times per week were performed with low-frequency current, duration of 250 microseconds, and repetition time of 6.6 seconds. Of the UDS parameters in the treatment group immediately after IF implication, MMDP, PVR, and DSD significantly improved compared with sham stimulation and pretreatment measures (P < .05). In the treatment group, 78% patients gained continence immediately after IF therapy and 60% had persistent continence for 6 months (P < .05). Immediately after IF treatment, urinary frequency and enuresis also improved (P < .05), with a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. This study demonstrated that noninvasive IF therapy is effective in improving voiding symptoms including incontinence and UDS parameters of MMC children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The clinical beneficial implication of this modality is yet to be determined in larger studies.

  13. Predicting Refractory Detrusor Overactivity: Are There any Clues at Diagnosis

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    Kylie J Mansfield

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of patients diagnosed with detrusor overactivity (DO will be refractory to treatment with antimuscarinic drugs. In this study, we examined baseline clinical details and history of urinary tract infection (UTI, urodynamics parameters, urinary pH and ATP in voided urodynamic fluid for any prognostic factors that would allow prediction of the refractory state at the time of diagnosis. At follow-up (2 to 5 years, patients were characterised as responders or non-responders based on a >50% decrease in urge leaks and voids per 24 hours. Of the 61 patients who met the inclusion criteria, follow-up revealed that 25% of these did not respond to antimuscarinic therapy. There were no significant differences in urodynamic parameters in responders compared to non-responders. Patients with a greater number of leaks/week at baseline and a history of UTI were more likely to be non-responsive to antimuscarinic therapy. There was no difference in urinary pH or ATP concentration in voided urodynamic fluid in the two groups. The results indicate that severity of leakage at baseline history and a history of recurrent UTI appears to be poor prognostic features in patients with DO. These may be associated with the development of the ‘refractory’ state.

  14. The effect of penile vibratory stimulation on male fertility potential, spasticity and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned individuals

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    Biering-Sørensen, F; Læssøe, Line; Sønksen, J

    2005-01-01

    Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS).......Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS)....

  15. Chapter 1: The conditions of neurogenic detrusor overactivity and overactive bladder.

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    Haab, Francois

    2014-07-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom syndrome consisting of urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), in the absence of a causative infection or pathological conditions. The prevalence of OAB is approximately 11-19% in both men and women, and leads to a significant negative effect on a patient's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). OAB is also associated with comorbidities such as urinary tract infection (UTI) and an increased risk of falls. Following behavioral therapy, anticholinergic agents are commonly prescribed, but these often fail because of lack of efficacy and/or poor tolerability. Evaluation of treatment success in OAB should include pre-defined, patient-centered goals. Patients for whom oral therapy has failed to meet such goals may be considered refractory to oral therapy and candidates for minimally invasive therapy. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is a bladder dysfunction frequently observed in patients with conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Increased storage pressure can put the upper urinary tract at risk of deterioration and reducing this risk is a primary aim of therapy. Urinary incontinence (UI) is reported by approximately 50% of MS patients, and most SCI patients will develop some bladder dysfunction. NDO leads to a negative impact on HRQOL, independent of the impact of the primary condition. NDO patients in whom oral therapy has failed to normalize storage pressure may be considered refractory and are candidates for minimally invasive therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Is there any association between urodynamic variables and severity of overactive bladder in women with idiopathic detrusor overactivity?

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    Giarenis, Ilias; Zacchè, Martino; Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-03-01

    The lack of a validated detrusor overactivity (DO) severity tool limits the clinical value of urodynamics in the management of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). The aim of this study, was to identify urodynamic variables that correlate with validated OAB severity measures. This was a cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive women with idiopathic DO. The 24 hr urgency episodes and the score of the Incontinence Impact (II) domain of the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) were used to assess the severity of OAB. The study enrolled 299 women with idiopathic DO. The cystometric capacity, compliance, and the threshold volume for the first involuntary detrusor contraction (IDC) showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the II domain of the KHQ and the 24 hr urgency episodes. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the amplitude of first IDC and the OAB severity measures, but only borderline for the amplitude of the highest IDC. There were no statistically significant differences between women with and without leakage per urethram during a detrusor contraction. Cystometric capacity, compliance (measured in ml/cm H 2 O), threshold volume, and amplitude of the first IDC could be routinely documented in everyday clinical practice. The measures more commonly used for describing the severity of DO, such as leakage per urethram during a detrusor contraction and amplitude of the highest detrusor contraction, have a limited role confirming the complicated interaction between the detrusor muscle, the urethral sphincter, and the pelvic floor in women. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:780-783, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Nonselective Blocking of the Sympathetic Nervous System Decreases Detrusor Overactivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Chang-Shin Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The involuntary dual control systems of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the bladder of awake spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were investigated through simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures to observe detrusor overactivity (DO objectively as a core symptom of an overactive bladder. SHRs (n = 6 showed the features of overactive bladder syndrome during urodynamic study, especially DO during the filling phase. After injection of the nonselective sympathetic blocking agent labetalol, DO disappeared in 3 of 6 SHRs (50%. DO frequency decreased from 0.98 ± 0.22 min−1 to 0.28 ± 0.19 min−1 (p < 0.01, and DO pressure decreased from 3.82 ± 0.57 cm H2O to 1.90 ± 0.86 cm H2O (p < 0.05. This suggests that the DO originating from the overactive parasympathetic nervous system is attenuated by the nonselective blocking of the sympathetic nervous system. The detailed mechanism behind this result is still not known, but parasympathetic overactivity seems to require overactive sympathetic nervous system activity in a kind of balance between these two systems. These findings are consistent with recent clinical findings suggesting that patients with idiopathic overactive bladder may have ANS dysfunction, particularly a sympathetic dysfunction. The search for newer and better drugs than the current anticholinergic drugs as the mainstay for overactive bladder will be fueled by our research on these sympathetic mechanisms. Further studies of this principle are required.

  18. Intravesical Liposome and Antisense Treatment for Detrusor Overactivity and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

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    Kashyap, Mahendra P.; Kawamorita, Naoki; Yoshizawa, Tsuyoshi; Chancellor, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The following review focuses on the recent advancements in intravesical drug delivery, which brings added benefit to the therapy of detrusor overactivity and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Results. Intravesical route is a preferred route of administration for restricting the action of extremely potent drugs like DMSO for patients of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and botulinum toxin for detrusor overactivity. Patients who are either refractory to oral treatment or need to mitigate the adverse effects encountered with conventional routes of administration also chose this route. Its usefulness in some cases can be limited by vehicle (carrier) toxicity or short duration of action. Efforts have been underway to overcome these limitations by developing liposome platform for intravesical delivery of biotechnological products including antisense oligonucleotides. Conclusions. Adoption of forward-thinking approaches can achieve advancements in drug delivery systems targeted to future improvement in pharmacotherapy of bladder diseases. Latest developments in the field of nanotechnology can bring this mode of therapy from second line of treatment for refractory cases to the forefront of disease management. PMID:24527221

  19. Brain SPECT study of detrusor overactivity and healthy men in urine withholding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yafu; Li Xuena; Li Yaming; Noriyuki Shuke; Atsutaka Okizaki; Junichi Sato; Tamio Aburano

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the brain areas, which control the bladder storage by 99 Tc m -HMPAO SPECT with Neurological Statistical Image Analysis Software (NEUROSTAT). SPECT were performed on twenty-five patients with some storage symptoms of lower urinary tract, among which nineteen patients were with detrusor overactivity (DO) (Group II) and six patients were with normal detrusor function (Group III), and fifteen healthy volunteers (Group I). All the subjects were male and right-handed, and were scanned twice under two conditions: resting state and urine withholding state. NEUROSTAT was adopted to analyze the difference in rCBF between groups and states. The results were displayed on Z-score images at a significance threshold of P<0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. No region reached significant threshold in comparison of Group II and III in resting state. There were significant increases in tracer activity in bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the right middle temporal gyrus in urine withholding state as compared with resting state in Group I and III (P<0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons, the corresponding Z value was more than 4.476 for Group I, more than 4.414 for Group III). Among the regions,the right inferior frontal gyrus was distinctly prominent at both Z-score and the extent. In Group II, only the left middle temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus were activated significantly in urine withholding state as compared with resting (P<0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons, the corresponding Z value was more than 4.35). The results indicated that bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the right middle temporal gyrus associated with the control of bladder storage.Especially, the right inferior frontal gyrus played a more important role in cerebral control of bladder storage, inhibiting the contraction of detrusor in urine storage. (authors)

  20. Inhibition of porcine detrusor contractility by the flavonoid fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum--a potential phytotherapeutic drug for the treatment of the overactive bladder syndrome.

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    Fürer, K; Eberli, D; Betschart, C; Brenneisen, R; De Mieri, M; Hamburger, M; Mennet-von Eiff, M; Potterat, O; Schnelle, M; Simões-Wüst, A P; von Mandach, U

    2015-01-15

    To determine if the phytotherapeutic agent, Bryophyllum pinnatum, could serve as an alternative drug for the overactive bladder syndrome, and to characterise the fraction responsible for the inhibition of detrusor contractility. Fractions were prepared from the MeOH extract of B. pinnatum and further analysed by HPLC-PDA-MS. Detrusor muscle strips were prepared from porcine bladders and the electrically induced muscle contractility measured by organ bath. The effect of B. pinnatum leaf press juice (2.5-10%), a flavonoid fraction (0.1-1 mg/ml), and a bufadienolide fraction (0.1-40 μg/ml) on detrusor contractility was assessed and compared with controls (polar fraction (0.5-5 mg/ml) and oxybutynin (10(-8)-10(-6) M)). The press juice, at a concentration of 10% led to a reduction of detrusor contractility. Bladder strips treated with the flavonoid fraction showed a significant reduction of the contractility to 21.3 ± 5.2% (1 mg/ml) while the bufadienolide fraction had no inhibitory effect in the investigated concentrations. The polar fraction showed a reduction of the contractility in a pH-dependent fashion. At 10(-6) M concentration oxybutynin reduced the detrusor contractility to 21.9 ± 4.7%. The flavonoid fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum reduces the porcine detrusor contractility in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Fractions from B. pinnatum may be a new pharmacological approach for the treatment of OAB. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. [Blood lymphocytes and mast cells of the detrusor as diagnostic markers of overactive urinary bladder and its immune inflammation].

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    Pisarev, S A

    2009-01-01

    To identify clinico-laboratory symptoms and pathogenetic factors of overactive bladder syndrome (OBS), we used cytochemical analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte enzymes in 88 males and females aged 50-75 years with this syndrome (70 patients) and control (18 subjects). Biopsy of the anterior wall of the bladder with examination of detrusor myocytes was made in 28 of 70 patients. OBS patients were found to have reduced aerobic respiration in blood lymphocytes and detruzor cells, dystrophy and atrophy of myocytes, moderate interstitial cell infiltration of the detrusor in increasing number and activity of mast cells, T-lymphocytes (CD4, CD8) and macrophages (CD11). We came to the conclusion that development and symptoms of OBS are caused by low energetic activity of the detrusor in line with dysfunction of the bladder mast cells and immunity factors. This is important for diagnosis of OBS severity and choice of energotropic therapeutic measures.

  2. Experience with different botulinum toxins for the treatment of refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity

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    Cristiano M. Gomes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our experience with the use of the botulinum toxin-A (BoNT/A formulations Botox® and Prosigne® in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At a single institution, 45 consecutive patients with refractory urinary incontinence due to NDO received a single intradetrusor (excluding the trigone treatment with botulinum toxin type A 200 or 300 units. Botox was used for the first 22 patients, and Prosigne for the subsequent 23 patients. Evaluations at baseline and week 12 included assessment of continence and urodynamics. Safety evaluations included monitoring of vital signs, hematuria during the procedure, hospital stay, and spontaneous adverse event reports. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients were evaluated (74% male; mean age, 34.8 years. Significant improvements from baseline in maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, maximum detrusor pressure during bladder contraction, and compliance were observed in both groups (P < 0.05. Improvement in MCC was significantly greater with Botox versus Prosigne (+103.3% vs. +42.2%; P = 0.019. Continence was achieved by week 12 in 16 Botox recipients (76.2% and 10 Prosigne recipients (47.6%; P = 0.057. No severe adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events included 2 cases of transient hematuria on the first postoperative day (no specific treatment required, and 3 cases of afebrile urinary tract infection. CONCLUSIONS: Botox and Prosigne produce distinct effects in patients with NDO, with a greater increase in MCC with Botox. Further evaluation will be required to assess differences between these formulations.

  3. Use of botulinum toxin in individuals with neurogenic detrusor overactivity: State of the art review

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    Linsenmeyer, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection into the bladder wall has been shown to be an effective alternative to anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) medications and more invasive surgery in those with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and urinary incontinence who are not tolerating anticholinergic medications. In August 2011, Botox® (onabotulinumtoxinA) received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this use. Clinically, intradetrusor injection of BoNT has been found to decrease urinary incontinence and improve quality of life. Its impact on urodynamic parameters is an increase in the maximum cystometric (bladder) capacity and decrease in the maximum detrusor pressures. The most common side effects are urinary tract infections and urinary retention. There have been rare reports and a black box warning of distant spread of BoNT. BoNT has gained popularity because of its effectiveness and long duration of action, relative ease of administration, easy learning curve, reproducibility of results on repeated administration, and low incidence of complications. Objective To discuss the structure and function, mechanisms of action, clinical and urodynamic studies, injection technique, potential beneficial and adverse effects, and potential areas of research of BoNT. Methods Literature search focused on botulinum toxin in MEDLINE/PubMed. Search terms included botulinum toxin, neurogenic bladder, NDO, botox bladder, botox spinal cord injury, botox, FDA, botox side effects. All papers identified were English language, full-text papers. In addition, English abstracts of non-English papers were noted. The reference list of identified articles was also searched for further papers. Conclusion Botulinum toxin is an alternative treatment for individuals with NDO who fail to tolerate anticholinergic medications. Its popularity has increased because of the literature, which has supported its effectiveness, safety, easy

  4. Subject-controlled stimulation of dorsal genital nerve to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opisso, Eloy; Borau, Albert; Rijkhoff, Nico J M

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of subject controlled dorsal genital nerve (DGN) electrical stimulation on neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) in subjects at home. Subjects underwent a 5-day study at home with DGN stimulation. Stimulation was provided with surface electrodes placed either on the dorsal penile shaft in males and on or close to the clitoris in females. The days 1 and 5 were with no stimulation whereas days 2-4 were with stimulation. Two urodynamic studies were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. A bladder diary was obtained. Eleven subjects with NDO and with urge incontinence were included. One subject stopped the protocol before the end of the 5-day trial and two did not undergo the second urodynamic study. The subjects showed a statistically significant increase in bladder capacities compared to baseline (P = 0.047). Mean volume per day voided significantly increased over the study within the subjects. Differences between day 1 and day 5 were statistically significant (P = 0.028). The feasibility and the globally positive outcomes of the study indicate that the stimulation of the dorsal genital nerve can be an option for the treatment of the NDO. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The role of detrusor overactivity in urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Antonio L; Palleschi, Giovanni; Illiano, Ester; Zucchi, Alessandro; Carbone, Antonio; Costantini, Elisabetta

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to assess the evidence provided by literature regarding the role of detrusor overactivity (DO) in determining urinary incontinence in patients submitted to radical prostatectomy. The research was based on the online PubMed database spanning the period from November 1997 to May 2016. The review was conducted in accordance with the systematic review guidelines provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A total of twenty-three articles met the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. The eligible studies included a total of 812 patients with a mean number of 36 patients per study (range 29-264). The rate of patients with urodynamic DO after radical prostatectomy and reporting urge urinary incontinence ranged from 3 to 63%. The postradical prostatectomy DO was more likely to occur in patients who already had it preoperatively [OR =2.30, 95% CI: 1.39-3.82; studies 9; participants 419]. However, most representative studies accordingly indicate that intrinsic sphincter deficiency is the most common cause of postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI), considered as the sole responsible factor for such patients' incontinence (88-100% of patients evaluated); the same studies report that isolated bladder dysfunction is uncommon and that it occurs in only 3% of patients. The review results suggest that DO could be considered as another possible underlying mechanism for PPI. Although sphincter incompetence and weakness are the most common mechanisms related to incontinence after prostatectomy, DO may coexist or be an isolated cause of PPI. Therefore, urodynamic studies are essential to show which is and/or are the exact cause(s) of incontinence in each individual patient after RP.

  6. Efficacy and Adverse Events Associated With Use of OnabotulinumtoxinA for Treatment of Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Yuan, Hejia; Cui, Yuanshan; Wu, Jitao; Peng, Peng; Sun, Xujie; Gao, Zhenli

    2017-03-24

    OnabotulinumtoxinA is used widely for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess its efficacy and safety for neurogenic detrusor overactivity treatment. A systematic literature review was performed to identify all published randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of onabotulinumtoxinA for neurogenic detrusor overactivity treatment. MEDLINE, Embase, and the CENTRAL were employed. Reference lists of retrieved studies were reviewed carefully. Six publications involving 871 patients, which compared onabotulinumtoxinA with a placebo were analyzed. Efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA treatment was shown as a reduction of the mean number of urinary incontinence episodes per day (mean difference, -1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.70 to -1.12; P<0.00001), maximum cystometric capacity (135.48; 95% CI, 118.22-152.75; P<0.00001), and maximum detrusor pressure (-32.98; 95% CI, -37.33 to -28.62; P<0.00001). Assessment of adverse events revealed that complications due to onabotulinumtoxinA injection were localized primarily to the urinary tract. This meta-analysis suggests that onabotulinumtoxinA is an effective treatment for neurogenic detrusor overactivity with localized advent events.

  7. Role of PKC and CaV1.2 in detrusor overactivity in a model of obesity associated with insulin resistance in mice.

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    Luiz O Leiria

    Full Text Available Obesity/metabolic syndrome are common risk factors for overactive bladder. This study aimed to investigate the functional and molecular changes of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM in high-fat insulin resistant obese mice, focusing on the role of protein kinase C (PKC and Ca(v1.2 in causing bladder dysfunction. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 10 weeks. In vitro functional responses and cystometry, as well as PKC and Ca(v1.2 expression in bladder were evaluated. Obese mice exhibited higher body weight, epididymal fat mass, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Carbachol (0.001-100 µM, α,β-methylene ATP (1-10 µM, KCl (1-300 mM, extracellular Ca(2+ (0.01-100 mM and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 0.001-3 µM all produced greater DSM contractions in obese mice, which were fully reversed by the Ca(v1.2 blocker amlodipine. Cystometry evidenced augmented frequency, non-void contractions and post-void pressure in obese mice that were also prevented by amlodipine. Metformin treatment improved the insulin sensitivity, and normalized the in vitro bladder hypercontractility and cystometric dysfunction in obese mice. The PKC inhibitor GF109203X (1 µM also reduced the carbachol induced contractions. PKC protein expression was markedly higher in bladder tissues from obese mice, which was normalized by metformin treatment. The Ca(v1.2 channel protein expression was not modified in any experimental group. Our findings show that Ca(v1.2 blockade and improvement of insulin sensitization restores the enhanced PKC protein expression in bladder tissues and normalizes the overactive detrusor. It is likely that insulin resistance importantly contributes for the pathophysiology of this urological disorder in obese mice.

  8. Effect of the anticonvulsant medications pregabalin and lamotrigine on urodynamic parameters in an animal model of neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

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    Loutochin, Oleg; Al Afraa, Tala; Campeau, Lysanne; Mahfouz, Wally; Elzayat, Ehab; Corcos, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    To assess the effects of different doses and treatment durations of pregabalin and lamotrigine on the urodynamic parameters of an animal model of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Ninety rats were used; six as normal controls and the remaining 84 were divided as follows: Six "paraplegic controls," 6 "paraplegic-vehicle controls," and the remaining 72 divided into two equal groups. Group 1 was divided into six subgroups; pregabalin was given in doses of 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, or 30 mg/kg for 1 or 2 weeks. Group 2 was similarly subdivided; lamotrigine was given in doses of 1.5 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 6 mg/kg for 1 or 2 weeks. All paraplegic controls developed NDO within 3 weeks from spinalization. Their baseline bladder pressure (BBP) 19 ± 4.4 cmH(2) O, detrusor pressure at maximum capacity (DPMaxC) 47.6 ± 4.3 cmH(2) O, bladder capacity (BC) 0.45 ± 0.1 ml, and frequency of detrusor overactivity (FDO) 3.7 ± 0.9/min. Both pregabalin and lamotrigine produced significant improvement. Urodynamic values in those treated with 20 mg pregabalin for 1 or 2 weeks were: BBP 11.7 ± 1.3 and 9 ± 0.2 cmH(2) O, BC 0.6 ± 0.1 and 0.7 ± 0.01 ml, DPMaxC 17.3 ± 4.0 and 23 ± 2.6 cmH(2) O, FDO 2.1 ± 0.2/min and 1.7 ± 0.1/min. Urodynamic values in those treated with 3 mg/kg lamotrigine for 1 or 2 weeks were: BBP 9.7 ± 2.2 and 8.6 ± 1.9 cmH(2) O, DPMaxC 17.2 ± 1.8 and 29 ± 1.2 cmH(2) O, BC 0.7 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 ml, FDO 1.9 ± 0.2/min and 1.9 ± 0.2/min (P < 0.001). Pregabalin and lamotrigine may represent novel alternative treatments of NDO. Clinical trials remain to be performed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cerebral control of bladder storage in patients with detrusor overactivity: An activation study using SPECT with NEUROSTAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yafu, Y.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas which control the bladder storage in the patients with detrusor overactivity (DO) and those without DO by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) SPECT with Neurological Statistical Image Analysis Software (NEUROSTAT). Methods: SPECT scans were performed on fifteen healthy volunteers (Group I) and twenty-five patients with some storage symptoms of lower urinary tract, among whom nineteen patients were with DO (Group II) and six patients were with normal detrusor function (Group III). All the subjects were male and right-handed. Each subject was scanned twice without movement in a supine position. 444MBq and 555MBq 99mTc- HMPAO were separately injected intravenously under the following two conditions: resting state with empty bladder and urine withholding state with full bladder. The final image during urine withholding was obtained by subtracting the first scan data from the second. NEUROSTAT was adopted to analyze the difference in rCBF between groups in resting state and to analyze the change in rCBF between urine withholding and resting states in each group. The results were displayed on Z-score images at a significance threshold of P < 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Results: No region reached significant threshold in comparison of Group II and Group III in resting state, although Group II and III , as compared with Group I, showed decreases in tracer activity in superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate and cingulate gyrus. There were significant increases in tracer activity in bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the right middle temporal gyrus in urine withholding state as compared with resting state in Group III. Among the regions, the right inferior frontal gyrus was distinctly prominent at both Z-score and the extent. In Group II, the regions that were activated significantly in Group III did not reach significant

  10. Is repeat Botulinum Toxin A injection valuable for neurogenic detrusor overactivity-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianshu; Wang, Xiaohu; Cao, Nailong; Si, Jiemin; Gu, Baojun

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the value of repeat botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and EBSCO databases for articles published until June 2016. Studies that reported the efficacy and safety of repeat BTX-A injections for adult patients with NDO were eligible. The effect size for each outcome was calculated as the standardized mean difference ± standard error and 95% confidence interval, and was graded as small, >0.2; moderate, >0.5; or large, >0.8. The outcomes included maximum cystometric capacity (MCC), maximum detrusor pressure (MDP), reflex volume (RV), bladder compliance (BC), quality of life (QOL), and injection interval. Descriptive reviews were performed for urinary incontinence (UI) and adverse events (AEs). Eighteen studies involving 1533 patients whose level of evidence ranged from 3 to 4 were included in this study. We noted non-significant changes in MCC, MDP, RV, and BC between the first and last injections. Patients who had received ≤4 injections were found to have stable QOL improvements after the first and last injections, whereas patients who had received ≥5 injections were found to have a significant decrease in QOL after the last injection. No significant differences in injection intervals were noted after repeat BTX-A injections, and the repeat injection failure rate was low. Our study demonstrated that repeat BTX-A injections allow sustained improvements in patients with NDO. The rate of AEs was stable and low. However, additional high-quality, large-scale, and long-term trials are necessary to establish the efficacy and safety of ≥5 repeat BTX-A injections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Phasic or terminal detrusor overactivity in women: age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To search for relationships between phasic (P and terminal (T DO with age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior during involuntary detrusor contraction in woman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urodynamic studies (triple lumen catheter 7F, seated position of 164 successive women referred for LUTS with diagnosis of DO were reviewed. Patients were stratified in 4 sub-groups: pre- (18-44y, peri- (45-54 y, post-menopause (55-74 y and oldest old (≥ 75 y. The urethral sensor was positioned at the level of the maximum urethral closure pressure for sphincter behavior analysis. A variation of at least 5 cmH2O in pressure (detrusor or urethra was chosen to assert DO or sphincter response. Sphincter response was classified as relaxation (re before or during DO, or steady (st. RESULTS: Occurrence of P and TDO was similar: 77 P and 87 T. The PDO group was significantly younger (p = 0.0003. TDO was more frequent in patients with a history of neurological disease. The percentage of PDO remained almost constant in age groups, while that of TDO increased with age from 6.7% to 23.2% (p = 0.0013. Uninhibited contraction occurred at a smaller bladder volume in the P group: 149 ± 95 vs. 221 ± 113 mL (p < 0.0001. Steady sphincter predominated in the TDO subgroup: 45.9% vs. 32.1% and increased significantly in each DO sub-group of ³ 75y. CONCLUSION: Steady sphincter during both P and TDO, and occurrence of TDO appear as specific of aging. The last result could be related to structural changes in the detrusor muscle with aging.

  12. Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A intradetrusor injections in adults with neurogenic detrusor overactivity/neurogenic overactive bladder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljanik, Irina

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) is increasingly used for therapy of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) refractory to antimuscarinics or where patients are experiencing antimuscarinic-related side effects. The objective was to compare and critically discuss the reported efficacy and safety of BoNTA in adults with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Studies published between January 1985 and July 2012 were identified in the MEDLINE (PubMed) and SCOPUS databases. A search for studies with onabotulinumtoxinA--the only formulation of BoNTA approved by the US FDA in adults with NDO--was performed. Exclusion criteria were urethral sphincter injection, no separate analysis between onabotulinumtoxinA and other formulations of BoNTA, mean follow-up ≤ 4 weeks and studies with ten or fewer patients. Clinical and urodynamic parameters for efficacy, adverse events (AEs) and tolerability were reviewed to offer recommendations for practice and future research. A total of 28 included studies revealed superior effects of onabotulinumtoxinA compared with placebo in achieving continence, reducing incontinence episodes, improving urodynamic parameters and health-related quality of life. The most frequently reported AEs were de novo intermittent catheterization, urinary retention and asymptomatic urinary infection. Limitations of this review are the inclusion of studies with the level-3 evidence (22/28 studies), the heterogenicity of outcome parameters and time points chosen for follow-up reported in the reviewed studies. OnabotulinumtoxinA therapy is effective, safe and well tolerated in adults with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Further high-quality prospective trial data are required to determine the optimal dose, injection technique, long-term safety, favourable timing, indications for re-injections, and the impact of concomitant antimuscarinics on onabotulinumtoxinA therapy.

  13. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity is associated with decreased expression and function of the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels.

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    Kiril L Hristov

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from a variety of neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis often develop neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, which currently lacks a universally effective therapy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NDO is associated with changes in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM large conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BK channel expression and function. DSM tissue samples from 33 patients were obtained during open bladder surgeries. NDO patients were clinically characterized preoperatively with pressure-flow urodynamics demonstrating detrusor overactivity, in the setting of a clinically relevant neurological condition. Control patients did not have overactive bladder and did not have a clinically relevant neurological disease. We conducted quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR, perforated patch-clamp electrophysiology on freshly-isolated DSM cells, and functional studies on DSM contractility. qPCR experiments revealed that DSM samples from NDO patients showed decreased BK channel mRNA expression in comparison to controls. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated reduced whole cell and transient BK currents (TBKCs in freshly-isolated DSM cells from NDO patients. Functional studies on DSM contractility showed that spontaneous phasic contractions had a decreased sensitivity to iberiotoxin, a selective BK channel inhibitor, in DSM strips isolated from NDO patients. These results reveal the novel finding that NDO is associated with decreased DSM BK channel expression and function leading to increased DSM excitability and contractility. BK channel openers or BK channel gene transfer could be an alternative strategy to control NDO. Future clinical trials are needed to evaluate the value of BK channel opening drugs or gene therapies for NDO treatment and to identify any possible adverse effects.

  14. Can we create a valid treatment algorithm for patients with drug resistant overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome or detrusor overactivity (DO)? Results from a think tank (ICI-RS 2015).

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    Apostolidis, Apostolos; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Sahai, Arun; Rahnama'i, Mohhamad Sajjad; Anding, Ralf; Robinson, Dudley; Gravas, Stavros; Dmochowski, Roger

    2017-04-01

    To review and assess the definitions of drug resistance and the evidence supporting treatment for drug resistant overactive bladder/detrusor overactivity (OAB/DO). Evidence review of the extant literature and consensus of opinion was used to derive the summary recommendations. Drug resistance or drug refractory status has been inconsistently defined and reported in current evident sources. Recent publications use some correlation of lack of efficacy and or experienced side effects to define drug resistance. Algorithms based upon these definitions largely relate to the appropriate use of neuromodulation or botulinum neurotoxin, based upon patient selection and patient choice. Current treatment pathways are hampered by inability to consistently profile patients to optimize management, particularly after failure of initial pragmatic treatment. Further research is recommended to better identify patient phenotype for purposes of directing optimized therapy for OAB/DO. Current treatment algorithms are influenced by extensive data generated from recent neuromodulation and botulinum neurotoxin trials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Urinary Incontinence due to Overactive Detrusor Muscle: A Rare Side Effect of Venlafaxine

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    Vithyalakshmi Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of reemergence of urinary incontinence (UI in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH after starting treatment with venlafaxine who was stabilized on tamsulosin and finasteride for about 6 years. A 66-year-old Caucasian male with prior history of major depressive disorder developed UI within a week of starting venlafaxine 75 mg per day. He described symptoms in the form of involuntary leakage of urine both during the day and at night. His symptoms of UI resolved after stopping the venlafaxine. To the best of our knowledge, there are only four case reports of venlafaxine induced urinary incontinence which have been published.

  16. Enhancement of S1P-induced contractile response in detrusor smooth muscle of rats having cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Irfan; Denizalti, Merve; Kandilci, Hilmi Burak; Durlu-Kandilci, Nezahat Tugba; Sahin-Erdemli, Inci

    2017-11-05

    Interstitial cystitis is a chronic disease characterized by lower abdominal pain and some nonspecific symptoms including an increase in urinary frequency and urgency. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that controls smooth muscle tone via G-protein coupled receptors (S1P 1-3 receptors). S1P production is known to take place both in physiological states and some pathological situations, such as in overactive bladder syndrome. The intracellular mechanism of S1P-induced contractile response was investigated in β-escin permeabilized detrusor smooth muscle of rats having cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. The bladder was isolated from rats and detrusor smooth muscle strips were permeabilized with β-escin. S1P (50µM)-induced contraction and calcium sensitization response were significantly increased in cystitis. S1P-induced augmented contractile response was inhibited by S1P 2 receptor antagonist JTE-013 and S1P 3 receptor antagonist suramin. S1P 2 receptor protein expressions were increased in cystitis, where no change was observed in S1P 3 expressions between control and cystitis groups. S1P-induced contraction was reduced by Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF-109203X in both control and cystitis group. S1P-induced increased calcium sensitization response was decreased by ROCK inhibitor and PKC inhibitor in cystitis. Our findings provide the first evidence that interstitial cystitis triggers S1P-induced increase in intracellular calcium in permeabilized detrusor smooth muscle of female rats. Both S1P 2 and S1P 3 receptors are involved in S1P mediated enhanced contractile response. The augmentation in S1P-induced contraction in interstitial cystitis involves both PKC and ROCK pathways of calcium sensitization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preventive Effect of Hydrogen Water on the Development of Detrusor Overactivity in a Rat Model of Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Nomiya, Masanori; Aikawa, Ken; Kimura, Junko

    2016-03-01

    Bladder ischemia and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of bladder dysfunction caused by bladder outlet obstruction. H2 reportedly acts as an effective antioxidant. We investigated whether oral ingestion of H2 water would have a beneficial effect on bladder function in a rat model of bladder outlet obstruction. H2 water was made by dissolving H2 gas in ordinary drinking water using a hydrogen water producing apparatus. The bladder outlet obstruction model was surgically induced in male rats. Rats with obstruction were fed H2 water or ordinary drinking water. On week 4 postoperatively cystometry was performed. Oxidative stress markers and the bladder nerve growth factor level were determined. Bladder tissues were processed for pharmacological studies and histological analysis. The micturition interval and micturition volume significantly decreased in obstructed rats given ordinary drinking water. These decreases were significantly suppressed by oral ingestion of H2 water. Increased post-void residual volume in obstructed rats was significantly reduced by H2 water. Obstruction led to a significant increase in bladder weight, oxidative stress markers and nerve growth factor. H2 water significantly suppressed these increases without affecting bladder weight. There was no significant difference in histological findings between rats with bladder obstruction given H2 water and ordinary drinking water. Decreased responses of detrusor muscle strips from obstructed bladders to KCl, carbachol and electrical field stimulation were reversed by H2 water ingestion. Results suggest that H2 water could ameliorate bladder dysfunction secondary to bladder outlet obstruction by attenuating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intravesical Resiniferatoxin for the Treatment of Storage Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Either Interstitial Cystitis or Detrusor Overactivity: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyu; Peng, Bo; Xia, Shengqiang; Yang, Fengqiang; Wen, Deyi; Geng, Jiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Background While Resin­iferatoxin (RTX) has been widely used for patients with storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), its clinical efficiency hasn't yet been well evaluated. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the exact roles of intravesical RTX for the treatment of storage LUTS in patients with either interstitial cystitis (IC) or detrusor overactivity (DO). Methods A meta-analysis of RTX treatment was performed through a comprehensive search of the literature. In total, 2,332 records were initially recruited, 1,907 from Elsevier, 207 from Medline and 218 from the Web of Science. No records were retrieved from the Embase or Cochrane Library. Seven trials with 355 patients were included and one trial was excluded because of the lack of extractable data. The analyses were all performed using RevMan 5.1 and MIX 2.0. Results Bladder pain was significantly reduced after RTX therapy in patients with either IC or DO. The average decrease of the visual an alogue pain scale was 0.42 after RTX treatment (p = 0.02). The maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) was significantly increased in patients with DO (MCC increase, 53.36 ml, p = 0.006) but not in those with IC (MCC increase, −19.1 ml, p = 0.35). No significant improvement in urinary frequency, nocturia, incontinence or the first involuntary detrusor contraction (FDC) was noted after RTX therapy (p = 0.06, p = 0.52, p = 0.19 and p = 0.41, respectively). Conclusions RTX could significantly reduce bladder pain in patients with either IC or DO, and increase MCC in patients with DO; however, no significant improvement was observed in frequency, nocturia, incontinence or FDC. Given the limitations in the small patient size and risk of bias in the included trials, great caution should be taken when intravesical RTX is used before a large, multicenter, well-designed random control trial with a long-term follow-up is carried out to further assess the clinical efficacy of RTX in in patients

  19. Intravesical resiniferatoxin for the treatment of storage lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with either interstitial cystitis or detrusor overactivity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changcheng; Yang, Bin; Gu, Wenyu; Peng, Bo; Xia, Shengqiang; Yang, Fengqiang; Wen, Deyi; Geng, Jiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    While Resin-iferatoxin (RTX) has been widely used for patients with storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), its clinical efficiency hasn't yet been well evaluated. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the exact roles of intravesical RTX for the treatment of storage LUTS in patients with either interstitial cystitis (IC) or detrusor overactivity (DO). A meta-analysis of RTX treatment was performed through a comprehensive search of the literature. In total, 2,332 records were initially recruited, 1,907 from Elsevier, 207 from Medline and 218 from the Web of Science. No records were retrieved from the Embase or Cochrane Library. Seven trials with 355 patients were included and one trial was excluded because of the lack of extractable data. The analyses were all performed using RevMan 5.1 and MIX 2.0. Bladder pain was significantly reduced after RTX therapy in patients with either IC or DO. The average decrease of the visual an alogue pain scale was 0.42 after RTX treatment (p = 0.02). The maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) was significantly increased in patients with DO (MCC increase, 53.36 ml, p = 0.006) but not in those with IC (MCC increase, -19.1 ml, p = 0.35). No significant improvement in urinary frequency, nocturia, incontinence or the first involuntary detrusor contraction (FDC) was noted after RTX therapy (p = 0.06, p = 0.52, p = 0.19 and p = 0.41, respectively). RTX could significantly reduce bladder pain in patients with either IC or DO, and increase MCC in patients with DO; however, no significant improvement was observed in frequency, nocturia, incontinence or FDC. Given the limitations in the small patient size and risk of bias in the included trials, great caution should be taken when intravesical RTX is used before a large, multicenter, well-designed random control trial with a long-term follow-up is carried out to further assess the clinical efficacy of RTX in in patients with storage LUTS.

  20. Intravesical resiniferatoxin for the treatment of storage lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with either interstitial cystitis or detrusor overactivity: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changcheng Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While Resin-iferatoxin (RTX has been widely used for patients with storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, its clinical efficiency hasn't yet been well evaluated. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the exact roles of intravesical RTX for the treatment of storage LUTS in patients with either interstitial cystitis (IC or detrusor overactivity (DO. METHODS: A meta-analysis of RTX treatment was performed through a comprehensive search of the literature. In total, 2,332 records were initially recruited, 1,907 from Elsevier, 207 from Medline and 218 from the Web of Science. No records were retrieved from the Embase or Cochrane Library. Seven trials with 355 patients were included and one trial was excluded because of the lack of extractable data. The analyses were all performed using RevMan 5.1 and MIX 2.0. RESULTS: Bladder pain was significantly reduced after RTX therapy in patients with either IC or DO. The average decrease of the visual an alogue pain scale was 0.42 after RTX treatment (p = 0.02. The maximum cystometric capacity (MCC was significantly increased in patients with DO (MCC increase, 53.36 ml, p = 0.006 but not in those with IC (MCC increase, -19.1 ml, p = 0.35. No significant improvement in urinary frequency, nocturia, incontinence or the first involuntary detrusor contraction (FDC was noted after RTX therapy (p = 0.06, p = 0.52, p = 0.19 and p = 0.41, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: RTX could significantly reduce bladder pain in patients with either IC or DO, and increase MCC in patients with DO; however, no significant improvement was observed in frequency, nocturia, incontinence or FDC. Given the limitations in the small patient size and risk of bias in the included trials, great caution should be taken when intravesical RTX is used before a large, multicenter, well-designed random control trial with a long-term follow-up is carried out to further assess the clinical efficacy of RTX in in patients with storage LUTS.

  1. Reproducibility of urodynamic filling sensation at weekly interval in healthy volunteers and in women with detrusor overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, Tom David; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of bladder sensation during standardized filling cystometry in female volunteers and overactive bladder (OAB) patients, repeated with weekly interval. We recruited 13 female nulliparous volunteers (age 21-47) and 17 female patients with OAB between (age 18-72). They participated in three investigation periods, each separated by 7 days to assess reproducibility of sensation related to standardized cystometry. Subjects were asked to report all sensations they felt during bladder filling. The previously described pattern of sensation was reported during bladder filling in all. Consecutive sensations corresponded to statistically higher bladder volumes. Volumes, at which different sensations of bladder filling were reported, were significantly higher in controls than in OAB patients [first sensation of filling (FSF) P = 0.003, first desire to void (FDV) P sensation/volume ratios were significantly higher in patients with OAB than in the healthy volunteers: FSF occurred at mean 46% and FDV at mean 73% of SDV in OAB patients, compared to 36% and 64% in healthy volunteers. Sensations proved highly reproducible when determined with weekly interval. Our data demonstrate that cystometric filling sensation determined in a standardized way with weekly interval is highly reproducible in healthy and in OAB patients. This finding has, in our opinion, clinical importance as it shows that the technique is reliable both for a sensory evaluation of the LUT as to study influence of treatment aimed at changing this sensation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Health-related quality of life and economic impact of urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with neurologic diseases often have neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), which can result in a loss of voluntary bladder control and uncontrollable urinary incontinence (UI).The impact of UI due to NDO on patients’ lives has not been well studied. The objective of this review was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and economic burden in patients with urgency UI due to NDO in select countries in North America, the European Union, Asia, and Australia. Methods Systematic literature searches and reviews of articles published in English (January 2000 to February 2011) were conducted using MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, and the Cochrane Library. Studies assessing the impact of UI on HRQoL of patients with an underlying neurologic condition of interest (i.e., multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, or spina bifida) were included. Economic studies in urgency UI also were included. Results Of 876 citations generated in the initial search, a total of 27 articles were deemed relevant: 16 articles presented HRQoL data and 11 articles presented information on the economic burden of UI. Humanistic studies used a range of HRQoL instruments to measure HRQoL burden, and the economic studies included different cost components to quantify the economic burden, making meaningful comparisons challenging. Despite this heterogeneity, the literature suggests that HRQoL in patients with UI due to NDO is worse than patients with UI in general or those with the same underlying neurologic condition without UI. In addition, urgency UI also results in substantial economic costs. Conclusions Incontinent patients with underlying neurologic conditions have impaired HRQoL as well as substantial economic burden attributable to UI due to NDO. There is a need for urgency UI treatments that improve HRQoL of these patients and alleviate the economic burden of this condition. PMID:23369111

  3. Long-term outcomes and risks factors for failure of intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxin A injections for the treatment of refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussain, Charles; Popoff, Mélanie; Phé, Véronique; Even, Alexia; Bosset, Pierre-Olivier; Pottier, Sandra; Falcou, Laetitia; Levy, Jonathan; Vaugier, Isabelle; Chartier Kastler, Emmanuel; Schurch, Brigitte; Denys, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Aims of this study were to assess the long-term outcomes of Intradetrusor injection of OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox® injection) associated with clean intermittent-catheterization (CIC) for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and to identify risk factors for failure. Neurological patients with NDO using CIC who had received Botox® injections between January 2001 and September 2013 were included. Clinical, urodynamic and radiological data were recorded. Primary endpoint was failure and withdrawal rates after 3, 5, and 7 years of management. Survival curves of withdrawals and failures of treatment were calculated with a 95-confidence interval using the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors for failure were determined with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis using Cox model. Overall, 292 patients, mean age of 40 ± 13, 6 years, were included. Overall, 219 patients (80.6%; IC95% [76.3-85.4%]) were still treated with Botox® injections after 3 years, 128 (71.1%; IC95% [65.7%, 76.9%]) after 5 years, and 58 (60.8%, IC95% [54.0%, 68.4%]) after 7 years. Failure rate was 12.6% (IC95% [8.6-16.5%]) after 3 years, 22.2% (IC95% [16.6-27.3%]) after 5 years, and 28.9% (IC95% [21.9%; 35.3%]) after 7 years of follow-up. Withdrawal rate after 7 years of follow-up was 11.3% (n = 33/292). Severe NDO at baseline appears to be a significant risk factor for failure. This study confirms long-term efficacy and tolerance of Botox® injection in patients with NDO using CIC. Long-term failure and withdrawal rates remain low but significant, and need to be managed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of OnabotulinumtoxinA in Patients with Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

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    Tao Cheng

    Full Text Available Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO affects the quality of life (QoL of millions of individuals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with NDO using a network meta-analytic approach, which can also quantify and compare the efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA across different dosages.PubMed, EMBASE, and the Controlled Trials Register were searched to identify randomized controlled trials comparing onabotulinumtoxinA to a control for NDO in adult patients. The primary outcome was the mean number of urinary incontinence (UI episodes per week. Urodynamic parameters included the maximum cystometric capacity (MCC and the maximum detrusor pressure (MDP. The safety of onabotulinumtoxinA was determined by the incidence of various frequent adverse events (AEs. Two authors extracted data independently, and the statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1.0 software.A total of 1,915 patients from six randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis. The onabotulinumtoxinA-treated groups had a significantly decreased mean number of urinary incontinence episodes per week (at week 6 (onabotulinumtoxinA200U: MD: -10.72, 95% CI: -13.4 to -8.04, P<0.00001; 300 U: MD: -11.42, 95% CI: -13.91 to -8.93, P<0.00001, MDP (200 U: MD: -33.46, 95% CI: -39.74 to -27.18, P<0.00001; 300 U: MD: -31.72, 95% CI: -37.69 to -25.75, P<0.00001, and greater increased MCC (200 U: MD: 141.30, 95% CI: 121.28 to 161.32, P<0.00001; 300 U: MD: 151.39, 95% CI: 130.43 to 172.34, P<0.00001 compared to the placebo-treated groups. However, there were no significant differences between the onabotulinumtoxinA-treated groups for the number of weekly UI episodes at 6 weeks (MD: 0.08, 95% CI: -2.57 to 2.73, P = 0.95. Similarly, we also observed that there were no significant differences in MCC (MD: -9.97, 95% CI: -33.15 to 13.20, P = 0.40 and MDP (MD: -1.86, 95% CI: -8.09 to 4.37, P = 0.56. Considering the

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Against Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V

    2016-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common form of urinary incontinence, resulting from spontaneous and random contractions of the urinary bladder. The affected individuals have an uncontrollable urge to urinate and experience incontinence and nocturia, which can greatly reduce the quality of daily life. There are several drugs for the treatment, and all of them have serious side effects. The following findings suggested that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has a therapeutic potential that is worth investigating for the treatment of OAB. The finding are (1) human detrusor muscle contains hCG receptors, (2) detrusor muscle becomes quiescent during pregnancy, (3) hCG can inhibit detrusor muscle contractions induced by cholinergic stimulation in rats, and (4) hCG can mimic the anticholinergic drug on detrusor muscle contractions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Pathophysiological studies of overactive bladder and bladder motor dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Chia; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Chiang, Po-Hui; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2011-07-01

    We studied bladder motor dysfunction and searched for markers of neurogenic and myogenic alterations among fructose fed rats with or without abnormal voiding behavior. Female Wistar rats were fed with a fructose rich diet (60%) or a normal diet for 6 months. Based on cystometry and voiding behavior the fructose fed rats were divided into 3 groups, including a group with normal detrusor function with normal micturition frequency, a group with detrusor overactivity with increased micturition frequency and a group with acontractile detrusor with increased micturition frequency. Denuded bladder tissues were obtained to assess in vitro detrusor contractility, postsynaptic receptors, smoothelin, nitrosative products and the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Fructose fed rats with abnormal voiding behavior had obvious neurogenic and myogenic alterations, including increased expression of postsynaptic receptors, dysregulation of smoothelin and decreased expression of Bcl-2 with a subsequent increase in apoptotic cells in the bladder stroma, causing decreased carbachol induced contractility. Rats with detrusor overactivity were also insulted by nitrosative stress associated with nitrotyrosine up-regulation in the bladder tissue. Up-regulation of M(2) and M(3)-muscarinic receptors, and P2X(1) receptors appeared to be generalized alterations of fructose fed rats and not exclusive to those with detrusor overactivity. Up-regulation of postsynaptic receptors and dysregulation of smoothelin contribute to overactive bladder symptoms in rats with metabolic syndrome. Nitrosative stress and decreased Bcl-2 expression lead to bladder muscle cell loss via the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, which may further deteriorate bladder function. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overactive bladder syndrome in older people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagg, A.S.; Cardozo, L.; Chapple, C.R.; Ridder, D. de; Kelleher, C.; Kirby, M.; Milsom, I.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    The overactive bladder symptom complex (OAB) is the commonest cause of urinary incontinence in older people, and is usually due to underlying detrusor overactivity, and as such is a treatable condition. Older people are a heterogeneous group, which includes fit community-dwelling individuals and

  8. Muscarinic receptors of the urinary bladder: detrusor, urothelial and prejunctional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess-Williams, R

    2002-06-01

    1. The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for maintaining normal bladder function, contracting the bladder smooth muscle (detrusor) and relaxing the bladder outlet during micturition. 2. Contraction of the bladder involves direct contraction via M3 receptors and an indirect 're-contraction' via M2-receptors whereby a reduction in adenylate cyclase activity reverses the relaxation induced by beta-adrenoceptor stimulation. 3. Muscarinic receptors are also located on the epithelial lining of the bladder (urothelium) where they induce the release of a diffusible factor responsible for inhibiting contraction of the underlying detrusor smooth muscle. The factor remains unidentified but is not nitric oxide, a cyclooxygenase product or adenosine triphosphate. 4. Finally, muscarinic receptors are also located prejunctionally in the bladder on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve terminals, where M1-receptors facilitate transmitter release and M2 or M4-receptors inhibit transmitter release. 5. In pathological states, changes may occur in these receptor systems resulting in bladder dysfunction. Muscarinic receptor antagonists are the main therapeutic agents available for treatment of the overactive bladder, but whether their therapeutic effect involves actions at all three locations (detrusor, prejunctional, urothelial) has yet to be established.

  9. Detrusor myocyte autophagy protects the bladder function via inhibiting the inflammation in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats.

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    Jiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a highly conserved homeostatic cellular process that removes and recycles damaged proteins and organelles in response to cellular stress, is believed to play a crucial role in the immune response and inflammation. The role of autophagy in bladder cystitis, however, has not well been clarified. Here we investigate the role of detrusor myocytes autophagy (DMA in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis animal model. 164 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three experimental groups and compared to three control groups, respectively. The expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3, p-p70s6k (the phosphorylated form of ribosomal protein S6, SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2 in the bladder muscular layer were measured using western blot. The co-location of LC3, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, and autophagic vacuoles were investigated with double-labeled immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The expression of lL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione (GSH in the detrusor layer were analyzed using ELISA. The bladder inflammation and the number of mast cells in the muscular layer were analyzed by histology. The bladder function was evaluated using cystometry. In cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, autophagy was detected in detrusor myocytes by increased LC3, p-p70s6k expression, and autophagosomes. However, the presence of enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in the cyclophosphamide-treated group suggest autophagy of detrusor myocytes may not be sufficiently activated. Inflammation and oxidative stress were significantly decreased and the bladder histology and micturition function were significantly improved with rapamycin (RAPA, autophagy agonist pre-treatment. In contrast, inflammation and oxidative stress were dramatically increased and the bladder histology and function were negatively affected with chloroquine (CQ, autophagy blocker pre-treated. These findings

  10. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Tannus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  11. Renal deterioration after spinal cord injury is associated with length of detrusor contractions during cystometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund, Marlene; Klarskov, Niels; Bagi, Per

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate which urodynamic parameters are associated with renal deterioration over a median of 41 years follow-up after traumatic spinal cord injury. METHODS: Medical records of patients with a traumatic spinal cord injury sustained 1944-1975 were reviewed from time of injury until 2012....... Patients who attended regular renography and/or renal clearance examinations and had minimum one cystometry and pressure-flow study were included. Renal deterioration was diagnosed as split renal function ≤30% in one kidney or relative glomerular filtration rate ≤51% of expected according to age and gender....... Detrusor function, presence of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, maximum detrusor pressure, post-void residual volume, and cystometric bladder capacity were obtained. In patients with detrusor overactivity, a detrusor overactivity/cystometry ratio was calculated using duration of detrusor contraction...

  12. NETUPITANT, A POTENT AND HIGHLY SELECTIVE NK1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, ALLEVIATES ACETIC ACID-INDUCED BLADDER OVERACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED GUINEA-PIGS

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    Stefano Palea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe. Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060 were studied in anesthetized guinea-pigs using two experimental models, the isovolumetric bladder contractions and a model of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of acetic acid (AA. Methods and Results. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 5 mL organ baths and isometric contractions to cumulative concentrations of SP-OME were recorded before and after incubation with increasing concentrations of netupitant. In anesthetized female guinea-pigs, reflex bladder activity was examined under isovolumetric conditions with the bladder distended with saline or during cystometry using intravesical infusion of acetic acid (AA. After a 30 min stabilization period, netupitant (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.v. or L-733,060 (3-10 mg/kg, i.v. were administered. In the detrusor muscle, netupitant produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (mean pKB = 9.24 of the responses to SP-OMe. Under isovolumetric conditions, netupitant or L-733,060 reduced bladder contraction frequency in a dose-dependent manner, but neither drug changed bladder contraction amplitude. In the AA model, netupitant dose-dependently increased intercontraction interval (ICI but had no effect on the amplitude of micturition (AM. L-733,060 dose-dependently increased ICI also but this effect was paralleled by a significant reduction of AM. Conclusion. Netupitant decreases the frequency of reflex bladder contractions without altering their amplitude, suggesting that this drug targets the afferent limb of the

  13. Netupitant, a Potent and Highly Selective NK1 Receptor Antagonist, Alleviates Acetic Acid-Induced Bladder Overactivity in Anesthetized Guinea-Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palea, Stefano; Guilloteau, Véronique; Rekik, Moéz; Lovati, Emanuela; Guerard, Marc; Guardia, Maria-Alba; Lluel, Philippe; Pietra, Claudio; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant) on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe). Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060) were studied in anesthetized guinea-pigs using two experimental models, the isovolumetric bladder contractions and a model of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of acetic acid (AA). Methods and Results. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 5 mL organ baths and isometric contractions to cumulative concentrations of SP-OME were recorded before and after incubation with increasing concentrations of netupitant. In anesthetized female guinea-pigs, reflex bladder activity was examined under isovolumetric conditions with the bladder distended with saline or during cystometry using intravesical infusion of AA. After a 30 min stabilization period, netupitant (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.v.) or L-733,060 (3-10 mg/kg, i.v.) were administered. In the detrusor muscle, netupitant produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (mean pKB = 9.24) of the responses to SP-OMe. Under isovolumetric conditions, netupitant or L-733,060 reduced bladder contraction frequency in a dose-dependent manner, but neither drug changed bladder contraction amplitude. In the AA model, netupitant dose-dependently increased intercontraction interval (ICI) but had no effect on the amplitude of micturition (AM). L-733,060 dose-dependently increased ICI also but this effect was paralleled by a significant reduction of AM. Conclusion. Netupitant decreases the frequency of reflex bladder contractions without altering their amplitude, suggesting that this drug targets the afferent limb of the micturition reflex circuit

  14. Altered detrusor gap junction communications induce storage symptoms in bladder inflammation: a mouse cyclophosphamide-induced model of cystitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Okinami

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS include storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms, featuring many urological diseases. Storage symptoms are the most frequent among these and associated with overactive bladder and non-bacterial bladder inflammation such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS. Gap junction, a key regulator of hyperactive conditions in the bladder, has been reported to be involved in pathological bladder inflammation. Here we report involvement of gap junction in the etiology of storage symptoms in bladder inflammation. In this study, cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis was adapted as a model of bladder inflammation. Cyclophosphamide-treated mice showed typical storage symptoms including increased urinary frequency and reduced bladder capacity, with concurrent up-regulation of connexin 43 (GJA1, one of the major gap junction proteins in the bladder. In isometric tension study, bladder smooth muscle strips taken from the treated mice showed more pronounced spontaneous contraction than controls, which was attenuated by carbenoxolone, a gap junction inhibitor. In voiding behavior studies, the storage symptoms in the treated mice characterized by frequent voiding were alleviated by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid, another gap junction inhibitor. These results demonstrate that cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model of cystitis shows clinical storage symptoms related with bladder inflammation and that gap junction in the bladder may be a key molecule of these storage symptoms. Therefore, gap junction in the bladder might be an alternative therapeutic target for storage symptoms in bladder inflammation.

  15. Hiperatividade do detrusor: comparação entre oxibutinina, eletroestimulação funcional do assoalho pélvico e exercícios perineais. Estudo randomizado Detrusor overactivity: comparative study among oxybutynin, functional electrostimulation and pelvic floor training. A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martins Arruda

    2007-09-01

    management of women with detrusor overactivity. METHODS: a total of 64 women, 35 to 80 years old, were enrolled in this randomized prospective trial. Patients were randomized in three groups: Oxybutynin (n=22, ES (n=21 and PFT (n=21. There were no statistical differences between the three groups with regards to race (p=0.948, age (p=0.747, hormonal status (p=0.813, time of symptomatology (p=0.789, previous surgery for urinary incontinence (p=0.993, or body mass index (p=0.897. Patients were assessed before and after treatment by urodynamic test, a seven-day voiding diary, and subjective response. The duration of the treatment was twelve weeks. For statistical analyses, the Pearson chi2, analysis of variance (ANOVA and the paired t-test were used. RESULTS: there was a decrease in the urge-incontinence episodes and in the number of pads required in all groups (p0.05. Urgency was resolved in 14 (63.6%, 11 (52.4% and 12 (57.1% patients of the Oxybutynin, ES and PFT Groups, respectively, without differences among the groups (p=0.754. Subjectively, 17 (77.3%, 11 (52.4% and 16 (76.2% women who had accomplished oxybutynin, ES and PFT, respectively, were satisfied, without differences among the groups (p = 0.142. Urodynamic was normal in 8 (36.4%, 12 (57.1% and 11 (52.4% patients of the Oxybutynin, ES and PFT Groups, respectively. This urodynamic analysis revealed no differences between the three groups (p=0.358. The reduction of urge-incontinence correlated with patient satisfaction (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: treatments were equally effective; reduction of urge-incontinence was correlated with patient satisfaction.

  16. How frequent are overactive bladder symptoms in women with urodynamic verification of an overactive bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergenoğlu, Mete Ahmet; Meseri, Reci; Aşkar, Niyazi; Itil, Ismail Mete

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between overactive bladder symptoms and urodynamic verification of overactive bladder. Between June 2011 and November 2011, 159 patients underwent urodynamics (UDS) at our urogynecology unit in the Ege University Hospital. Of these, 95 patients who complained of urgency, did not have any overt neurological diseases, bladder outlet obstruction and did not take any medication affecting the lower urinary tract function were evaluated. SPSS (ver. 15.0) was used to evaluate the data and the chi-square test and t test for independent samples were used for analysis. The mean age was found to be 54.5±12. Frequency was the most frequent symptom in women with overactive bladder (OAB) (82.1%), nocturia (57.8%) and (57.8%) urgency urinary incontinence followed in frequency. Detrusor over activity incidence was found to be 38.9%. There was no significant relationship between the presence of detrusor over activity (DOA) and OAB symptoms. Leak at urodynamics was found in 46.3% and there is no significant association with detrusor overactivity. Total bladder capacity was found to be significantly lower in women who had DOA (p=0.000). It appears that overactive bladder symptoms do not predict detrusor over activity. Urodynamic investigation is not mandatory in the initial management of women with only OAB symptoms.

  17. The role of prostanoids in the urinary bladder function and a potential use of prostanoid-targeting pharmacological agents in bladder overactivity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome involving urinary urgency with accompanying increased daytime urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, in the absence of an urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. The detailed OAB pathophysiology remains unclear. There is evidence that OAB pathogenesis also includes abnormal bladder paracrine activity, associated with release of local prostanoids. Those agents contribute to disturbances of peripheral neuronal bladder control resulting in detrusor instability. Thus, pharmacological agents abolishing prostanoid-induced bladder overactivity seem to be a potential, future OAB therapeutical option. This paper shortly describes the rationale for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and EP-1 receptor antagonists administration in future OAB pharmacotherapy.

  18. [Etiology and pathogenesis of overactive bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschleipfer, T; Wagenlehner, F; Weidner, W

    2011-04-01

    The symptom complex"overactive bladder" (OAB) affects more than 10% of adult individuals. The etiopathology is complex and multifactorial. Foremost, urinary tract infection, bladder cancer, foreign bodies, and history of radiation or intravesical instillation of chemotherapeutics must be excluded. In many cases, OAB is caused by neurogenic disorders that activate involuntary detrusor contractions (detrusor overactivity, DO). Also, non-neurogenic disorders such as bladder outlet obstruction or dysfunctions of the female pelvic floor/slack ligaments that affect the urothelium, suburothelium, detrusor and bladder afferents are substantially involved in the pathogenesis of OAB. Until now, circulatory disorders have not been adequately taken into consideration but seem to be another etiological factor that causes OAB. Henceforth, molecular changes of bladder afferents and circulatory disorders in patients suffering from OAB have to be investigated in more detail.

  19. Detrusor Hyperreflexia in Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    AYBEK, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    In this study detrusor hyperreflexia was investigated by urodynamic study during the acute phase of stroke in patients who became incontinent after a cerebrovascular accident. Urodynamic studies reveal physiopathological findings of incontinence while the acute period of cerebrovascular accident do not cover neurogenic bladder features. In our study it was observed that most of the patients (60%) had normal bladder functions and detrusor hyperreflexia was a rare rindings. This res...

  20. OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

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    E.L. Vishnevskiy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder is a specific syndrome characterized by bladder dysfunction that is clinically manifested by imperative urination (pollakiuria, urgency, urgent incontinence and nocturia. This state is very widely spread among children: every fifth child aged 4 to 7 shows typical bladder dysfunction. Quite often if urinary distresses are not studied well enough such children are falsely diagnosed with monosymptom enuresis, which, according to our information, actually happens in only 3,9% of cases. When examining children with urinary disorders it is reasonable to be geared to the protocol of European urologist association. According to this protocol, treatment should be started with antimuscarinimedications. The only antimuscarinic medication for treating children with hyperactive bladder that is legal in Russia is oxybutinin (Driptane, that is presently considered to be the «golden standard» of pharmaceutical treatment of overactive bladder for patients of any age. This statement is based on the modern idea of overactive bladder pathogenesis, that presupposes detrusorhypersensibility to acetylcholine. However, in some cases it might be reasonable to use some other medications, physiotherapy, sometimes as part of complex therapy. If individual dosage is observed, which will enable preventing or significantly lowering possible side effects, oxybutinin will be still considered «the golden standard» for treating overactive bladder for years to come in cases when detrusor hypersensibility to acetylcholine is the key component of bladder dysfunction pathogenesis.Key words: overactive bladder, oxybutinin, urination disorder, children.

  1. Detrusor after-contraction: a new insight

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    Françoise A. Valentini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAims:Detrusor after-contractions (DAC are non-common in adults. Both definition (nothing in ICS reports and significance (artefact, link with detrusor overactivity (DO or bladder outlet obstruction (BOO remain discussed. Our purpose was to carry out an analysis of the urodynamic parameters during voidings with DAC and, using the VBN model, to simulate pathophysiological conditions able to explain both voiding phase and DAC.Materials and Methods:From large urodynamic database of patients referred for evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction, DAC were observed in 60 patients (5.7%. Criteria for DAC were post-void residual 10cmH2O. VBN model was used for analysis of both pressure and flow curves, and simulations of pathophysiological conditions.Results:Onset of DAC (ODAC occurred when Q=7.3±5.7mL/s and bladder volume=17.9±15.4mL. Urgency-frequency syndrome and urodynamic diagnosis of DO were the more frequent scenarios associated with DAC. ODAC was associated to an inversion of the slope of detrusor pressure curve without any perturbation in flow curve. Among tested pathophysiological hypothesis (great, abnormal, detrusor force, sphincter contraction, none allowed restoring all recorded curves (flow rate, voiding pressure and DAC.Conclusion:No urodynamic characteristic of the first part of voiding is an index of occurrence of DAC. ODAC is a significant phenomenon linked with the bladder collapse. DAC is not associated with BOO but more probably with DO and appears as the result of local conditions in an almost empty bladder (concentration of stresses around a transducer; thus DAC seems of weak clinical significance.

  2. Fahr Syndrome Unknown Complication: Overactive Bladder

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    Devrim Tuglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old male patient was admitted to our outpatient department because of frequency and urgency incontinence. During evaluation it was detected that the patient was suffering from frequency which was progressive for one year, feeling of incontinence, and urgency incontinence. There was no urologic pathology detected in patient’s medical and family history. Neurologic consultation was requested due to his history of boredom, reluctance to do business, balance disorders, and recession for about 3 years. Brain computerized tomography (CT scan revealed that amorphous calcifications were detected in the bilaterally centrum semiovale, basal ganglia, capsula interna, thalami, mesencephalon, pons and bulbus, and the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. We have detected spontaneous neurogenic detrusor overactivity without sphincter dyssynergia after evaluating the voiding diary, cystometry, and pressure flow study. We consider the detrusor overactivity which occurred one year after the start of the neurological symptoms as the suprapontine inhibition and damage in the axonal pathways in the Fahr syndrome.

  3. Surgical access for electrical stimulation of the pudendal and dorsal genital nerves in the overactive bladder: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Rijkhoff, N.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The anatomy of the pudendal nerve and its nerve branches, especially the dorsal nerve of the penis and clitoris (dorsal genital nerves), and the clinical application of electrical stimulation of these nerves in patients with overactive bladder syndrome and detrusor overactivity are

  4. Blebbistain, a myosin II inhibitor, as a novel strategy to regulate detrusor contractility in a rat model of partial bladder outlet obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO, a common urologic pathology mostly caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia, can coexist in 40-45% of patients with overactive bladder (OAB and is associated with detrusor overactivity (DO. PBOO that induces DO results in alteration in bladder myosin II type and isoform composition. Blebbistatin (BLEB is a myosin II inhibitor we recently demonstrated potently relaxed normal detrusor smooth muscle (SM and reports suggest varied BLEB efficacy for different SM myosin (SMM isoforms and/or SMM vs nonmuscle myosin (NMM. We hypothesize BLEB inhibition of myosin II as a novel contraction protein targeted strategy to regulate DO. Using a surgically-induced male rat PBOO model, organ bath contractility, competitive and Real-Time-RT-PCR were performed. It was found that obstructed-bladder weight significantly increased 2.74-fold while in vitro contractility of detrusor to various stimuli was impaired ∼50% along with decreased shortening velocity. Obstruction also altered detrusor spontaneous activities with significantly increased amplitude but depressed frequency. PBOO switched bladder from a phasic-type to a more tonic-type SM. Expression of 5' myosin heavy chain (MHC alternatively spliced isoform SM-A (associated with tonic-type SM increased 3-fold while 3' MHC SM1 and essential light chain isoform MLC(17b also exhibited increased relative expression. Total SMMHC expression was decreased by 25% while the expression of NMM IIB (SMemb was greatly increased by 4.5-fold. BLEB was found to completely relax detrusor strips from both sham-operated and PBOO rats pre-contracted with KCl, carbachol or electrical field stimulation although sensitivity was slightly decreased (20% only at lower doses for PBOO. Thus we provide the first thorough characterization of the response of rat bladder myosin to PBOO and demonstrate complete BLEB-induced PBOO bladder SM relaxation. Furthermore, the present study provides valuable

  5. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  6. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Truzzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder.

  7. Detrusor Acontractility after Acute Spinal Cord Injury-Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Mirjam; Tornic, Jure; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kessler, Thomas M

    2018-01-17

    We assessed urodynamic parameters within the first 40 days after spinal cord injury to investigate whether the detrusor is acontractile during the acute phase of spinal cord injury. We performed a prospective cohort study in 54 patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to acute spinal cord injury who underwent urodynamic investigation within the first 40 days after injury at a single university spinal cord injury center. Urodynamic investigation revealed an acontractile detrusor in only 20 of the 54 patients (37%) but unfavorable urodynamic parameters in 34 (63%). We found detrusor overactivity in 32 patients, detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in 25, maximum storage detrusor pressure greater than 40 cm H 2 O in 17, vesicoureteral reflux in 3 and low bladder compliance (less than 20 ml/cm H 2 O) in 1. More than 1 unfavorable urodynamic parameter per patient was possible. In contrast to the common notion of an acontractile detrusor during acute spinal cord injury, almost two-thirds of our patients showed unfavorable urodynamic parameters within the first 40 days after spinal cord injury. Considering that early treatment of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with acute spinal cord injury might improve the long-term urological outcome, urodynamic investigation should be performed timely to optimize patient tailored therapy. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NS309 decreases rat detrusor smooth muscle membrane potential and phasic contractions by activating SK3 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Shankar P; Hristov, Kiril L; Soder, Rupal P; Kellett, Whitney F; Petkov, Georgi V

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Overactive bladder (OAB) is often associated with abnormally increased detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractions. We used NS309, a selective and potent opener of the small or intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK or IK, respectively) channels, to evaluate how SK/IK channel activation modulates DSM function. Experimental Approach We employed single-cell RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, whole cell patch-clamp in freshly isolated rat DSM cells and isometric tension recordings of isolated DSM strips to explore how the pharmacological activation of SK/IK channels with NS309 modulates DSM function. Key Results We detected SK3 but not SK1, SK2 or IK channels expression at both mRNA and protein levels by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in DSM single cells. NS309 (10 μM) significantly increased the whole cell SK currents and hyperpolarized DSM cell resting membrane potential. The NS309 hyperpolarizing effect was blocked by apamin, a selective SK channel inhibitor. NS309 inhibited the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude, force, frequency, duration and tone of isolated DSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of NS309 on spontaneous phasic contractions was blocked by apamin but not by TRAM-34, indicating no functional role of the IK channels in rat DSM. NS309 also significantly inhibited the pharmacologically and electrical field stimulation-induced DSM contractions. Conclusions and Implications Our data reveal that SK3 channel is the main SK/IK subtype in rat DSM. Pharmacological activation of SK3 channels with NS309 decreases rat DSM cell excitability and contractility, suggesting that SK3 channels might be potential therapeutic targets to control OAB associated with detrusor overactivity. PMID:23145946

  9. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Medical management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvpreet S Ubee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB, as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.

  11. Overactive bladder [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Wallace

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder syndrome is highly prevalent, and increasingly so with aging. It is characterized by the presence of urinary urgency, and can be associated with incontinence, increased voiding frequency, and nocturia. Assessment needs to exclude serious medical disorders that might present with similar symptoms, and a bladder diary is an invaluable part of understanding the presentation. Initial management is conservative, comprising education, bladder training, and advice on fluid intake. Drug therapy options include antimuscarinic medications and beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonists. Persistent overactive bladder syndrome, despite initial therapy, requires a review of the patient’s understanding of conservative management and compliance, and adjustment of medications. For refractory cases, specialist review and urodynamic testing should be considered; this may identify detrusor overactivity or increased filling sensation, and needs to exclude additional factors, such as stress incontinence and voiding dysfunction. Botulinum neurotoxin-A bladder injections can be used in severe overactivity, provided the patient is able and willing to do intermittent self-catheterisation, which is necessary in about 5% of treated patients. Sacral nerve stimulation and tibial nerve stimulation are other approaches. Major reconstructive surgery, such as augmentation cystoplasty, is rarely undertaken in modern practice but remains a possibility in extreme cases.

  12. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Overview Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, ...

  13. [Overactive bladder syndrome--a public health challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit-Rubin, N; Meyer, S; Achtari, C

    2015-10-28

    Overactive bladder is a highly prevalent clinical syndrome affecting up to 17% of women. It is often associated with urodynamic detrusor overactivity, leads to embarrassment and is frequently under-diagnosed and insufficiently treated. Its pathophysiology is complex and the numerous treatment modalities, some of them of poor evidence, aim to improve quality of life. When physiotherapy fails, anticholinergics are recommended as first-line medical treatment. They can be combined with or replaced by beta3-adrenergic agonists whereas sacral neuromodulation or posterior tibia nerve stimulation are considered an efficient alternative. Addidtionally, cystoscopic injection of botulinum toxine in the bladder has recently been validated in Switzerland as a treatment option for idiopathic overactive bladder.

  14. The use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Orasanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 50 years, botulinum toxin has been transformed from a cause of life-threatening disease to an effective medical therapy. It has been used in a variety of specialties for different indications, significantly improving patient quality of life. A recent growing body of evidence suggests that intra-detrusor injection of botulinum toxin may have beneficial effects in patients with medication refractory detrusor overactivity and may offer a new minimally invasive alternative to patients with severe overactive bladder symptoms. To review current data regarding the effects of botulinum toxin in patients with overactive bladder, a MEDLINE® /PubMed® literature search was carried out. The mechanism of action, clinical usage, adverse effects, and treatment efficacy were reviewed and the results are presented in this paper.

  15. New insights on the maternal diet induced-hypertension: potential role of the phenotypic plasticity and sympathetic-respiratory overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAO HENRIQUE eDA COSTA SILVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects worldwide population. Current environment including life style coupled with genetic programming have been attributed to the rising incidence of hypertension. Besides, environmental conditions during perinatal development such as maternal malnutrition can program changes in the integration among renal, neural and endocrine system leading to hypertension. This phenomenon is termed phenotypic plasticity and refers to the adjustment of a phenotype in response to environmental input without genetic change, following a novel or unusual input during development. Human and animal studies indicate that fetal exposure to an adverse maternal environment may alter the renal morphology and physiology that contribute to the development of hypertension. Recently, it has been shown that the maternal protein restriction alter the central control of SAH by a mechanism that include respiratory dysfunction and enhanced sympathetic-respiratory coupling at early life, which may contribute to adult hypertension. This review will address the new insights on the maternal diet induced-hypertension that include the potential role of the phenotypic plasticity, specifically the perinatal protein malnutrition, and sympathetic-respiratory overactivity.

  16. Prenatal inflammation-induced NF-κB dyshomeostasis contributes to renin-angiotensin system over-activity resulting in prenatally programmed hypertension in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youcai; Deng, Yafei; He, Xiaoyan; Chu, Jianhong; Zhou, Jianzhi; Zhang, Qi; Guo, Wei; Huang, Pei; Guan, Xiao; Tang, Yuan; Wei, Yanling; Zhao, Shanyu; Zhang, Xingxing; Wei, Chiming; Namaka, Michael; Yi, Ping; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Studies involving the use of prenatally programmed hypertension have been shown to potentially contribute to prevention of essential hypertension (EH). Our previous research has demonstrated that prenatal inflammatory stimulation leads to offspring’s aortic dysfunction and hypertension in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study found that prenatal LPS exposure led to NF-κB dyshomeostasis from fetus to adult, which was characterized by PI3K-Akt activation mediated degradation of IκBα protein and impaired NF-κB self-negative feedback loop mediated less newly synthesis of IκBα mRNA in thoracic aortas (gestational day 20, postnatal week 7 and 16). Prenatal or postnatal exposure of the IκBα degradation inhibitor, pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, effectively blocked NF-κB activation, endothelium dysfunction, and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) over-activity in thoracic aortas, resulting in reduced blood pressure in offspring that received prenatal exposure to LPS. Surprisingly, NF-κB dyshomeostasis and RAS over-activity were only found in thoracic aortas but not in superior mesenteric arteries. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the early life NF-κB dyshomeostasis induced by prenatal inflammatory exposure plays an essential role in the development of EH through triggering RAS over-activity. We conclude that early life NF-κB dyshomeostasis is a key predictor of EH, and thus, NF-κB inhibition represents an effective interventional strategy for EH prevention. PMID:26877256

  17. Prenatal inflammation-induced NF-κB dyshomeostasis contributes to renin-angiotensin system over-activity resulting in prenatally programmed hypertension in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youcai; Deng, Yafei; He, Xiaoyan; Chu, Jianhong; Zhou, Jianzhi; Zhang, Qi; Guo, Wei; Huang, Pei; Guan, Xiao; Tang, Yuan; Wei, Yanling; Zhao, Shanyu; Zhang, Xingxing; Wei, Chiming; Namaka, Michael; Yi, Ping; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-02-15

    Studies involving the use of prenatally programmed hypertension have been shown to potentially contribute to prevention of essential hypertension (EH). Our previous research has demonstrated that prenatal inflammatory stimulation leads to offspring's aortic dysfunction and hypertension in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study found that prenatal LPS exposure led to NF-κB dyshomeostasis from fetus to adult, which was characterized by PI3K-Akt activation mediated degradation of IκBα protein and impaired NF-κB self-negative feedback loop mediated less newly synthesis of IκBα mRNA in thoracic aortas (gestational day 20, postnatal week 7 and 16). Prenatal or postnatal exposure of the IκBα degradation inhibitor, pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, effectively blocked NF-κB activation, endothelium dysfunction, and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) over-activity in thoracic aortas, resulting in reduced blood pressure in offspring that received prenatal exposure to LPS. Surprisingly, NF-κB dyshomeostasis and RAS over-activity were only found in thoracic aortas but not in superior mesenteric arteries. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the early life NF-κB dyshomeostasis induced by prenatal inflammatory exposure plays an essential role in the development of EH through triggering RAS over-activity. We conclude that early life NF-κB dyshomeostasis is a key predictor of EH, and thus, NF-κB inhibition represents an effective interventional strategy for EH prevention.

  18. Effects of kinin B(1) and B(2) receptor antagonists on overactive urinary bladder syndrome induced by spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Stefânia; Andrade, Edinéia L; Martini, Alessandra C; Bento, Allisson F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Koepp, Janice; Calixto, João B

    2012-12-01

    Kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors have been implicated in physiological and pathological conditions of the urinary bladder. However, their role in overactive urinary bladder (OAB) syndrome following spinal cord injury (SCI) remains elusive. We investigated the role of kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors in OAB after SCI in rats. SCI was associated with a marked inflammatory response and functional changes in the urinary bladder. SCI resulted in an up-regulation of B(1) receptor mRNA in the urinary bladder, dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord, as well as in B(1) protein in the urinary bladder and B(1) and B(2) receptor protein in spinal cord. Interestingly, both B(1) and B(2) protein expression were similarly distributed in detrusor muscle and urothelium of animals with SCI. In vitro stimulation of urinary bladder with the selective B(1) or B(2) agonist elicited a higher concentration-response curve in the SCI urinary bladder than in naive or sham urinary bladders. Cystometry revealed that treatment of SCI animals with the B(2) selective antagonist icatibant reduced the amplitude and number of non-voiding contractions (NVCs). The B(1) antagonist des-Arg(9) -[Leu(8) ]-bradykinin reduced the number of NVCs while the non-peptide B(1) antagonist SSR240612 reduced the number of NVCs, the urinary bladder capacity and increased the voiding efficiency and voided volume. Taken together, these data show the important roles of B(1) and B(2) receptors in OAB following SCI in rats and suggest that blockade of these receptors could be a potential therapeutic target for controlling OAB. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Effects of kinin B1 and B2 receptor antagonists on overactive urinary bladder syndrome induced by spinal cord injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Stefânia; Andrade, Edinéia L; Martini, Alessandra C; Bento, Allisson F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Koepp, Janice; Calixto, João B

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Kinin B1 and B2 receptors have been implicated in physiological and pathological conditions of the urinary bladder. However, their role in overactive urinary bladder (OAB) syndrome following spinal cord injury (SCI) remains elusive. Experimental Approach We investigated the role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in OAB after SCI in rats. Key Results SCI was associated with a marked inflammatory response and functional changes in the urinary bladder. SCI resulted in an up-regulation of B1 receptor mRNA in the urinary bladder, dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord, as well as in B1 protein in the urinary bladder and B1 and B2 receptor protein in spinal cord. Interestingly, both B1 and B2 protein expression were similarly distributed in detrusor muscle and urothelium of animals with SCI. In vitro stimulation of urinary bladder with the selective B1 or B2 agonist elicited a higher concentration-response curve in the SCI urinary bladder than in naive or sham urinary bladders. Cystometry revealed that treatment of SCI animals with the B2 selective antagonist icatibant reduced the amplitude and number of non-voiding contractions (NVCs). The B1 antagonist des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin reduced the number of NVCs while the non-peptide B1 antagonist SSR240612 reduced the number of NVCs, the urinary bladder capacity and increased the voiding efficiency and voided volume. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, these data show the important roles of B1 and B2 receptors in OAB following SCI in rats and suggest that blockade of these receptors could be a potential therapeutic target for controlling OAB. PMID:22862305

  20. Selective detrusor activation by electrical sacral nerve root stimulation in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoff, N. J.; Wijkstra, H.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    Electrical sacral nerve root stimulation can be used in spinal cord injury patients to induce urinary bladder contraction. However, existing stimulation methods activate simultaneously both the detrusor muscle and the urethral sphincter. Urine evacuation is therefore only possible using poststimulus

  1. Impact of Overactive Bladder Syndrome on Female Sexual Function

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    Serdar Toksöz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of female sexual dysfunction includes psychological, physiological and iatrogenic causes. Physiological and iatrogenic causes are abdominal surgery, menopause, smoking, spinal cord injuries and some antipsychotic, antihypertensive, and antidepressant drugs. When assessing sexual function, sexual function questionnaires, such as the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Sexual Function Questionnaire are used. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is 43% and it has been reported to increase depending on menopause and age. Estrogen, estrogen + testosterone and tibolone, PDE5, apomorphine, bupropion and flibanserin are used in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. Overactive bladder is a disease affecting the quality of life and is characterized by urgency, frequency, nocturia and urge incontinence with especially filling phase of the bladder resulting from loss of detrusor muscle inhibition. The prevalence of overactive bladder in women in the United States has been reported to be 16.9%. Lower urinary tract symptoms and overactive bladder syndrome are not known how to cause female sexual dysfunction. Menopause and partner status were the most important predictors for female sexual dysfunction. It has been reported that overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence provide prediction of development of female sexual dysfunction. Shame, fear of incontinence, and urinary incontinence as well as urge sensation during sexual intercourse in individuals with overactive bladder syndrome have been reported to be the main factors causing female sexual dysfunction. Pathophysiological relationship between the two disorders has not been elucidated and further clinical and experimental studies are needed in this regard.

  2. Botulinum toxin A for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Fan Hsieh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment for overactive bladder starts with patient education and behavior therapies, followed by antimuscarinic agents. For patients with urgency urinary incontinence refractory to antimuscarinic therapy, currently both American Urological Association (AUA and European Association of Urology (EAU guidelines suggested that intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A should be offered. The mechanism of botulinum toxin A includes inhibition of vesicular release of neurotransmitters and the axonal expression of capsaicin and purinergic receptors in the suburothelium, as well as attenuation of central sensitization. Multiple randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrated that botulinum toxin A to be an effective treatment for patients with refractory idiopathic or neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The urinary incontinence episodes, maximum cystometric capacity, and maximum detrusor pressure were improved greater by botulinum toxin A compared to placebo. The adverse effects of botulinum toxin A, such as urinary retention and urinary tract infection, were primarily localized to the lower urinary tract. Therefore, botulinum toxin A offers an effective treatment option for patients with refractory overactive bladder.

  3. Pain during ice water test distinguishes clinical bladder hypersensitivity from overactivity disorders

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    Bountra Chas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bladder cooling reflex (BCR i.e. uninhibited detrusor contractions evoked by intravesical instillation of cold saline, is a segmental reflex believed to be triggered by menthol sensitive cold receptors in the bladder wall, with the afferent signals transmitted by C fibres. The BCR is a neonatal reflex that becomes suppressed by descending signals from higher centres at approximately the time when the child gains full voluntary control of voiding. It re-emerges in adults with neurogenic detrusor overactivity as a consequence of loss of central descending inhibition, resulting from conditions such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. We have recently shown an increase of nerve fibres expressing the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in both overactive (IDO and painful bladder syndrome (PBS, but its functional significance is unknown. We have therefore studied the bladder cooling reflex and associated sensory symptoms in patients with PBS and overactivity disorders. Methods The BCR, elicited by ice water test (IWT was performed in patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 17, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 22, neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, n = 4 and stress urinary incontinence (as controls, n = 21. The IWT was performed by intravesical instillation of cold saline (0 – 4°C. A positive IWT was defined as presence of uninhibited detrusor contraction evoked by cold saline, associated with urgency or with fluid expulsion. Patients were asked to report and rate any pain and cold sensation during the test. Results A positive IWT was observed in IDO (6/22, 27.3% and NDO (4/4, 100% patients, but was negative in all control and PBS patients. Thirteen (76.5% PBS patients reported pain during the IWT, with significantly higher pain scores during ice water instillation compared to the baseline (P = 0.0002, or equivalent amount of bladder filling (100 mls with saline at room temperature (P = 0.015. None

  4. Overactive bladder, differential diagnosis, and clinical utility of fesoterodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndaele J-J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques WyndaeleDepartment of Urology, Antwerp University, Antwerp, BelgiumAbstract: Overactive bladder is a symptom syndrome with urgency, frequency and, in many cases, nocturia. Urge incontinence is not present in all. There is no direct correlation with detrusor overactivity, an objective finding during urodynamic testing where involuntary contractions can be noticed. In the pathophysiology, much more attention has been given to the afferent/sensory arm of the micturition reflex in the last decade. Anatomical and infectious causes have to be diagnosed or ruled out. Diagnosis of overactive bladder is made mostly by history-taking, but other tests can be necessary in specific patients. Treatment consists of behavioral measures, a good explanation of the condition, training, and pelvic floor physiotherapy. Drugs are often used. Until recently, antimuscarinic drugs have been the mainstay of pharmacological therapy. Fesoterodine is a newer antimuscarinic agent which is more pharmacodynamically stable then tolterodine. Fesoterodine has been extensively researched using different dosages and compared with placebo and tolterodine, in different age groups, and under different conditions. Fesoterodine is superior to placebo and to tolterodine in the short term and long term. Its safety is very acceptable.Keywords: overactive bladder, fesoterodine, incontinence, urgency, lower urinary tract

  5. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fatigue Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. [Botulinum toxin injection for refractory non-neurogenic overactive bladder. Systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, B; Roumeguère, T

    2015-01-01

    OAB is common with a potential negative impact on quality of life. Anticholinergics and β3-mimetics are the first-line medical treatment. This treatment meets only 50% of patients given a lack of efficacy and adverse effects. Used in the treatment of neurogenic overactive bladder, botulinum toxin is now evaluated for the treatment of refractory non-neurogenic overactive bladder. The objective of this work is to review the literature data concerning the efficacy and safety of intradetrusor botulinum toxin injections to treat refractory idiopathic overactive bladder. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify articles published between May 1988 and April 2013 in Medline for the treatment of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder with botulinum toxin. 37 studies with original samples were selected including 8 randomized controlled trials against placebo. The effectiveness of intra- detrusor injections is demonstrated to reduce the frequency, urgency, nighttime urination, incontinence episodes and to improve bladder capacity and quality of life. The most common side effects are incomplete bladder emptying, intermittent catheterization and increased risk of urinary tract infection. A dose of 100 to 150 U of onabotulinumtoxinA allows the best compromise between efficiency and tolerance. Duration of the effects varies between 3 to 12 months and repeating the injections did not seem to affect the efficiency. Injections including the trigone zone do not cause vesicoureteral reflux. The absence of detrusor hyperactivity does not alter the clinical response. The detrusor injections of botulinum toxin can be considered as an effective second-line treatment for refractory non-neurogenic overactive bladder. Information on intermittent catheterization risk must be provided. The very long-term effectiveness and the absence of urothelium alterations are still outstanding issues.

  7. Emerging treatments for overactive bladder: clinical potential of botulinum toxins

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    Tincello DG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Douglas G Tincello,1,2 Tina Rashid,2 Vladimir Revicky21Reproductive Sciences Section, Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 2Urogynecology Unit, Women's and Children's Clinical Business Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester National Health Service Trust, Leicester, UKAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a symptom syndrome including urgency, frequency, and nocturia – with or without incontinence. It is a common manifestation of detrusor overactivity (DO. DO is a urodynamic observation of spontaneous or provoked contractions of the detrusor muscle is seen during the filling phase of the micturition cycle. OAB is, therefore, both a motor and sensory disorder. Botulinum toxin is a purified form of the neurotoxin from Clostridium botulinum and has been used in medicine for many years. Over the last 10 years, it has been used for the treatment of DO and OAB when standard treatments, such as bladder training and oral anticholinergic medication, have failed to provide symptom relief. Botulinum toxin acts by irreversibly preventing neurotransmitter release from the neurons in the motor end plate and also at sensory synapses, although the clinical effect is not permanent due to the growth of new connections within treated tissues. It is known that botulinum toxin modulates vanillioid, purinergic, capsaicin, and muscarinic receptor expression within the lamina propria, returning them to levels seen in normal bladders. Clinically, the effect of botulinum toxin on symptoms of OAB and DO is profound, with large effects upon the symptom of urgency, and also large effects on frequency, nocturia, leakage episodes, and continence rates. These effects have been seen consistently within eight randomized trials and numerous case series. Botulinum toxin appears safe, with the only common side effect being that of voiding difficulty, occurring in up to 10% of treated patients. Dosing regimens are variable, depending on

  8. THC/CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis overactive bladder: a pilot prospective study.

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    Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Aponte, R; Bruzzese, D; Guarcello, G; Manzo, V; Napolitano, M; Moreggia, O; Chiariello, F; Florio, C

    2018-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunctions (LUTDs) are commonly reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and are mainly related to neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB). The aim of this observational study was to assess the effect of a tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray on resistant OAB by means of clinical and instrumental tools. Twenty-one MS patients were screened, and 15 cases have been evaluated. They underwent a specific clinical assessment (overactive bladder symptom score, OABSS) and a urodynamic assessment evaluating the maximal cystometric capacity (CCmax), bladder compliance (Qmax), maximum detrusor pressure (Pdet max), detrusor pressure at the first desire (Pdet first), bladder volume at the first desire (BVFD), leakage volume (LV), and post-void residual volume (PVR), before and after 4 weeks of THC/CBD administration. A complete neurological evaluation, including the assessment of their spasticity using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and the spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS), was performed at the same times. Mobility was evaluated through the 25-ft walking-time test (T25-WT). The THC/CBD treatment successfully reduced the OAB symptoms (p = 0.001). Regarding the urodynamic findings after the end of treatment, PVR was significantly reduced (p = 0.016). Regarding the urodynamic findings after the end of treatment, PVR was significantly reduced (p = 0.016), while BVFD and CCmax were increased although the difference was not statistically significant. THC/CBD oromucosal spray has shown to be effective in improving overactive bladder symptoms in MS patients demonstrating a favorable impact on detrusor overactivity.

  9. Interleukin-4 and 13 induce the expression and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin-6 and stem cell factor from human detrusor smooth muscle cells: synergy with interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Andresen, Lars; Alvarez, Susana

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by an increased number of activated MCs in the detrusor muscle. However, to our knowledge the factors that influence the anatomical relationship between MCs and HDSMCs are unknown. MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF have a critical role in the regulation of MC development...

  10. Metformin Ameliorates Dysfunctional Traits of Glibenclamide- and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion by Suppression of Imposed Overactivity of the Islet Nitric Oxide Synthase-NO System.

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    Ingmar Lundquist

    Full Text Available Metformin lowers diabetic blood glucose primarily by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing peripheral glucose uptake. However, possible effects by metformin on beta-cell function are incompletely understood. We speculated that metformin might positively influence insulin secretion through impacting the beta-cell nitric oxide synthase (NOS-NO system, a negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release. In short-time incubations with isolated murine islets either glibenclamide or high glucose augmented insulin release associated with increased NO production from both neural and inducible NOS. Metformin addition suppressed the augmented NO generation coinciding with amplified insulin release. Islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed pronounced fluorescence of inducible NOS in the beta-cells being abolished by metformin co-culturing. These findings were reflected in medium nitrite-nitrate levels. A glucose challenge following islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed markedly impaired insulin response. Metformin co-culturing restored this response. Culturing murine islets and human islets from controls and type 2 diabetics with high glucose or high glucose + glibenclamide induced a pronounced decrease of cell viability being remarkably restored by metformin co-culturing. We show here, that imposed overactivity of the beta-cell NOS-NO system by glibenclamide or high glucose leads to insulin secretory dysfunction and reduced cell viability and also, importantly, that these effects are relieved by metformin inhibiting beta-cell NO overproduction from both neural and inducible NOS thus ameliorating a concealed negative influence by NO induced by sulfonylurea treatment and/or high glucose levels. This double-edged effect of glibenclamide on the beta-cellsuggests sulfonylurea monotherapy in type 2 diabetes being avoided.

  11. Effects of cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation on lower urinary tract function in normal and spinal cord injury mice with overactive bladder

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    Ahmed, Zaghloul

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is a monumental problem affecting quality of life following neurotrauma, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Proper function of the bladder and its associated structures depends on coordinated activity of the neuronal circuitry in the spinal cord and brain. Disconnection between the spinal and brain centers controlling the LUT causes fundamental changes in the mechanisms involved in the micturition and storage reflexes. We investigated the effects of cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (c-tsDCS) of the lumbosacral spine on bladder and external urinary sphincter (EUS) functions. Approach. We used cystometry and electromyography (EMG), in mice with and without SCI. Main results. c-tsDCS caused initiation of the micturition reflex in urethane-anesthetized normal mice with depressed micturition reflexes. This effect was associated with normalized EUS-EMG activity. Moreover, in urethane-anesthetized normal mice with expressed micturition reflexes, c-tsDCS increased the firing frequency, amplitude, and duration of EUS-EMG activity. These effects were associated with increased maximum intravesical pressure (P max) and intercontraction interval (ICI). In conscious normal animals, c-tsDCS caused significant increases in P max, ICI, threshold pressure (P thres), baseline pressure (P base), and number and amplitude of non-voiding contractions (NVCnumb and P im, respectively). In conscious mice with severe contusive SCI and overactive bladder, c-tsDCS increased P max, ICI, and P thres, but decreased P base, NVCnumb, and P im. c-tsDCS reduced the detrusor-overactivity/cystometry ratio, which is a measure of bladder overactivity associated with renal deterioration. Significance. These results indicate that c-tsDCS induces robust modulation of the lumbosacral spinal-cord circuitry that controls the LUT.

  12. Pathophysiology of overactive bladder.

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    Banakhar, Mai A; Al-Shaiji, Tariq F; Hassouna, Magdy M

    2012-08-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common disorder that negatively affects the quality of life of our patients and carries a large socioeconomic burden. According to the International Continence Society, it is characterized as urinary urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually, with frequency and nocturia in the absence of causative infection. The pathophysiology of this disease entity varies between neurogenic, myogenic, or idiopathic factors. This paper provides a review of the contemporary theories behind the pathophysiology of OAB.

  13. Postmenopausal overactive bladder

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    Jacek Tomaszewski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder storage symptoms have a severe impact on many areas as regards the quality of life including health-related, social, psychological and working functions. Pharmacotherapy of lower urinary tract stores (LUTS has been developed to optimize neural control of the lower urinary tract in pathologic states. The bladder can be overactive or underactive. Overactive bladder (OAB is highly prevalent and is associated with considerable morbidity, especially in aging population. Therefore, an effective treatment of OAB must result in a meaningful reduction in urinary symptoms. Pharmacotherapy for the OAB must be individualized based on the degree of bother, medication side-effect profile, concomitant comorbidities and current medication regimen. Antimuscarinic agents will continue to represent the current gold standard for the first-line pharmacological management of OAB. Alternatively to antimuscarinic therapy, 3-adrenergic receptor agonists, due to their efficacy and favorable adverse event profile, are a novel and attractive option of pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder symptoms. A combination of selective antimuscarinic and 3-adrenergic receptor agonists, agents with the different mechanism of action, gives a new treatment option for the patient with OAB according to its harms profile. A number of putative novel therapeutic agents is under clinical evaluations that may ultimately provide alternative or combination treatment options for OAB in the nearest future.

  14. Are patients with bladder oversensitivity different from those with urodynamically proven detrusor overactivity in female overactive bladder syndrome?

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    Sung-Lang Chen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Patients with BO seemed to be on a different spectrum compared to those with DO and also had different symptom-specific and associative factors. It was also found that FDV could be good predictive indicator for detecting DO at a low filling rate.

  15. Bladder wall injection of mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates bladder inflammation, overactivity, and nociception in a chemically induced interstitial cystitis-like rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akira; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Igarashi, Taro; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Egawa, Shin; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2018-03-06

    We investigated the effects of bladder wall injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on bladder tissues, function, and nociceptive behavior in a chemically induced interstitial cystitis-like rat model. Chemical cystitis of female rats was induced by intravesical instillation of 0.1 N hydrochloride (HCl) once a week for 2 weeks. Bladders were harvested 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after the second application for histological examination. Adipose-derived MSCs (HCl + MSCs) or phosphate-buffered saline (HCl + PBS) was injected into the bladder wall at the time of the second application of HCl. Histological examination, nociceptive behavior, and cystometrograms were evaluated 2 weeks after the injection compared with controls, which received instillation and injection of PBS into the bladder (sham + PBS). The number of mast cells and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were significantly increased at 1 and 2 weeks, and expression of collagen fibers was significantly increased from 2-4 weeks after the second application of HCl. Significantly increased nociceptive behavior, number of mast cells, expression of TNF-α, TGF-β, and collagen fibers were observed in HCl + PBS compared with sham + PBS, whereas these changes were significantly decreased in HCl + MSCs compared with HCl + PBS. In addition, bladder capacity and voiding threshold pressures were significantly decreased in HCl + PBS but not in HCl + MSCs compared with sham + PBS. The results suggest that bladder injection of MSCs ameliorates inflammation and fibrosis in bladder tissues, bladder overactivity, and nociception in a rat model of chemically induced cystitis.

  16. Physiotherapy Management of Idiopathic Detrusor Instability in elderly women is effective for continence rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Gazzar, Samir A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to give an overview of the conservative treatment of idiopathic detrusor instability (IDI) in elderly women, describe the clinical and urodynamic features of the over-active bladder and the role of physiotherapy as well as the various physiotherapeutic techniques in the management of this condition. A prospective, uncontrolled clinical trial was designed. Twenty elderly women aged 55-75 were participated for 8 weeks in this study. Therapeutic modalities including biofeedback training, bladder retraining, pelvic floor exercise and electrical stimulation were applied for all subjects. Each of 1st desire to void, maximum capacity, flow rate and voiding intervals were increased in its mean at the end of the study (p<0.0001), while the means of residual volume and frequency of micturation had significantly decreased at the end of the study (p<0.0001). The study showed that correctly taught pelvic floor exercise, biofeed back combined with bladder retaining, electrical stimulation and restriction of fluids intake are an effective treatment for the idiopathic detrusor instability in elderly women and should be considered effective approach for continence rehabilitation. (author)

  17. Deletion of Dicer in smooth muscle affects voiding pattern and reduces detrusor contractility and neuroeffector transmission.

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    Mardjaneh Karbalaei Sadegh

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of smooth muscle phenotype and may play important roles in pathogenesis of various smooth muscle related disease states. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miRNAs for urinary bladder function. We used an inducible and smooth muscle specific Dicer knockout (KO mouse which resulted in significantly reduced levels of miRNAs, including miR-145, miR-143, miR-22, miR125b-5p and miR-27a, from detrusor preparations without mucosa. Deletion of Dicer resulted in a disturbed micturition pattern in vivo and reduced depolarization-induced pressure development in the isolated detrusor. Furthermore, electrical field stimulation revealed a decreased cholinergic but maintained purinergic component of neurogenic activation in Dicer KO bladder strips. The ultrastructure of detrusor smooth muscle cells was well maintained, and the density of nerve terminals was similar. Western blotting demonstrated reduced contents of calponin and desmin. Smooth muscle α-actin, SM22α and myocardin were unchanged. Activation of strips with exogenous agonists showed that depolarization-induced contraction was preferentially reduced; ATP- and calyculin A-induced contractions were unchanged. Quantitative real time PCR and western blotting demonstrated reduced expression of Cav1.2 (Cacna1c. It is concluded that smooth muscle miRNAs play an important role for detrusor contractility and voiding pattern of unrestrained mice. This is mediated in part via effects on expression of smooth muscle differentiation markers and L-type Ca(2+ channels in the detrusor.

  18. Prominent complaint: a guide to medical therapy of overactive bladder syndrome in older women.

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    Mina Jafarabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate Overactive bladder (OAB with detrusor overactivity (DOA following oxybutynin or tolterodine treatment in recommended doses at a four-week course. A total of 100 Iranian women 45 years or older with urgency that also showed idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO in the filling phase of their cystometry were included in the current study. In this double-blinded trial two parallel groups were randomized by using two kinds of the antimuscarinic drugs for a four- week course [oxybutinin 5mg, t.d.s. or Tolterodin 2mg, b.i.d.] in the same  packages. Data were collected from three-day frequency volume chart (FVC one month before and after the treatment course. The effectiveness of each drug was compared using the paired, samples t-test. Patients' improvement regarding urinary urgency, frequency and urge incontinence after treatment in both groups was seen, but mean improvements in the terms of urgency and urge incontinence were larger in patients who were treated by oxybutynin. Night-time frequency was shown to be improved by a significantly larger score by tolterodine. Discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events had no significant difference in two groups. Four-week treatment with oxybutynin was better than tolterodine IR in improving urgency and urge incontinence, but there were not statistically significant difference between them. In planning a course of treatment especially in the elderly, the difference in the group of symptoms that reduce patients' quality of life should be considered. Physicians should consider the patient's prominent symptom in selection of anti-muscarinic drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome especially in elderly patients.

  19. The inflammatory and normal transcriptome of mouse bladder detrusor and mucosa

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    Dyer David W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An organ such as the bladder consists of complex, interacting set of tissues and cells. Inflammation has been implicated in every major disease of the bladder, including cancer, interstitial cystitis, and infection. However, scanty is the information about individual detrusor and urothelium transcriptomes in response to inflammation. Here, we used suppression subtractive hybridizations (SSH to determine bladder tissue- and disease-specific genes and transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs. Unique TREs and genes were assembled into putative networks. Results It was found that the control bladder mucosa presented regulatory elements driving genes such as myosin light chain phosphatase and calponin 1 that influence the smooth muscle phenotype. In the control detrusor network the Pax-3 TRE was significantly over-represented. During development, the Pax-3 transcription factor (TF maintains progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state whereas, during inflammation, Pax-3 was suppressed and genes involved in neuronal development (synapsin I were up-regulated. Therefore, during inflammation, an increased maturation of neural progenitor cells in the muscle may underlie detrusor instability. NF-κB was specifically over-represented in the inflamed mucosa regulatory network. When the inflamed detrusor was compared to control, two major pathways were found, one encoding synapsin I, a neuron-specific phosphoprotein, and the other an important apoptotic protein, siva. In response to LPS-induced inflammation, the liver X receptor was over-represented in both mucosa and detrusor regulatory networks confirming a role for this nuclear receptor in LPS-induced gene expression. Conclusion A new approach for understanding bladder muscle-urothelium interaction was developed by assembling SSH, real time PCR, and TRE analysis results into regulatory networks. Interestingly, some of the TREs and their downstream transcripts originally involved in

  20. Microcirculatory Detrusor Changes in Medicinally Denervated Bladder Patients Scientific

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    I.R. Valiyev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the results of the study of microcirculation in abnormal urinary bladder detrusor are reported. The neurotoxic effect of botulinic toxin has been shown. The dynamics of microcirculatory changes in detrusor under the action of botulinic toxin has been evaluated

  1. In vivo and in vitro pharmacological characterization of SVT-40776, a novel M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist, for the treatment of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, C; Davalillo, S; Cabellos, J; Lagunas, C; Balsa, D; Pérez-Del-Pulgar, S; Ballarín, M; Fernández, Ag

    2009-03-01

    Highly selective M(3) muscarinic receptor antagonists may represent a better treatment for overactive bladder syndrome, diminishing side effects. Cardiac side effects of non-selective antimuscarinics have been associated with activity at M(2) receptors as these receptors are mainly responsible for muscarinic receptor-dependent bradycardia. We have investigated a novel antimuscarinic, SVT-40776, highly selective for M(3) over M(2) receptors (Ki = 0.19 nmol.L(-1) for M(3) receptor affinity). This study reports the functional activity of SVT-40776 in the bladder, relative to its activity in atria. In vitro and ex vivo (oral dosing) inhibition of mouse detrusor and atrial contractile responses to carbachol were used to study the functional activity of SVT-40776. The in vivo efficacy of SVT-40776 was characterized by suppression of isovolumetric spontaneous bladder contractions in anaesthetized guinea pigs after intravenous administration. SVT-40776 was the most potent in inhibiting carbachol-induced bladder contractions of the anti-cholinergic agents tested, without affecting atrial contractions over the same range of concentrations. SVT-40776 exhibited the highest urinary versus cardiac selectivity (199-fold). In the guinea pig in vivo model, SVT-40776 inhibited 25% of spontaneous bladder contractions at a very low dose (6.97 microg.kg(-1) i.v), without affecting arterial blood pressure. SVT-40776 is a potent inhibitor of M(3) receptor-related detrusor contractile activity. The absence of effects on isolated atria preparations represents an interesting characteristic and suggests that SVT-40776 may lack unwanted cardiac effects; a feature especially relevant in a compound intended to treat mainly elderly patients.

  2. Development of oxybutynin chloride topical gel for overactive bladder

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    Lucente VR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vincent R Lucente1, David R Staskin2, Elise De31Institute of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Allentown, PA, USA; 2Division of Urology, St Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Urological Institute of Northeastern New York, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is an age-related syndrome often associated with urinary incontinence. Symptoms of OAB, such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia, can be treated effectively with inhibitors of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Antimuscarinic agents promote relaxation of the detrusor muscle and may modulate afferent neuronal signals involved in the regulation of the micturition reflex. Despite the availability of an increasing number of oral antimuscarinic agents, treatment persistence among patients with OAB generally appears to be low. This may be attributed, at least in part, to the common occurrence of anticholinergic adverse effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, and dizziness. Oxybutynin is a well-established antimuscarinic agent that is available in a variety of formulations. Transdermal formulations have been developed to avoid the first-pass hepatic and gastrointestinal drug metabolism responsible for the anticholinergic adverse effects often observed with oral delivery of oxybutynin. Oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG is a formulation of oxybutynin that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009. OTG was the result of a systematic evidence-based effort to develop a formulation that preserves the efficacy of oral oxybutynin formulations while eliminating most of their anticholinergic adverse effects. Additional emphasis was put on creating a transdermal formulation with minimal potential for application-site skin reactions. The formulation and pharmacokinetic properties of OTG are reviewed in the context of recently published efficacy and tolerability data from a large multicenter, placebo

  3. A prospective randomized trial comparing the use of tolterodine or weighted vaginal cones in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Tuncay; Dökmeci, Fulya; Çetinkaya, Şerife Esra

    2016-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) using weighted vaginal cones (WVC) on the symptoms, clinical findings, urodynamic findings and quality of life (QoL) in overactive bladder (OAB) patients with tolterodine. Thirty-nine patients with urinary frequency (≥ 8/day), nocturia (≥ 2/night), urgency and a total score of ≥ 8 to the overactive bladder-awareness tool (OAB-V8) were diagnosed as OAB and were randomized into two treatment groups; WVC and extended release tolterodine (tolterodine ER) 4 mg/day for 8 weeks. Results of the clinical findings, 3-day urinary diary, validated questionnaires for symptom bother and QoL (Urinary distress inventory (UDI-6), incontinence impact questionnaire (IIQ-7), OAB-V8, Wagner questionnaire) and urodynamic examination before and after treatment were compared. A reduction of frequency, nocturia and urinary incontinence was observed in WVC group (p=0.006, p=0.034 and p=0.008, respectively) and in tolterodine group (pbladder filling was significantly improved after WVC treatment but not in tolterodine group (p=0.035 and p=0.550, respectively). After treatment, detrusor overactivity (DO) resolved in 8 patients in the WVC group (p=0.003) and in 2 patients in the tolterodine group (p=0.426). WVC treatment seems to be an efficacious therapeutic option for the improvement of overactive bladder syndrome (OABS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes of hypo- and hypertonic sodium chloride induced by the rat urinary bladder at various filling stages. Evidence for an increased transurothelial access of urine to detrusor nerve and muscle cells with distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlbrugger, G

    1987-01-01

    By means of a transaortal injection of a gelatine ink mixture, a manifold mucosa to muscularis blood flow ratio was proved. In addition, the treatment of hypo- and hypertonic NaCl by the rat urinary bladder has been studied at 0.3-, 0.6- and 0.9-ml filling levels in conjunction with continuous bladder pressure recording. With distension an increased permeability to NaCl (efflux) and/or water (influx) was found in hypertonic conditions. In order to demonstrate this, the decreasing surface to volume ratio with distension has to be considered. Final urea concentrations in hypertonic media significantly exceeded those in hypotonic probes. The phenomenon has been hypothetically attributed to the existence of an arteriovenous counter current exchange within mucosal vessels. In comparison to hypotonic bladder contents, hypertonic media increased basic bladder pressures and phasic pressure amplitudes preferably at the 0.9-ml level. Hence, in context with an increased permeability, distension favors access of the bladder content to detrusor nerve and muscle cells thereby facilitating their excitability.

  5. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of tamsulosin monotherapy and its combination with mirabegron for overactive bladder induced by benign prostatic obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Koji; Masumori, Naoya; Fukuta, Fumimasa; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Iwasawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Yoshinori

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of add-on treatment with a β3-adrenoceptor agonist (mirabegron) for overactive bladder symptoms remaining after α1-blocker (tamsulosin) treatment in men with benign prostatic obstruction. Patients with benign prostatic obstruction with urinary urgency at least once per week and a total OABSS of 3 or more points after 8 or more weeks of treatment with tamsulosin were enrolled in the study. They were randomly allocated to receive 0.2 mg tamsulosin daily or 0.2 mg tamsulosin and 50 mg mirabegron daily for 8 weeks. The primary end point was change in total OABSS. Safety assessments included change in post-void residual urine volume and adverse events. From January 2012 through September 2013 a total of 94 patients were randomized. Of these patients 76 completed the protocol treatment. In the full analysis set the change in total OABSS during the treatment period was significantly greater in the combination group than in the monotherapy group (-2.21 vs -0.87, p=0.012). The changes in scores for urinary urgency, daytime frequency, International Prostate Symptom Score storage symptom subscore and quality of life index at 8 weeks were significantly greater in the combination group. The change in post-void residual urine volume was significantly greater in the combination group. Although 6 patients experienced adverse events in the combination group, urinary retention was observed in only 1 patient. Combined tamsulosin and mirabegron treatment is effective and safe for patients with benign prostatic obstruction who have overactive bladder symptoms after tamsulosin monotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring Detrusor Oxygenation and Hemodynamics Noninvasively during Dysfunctional Voiding

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    Andrew J. Macnab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature indicates that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH have a heterogeneous pathophysiology. Pressure flow studies (UDSs remain the gold standard evaluation methodology for such patients. However, as the function of the detrusor muscle depends on its vasculature and perfusion, the underlying causes of LUTS likely include abnormalities of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics, and available treatment options include agents thought to act on the detrusor smooth muscle and/or vasculature. Hence, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, an established optical methodology for monitoring changes in tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics, has relevance as a means of expanding knowledge related to the pathophysiology of BPH and potential treatment options. This methodological report describes how to conduct simultaneous NIRS monitoring of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics during UDS, outlines the clinical implications and practical applications of NIRS, explains the principles of physiologic interpretation of NIRS voiding data, and proposes an exploratory hypothesis that the pathophysiological causes underlying LUTS include detrusor dysfunction due to an abnormal hemodynamic response or the onset of oxygen debt during voiding.

  7. Monitoring Detrusor Oxygenation and Hemodynamics Noninvasively during Dysfunctional Voiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stothers, Lynn S.; Shadgan, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The current literature indicates that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have a heterogeneous pathophysiology. Pressure flow studies (UDSs) remain the gold standard evaluation methodology for such patients. However, as the function of the detrusor muscle depends on its vasculature and perfusion, the underlying causes of LUTS likely include abnormalities of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics, and available treatment options include agents thought to act on the detrusor smooth muscle and/or vasculature. Hence, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an established optical methodology for monitoring changes in tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics, has relevance as a means of expanding knowledge related to the pathophysiology of BPH and potential treatment options. This methodological report describes how to conduct simultaneous NIRS monitoring of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics during UDS, outlines the clinical implications and practical applications of NIRS, explains the principles of physiologic interpretation of NIRS voiding data, and proposes an exploratory hypothesis that the pathophysiological causes underlying LUTS include detrusor dysfunction due to an abnormal hemodynamic response or the onset of oxygen debt during voiding. PMID:23019422

  8. Efficacy, tolerability and safety profile of propiverine in the treatment of the overactive bladder (non-neurogenic and neurogenic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madersbacher, H; Mürtz, G

    2001-11-01

    Propiverine hydrochloride (propiverine) is a compound that has neurotropic and musculotropic effects on the urinary bladder smooth muscle. Controlled clinical trials have shown its effectiveness in treating detrusor hyperreflexia and in treating patients with symptoms of an overactive bladder: this is true not only for adults but in children and the elderly as well. European and Japanese studies have also documented that propiverine is well tolerated. It is better tolerated than oxybutynin (particularly in regard to frequency and severity of dryness of the mouth). In several Japanese studies authors demonstrated that propiverine is well tolerated on a long-term basis. Voigt reported an adverse event incidence rate of 13% in a follow-up investigation during 10 years of treatment. A post-marketing drug surveillance consisting of 4390 patients provided additional data concerning efficacy and safety of propiverine. It is one of the few drugs recommended for the treatment of detrusor overactivity by the Committee on Pharmacological Treatment during the First International Consultation on Incontinence.

  9. [Prospective evaluation of mouth and eye dryness induced by antimuscarinic drugs used for neurogenic overactive bladder in 35 patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglinski, L; Manceau, P; Thomas-Pohl, M; Le Breton, F; Amarenco, G

    2017-03-01

    Mouth and eye dryness are frequently reported by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as side effects of antimuscarinic drugs used for neurogenic overactive bladder. We evaluated the impact of antimuscarinic drugs prescription on these symptoms. MS patients consulting for overactive bladder were included. Xerostomia were evaluated at baseline and thirty days after treatment by self-reporting questionnaires (Xerostomia Quality of Life [X-Qol] and Xerostomia Questionnaire [XQ]), by salivary flow rate and sugar test. Xerophtalmia were evaluated by a self-reporting questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI]) and Schirmer test. Iatrogenic anticholinergic impregnation was evaluated by the Anticholinergic Drug Scale. From January to December 2014, 35 patients were included. Mean age was 50.1±10.2 years, mean EDSS=4.9. Mean anticholinergic impregnation was 0.6±1.0. Before treatment, none correlation was found between anticholinergic impregnation and other parameters. Twenty-two patients were evaluated after treatment. At baseline and thirty days after treatment, mean scores were respectively: 0.78±0.51 and 0.73±0.43 (P=0.67) for X-Qol, 9.22±11.8 and 7.03±11.4 (P=0.32) for XQ, 18.8±14.9 and 13.9±11.6 (P=0.06) for OSDI. Mean salivary flow rates were respectively 1.54±1.11 and 1.22±1.3 (P=0.53), positive sugar tests concerned respectively 68% and 55% of patients (P=0.53), and positive Schirmer test concerned 50% before and after treatment. Eye and mouth dryness exist in our MS population, even before prescription of antimuscarinic treatment, and is not getting worse after prescription. Those symptoms should not be the reason to stop an efficient treatment, but should be the reason to find and treat their aetiology. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Nerve growth factor as a biomarker in the diagnosis and treatment of overactive bladder (OAB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankiewicz, Katarzyna; Kulik-Rechberger, Beata; Nowakowski, Łukasz; Rechberger, Tomasz

    2012-07-01

    Nerve growth factor is a complex regulator of neural plasticity along the micturition pathways. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence for a role of NGF in urinary bladder function both in experimental and clinical settings. There is bulk of strong evidence that experimental administration of NGF elicits the symptoms of increased sensation, urgency and bladder hyperreflexia which strongly resemble overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Therefore in human studies there are attempts to employ urinary NGF levels as a diagnostic marker in various forms of OAB and IC/PBS. It has been shown that urinary NGF levels are correlated with severity of OAB symptoms and in patients successfully treated with antimuscarinics agents or detrusor botulinum toxin injection, urinary NGF levels decrease significantly in association with reduction of urgency severity

  11. Does vaginal estriol make urodynamic changes in women with overactive bladder syndrome and genitourinary syndrome of menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Maria Grazia; Caruso, Salvatore; Giunta, Giuliana; Valenti, Gaetano; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Cianci, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    OAB is a common finding in postmenopausal women. Hypoestrogenism is the root cause of many signs and symptoms of Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (vaginal dryness, atrophy, dyspareunia, urinary disorders, etc.). As such the aim of this study was to evaluate the urodynamic effects of ultralowdose estriol vaginal gel formulation to treat women with Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause and Overactive Bladder Syndrome. This open-labeled, single center, prospective study involved 37 women with OAB recruited in our Urogynecological Unit between January and July 2016. They received estriol 50 mcg/g vaginal gel, one applicator-dose per day for 3 weeks followed by one dose twice a week for 12 weeks. Objective and subjective parameters were evaluated before and after treatment through the urodynamic examination, Overactive Bladder symptom score and Short Form Health Survey-36 questionnaires. Vaginal atrophy symptoms and signs as well as the overactive bladder subjective symptom parameter improved significantly. Urodynamic evaluation showed significant improvement in first desire to void and maximum cystometric capacity after estriol usage. Patients who had detrusor overactivity did not show any improvement for this parameter after treatment. The voiding function parameters did not significantly change. Short form-36 showed a better quality of life after treatment especially for the emotional role, as well as mental and general health. A local ultra-low dose concentration of estriol could be effective in women with vaginal atrophy and Overactive Bladder Syndrome for improving both subjective symptoms and urodynamic parameters of storage function not affecting voiding function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscarinic receptors: their distribution and function in body systems, and the implications for treating overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Paul; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Chapple, Christopher; de Groat, William Chet; Fryer, Alison D; Kay, Gary; Laties, Alan; Nathanson, Neil M; Pasricha, Pankaj Jay; Wein, Alan J

    2006-07-01

    1. The effectiveness of antimuscarinic agents in the treatment of the overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is thought to arise through blockade of bladder muscarinic receptors located on detrusor smooth muscle cells, as well as on nondetrusor structures. 2. Muscarinic M3 receptors are primarily responsible for detrusor contraction. Limited evidence exists to suggest that M2 receptors may have a role in mediating indirect contractions and/or inhibition of detrusor relaxation. In addition, there is evidence that muscarinic receptors located in the urothelium/suburothelium and on afferent nerves may contribute to the pathophysiology of OAB. Blockade of these receptors may also contribute to the clinical efficacy of antimuscarinic agents. 3. Although the role of muscarinic receptors in the bladder, other than M3 receptors, remains unclear, their role in other body systems is becoming increasingly well established, with emerging evidence supporting a wide range of diverse functions. Blockade of these functions by muscarinic receptor antagonists can lead to similarly diverse adverse effects associated with antimuscarinic treatment, with the range of effects observed varying according to the different receptor subtypes affected. 4. This review explores the evolving understanding of muscarinic receptor functions throughout the body, with particular focus on the bladder, gastrointestinal tract, eye, heart, brain and salivary glands, and the implications for drugs used to treat OAB. The key factors that might determine the ideal antimuscarinic drug for treatment of OAB are also discussed. Further research is needed to show whether the M3 selective receptor antagonists have any advantage over less selective drugs, in leading to fewer adverse events.

  13. Detrusor wall thickness compared to other non-invasivemethods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The current study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy of detrusor wall thickness to othernoninvasive, tools, using pressure flow studies as a reference, in the assessment of bladder outlet, obstructionamong men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms. Patients and Methods: Men aged 50 or older ...

  14. Interferential therapy for detrusor hyperreflexia in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poppel, H; Ketelaer, P; Van DeWeerd, A

    1985-06-01

    Twenty patients with detrusor hyperreflexia in multiple sclerosis were treated for frequency, urgency and incontinence, or catheter bypassing by interferential currents applied on the lumbosacral spinal marrow. Although the mechanism of action is not totally understood, subjective and objective improvements were registered in most patients. Further investigations are needed to confirm these results and to explain the favorable effect of interferential therapy.

  15. Solifenacin objectively decreases urinary sensation in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lior; Kenton, Kimberly; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Brubaker, Linda; Sabo, Edmond; Durazo-Arivzu, Ramón A; Fitzgerald, Mary P

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a device that measures urinary sensation during cystometry, and to use that device to determine whether treatment of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) with solifenacin is associated with a change in urinary sensation. Overall 15 women were recruited for this study, ten women with OAB and urodynamically demonstrated detrusor overactivity and five controls without OAB underwent filling cystometry twice with contemporaneous, continuous recording of urinary sensation. Women with OAB received solifenacin 10 mg daily during the weeks between testing. We compared the areas under the initial and repeat sensation-volume curves. While taking solifenacin, the maximum cystometric capacity increased from 329 ± 168 ml to 464 ± 123 ml (P bladder volume-sensation curve decreased (P bladder sensation during the treatment of OAB with solifenacin. If clinical correlations are confirmed by future study, such urinary sensation measures may prove useful as assessment, treatment predictor, or outcome measures in OAB research and/or clinical care.

  16. Urothelial mucosal signaling and the overactive bladder-ICI-RS 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birder, Lori A; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Kanai, Anthony J; Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T; Fry, Chris H

    2014-06-01

    There is abundant evidence that the lower urinary tract (LUT) mucosal layer is involved both in mechanosensory functions that regulate bladder contractile activity and in urethral sensation. Changes to the mucosa can be associated with a number of bladder pathologies. For example, alterations of the urothelium and underlying lamina propria at both the molecular and structural levels have been reported in both patients and animals associated with disorders such as bladder pain syndrome and diabetic cystopathy. In contrast to the urinary bladder, much less is known about the urothelium/lamina propria of the bladder neck/proximal urethra. There are important gender differences in the outflow region both anatomically and with respect to innervation, hormonal sensitivity, and location of the external urethral sphincter. There is reasonable evidence to support the view that the mucosal signaling pathway in the proximal urethra is important for normal voiding, but it has also been speculated that the proximal urethra can initiate bladder overactivity. When dysfunctional, the proximal urethra may be an interesting target, for example, botulinum toxin injections aiming at eliminating both urgency and incontinence due to detrusor overactivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Overactive Bladder Syndrome and the Potential Role of Prostaglandins and Phosphodiesterases: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama'i, Mohammad Sajjad; Van Koeveringe, Gommert A.; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a general introduction is given, presenting the overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and its impact on the quality of life and economical burden in patients affected. Moreover, the anatomy, physiology and histology of the lower urinary tract are discussed, followed by a brief overview on the possible role of prostaglandin (PG) and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the urinary bladder. The current literature on the role and distribution of PGE2 and its receptors in the urinary bladder is discussed. In both animal models and in human studies, high levels of signaling molecules such as PG and cGMP have been implicated, in decreased functional bladder capacity and micturition volume, as well as in increased voiding contraction amplitude. As a consequence, inhibition of prostanoid production, the use of prostanoid receptor antagonists, or PDE inhibitors might be a rational way to treat patients with detrusor overactivity. Similarly, prostanoid receptor agonists, or agents that stimulate their production, might have a function in treating bladder underactivity. PMID:24350100

  18. Urinary Nerve Growth Factor Levels in Overactive Bladder Syndrome and Lower Urinary Tract Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Tzu Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB is a syndrome based on self-reported symptoms of urgency and frequency with or without urge incontinence. Although urgency is the core symptom of OAB, patients might have difficulty to distinguish urgency from the urge to void. Urodynamic study is a useful diagnostic tool to discover detrusor overactivity (DO in patients with OAB; however, not all OAB patients have DO. Therefore, a more objective and non-invasive way to diagnose and assess OAB including DO is needed. Recent research has focused on urinary biomarkers in assessment of OAB. Urinary nerve growth factor (NGF level increases in patients with OAB-wet, bladder outlet obstruction, mixed urinary incontinence and urodynamic DO. Urinary NGF levels are correlated with severity of OAB symptoms. In patients with OAB and DO who have been well treated with antimuscarinics or botulinum toxin injection, urinary NGF levels have been shown to decrease significantly in association with reduction of urgency severity. However, not all patients with OAB have an elevated urinary NGF level. It might also be increased in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, cerebrovascular accident and lower urinary tract diseases such as urinary tract stone, bacterial infection and urothelial tumor. It is possible to use urinary NGF levels as a bio-marker for diagnosis of OAB as well as for the assessment of therapeutic outcome in patients with OAB or DO. Here, we review the latest medical advances in this field.

  19. Characterization of prejunctional serotonin receptors modulating [3H]acetylcholine release in the human detrusor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gianluigi; Condino, Anna M; Gallinari, Paola; Franceschetti, Gian P; Tonini, Marcello

    2006-01-01

    Bladder overactivity (OAB) is a chronic and debilitating lower urinary tract (LUT) disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. LUT symptoms associated with OAB, such as urgency and urinary incontinence, cause a hygienic and social concern to patients, but their current pharmacological treatment is largely inadequate due to the lack of uroselectivity. Although OAB etiology remains multifactorial and poorly understood, increasing evidence indicates that serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is an endogenous substance involved in the control of micturition at central and peripheral sites. In this study, we demonstrated the presence of three distinct 5-HT receptors localized at parasympathetic nerve terminals of the human bladder by measuring electrically evoked tritiated acetylcholine release in isolated detrusor strips. These prejunctional receptors, involved in both positive and negative feedback mechanisms regulating cholinergic transmission, have been characterized by means of three highly selective 5-HT antagonists for 5-HT(4), 5-HT(7), and 5-HT(1A) receptors, namely GR113808A ([1-[2-[(-methylsulphonyl) amino] ethyl]4-piperinidyl]methyl1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate succinate), SB269970 [(R)-3-(2-(2-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidine-1-sulfonyl)phenol hydrochloride], and WAY100635 [N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl)-cyclohexane-carboxamide trichloride]. Under these conditions, we confirmed the facilitatory role of 5-HT(4) heteroreceptors on acetylcholine release and revealed for the first time the occurrence of 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1A) heteroreceptors with a facilitatory and an inhibitory action, respectively. Our findings strengthen the novel concept for the use of recently patented selective 5-HT agonists and antagonists for the control of OAB dysfunctions associated with inflammatory conditions, although their therapeutic efficacy needs to be explored in the clinical setting.

  20. Association of symptoms with urodynamic findings in men with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Ali A; Gajewski, Jerzy B

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Therapy (review) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? It is known that overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms correlate weakly with urodynamic findings, especially in female patients. The study shows that OAB symptoms also correlate weakly with urodynamic findings in male patients. More than third of male patients with OAB symptoms had evidence of BOO. The study finds that a pressure flow study is of benefit in the evaluation of this group of patients. • To assess the correlation between overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms with urodynamic (UD) findings in men. • We conducted a retrospective study of all UD studies involving men with OAB symptoms. • All UD studies were carried out at a single centre from 1994 to 2009 and were reported by one urology specialist. • There were 668 UD reports included in the final analysis. All patients had symptoms of urgency with or without urgency incontinence (UI). • There was a weak correlation between OAB symptoms and UD findings. • All storage symptoms, except frequency, correlated with a finding of detrusor overactivity (DO). • Severity of urgency correlated inversely with a finding of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). • Both nocturia and frequency correlated inversely with maximum cystometric capacity. • More than 75% of patients had concomitant voiding symptoms. Severity of voiding symptoms (slow stream and incomplete emptying) correlated inversely with documentation of DO. Voiding symptoms were predictors of BOO, while severe urgency was a negative predictor for BOO. • There were weak correlations between OAB symptoms and UD findings. Most men with OAB symptoms had concomitant voiding symptoms and more than a third (43%) of these had evidence of BOO. • A pressure flow study is of benefit in the evaluation of patients with OAB symptoms. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  1. OnabotulinumtoxinA in overactive bladder: Evidence-based consensus recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cidre, M A; Arlandis-Guzmán, S

    2016-04-01

    To offer a set of useful recommendations for urologists who are starting to provide treatment of overactive bladders with onabotulinumtoxinA. A literature search to December 2013 was conducted, as well as a subsequent critical reading of the selected publications. The coordinators prepared a document that was submitted for review by the members of the Spanish Group for the use of Botulinum Toxin in Urology. The expert group considered that onabotulinumtoxinA may be used for overactive bladder syndrome with urinary urge incontinence secondary to neurogenic or idiopathic detrusor overactivity for patients for whom conservative treatment and first-line medical treatment has failed, is not tolerated or is contraindicated. Treatment in most cases was performed with local intravesical anesthesia, although it can also be performed under epidural or general anesthesia. Patients must be informed of the possibility of requiring self-catheterization or temporary catheterization. Clinicians should ensure that the patients are capable of performing this catheterization before the treatment is conducted. Patients must also be informed of the need for antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections. At least 2 follow-up visits are recommended: the first at days 7-14 after the injection and the second at 2-3 months. Reinjection is indicated when the effect of the treatment decreases. These guidelines can help clinicians in their daily decisions and limit the potential risks associated with the incorrect use of the drug. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex difference in the contribution of GABAB receptors to tibial neuromodulation of bladder overactivity in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Thomas W; Jiang, Xuewen; Bansal, Utsav; Lamm, Vladimir; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the role of γ-aminobutyric acid subtype B (GABA B ) receptors in tibial and pudendal neuromodulation of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of dilute (0.5%) acetic acid (AA) in α-chloralose-anesthetized cats. To inhibit bladder overactivity, tibial or pudendal nerve stimulation (TNS or PNS) was applied at 5 Hz and two or four times threshold (T) intensity for inducing toe or anal sphincter twitch. TNS at 2T or 4T intensity significantly ( P 217 ± 18.8 and 221.3 ± 22.3% of control capacity, respectively. CGP52432 (a GABA B receptor antagonist) at intravenous dosages of 0.1-1 mg/kg completely removed the TNS inhibition in female cats but had no effect in male cats. CGP52432 administered intravenously also had no effect on control bladder capacity or the pudendal inhibition of bladder overactivity. These results reveal a sex difference in the role of GABA B receptors in tibial neuromodulation of bladder overactivity in cats and that GABA B receptors are not involved in either pudendal neuromodulation or irritation-induced bladder overactivity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Fourier transform analysis of rabbit detrusor autonomous contractions reveals length dependent increases in tone and slow wave development at long lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael D; Klausner, Adam P; Speich, John E; Southern, Jordan B; Habibi, Joseph R; Ratz, Paul H

    2013-07-01

    Bladder wall muscle (detrusor) develops low amplitude rhythmic contractions. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction activity is increased in detrusor from patients with overactive bladder. In this in vitro study we used fast Fourier transforms to assess the length dependence of low amplitude rhythmic contraction components. Rabbit detrusor strips were placed in a muscle bath between 2 clips to adjust length and record isometric tension. Tissues stretched from 70% to 130% of a reference muscle length at 10% increments were allowed to develop low amplitude rhythmic contractions at each length for 20 minutes. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction data were analyzed using fast Fourier transforms and represented by a frequency rather than a time spectrum. Based on fast Fourier transform analysis summarized by signal peaks within specific frequency ranges, rabbit low amplitude rhythmic contraction waveforms were divided into 1 tonic and 2 phasic components, defined as A0 + A1F1 + A2F2, where A0 is a length dependent basal tonic component that increases linearly, A1F1 is a slow wave with a length dependent specific amplitude (A1) and a length independent constant frequency (F1) of approximately 11.2 Hz, and A2F2 is a fast wave with a length dependent amplitude (A2) and frequency (F2) of approximately 0.03 Hz. Fast Fourier transform analysis revealed that rabbit low amplitude rhythmic contractions consist of a basal tonic component plus 2 phasic components. The amplitude of all 3 components was length dependent. The frequency of the fast component was not length dependent and the slow component was absent at short muscle lengths, developing only at muscle lengths beyond that producing a maximum active contraction. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overactive bladder syndrome - management and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Janine; McLeod, Nicholas; Thani-Gasalam, Ruban; Rashid, Prem

    2012-11-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome is a symptom-based clinical diagnosis. It is characterised by urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia, with or without urge urinary incontinence. These symptoms can often be managed in the primary care setting. This article provides a review on overactive bladder syndrome and provides advice on management for the general practitioner. Overactive bladder syndrome can have a significant effect on quality of life, and affects 12-17% of the population. Prevalence increases with age. The management of overactive bladder syndrome involves exclusion of underlying pathology. First line treatment includes lifestyle interventions, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training and antimuscarinic agents. Failure of conservative management necessitates urology referral. Second line therapies are more invasive, and include botulinum toxin, neuromodulation or surgical interventions such as augmentation cystoplasty or urinary diversion.

  5. Intravesical TRPV4 blockade reduces repeated variate stress-induced bladder dysfunction by increasing bladder capacity and decreasing voiding frequency in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with functional lower urinary tract disorders including interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) and overactive bladder (OAB) often report symptom (e.g., urinary frequency) worsening due to stress. One member of the transient receptor potential ion channel vanilloid family, TRPV4, has recently been implicated in urinary bladder dysfunction disorders including OAB and IC/BPS. These studies address the role of TRPV4 in stress-induced bladder dysfunction using an animal model of stress in male rats. To induce stress, rats were exposed to 7 days of repeated variate stress (RVS). Quantitative PCR data demonstrated significant (P ≤ 0.01) increases in TRPV4 transcript levels in urothelium but not detrusor smooth muscle. Western blot analyses of split urinary bladders (i.e., urothelium and detrusor) showed significant (P ≤ 0.01) increases in TRPV4 protein expression levels in urothelial tissues but not detrusor smooth muscle. We previously showed that RVS produces bladder dysfunction characterized by decreased bladder capacity and increased voiding frequency. The functional role of TRPV4 in RVS-induced bladder dysfunction was evaluated using continuous, open outlet intravesical infusion of saline in conjunction with administration of a TRPV4 agonist, GSK1016790A (3 μM), a TRPV4 antagonist, HC067047 (1 μM), or vehicle (0.1% DMSO in saline) in control and RVS-treated rats. Bladder capacity, void volume, and intercontraction interval significantly decreased following intravesical instillation of GSK1016790A in control rats and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased following administration of HC067047 in RVS-treated rats. These results demonstrate increased TRPV4 expression in the urothelium following RVS and that TRPV4 blockade ameliorates RVS-induced bladder dysfunction consistent with the role of TRPV4 as a promising target for bladder function disorders. PMID:24965792

  6. Netupitant, a Potent and Highly Selective NK1 Receptor Antagonist, Alleviates Acetic Acid-Induced Bladder Overactivity in Anesthetized Guinea-Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Palea, Stefano; Guilloteau, V?ronique; Rekik, Mo?z; Lovati, Emanuela; Guerard, Marc; Guardia, Maria-Alba; Lluel, Philippe; Pietra, Claudio; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant) on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe). Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060) were studie...

  7. Overactivity and Boundary Setting in Anorexia Nervosa: An Existential Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warah, Aida

    1993-01-01

    Views overactivity among anorexics from existential perspective. Shows that anorexic's mode of being is overly rational. Hypothesizes that overactivity may help anorexic achieve sense of existential permanence by dynamizing her static and too rational mode of being. Advances notion that overactivity may play adaptive role and should not be…

  8. Urinary nerve growth factor levels in overactive bladder syndrome and lower urinary tract disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Tzu; Chen, Chia-Yen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2010-12-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome based on self-reported symptoms of urgency and frequency with or without urge incontinence. Although urgency is the core symptom of OAB, patients might have difficulty to distinguish urgency from the urge to void. Urodynamic study is a useful diagnostic tool to discover detrusor overactivity (DO) in patients with OAB; however, not all OAB patients have DO. Therefore, a more objective and non-invasive way to diagnose and assess OAB including DO is needed. Recent research has focused on urinary biomarkers in assessment of OAB. Urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) level increases in patients with OAB-wet, bladder outlet obstruction, mixed urinary incontinence and urodynamic DO. Urinary NGF levels are correlated with severity of OAB symptoms. In patients with OAB and DO who have been well treated with antimuscarinics or botulinum toxin injection, urinary NGF levels have been shown to decrease significantly in association with reduction of urgency severity. However, not all patients with OAB have an elevated urinary NGF level. It might also be increased in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, cerebrovascular accident and lower urinary tract diseases such as urinary tract stone, bacterial infection and urothelial tumor. It is possible to use urinary NGF levels as a bio-marker for diagnosis of OAB as well as for the assessment of therapeutic outcome in patients with OAB or DO. Here, we review the latest medical advances in this field. Copyright © 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Consensus document on overactive bladder in older patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Bravo, Carlos; Brenes-Bermúdez, Francisco; Valverde-Moyar, Maria Victoria; Alcántara-Montero, Antonio; Pérez-León, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    Overactive nladder (OAB) is a clinical entity with a high prevalence in the population, having a high impact on quality of life, especially when it occurs with urge urinary incontinence. It is very important to highlight the low rate of consultation of this condition by the older population. This appears to depend on several factors (educational, cultural, professional), and thus leads to the low percentage of older patients who receive appropriate treatment and, on the other hand, a large percentage of older patients with a significant deterioration in their quality of life. Therefore, Scientific societies and Working Groups propose the early detection of OAB in their documents and clinical guidelines. Its etiology is not well known, but is influenced by cerebrovascular processes and other neurological problems, abnormalities of the detrusor muscle of bladder receptors, and obstructive and inflammatory processes of the lower urinary tract. Its diagnosis is clinical, and in the great majority of the cases it can be possible to establish its diagnosis and etiopathogenic orientation, without the need for complex diagnostic procedures. Currently, there are effective treatments for OAB, and we should decide the most appropriate for each elderly patient, based on their individual characteristics. Based on the main clinical practice guidelines, a progressive treatment is proposed, with the antimuscarinics being the most recommended drug treatment. Therefore, a group of very involved professionals in clinical practice for the elderly, and representing two scientific Societies (Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology [SEGG], and the Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians [SEMERGEN]) developed this consensus document with the main objective of establishing practices and valid strategies, focused to simplify the management of this clinical entity in the elderly population, and especially to improve their quality of life. The recommendations presented in this

  10. Overactive bladder - 18 years - Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell'Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Castano, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; Lopez, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome is one of the lower urinary tract dysfunctions with the highest number of scientific publications over the past two decades. This shows the growing interest in better understanding this syndrome, which gathers symptoms of urinary urgency and increased daytime and nighttime voiding frequency, with or without urinary incontinence and results in a negative impact on the quality of life of approximately one out of six individuals - including both genders and almost all age groups. The possibility of establishing the diagnosis just from clinical data made patients' access to specialized care easier. Physiotherapy resources have been incorporated into the urological daily practice. A number of more selective antimuscarinic drugs with consequent lower adverse event rates were released. Recently, a new class of oral drugs, beta-adrenergic agonists has become part of the armamentarium for Overactive Bladder. Botulinum toxin injections in the bladder and sacral neuromodulation are routine modalities of treatment for refractory cases. During the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder, a comprehensive review of the literature related to the evolution of the concept, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management was conducted. This text corresponds to the first part of the review Overactive Bladder 18-years.

  11. CD34-positive interstitial cells of the human detrusor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle; Hansen, Alastair; Smedts, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are well described in the bowel wall. They are c-kit positive and play a role as pacemaker cells. Similar c-kit-positive cells have recently been described in the human bladder. The aim of this study was to characterize interstitial cells of the bladder detrusor...... using a panel of antibodies directed against CD117/c-kit, CD34, CD31, S100, tryptase, neurofilament, NSE, Factor-VIII and GFAP. A striking finding was an interstitial type of cell which is CD34 immunoreactive (CD34-ir) but CD117/c-kit negative. The cells have a tentacular morphology, enveloping...... and intermingling with individual muscle fasicles. Morphologically and immunohistochemically, they show no neurogenic, endothelial or mast cell differentiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of interstitial cells with a round-to-oval nucleus, sparse perinuclear cytoplasm and long...

  12. Association between polymorphism of beta3-adrenoceptor gene and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Nomiya, Masanori; Shishido, Keiichi; Ishibashi, Kei; Takahashi, Norio; Aikawa, Ken

    2014-04-01

    In human urinary bladder, beta3-ARs play an important role in promoting detrusor relaxation during the storage phase of the micturition cycle. The present study investigated whether a Trp64Arg polymorphism of the gene encoding the beta3-AR is associated with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. This study involved 100 women with OAB and 101 healthy control women without OAB. Hair root samples were obtained from all subjects and used for beta3-AR gene analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed to analyze a polymorphism in the gene of Trp64Arg. The overall frequency of the 64Arg variant (heterozygous plus homozygous) in OAB patients was 47% and significantly higher than the frequency of 22.8% found in non-OAB control women. Within OAB patients, numbers of micturitions per day, urgency episodes per day, and urgency incontinence episodes per day in the 64Arg variant carriers were not significantly different from those in the normal gene carriers. This study shows that the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-AR gene is weakly but significantly associated with OAB syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Intra-Detrusor Injections of Botulinum Toxin Type a in Children with Spina Bifida: a Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascoet, Juliette; Peyronnet, Benoit; Forin, Véronique; Baron, Maximilien; Capon, Grégoire; Prudhomme, Thomas; Allenet, Clément; Tournier, Simon; Maurin, Charlotte; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Bouali, Ourdia; Peycelon, Matthieu; Arnaud, Alexis; Renaux-Petel, Mariette; Liard, Agnès; Karsenty, Gilles; Manunta, Andrea; Game, Xavier

    2018-03-06

    To assess the effectiveness of Intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin type A (IDBTX-A) in children with spina bifida. All patients aged under 16 year-old who underwent IDBTX-A between 2002 and 2016 at six institutions were included in a retrospective study. Our primary endpoint was the success rate of IDBTX-A defined as both clinical improvement (no incontinence episodes between clean-intermittent catheterization (CIC), absence of urgency, less than 8 CIC per day)) and urodynamic improvement (resolution of derusor overactivity, normal bladder compliance for age) lasting ≥ 12 weeks. Predictive factors of success were assessed through univariate analysis. Fifty-three patients with a mean age of 8.5 years were included. All patients were under CIC and 88.7% had received anticholinergics with either poor efficacy or bothersome adverse events The global success rate of the first injection (clinical and urodynamic) was 30%. Patients with closed spinal dysraphism had a significantly better success rate than patients with myelomeningocele (p=0.002). The clinical success rate was 66% and was significantly associated with maximum urethral closure pressure (34 vs. 54.4 cm H 2 O; p=0.02). The urodynamic success rate was 34%. Maximum cystometric capacity (p<0.0001) and compliance (p=0.01) significantly improved after the first IDBTX-A and maximum detrusor pressure tended to decrease (p=0.09) except in the subgroup of patients with poor compliance. After a mean follow up of 3.7 years, 23 patients (43.4%) required augmentation cystoplasty. Excluding six patients lost to follow-up, 38.3% of patients were still undergoing botulinum toxin injections at last follow-up. In this series, despite IBTX-A enabled clinical improvement in 66% patients urodynamic outcomes were poor resulting in a low global success rate (30%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-frequency electrotherapy for female patients with detrusor underactivity due to neuromuscular deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan-Feng; Zhang, Shen; Wang, Cun-Zhou; Li, Jun; Qu, Chuang-Yu; Cui, Xin-Gang; Zhao, Sheng-Jia

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of low-frequency electrotherapy (LFE) for female patients with early-stage detrusor underactivity (DUA) due to neuromuscular deficiency. A total of 102 female patients were divided randomly into four groups: LFE-NC (normal compliance), LFE-LC (low compliance), CON (control)-NC and CON-LC. Patients in the LFE-NC and LFE-LC groups received LFE, and those in the CON-NC and CON-LC groups received conservative treatment. Urodynamic evaluation was performed before and after treatment. After treatment, 82 % of the LFE-NC regained detrusor contractility, whereas only 2 (8 %) of the CON-NC had normal detrusor contraction. None of LFE-LC or CON-LC regained detrusor contractility (p 0.05). LFE was more effective for DUA patients with normal compliance; these patients benefited from LFE, but DUA patients with low compliance did not.

  15. Relationship between anxiety and overactive bladder syndrome in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Aline Teixeira; Jácomo, Raquel Henriques; Gomide, Liana Barbaresco; Garcia, Patrícia Azevedo; Bontempo, Albênica Paulino dos Santos; Karnikoskwi, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between overactive bladder syndrome and anxiety in older women. Of the 198 older women who were invited, 29 were excluded and 166 were then divided into two groups according to the Advanced Questionnaire of Overactive Bladder (OAB-V8): one group with overactive bladder symptoms (OAB-V8≥8) and the other without the symptoms of an overactive bladder (OAB-V8overactive bladder was present in 117 (70.5%) of the participants. The body mass index (BMI) of the group with overactive bladder symptoms was significantly higher than the BMI of those without these symptoms (p=0.001). A higher prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anxiety was observed among older women with overactive bladder symptoms. In addition, the overactive bladder symptoms group presented a positive low correlation with anxiety symptoms (r=0.345) and with BMI (r=0.281). There was a small correlation between BMI and anxiety symptoms (r=0.164). Overactive bladder syndrome was prevalent among older women and the existence of these symptoms was linked to the presence of mild, moderate and/or severe anxiety symptoms.

  16. Detrusor instability in children with recurrent urinary tract infection and/or enuresis. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Kristensen, E S; Nielsen, K K

    1986-01-01

    Forty-one children, aged 5-15 years, were referred because of recurrent urinary infections and/or enuresis. They were examined prospectively by means of cystometry. CO2 cystometry revealed detrusor instability in 18 children (44%), but if complete reproducibility were to be requested in repeated...... tests, only 7 children (17%) would have presented instability. Detrusor instability was not significantly related to definite pathological changes in the urinary tract or to irritative bladder symptoms....

  17. Does central sensitization help explain idiopathic overactive bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Dmochowski, Roger; Wein, Alan; Bruehl, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) can include dysfunction of sensory pathways of the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in bladder hypersensitivity. Central sensitization describes an induced state of spinal hypersensitivity that is associated with a variety of chronic pain disorders that share many attributes with OAB, albeit without the presence of pain. As such, the concept of central sensitization might be relevant to understanding the mechanisms and clinical manifestations of OAB syndrome. An understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of central sensitization, and the evidence that supports a role of central sensitization in OAB, including the potential implications of mechanisms of central sensitization for the treatment of patients with OAB could provide a novel approach to the treatment of patients with this disease. Such an approach would be especially relevant to those patients with central sensitization-related comorbidities, and has the potential to improve the outcomes of these patients in particular.

  18. Beta adrenoreceptors in the rabbit bladder detrusor muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.F.; Marks, B.H.

    1984-02-01

    This study examines the beta adrenergic receptors of the rabbit detrusor smooth muscle, employing (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) as a ligand for the binding of beta adrenergic receptors. Saturation binding experiments on the isolated membrane fraction yielded a KD for ICYP of 14.7 pM and a maximum binding of 147.6 fmol/mg of protein. Displacement of labeled ICYP by a series of beta adrenergic agents yielded the following KD values for the combined high and low affinity binding sites: I-propranolol, 0.76 nM; ICI 118,551, 1.7 nM; zinterol, 38.0 nM; metoprolol, 3.5 microM; and practolol, 61.4 microM. When these displacement experimental results were compared to KD values from other reported binding studies with ICYP for beta adrenoreceptors, both the order of potency and the KD values indicated primarily beta-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes. Computer program Scatfit analysis of the displacement curves indicated a single slope and affinity constant for all five beta adrenergic agents. Hofstee plots for zinterol, ICI 118,551 and metoprolol, however, were not linear and indicated that minor populations of beta-1 adrenoreceptors were also present as both high and low affinity binding sites could be defined. It is concluded that the primary receptor population is beta-2 and that this tissue is heterogenous with a small population of beta-1 adrenoreceptors representing approximately 13 to 23% of the total beta adrenoreceptor population.

  19. Acupuncture for adults with overactive bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuwei; Zhou, Jing; Mo, Qian; Wang, Yang; Yu, Jinna; Liu, Zhishun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Overactive bladder is stated as the occurrence of urinary urgency which will cause negative impacts and decrease patients’ health-related quality of life. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the efficiency and safety of acupuncture for adults with overactive bladder (OAB) comparing with sham-acupuncture, drugs, and acupuncture plus drugs. Methods: We independently searched 9 databases from beginning to August 15, 2017. Two writers extracted data at the same time independently. Study outcomes were calculated by standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and mean difference (MD) with 95% CIs. Results: Ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 794 patients were included in this systematic review. The combined results showed that electroacupuncture (EA) may be more effective than sham electroacupuncture (sham EA) in improving the 24-hour nocturia episodes and EA may enhance tolterodine for relieving voiding symptoms and enhancing patients’ quality of life. However, more trials with high quality and larger sample sizes will be needed in the future to provide sufficient evidence. Only 15 of 794 OAB patients from the included studies reported mild adverse reactions related to EA, therefore, acupuncture is safe for treating OAB. Conclusion: Acupuncture might have effect in decreasing the number of micturition episodes, incontinence episodes, and nocturia episodes. However, the evidence is insufficient to show the effect using acupuncture alone or the additional effect to drugs in treating OAB. PMID:29465566

  20. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  1. Neurophysiological modeling of bladder afferent activity in the rat overactive bladder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Mahipal; van Asselt, Els; van Mastrigt, Ron; Clavica, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    The overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome-based urinary dysfunction characterized by "urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia". Earlier we developed a mathematical model of bladder nerve activity during voiding in anesthetized rats and found that the nerve activity in the relaxation phase of voiding contractions was all afferent. In the present study, we applied this mathematical model to an acetic acid (AA) rat model of bladder overactivity to study the sensitivity of afferent fibers in intact nerves to bladder pressure and volume changes. The afferent activity in the filling phase and the slope, i.e., the sensitivity of the afferent fibers to pressure changes in the post-void relaxation phase, were found to be significantly higher in AA than in saline measurements, while the offset (nerve activity at pressure ~0) and maximum pressure were comparable. We have thus shown, for the first time, that the sensitivity of afferent fibers in the OAB can be studied without cutting nerves or preparation of single fibers. We conclude that bladder overactivity induced by AA in rats is neurogenic in origin and is caused by increased sensitivity of afferent sensors in the bladder wall.

  2. Pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder symptoms – A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Fitz

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT involves the contraction of the puborectal, anal sphincter and external urethral muscles, inhibiting the detrusor contraction, what justify its use in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB symptoms. Objective: To verify the effects of isolated PFMT on the symptoms of OAB. Method: Prospective clinical trial with 27 women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI, with predominance of OAB symptoms and loss ≥ 2 g in the pad test. It was evaluated: pelvic floor muscles (PFMs function (digital palpation and manometry; urinary symptoms (nocturia, frequency and urinary loss; degree of discomfort of OAB symptoms; and quality of life (Incontinence Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [I-QoL]. The PFMT program consisted of 24 outpatient sessions (2x/week + home PFMT. The Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (with a significance level of 5% were used to analyse the data. Results: There was a significant improvement of the urinary symptoms to the pad test (5.8±9.7, p<0.001, urinary loss (0.7±1.1, p=0.005 and nocturia (0.8±0.9, p=0.011. Reduction in the degree of discomfort of urinary symptoms was observed according to OAB-V8 questionnaire (10.0±7.7, p=0.001. There were also significant results in PFMs function: Oxford (3.6±0.9, p=0.001, endurance (5.2±1.8, p<0.001, fast (8.9±1.5, p<0.001 and manometry (26.6±15.8, p=0.003. In addition, quality of life had a significant improvement in the three domains evaluated by I-QoL. Conclusion: The PFMT without any additional guidelines improves the symptomatology, the function of PFMs and the quality of life of women with OAB symptoms.

  3. Urethral pressure variation: a neglected contributing factor in patients with overactive bladder syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kirschner-Hermanns

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To study urethral pressure variations during the whole filling phase among different groups of patients. Material and Methods We investigated 79 consecutive patients from January 2011 to June 2012. All patients were recruited within our routine practice in our continence clinic and were evaluated with urodynamic exam according to the standards of the International Continence Society (ICS with an additional continuous measurement of the urethral pressure profile (cUPP that was done in a supine position. Patients with genital prolapse >grade I, as well as patients with impaired cognitive function or neurogenic disorders were excluded. Bacteriuria at the time of investigation was excluded by urine analysis. Urethral pressure changes higher than 15cmH2O were considered as ‘urethral instability’. Results From 79 investigated patients, 29 were clinically diagnosed with OAB syndrome, 19 with stress urinary incontinence (SUI and 31 with mixed (OAB and SUI incontinence. The prevalence of ‘urethral instability’ as defined in this study was 54.4% (43/79. The mean Δp in patients with OAB (36.5cmH2O was significantly higher (p<0.05 than in groups with pure stress (14.9cmH2O and mixed urinary incontinence (19.3cmH2O. Conclusions Etiology of ‘urethral instability’ is unknown, but high prevalence among patients with overactive bladder syndrome, especially concomitant with detrusor activity can raise a fair question and direct further diagnostic as well as treatment efforts.

  4. Preferences for antimuscarinic therapy for overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, Paul; Lloyd, Andrew; Ali, Shehzad; Hashmi, Noreen; Newal, David; Najib, Hiba

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE • To examine patient preferences and strength of preferences for treatment for the various symptoms of overactive bladder and adverse events associated with the use of antimuscarinic treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS • A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed that detailed treatment choices in terms of attributes relating to their efficacy in reducing symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing typical adverse events. Levels for each attribute were based on a literature review, qualitative interviews and a meta-analysis of clinical trial data. • Attributes were combined into choice sets using a fractional orthogonal design that had been folded over. Pairs of choice sets were presented to overactive bladder (OAB) patients (n= 332), who indicated which treatment alternative they preferred. Data were analysed using the conditional logit model. RESULTS • Participants expressed the strongest preference for the avoidance of urgency incontinence episodes, followed by preference for a reduction in the experience of urinary urgency and the number of micturition episodes. The influence of the likelihood of experiencing an adverse event on treatment preference was also estimated. • Finally, marginal rates of substitution were calculated to demonstrate the relative value of trade-offs between the various attributes. • Treatment preferences were found to be broadly similar across two patient age groups (i.e. under 45 s and 45 and over). CONCLUSION • The study demonstrates that individuals with OAB place significant emphasis on the prospect of reduction in symptoms. Avoidance of incontinence episodes is particularly valued and equivalent to a much greater reduction in the frequency of micturition or experience of urgency. However, even a modest increase in the likelihood of experiencing an adverse event could easily motivate a change in treatment preference. © 2010 OXFORD OUTCOMES LTD.

  5. Mirabegron, a breakthrough in overactive bladder syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Maestro Nombela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Overactive bladder syndrome is a condition with high prevalence, which has a negative impact on patients’ quality of life. A drug with a novel mechanism of action has been recently approved: mirabegron. The objective of this study is to review the scientific evidence available on mirabegron, with the aim to analyze its efficacy, safety and cost, and thus estimate its role within current pharmacotherapy. Methods: The effectiveness and safety of mirabegron were analyzed through an evaluation of scientific evidence. The cost of different pharmacological alternatives was calculated based on their Defined Daily Dose (DDD and their manufacturer’s sale price. Results: The use of mirabegron in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome is supported by three randomized clinical trials, controlled with placebo, at 12 weeks. All three share the same primary efficacy variables (number of incontinence episodes per 24 hours and number of micturitions per 24 hours. Long-term efficacy data are based on a 12-month study, where efficacy outcomes were measured as secondary variables. In all studies, mirabegron showed a significant but modest effect. Some of the most frequently detected adverse effects were: hypertension, increase of glucose in blood, headache, urinary tract infections, constipation and tachycardia. Special attention must be paid to cardiovascular events. Conclusions: The clinical efficacy of mirabegron is very modest and comparable to that achieved with the other drugs approved for this indication. Moreover, it is more expensive than other therapeutic options. Cardiac risks and urinary infections only allow to consider it as an alternative option to anticholinergic drugs, when these are contraindicated, show no clinical efficacy, or cause unacceptable adverse effects.

  6. [Bacterial ecology and resistance to antibiotics in patients with neurogenic overactive bladder treated with intravesical botulinum toxin injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J; Le Breton, F; Jousse, M; Haddad, R; Verollet, D; Guinet-Lacoste, A; Amarenco, G

    2014-10-01

    For the last ten years, botulinum neurotoxin type A has become the gold standard for the treatment of neurogenic overactive detrusor. Bacterial colonization is common for these patients using clean intermittent self-catheterization, and toxin injections are at risk of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of different germs and their resistance to antibiotics in patients with neurogenic bladder, treated with intravesical botulinum toxin injections. This epidemiologic study took place from September to October 2012 in a urodynamic and neurourology unit in a teaching hospital in Paris, France. Eighty patients with a valid urine culture according to our protocol, were included. Fourty-four culture were positive with 45 bacteria. We found an Escherichia coli in 42.5%, a Klebsiella pneumoniae in 7.5%, a Citrobacter freundii and an enterococcus in 2.5%, and a Staphylococcus aureus in 1.25%. Penicillin resistance were found in 51.11%, 3rd generation cephalosporins in 8.89%, quinolones in 28.89% and sulfamids in 24.44%. None were resistant to fosfomycin. E. coli was the most frequent bacterium. No resistance to fosfomycin was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Detrusor instability in children with recurrent urinary tract infection and/or enuresis. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Nielsen, K K; Kristensen, E S

    1986-01-01

    Of 41 children, aged 5-15 years, referred consecutively because of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and/or enuresis, 18 (44%) showed detrusor instability (DI) in at least 2 of 6 CO2 cystometries. One child was excluded from the study because of lack of follow-up. Four children with less...

  8. Detrusor wall thickness compared to other non-invasive methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. ElSaied

    Abstract. Introduction: The current study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy of detrusor wall thickness to other noninvasive, tools, using pressure flow studies as a reference, in the assessment of bladder outlet, obstruction among men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms. Patients and Methods: Men aged 50 or ...

  9. Detrusor Induction of miR-132/212 following Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Association with MeCP2 Repression and Cell Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Katarzyna; Svensson, Daniel; Göransson, Olga; Dahan, Diana; Nilsson, Bengt-Olof; Albinsson, Sebastian; Uvelius, Bengt; Swärd, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-132 and miR-212 have been found to regulate synaptic plasticity and cholinergic signaling and recent work has demonstrated roles outside of the CNS, including in smooth muscle. Here, we examined if miR-132 and miR-212 are induced in the urinary bladder following outlet obstruction and whether this correlates with effects on gene expression and cell growth. Three to seven-fold induction of miR-132/212 was found at 10 days of obstruction and this was selective for the detrusor layer. We cross-referenced putative binding sites in the miR-132/212 promoter with transcription factors that were predicted to be active in the obstruction model. This suggested involvement of Creb and Ahr in miR-132/212 induction. Creb phosphorylation (S-133) was not increased, but the number of Ahr positive nuclei increased. Moreover, we found that serum stimulation and protein kinase C activation induced miR-132/212 in human detrusor cells. To identify miR-132/212 targets, we correlated the mRNA levels of validated targets with the miRNA levels. Significant correlations between miR-132/212 and MeCP2, Ep300, Pnkd and Jarid1a were observed, and the protein levels of MeCP2, Pnkd and Ache were reduced after obstruction. Reduction of Ache however closely matched a 90% reduction of synapse density arguing that its repression was unrelated to miR-132/212 induction. Importantly, transfection of antimirs and mimics in cultured detrusor cells increased and decreased, respectively, the number of cells and led to changes in MeCP2 expression. In all, these findings show that obstruction of the urethra increases miR-132 and miR-212 in the detrusor and suggests that this influences gene expression and limits cell growth. PMID:25617893

  10. Nerve growth factor (NGF): a potential urinary biomarker for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Jai H; Sahai, Arun; Khan, Mohammad S; van der Aa, Frank; de Ridder, Dirk; Panicker, Jalesh N; Dasgupta, Prokar; Fowler, Clare J

    2013-03-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The search for a biomarker in overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is an emerging field of interest, as bladder dysfunction is a common complaint that causes significant morbidity. A biomarker may give us insight as a diagnostic tool, and also inform us about how severe the condition is, how it may progress and how it may best be treated. The protein of interest here is nerve growth factor (NGF) and it has been shown to be a dynamic molecule in the bladder of patients with OAB. Urinary levels have been seen to rise in patients with OAB and fall in those who respond to treatment. However, there have also been many studies that examine this trend in numerous other conditions, e.g. interstitial cystitis, bladder outflow obstruction, renal stone disease and patients with neurological impairment after stroke. As a result the specificity of this as a potential urinary biomarker for OAB is questioned. This is a review of published studies, which discusses the pros and cons of NGF as a potential urinary biomarker. The evidence is examined and the studies are summarised together in a Table. Questions remain about the reliability, practicality and specificity of NGF as a biomarker for OAB. These questions need to be addressed by further studies that could clarify the points raised. To review the current literature on the use of urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) as a potential biomarker for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). A comprehensive electronic literature search was conducted using the PubMed database to identify publications relating to urinary NGF. There are a growing number of publications that have measured urinary NGF levels in different types of bladder dysfunction. These range from OAB, bladder pain syndrome, idiopathic and neurogenic detrusor overactivity, bladder oversensitivity and bladder outflow obstruction. Urinary NGF levels do appear to be raised in these pathological states when compared with

  11. The use of ultrasound-estimated bladder weight in diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Housami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Measurement of bladder weight using ultrasound estimates of bladder wall thickness and bladder volume is an emerging clinical measurement technique that may have a role in the diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. We have reviewed available literature on this technique to assess current clinical status. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out within PubMed and MedLine to identify relevant publications. These were then screened for relevance. Preliminary results from our clinical experiments using the technique are also included. Results: We identified 17 published papers concerning the technique which covered clinical studies relating ultrasound-estimated bladder wall thickness to urodynamic diagnosis in men, women, and children together with change in response to treatment of bladder outlet obstruction. The original manual technique has been challenged by a commercially available automated technique. Conclusion: Ultrasound-estimated bladder weight is a promising non-invasive technique for the categorization of storage and voiding disorders in both men and women. Further studies are needed to validate the technique and assess accuracy of diagnosis.

  12. Treatment of overactive bladder syndrome with urethral calibration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao H; Sato, Renee L; Matsuura, Grace Hk; Wei, David C; Chen, John J

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether urethral calibration with Walther's urethral sounds may be an effective treatment for overactive bladder syndrome. The diagnosis of overactive bladder syndrome is a clinical one based on the presence of urgency, with or without urge incontinence, and is usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia in the absence of obvious pathologic or metabolic disease. These symptoms exert a profound effect on the quality of life. Pharmacologic treatment is generally used to relieve symptoms, however anticholinergic medications may be associated with several undesirable side effects. There are case reports of symptom relief following a relatively quick and simple office procedure known as urethral dilation. It is hypothesized that this may be an effective treatment for the symptoms of overactive bladder. Women with clinical symptoms of overactive bladder were evaluated. Eighty-eight women were randomized to either urethral calibration (Treatment), or placebo (Control) treatment. Women's clinical outcomes at two and eight weeks were assessed and compared between the two treatment arms. Eight weeks after treatment, 31.1% (n=14) of women who underwent urethral calibration were responsive to the treatment versus 9.3% (n=4) of the Control group. Also, 51.1% (n=23) of women within the Treatment group showed at least a partial response versus 20.9% (n=9) of the Control group. Our conclusion is that Urethral calibration significantly improves the symptoms of overactive bladder when compared to placebo and may be an effective alternative treatment method.

  13. Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff GF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gillian F Wolff,1 George A Kuchel,2 Phillip P Smith1,21Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, 2UConn Center on Aging, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible.Keywords: urinary incontinence, urgency, antispasmodics, aging, frailty

  14. Urodynamics of Overactive Bladder Syndrome: Pro and Con

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    Yalla SV

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Die überaktive Blase wird mit einer Detrusor-Überaktivität in Zusammenhang gebracht und wird allgemein empirisch als solche behandelt. Allerdings bleiben Unsicherheiten bestehen im Hinblick auf die Rolle der Urodynamik in der Evaluierung von Patienten mit dieser weitverbreiteten Störung. Die urodynamische Verifizierung einer Detrusor-Überaktivität mag bei neurologisch intakten jungen Frauen mit Dranginkontinenz nicht erforderlich sein, doch ist bei älteren Personen und bei jenen, die auf konventionelle Anti-Muskarin-Therapien nicht ansprechen, irgendeine Form einer funktionalen Bewertung nötig. Ferner ist eine urodynamische Bewertung unverzichtbar für den Ausschluß von Krankheiten, die sich mit OAB hinsichtlich der Symptome und der klinischen Anzeichen überschneiden, aber auch zur präzisen Beschreibung der vesikourethralen Dysfunktion.

  15. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Aging: The Impact of Chronic Bladder Ischemia on Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

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    Camões, João; Coelho, Ana; Castro-Diaz, David; Cruz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is one of the most common and bothersome subsets of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), affecting predominantly the aged population, with a worldwide distribution. This syndrome has not been completely understood, yet the aging process and the decreased blood flow to the bladder have been highlighted as closely related to this phenomenon. We performed a search on the online database PubMed/MEDLINE with the following MESH terms: 'Overactive Bladder AND (Ischemia OR Aging OR Vascular Disease)'. We considered manuscripts written in English and published in the last 10 years (2004-2014, October). Additional manuscripts, such as referenced by reviews, were further included. The aging process and the structural and functional changes resulting from an ischemic process emerge as important features that contribute to OAB. The ischemic-induced molecular and structural modifications that occur in the bladder have only recently been the objective of thorough studies, which link cardiovascular risk factors, vascular lesions and OAB. New animal models are being created to test new areas of treatment or prevention of ischemic-induced bladder dysfunction. Recent data point out that several physiological and pathological modifications that occur in the bladder associated with OAB and aging are closely related to ischemia. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Association between Menopausal Symptoms and Overactive Bladder: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey in China.

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    Lingping Zhu

    Full Text Available The association between menopause and overactive bladder is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between menopausal symptoms and overactive bladder, and identify the risk factors for overactive bladder.A cross-sectional study was performed. The study included 403 women aged 36-76 years who visited the menopause clinic at Peking University First Hospital between September 2012 and December 2013. The overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index questionnaires were used. Differences were assessed using descriptive statistics to determine any association between the overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index score, and to evaluate the risk factors for overactive bladder.A total of 304 women were finally enrolled. The prevalence of overactive bladder was 9.43%, and the modified Kupperman index score; number of sexual problems; and frequency of urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings were significantly higher in patients with overactive bladder than in the patients without overactive bladder (p < 0.05. Menopausal symptoms (modified Kupperman index score ≥ 15 (odds ratio: 1.049, 95% confidence interval: 1.006-1.095, p = 0.025 and a low frequency of sexual intercourse in the last 6 months (odds ratio: 2.580, 95% confidence interval: 1.228-5.422, p = 0.012 were identified as independent risk factors for overactive bladder. The frequency of sexual intercourse was found to decrease with an increase in the severity of overactive bladder (p = 0.004, linear-by-linear association = 0.001.Menopausal symptoms may be closely associated with overactive bladder, and sexual activity may be associated with the severity of overactive bladder. Moreover, sexual problems, urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings may be associated with overactive bladder.

  17. Solifenacin in overactive bladder syndrome: pharmacoeconomic analysis

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    Sergio Iannazzo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The overactive bladder (OAB syndrome can be treated with behavioural, surgical and/or pharmaceutical interventions, mainly represented by antimuscarinic drugs. Solifenacin is a new antimuscarinic with selectivity for the bladder and it demonstrated good effectiveness, safety and tolerability. Scope of the present study is to investigate the pharmacoeconomic performance of the treatment with solifenacin, when compared to tolterodine and placebo, in Italian patients with OAB. The economic evaluation is performed with a simulation model, based on a Markov chain. The time horizon of the simulation is 52 weeks, with a 1-week cycle. The model simulates the outcomes and costs of the treatment with solifenacin (5 mg/die, tolterodine ER (4 mg/die and no treatment in a cohort representative of the Italian population with OAB (estimated in about 1,400 thousands patients. The cost analysis is conducted mainly in the perspective of the patient, since drugs for the treatment of OAB are currently not included in the Italian reimbursement list. The results show that both treatments produce significative improvements in symptoms and quality of life, with an increase in costs of about 540-640 Euro/year with solifenacin and of 680-780 Euro/year with tolterodine. In the cost-utility analysis, solifenacin dominates tolterodine since it results more effective and less costly, and its cost cost-utility ratio with respect to no treatment is in the range 7,600-18,600 Euro/QALY. In the subgroup of patients incontinent at baseline and who best respond to the therapy (responders, the increase in costs with solifenacin results of about 100-400 Euro/year and the cost-utility ratio is 600-4,200 Euro/QALY. A supplementary scenario has been elaborated to explore the consequences of a hypothetical reimbursement decision by the Italian NHS. In this scenario, the NHS cost perspective is considered and the antimuscarinic drugs are assumed to be reimbursed at a half of the current

  18. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

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    Glinski, Ronald W.; Siegel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB) that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or without

  19. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

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    Ronald W Glinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS, have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or

  20. Constipation in children with isolated overactive bladders.

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    Veiga, Maria Luiza; Lordêlo, Patrícia; Farias, Tiago; Barroso, Clara; Bonfim, Josemeire; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of constipation in children with isolated overactive bladder (IOAB) and no micturition complaints. A questionnaire was used to evaluate constipation in 51 children with IOAB, as well as in a control group of 74 children between the ages of 4 and 14 years. The Rome III criteria for children were used to assess constipation. IOAB was defined as the presence of symptoms such as urgency with or without daytime incontinence or frequency, a bell-shaped uroflow, and no post-residual urine. Mean patient ages were 7.94 (±2.8) and 8.28 (±3.4) years in the OAB and control group, respectively (p = 0.54). Twenty-eight (54.9%) of the OAB group were girls, and 34 (45.9%) were girls in the control group (p = 0.32). More of the children with IOAB had constipation than those without urinary symptoms (54.9% vs. 29.7%, p = 0.005; or 2.87, 95% CI: 1.3-6.0). The results were statistically significant regarding the following Rome III criteria: "history of stool retention", "presence of painful or hard bowel movements", "the presence of a large fecal mass in the rectum" and "large diameter stools which may obstruct the toilet". Within the group with OAB, constipation was more common among males (p = 0.05). There was no association between the type of OAB symptoms and constipation. The average dysfunctional voiding symptom score was 9.76 (±4.1). Eleven children (21.6%) presented alterations on ultrasound. Girls with OAB presented more frequently with UTI than boys (18 vs. 10, p = 0.13). This was the first comparative study with respect to constipation in children with IOAB and without urinary symptoms. Children with IOAB have a greater risk of having constipation compared to those with no urinary symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Onabotulinumtoxin A for treating overactive/poor compliant bladders in children and adolescents with neurogenic bladder secondary to myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, Antonio

    2012-12-28

    This retrospective study was performed to verify the efficacy and safety of Onabotulinumtoxin A (BTX-A) in treating children with neurogenic bladder (NB) secondary to myelomeningocele (MMC) with detrusor overactivity/low compliance. From January 2002 to June 2011, 47 patients out of 68 with neuropathic bladder were selected (22 females, 25 males, age range 5-17 years; mean age 10.7 years at first injection). They presented overactive/poor compliant neurogenic bladders on clean intermittent catheterization, and were resistant or non compliant to pharmacological therapy. Ten patients presented second to fourth grade concomitant monolateral/bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). All patients were incontinent despite catheterization. In the majority of patients Botulinum-A toxin was administered under general/local anesthesia by the injection of 200 IU of toxin, without exceeding the dosage of 12 IU/kg body weight, diluted in 20 cc of saline solution in 20 sites, except in the periureteral areas. Follow-up included clinical and ultrasound examination, urodynamics performed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks, and annually thereafter. Seven patients remained stable, 21 patients required a second injection after 6-9 months and 19 a third injection. VUR was corrected, when necessary, in the same session after the BT-A injection, by 1-3 cc of subureteral Deflux®. Urodynamic parameters considered were leak point pressure (LPP), leak point volume (LPV) and specific volume at 20 cm H(2)O pressure. The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. All patients experienced a significant 66.45% average increase of LPV (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 7169 × 10(-10)) and a significant 118.57% average increase of SC 20 (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 2.466 × 10(-12)). The difference between preoperative and postoperative LPP resulted not significant (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 0.8858) No patient presented severe systemic complications; 38/47 patients presented slight hematuria for 2-3 days. Two

  2. Onabotulinumtoxin A for Treating Overactive/Poor Compliant Bladders in Children and Adolescents with Neurogenic Bladder Secondary to Myelomeningocele

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    Antonio Marte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was performed to verify the efficacy and safety of Onabotulinumtoxin A (BTX-A in treating children with neurogenic bladder (NB secondary to myelomeningocele (MMC with detrusor overactivity/low compliance. From January 2002 to June 2011, 47 patients out of 68 with neuropathic bladder were selected (22 females, 25 males, age range 5–17 years; mean age 10.7 years at first injection. They presented overactive/poor compliant neurogenic bladders on clean intermittent catheterization, and were resistant or non compliant to pharmacological therapy. Ten patients presented second to fourth grade concomitant monolateral/bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. All patients were incontinent despite catheterization. In the majority of patients Botulinum-A toxin was administered under general/local anesthesia by the injection of 200 IU of toxin, without exceeding the dosage of 12IU/kg body weight, diluted in 20 cc of saline solution in 20 sites, except in the periureteral areas. Follow-up included clinical and ultrasound examination, urodynamics performed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks, and annually thereafter. Seven patients remained stable, 21 patients required a second injection after 6–9 months and 19 a third injection. VUR was corrected, when necessary, in the same session after the BT-A injection, by 1–3 cc of subureteral Deflux®. Urodynamic parameters considered were leak point pressure (LPP, leak point volume (LPV and specific volume at 20 cm H2O pressure. The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. All patients experienced a significant 66.45% average increase of LPV (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 7169 × 10 −10 and a significant 118.57% average increase of SC 20 (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 2.466 × 10 −12. The difference between preoperative and postoperative LPP resulted not significant (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 0.8858 No patient presented severe systemic complications; 38/47 patients presented slight hematuria for

  3. Overactive bladder – 18 years – part I

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    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell'Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abstract: Overactive bladder syndrome is one of the lower urinary tract dysfunctions with the highest number of scientific publications over the past two decades. This shows the growing interest in better understanding this syndrome, which gathers symptoms of urinary urgency and increased daytime and nighttime voiding frequency, with or without urinary incontinence and results in a negative impact on the quality of life of approximately one out of six individuals – including both genders and almost all age groups. The possibility of establishing the diagnosis just from clinical data made patients' access to specialized care easier. Physiotherapy resources have been incorporated into the urological daily practice. A number of more selective antimuscarinic drugs with consequent lower adverse event rates were released. Recently, a new class of oral drugs, beta-adrenergic agonists has become part of the armamentarium for Overactive Bladder. Botulinum toxin injections in the bladder and sacral neuromodulation are routine modalities of treatment for refractory cases. During the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder, a comprehensive review of the literature related to the evolution of the concept, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management was conducted. This text corresponds to the first part of the review Overactive Bladder 18-years. PMID:27176184

  4. Overactive bladder – 18 years – part I

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    Jose Carlos Truzzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract: Overactive bladder syndrome is one of the lower urinary tract dysfunctions with the highest number of scientific publications over the past two decades. This shows the growing interest in better understanding this syndrome, which gathers symptoms of urinary urgency and increased daytime and nighttime voiding frequency, with or without urinary incontinence and results in a negative impact on the quality of life of approximately one out of six individuals – including both genders and almost all age groups. The possibility of establishing the diagnosis just from clinical data made patients' access to specialized care easier. Physiotherapy resources have been incorporated into the urological daily practice. A number of more selective antimuscarinic drugs with consequent lower adverse event rates were released. Recently, a new class of oral drugs, beta-adrenergic agonists has become part of the armamentarium for Overactive Bladder. Botulinum toxin injections in the bladder and sacral neuromodulation are routine modalities of treatment for refractory cases. During the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder, a comprehensive review of the literature related to the evolution of the concept, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management was conducted. This text corresponds to the first part of the review Overactive Bladder 18-years.

  5. Somatic Comorbidity in Women with Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

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    Altman, Daniel; Iliadou, Anastasia N; Lundholm, Cecilia; Milsom, Ian; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2016-08-01

    We explore the influence of co-occurring somatic illnesses on prevalent overactive bladder in women of premenopausal age. Data for the present study were derived from a nationwide survey on complex diseases among all twins in the Swedish Twin Registry born 1959 to 1985. The present study was limited to female twins participating in the survey (12,850). Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% CIs. Environmental and genetic influences were assessed in co-twin control analysis. Generalized estimating equations analysis showed a significant association between overactive bladder and migraine (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.15-1.57), fibromyalgia (1.83, 1.54-2.18), chronic fatigue (1.81, 1.49-2.19) and eating disorders (1.56, 1.24-1.96). There was also a significant association with allergic disorders including asthma (1.24, 1.01-1.52) and eczema (1.22, 1.04-1.43). Among reproductive disorders, urinary tract infections (1.60, 1.40-1.84), dysmenorrhea (1.53, 1.33-1.76) and pelvic pain (1.60, 1.31-1.94) showed the strongest association with overactive bladder. Results from co-twin control analysis indicated that the significant associations observed in generalized estimating equations analysis were influenced by environmental and genetic factors without a common pathway model. Our results suggest a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis of overactive bladder in which associations between various somatic illnesses and overactive bladder may be affected by environmental and genetic factors. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation between cystometric volumes, ATP release, and pH in women with overactive bladder versus controls.

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    Cheng, Ying; Mansfield, Kylie J; Allen, Wendy; Millard, Richard J; Burcher, Elizabeth; Moore, Kate H

    2013-09-01

    In the bladder, ATP is an important signaling molecule, which is released by bladder stretch and acid. We hypothesized that ATP might play a unique role in patients with OAB, characterized by low bladder volumes at first desire to void (FDV) and maximal cystometric capacity (MCC) and symptoms of frequency/urgency [mild bladder pain syndrome (BPS)]. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between ATP release and urodynamic parameters, as well as urine pH, in OAB patients. Routine cystometry was performed in a consecutive series of 249 women. The voided urodynamic fluid (VUF) was stored at -20°C and ATP measured using bioluminescence. Catheter urine was collected for pH measurement. Correlations between two factors were tested by linear regression analysis. Subjects with urinary tract infection, voiding dysfunction, and detrusor overactivity (DO) were excluded. For OAB patients (n = 25), there was an inverse correlation between ATP concentration in VUF and FDV (r(2)  = 0.25; P = 0.01) but not MCC. This was not seen in controls (n = 69). In OAB, but not controls, there was a significant reverse correlation (r(2)  = 0.16; P = 0.047) between ATP in VUF and urine pH. Urine pH was not significantly correlated with MCC in either group. In OAB patients, ATP is an important factor for initial perception of need to urinate (as indicated by FDV). This is similar to our previous findings in patients with DO, suggesting that ATP may mediate initial afferent sensation in patients with bladder dysfunctions characterized by urgency. ATP release was also strongly affected by urine pH, in patients with OAB (at FDV). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Characterization of muscarinic and P2X receptors in the urothelium and detrusor muscle of the rat bladder

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    Masaki Ogoda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic and purinergic (P2X receptors play critical roles in bladder urothelium under physiological and pathological conditions. Aim of present study was to characterize these receptors in rat bladder urothelium and detrusor muscle using selective radioligands of [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride ([3H]NMS and αβ-methylene ATP [2,8-3H]tetrasodium salt ([3H]αβ-MeATP. Similar binding parameters for each radioligand were observed in urothelium and detrusor muscle. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl-4-piperidinyl diphenylacetate (4-DAMP mustard mustard revealed co-existence of M2 and M3 receptors, with the number of M2 receptors being larger in the urothelium and detrusor muscle. Intravesical administration of imidafenacin and Dpr-P-4 (N → O (active metabolite of propiverine displayed significant binding of muscarinic receptors in the urothelium and detrusor muscle. The treatment with cyclophosphamide (CYP or resiniferatoxin (RTX resulted in a significant decrease in maximal number of binding sites (Bmax for [3H]NMS and/or [3H]αβ-MeATP in the urothelium and detrusor muscle. These results demonstrated that 1 pharmacological characteristics of muscarinic and P2X receptors in rat bladder urothelium were similar to those in the detrusor muscle, 2 that densities of these receptors were significantly altered by pretreatments with CYP and RTX, and 3 that these receptors may be pharmacologically affected by imidafenacin and Dpr-P-4 (N → O which are excreted in the urine.

  8. Overactive bladder is a negative predictor of achieving continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Toru; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Homma, Yukio

    2017-10-01

    To investigate predictors of continence outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Clinical records of 272 patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy were investigated. Preoperative Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, International Prostate Symptom Score and clinicopathological factors were investigated, and relationships between factors and recovery of continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy were assessed. The presence of overactive bladder was defined as having urgency for more than once a week and having ≥3 points according to the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score. Age (≤66 years) was significantly associated with continence within 6 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (P = 0.033). The absence of overactive bladder and lower Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, Kaplan-Meier curves showed earlier recovery in "age ≤66 years," "prostate weight ≤40 g" and "overactive bladder symptom score robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. A Primer for the Primary Care Physician: Management of Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Margaret E; Barker, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome affects millions of women in the U.S. and is defined by urinary urgency, urinary frequency, and small volume voids, with or without nocturia and incontinence. Overactive bladder is a diagnosis of exclusion, and several therapies exist for the management of this condition. This article outlines a systematic approach that the primary care physician can take when treating a patient with overactive bladder. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  10. An overview of treatment of overactive bladder syndrome in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahdin, S; Oo, N

    2012-04-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a common, often under-reported and under-treated condition that significantly affects the quality of life (QoL) of the sufferer and is associated with enormous related costs. Treatments options for OAB include lifestyle modifications, behavioural therapy, pharmacotherapy, neuromodulation, Botulinum toxin therapy and surgical interventions. For this paper, the Embase, Cochrane and Medline databases were searched for studies relating to the treatment options for OAB with (urge urinary incontinence) UUI from 1975 to 2010. Studies were also obtained from references of published reviews. Search terms used for retrieval were: overactive bladder syndrome, urge urinary incontinence, anticholinergics, Botulinum toxin A, sacral neuromodulation and clam bladder augmentation. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the treatment options currently available for women with OAB.

  11. Luminal DMSO: Effects on Detrusor and Urothelial/Lamina Propria Function

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    Katrina J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DMSO is used as a treatment for interstitial cystitis and this study examined the effects of luminal DMSO treatment on bladder function and histology. Porcine bladder was incubated without (controls or with DMSO (50% applied to the luminal surface and the release of ATP, acetylcholine, and LDH assessed during incubation and in tissues strips after DMSO incubation. Luminally applied DMSO caused ATP, Ach, and LDH release from the urothelial surface during treatment, with loss of urothelial layers also evident histologically. In strips of urothelium/lamina propria from DMSO pretreated bladders the release of both ATP and Ach was depressed, while contractile responses to carbachol were enhanced. Detrusor muscle contractile responses to carbachol were not affected by DMSO pretreatment, but neurogenic responses to electrical field stimulation were enhanced. The presence of an intact urothelium/lamina propria inhibited detrusor contraction to carbachol by 53% and this inhibition was significantly reduced in DMSO pretreated tissues. Detection of LDH in the treatment medium suggests that DMSO permeabilised urothelial membranes causing leakage of cytosolic contents including ATP and Ach rather than enhancing release of these mediators. The increase in contractile response and high levels of ATP are consistent with initial flare up in IC/PBS symptoms after DMSO treatment.

  12. Sympathetic Overactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Consequences and Mechanisms

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    Jasdeep Kaur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing worldwide, with more than 26 million people suffering from CKD in the United States alone. More patients with CKD die of cardiovascular complications than progress to dialysis. Over 80% of CKD patients have hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another common, perhaps underappreciated, feature of CKD is an overactive sympathetic nervous system. This elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA not only contributes to hypertension but also plays a detrimental role in the progression of CKD independent of any increase in blood pressure. Indeed, high SNA is associated with poor prognosis and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of its effect on blood pressure. This brief review will discuss some of the consequences of sympathetic overactivity and highlight some of the potential pathways contributing to chronically elevated SNA in CKD. Mechanisms leading to chronic sympathoexcitation in CKD are complex, multifactorial and to date, not completely understood. Identification of the mechanisms and/or signals leading to sympathetic overactivity in CKD are crucial for development of effective therapeutic targets to reduce the increased cardiovascular risk in this patient group.

  13. Overactive bladder and its effects on sexual dysfunction among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenoglu, Ahmet M; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Itil, Ismail Mete; Askar, Niyazi; Meseri, Reci; Petri, Eckhard

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the relation between overactive bladder (OAB) and sexual dysfunction in sexually active nurses without stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Prospective, observational study. Tertiary care center. 200 nurses, under 49 years of age. Data were obtained with Turkish language-validated questionnaires between January 2011 and June 2011. OAB was diagnosed using the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool (OAB AT). Scores on the Overactive Bladder Symptom and Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire Short Form (OABq-SF), the Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire Short Form (HRQOL), and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire Short Form (PISQ-12). Of the 127 enrolled volunteers, 51 were diagnosed with OAB. The mean age of the participants was 37.8 ± 7.3 years. After controlling for age, body mass index, and parity, OAB did not significantly affect PISQ-12 scores, but significantly worsened OABq-SF scores. No strong correlation was noted between the parts of the OABq-SF and the domains of the PISQ-12. OAB is a common problem among sexually active young women and significantly affects their quality of life. However, OAB-related sexual dysfunction plays a limited role among sexually active nurses. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Ultrastructure of Cajal-like interstitial cells in the human detrusor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle; Rumessen, Jüri J; Hansen, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this ultrastructural study was to examine the human detrusor for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC)-like cells (ICC-L) by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immuno-transmission electron microscopy (I-TEM) with antibodies directed towards CD117 and CD34. Two main types...... of interstitial cells were identified by TEM: ICC-L and fibroblast-like cells (FLC). ICC-L were bipolar with slender (0.04 microm) flattened dendritic-like processes, frequently forming a branching labyrinth network. Caveolae and short membrane-associated dense bands were present. Mitochondria, rough endoplasmic...... reticulum and Golgi apparatus were observed in the cell somata and cytoplasmic processes. Intermediate filaments were abundant but no thick filaments were found. ICC-L were interconnected by close appositions, gap junctions and peg-and-socket junctions (PSJ) but no specialised contacts to smooth muscle...

  15. Immunoexpression of adrenergic receptors in detrusor from patients with prune belly syndrome: a digital quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Monteiro, Edison D; Dénes, Francisco T; Hampel, Christian; Leite, Katia R M; Thüroff, Joachim W; Srougi, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) presents with large-capacity bladders, high compliance and post-void residual volumes. Operative and conservative treatments are controversial. When histologically compared to normal bladder, bladder outlet obstruction results in an up- or down-regulation of adrenoceptors. Our goal was to study the immunoexpression of adrenoceptors in detrusor from patients with PBS. Bladder domes from PBS patients (n=14) were studied (PBG). For normal controls, bladder specimens were obtained at adult surgery (n=13) (CG1) and at child autopsy (n=5) (CG2). Staining was performed using antibodies to alpha1a, alpha1b, alpha1d and beta3 adrenoceptors. Five to 10 images were captured on an optic microscope with a digital camera and analysed with Photoshop. The immunocyhistochemical index with arbitrary units was calculated and compared. Mean age was 1.28, 64 and 1.41 years for PBG, CG1 and CG2, respectively. The immunohistochemical index with arbitrary units of alpha1a receptors was 0.06 in PBG, 0.16 in CG1 and 0.14 in CG2 (p=0.008); of alpha1b 0.06, 0.06 and 0.07 (p=0.781); and of alpha1d 0.04, 0.04 and 0.05 (p=0.618). Regarding beta3 the respective values were 0.07, 0.14 and 0.10 (p=0.378). Our results show a decrease in alpha1a-adrenoceptor immunostaining intensity in detrusor from children with PBS. Further in vitro studies are needed to determine whether these observations are physiologically significant. Copyright (c) 2010 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Temporary urethral stents ALLIUM BUS "BULBAR URETHRAL STENT" for the treatment of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matillon, X; Terrier, J-E; Arnouil, N; Lalloue, F; Pic, G; Ruffion, A

    2016-09-01

    The temporary prosthetic sphincterotomy is a possible treatment for neurologic detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD). The purpose of the study was to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the urethral stent (US) Temporary ALLIUM BUS "BULBAR URETHRAL STENT". A prospective, non-comparative, single-center starting in 2015 was conducted. Were included patients over 18 years, with a neurologic DSD proved urodynamically for which medical treatment was not indicated or failed. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who had a voiding method considered as improved or much improved at 1 month and the feasibility of the procedure. From January to June 2015, 7 patients, (mean age 47.9 years [24-76 years]) were prospectively enrolled. One patient was lost to sight at one month and therefore excluded. The median follow-up was 8.1 months (1-10 months). All procedures were technically successful. At 1 month, there were 57% of grade 2 complications (Clavien-Dindo), 1 of 6 patients had a migration of the US. At one month, quality of life and the urologic situation was considered good in 3 patients, unchanged in 2 patients and decreased in 1 patient. The study was stopped after the inclusion of seven patients. At the date of the latest news, 5 of 6 patients had a migrated or an explanted US. The temporary urethral stent ALLIUM BUS does not seem to be a possible surgical alternative for the treatment of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between Overactive Bladder Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Keun-Soo; Hong, Hyun-Pyo; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Oh, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome is characterized by urinary urgency, usually accompanied by Frequent urination and nocturia, with or without urgent urinary incontinence. There must be the absence of causative infection or pathological conditions. Overactive bladder syndrome is related to mental disorders, particularly depression and anxiety. However, obsessive-compulsive symptoms are investigated much less frequently. The purpose of the present study was thus to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms in overactive bladder syndrome patients. Fifty-seven women patients with overactive bladder syndrome and fifty-seven women without it (age matched control group) were prospectively enrolled. They completed the overactive bladder syndrome-validated 8-question screener and the Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire at the same time they visited the clinic. Patients were compared with controls on the Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire and its checking, tidiness, doubting, and fear of contamination components. Patients showed more obsessive traits than controls on the Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire total score (P=0.006) and on the checking subscale (P=0.001). Odds ratio for the overactive bladder syndrome group's obsessive-compulsive symptoms traits (score≥14) was 5.47 (P=0.001). The Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire total score was associated with the overactive bladder syndrome-validated 8-question screener score in patients (P=0.03). Obsessive-compulsive symptoms may constitute an important aspect of the psychiatric profile of overactive bladder syndrome patients. The severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms seems to be related to the degree of the overactive bladder syndrome severity. Clinicians may consider screening women with overactive bladder syndrome for obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  18. [DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN PELVIC INJURIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, A I; Voytenko, A N; Bondarenko, A V; Muzalevskaya, N I; Kruglykhin, I V

    2015-01-01

    Case records of 1994 patients with injuries of the pelvic ring were analyzed. The article presents the results of examination and treatment of patients with urinary tract dysfunction. A frequent complications of pelvic fractures include overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) (18.9%). Many factors play a role in the development of this syndrome, in particular damage to the pelvic diaphragm and the development of pelvic hematoma. OAB is more common in unstable pelvic fractures (24.8%). Surgical stabilization of the pelvic ring injuries and the use of M-cholinoblockers and a1-blockers lead to a reduction of OAB.

  19. The influence of melatonin and agomelatine on urodynamic parameters in experimental overactive bladder model – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dobrek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Overactive bladder (OAB is a common disease entity with complex pathogenesis that involves neurogenic, myogenic and abnormal paracrine urothelial activity mechanisms. Our objective was to estimate bladder functioning in urodynamic studies in experimental, both acute (AOAB and chronic (COAB cyclophosphamide (CYP-evoked OAB model in response to melatonin (MLT; antioxidant and MT receptor agonist or agomelatine (AMT; MT receptor agonist and 5HT2C receptor antagonist.Material/Methods:Seven groups were studied: 1 – control, 2–4 – MLT treated AOAB and COAB rats, 5–7 – AMT treated AOAB and COAB rats. AOAB model was evoked by single CYP administration (IP 200 mg/kg body weight, while COAB one was induced by a four-time administration of CYP (IP 75 mg/kg body weight. Each group underwent urethane anesthesia to perform urodynamic recordings in resting conditions and after administration 50 (group 2 or 5, 75 (group 3 or 6 or 100 mg/kg (group 4 or 7 of melatonin (groups 2–4 or agomelatine (groups 5–7, followed by classical urodynamic parameters assessment.Results:Neither melatonin nor agomelatine did not affect urodynamic parameters in the AOAB rats. In COAB model, after 75 and 100 mg/kg of MLT we revealed an improvement in urodynamic parameters. AMT (75 and 100 mg/kg administration caused deterioration of urodynamic findings suggesting bladder overactivity exacerbation.Disscussion:In summary, melatonin ameliorates bladder overactivity in cyclophosphamide-induced COAB. Agomelatine, contrary to melatonin, aggravates bladder dysfunction in this group. These findings suggest that the improvement in urodynamic parameters after melatonin administration may be due to its antioxidative profile and is not related to MT receptors activation. However, agomelatine’s unfavorable action on the bladder, resulting in its overactivity in COAB group, may not only be the result of MT receptor activation without the concomitant antioxidative

  20. Sacral (S3) segmental nerve stimulation as a treatment for urge incontinence in patients with detrusor instability: Results of chronic electrical stimulation using an implantable neural prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud); J.M. Groen (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMost patients with urge incontinence and idiopathic detrusor instability are initially treated conservatively with bladder retraining, pelvic floor exercises and biofeedback, while in the majority this regimen will be supplemented with anticholinergic drugs. The urinary incontinence

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Galway - Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golabek, Tomasz

    2013-07-22

    To compare urodynamic characteristics in patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) with those of an age matched cohort with diabetes mellitus (DM) and detrusor overactivity (DO). Secondly, to determine whether urodynamic features could help distinguish these two groups of patients.

  2. Mount Tabor Care Centre, Newgrove Avenue, Sandymount Green, Sandymount, Dublin 4.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golabek, Tomasz

    2013-07-22

    To compare urodynamic characteristics in patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) with those of an age matched cohort with diabetes mellitus (DM) and detrusor overactivity (DO). Secondly, to determine whether urodynamic features could help distinguish these two groups of patients.

  3. Pelvic Electrical Neuromodulation for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq F. Al-Shaiji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder syndrome negatively affects the daily life of many people. First-line conservative treatments, such as antimuscarinics, do not always lead to sufficient improvement of the complaints and/or are often associated with disabling adverse effects leading to treatment failure. Electrical stimulation of the sacral nerves has emerged as an alternative and attractive treatment for refractory cases of bladder overactivity. Few theories attempted to explain its mechanism of action which remains elusive. It involves percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation and more commonly sacral neuromodulation. For the latter, temporary sacral nerve stimulation is the first step. If the test stimulation is successful, a permanent device is implanted. The procedure is safe and reversible. It carries a durable success rate. The technique should be combined with careful followup and attentive adjustments of the stimulation parameters in order to optimize the clinical outcomes. This paper provides a review on the indications, possible mechanisms of action, surgical aspects and possible complications, and safety issues of this technique. The efficacy of the technique is also addressed.

  4. Intracavitary electrical stimulation as treatment for overactive bladder: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Fintelman Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Overactive bladder (OAB is a clinical diagnosis of irritating urinary symptoms that influence on sufferers' life quality. There are effective treatments described in literature, but most of them present adverse effects. One way of treatment is the use of electrical stimulation, which has been widely used, but studies show varying results. Objective: To verify if intracavitary electrical stimulation can be effective in patients with OAB. Methods: online databases were searched with specific descriptors to find randomized clinical trials on overactive bladder treated with intracavitary electrical stimulation. Only articles with score equal or higher than 5 in methodological PEDro scale were used and those that described intra and / or inter-group P-value. Results: 217 articles were found, but only 6 were analyzed by the selection criteria. The studies show that electrical stimulation promotes the reduction of urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, nocturia, urgency and the number of protectors used, and improvements in maximum cystometric bladder capacity, symptoms of OAB and quality of life. Conclusion: Electrical stimulation was effective in patients with OAB and can be used before any invasive treatment due to none side effects.

  5. [Using autonomous electrostimulation device Erektron in treating female overactive bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarin, G Yu; Shelyakina, O V; Fedorenko, V N; Alekseeva, A V; Vilgelmi, I A

    2016-11-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is one of the most common syndromes of lower urinary tract dysfunction. Besides standard therapy using anticholinergic medications, comprehensive management of overactive bladder includes physiotherapy. To test the clinical effectiveness and safety of autonomous electrostimulation device "Erektron" in treating OAB in women. The study was conducted at the Urology and Gynecology Clinic of the Innovative Medical Technology Center between 25.04.2014 and 30.01.2015. It included 20 women with newly diagnosed OAB both with and without urinary urgency incontinence or urinary stress incontinence. The patients were divided into 2 groups. All patients were treated with the first line anticholinergic agent solifenacin 5 mg daily. In patients of group 1, anticholinergic therapy was administered concurrently with intravaginal electrostimulation using "Erektron" device. In both groups, the treatment resulted in positive results, but a more pronounced improvement was found in group 1 patients with mixed incontinence. Autonomous electrostimulation device MT-RV "Erektron" can be used in comprehensive management of patients with OAB, including those with stress urinary incontinence.

  6. Contractures and involuntary muscle overactivity in severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan; Rockstroh, Günter; Rückriem, Stefan; Koch, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of contractures with an increase or reduction of non-spastic muscle overactivity due to severe cerebral damage. Forty-five patients with tetraparesis after severe cerebral damage were investigated. Three groups were defined based on the presence of spasticity (revealed as resistance to passive stretch (= hypertonia)), and the presence of contracture of the relevant knee joint: Group(s) (17 patients with hypertonia without contracture), Group(s+c) (20 patients with hypertonia and contracture), and Group(c) (eight patients without hypertonia and with contracture). In all groups spontaneous involuntary muscle activity was assessed continuously over a 12-hour period through isometric measurement of knee joint flexion torque. A mathematical algorithm differentiated an hourly muscle activity spectrum (PI(h)). The frequency of peaks (peaks(h)) from the activity spectrum was determined. We revealed that Group(s) had higher PI(h) and more frequent peaks(h) compared with Group(s+c) and Group(c) (p0.05). The presence of contractures was associated with lower involuntary muscle overactivity in terms of lower PI(h) and less frequent peaks(h), indicating that contractures may be associated with reduced non-spastic positive features of the upper motor neurone syndrome in patients with severe brain damage.

  7. Fesoterodine for the treatment of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ellsworth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Pamela EllsworthThe Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a highly prevalent condition, affecting males and females. The prevalence increases with age. Behavioral therapy and antimuscarinic therapy remain the first-line therapies for management of OAB. Despite improvements in symptoms, persistence with antimuscarinic therapy has remained low. Multiple factors including patient expectations, adverse effects and cost may affect persistence. Fesoterodine is one of the newest antimuscarinic agent approved for the management of OAB. It is unique in that it shares the same active metabolite as tolterodine, 5-hydoxymethyltolterodine (5-HMT; however, this conversion is established via ubiquitous esterases and not via the cytochrome P450 system, thus providing a faster and more efficient conversion to 5-HMT. Fesoterodine is available in 2 doses, 4 mg and 8 mg. Clinical trials have established a dose response relationship in efficacy parameters as well as improvements in quality of life. As with all antimuscarinics, dry mouth and constipation are the more common side effects. A combination of medical therapy and behavioral therapy improves the overall outcome in management of OAB. Dose flexibility may help improve efficacy outcomes and patient education on the management of common adverse effects may improve tolerability with these agents.Keywords: overactive bladder, antimuscarinic agent, esterase, 5-HMT, fesoterodine

  8. Risk factors of overactive bladder syndrome and its relation to sexual function in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Sevil; Aminian, Elham; Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-; Bastani, Parvin; Mohammadi, Marzieh

    2017-12-04

    Overactive bladder syndrome is a common and annoying complication worldwide that could negatively affect the quality of life of afflicted individuals. We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of overactive bladder syndrome and its relation to sexual function in healthy menopausal women. This cross-sectional study was done on 340 women aged 45-60 years in Tabriz, northwest Iran, during 2015-2016. Data were collected using a demographic data questionnaire, the Overactive Bladder Syndrome Score, and the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire. Fifty-six (16.5%), 63 (18.5%), and 10 (2.9%) of the participating women had mild, moderate, and severe overactive bladder syndrome, respectively. Predictors of overactive bladder included: night sweats, central prolapse, episiotomy, varicose disease, illiteracy or education at the primary level, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg and lack of physical activity. We found a significant difference between the women with and without overactive bladder with respect to the total score and sub-domain scores related to sex partner (p = 0.029) and sexual interest (p = 0.049). The prevalence of overactive bladder was quite high in this study. Since sexual dysfunction is not an easy topic to talk about and can affect women's quality of life, physicians should consider talking about these issues besides urinary issues to all middle-aged women.

  9. Frequency of the superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in unilateral fourth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Andrea; Ugrin, Maria Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Superior oblique palsy is accompanied in most cases by overaction of the muscle's ipsilateral antagonist, the inferior oblique muscle. Overaction and contracture of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle in patients with unilateral fourth (trochlear) nerve palsy is seldom discussed in the literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the frequency of superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy. The records of 198 patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy examined by the authors between July 1987 and July 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent complete eye examination with measurement of the deviation in the 9 positions of gaze and with the head tilted to both sides in all cooperative patients. Selection criteria for superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in these patients were as follows: vertical deviation of 15(Delta) or larger in primary position, equal or larger hypertropia with the ipsilateral forced tilt test than with the eyes looking straight ahead, more than 5(Delta) hypertropia of the affected eye in horizontal gaze to the same side, hypertropia in all upgazes, and overaction of the contralateral superior oblique muscle. Of 198 patients, 33 (16.6%) met the selection criteria for superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome. Superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome frequently occurs in unilateral superior oblique palsy.

  10. Testosterone Modifies Alterations to Detrusor Muscle after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Juvenile Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Flum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to posterior urethral valves (PUV arise in boys during adolescence. The reasons for this have previously been attributed to increased urine output as boys experience increased growth. Additionally, there are few choices for clinicians to effectively treat these complications. We formed the new hypothesis that increased androgen levels at this time of childhood development could play a role at the cellular level in obstructed bladders. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of testosterone on bladder detrusor muscle following injury from partial bladder outlet obstruction (PO in mice. A PO model was surgically created in juvenile male mice. A group of mice were castrated by bilateral orchiectomy at time of obstruction (CPO. Testosterone cypionate was administered to a group of castrated, obstructed mice (CPOT. Bladder function was assessed by voiding stain on paper (VSOP. Bladders were analyzed at 7 and 28 days by weight and histology. Detrusor collagen to smooth muscle ratio (Col/SM was calculated using Masson’s trichrome stain. All obstructed groups had lower max voided volumes (MVV than sham mice at 1 day. Hormonally intact mice (PO continued to have lower MVV at 7 and 28 days while CPO mice improved to sham levels at both time points. In accordance, PO mice had higher bladder-to-body weight ratios than CPO and sham mice demonstrating greater bladder hypertrophy. Histologically, Col/SM was lower in sham and CPO mice. When testosterone was restored in CPOT mice, MVV remained low at 7 and 28 days compared to CPO and bladder-to-body weight ratios were also greater than CPO. Histologic changes were also seen in CPOT mice with higher Col/SM than sham and CPO mice. In conclusion, our findings support a role for testosterone in the fibrotic changes that occur after obstruction in male mice. This suggests that while other changes may occur in adolescent boys that cause complication in boys

  11. The association of lyme disease with loss of sexual libido and the role of urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Basant K; Shah, Mussadiq; Julu, Peter O O; Kingston, Michele C; Monro, Jean A

    2014-06-01

    The primary aim was to carry out a pilot study to compare the loss of sexual libido between a group of Lyme disease patients and a group of matched controls. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether loss of libido in Lyme disease patients is associated with urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction. A group of 16 serologically positive Lyme disease patients and 18 controls were queried directly about loss of libido. The 2 groups were matched with respect to age, sex, body mass index, and mean arterial blood pressure. None of the 34 subjects was taking medication that might affect sexual libido or had undergone a previous operative procedure involving the genitourinary tract. Of the 16 Lyme disease patients, 8 (50%) had no loss of libido, and of the 18 controls, none had loss of libido (Plibido and urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction (P=0.61). This pilot study suggested an association between Lyme disease and loss of libido. Moreover, this loss of libido did not seem to be associated with urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction. Given these results, we recommend further studies to confirm the association.

  12. [Developments in the medical treatment of overactive bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A

    Overactive Bladder (OAB) is a common problem among men and women. Antimuscarinic drugs are a reference treatment for OAB and act by blocking the muscarinic receptors (M2 and M3 subtypes) in the bladder. Adherence to antimuscarinic treatment is usually low, due to the perceived lack of efficacy and adverse effects. Therefore, new treatments with different mechanisms of action and a more acceptable tolerability profile are needed, and that improve the symptoms of OAB. Mirabegron is a new treatment option for all patients with OAB and could solve an unmet need in patients still not satisfied, or where the antimuscarinic therapy is not indicated, is an alternative option for patients with OAB. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of antimuscarinic agents for the treatment of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yu; Malone, Daniel C; Armstrong, Edward P

    2006-12-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of various antimuscarinic agents for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). A decision-analysis model was developed and included clinical outcomes (i.e., therapy continued or discontinued, treatment success or failure, OAB-induced comorbidities) and costs for drugs and treatment of OAB-induced comorbidities (i.e., urinary tract infections, fractures, depression, and skin infections). Treatment success was defined as complete continence. A systematic MEDLINE literature search from January 1990-January 2006 identified English-language articles concerning the eight antimuscarinic drugs: darifenacin, solifenacin, trospium, immediate-release oxybutynin, extended-release oxybutynin, transdermal oxybutynin, immediate-release tolterodine, and extended-release tolterodine. Probabilities and cost data for these drugs were retrieved from the literature, and drug costs were based on 2005 average wholesale prices. The analysis was constructed from a payer's perspective. The time frame for the model was 3 months. Expected costs for each patient with OAB ranged from $3373 when treated with solifenacin to $3769 when treated with immediate-release oxybutynin. The average cost/patient with continued and successful treatment was lowest for solifenacin ($6863). Solifenacin dominated all other antimuscarinic agents because they were associated with high costs and low effectiveness. Success rates were the key parameters driving the sensitivity analysis. Among various antimuscarinic agents, solifenacin 5 mg had the lowest costs and highest effectiveness in the treatment of OAB.

  14. Overactive bladder: Is there a link to the metabolic syndrome in men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirby, M.G.; Wagg, A.; Cardozo, L.; Chapple, C.; Castro-Diaz, D.; Ridder, D. de; Espuna-Pons, M.; Haab, F.; Kelleher, C.; Kolbl, H.; Milsom, I.; Kerrebroeck, P. van; Vierhout, M.E.; Salvatore, S.; Tubaro, A.

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that a variety of metabolic, cardiovascular, and endocrine factors contribute to male pelvic health. In particular, a growing body of evidence suggests a relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia, overactive bladder, erectile

  15. Treatment of the overactive bladder syndrome with muscarinic receptor antagonists: a matter of metabolites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Hegde, Sharath S.

    2006-01-01

    Antagonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, such as darifenacin, oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine, and trospium, are the mainstay of the treatment of the overactive bladder syndrome. Fesoterodine is a newer drug awaiting regulatory approval. We briefly review the

  16. Correlation between Overactive Bladder Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Keun-Soo; Hong, Hyun-Pyo; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Oh, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Background Overactive bladder syndrome is characterized by urinary urgency, usually accompanied by Frequent urination and nocturia, with or without urgent urinary incontinence. There must be the absence of causative infection or pathological conditions. Overactive bladder syndrome is related to mental disorders, particularly depression and anxiety. However, obsessive-compulsive symptoms are investigated much less frequently. The purpose of the present study was thus to assess obsessive-compul...

  17. Pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation of urothelial cells induces apoptosis and diminishes necrosis: new insight to magnetic therapy in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, K; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J; Thor, P J

    2012-08-01

    The evidence of electromagnetic therapy (EMT) efficacy in stress and/or urge urinary incontinence, as well as in detrusor overactivity is generally lacking in the literature. The potential EMT action of neuromuscular tissue depolarization has been described. Because there is no data on the influence of pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the urothelium, we evaluated the effect of PEMF stimulation on rat urothelial cultured cells (RUCC). In our study 15 Wistar rats were used for RUCC preparation. RUCC were exposed to PEMF (50 Hz, 45±5 mT) three times for 4 hours each with 24-hour intervals. The unexposed RUCC was in the same incubator, but in a distance of 35 cm from the PEMF generator. Annexin V-APC (AnV+) labelled was used to determine the percentage of apoptotic cells and propidium iodide (PI+), as standard flow cytometric viability probe to distinguish necrotic cells from viable ones. The results are presented in percentage values. The flow cytometric analysis was carried out on a FACS calibur flow cytometer using Cell-Quest software. In PEMF-unstimulated RUCC, the percentage of AnV+, PI+, and AnV+PI+ positive cells were 1.24±0.34%, 11.03±1.55%, and 12.43±1.96%, respectively. The percentages of AnV+, PI+, and AnV+PI+ positive cells obtained after PEMF stimulation were 1.45±0.16% (p=0.027), 7.03±1.76% (p<0.001), and 9.48±3.40% (p=0.003), respectively. The PEMF stimulation of RUCC induces apoptosis (increase of AnV+ cells) and inhibits necrosis (decrease of PI+ cells) of urothelial cells. This leads us to the conclusion that a low-frequency pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation induces apoptosis and diminishes necrosis of rat urothelial cells in culture.

  18. The translation and validation of Chinese overactive bladder symptom score for assessing overactive bladder syndrome and response to solifenacin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Eric Chieh-Lung; Hung, Man-Jung; Yen, Ta-Wei; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Meng, En; Huang, Shih-Tsung; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-08-01

    Overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) was developed by a Japanese urologist and is widely used in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Chinese OABSS for assessing overactive bladder (OAB) and treatment outcome after solifenacin. The Chinese OABSS was developed by linguistic validation of the original version. Its reliability and validity, and correlations with a three-day bladder diary were tested. Patients answered the Chinese OABSS at enrollment and repeated the questionnaire after a non-treatment period of 2 weeks, and at 4 and 12 weeks after solifenacin (5mg/day). Patients also completed a three-day bladder diary and forms including patient perception of bladder condition, International Prostatic Symptom Score and quality of life index at each study visit (for a total of four visits). An analysis was conducted to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese OABSS and the correlations with a three-day bladder diary and a patient perception of bladder condition, respectively. A total of 60 patients with OAB, including 31 OAB wet and 29 OAB dry, were enrolled. The test-retest reliability of Chinese OABSS was moderate to good with weighted kappa coefficients of 0.515-0.721 for each symptom score and 0.610 for total symptom score. Forty-eight (80%) patients completed the responsiveness study and were followed-up at all time points. Patients' OAB symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 3 months after solifenacin treatment. The changes in OABSS decreased gradually with time within the three months of solifenacin treatment. The Chinese OABSS has been validated as a reliable instrument for assessing OAB. Solifenacin 5mg once daily improved urgency and other symptoms of OAB including frequency, urge incontinence, OABSS and International Prostatic Symptom Score. The adverse effects were acceptable and became less significant with time in the three months of treatment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Predicting self-perceived antimuscarinic therapy effectiveness on overactive bladder symptoms using the Overactive Bladder 8-Question Awareness Tool.

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    Villacampa, Felipe; Ruiz, Miguel A; Errando, Carlos; Arlandis, Salvador; Arumí, Daniel; Lizarraga, Isabel; Rejas, Javier

    2013-04-01

    This work was designed to explore the ability of the self-administered Overactive Bladder 8-Question Awareness Tool (OAB-V8) to predict patient self-assessed effectiveness of antimuscarinic therapy on OAB symptoms in daily practice. Also, the ability of the tool to predict clinician evaluation of improvement was explored. Patients of both genders, >18 years, with symptomatic OAB (score >8 on OAB-V8), and able to understand patient-reported outcome instruments were enrolled in this 3-month study. Patients were prescribed treatment with an antimuscarinic drug according to usual practice. Treatment effectiveness was assessed by the clinician and patient using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement and Treatment Benefit Scale and by improved self-perceived quality of life using the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form (OAB-q SF) 3 months after initiating or changing an antimuscarinic therapy. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were applied to explore the predictive validity of OAB-V8 scores at the baseline visit. A total of 246 patients (57.7 years, 67 % women) were analyzed. Based on baseline OAB-V8 scores, logistic regression models were capable of predicting clinical improvement and patient self-perceived treatment benefit in 70 % of cases. OAB-V8 scores significantly correlated with OAB-q SF domains at baseline: 0.790 and - 0.659 for symptom bother and health-related quality of life domains, respectively (p < 0.001 in both cases). Baseline OAB-V8 score was able to predict changes in both domains of the OAB-q SF: R (2) = 0.212 and 0.162 for symptom bother and health-related quality of life, respectively. The OAB-V8 scale showed evidence of predictive validity for antimuscarinic effectiveness in daily practice based on physician assessment and patient self-assessment of improved quality of life and treatment benefit.

  20. Evaluation of Overactive Bladder in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with a Questionaire-Based Study

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    Levent Verim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Overactive bladder (OAB is a common and well-known urologic condition. OAB occurs in both women and men. Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most common metabolic disorders in the world and the prevalence of DM in adults has been increasing. Diabetic neuropathy can induce functional disease of multiple organs, including diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD. DBD occurs commonly as a late complication and DBD is mainly characterized by poor bladder emptying, urinary retention and overflow incontinence. However, storage symptoms, as those suggestive for OAB may also affect people with DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of OAB in people with DM compared to healthy control subjects. Methods: We analyzed records of 212 diabetic case and 229 control subjects using the 8-item symptom bother scale of the OAB questionnaire (OAB-q (OAB-V8. Results: Diabetic bladder overactivity was seen in 20.3% of patients with DM (n=43 and 10.5% of non-diabetic control group (n=24. The OAB prevalence in patients with DM was approximately two-fold higher than in control subjects. OAB increased with the duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin level and age. There was no significant difference in sex distribution between the groups. There is an increase in the prevalence type 2 diabetes in Turkey. DM is a common cause of reduced bladder sensation in both men and women. In this study, OAB syndrome in diabetic patients was searched. DBD is characterized by underactive (flaccid bladder, voiding difficulty, infrequent voiding and reduced bladder sensation during urinary storage; bladder underactivity and urinary retention during urination. OAB in diabetic patients is characterized by urgency (a compelling and sudden desire to void, with or without incontinence, usually with urinary frequency and nocturia. Conclusion: OAB symptoms are more prevalent in diabetic people than in healthy people. OAB symptoms in DM may be considered as a predictor of the

  1. External urethral sphincter pressure measurement: an accurate method for the diagnosis of detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia?

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    Carlos H Suzuki Bellucci

    Full Text Available Combined pelvic floor electromyography (EMG and videocystourethrography (VCUG during urodynamic investigation are the most acceptable and widely agreed methods for diagnosing detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (DESD. Theoretically, external urethral sphincter pressure (EUSP measurement would provide enough information for the diagnosis of DESD and could simplify the urodynamic investigation replacing combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG. Thus, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of EUSP measurement for DESD. PATIENTS #ENTITYSTARTX00026;A consecutive series of 72 patients (36 women, 36 men with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction able to void spontaneously was prospectively evaluated at a single university spinal cord injury center. Diagnosis of DESD using EUSP measurement (index test versus combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG (reference standard was assessed according to the recommendations of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Initiative.Using EUSP measurement (index test and combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR (reference standard, DESD was diagnosed in 10 (14% and in 41 (57% patients, respectively. More than half of the patients presented discordant diagnosis between the index test and the reference standard. Among 41 patients with DESD diagnosed by combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR, EUSP measurement identified only 6 patients. EUSP measurement had a sensitivity of 15% (95% CI 5%-25%, specificity of 87% (95% CI 76%-98%, positive predictive value of 60% (95% CI 30%-90%, and negative predictive value of 56% (95% CI 44%-68% for the diagnosis of DESD.For diagnosis of DESD, EUSP measurement is inaccurate and cannot replace combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR.

  2. Electron microscopic changes of detrusor in benign enlargement of prostate and its clinical correlation.

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    Yadav, Sher Singh; Bhattar, Rohit; Sharma, Lokesh; Banga, Gautam; Sadasukhi, Trilok Chandra

    2017-01-01

    To study the ultra structural changes in bladder musculature in cases of BPE and their clinical relevance. In this descriptive longitudinal, controlled, observational study patients were enrolled into three groups, group 1, group 2A and group 2B. Control group (group-1) consisted of age matched normal male patients, who underwent surveillance or diagnostic cystoscopy for microscopic hematuria or irritative symptoms. Case group (group-2) comprised of patients with BPE, undergoing TURP. Case group (group-2) was further classified into: Category 2A (patients not on catheter) and cat-egory 2B (patients on catheter). All relevant clinical parameters like IPSS, prostate size, Qmax, PVR were recorded. Cystoscopy and bladder biopsy were performed in all patients. Various ultrastructural parameters like myocytes, fascicular pattern, interstitial tissue, nerve hypertrophy and cell junction pattern were analyzed under electron microscope and they were clinically correlated using appropriate statistical tests. Control group had significant difference as compared to case group in terms of baseline parameters like IPSS, flow rate and prostate size, both preoperatively and postoperatively, except for PVR, which was seen only preoperatively. There was statistically significant difference in ultrastructural patterns between case and control group in all five electron microscopic patterns. However, no significant difference was found between the subcategories of case groups. BPE is responsible for ultra structural changes in detrusor muscle and these changes remain persistent even after TURP. Nerve hypertrophy, which was not thoroughly discussed in previous studies, is also one of the salient feature of this study. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  3. Electron microscopic changes of detrusor in benign enlargement of prostate and its clinical correlation

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    Sher Singh Yadav

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aims: To study the ultra structural changes in bladder musculature in cases of BPE and their clinical relevance. Material and Methods: In this descriptive longitudinal, controlled, observational study patients were enrolled into three groups, group 1, group 2A and group 2B. Control group (group-1 consisted of age matched normal male patients, who underwent surveillance or diagnostic cystoscopy for microscopic hematuria or irritative symptoms. Case group (group-2 comprised of patients with BPE, undergoing TURP. Case group (group-2 was further classified into: Category 2A (patients not on catheter and category 2B (patients on catheter. All relevant clinical parameters like IPSS, prostate size, Qmax, PVR were recorded. Cystoscopy and bladder biopsy were performed in all patients. Various ultrastructural parameters like myocytes, fascicular pattern, interstitial tissue, nerve hypertrophy and cell junction pattern were analyzed under electron microscope and they were clinically correlated using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Control group had significant difference as compared to case group in terms of baseline parameters like IPSS, flow rate and prostate size, both preoperatively and postoperatively, except for PVR, which was seen only preoperatively. There was statistically significant difference in ultrastructural patterns between case and control group in all five electron microscopic patterns. However, no significant difference was found between the subcategories of case groups. Conclusions: BPE is responsible for ultra structural changes in detrusor muscle and these changes remain persistent even after TURP. Nerve hypertrophy, which was not thoroughly discussed in previous studies, is also one of the salient feature of this study.

  4. Urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence.

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    Valdevenito, J P; Águila, F; Naser, M; Manríquez, V; Wenzel, C; Díaz, J P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the results of urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms, including the characteristics of the overactive detrusor. No other clinical assessments were taken into account. A retrospective study in women with urinary incontinence consecutively evaluated by urodynamic study. From a total of 710 women, only 108 (15%) with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms were selected. Women with prior urinary incontinence surgery, pelvic organ prolapse (stage ≥iii), pelvic radiotherapy, using medication active on the lower urinary tract and neurological diseases were excluded. Infusion rate was 70 ml/min. Detrusor overactivity was induced only by cough. A standardized cough stress test with progressive cough intensity was carried out. Reference urodynamic values for stress incontinent women are described. Urodynamic stress incontinence was observed in 79 women (73.1%), detrusor overactivity in 4 (3.7%) and mixed urodynamic diagnosis in 15 (13.8%). Test was inconclusive in 10 patients (9.2%). Two women had detrusor overactivity incontinence (1.9%). One patient had detrusor overactivity induced by cough without urodynamic stress incontinence (0.9%). There was an association between detrusor overactivity and nocturia ≥2 (P=.002; odds ratio: 3.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.39). One woman had a bladder outlet obstruction (0.9%). In women with pure stress urinary incontinence, without knowing the outcome of other clinical assessments, urodynamic study can provide useful information to define the proper therapy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The Association of Lyme Disease With Loss of Sexual Libido and the Role of Urinary Bladder Detrusor Dysfunction

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    Puri, Basant K.; Shah, Mussadiq; Julu, Peter O.O.; Kingston, Michele C.; Monro, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim was to carry out a pilot study to compare the loss of sexual libido between a group of Lyme disease patients and a group of matched controls. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether loss of libido in Lyme disease patients is associated with urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction. Methods A group of 16 serologically positive Lyme disease patients and 18 controls were queried directly about loss of libido. Results The 2 groups were matched with respect to age, sex, body ...

  6. Administration of memantine during withdrawal mitigates overactivity and spatial learning impairments associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

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    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt central nervous system development, manifesting as behavioral deficits that include motor, emotional, and cognitive dysfunction. Both clinical and animal studies have reported binge drinking during development to be highly correlated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We hypothesized that binge drinking may be especially damaging because it is associated with episodes of alcohol withdrawal. Specifically, we have been investigating the possibility that NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurs during alcohol withdrawal and contributes to developmental alcohol-related neuropathology. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 or eliprodil during withdrawal attenuates behavioral alterations associated with early alcohol exposure. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist, on minimizing ethanol-induced overactivity and spatial learning deficits. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol via intubation on postnatal day (PD) 6, a period of brain development that models late gestation in humans. Controls were intubated with a calorically matched maltose solution. During withdrawal, 24 and 36 hours after ethanol exposure, subjects were injected with a total of either 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg memantine. The subjects' locomotor levels were recorded in open field activity monitors on PDs 18 to 21 and on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task on PDs 40 to 43. Alcohol exposure induced overactivity and impaired performance in spatial learning. Memantine administration significantly attenuated the ethanol-associated behavioral alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, memantine may be neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data have important implications for the treatment of EtOH's neurotoxic effects and provide further support that ethanol withdrawal

  7. Stimulus-associated urinary urges in overactive bladder syndrome.

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    O'Connell, Kathleen A; Singer, Jonathan; Rajan, Sonali

    2018-01-01

    Although anecdotal reports of urinary urgency at one's front door are common in overactive bladder syndrome (OAB), little research has been done on how one's front door and other stimuli are related to urinary symptoms. We hypothesized that individuals with OAB would have higher scores on the Urinary Cues Questionnaire, developed for this study to assess stimulus-associated urinary urges, than those without OAB. Online surveys were administered to 328 women age 18-40 years recruited from a respondent panel maintained by CINT such that one-third of the sample reported a diagnosis of OAB. The survey assessed OAB symptoms and the frequency with which participants associated 42 stimuli with the urge to urinate. Psychometric analyses showed internal consistency estimates of the Urinary Cues Questionnaire of α = 0.97 and a test-retest correlation of 0.91. Women with OAB had significantly higher Urinary Cues Scores than those without OAB, with a t-test showing a large effect size of d = 1.49 (95%CI 1.24, 1.74), P < 0.001. Behavioral treatments aimed at reducing the response to cues may be useful in OAB, but more research is needed on both treatment implications and on the trajectory of symptom development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The relationship between overactive bladder and sexual activity in women

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    Patel Ankur S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We assessed the relationships between bladder symptoms, demographic, and medical history variables and sexual dysfunction in women with overactive bladder (OAB disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight women diagnosed with OAB completed self-administered questionnaires related to overall heath status, bladder function, and sexual function. Data were compiled for questionnaire responses, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: Bothersome bladder symptoms were reported by superscript three 60% of the sample. Sixty-percent of the sample was sexually active in the past month. Difficulty with sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment were reported by about 25% of the women. Sexual partner status was the best predictor of sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment. Menopausal status emerged as an important predictor of arousal and sexual enjoyment. CONCLUSION: The majority of women with symptoms of OAB viewed these symptoms as bothersome. However, the extent of symptom bother did not predict aspects of female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Instead, menopausal and partner status emerged as the best predictors of FSD in our sample.

  9. The challenge of overactive bladder therapy: alternative to antimuscarinic agents

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    Massimo Lazzeri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary, the management of overactive bladder (OAB, a medical condition characterized by urgency, with or without urge urinary incontinence, frequency and nocturia, in absence of genitourinary pathologies or metabolic factors that could explain these symptoms, is complex, and a wide range of conservative treatments has been offered, including bladder training, biofeedback, behavioral changes, oral or intravesical anticholinergic agents, S3 sacral neuromodulation and peripheral electrical stimulation. Clinical efficacy of these treatments remains an open issue and several experimental and clinical studies were carried out in the last years improving the results of medical treatment. Here we review the pathophysiology of micturition reflex, the current therapies for OAB and the rationale for alternative treatments. Furthermore we critically address the potential use of medications targeting the central nervous system (CNS and the primary sensory nerves of the bladder wall, we review the use of agonists of nociceptin/orphanin protein (NOP receptor and finally we report the results obtained by intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin.

  10. OnabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of overactive bladder

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    Cox L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lindsey Cox, Anne P Cameron Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: OnabotulinumtoxinA injection is a safe and effective treatment for adults with refractory overactive bladder. There is sufficient level 1 evidence to support offering onabotulinumtoxinA injections as a second-line treatment to patients who have failed behavioral therapy and oral medications such as antimuscarinics and β3 agonists. An intradetrusor injection of 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA is likely the optimal dose to balance risks and benefits, and this is the dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Improvement in urgency urinary incontinence episodes, as well as symptom scores and quality of life, were seen in around 60%–65% of patients, and were significantly improved compared with those on placebo. Most studies have reported a duration of symptom relief ranging from 6 to 12 months, with repeat injections being safe and efficacious. Overall, the risk of urinary retention was around 6% across the study populations. Keywords: urgency urinary incontinence, urinary retention, nocturia, frequency

  11. Tolterodine Tartrate Proniosomal Gel Transdermal Delivery for Overactive Bladder

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    Rajan Rajabalaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to formulate and evaluate side effects of transdermal delivery of proniosomal gel compared to oral tolterodine tartrate (TT for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB. Proniosomal gels are surfactants, lipids and soy lecithin, prepared by coacervation phase separation. Formulations were analyzed for drug entrapment efficiency (EE, vesicle size, surface morphology, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, in vitro skin permeation, and in vivo effects. The EE was 44.87%–91.68% and vesicle size was 253–845 nm for Span formulations and morphology showed a loose structure. The stability and skin irritancy test were also carried out for the optimized formulations. Span formulations with cholesterol-containing formulation S1 and glyceryl distearate as well as lecithin containing S3 formulation showed higher cumulative percent of permeation such as 42% and 35%, respectively. In the in vivo salivary secretion model, S1 proniosomal gel had faster recovery, less cholinergic side effect on the salivary gland compared with that of oral TT. Histologically, bladder of rats treated with the proniosomal gel formulation S1 showed morphological improvements greater than those treated with S3. This study demonstrates the potential of proniosomal vesicles for transdermal delivery of TT to treat OAB.

  12. Impact of coexisting overactive bladder in Medicare patients with osteoporosis.

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    Caplan, Eleanor O; Abbass, Ibrahim M; Suehs, Brandon T; Ng, Daniel B; Gooch, Katherine; Kirby, Cindy; Abbott, Paul

    Osteoporosis and overactive bladder (OAB) are prevalent conditions in older adults and are independent risk factors for falls and fractures. A paucity of evidence exists examining the impact of coexisting OAB in patients with osteoporosis. To examine the impact of OAB on healthcare resource utilization (HRU), clinical outcomes, and healthcare costs among older adult patients with osteoporosis. This retrospective analysis compared patients with osteoporosis with and without OAB. Patients with an osteoporosis diagnosis, enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan, and aged 65-89 inclusive were eligible. Incident OAB among patients with prevalent osteoporosis was identified. A comparison group of patients with osteoporosis but no evidence of OAB was propensity score matched on baseline characteristics. Fall and/or fracture outcomes, HRU and healthcare costs were evaluated during 12 months of follow-up. Bivariate comparisons of outcomes were conducted. Ordinary least squared regression was used to examine the relationship between OAB and total healthcare costs. After matching, 5,526 patients in each group were included. Patients with osteoporosis and OAB demonstrated greater all-cause HRU across all encounter types compared to patients without OAB (all P valuestotal healthcare costs than patients without OAB (P<0.001). Patients with OAB and osteoporosis had significantly greater all-cause HRU and costs. Falls and fractures were significantly more common in patients with osteoporosis and OAB compared to patients with osteoporosis without OAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Overactive bladder in adults with sickle cell disease.

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    Anele, Uzoma A; Morrison, Belinda F; Reid, Marvin E; Madden, Wendy; Foster, Shara; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-06-01

    To characterize the prevalence and impact of nocturnal enuresis and overactive bladder (OAB) symptomatology in the adult sickle-cell disease (SCD) population. We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study of adult SCD patients from October 2012 to February 2014, using the validated Pfizer OAB short form questionnaire and brief voiding history surveys. Patient responses and scores were compared to that of controls having normal or sickle cell trait hemoglobin genotypes. A group of 239 SCD patients (116 males, 123 females) were compared with 104 normal and 57 sickle cell trait patients. Seven of 239 (2.9%) SCD patients compared to none of the 161 patients without SCD (P = 0.04) reported current nocturnal enuresis. The median age of nocturnal enuresis cessation was higher in SCD patients (12.0, IQR 9.0-15.0 years) compared to that of both normal (7.5, IQR 6.0-9.8 years) and sickle cell trait (7.5, IQR 6.0-8.8 years) groups (P sickle cell trait had scores indicating OAB symptomatology (P symptom severity and lower health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores compared to the normal and sickle cell trait groups (P symptoms in the adult SCD population. An OAB phenotype may be an under-recognized complication of SCD irrespective of age. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:642-646, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Defining and managing overactive bladder: disagreement among the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Una J; Scott, Victoria C S; Rashid, Rezoana; Behniwal, Ajay; Wein, Alan J; Maliski, Sally L; Anger, Jennifer T

    2013-02-01

    To better understand experts' perceptions of the definition of overactive bladder (OAB) and the evaluation and treatment of OAB in women. OAB has been defined by the International Continence Society as "urinary urgency, with or without urge urinary incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia." Under the current definition, people with very different clinical conditions are included under the OAB umbrella. In the present study, 12 interviews with leading urologic, gynecologic, and geriatric practitioners in urinary incontinence and OAB were performed. Questions were asked about their perception and agreement with the current definition of OAB. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The grounded theory method was used to analyze the data. Overall, a great amount of variability was found in the definition and management of OAB. Four categories of definitions were derived from the qualitative analysis: the current OAB definition is adequate, OAB is a constellation of symptoms, OAB should include the fear of leakage, and OAB is a marketing term. Although some consensus has been reached on the evaluation, several areas have demonstrated disagreement over elements of the evaluation. Experts also believed that OAB is a chronic condition, with symptom variability, and has no cure. Managing patient expectations is essential, because OAB is challenging to treat. A focus was placed on behavioral therapy. The experts disagreed over the definition and workup of OAB. However, the experts agreed that OAB is a chronic condition with a low likelihood of cure. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Antimuscarinic Agent Treatment Affecting Patient-Reported Outcomes in Overactive Bladder Syndrome With Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Shik; Moon, Hong Sang

    2016-12-01

    We investigated improvements in overactive bladder symptoms and depressive symptoms after solifenacin treatment in overactive bladder patients with or without depressive symptoms. We performed a prospective study of patients who had been diagnosed with overactive bladder from July 2013 to June 2014. Based on the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire, the test subjects were divided into group 1, without depressive symptoms (0-9 points), and group 2, with depressive symptoms (10 or more points). The patients were administered 5 mg of solifenacin for 3 months. The following outcomes were analyzed at the first visit, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks: the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), patients' perceptions of their bladder condition, and the Beck Depression Inventory. A total of 72 patients participated, and 52 patients completed the study. Most outcome measures showed improvements in both groups at weeks 4 and 12. Especially in group 2, the questionnaires showed significant improvements from baseline to week 12, indicating that solifenacin was effective at treating overactive bladder symptoms (group 1 vs. group 2: OABSS, -2.67±0.80 vs. -3.00±0.77; Poveractive bladder patients with depressive symptoms, solifenacin can help improve quality of life and depressive symptoms at the same time.

  16. Tamsulosin and Solifenacin in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Chang, Yanhua; Liang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the clinical effect of tamsulosin and Solifenacin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder and its safety. Another objective was to investigate the clinical effect and safety of mega dose of tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder. One hundred and twenty-four patients who were admitted to the Dept. of Urology at Binzhou People's Hospital, , China with confirmed benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with overactive bladder were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty-two patients in the control group were treated with tamsulosin, while sixty-two patients in the observation group were treated with tamsulosin in combination with solifenacin. The treatment of both groups lasted for 12 weeks. The effect and adverse reaction were compared between the two groups. The international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), and overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), Q max , pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), daytime urination frequency, urgent urination frequency, urge urinary incontinence frequency and night urinary frequency of both groups improved after treatment, and the difference had statistical significance (P0.05). Treating benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder with tamsulosin in combination with solifenacin is more effective than tamsulosin, without significantly increasing adverse reactions. Thus the therapy is worth clinical promotion.

  17. The decompensated detrusor I: the effects of bladder outlet obstruction on the use of intracellular calcium stores.

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    Rohrmann, D; Levin, R M; Duckett, J W; Zderic, S A

    1996-08-01

    As in other smooth muscle groups, extracellular calcium influx as well as the release of calcium from intracellular storage sites or sarcoplasmic reticulum occur in response to receptor stimulation. The relative participation of extracellular influx versus intracellular release has recently been shown to be influenced by developmental stage and obstruction. Partial bladder outlet obstruction results in marked hypertrophy of the bladder and produces alterations in contractile function. To understand better how this contractile dysfunction after outlet obstruction is influenced by intracellular calcium handling we tested the effects of 2 drugs with known effects on the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We evaluated ryanodine, which blocks the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and thapsigargin, which blocks the ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to pump cytosolic calcium back into the storage sites. Rabbit bladders were obstructed for different periods, after which detrusor muscle strips were harvested and contractile performance was evaluated in the absence and presence of ryanodine and thapsigargin. In the early phases of outlet obstruction the release of intracellular calcium increased significantly. With prolonged obstruction and detrusor decompensation the intracellular storage sites lost the ability to contribute to the generation of contractile force. Alterations in the calcium handling ability of the smooth muscle cell appear to have an important role in the process of decompensation of bladder function in infravesical obstruction.

  18. A systematic review of the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurogenic hyperactivity of the detrusor muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borau, A; Adot, J M; Allué, M; Arlandis, S; Castro, D; Esteban, M; Salinas, J

    Neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity (NDH) is a urodynamic observation characterised by involuntary detrusor contractions during the filling phase that are caused by an underlying neurological disease. The common and severe complications that can result from NDH warrant the preparation of healthcare protocols for the proper management of patients with NDH. The aim of this study is to standardise the criteria for the decision-making process in the management of patients with diagnosed or suspected NDH, providing personalised medical care. We performed a systematic noncomprehensive literature review on the aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of NDH. Based on the review, recommendations were issued by nominal consensus of a group of urology specialists. In general, the diagnosis of NDH is arrived at by a proper review of the medical history, physical examination and voiding diary before performing any diagnostic study. The main treatment objectives are to protect the upper urinary tract, restore function of the lower tract and improve these patients' continence and quality of life. The treatment consists of several steps aimed at obtaining proper bladder storage that allows for sufficiently spaced voidings. The follow-up should be personalised based on each patient's needs. The identification and management of NDH is important for positively redirecting the function of the lower urinary tract, in terms of filling and voiding, thereby improving the patients' quality of life. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Electrical stimulation with non-implanted electrodes for overactive bladder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fiona; Gameiro, Luis F; El Dib, Regina; Gameiro, Monica O; Kapoor, Anil; Amaro, Joao L

    2016-12-09

    Several options exist for managing overactive bladder (OAB), including electrical stimulation (ES) with non-implanted devices, conservative treatment and drugs. Electrical stimulation with non-implanted devices aims to inhibit contractions of the detrusor muscle, potentially reducing urinary frequency and urgency. To assess the effects of ES with non-implanted electrodes for OAB, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, compared with: placebo or any other active treatment; ES added to another intervention compared with the other intervention alone; different methods of ES compared with each other. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 10 December 2015). We searched the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted specialists in the field. We imposed no language restrictions. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of ES with non-implanted devices compared with any other treatment for OAB in adults. Eligible trials included adults with OAB with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). Trials whose participants had stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were excluded. Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data from eligible trials and assessed risk of bias, using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We identified 63 eligible trials (4424 randomised participants). Forty-four trials did not report the primary outcomes of perception of cure or improvement in OAB. The majority of trials were deemed to be at low or unclear risk of selection and attrition bias and unclear risk of performance and detection bias. Lack of clarity with regard to risk of bias was largely due to poor reporting.For perception of improvement in OAB symptoms, moderate-quality evidence indicated

  20. Evaluation of autonomic nervous system function in children with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Gursoy, Azize Esra; Goknar, Nilufer; Uzuner, Selcuk; Ozkaya, Emin; Erenberk, Ufuk; Vehapoglu, Aysel; Dundaroz, Mehmet Rusen; Oktem, Faruk

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the autonomic nervous system activity in children with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. Included in the study were 40 children with overactive bladder and 28 healthy controls. Autonomic tests were performed on all participants, including heart rate interval variation (RRIV), heart rate response to valsalva maneuver, and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Mean valsalva rates in the overactive bladder and control groups were 1.53 ± 0.29 and 1.30 ± 0.18, respectively, a statistically significant difference (P  0.05). This study demonstrated a parasympathetic hyperactivity in children with OAB, results suggesting a dysfunction in their autonomic nervous systems. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:673-676, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Role of liposome in treatment of overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis

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    Shih-Ya Hung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical (local therapy of agents has been effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This route of drug administration has also shown tremendous promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS and overactive bladder without systemic side effects. Liposomes are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, and show greater uptake into cells via endocytosis. Intravesical liposomes have therapeutic effects on IC/PBS patients, mainly because of their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface. Recent studies have shown the sustained efficacy and safety of intravesical instillation of botulinum toxin formulated with liposomes (lipo-BoNT for the treatment of refractory overactive bladder This review considers the current status of intravesical liposomes or liposomal mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/PBS and overactive bladder.

  2. Higher glycosylated hemoglobin levels increase the risk of overactive bladder syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Aih-Fung; Huang, Mei-Huang; Wang, Chung-Cheng; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2012-11-01

    To assess overactive bladder and its component symptoms among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to explore whether higher glycosylated hemoglobin and other factors increase the risk of overactive bladder symptoms. A total of 279 diabetes mellitus patients from our outpatient clinic, and 578 age- and sex-matched subjects without diabetes mellitus from public health centers were enrolled from May to September of 2010. The collected data included overactive bladder and its component symptoms measured by using the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, and collecting demographic and clinical data. Overactive bladder was defined as total Overactive Bladder Symptom Score ≥3 and urgency score ≥2 (once a week or more). Diabetes mellitus patients had a significantly higher proportion of overactive bladder symptoms/urgency compared with the controls (28.0% vs 16.3%, odds ratio 2.03, 95% confidence interval 1.44-2.86), as well as nocturia (48.0% vs 39.1%, odds ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.93). There were no significant effects of diabetes mellitus on urge urinary incontinence (14.0% vs 10.9%, odds ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval 0.86-2.04) and daytime frequency (26.9% vs 32.4%, odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.56-1.05). After adjusting for all variables, high glycosylated hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with overactive bladder/urgency (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.45), urge urinary incontinence (odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.45) and nocturia (odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.35). Patients with type 2 mellitus present more overactive bladder symptoms/urgency and nocturia than controls. Among diabetic patients, higher glycosylated hemoglobin level represents an independent predictor of overactive bladder /urgency, urge urinary incontinence and nocturia. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Is overactive bladder microvasculature disease a component of systemic atheroscleorosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Meseri, Reci; Kismali, Erkan; Ari, Anıl; Kavukcu, Gulgun; Aydin, Hikmet H; Ak, Handan; Atay, Sevcan; Itil, Ismail Mete

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the relationship between overactive bladder (OAB) and systemic atherosclerosis in a cohort of women. In this case-control study, we assessed atherosclerosis indicators, such as Framingham risk scores and carotid and femoral artery intima-media thickness, and evaluated possible bladder wall responses to atherosclerosis using endovaginal color Doppler ultrasound and the detection of urinary cytokines in women with OAB and in controls. Quantitative assessment of blood perfusion at the bladder neck was performed using a method that allows for the dynamic monitoring of flow in a predefined region of interest at every point of the cardiac cycle. The independent samples t-test was used to evaluate the relationship between OAB and the atherosclerotic findings when parametric conditions were met, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used when parametric conditions were not met. Kendall's Tau was used to assess the correlation between OAB severity and the atherosclerotic variables. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were 74 OAB patients and 73 controls; in total, 147 women were evaluated. We found that all atherosclerosis indicators were significantly associated with OAB and that there was a significant relationship between OAB and decreased bladder neck perfusion. Additionally, there were correlations of OAB severity with systemic atherosclerosis and impaired vascular perfusion of the bladder. Decreased perfusion at the bladder neck, the Framingham scores in severe OAB, and the correlation between them suggest that OAB microvascular disease may be a component of systemic atherosclerosis rather than a separate process. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Distribution and significance of α1-adrenoceptor subtypes in patients with chronic prostatitis in prostate, bladder detrusor and posterior urethral tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Xie, Hui; Zheng, Jian-jian; Chen, Bi-cheng; He, Qiu-xiang; Shen, Ji-hong

    2010-12-14

    To study the distribution of alpha1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) subtype in prostate, posterior urethra and bladder detrusor of patients with chronic prostatitis (CP). The prostate specimens were collected at autopsy from 30 organ donors (aged 20-35 years old) dying of non-prostatic diseases. The pathological specimens of prostate peripheral zone were examined. The method of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) was employed for quantification of α1a-AR and α1b-AR subtype expression in prostate transition zone and its surrounding zone, posterior urethra and bladder detrusor tissue. Among all donors, there were 24 cases with pathological inflammation in prostatic peripheral zone and 6 with pathological non-inflammation. The mRNA expression of α1-AR subtypes in bladder detrusor and posterior urethra was significantly higher in the inflammation group than in the control group (Pposterior urethra was significantly lower in the inflammation group than in the control group (Pposterior urethra may explain various urodynamic changes in CP and lead to the occurrence and development of CP in prostate, posterior urethra and bladder detrusor.

  5. Pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder: report from the International Consultation on Incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, Karl-Erik; Chapple, Christopher R.; Cardozo, Linda; Cruz, Francisco; Hashim, Hashim; Michel, Martin C.; Tannenbaum, Cara; Wein, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Treatment options for the overactive bladder were recently discussed at the 4th International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI) held in Paris, 5-8 July 2008. This article will overview current thoughts on the pharmacological and clinical basis for the different classes of drugs

  6. Fesoterodine: a novel muscarinic receptor antagonist for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fesoterodine is a newly approved drug for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the preclinical and clinical data on fesoterodine. METHODS: The study involved a search of the Medline database and the proceedings volumes of urological

  7. Effectiveness of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, L.L. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a common condition affecting adults and children worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic and psychological burden. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is derived from acupuncture used in Chinese traditional medicine and was first described in the

  8. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of overactive bladder: urodynamic data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandoninck, V.; Balken, M.R. van; Finazzi Agro, E.; Petta, F.; Micali, F.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Debruyne, F.M.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate urodynamic changes after percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) for the treatment of complaints related to overactive bladder syndrome and to search for urodynamic-based predictive factors. METHODS: Ninety consecutive patients with symptoms related to

  9. Prospective study of transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation for overactive bladder in children: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordêlo, Patrícia; Soares, Paulo Vitor Lima; Maciel, Iza; Macedo, Antonio; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the long-term success of transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation for overactive bladder in children. We prospectively evaluated children who underwent transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation for overactive bladder. All patients had symptoms of overactive bladder, bell curve in uroflowmetry and low post-void residual urine. The procedure was performed using a frequency of 10 Hz for 20-minute sessions 3 times weekly for a maximum of 20 sessions. Initial and long-term (more than 6 months) success rates were evaluated. Transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation was performed in 36 girls and 13 boys with a mean age of 10.2 years (range 5 to 17). Mean followup was 35.3 months (range 6 to 80). Before treatment urgency, daytime incontinence and urinary tract infection were seen in 100%, 88% and 71% of cases, respectively. Initial success (full response) was demonstrated in 79% of patients for urgency, 76% for incontinence and 77% for all symptoms. Continued success was seen in 84% of patients for urgency, 74% for daytime incontinence and 78% for all symptoms. If the 30 patients with at least 2 years of followup were considered, treatment was successful in 73%. Recurrence of symptoms after a full response was seen in 10% of cases. Two of 33 patients (6%) with urinary tract infection before the procedure still had infection after treatment. Transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation is well tolerated, and demonstrates short and long-term effectiveness in treating overactive bladder in children. Symptoms eventually will recur in 10% of patients.

  10. [Long holder: hidden forked thorn wound level in patients with diagnosis of overactive bladder. Pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Chavarria, Primo Roberto; Rodríguez Colorado, Esther Silvia; Escobar del Barco, Laura; Guzmán Rodríguez, Raymundo

    2007-10-01

    Anatomical alterations in bony structures, as the sacrum, can be related with defects in nervous supply to pelvic viscera and low urinary tract. To relate location of damages at spina bifida occult with diagnosis of overactive bladder. Cross sectional study between December 2005 and March 2006 in 31 patients with diagnose of overactive bladder. All of them with complete medical history, uroneurologic physical exam, multichannel urodynamic study, urethrocystoscopy, urine culture, bladder voiding, life quality questionnaire, and antero subsequent, sacred lateral and lumbar column x-ray. Statistical analysis was done through distribution frequencies graphics and averages comparison. Age average was 47 years, 20 to 69 years; gestations average was four and childbirth average was three by patient. Highest percentage of dysraphia was located between S2 to S5 in 29 patients (94%), and between L5 to S5 in 2 patients (6%). Other findings were: scoliosis in 20 patients (64.5%), asymmetry of hip in 9 patients (29%), and lordosis in 7 patients (22.5%); spondilolistesis, lumbarization of S1 and sacralization of L5 were found each one in a patient (22.5%). In 94% of patients, presence of spina bifida occult between S2 to S4 correlates with the diagnosis of overactive bladder. Another type of alteration, as lordosis and scoliosis, are findings in a high percentage of patients and can be related to symptoms of overactive bladder.

  11. Effect of ocular torsion on A and V patterns and apparent oblique muscle overaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Burton J

    2010-06-01

    To determine if ocular torsion is a major cause of A and V patterns and oblique muscle overaction or merely a contributing factor. Three separate investigations were conducted. (1) The trajectory of eyes with oblique muscle overaction was plotted across the horizontal field of gaze from videographs to determine if it was linear or curvilinear. (2) The effect of successful Harada-Ito surgery to reduce extorsion on overelevation in adduction in patients with fourth cranial nerve palsy was studied. (3) The effect of successful surgery to treat pattern strabismus in the form of vertical transposition of the horizontal rectus muscles on objective torsion was studied. (1) Three eyes with inferior oblique muscle overaction and 2 with superior oblique muscle overaction had a curvilinear rise or fall (respectively) as they moved into adduction. (2) Surgery that successfully decreased extorsion had a negligible effect on overelevation in adduction in 2 patients. (3) Horizontal rectus muscle transposition that was uniformly successful in eliminating A or V patterns consistently caused an increase in objective torsion in all 5 patients studied. Ocular torsion may contribute to A or V patterns and overelevation or overdepression in adduction, but it is probably not the major cause of these phenomena.

  12. Which Single-Item Measures of Overactive Bladder Symptom Treatment Correlate Best With Patient Satisfaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Oelke, Matthias; Vogel, Monika; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: While complex symptom scales are important research tools, simpler, preferably single item scales may be more useful for routine clinical practise in the evaluation of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). This study aimed to compare multiple single-item scales at baseline and after

  13. Is the prevalence of overactive bladder overestimated? A population-based study in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A O Tikkinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In earlier studies, one in six adults had overactive bladder which may impair quality of life. However, earlier studies have either not been population-based or have suffered from methodological limitations. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms, based on a representative study population and using consistent definitions and exclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the study was to assess the age-standardized prevalence of overactive bladder defined as urinary urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually with urinary frequency and nocturia in the absence of urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. In 2003-2004, a questionnaire was mailed to 6,000 randomly selected Finns aged 18-79 years who were identified from the Finnish Population Register Centre. Information on voiding symptoms was collected using the validated Danish Prostatic Symptom Score, with additional frequency and nocturia questions. Corrected prevalence was calculated with adjustment for selection bias due to non-response. The questionnaire also elicited co-morbidity and socio-demographic information. Of the 6,000 subjects, 62.4% participated. The prevalence of overactive bladder was 6.5% (95% CI, 5.5% to 7.6% for men and 9.3% (CI, 7.9% to 10.6% for women. Exclusion of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduced prevalence among men by approximately one percentage point (to 5.6% [CI, 4.5% to 6.6%]. Among subjects with overactive bladder, urgency incontinence, frequency, and nocturia were reported by 11%, 23%, and 56% of men and 27%, 38%, and 40% of women, respectively. However, only 31% of men and 35% of women with frequency, and 31% of subjects of both sexes with nocturia reported overactive bladder. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate a prevalence of overactive bladder as low as 8% suggesting that, in previous studies, occurrence has been overestimated due to vague criteria and selected study

  14. Impact of mirabegron extended-release on the treatment of overactive bladder with urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee RT

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Raymond T Lee,1 Mitchell Bamberger,2 Pamela Ellsworth31University of Massachusetts Medical School, 2UMass Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 3Division of Urology/Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder is a highly prevalent disorder with a significant impact on quality of life. Antimuscarinic agents are commonly used, but persistence is limited due to unsatisfactory efficacy and/or tolerability. Mirabegron is the first beta-3 adrenoceptor agonist approved for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. This paper reviews the pharmacology, mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety of mirabegron. A PubMed search of all English articles pertaining to mirabegron was performed. An alternative to antimuscarinics, mirabegron has a unique mechanism, improves overactive bladder symptoms and quality of life, and has limited adverse effects and few contraindications.Keywords: overactive bladder, incontinence, beta-3 agonist, mirabegron

  15. Unravelling detrusor underactivity: Development of a bladder outlet resistance-Bladder contractility nomogram for adult male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Matthias; Rademakers, Kevin L J; van Koeveringe, Gommert A

    2016-11-01

    Voiding dysfunction in adult men may be caused by bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and/or detrusor underactivity (DU). Until now, it is only possible to classify BOO and DU by pressure-flow analysis. Low values of the maximum Watts factor (W max ) indicate DU but thresholds for the diagnosis have not been established. Purpose of this study was to construct a nomogram using bladder outlet resistance and detrusor contractility in order to classify BOO and DU simultaneously. Treatment naïve men aged ≥40 years with uncomplicated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were prospectively evaluated. Patients were assessed with IPSS, prostate volume, uroflowmetry, post-void residual, and pressure-flow measurement. The bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI) was used to determine BOO-grade and W max to calculate detrusor contractility. Individual BOOI-W max values were plotted in a graph. Linear interpolation was applied to determine the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles. Retrospective analysis of 822 male patients with means of 64 years, IPSS 16, and prostate volume of 40 cc. Patient and clinical parameters of the <25th percentile groups were significantly different compared to the 25th-50th percentiles: age (66 vs. 63 years, P = 0.006), bladder capacity (503 vs. 442 ml, P = 0.009), post-void residual urine (167 vs. 116 ml, P = 0.001), and voiding efficiency (67% vs. 73%, P = 0.015). The nomogram quantifies the relationship between detrusor contractility and BOO in men with LUTS. A measurement value <25th percentile correlates with clinical indicators of DU and is proposed as a cut-off value for DU-diagnosis. Higher age, bladder capacity, and PVR as well as lower voiding efficiency indicate DU. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:980-986, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effectiveness of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome

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    de Wall LL

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Liesbeth L de Wall, John PFA Heesakkers Department of Urology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAbstract: Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB is a common condition affecting adults and children worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic and psychological burden. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS is derived from acupuncture used in Chinese traditional medicine and was first described in the early 1980s. It is a neuromodulation technique used to modulate bladder function and facilitate storage. Being a minimally invasive, easily applicable, but time-consuming treatment, future developments with implantable devices might be the solution for the logistical problems and economic burden associated with PTNS on the long term. This nonsystematic review provides a current overview on PTNS and its effectiveness in the treatment of OAB for both adults and children. Keywords: overactive bladder, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation, neuromodulation, electrical stimulation 

  17. Profile of mirabegron in the treatment of overactive bladder: place in therapy

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    Sharaf A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ala’a Sharaf, Hashim Hashim Female and Functional Urology Unit, Bristol Urological Institute, Bristol, UK Abstract: Mirabegron is a relatively new drug introduced to treat overactive bladder syndrome. It can be used either on its own or as part of a combination. This drug has been extensively studied, with a good number of Phase II and Phase III trials showing promising outcomes. These studies show that mirabegron is an effective, well-tolerated drug, which could have some adverse effects of concern. In this review, we look at the trials on mirabegron, as well as its pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, and side effects as documented in the literature. Keywords: mirabegron, overactive bladder disorder, antimuscarinics

  18. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  19. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  20. The pattern of autonomic tone disorder and its correction in children with overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysregulation is one of the leading components in the pathogenesis of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. These disorders lead to diverse changes in the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems with disordered release of mediators (norepinephrine, acetylcholine, hormones of the adrenal cortex and other endocrine glands, a number of biologically active substances (polypeptides, prostaglandins, as well as to the impaired sensitivity of vascular a- and p-adrenoceptors. Children with dysuria concurrently develop visceral, CNS, and circulatory system dysfunctions and metabolic disturbances. The paper describes the clinical trial of children with overactive bladder, which demonstrates the autonomic tone in these patients (и=44. The findings point to the important involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of the disease and provide a rationale for the incorporation of vegetotropic drugs normalizing the autonomic nervous system into the combination therapy of overactive bladder.

  1. Inferior oblique overaction in infantile esotropia: fundus extorsion as a predictive sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, H S; Nussdorf, J D

    1996-01-01

    Inferior oblique overaction develops in 72% of patients with infantile esotropia but generally is not recognized until the patient is between 2 and 4 years of age. While undergoing bilateral medial rectus recessions, photographs were taken of the posterior pole of 27 eyes in 14 patients with infantile esotropia and graded for the presence or absence of torsion by a masked observer. Follow up ranged from 10 months to 6 years. Oblique muscle overaction developed in 15 of the 27 eyes. Of these 15, six demonstrated fundus torsion in infancy, before the oblique dysfunction was recognized clinically. The presence of abnormal fundus torsion can serve as a marker for patients with infantile esotropia who ultimately will develop overt oblique muscle dysfunction.

  2. Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, Timothy G

    2012-02-03

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis characterized by hypercortisolism, adrenal hyperplasia and abnormalities in negative feedback is the most consistently described biological abnormality in melancholic depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the main secretagogues of the HPA\\/stress system. Produced in the parvicellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus the release of these peptides is influenced by inputs from monoaminergic neurones. In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity.

  3. The role of bacterial infection and inflammation in the generation of overactive bladder symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, K.

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of considerable insensitivity affecting the current tests used to screen for urinary infection. The studies within this thesis provide original work in examining the performance of recommended diagnostic tests for urinary tract infection, and explore the bacterial ecology of urinary infection and its associated urothelial inflammatory response in patients with symptoms of overactive bladder. The association between lower urinary tract inflammation, bacterial colo...

  4. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation vs parasacral transcutaneous neuromodulation for overactive bladder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Ubirajara; Viterbo, Walter; Bittencourt, Joana; Farias, Tiago; Lordêlo, Patrícia

    2013-08-01

    Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation have emerged as effective methods to treat overactive bladder in children. However, to our knowledge no study has compared the 2 methods. We evaluated the results of parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation in children with overactive bladder. We prospectively studied children with overactive bladder without dysfunctional voiding. Success of treatment was evaluated by visual analogue scale and dysfunctional voiding symptom score, and by level of improvement of each specific symptom. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was performed 3 times weekly and posterior tibial nerve stimulation was performed once weekly. A total of 22 consecutive patients were treated with posterior tibial nerve stimulation and 37 with parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There was no difference between the 2 groups regarding demographic characteristics or types of symptoms. Concerning the evaluation by visual analogue scale, complete resolution of symptoms was seen in 70% of the group undergoing parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and in 9% of the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation (p = 0.02). When the groups were compared, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.55). The frequency of persistence of urgency and diurnal urinary incontinence was nearly double in the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation. However, this difference was not statistically significant. We found that parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is more effective in resolving overactive bladder symptoms, which matches parental perception. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the evaluation by dysfunctional voiding symptom score, or in complete resolution of urgency or diurnal incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological

  5. Sensory Hyperinnervation Distinguishes Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis from Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regauer, Sigrid; Gamper, Marianne; Fehr, Mathias K; Viereck, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Pain is the key symptom that distinguishes bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis from overactive bladder syndrome but overlap occurs. To find a discriminating marker for these bladder diseases we examined sensory hyperinnervation and neurotrophin receptor expression in bladder biopsies as well as nerve growth factor levels in urine. Bladder biopsies from patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, including 12 with and 19 without Hunner lesions, 13 with overactive bladder syndrome and 12 healthy controls, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry with antibodies to the nerve cell marker PGP9.5 (neuron-specific protein gene product 9.5), p75 NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor), the B-lymphocyte marker CD20 and mast cell tryptase. Urinary nerve growth factor was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subepithelial sensory hyperinnervation on PGP9.5 staining had 97% sensitivity and 76% specificity, increased lymphocytic infiltration had 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity, and urothelial defects had 97% sensitivity and 76% specificity to distinguish bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis with and without Hunner lesions from overactive bladder syndrome and healthy controls. Increased sensory innervation was associated with submucosal mast cell localization. Staining of p75 NTR in basal urothelial cells was indicative of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Urinary nerve growth factor levels were below the detection level and did not differentiate bladder diseases from healthy controls. Sensory hyperinnervation and basal urothelial p75 NTR staining together with assessment of inflammatory lymphocytes and urothelial integrity allow for the differentiation of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder syndrome even in the absence of Hunner lesions. Furthermore, these histopathological criteria enable the identification of early disease stages or oligosymptomatic/asymptomatic cases and may permit timely treatment

  6. Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a–b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant. PMID:24096069

  7. [Transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the overactive bladder syndrome in patients with Parkinson's syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, A; Kaboré, F A; Agostini, A; Lenne Aurier, K; Witjas, T; Azulay, J-P; Karsenty, G

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of chronic transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) on overactive bladder syndrome in female patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). A prospective monocentric study enrolled six female patients with PD or MSA suffering from overactive bladder syndrome for a six-week study period. Daily sessions of 20 minutes of TNS were provided. The primary outcome measurement was the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I scale). The secondary outcomes measurements were symptom and quality of life scores, bladder diary and urodynamics. The outcomes after 6 weeks of TNS were compared to baseline. TNS was considered as an effective treatment by five patients out of six (83%) who ask to pursue the treatment and were still doing it 6 months after the end of the study. A trend improvement was observed in only two of the secondary evaluation criteria the V8 median score 21/40 to 14/40 (P=0.2) and the maximum cystometric capacity increased from 211 mL ± 106 to 260 mL ± 226 (P=0.6) after SNT. Although urodynamics and symptoms scores did not show significant difference, an efficacy of TNS on overactive bladder in PD and MSA is possible. Additional placebo controlled works enrolling more patients are required to ensure these preliminary results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient perspectives in the management of overactive bladder, focus on transdermal oxybutynin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tondalaya Gamble

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Tondalaya Gamble, Peter SandEvanston Continence Center, Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Evanston, IllinoisAbstract: Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB is a constellation of distressing symptoms that significantly impair quality of life, sexual function, and work productivity, and imposes a significant economic burden to society. Pharmacological treatment with antimuscarinic agents, behavioral modification, bladder retraining, and/or pelvic floor exercises are often used alone or in combination as the mainstay treatment in the management of OAB. Oxybutynin has been used in the treatment of OAB for over 20 years with proven efficacy and is often the comparator in drug treatment trials. Oral formulations of oxybutynin have proven efficacy, but not without significant antimuscarinic effects, which reduce patient persistence with medical treatment. Low levels of patient persistence with oral formulations of oxybutynin provided an impetus for the development of a transdermal oxybutynin delivery system. The oxybutynin transdermal formulation has been found to have side effects similar to that of a placebo in randomized controlled trials while providing excellent efficacy. Patient persistence with therapy, improved quality of life, sexual function and interpersonal relationships have been observed with use of the transdermal oxybutynin delivery system. Its twice weekly dosing, low side effect profile, and high efficacy have made it a good choice for initial treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.Keywords: overactive bladder syndrome, oxybutynin, transdermal delivery

  9. Ultrasound measurement of bladder wall thickness is associated with the overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, D C; Tekkis, P; Fernando, R; Hendricken, C; Khullar, V

    2010-09-01

    To assess the relationship between mean bladder wall thickness and components of the overactive bladder (OAB syndrome). Women attending urogynaecology clinic was categorized into overactive bladder syndrome, stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and mixed urinary continence (MUI) according to International Continence Society (ICS) definitions based on symptom history. Women completed a bladder diary, visual analog score (VAS) for urgency, and the mean bladder wall thickness (BWT) was determined. Comparison was made between the mean BWT and symptom history, daytime frequency, nocturia, VAS scores. Three hundred seventy-nine women were recruited to the study with a mean age of 56 years (range: 24-92 years). The mean bladder wall thickness did not show any age-related difference. Of these women 138/379 (36%) reported overactive bladder symptoms (mean BWT = 5.6 mm) 75/379 (20%) gave a history of stress urinary incontinence (mean BWT = 4.7 mm), and 166/379 (44%) had mixed urinary incontinence (mean BWT = 5.4). Women with nocturia >1 had mean BWT 5.6 mm, with nocturia 7 had mean BWT 5.7 mm and those 5 mm (P < 0.001). Mean BWT is associated with a symptom history of OAB and MUI, higher daytime and nightime frequency, and higher VAS scores. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Reversed cortical over-activity during movement imagination following neurofeedback treatment for central neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad Abul; Fraser, Matthew; Conway, Bernard A; Allan, David B; Vučković, Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    One of the brain signatures of the central neuropathic pain (CNP) is the theta band over-activity of wider cortical structures, during imagination of movement. The objective of the study was to investigate whether this over-activity is reversible following the neurofeedback treatment of CNP. Five paraplegic patients with pain in their legs underwent from twenty to forty neurofeedback sessions that significantly reduced their pain. In order to assess their dynamic cortical activity they were asked to imagine movements of all limbs a week before the first and a week after the last neurofeedback session. Using time-frequency analysis we compared EEG activity during imagination of movement before and after the therapy and further compared it with EEG signals of ten paraplegic patients with no pain and a control group of ten able-bodied people. Neurofeedback treatment resulted in reduced CNP and a wide spread reduction of cortical activity during imagination of movement. The reduction was significant in the alpha and beta band but was largest in the theta band. As a result cortical activity became similar to the activity of other two groups with no pain. Reduction of CNP is accompanied by reduced cortical over-activity during movement imagination. Understanding causes and consequences mechanism through which CNP affects cortical activity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Electromotive drug administration for treatment of therapy-refractory overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gauruder Burmester

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the benefits of electromotive drug administration (EMDA as an alternative technique in patients with chronic overactive bladder in terms of improvement of symptoms, quality of life, and sexuality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 72 patients with therapy-refractory overactive bladder according to the ICS (International Continence Society definition, were treated by EMDA. The regimen consisted of three treatment cycles, each with 3 instillations at 2-week intervals. The solution instilled consisted of 100 mL 4% lidocaine, 100 mL distilled water, 40 mg dexamethasone, and 2 mL epinephrine. Peri-interventionally, a urine test and close circulatory monitoring were performed. All women underwent urodynamic testing and cystoscopy and kept a voiding diary. A comprehensive history was obtained, a quality of life questionnaire administered, and a gynecologic examination performed before initiation of therapy. The women underwent follow-up at 12 months after the end of therapy. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 63 (± 11.2 years. Bladder capacity improved significantly by 109 mL (± 55 mL in 51 (71% patients (p = 0.021. The number of micturitions/day decreased significantly to 7 (± 2 (p = 0.013. Quality of life was improved in 54 patients (75%; p = 0.024 and sexuality in 39 (54%; p = 0.020. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that EMDA can improve both quality of life and sexuality in patients with therapy-refractory chronic overactive bladder.

  12. Quality of life in patients with overactive bladder: validation and psychometric properties of the Spanish Overactive Bladder Questionnaire-short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlandis, Salvador; Ruiz, Miguel A; Errando, Carlos; Villacampa, Felipe; Arumí, Daniel; Lizarraga, Isabel; Rejas, Javier

    2012-08-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is characterized by the symptoms of urinary urgency or urge incontinence, which appear without a local pathological or metabolic explanation. OAB is defined by symptoms and the evaluation of treatment effectiveness should be based upon patient perceptions. The Overactive Bladder Questionnaire-Short Form (OAB-q SF) is a brief, self-administered patient-reported outcomes tool with two scales assessing symptom bother and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in patients with OAB. This study aimed to adapt the OAB-q SF into Spanish and to estimate its psychometric properties in patients with symptomatic overactive bladder. The Spanish version of the OAB-q SF was administered on two occasions, 3 months apart, to a set of patients of both sexes, over 18 years of age, diagnosed with OAB, scoring ≥8 on the OAB-V8 scale (a self-reported 8-item OAB screening and awareness tool), and able to understand patient-reported-outcome instruments written in Spanish. Patients were recruited consecutively at urology clinics. Feasibility, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), test-retest reliability, structure of instrument, criteria and construct validity and responsiveness were examined using classic test theory statistics. Data from 246 OAB patients (mean age 57.7 years, 76% women, 99% Caucasian, 37% workers and 36% with a primary education) were evaluated. Floor and ceiling effects ranged between 0.8% and 33%, and missing items were below 2%. Cronbach's alphas attained 0.811 and 0.922 for symptom-bother and HR-QOL domains, respectively. These two subscales matched the original structure and explained variances above 50%, which correlated moderately with EQ-5D (EuroQol) [r = -0.28 and r = +0.31, respectively (p < 0.001 in both cases)]. A significant change in OAB-q SF mean domain scores (-23.8; 95% CI -26.3, -21.3; and +17.7; 95% CI 15.4, 20.6; p < 0.001 in both cases; [effect sizes: 1.32 and 0.98]) was observed after 3 months of medical treatment

  13. Functional and Molecular Evidence for Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Human Detrusor from Patients with and without Bladder Outflow Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Sheykhzade, Majid; Nordling, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expressi...... between Kv7 channels and β-adrenoceptors in the human urinary bladder. The performed gene expression analysis combined with the organ bath studies imply that compounds that activate Kv7 channels could be useful for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.......The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expression...... (activator of Kv7.1 channels, 10 μM) and ML213 (activator of Kv7.2, Kv7.4, Kv7.4/7.5 and Kv7.5 channels, 10 μM), reduced the tone of 1 μM carbachol pre-constricted bladder strips. XE991 (blocker of Kv7.1-7.5 channels, 10 μM) had opposing effects as it increased contractions achieved with 20 mM KPSS...

  14. Factors Associated with Therapeutic Efficacy of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Mou Hsiao

    Full Text Available To analyze the predictors of therapeutic efficacy after intravesical botulinum toxin A injection for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB refractory to antimuscarinic therapy.All consecutively OAB patients, who visited the urologic outpatient clinics of a medical center and refractory to antimuscarinic treatment, were prospectively enrolled. All enrolled patients received intravesical injection of 100 U onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox. The Global Response Assessment (GRA score ≥ 2 at 3 months after Botox injection was defined as a successful treatment, otherwise failed.Overall, 89 patients received intravesical injection. Eighty patients, including 42 men and 38 women, had received follow-up at 3 months. The overall success rate was 63.8%. The global response assessment, urgency severity score, urgency, urgency urinary incontinence and frequency episodes, and functional bladder capacity improved after treatment. However, post-void residual volume (PVR increased, and voiding efficiency (VE decreased after treatment. Female gender (odds ratio = 3.75 was the only independent factor associated with the success. Female gender (coefficient = 0.74, low baseline overactive bladder symptoms score (coefficient = -0.12 and the presence of OAB-wet (coefficient = 0.79 were independent factors associated with therapeutic efficacy (i.e., GRA score. VE (odds ratio = 0.062 was the only predictor for a large PVR at 3 months. The optimum cutoff value of VE was <87% with the area under the ROC curve being 0.64 (sensitivity = 63.8%, specificity = 57.1%.The therapeutic effects of Botox can persist till 6 months after treatment. Female gender, low overactive bladder symptoms score and OAB-wet are associated better therapeutic efficacy, and low baseline VE is associated with large PVR. These findings can serve as an initial guide or assist in consultation regarding the treatment of OAB patients with Botox injection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657409.

  15. Factors Associated with Therapeutic Efficacy of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the predictors of therapeutic efficacy after intravesical botulinum toxin A injection for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) refractory to antimuscarinic therapy. All consecutively OAB patients, who visited the urologic outpatient clinics of a medical center and refractory to antimuscarinic treatment, were prospectively enrolled. All enrolled patients received intravesical injection of 100 U onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox). The Global Response Assessment (GRA) score ≥ 2 at 3 months after Botox injection was defined as a successful treatment, otherwise failed. Overall, 89 patients received intravesical injection. Eighty patients, including 42 men and 38 women, had received follow-up at 3 months. The overall success rate was 63.8%. The global response assessment, urgency severity score, urgency, urgency urinary incontinence and frequency episodes, and functional bladder capacity improved after treatment. However, post-void residual volume (PVR) increased, and voiding efficiency (VE) decreased after treatment. Female gender (odds ratio = 3.75) was the only independent factor associated with the success. Female gender (coefficient = 0.74), low baseline overactive bladder symptoms score (coefficient = -0.12) and the presence of OAB-wet (coefficient = 0.79) were independent factors associated with therapeutic efficacy (i.e., GRA score). VE (odds ratio = 0.062) was the only predictor for a large PVR at 3 months. The optimum cutoff value of VE was overactive bladder symptoms score and OAB-wet are associated better therapeutic efficacy, and low baseline VE is associated with large PVR. These findings can serve as an initial guide or assist in consultation regarding the treatment of OAB patients with Botox injection. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657409.

  16. A short review of drug-food interactions of medicines treating overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Rodacki, Tomasz; Domagała-Rodacka, Renata; Owczarek, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Background Overactive bladder syndrome is a condition where one or more of the symptoms such as pollakiuria, urgent need to urinate, nocturia and urinary incontinence is observed. Its prevalence ranges between 7 and 27 % in men and 9-43 % in women. The role of a pharmacist is to educate the patient on medications administration scheme, and drug interactions with particular food or food components. Aim of the review To assess a potential impact of food and fruit juice on the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic effects of medications used in treating overactive bladder syndrome. This information will enhance pharmaceutical care and is vital and helpful for pharmacists counseling their patients. Method In order to gather information on interactions of medications employed in bladder dysfunctions, the English language reports published in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and CINAHL database over the years 1996-2015 were studied. Additionally, other resources, namely drugs.com, Medscape, UpToDate, Micromedex, Medical Letter, as well as Stockley Drugs Interaction electronic publication were included in the study. The analysis also covered product data sheets for particular medicinal products. Results Meals and the consumption of grapefruit juice were found to exert a diversified effect on the pharmacokinetics of drugs employed in overactive bladder syndrome therapy. Neither tolterodine, nor mirabegron interact with food and citrus fruit juice, whereas darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin and solifenacin do interact with grapefruit and others citrus fruit juice. The effects of such interactions may potentially be negative to patients. Trospium absorption is significantly decreased by food. Conclusion For selected medicines used in treating bladder dysfunctions food and grapefruit juice consumption may significantly affect efficacy and safety of the therapy. All information on the topic is likely to enhance the quality of pharmaceutical care.

  17. Factors influencing patient satisfaction with antimuscarinic treatment of overactive bladder syndrome: results of a real-life clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akino, Hironobu; Namiki, Mikio; Suzuki, Koji; Fuse, Hideki; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Fujiuchi, Yasuyoshi; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    To investigate patient satisfaction with antimuscarinic treatment of overactive bladder syndrome, and to identify factors having a significant influence on satisfaction. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out to assess treatment satisfaction among male and female patients with overactive bladder (age ≥20 years) in the Hokuriku district of Japan. The overactive bladder symptom scores, treatment efficacies, adverse events (dry mouth and constipation), and patient satisfaction scores were investigated and compared among patients using different antimuscarinic therapeutics. In total, 977 survey respondents (52.6% men; mean age 73.6 years) received antimuscarinic treatment. The mean overactive bladder symptom score of these patients was 6.17; in addition, 32.3% patients were satisfied with their treatment, but 33.1% were dissatisfied. Factors having a significant influence on treatment satisfaction were sex (men were less satisfied), efficacy, adverse events and the overactive bladder symptom score. Constipation negatively influenced patient satisfaction to a greater extent than did dry mouth. Patient satisfaction varied according to the drug used. Constipation was less severe with the immediate-release-type agents (imidafenacin and oxybutynin) than with the extended-release-type (propiverine, solifenacin or tolterodine). Just one-third of Japanese Hokuriku patients with overactive bladder seem to be satisfied with their antimuscarinic treatment. Patient satisfaction is impaired by poor efficacy and the presence of adverse events; furthermore, constipation should be recognized as an adverse event that negatively influences patient satisfaction to a greater extent than dry mouth. Patient satisfaction differs according to the antimuscarinic agent used, with higher patient satisfaction being associated with less severe constipation. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. [The role of dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system in idiopathic overactive urinary bladder in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V V; Akarachkova, E S; Shvarkov, S B; Grigorashvili, I I; Romikh, V V

    2012-01-01

    A complex urological and neurological examination of female patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (IOAB) has detected clinical signs and neurophysiological correlates of vegetative dysfunction in the form of disturbed sympatho-parasympathic interrelations, failure of segmental and compensatory enhancement of suprasegmental mechanisms of regulation of lower urinary tract activity. The treatment with selective inhibitors of serotonin re-entry reduced severity ofpsychovegetative syndrome and symptoms of the lower urinary tract. This confirms an essential role of the autonomic nervous system in pathogenetic mechanisms of IOAB development and gives grounds for recommending selective inhibitors of serotonin re-entry for combined treatment of IOAB patients.

  19. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary ...

  20. Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis/ Painful Bladder Syndrome in Patients With Overactive Bladder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDiarmid, Scott A; Sand, Peter K

    2007-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis (IC) have similar symptoms, including urinary urgency/frequency and nocturia, making them difficult to differentiate on the basis of clinical presentation alone. Both conditions may represent a clinical manifestation of a hypersensitive bladder and should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with urgency/ frequency. It is especially important that IC be considered in patients with OAB that is refractory to treatment. The proposed diagnostic framework may be useful for differentiating IC from OAB and for facilitating appropriate treatment. PMID:17396167

  1. Stimulation of the pelvic nerve increases bladder capacity in the prostaglandin E2rat model of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdale, Christopher L; Hokanson, James A; Sridhar, Arun; Grill, Warren M

    2017-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is a highly prevalent condition that may lead to medical complications and decreased quality of life. Emerging therapies focusing on selective electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves associated with lower urinary tract function may provide improved efficacy and reduced side effects compared with sacral neuromodulation for the treatment of OAB symptoms. Prior studies investigating the effects of pelvic nerve (PelN) stimulation on lower urinary tract function were focused on promoting bladder contractions, and it is unclear whether selective stimulation of the PelN would be beneficial for the treatment of OAB. Therefore our motivation was to test the hypothesis that PelN stimulation would increase bladder capacity in the prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) rat model of OAB. Cystometry experiments were conducted in 17 urethane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of intravesical PGE 2 vs. vehicle and PelN stimulation after intravesical PGE 2 on cystometric parameters were quantified. Intravesical infusion of PGE 2 resulted in decreased bladder capacity and increased voiding efficiency without a change in bladder contraction area under the curve, maximum contraction pressure, or contraction duration. Bladder capacity was also significantly decreased compared with vehicle (1% ethanol in saline) confirming that the change in bladder capacity was mediated by PGE 2 PelN stimulation reversed the PGE 2 -induced change in bladder capacity and increased the external urethral sphincter electromyogram activity at a specific stimulation condition (amplitude of 1.0 times threshold at 10 Hz). These results confirm that the urodynamic changes reported in conscious rats are also observed under urethane anesthesia and that PelN stimulation is a novel and promising approach for the treatment of the symptoms of OAB. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Izalpinin from fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla with antagonistic activity against the rat bladder contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Tan, Yin-Feng; Xu, Peng; Li, Hailong; Li, Yong-Hui; Chen, Wen-Ya; Zhang, Jun-Qing; Chen, Feng; Huang, Guo-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Alpinia oxyphylla (Zingiberaceae), an herbaceous perennial plant, its capsular fruit is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of different urinary incontinence symptoms including frequency, urgency and nocturia. These symptoms are similar to the overactive bladder syndrome. In our lab, we found that the 95% ethanol extract of the capsular fruits exhibited significant anti-muscarinic activity. Some constituents in capsular fruits including flavonoids (e.g., izalpinin and tectochrysin), diarylheptanoids (e.g., yakuchinone A and yakuchinone B) and sesquiterpenes (e.g., nootkatone), are regarded as representative chemicals with putative pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antagonistic actions of izalpinin on carbachol-induced contraction of the rat detrusor muscle. In vitro inhibition of rat detrusor contractile response to carbachol was used to study the functional activity of izalpinin. The isolated detrusor strips of rats were mounted in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs' solution. The cumulative consecutive concentration-response curves to carbachol-evoked contractions in strips of rat bladder were obtained. Carbachol induced concentration-dependent contractions of isolated rat bladder detrusor strips. The vehicle DMSO had no impact on the contraction response. The contraction effects were concentration-dependently antagonized by izalpinin, with a mean EC50 value of 0.35 µM. The corresponding cumulative agonist concentration-response curves shifted right-ward. Izalpinin exhibits inhibitory role of muscarinic receptor-related detrusor contractile activity, and it may be a promising lead compound to treat overactive bladder.

  3. Perspectives on mirabegron in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome: A new beta-3 adrenoceptor agonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Kuei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mirabegron, the first β3-adrenoceptor agonist introduced for use in clinical practice, differs from antimuscarinic agents in terms of mechanism of action. This review discusses various perspectives on mirabegron in terms of efficacy, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability for overactive bladder syndrome in studies conducted thus far. Mirabegron administered at daily doses of 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg demonstrated significant improvements in micturition frequency, urgency incontinence, and mean volume voided/micturition as early as the first assessment, and these were maintained throughout the treatment course. Mirabegron seemed well tolerated. The most common adverse events observed with mirabegron in clinical trials were hypertension, nasopharyngitis, and urinary tract infection. The incidence of dry mouth was similar to that with placebo, between 3- and 5-fold lower than with 4 mg tolterodine extended release. Considering that dry mouth is the most bothersome adverse event associated with antimuscarinic drugs and often a reason for treatment discontinuation, mirabegron may be a valuable treatment option for these patients. The benefit of mirabegron (at doses of 50 mg and 100 mg was also evident in elderly patients and in both treatment-naive patients and those who previously discontinued antimuscarinic therapy. Mirabegron can also be used in combination with antimuscarinics or in addition to alpha blockers. Mirabegron may quickly become a standard treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.

  4. The effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on refractory overactive bladder syndrome and bladder circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Murat; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yalcin, Onay

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate if posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) exerts its effects on overactive bladder symptoms through changes in bladder circulation. Eighteen women who applied to Istanbul Medical Faculty with symptoms of urgency, frequency±urge incontinence and did not respond to anticholinergic treatment and behavioral modification were enrolled in the study. Weekly PTNS in 30-min sessions for 12 weeks was performed. Urogynecologic symptom assessment, 1-h pad test, bladder diary, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography were performed before and after treatment. Ten patients (55.5%) were cured, five (27.8%) improved, and no effect was observed in three (16.7%). No significant change was observed in systolic and diastolic flow rate, pulsatility index, resistive index, systolic/diastolic ratio and average flow rate. Significant decrease in frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, pad test results and increase in fluid intake was observed. There was a significant improvement in physical limitations and sleeping/energy domains of KHQ. No significant change was observed in urodynamics. PTNS does not have any effect on the bladder circulation despite positive effects on bladder diary, pad test, and quality of life in overactive bladder syndrome.

  5. [Botulinium toxin and idiopathic overactive bladder: Multicentric contempory management in Bourgogne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A; Tourlonias, B; Cormier, L; Mourey, E; Koutlidis, N; Delorme, E; Pasquale, J; Kermarec, I; Foahom-Kamwa, A-D; Bonniaud, V

    2018-01-09

    Since 2014, OnabotulinumtoxinA Botox ® (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, USA) represents a new therapeutic option for second-line treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate practices of surgeons using onabotulinium toxin (BoNTA) in this indication. All urogynecology centers of the country were asked in order to list all patients who were treated since marketing autorisation. Patient symptoms, previous treatments, paraclinic evaluations, data of surgery and the characteristics of the follow up were collected and analyzed. Six centers used BoNTA and five have accepted to participate. Ninety-seven patients have been identified. Sixty-eight first injections (70 %) were carried out with the strict frameworf of the marketing autorisation (urinary frequency, urinary urgency, urinary incontinence). All patients had at least two symptoms. In 69 %, Botulinum toxin was a second-line treatment after the failure of tibial neuromodulation or sacral neuromodulation. Urodynamic evaluation was carried out for 91 % of patients. The search for a post-void residual volume was observed for 59 % of patients during the follow up. In our country, BoNTA injections for idiopathic overactive bladder are mainly effected after tibial neuromodulation or sacral neuromodulation failure. Diagnostic, operating and outcome evaluation practices are still very heterogeneous pleading for a greater standardization of this new therapy in this indication. 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychometric validation of the overactive bladder satisfaction with treatment questionnaire (OAB-SAT-q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Mary Kay; Fox, Kathleen M; Cerulli, Annamaria; Ariely, Rinat; Kahler, Kristijan H; Coyne, Karin S

    2009-01-01

    Valid and reliable questionnaires must be used to accurately assess patients' satisfaction with overactive bladder (OAB) treatment. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the OAB Satisfaction with Treatment Questionnaire (OAB-SAT-q). This was a secondary analysis of clinical study data of patients randomized to darifenacin or darifenacin plus Behavioral Modification Program. Patients completed the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) and a 3-day bladder diary at Baseline and Week 12 and the OAB-SAT-q at Week 12. Internal consistency reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Concurrent validity was assessed through correlations with OAB-q change scores and adverse events (AEs). Discriminant validity was assessed among subgroups using general linear models. Analyses utilized a per-protocol population (completion of OAB-q at Baseline and OAB-q and OAB-SAT-q at Week 12) (n = 375). Exploratory factor analysis of the OAB-SAT-q revealed three 3-item subscales (Satisfaction, Side Effects, Endorsement) and two single items (Convenience, Preference). Cronbach's alphas = 0.84-0.95. Subscale-to-subscale correlations = 0.10-0.67 (all P 3 episodes (all P SAT-q does not appear to discriminate by incontinence episodes. The OAB-SAT-q demonstrated good psychometric properties in this initial evaluation-including internal consistency reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity-and appears to be a useful assessment of OAB treatment satisfaction. Neurourol. Urodynam. 28:416-422, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Effects of aniracetam on bladder overactivity in rats with cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Y; Yokoyama, O; Komatsu, K; Kodama, K; Yotsuyanagi, S; Niikura, S; Nagasaka, Y; Namiki, M

    2000-06-01

    Aniracetam has been used to improve the mental condition of patients with cerebrovascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that aniracetam activates the residual functions of cholinergic neurons in damaged brain areas. In this study, the effects of aniracetam on bladder overactivity after left middle cerebral artery occlusion were assessed through oral or i.c.v. administration in sham-operated and cerebral infarcted rats. Oral administration of aniracetam (100 and 300 mg/kg) resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in bladder capacity in cerebral infarcted rats but had no effect on bladder capacity in sham-operated rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of aniracetam (0.25 and 2.5 microg/rat) resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in bladder capacity in cerebral infarcted rats but not in sham-operated rats. Aniracetam had no significant effect on bladder contraction pressure or micturition threshold pressure in either sham-operated or cerebral infarcted rats. Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of atropine (1 microg/rat), a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, completely inhibited the enhancing effects of aniracetam on bladder capacity in cerebral infarcted rats. The effects of aniracetam on bladder overactivity are thought to be mediated in part by activation of cholinergic inhibitory mechanisms in the brain. These results indicate that aniracetam may improve the neurogenic voiding dysfunction observed in patients with cerebrovascular disease.

  8. Behavioral Intervention versus Pharmacotherapy or Their Combinations in the Management of Overactive Bladder Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Tran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB refers to individuals with the following symptoms: urinary urgency, increased urinary frequency, and urge incontinence. These symptoms are not life threatening but can cause embarrassment and significantly impact quality of life. There are numerous treatment options for OAB, including behavioral therapy, traditional pharmacological therapy or a combination of the two. These options are considered the mainstay of treatment for OAB. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review of the available literature on the effectiveness of behavioral intervention, anticholinergic drugs, and their combination in the management of adults with overactive bladder, with emphasis on results from clinical trials and primary literature. Each treatment intervention is efficacious, and the choice should be based on the patient's severity of symptoms, tolerability, compliance and satisfaction with the treatment. Based on available literature, management of OAB using a combination of behavioral therapy and drug intervention is the most efficacious in terms of patient satisfaction, perceived improvement, and reduction of bladder symptoms. It is also the most practical and cost effective for optimal management of patients with OAB. Pharmacological treatment, in addition to behavioral therapy, remains important in the management of adults with OAB syndrome.

  9. Validation of the urgency questionnaire in Portuguese: A new instrument to assess overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Rodolfo Pacheco de; Silva, Jonas Lopes da; Calado, Adriano Almeida; Cavalcanti, Geraldo de Aguiar

    2018-01-01

    Overactive Bladder (OAB) is a clinical condition characterized by symptoms reported by patients. Therefore, measurement instruments based on reported information are important for understanding its impact and treatment benefits. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Urgency Questionnaire (UQ) in Portuguese. Initially, the UQ was translated and culturally adapted to Portuguese. Sixty-three volunteers were enrolled in the study and were interviewed for responding the Portuguese version of the UQ and the validated Portuguese version of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire short-form (OABq-SF), used as the gold standard measurement for the validation process. Psychometric properties such as criterion validity, stability, and reliability were tested. Forty-six subjects were included in the symptomatic group (presence of "urgency"), and seventeen were included in the asymptomatic group (control group). There was difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects on all of the subscales (p≤0.001). The UQ subscales correlated with the OABq-SF subscales (p≤0.01), except the subscale "time to control urgency" and the item "impact" from the visual analog scales (VAS). However, these scales correlated with the OABq-SF - Symptom Bother Scale. The UQ subscales demonstrated stability over time (pPortuguese version of the UQ proved to be a valid tool for the evaluation of OAB in individuals whose native language is Portuguese. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  10. The multidimensional sensation of desire to void differs between people with and without overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rebekah; Buckley, Jonathan D; Williams, Marie T

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether the multidimensional sensation of desire to void can be reliability assessed and whether differences exist between people with and without overactive bladder (OAB). Assessing reliability and convergent validity of OAB screening tools comprised a secondary aim. This observational, repeated-measures study involved 64 volunteers (47 female), aged ≥50 years, with and without OAB symptoms. Six sensory dimensions (intensity, unpleasantness, suddenness, perceived difficulty "holding on," bladder fullness and location of sensation) were assessed by structured interview on two occasions. Overactive bladder status was determined using the OAB Symptom Score and OAB Awareness Tool. Reliability of sensory dimensions was assessed via random effects mixed modeling. The ability of each sensory dimension to predict OAB status was determined by partial least squares regression. With the exception of sensory intensity, perceived bladder fullness, and one location of sensation, sensory dimensions were reliably reported. Sensory intensity, unpleasantness, suddenness, and perceived difficulty "holding on" predicted OAB, whereas perceived bladder fullness and sensory location did not. The OAB screening questionnaires demonstrated comparable test-retest reliability and convergent validity. People with and without OAB can reliably describe the multidimensional sensation of desire to void. The sensation of desire to void is more intense, unpleasant, sudden, and perceived as more difficult to hold on in people with OAB. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Influence of Gluteus Maximus Inhibition on Upper Trapezius Overactivity in Chronic Mechanical Neck Pain with Radiculopathy

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    Ghada Mohamed Koura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical neck pain is the most common type of neck pain and commonly to accompany with radiculopathy. Patients of neck pain exhibit greater activation of accessory muscles, (sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and upper trapezius muscles and may also show changed patterns of motor control of other postural muscles as pelvic muscles for reducing activation of painful muscles of neck. Aim of the study: To determine if there is an association between gluteus maximus inhibition and overactivity of upper fibres of trapezius in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: Forty female patients participated in this study diagnosed as chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy. Amplitude and onset of muscle activation were assessed by using the surface electromyography (EMG during prone hip extension test. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there is no correlation between the amplitude of EMG activity of right and left gluteus maximus and the amplitude of EMG activity of right and left upper trapezius (P<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the overactivity of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy is not related to the inhibition of the gluteus maximus muscle during prone hip extension test.

  12. Lateral rectus recession with/without transposition in V-pattern exotropia without inferior oblique overaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadein, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    To compare bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) recession with BLR recession combined with half-tendon upward transposition in the management of patients with V-pattern exotropia (XT; 15-20 prism diopters [PD] greater XT in upgaze than downgaze) with no or minimal inferior oblique overaction. Retrospective, observational, cohort study. Twenty-nine patients had BLR recession (Group A). Twenty-one patients had BLR recession combined with half-tendon upward transposition (Group B). A retrospective study was performed on patients with V-pattern XT with no or minimal inferior oblique overaction. Ductions, versions, pattern strabismus, stereoacuity, and degree of fundus torsion were analyzed in all patients before and after surgery. Patients were included in the study only if they achieved a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Normalization of V pattern (extorsion occurred in 8 patients (44%) in Group B. Orthophoria within 8Δ in the primary position was achieved in 79% in Group A and 82% in Group B (p = 1.00). There was no statistically significant difference in the postoperative stereoacuity in both groups (p = 0.67). BLR with half-tendon upward transposition is much more effective than BLR recession alone in correcting V pattern. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiotherapy and behavior therapy for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz-Beck, Martina; Reisenauer, Christl; Kolenic, Giselle E; Hahn, Sabine; Brucker, Sara Y; Huebner, Markus

    2017-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of physiotherapy and behavior therapy and to find specific subgroups of women with overactive bladder syndrome that might gain increased benefit from this therapy. Women with ≥10 micturitions per 24-h period were included. Six to nine therapy sessions were held within a 14-day interval. Efficacy end point was a reduction in micturitions and in episodes of nocturia. Secondary outcomes included ICIQ-OAB, ICIQ-OABqol and visual analog scales. Follow-up was 6 months. Levene test, Student's t test, Pearson´s and Spearman's correlations were utilized as well as the Friedman test and a multivariable-multilevel model. 32 women were included. Mean age was 51 ± 15.9 (years ± standard deviation, sd). Mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.4 ± 4.8 (kg/m 2  ± sd). There was a 22.9% reduction in the number of micturitions per 24 h (11.7 ± 1.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.3 p physiotherapy and behavior therapy in women with overactive bladder syndrome with a post-therapy effect especially for women with no prior treatment.

  14. Is there a place for pudendal nerve maximal electrical stimulation for the treatment of detrusor hyperreflexia in spinal cord injury patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévinaire, J G; Soler, J M; Perrigot, M

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether pudendal nerve maximal electrical stimulation (MES) could represent an alternative treatment for detrusor hyperreflexia in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Six suprasacral SCI patients participated in the study. The treatment consisted of daily stimulation periods of 20 min, repeated five times a week, during 4 weeks, with continuous electrical stimulation of the penis or of the clitoris via bipolar surface electrodes (rectangular stimuli of 0.5 ms pulse duration, 5 Hz frequency), with the maximum tolerable stimulation strength (under the level of pain). In two patients, additional stimulation was administrated by means of an anal plug during the last 2 weeks. The stimulus strengths ranged from 35 to 99 mA (mean 54 mA). One patient stopped MES after 2 weeks. At the end of the treatment, neither the cystometric bladder capacities (153 ml vs 157 ml) nor the micturition charts had significantly improved for the five remaining patients. Only two patients experienced non lasting improvement of nocturia at some time of the treatment. In conclusion, we were not able to demonstrate the efficacy of MES in inhibiting detrusor hyperreflexia in SCI patients. To reach therapeutic effects, other parameters may be needed, such as higher stimulation strengths (currents above or equal to 99 mA) or other currents (such as interferential therapy). Chronic stimulation with external or implanted electrodes using lower currents may represent an alternative.

  15. Functional and molecular evidence for Kv7 channel subtypes in human detrusor from patients with and without bladder outflow obstruction.

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    Julie Svalø

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expression of KCNQ1, KCNQ3-KCNQ5 and KCNE1-5 in the human urinary bladder from patients with normal bladder function (n = 7 and in patients with bladder outflow obstruction (n = 3. Interestingly, a 3.4-fold up-regulation of KCNQ1 was observed in the latter. The Kv7 channel subtype selective modulators, ML277 (activator of Kv7.1 channels, 10 μM and ML213 (activator of Kv7.2, Kv7.4, Kv7.4/7.5 and Kv7.5 channels, 10 μM, reduced the tone of 1 μM carbachol pre-constricted bladder strips. XE991 (blocker of Kv7.1-7.5 channels, 10 μM had opposing effects as it increased contractions achieved with 20 mM KPSS. Furthermore, we investigated if there is interplay between Kv7 channels and β-adrenoceptors. Using cumulative additions of isoprenaline (β-adrenoceptor agonist and forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator in combination with the Kv7 channel activator and blocker, retigabine and XE991, we did not find interplay between Kv7 channels and β-adrenoceptors in the human urinary bladder. The performed gene expression analysis combined with the organ bath studies imply that compounds that activate Kv7 channels could be useful for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.

  16. Pharmacological profile of β3-adrenoceptor agonists in clinical development for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igawa, Yasuhiko; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    β(3)-Adrenoceptor agonists are an emerging drug class for the treatment of the overactive bladder syndrome, and clinical proof-of-concept data have been obtained for three representatives of this class, mirabegron, ritobegron, and solabegron. We review here the pharmacological profile of these three

  17. Fusion can mask the relationships between fundus torsion, oblique muscle overaction/underaction, and A- and V-pattern strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongwei; Irsch, Kristina; Gutmark, Ron; Phamonvaechavan, Pittaya; Foo, Fong-Yee; Anwar, Didar S; Guyton, David L

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate relationships between fundus torsion, A- or V-pattern strabismus, and oblique muscle over- or underaction, and to explore the influence of stereopsis on these relationships. The medical records of patients with A or V patterns and/or abnormal ocular torsion seen at a single institution over nearly 30 years were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected were age, objective fundus torsion (estimated by indirect ophthalmoscopy), horizontal deviations in up- and downgaze, oblique muscle over- or underaction, and stereopsis. A total of 396 patients were included. A patterns were observed in 121 patients (30.6%); V patterns in 90 (22.7%). Of the A-pattern patients, 73.6% had superior oblique muscle overaction, whereas 71.1% of the V-pattern patients had inferior oblique muscle overaction (P extorsion had inferior oblique muscle overaction (P extorsion occurred in 71.1% of the V-pattern patients (P extorsion, inferior oblique muscle overaction, and V patterns. These correlations increased in patients without stereopsis, suggesting that the presence of binocular fusion can partially interfere with the close correlation of these parameters. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of elective sham dose escalation on the placebo response during an antimuscarinic trial for overactive bladder symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staskin, David R.; Michel, Martin C.; Sun, Franklin; Guan, Zhonghong; Morrow, Jon D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of baseline symptom severity and placebo response magnitude on the decision to dose escalate in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, flexible dose antimuscarinic trial of subjects with overactive bladder symptoms. Data from the placebo arm of the trial were used for this post

  19. YKL-40 and mast cells are associated with detrusor fibrosis in patients diagnosed with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis according to the 2008 criteria of the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Benedikte; Roslind, A.; Hesse, U.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), diagnosed according to the new 2008 criteria of the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC), may lead to detrusor fibrosis. In some inflammatory diseases, fibrosis is related to YKL-40. The aims were to examine YKL...

  20. Correlation between psychological stress levels and the severity of overactive bladder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Henry; Gardner, Vivien; Vetter, Joel; Andriole, Gerald L

    2015-03-08

    The relationship between psychological stress and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has been well described. Even though there is some overlapping of symptoms between overactive bladder (OAB) and IC/BPS, there have been very few studies that specifically investigated the relationship between psychological stress and urinary symptoms in OAB patients who do not have pelvic pain. Here we examined the relationship between psychological stress levels and the severity of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Patients diagnosed with OAB (n=51), IC/BPS (n=27), and age-matched healthy controls (n=30) participated in a case control study that inquired about their psychological stress levels using the perceived stress scale (PSS). PSS reported by the three patient groups were compared. Among OAB patients, their responses on the PSS was correlated to OAB symptoms using the following questionnaires: 1) international consultation on incontinence - urinary incontinence (ICIQ-UI), 2) international consultation on incontinence - overactive bladder (ICIQ-OAB), 3) OAB-q short form, 4) urogenital distress inventory (UDI-6), 5) incontinence impact questionnaire (IIQ-7), 6) urgency severity scale (USS), 7) numeric rating scales of urgency symptom, and 8) frequency symptom. Spearman's correlation tests were performed to examine the relationship between psychological stress levels and the severity of OAB symptoms. OAB patients reported psychological stress levels that were as high as IC/BPS patients (median 17.0 versus 18.0, p=0.818, Wilcoxon sum rank test), and significantly higher than healthy controls (17.0, versus 7.5, p=0.001). Among OAB patients, there was a positive correlation between perceived stress levels and urinary incontinence symptoms (ICIQ-UI, Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.39, p=0.007), and impacts on quality of life (UDI-6, IIQ-7, OAB-q quality of life subscale; Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.32, 0.31, 0.39, and p=0.028, 0.005, 0

  1. Does the Severity of Overactive Bladder Symptoms Correlate With Risk for Female Sexual Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliato, Cássia Raquel Teatin; Melotti, Iane Glauce Ribeiro; Junior, Luiz Carlos Santos; Britto, Luiz Gustavo Oliveira; Riccetto, Cássio Luiz Zanettini

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have associated overactive bladder (OAB) with female sexual dysfunction (FSD); however, there are no reports using a quantitative approach to measure OAB severity and to relate OAB to the risk of FSD. To evaluate women with OAB and to correlate the severity of their urinary symptoms with their sexual function. This cross-sectional study included 267 women older than 18 years with untreated OAB. All subjects completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Linear regression was used to analyze the association between variables and the numeric FSFI score, and categorical FSFI scores were analyzed using logistic regression. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between ICIQ-OAB results and the different FSFI domains. The significance level was 5%. Subjects' mean age was 50.2 ± 11.9 years. Most women were married, had at least three children, and were postmenopausal (54.3%). Mean FSFI total score was 19.2 ± 9.8. For menopausal status, 65.6% of premenopausal women had a risk for FSD vs 86.2% of postmenopausal women. Mean ICIQ-OAB score was 10 ± 3.17. Postmenopausal women had the following risk factors statistically associated with sexual dysfunction: age, ICIQ score, and marital status. For these women, greater OAB severity, especially those with urgency and/or urge incontinence, was associated with worse scores in the arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual pain domains. However, there was no statistically significant association for premenopausal women. Health professionals have to pay attention to OAB in women because of the greater risk for FSD in these patients. The strength was using a quantitative approach to measure OAB severity in a larger population. Limitations include a convenience sample with no power calculation; exclusion of women who did not have sexual intercourse in the past month; unmeasured distress

  2. Sleep Disturbance and Fatigue Are Associated With More Severe Urinary Incontinence and Overactive Bladder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, T Jessie; Vetter, Joel; Lai, H Henry

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between sleep disturbance, fatigue, and urinary incontinence (UI) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms among patients with OAB. Patients who were diagnosed with OAB and age-matched control subjects without OAB were enrolled. Sleep disturbance and fatigue symptoms were assessed using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) short forms. UI and OAB symptoms were assessed using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence (ICIQ-UI), the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB), the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), the Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (UDI-6), and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form (IIQ-7). Psychosocial health (depression, anxiety, and perceived stress level) was also assessed. Patients with OAB reported a significantly greater sleep disturbance compared with controls (PROMIS 8b T-scores: 54.3 ± 10.3 vs 43.8 ± 9.2). Patients with OAB also reported a significantly greater fatigue compared with controls (PROMIS 7a T-scores: 54.7 ± 9.6 vs 46.0 ± 6.4). After adjusting for nocturia, the differences in sleep disturbance between OAB and controls became insignificant (P = .21), whereas the differences in fatigue between OAB and controls remained significant (P = .014). Among patients with OAB, there were positive correlations between sleep disturbance and the severity of OAB symptoms (ICIQ-OAB), poorer health-related quality of life (OAB-q QOL), the severity of UI symptoms (ICIQ-UI), greater incontinence impact (IIQ-7), and urinary bother (UDI-6). Positive correlations were also observed between fatigue and worse UI and OAB symptoms and quality of life. Both sleep disturbance and fatigue were associated with poor psychosocial health (depression, anxiety, and higher stress level) among patients with OAB. Sleep disturbance and fatigue are present in substantial

  3. Relationship between neck circumference and overactive bladder in women with metabolic syndrome: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yigit; Gulmez, Hakan; Savas, Murat; Aykan, Serdar; Onder, Ozde; Yucel, Selcuk

    2016-12-01

    To investigate relationship between overactive bladder (OAB) and metabolic syndrome (MtS) by using neck circumference (NC). In retrospective view of prospective collected data, 204 women with or without OAB were enrolled into study, between August 2012 and December 2013. All patients were administered OAB validated questionnaires (OAB-V8) and whose score was > 8 were accepted as OAB. Patients were divided into two groups and group 1 consisted of patients with OAB, group 2 consisted of patients without OAB. Demographic data with anthropometric measurements and blood analyses were recorded. Statistical analyses including receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed; statistically significant p was syndrome seems like more common in women than in those without. NC may be a novel indicator for OAB in selected female patients with MtS.

  4. Daily Enema Regimen Is Superior to Traditional Therapies for Nonneurogenic Pediatric Overactive Bladder

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    Steve J. Hodges MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of daily enemas for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB in children. This study was a prospective, controlled trial of 60 children with nonneurogenic OAB. The control patients (40 were treated with standard therapies, including timed voiding, constipation treatment with osmotic laxatives, anticholinergics, and biofeedback physical therapy, whereas the treatment patients (20 received only daily enemas and osmotic laxatives. On assessment of improvement of OAB symptoms, only 30% of the traditionally treated patients’ parents reported resolution of symptoms at 3 months, whereas 85% of enema patients did. At the onset of the study, the average pediatric voiding dysfunction score of all patients was 14, whereas on follow-up, the average scores for traditionally treated patients and enema-treated patients were 12 and 4, respectively. This study demonstrated that daily enema therapy is superior to traditional methods for the treatment of OAB.

  5. Daily Enema Regimen Is Superior to Traditional Therapies for Nonneurogenic Pediatric Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Steve J; Colaco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of daily enemas for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in children. This study was a prospective, controlled trial of 60 children with nonneurogenic OAB. The control patients (40) were treated with standard therapies, including timed voiding, constipation treatment with osmotic laxatives, anticholinergics, and biofeedback physical therapy, whereas the treatment patients (20) received only daily enemas and osmotic laxatives. On assessment of improvement of OAB symptoms, only 30% of the traditionally treated patients' parents reported resolution of symptoms at 3 months, whereas 85% of enema patients did. At the onset of the study, the average pediatric voiding dysfunction score of all patients was 14, whereas on follow-up, the average scores for traditionally treated patients and enema-treated patients were 12 and 4, respectively. This study demonstrated that daily enema therapy is superior to traditional methods for the treatment of OAB.

  6. Management of overactive bladder review: the role of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Wibisono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB is a common condition that is experienced by around 455 million people (11% of the world population and associated with significant impact in patients’ quality of life. The first line treatments of OAB are conservative treatment and anti-muscarinic medication. For the refractory OAB patients, the treatment options available are surgical therapy, electrical stimulation, and botulinum toxin injection. Among them, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS is a minimally invasive option that aims to stimulate sacral nerve plexus, a group of nerve that is responsible for regulation of bladder function. After its approval by food and drug administration (FDA in 2007, PTNS revealed considerable promise in OAB management. In this review, several non-comparative and comparative studies comparing PTNS with sham procedure, anti-muscarinic therapy, and multimodal therapy combining PTNS and anti-muscarinic had supportive data to this consideration.

  7. Clinical guidelines for male lower urinary tract symptoms associated with non-neurogenic overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this guideline is to direct urologists and patients regarding how to identify overactive bladder (OAB in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and to make an accurate diagnosis and establish treatment goals to improve the patients' quality of life (QoL. LUTS are commonly divided into storage, voiding, and postmicturition symptoms, and are highly prevalent in elderly men. LUTS can result from a complex interplay of pathophysiologic features that can include bladder dysfunction and bladder outlet dysfunction such as benign prostatic obstruction (BPO or poor relaxation of the urethral sphincter. Diagnosis of OAB in male LUTS leads to accurate diagnosis of pure OAB and bladder outlet-related OAB, and appropriate treatment in men with residual storage symptoms after treatment for LUTS.

  8. Influence of the duration of treatment on the effectiveness of anal maximal electrical stimulation in children with nonneurogenic overactive bladder and micturition problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Tršinar

    2012-01-01

    The two-month MES used in treating children with non-neurogenic overactive bladder and micturition problems had somewhat better but statistically insignificant clinical and cystometric results compared to the one-month MES.

  9. Effects of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation on adult patients with overactive bladder syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossdorff-Steinhauser, Heidi F A; Berghmans, Bary

    2013-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) on adult patients with overactive bladder syndrome, using a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), clinical controlled trials (CCTs), and prospective observational cohort studies. A computer-aided literature search was performed in: PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL (2000 to November 15, 2011) to identify RCTs, CCTs, and prospective observational cohort studies. The study had to investigate the effect of PTNS on overactive bladder syndrome. The methodological quality of each study was assessed and a qualitative analysis was performed to establish the levels of evidence. Four RCTs and six prospective observational cohort studies were identified. There is strong evidence for the efficacy of PTNS versus a sham treatment. There is limited evidence that the use of PTNS and tolterodine ER is equally effective. No additional effect of a combination of Stoller afferent nerve stimulation (SANS) and anticholinergic medication compared to SANS alone. Most cohort studies suggested decreased frequency and improvement of incontinence and nocturia. However, the level of evidence was insufficient to make any firm conclusions. Because the total duration of all included trials varied between 6 and 12 weeks, so far there is little information on treatment periods. PTNS is efficacious for frequency and urgency urinary incontinence. More high quality studies are needed to improve the level of evidence concerning the efficacy of PTNS with regard to urgency and nocturia, to specify patient selection criteria, optimal treatment modalities and long-term effects as well as the effectiveness in more pragmatic trials. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Overactive bladder syndrome and bladder wall thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zahide; Voyvoda, Bekir; Şirinocak, Pinar Bekdik

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome, nocturia, urgency, and urge incontinence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and measure bladder wall thickness (BWT) in these patients. The patient group was composed of 38 patients with OSAS. The control group was composed of 15 healthy individuals. All patients were evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). The bladder wall thickness was measured by transabdominal ultrasound (US). The presence of nocturia, urinary urgency, and urge incontinence were also evaluated. The mean OABSS was significantly higher in the patient group compared with the control group (p=0.048). The minimum oxygen saturation (Min.SO2) of patients with urgency was found to be significantly lower (p=0.014). The time spent below 90% of oxygen saturation (SO2) was significantly longer in patients with urinary urgency (p=0.009). There was no difference in BWT measurements between the patient group and the control group. There was a significant relationship between BWT values and OABSS in patients with OSAS (p=0.002). The results of the present study suggest that OSAS is associated with OAB syndrome. As a key symptom of OAB, urgency correlates with hypoxia in cases with OSAS. Although the present study did not observe any difference in BWT measurements between the patients and the control group, there was a correlation between BWT measurements and OABSS in patients with OSAS. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  11. Clinical utility of neurostimulation devices in the treatment of overactive bladder: current perspectives

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    Janssen DAW

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dick AW Janssen,1 Frank MJ Martens,1 Liesbeth L de Wall,1 Hendrikje MK van Breda,2 John PFA Heesakkers1 1Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, 2Department of Urology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands Objectives: This review describes the evidence from established and experimental therapies that use electrical nerve stimulation to treat lower urinary tract dysfunction.Methods: Clinical studies on established treatments such as percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (P-PTNS, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, sacral nerve stimulation (SNS and sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS are evaluated. In addition, clinical evidence from experimental therapies such as dorsal genital nerve (DGN stimulation, pudendal nerve stimulation, magnetic nerve stimulation and ankle implants for tibial nerve stimulation are evaluated.Results: SNS and P-PTNS have been investigated with high-quality studies that have shown proven efficacy for the treatment for overactive bladder (OAB. SARS has proven evidence-based efficacy in spinal cord patients and increases the quality of life. TENS seems inferior to other OAB treatments such as SNS and P-PTNS but is noninvasive and applicable for ambulant therapy. Results from studies on experimental therapies such as pudendal nerve stimulation seem promising but need larger study cohorts to prove efficacy.Conclusion: Neurostimulation therapies have proven efficacy for bladder dysfunction in patients who are refractory to other therapies.Significance: Refinement of neurostimulation therapies is possible. The aim should be to make the treatments less invasive, more durable and more effective for the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction. Keywords: neuromodulation, overactive bladder syndrome, sacral nerve stimulation, sacral anterior root stimulation, PTNS, implant

  12. A survey on the management of overactive bladder by Indonesian urologists

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    Pande M.W. Tirtayasa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overactive bladder (OAB is a clinical syndrome consisting of symptom complex of urgency, with or without incontinence which has significant effects on quality of life and has to be managed properly. The aim of this study was to review the management of OAB by Indonesian urologists.Methods: A self-constructed questionnaires containing diagnostic and treatment options of OAB patients were distributed to Indonesian urologists. This was a cross-sectional study and descriptive analysis method was used to analyze the data.Results: 129 Indonesian urologists participated in this study. Most of them faced more than 20 OAB cases per year with the most common type was OAB without incontinence or dry OAB (57.4%. Most urologists (34.1% ordered at least three diagnostic tools to determine OAB. They were bladder diary, urinalysis and scoring system. The most used scoring system (48.9% was the overactive bladder symptoms score (OABSS. Thirty-five point seven percents (35.7% of urologists used antimuscarinic and behavioral therapy as initial therapy. Solifenacin 5 mg/day was the most common antimuscarinic prescribed as the first line therapy (48%. Most common items commonly evaluated for follow-up: symptoms (96.9%, bladder diary (72.9%; and drug’s side effect (58.1%. When initial therapy had failed, most of the urologists (54.3% chose to increase the dose of antimuscarinic. None of them chose bladder botulinum toxin injection as their additional therapy.Conclusion: OAB is a frequent disorder which remains a challenge for urologists. The management of patients with OAB by Indonesian urologists has been suitable with the previous studies and guidelines.

  13. Do we need a new definition of the overactive bladder syndrome? ICI-RS 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Marcus J

    2014-06-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) has a symptom-based definition. Following a presentation of issues, the definition was subjected to expert discussion at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society to identify key issues. OAB is a widely used term; it is a pragmatic approach to categorizing a recognized group of patients, and is understood by the patients, however, expert opinion suggested several issues for which additional evidence should be sought. Naming an organ (bladder) in the condition may suggest underlying mechanism, when contributory aspects may lie outside the bladder. No severity thresholds are set, which can cause uncertainty. Urgency is prominent in the definition, but may not be prominent in patients whose adaptive behavior reduces their propensity to urgency. OAB can co-exist with other common conditions, such as benign prostate enlargement (BPE), stress incontinence or nocturnal polyuria. Consensus led by the International Continence Society can be attempted for aspects such as "fear of leakage." To develop a new definition, more substantive evidence is needed for key elements, and until such evidence is available, full redefinition is not appropriate. Thus, the medical profession should accept constructive compromise and work supportively. The ICI-RS proposes that the terminology is slightly rephrased as: "overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is characterized by urinary urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia, if there is no proven infection or other obvious pathology." More substantive changes would require additional scientific evidence. Strengths, limitations, and practicalities of the definition of OAB were discussed at the ICIRS meeting 2013. Following a presentation of issues, the definition was subjected to expert discussion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Social, economic, and health utility considerations in the treatment of overactive bladder

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    Emilio Sacco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Emilio Sacco, Daniele Tienforti, Alessandro D’Addessi, Francesco Pinto, Marco Racioppi, Angelo Totaro, Daniele D’Agostino, Francesco Marangi, Pierfrancesco Bassi Urologic Clinic, Department of Surgery, “Agostino Gemelli”, Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a highly prevalent urinary syndrome with a profound impact on quality of life (QoL of affected patients and their family because of its adverse effects on social, sexual, interpersonal, and professional function. Cost-of-illness analyses showed the huge economic burden related to OAB for patients, public healthcare systems, and society, secondary to both direct and indirect costs; however, intangible costs related to QoL impact are usually omitted from these analyses. Recently many novel treatment modalities have been introduced and the need to apply the modern methodology of health technology assessment to these treatment strategies was immediately clear in order to evaluate objectively their value in terms of both improvement in length/quality of life and costs. Health utilities are instruments that allow a measurement of QoL and its integration in the economic evaluation using the quality-adjusted life-years model and cost-utility analysis. The development of suitable instruments for quantifying utility in the specific group of OAB patients is vitally important to extend the application of cost-utility analysis in OAB and to guide healthcare resources allocation for this disorder. Studies are required to define the cost-effectiveness of available pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy options for this disorder.Keywords: overactive bladder, burden, health utility, cost-utility

  15. Modeling dose-response relationships of the effects of fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder

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    Cardozo Linda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic for the treatment of overactive bladder, a syndrome of urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI, usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Our objective was to develop predictive models to describe the dose response of fesoterodine. Methods Data from subjects enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II and III trials were used for developing longitudinal dose-response models. Results The models predicted that clinically significant and near-maximum treatment effects would be seen within 3 to 4 weeks after treatment initiation. For a typical patient with 11 micturitions per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.2, -1.7, and -2.2 micturitions for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. For a typical patient with 2 UUI episodes per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.05, -1.26, and -1.43 UUI episodes for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. Increase in mean voided volume was estimated at 9.7 mL for placebo, with an additional 14.2 mL and 28.4 mL for fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. Conclusions A consistent dose response for fesoterodine was demonstrated for bladder diary endpoints in subjects with overactive bladder, a result that supports the greater efficacy seen with fesoterodine 8 mg in post hoc analyses of clinical trial data. The dose-response models can be used to predict outcomes for doses not studied or for patient subgroups underrepresented in clinical trials. Trial Registration The phase III trials used in this analysis have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723.

  16. Analysis of the prevalence and associated factors of overactive bladder in adult Korean men.

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    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB is a prevalent condition characterized by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Age, education, income, marital status, sleep, and emotional problems have been associated with OAB; however, conflicting results exist. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of OAB and comprehensively analyze its associated factors in a large cross-sectional, population-based study. The data of 94,554 participants aged 19-107 were analyzed from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS of 2012. Data on marital status, physical activity, education level, occupation, body mass index (BMI, income level, sleep time, and stress level were retrieved for all enrolled participants. The overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS was used to evaluate the presence and degree of OAB. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling were used for the associations between various factors and the presence of OAB. Overall, OAB was present in approximately 2.9% of the participants. The prevalence of OAB increased with age and steeply increased after 60 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for each 10 years = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61-1.80, P 2.16 (1.88-2.48 > 1.39 (1.23-1.57 for severe stress > moderate stress > some stress, respectively, P<0.001]. A medical history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and/or cerebral stroke was significantly related to OAB. Approximately 2.9% of adult Korean men experienced OAB based on the OABSS. Unmarried status; occupation; being underweight; inadequate sleep; stress; and medical history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or cerebral stroke were significantly correlated with OAB.

  17. Adherence to fesoterodine in women with overactive bladder in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, M; Porta, O; Pubill, J; Castillo, M T; Mora, I; Huguet, E; Ortega, J A; Martínez, E

    2015-05-01

    To assess the short-term compliance with fesoterodine treatment and to identify the reasons for lack of adherence and discontinuation in routine clinical practice. The secondary aim was to estimate the patient-reported outcomes. This was an observational retrospective, multicenter study conducted in a sample of women with overactive bladder on fesoterodine treatment for at least three months. Adherence to medication was assessed using the Morisky-Green test. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF), Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form (OAB-qSF), and Treatment Benefit Scale (TBS). One hundred and twenty women with a mean age [standard deviation (SD)] of 62.2 (12.0) years with severe OAB [mean (SD) ICIQ-SF score 13.2 (4.0)] were included. 42.1% of the patients were considered compliant with fesoterodine treatment. The main causes for non-compliance/discontinuation stated by the remaining 57.9% of the patients were adverse events (62.2%) and lack of clinical benefits (20.0%). The illness status as well as the patient-perceived bother occasioned by the OAB symptoms and their impact on the quality of life improved significantly after three months on fesoterodine treatment (p<0.0001). Most of the patients stated that the current state of their urinary problems had greatly improved/ improved. In routine clinical practice, a high percentage of patients were adherent to fesoterodine and perceived the benefit that the treatment provided them three months after starting treatment. However, more than half of the study population failed to comply or discontinued the treatment mainly due to intolerance or lack of efficacy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. How should we address the diagnosis of overactive bladder in women?

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    Jiménez Cidre, M A; López-Fando, L; Esteban, M; Franco, A; Arlandis, S; Castro, D; Prieto, L; Salinas, J; Gutiérrez, C; Gutiérrez Baños, J L; Cambronero, J

    2016-01-01

    Determine the degree of completion, agreement and diagnostic performance of various instruments for assessing the presence and intensity of urgency and other symptoms of idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) and determine which is the best diagnostic combination. Observational, noninterventional, cross-sectional multicentre study on 247 women aged 18 years or older, with a clinical diagnosis of OAB, evaluated in 55 functional urology and urodynamic units. The women completed the Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale questionnaire, an independent bladder control self-assessment questionnaire (B-SAQ), the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short-Form and a 3-day voiding diary (VD3d), and they underwent a urodynamic study (UDS). The degree of completion and agreement among the instruments was assessed using the Kappa index (95% CI) and Cramér's V. The diagnostic performance of each tool and their combination was studied using absolute frequencies of positive cases for each OAB symptom. The patients mean age was 57.66 years (SD, 13.43). There was a high degree of completion (>85%). The agreement among the instruments was poor or moderate, and there was no agreement with the UDS. The best combination of tools for the diagnosis of OAB in women was the B-SAQ and VD3d. The degree of completion of all instruments was high, the agreement between them was poor-moderate and not significant for the UDS. The instruments that had the best diagnostic performance for assessing urgency and other OAB symptoms, providing data on their severity and discomfort, were the B-SAQ and the VD3d. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The overlap and distinction of self-reported symptoms between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and overactive bladder: a questionnaire based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H Henry; Vetter, Joel; Jain, Sanjay; Gereau, Robert W; Andriole, Gerald L

    2014-12-01

    We compared symptoms between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and overactive bladder based on patient self-reported symptoms on validated questionnaires. We prospectively recruited 26 patients diagnosed with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, 53 diagnosed with overactive bladder and 30 healthy controls to participate in a questionnaire based study that inquired about lower urinary tract symptoms. The questionnaires used were GUPI, ICSI, ICPI, ICIQ-OAB, ICIQ-UI, IUSS, numerical rating scales of the severity of bladder pain, pressure or discomfort, and numerical rating scale of the severity of urgency and frequency symptoms. On univariate analysis patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome reported significantly more severe pain symptoms than those with overactive bladder. Patients with overactive bladder reported significantly more severe urinary incontinence symptoms than those with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. There was no difference in frequency and urgency severity between the groups. Surprisingly, 33% of patients with overactive bladder reported pain or discomfort when the bladder filled and 46% with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome reported urgency incontinence. On multivariate analysis ICIQ-UI total scores (p = 0.01) and bladder pain severity on the numerical rating scale (p interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and overactive bladder. This overlap raises the possibility that the 2 conditions represent a continuum of a bladder hypersensitivity syndrome. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Urethral Pressure Variation: A neglected contributing factor in patients with overactive bladder syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Kirschner-Hermanns; Ralf, Anding; Nariman, Gadzhiev; Ing, Goping; Adele, Campbell; Nadine, Huppertz

    2017-01-01

    To study urethral pressure variations during the whole filling phase among different groups of patients. We investigated 79 consecutive patients from January 2011 to June 2012. All patients were recruited within our routine practice in our continence clinic and were evaluated with urodynamic exam according to the standards of the International Continence Society (ICS) with an additional continuous measurement of the urethral pressure profile (cUPP) that was done in a supine position. Patients with genital prolapse >grade I, as well as patients with impaired cognitive function or neurogenic disorders were excluded. Bacteriuria at the time of investigation was excluded by urine analysis. Urethral pressure changes higher than 15cmH2O were considered as 'urethral instability'. From 79 investigated patients, 29 were clinically diagnosed with OAB syndrome, 19 with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and 31 with mixed (OAB and SUI) incontinence. The prevalence of 'urethral instability' as defined in this study was 54.4% (43/79). The mean Δp in patients with OAB (36.5cmH2O) was significantly higher (poveractive bladder syndrome, especially concomitant with detrusor activity can raise a fair question and direct further diagnostic as well as treatment efforts. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  1. An Implantable Neuroprosthetic Device to Normalize Bladder Function after SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    long term. Frequent urethral catheterization can cause low urinary tract infection (2). In addition, detrusor overactivity (DO) induces poor bladder ...management of neurogenic bladder and sexual dysfunction after spinal cord injury. Spine 2001;26:S129–S136. 3. van Kerrebroeck PEV, Koldewijn EL, Rosier PFWM...Wijkstra H, Debruyne FMJ. Results of the treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in spinal cord injury by sacral posterior root rhizotomy and

  2. The association of pelvic organ prolapse severity and improvement in overactive bladder symptoms after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Gee Hoon; Na, Eun Duc; Jang, Ji Hyon; Kim, Hyeon Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair on overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in women with POP and the effect of baseline POP severity on improvement in OAB after surgical repair of POP. And we also tried to identify any preoperative factors for persistent postoperative OAB symptoms. Methods A total of 87 patients with coexisting POP and OAB who underwent surgical correction of POP were included and retrospectively analyzed and post...

  3. Comparison of 3 Different Teaching Methods for a Behavioral Therapy Program for Female Overactive Bladder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezginci, Elif; Iyigun, Emine; Yilmaz, Sercan

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 3 instructional methods for behavioral therapy on lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with overactive bladder. Single-center, parallel-group, randomized, clinical trial. The sample comprised 60 women diagnosed with overactive bladder. The study setting was a university-based female urology clinic in Ankara, Turkey; data were collected from November 2012 to May 2013. Eligible participants were ambulatory women 18 years or older with predominant overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence (UI) symptoms, with or without stress UI symptoms. Subjects were randomized into 4 groups based on educational intervention; group 1 received structured verbal instruction plus a leaflet, group 2 received structured verbal instruction, group 3 received a leaflet alone, and group 4 received usual care that included unstructured verbal counseling about continence care. The primary outcome measures were Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7) and Urinary Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6) scores. We also measured changes in UI-specific HRQOL scores via the Urinary Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QOL). All outcomes were measured before and 6 to 8 weeks after the interventions. The Wilcoxon test was used to identify differences in LUTS severity and HRQOL before and after the educational intervention. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to compare differences among the groups. The severity of LUTS and UI-specific quality of life assessed by the IIQ-7, UDI-6, and I-QOL scores significantly improved after training in all 4 groups (P < .05). The group that received structured verbal instruction plus an educational leaflet achieved significantly lower LUTS scores and significantly higher UI-specific HRQOL when compared to the other groups (P < .05). Findings suggest that structured verbal instruction plus educational leaflet is the most effective method of bladder

  4. Fesoterodine for the Treatment of Nocturnal Urgency in Patients with Overactive Bladder Syndrome: An Analysis of Responders and Nonresponders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, Johnathan A; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Carlsson, Martin O; Mangan, Erin K

    2017-11-01

    A recent study demonstrated improvement in nocturnal urgency in patients with overactive bladder when treated with fesoterodine. In the current study we aimed to determine which bladder diary parameters predict the response to fesoterodine in these patients. Patients with nocturnal urgency completed a 2-week, single-blind placebo run-in followed by 1:1 double-blind randomization to 12 weeks of fesoterodine or placebo. We analyzed bladder diary parameter changes from baseline to week 12, including the actual number of night voids (total number of nocturia episodes), maximum voided volume, nocturnal bladder capacity, Nocturnal Bladder Capacity Index (NBCi) (actual number of night voids - nocturnal urine volume/maximum voided volume - 1), nocturnal urine volume, the nocturia index (nocturnal urine volume/maximum voided volume) and the nocturnal polyuria index (nocturnal urine volume/24-hour volume). Additionally, we analyzed OAB-q (Overactive Bladder Questionnaire) changes. There was a linear relationship between the likelihood of being a responder for NBCi and the nocturia index. Responders had a significant decrease in nocturnal urine volume relative to baseline (-181.7 ml, p overactive bladder syndrome and low nocturnal bladder capacity with a mismatch between nocturnal urine production and bladder capacity may benefit from fesoterodine. Symptom improvement appears to be mediated by increases in typical rather than maximum nocturnal voided volumes. Symptom improvement was associated with improved quality of life. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Postulating a role for connective tissue elements in inferior oblique muscle overaction (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, David; McLoon, Linda K; Felius, Joost

    2013-09-01

    To compare the localization and density of collagens I, IV, VI, and elastin, the major protein components of connective tissue, in the inferior oblique muscle of patients with overelevation in adduction and in controls and to characterize changes that develop following surgery. Biomechanical studies suggest that the connective tissue matrix plays a critical role in extraocular muscle function, determining tensile strength and force transmission during contraction. Prospective laboratory-based case-control study of inferior oblique muscle specimens from 31 subjects: 16 with primary inferior oblique overaction, 6 with craniofacial dysostosis, and 9 normal controls. Collagen I, IV, VI, and elastin were localized and quantified using immunohistochemical staining. Densities were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc comparisons. In primary inferior oblique overaction, all connective tissue components in unoperated specimens were elevated compared to controls (P.27) but increased collagen I. In unoperated craniofacial dysostosis specimens, only elastin was elevated (P=.03), whereas density of collagens IV and VI was lower in previously operated vs unoperated specimens (P=.015). Elevated collagen and elastin levels in the cohort with primary inferior oblique overaction are consistent with the clinical finding of muscle stiffness. Contrarily, normal connective tissue densities in craniofacial dysostosis support the hypothesis that overelevation in this group reflects anomalous muscle vectors rather than tissue changes. Surgical intervention was associated with changes in the connective tissue matrix in both cohorts. These results have ramifications for treating patients with overelevation in adduction.

  6. Ambulatory urodynamic monitoring of women with overactive bladder syndrome during single voiding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokmeci, Fulya; Cetinkaya, S Esra; Seval, M Murat; Dai, Omer

    2017-05-01

    To present data of standardized ambulatory urodynamic monitoring (AUM) performed in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and to evaluate the relevance of AUM data with clinical findings of the patients. Records of women with symptoms of OAB were retrospectively reviewed (n=249). Of women fulfilling the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool (OAB-V8) with a score ≥8 and the 3-day voiding diary (VD) with a frequency >7/day (n=167), those who underwent urodynamic investigation were selected (n=76). The data of this study were retrieved from the records of Ankara University Cebeci Hospital and based on the AUM findings of single voiding cycle of women with OAB. AUM, which is among the institutionally approved primary urodynamic investigation methods, is performed with LUNA ambulatory monitoring recorder (MMS™) in the clinical setting with a standardized technique, in reproducing lower urinary tract symptoms of women since 2011. The relationship of the urodynamic data with the clinical findings were evaluated. AUM traces of women (n=76) with OAB revealed 63.1% DO, 64.4% urgency and 77.7% urinary incontinence of which were 14.4% urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), 25% stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and 38.1% mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). OAB patients with DO reported more urinary incontinence episodes/day, nocturia and mixed urinary incontinence in the voiding diary (p<0.04) and had significantly higher irritative symptom bother reflected by the questionnaires (p<0.04). Women with DO were more likely to be postmenopausal (p=0.02) and were found to have more urgency (p<0.001), urgency episodes (p=0.05) and incontinence (urge and mixed) (p<0.001). However, no association was found between the extent of pelvic organ prolapse and the presence of DO. AUM performed with a standardized technique during single voiding cycle seems to be a reliable method in reproducing symptoms of women with OAB. It provides both clinically relevant findings and objective

  7. Biceps brachii long head overactivity associated with elbow flexion contracture in brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Lindsey C; Lattanza, Lisa; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; James, Michelle A

    2012-02-15

    The etiology of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy remains unclear. We hypothesized that the long head of the biceps brachii muscle assists with shoulder stabilization in children with brachial plexus birth palsy and that overactivity of the long head during elbow and shoulder activity is associated with an elbow flexion contracture. Twenty-one patients with brachial plexus birth palsy-associated elbow flexion contracture underwent testing with surface electromyography. Twelve patients underwent repeat testing with fine-wire electromyography. Surface electrodes were placed on the muscle belly, and fine-wire electrodes were inserted bilaterally into the long and short heads of the biceps brachii. Patients were asked to perform four upper extremity tasks: elbow flexion-extension, hand to head, high reach, and overhead ball throw. The mean duration of muscle activity in the affected limb was compared with that in the contralateral, unaffected limb, which was used as a control. Three-dimensional motion analysis, surface dynamometry, and validated function measures were used to evaluate upper extremity kinematics, elbow flexor-extensor muscle imbalance, and function. The mean activity duration of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle was significantly higher in the affected limb as compared with the contralateral, unaffected limb during hand-to-head tasks (p = 0.02) and high-reach tasks (p = 0.03). No significant differences in mean activity duration were observed for the short head of the biceps brachii muscle between the affected and unaffected limbs. Isometric strength of elbow flexion was not significantly higher than that of elbow extension in the affected limb (p = 0.11). Overactivity of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle is associated with and may contribute to the development of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. Elbow flexion contracture may not be associated with an elbow

  8. YKL-40 and mast cells are associated with detrusor fibrosis in patients diagnosed with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis according to the 2008 criteria of the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Benedikte; Roslind, A.; Hesse, U.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), diagnosed according to the new 2008 criteria of the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC), may lead to detrusor fibrosis. In some inflammatory diseases, fibrosis is related to YKL-40. The aims were to examine YKL......-40 antigenic expression in bladder tissue and levels in serum and urine in BPS/IC and to evaluate whether YKL-40 could be a non-invasive, prognostic biomarker for bladder fibrogenesis and treatment intensity. Methods and results: Immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and enzyme...... of detrusor fibrosis with YKL-40-positive cells (P = 0.001), mast cells (P = 0.014) and urine YKL-40 (P = 0.009). Bladder capacity correlated inversely with YKL-40-positive cells (P Treatment intensity was not associated with YKL-40. Conclusion: Serum and urine levels...

  9. Highly specific detection of muscarinic M3 receptor, G protein interaction and intracellular trafficking in human detrusor using Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt-Paetz, Mandy; Herbst, Luise; Weimann, Annett; Gonsior, Andreas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2018-03-15

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate a number of important physiological functions. Alteration of mAChR expression or function has been associated in the etiology of several pathologies including functional bladder disorders (e.g bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis - BPS/IC). In a previous study we found specific mAChR expression patterns associated with BPS/IC, while correlation between protein and gene expression was lacking. Posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, e.g. altered intracellular receptor trafficking, could explain those differences. In addition, alternative G protein (GP) coupling could add to the pathophysiology via modulation of muscarinic signaling. In our proof-of-principle study, we addressed these questions in situ. We established PLA in combination with confocal laserscanning microscopy (CLSM) and 3D object reconstruction for highly specific detection and analysis of muscarinic 3 receptors (M3), G protein (GP) coupling and intracellular trafficking in human detrusor samples. Paraffin sections of formalin-fixed bladder tissue (FFPE) of BPS/IC patients receiving transurethral biopsy were examined by Cy3-PLA for M3 expression, coupling of M3 to GPs (G αq/11 , G αs , G αi ) and interaction of M3 with endocytic regulator proteins. Membranes were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor ® 488, nuclei were stained with DAPI. Object density and co-localization were analyzed in 3D-reconstruction of high resolution confocal z-stacks. Confocal image stack processing resulted in well demarcated objects. Calculated receptor densities correlated significantly with existing confocal expression data, while significantly improved specificity of M3 detection by PLA was verified using bladder tissue samples from transgenic mice. 50-60% of the M3 receptor complexes were plasma membrane associated in human bladder detrusor. Application of PLA for M3 and GPs allowed visualization of M3-GP interactions and revealed individual GP

  10. Relationship Between the Use of Diuretics and Overactive Bladder in Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Altunoluk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB in outpatient heart failure patients and to evaluate the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be associated with OAB. Material and Method: The study included 84 patients (59 males, 25 females; mean age 62.3 ± 10.8 years who admitted as heart failure patients. OAB syndrome was determined according to OAB-validated 8-question awareness tool (OAB-V8 scores and data on demographic variables were collected from medical record.  The patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence (group I or absence (group II of OAB symptoms. The clinical parameters potentially related with OAB were compared between the two groups. Results: There were forty-three patients (51.2 % with OAB (group I and 41 patients (48.8 % without OAB (group II. Only the frequency of combined diuretics usage (aldosterone antagonist and loop diuretics was significantly higher (27.4% vs. 14.3%; p=0.021 in group I. Other clinical and laboratory findings were similar between the groups. Discussion: The current study demonstrated that OAB was a common syndrome in patients with heart failure and it was associated with combined use of diuretics.  

  11. Psychometric assessment of female overactive bladder syndrome and antimuscarinics-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Chi-Hau; Chang, Ting-Chen; Lin, Ho-Hsiung

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the characteristics of psychological distress (PD), personality traits, and family support in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB), and the effects of antimuscarinic treatment. Women with and without OAB (age- and body mass index [BMI]-matched control group) were prospectively enrolled; they recorded bladder diaries, underwent urodynamic studies, and completed PD, personality traits, and filled family support questionnaires before and after antimuscarinic treatment. OAB women underwent treatment with tolterodine or solifenacin for 12 weeks. The control group completed questionnaires. The differences in PD, personality traits, and family support scores between both groups, and the changes after antimuscarinic treatment in OAB women. Eighty-five women with OAB (tolterodine, n=42; solifenacin, n=43) and 65 without OAB completed the studies. Linear regression analysis with age and BMI adjustment revealed: coefficients of OAB were significant (all POveractive Bladder Symptom Score questionnaire score (coefficient=-0.39), low hostility score (coefficient=2.11), and high additional symptoms score (coefficient=-1.46) were associated with good therapeutic effect (all P<0.05). OAB women experience more PD, neuroticism, and introversion than asymptomatic women, and antimuscarinics could improve PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early investigational β3 adreno-receptor agonists for the management of the overactive bladder syndrome.

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    Thiagamoorthy, Ganesh; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Antimuscarinic drugs form the mainstay of medical treatment for Overactive bladder Syndrome (OAB). With a proven efficacy but poor tolerability, other treatment modalities have been sought. Recent concerns regarding cumulative anticholinergic load and risk of dementia have provided further impetus to find novel OAB treatments. β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR) agonists improve OAB symptoms by relaxing bladder tissue. As such, the search is underway to develop β3-AR agonist drugs for the treatment of OAB. The authors discuss studies on the only approved β3-AR agonist, mirabegron, followed by reports on β3-AR agonists in development, namely ritobegron and solabegron. The authors also discuss the early investigations of novel and putative β3-AR agonist drugs which are being assessed for management of OAB, including aryloxypropanolamine, TRK-380, AJ-9677, BRL37344 and CL 316,243. These investigations have also highlighted alternative unexpected modes of β3-AR action. There are a number of β3-ARs in the pipeline but it is uncertain which, if any, will come to market and aid in the management of OAB. A picture of a β3-AR dual action which was unknown previously is emerging. Overall, the authors believe that it is an exciting time for the pharmacological management of OAB with new drugs on the horizon which could potentially improve the patient's quality of life.

  13. Increased serum nerve growth factor levels in patients with overactive bladder syndrome refractory to antimuscarinic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Tzu; Lin, Heng; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the serum nerve growth factor (NGF) and urinary NGF levels in patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) refractory to antimuscarinic therapy. Thirty-four patients with OAB (17 OAB-dry and 17 OAB-wet) and 31 normal subjects were enrolled. The patients were diagnosed to have OAB based on symptoms of urgency with/without urgency incontinence and 3-day voiding diary. All OAB patients had been treated with previous antimuscarinic therapy for at least 3 months but had failed. Serum and urine were collected at baseline and after solifenacin treatment for 3 months. The serum NGF and urinary NGF levels were compared between OAB-dry and OAB-wet and between baseline and after solifenacin treatment. Serum NGF levels were significantly elevated in OAB (median and interquartile range, 7.367  pg/ml, 0-57.66) compared to the controls (0.0728  pg/ml, 0-0.234, P bladder disorders might be caused by chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Factors associated with a better therapeutic effect of solifenacin in patients with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-03-01

    To analyze the predictors of therapeutic success after solifenacin treatment. Between January 2008 and December 2011, all patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) who consecutively visited the urologic outpatient clinics of a medical center were prospectively enrolled. All enrolled patients received 5 mg solifenacin once a day for 12 weeks. Overall, 648 patients, 332 men, and 316 women, completed the 12-week study. The overall success rate was 48.8%. The success rate for female patients was superior to that for male patients (55.4% vs. 42.5%, P bladder capacity were all improved after 12 weeks' treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender, high USS score, high maximum flow rate (Qmax ), and low postvoid residual volume (PVR) were all significant predictive factors for success after antimuscarinic treatment. USS score = 4 and Qmax ≥ 12 ml/sec were the most strongly predictive cutoff values for success, with receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) areas of 0.70 (sensitivity = 66.8%, specificity = 66.0%) and 0.63 (sensitivity = 80.7%, specificity = 43.1%), respectively. PVR ≥ 70 ml was the most predictive cutoff value for failure, with a ROC area of 0.58 (sensitivity = 18.2%, specificity = 93.7%). Female gender, high USS score, high Qmax , and low PVR were associated with better therapeutic efficacy. These findings could serve as an initial guide or assist in consultation regarding the treatment of OAB patients with antimuscarinics. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Voiding disorders as etiologic cofeature of overactive bladder syndrome. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Fabrizio; Spelzini, Federico; Cesana, Maria C; Blanco, Salvatore; Milani, Rodolfo; Grasso, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is very common in the urological and gynecological practice. It is well known that the correlation between clinical features and urodynamics findings is often poor. In this observational study urodynamic findings of an OAB population have been retrospectively analyzed with the aim to identify a possible role of voiding disorders in the pathophysiology of OAB syndrome. Urodynamics executed between January 2005 and December 2010 have been analyzed. Female patients presenting characteristics of OAB syndrome according to International Continence Society definition were identified. Urodynamic investigations have been carried out according to the good practice guidelines for urodynamics. The Blaivas-Groutz cut off for female urinary obstruction was to detect voiding disorders. According to the selection criteria 258 patients presenting OAB syndrome have been considered eligible to join the study. Eighty-one patients (30%) showed voiding difficulties: in 21 of them pressure-flow study was diagnostic for frank outlet obstruction, in 47 a mild form and 13 bladder sphincter pseudo-dyssynergia. OAB syndrome can be related to voiding disorders mostly represented by a mild degree of obstruction. Such condition could trigger irritative symptoms. These clinical findings require an instrumental assessment represented by a pressure-flow analysis. This approach seems to be mandatory in patients refractory to drug therapy.

  16. Current role of treatment in men with lower urinary tract symptoms combined with overactive bladder

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    Seung Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH are highly prevalent in older men. The storage subcategory of LUTS is synonymous with overactive bladder (OAB syndrome, which is an empirical diagnosis. Traditionally, alpha-blockers are widely prescribed to manage the LUTS of BPH, although storage symptoms may persist in many men despite treatment. Therefore, because therapies that target the prostate often fail to alleviate storage symptoms, they may not be the appropriate therapy for OAB. In past years, most physicians appeared to give more weight in elderly men to voiding symptoms than to storage symptoms and to be more concerned with initial treatment with anticholinergics for males with storage symptoms. Considering the recent increase in data on the efficacy and safety of combination treatment with alpha receptor antagonists and antimuscarinic agents, the standard pharmacologic treatment of patients with LUTS combined with OAB should be an alpha receptor antagonist and an antimuscarinic agent. Beta-3 adrenoreceptor agonists may also potentially be useful for the treatment of male LUTS combined with OAB.

  17. Neurological symptoms and signs in HTLV-1 patients with overactive bladder syndrome

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    Davi Tanajura Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare neurological symptoms and signs in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers and HTLV-1 patients with overactive bladder (OB syndrome. METHODS: We studied 102 HTLV-1 positive individuals without HAM/TSP (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of OB syndrome. Clinical interview, neurological exam and proviral load was performed in all patients. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with OB were more commonly female (84.3 vs. 60.8% of asymptomatics, p=0.01. The prevalence of neurological complaints was higher in OB group, especially hand or foot numbness and arm or leg weakness. There was no difference between the groups in neurological strength and reflexes. Weakness complaint remained strongly associated with OB in multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sex and age [adjusted odds ratio and 95%CI 3.59 (1.45-8.88 in arms and 6.68 (2.63-16.93 in legs]. Proviral load was also different between the two groups with higher level on OB individuals.

  18. Overactive pelvic floor muscles (OPFM): improving diagnostic accuracy with clinical examination and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Hau Choong; Ranasinghe, Weranja; Tan, Philip Huang Min; O'Connell, Helen E

    2017-07-01

    To identify the functional correlation of overactive pelvic floor muscles (OPFM) with cystoscopic and fluoroscopic urodynamic studies (FUDS), including urethral pressure measurements. Patients refractory to conservative therapy including bladder retraining, medications and pelvic muscle exercises for a variety of gamut of storage and voiding disorders were evaluated. Prospective data for 201 patients across both genders who underwent flexible cystoscopy and urodynamics for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refractory to conservative management between 01 Jan 2014 and 01 Jan 2016 was collected. Factors studied included history of LUTS, voiding patterns, physical examination, cystoscopic findings and functional studies, with maximum urethral closing pressure (MUCP). A total of 201 were patients recruited. The 85 were diagnosed with OPFM based on clinical presentation and presence of pelvic floor tenderness on examination. Significant differences were noted on functional studies with FUDS and urethral pressure measurement. Subjects with pelvic floor tenderness were found to have a higher (MUCP) at 93.1 cm H2O compared to 80.6 cm H2O (P=0.015). There are distinct characteristics of OPFM on clinical examination and functional studies, in particular MUCP. In patients refractory to conservative treatments, specific urodynamics tests are useful in sub-categorising patients. When OPFM is diagnosed, the impact on patient management is significant, and targeted intervention with pelvic floor physiotherapy is central in the multimodal approach of this complex condition.

  19. Pharmacological approach to overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence in women: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, Lucio M A; Cosimato, Cosimo; Filippelli, Amelia; Conti, Valeria; Izzo, Viviana; Zullo, Fulvio; Guida, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    Besides life-style changes, electrical stimulation or surgery, pharmacological treatment is becoming the first-choice approach in women suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and overactive bladder (OAB). Several drugs for the treatment of bladder storage and voiding disorders are currently available and, in the near future, novel compounds with higher specificity for the lower urinary tract receptors will be accessible. This will bring optimization of therapy, reducing side effects and increasing compliance, especially in patients with comorbidities and in women. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview on the pharmacotherapy of two common inter-correlated urological conditions, UUI and OAB. The study was conducted by analyzing and comparing the data of the recent international literature on this topic. Advances in the discovery of pharmacological options have dramatically improved the quality of life of patients affected by incontinence, but further studies are needed to increase the effectiveness and safety of the therapies used in this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training in women with overactive bladder syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Silvia; Riccetto, Cassio; Araújo, Angélica; Galo, Laryssa; Brito, Nathália; Botelho, Simone

    2018-04-11

    Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in reducing overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in women. Searches were performed at MEDLINE, PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Scielo, and Central Cochrane Library PubMed until January 2017. Controlled trials were researched by two independent reviewers. Eligible studies were restricted to random and controlled clinical trials that investigated the effectiveness of PFMT in decreasing OAB symptoms. Qualitative methodology was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Data was analyzed and interpreted qualitatively. The final search retrieved eight studies (n = 1161 women with urgency symptoms), which were published between 2002 and 2016. The methodological scores varied between 4 and 7 in the PEDro scale. PFMT, with the objective of controlling urgent micturition, demonstrated improvements in quality of life in women with OAB. Most data in this revision came from small- to moderate-sized trials, with different and inconsistent outcome measures, which could have impacted the end results. The literature regarding the effectiveness of PFMT in OAB remains heterogeneous and inconclusive.

  1. Physician-patient communication about overactive bladder: Results of an observational sociolinguistic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Hahn

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB and urinary incontinence are common problems that have significant impact on quality of life (QOL. Less than half of sufferers seek help from their physicians; many who do are dissatisfied with treatment and their physicians' understanding of their problems. Little is known about the sociolinguistic characteristics of physician-patient communication about OAB in community practice.An IRB-approved observational sociolinguistic study of dialogues between patients with OAB and treating physicians was conducted. Study design included semi-structured post-visit interviews, post-visit questionnaires, and follow-up phone calls. Conversations were analyzed using techniques from interactional sociolinguistics.Communication was physician- rather than patient-centered. Physicians spoke the majority of words and 83% of questions were closed-ended. The impact of OAB on QOL and concerns about and adherence to treatment were infrequently addressed by physicians, who were poorly aligned with patients in their understanding. These topics were addressed more frequently when open-ended questions successfully eliciting elaborated responses were used in ask-tell-ask or ask-tell sequences.Clinical dialogue around OAB is physician-centered; topics critical to managing OAB are infrequently and inadequately addressed. The use of patient-centered communication is correlated with more discussion of critical topics, and thus, more effective management of OAB.

  2. Prevalence and treatment efficacy of genitourinary mycoplasmas in women with overactive bladder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Suk; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Joon Chul; Park, Won Hee; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence of genitourinary mycoplasmas and the efficacy of antibiotics in women with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Women with OAB symptoms (micturition ≥8/24 hours and urgency ≥1/24 hours) for ≥3 months were screened for Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis), Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). Specimens from urethral and cervical vaginal swabs were examined for M. hominis and U. urealyticum by using the Mycoplasma IST2 kit and for C. trachomatis by using PCR. Women with positive results were treated with a 1 g dose of azithromycin. Persistent infection was treated with doxycycline. Changes in a 3-day bladder diary, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) were evaluated 4 weeks after negative conversion. Patient satisfaction was assessed. Of 84 women screened, 42.8% were positive (U. urealyticum, 40.5%; M. hominis, 7.1%; C. trachomatis, 3.6%; two organisms, 8.3%). After treatment, 82.7% obtained negative conversion, and their median number of micturition episodes decreased from 10.6/24 hours to 8.1/24 hours (p=0.002). PPBC and domain scores of the ICIQ-FLUTS (filling and quality of life) significantly improved. About 87.5% women with negative conversion were satisfied with the treatment. Considering diagnostic tests and treatment for genitourinary mycoplasmas might be beneficial before invasive workup or treatment in women with OAB symptoms.

  3. Physician-patient communication about overactive bladder: Results of an observational sociolinguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steven R; Bradt, Pamela; Hewett, Kathleen A; Ng, Daniel B

    2017-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary incontinence are common problems that have significant impact on quality of life (QOL). Less than half of sufferers seek help from their physicians; many who do are dissatisfied with treatment and their physicians' understanding of their problems. Little is known about the sociolinguistic characteristics of physician-patient communication about OAB in community practice. An IRB-approved observational sociolinguistic study of dialogues between patients with OAB and treating physicians was conducted. Study design included semi-structured post-visit interviews, post-visit questionnaires, and follow-up phone calls. Conversations were analyzed using techniques from interactional sociolinguistics. Communication was physician- rather than patient-centered. Physicians spoke the majority of words and 83% of questions were closed-ended. The impact of OAB on QOL and concerns about and adherence to treatment were infrequently addressed by physicians, who were poorly aligned with patients in their understanding. These topics were addressed more frequently when open-ended questions successfully eliciting elaborated responses were used in ask-tell-ask or ask-tell sequences. Clinical dialogue around OAB is physician-centered; topics critical to managing OAB are infrequently and inadequately addressed. The use of patient-centered communication is correlated with more discussion of critical topics, and thus, more effective management of OAB.

  4. The value of oxybutynin in transdermal patches for treating overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Casado, J; Esteban-Fuertes, M; Serrano, O; Galván, J

    2015-12-01

    There is currently a broad therapeutic arsenal of drugs for treating overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). However, there is still a need for new compounds and for improving known drugs in terms of efficacy, compliance and tolerability. To report the scientific evidence on the safety and efficacy of transdermal oxybutynin (OXY-TDS) for treating OAB. A systematic review without time restrictions was conducted until May 2015 in the MEDLINE/PubMed database. We also performed a manual review of abstracts published in international urogynaecology congresses. The evaluated studies show that patients treated with OXY-TDS experience a significant reduction in urinary incontinence episodes compared with placebo, which is comparable to that observed in patients treated with oral oxybutynin or with tolterodine. In all of the studies, we observed improvements in symptoms from the second or third week of treatment and in a sustained manner until the end of treatment (6, 12 or 24 weeks). The clinical practice study also showed improved quality of life, achieving benefits in numerous patient profiles, with an efficacy independent of previous treatments. The safety of the drug was demonstrated in the various patient profiles. OXY-TDS represents an effective alternative for the symptomatic treatment of adult patients with OAB, which, thanks to its pharmacokinetic profile, better tolerability, different administration method and dosage, could represent an added value in treating special populations. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The Risk Factor and The Severity of Symptoms Relation in Women with Overactive Bladder

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    Tulga Egilmez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether risk factors for overactive bladder (OAB in women are associated with symptom severity and to assess the impact of symptom severity on the quality of life. Material and Method: Symptoms of 100 female patients (aged, 47.70 ± 12.34 years who were diagnosed with OAB were assessed using the Boyarsky symptom score (BSS. Data for age, educational status, body mass index (BMI, chronic disease, vaginal deliveries, constipation, smoking, consumption of alcohol, tea, coffee, or carbonated drinks and diets involving spicy food were recorded. Subcategories for each factor regarding quantity were established. The findings were statistically correlated with the BSS and with each urinary symptom individually. Each patient%u2019s quality-of-life (QoL scores were correlated with the severity of each symptom and the total, obstructive and irritative BSS. Results: Urgency was related with BMI, spicy food, vaginal deliveries, menopause, and advanced age. Nocturia had a relation with menopause and advanced age. Total BSS was significantly correlated with coffee consumption. Irritative BSS was correlated with menopause and advanced age and obstructive BSS was correlated with constipation. Total and irritative BSS were both positively correlated with the QoL score. Discusion: Risk factors can affect the severity of symptoms and these factors should be considered when planning therapy.

  6. The relative importance of health related quality of life and prescription insurance coverage in the decision to pharmacologically manage symptoms of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpe, Spencer E; Szeinbach, Sheryl L; Caswell, Robert J; Corey, Ron; McAuley, James W

    2007-12-01

    Patient decisions to seek treatment for overactive bladder are influenced by the impact of the condition on health related quality of life and the presence of prescription insurance coverage. This study uses conjoint analysis to examine the relative importance of health related quality of life dimensions of the overactive bladder questionnaire and the presence of prescription insurance coverage on patient preference for treatment. Patient preferences were elicited using a study questionnaire that included 9 hypothetical profiles containing an orthogonal array of attributes relating to coping with symptoms, symptom concern, sleep disturbances, problems with social interactions and prescription insurance coverage. This questionnaire was administered to 150 patients with self-reported symptoms of overactive bladder. Patients responded to each profile with the likelihood that they would prefer drug therapy to control overactive bladder symptoms versus doing nothing. A total of 133 usable responses were obtained from participants. Analysis was conducted with a linear random effects model. Of the 5 included attributes prescription insurance coverage was the most important attribute followed by sleep disturbances, symptom concern, social interaction problems and coping. Responses obtained from attribute ratings using visual analog scaling and a holdout profile demonstrated study validity. Prescription insurance coverage and sleep disturbances are important considerations underlying patient preferences for the treatment of overactive bladder.

  7. Inferior oblique overaction/contracture following retrobulbar anesthesia for cataract extraction with a positive Bielschowsky Head Tilt test to the contralateral shoulder. A report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawam, Edward; El-Dairi, Mays; Al-Haddad, Christine; Younis, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    This is a report of a patient with diplopia, hypertropia, extorsion and a positive Bielschowsky Head Tilt Test following retrobulbar anesthesia, due to an inferior oblique muscle overaction-contracture. Oculomotor and sensorimotor examinations and ocular motility recordings and Bielschowsky Head Tilt Test demonstrated overaction characteristics overpowering the contracture characteristics of the involved inferior oblique muscle. Weakening of the overacting inferior oblique eliminated the vertical and torsional deviations and the forced head tilt difference upon tilting the head to either shoulder. It also normalized ocular motility and resulted in a symptom-free patient. Oblique muscle dysfunction with vertical and torsional deviations and a positive Bielschowsky Head Tilt Test can result from retrobulbar anesthesia.

  8. NGF and HB-EGF: potential biomarkers that reflect the effects of fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Rim; Moon, Yeo Jung; Kim, Sei Kwang; Bai, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) can be used to objectively assess overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) treatment outcome and to evaluate the effects of fixed-dose fesoterodine on OAB symptoms. This study included 124 participants (62 patients with OAB and 62 controls) in Severance Hospital between 2010 and 2012. In patients with OAB, 4 mg fesoterodine was administered once daily. Repeated evaluations of putative biomarker levels, urine creatinine (Cr) levels, and questionnaire responses, including the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB q), were performed from baseline to 16 weeks. Urinary levels of NGF/Cr (OAB: 1.13±0.9 pg/mg; control: 0.5±0.29 pg/mg) and HB-EGF/Cr (OAB: 8.73±6.55 pg/mg; control: 4.45±2.93 pg/mg) were significantly higher in subjects with OAB than in controls (p<0.001). After 16 weeks of fixed-dose fesoterodine treatment, urinary NGF/Cr levels (baseline: 1.13±0.08 pg/mg; 16 weeks: 0.60±0.4 pg/mg; p=0.02) and HB-EGF/Cr levels significantly decreased (baseline: 8.73±6.55 pg/mg; 16 weeks: 4.72±2.69 pg/mg; p=0.03, respectively). Both the OABSS and OAB q scores improved (p<0.001). However, there were no a statistically significant correlations between these urinary markers and symptomatic scores. Urinary levels of NGF and HB-EGF may be potential biomarkers for evaluating outcome of OAB treatment. Fixed-dose fesoterodine improved OAB symptoms. Future studies are needed to further examine the significance of urinary NGF and HB-EGF levels as therapeutic markers for OAB.

  9. Long-term adherence to antimuscarinic drugs when treating overactive bladder in the older: Subjective reason and objective factors

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    Kirill Vladimirovich Kosilov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. Materials and Methods: One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736 patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years who took antimuscarinic (AM drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients’ medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Results: Fifty-two point six percent (52.6% of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% – during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time. The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2% was significantly lower (p≤0.05, than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%. Conclusions: A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.

  10. Qualidade de vida de mulheres com bexiga hiperativa refratária tratadas com estimulação elétrica do nervo tibial posterior Quality of life in women with refractory overactive bladder treated with percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation

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    Francine O. Fischer-Sgrott

    2009-12-01

    quality of life (QoL of women with overactive bladder (OAB. METHODS: uncontrolled clinical trial with 11 women that presented overactivity of the detrusor muscle in urodynamic tests. All of the subjects were previously treated with anticholinergic medication, without response. The treatment consisted of 12 PTNS sessions of 30 minutes each, two times a week. The electrical stimulator Dualpex 961® (Quark medical was used. The instruments chosen to evaluate QoL were the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ and the "International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short-Form" (ICIQ-SF. The questionnaires were applied before and after the treatment. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in the following domain scores of the KHQ: incontinence impact (74.55±27.75 versus 38.18±13.82; p=0.008, role limitations (66.45±25.89 versus 26.91±11.22; p=0.008, physical limitations (73.91±29.46 versus 30.91±12.79; p=0.008, social limitations (39.18±35.60 versus 17.45±12.26; p=0.028, personal relationships (25.64±29.16 versus 10.45±15.23; p=0.043, emotions (65.82±38.56 versus 26.00±20.45; p=0.005, sleep/energy (39.18±37.51 versus 16.45±18.17; p=0.012 and severity measures (62.00±17.70 versus 33.00±16.59; p= 0.003, except for general health perception (51.36±30.75 versus 37.73±25.63; p=0.068. In the ICIQ-SF scores it was also possible to observe a significant improvement (10.09±6.50 versus 3.73±3.00; p=0.008. CONCLUSIONS: The PTNS treatment improved the QoL of women with overactive bladder and refractory to anticholinergic medication. Therefore, PTNS can be considered a good alternative for OAB treatment as it is safe and inexpensive compared to other therapeutic approaches.

  11. Impulsiveness, overactivity, and poorer sustained attention improve by chronic treatment with low doses of l-amphetamine in an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

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    Sagvolden, Terje

    2011-03-30

    ADHD is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Overactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. There is no biological marker, but there is considerable evidence to suggest that ADHD behavior is associated with poor dopaminergic and noradrenergic modulation of neuronal circuits that involve the frontal lobes. The best validated animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), shows pronounced overactivity, impulsiveness, and deficient sustained attention. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate behavioral effects of a range of doses of chronic l-amphetamine on ADHD-like symptoms in the SHR. The present study tested the behavioral effects of 0.75 and 2.2 mg l-amphetamine base/kg i.p. in male SHRs and their controls, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. The striking impulsiveness, overactivity, and poorer sustained attention seen during baseline conditions in the SHR were improved by chronic treatment with l-amphetamine. The dose-response curves were, however, different for the different behaviors. Most significantly, the 0.75 mg/kg dose of l-amphetamine improved sustained attention without reducing overactivity and impulsiveness. The 2.2 mg/kg dose improved sustained attention as well as reduced SHR overactivity and impulsiveness. The effects of l-amphetamine to reduce the behavioral symptoms of ADHD in the SHR were maintained over the 14 days of daily dosing with no evidence of tolerance developing.

  12. Temporal summation to thermal stimuli is elevated in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, William Stuart; Brown, Elizabeth Timbrook; Danford, Jill; Kaufman, Melissa; Wein, Alan; Dmochowski, Roger; Bruehl, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to provide a preliminary assessment of whether spinally mediated afferent hyperactivity (i.e., central sensitization) might contribute to manifestations of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) in women as indexed by elevated temporal summation of evoked heat pain stimuli. We recruited 20 adult women with OAB who were planning to undergo interventional therapy for OAB with either onabotulinumtoxinA injection or sacral neuromodulation and 23 healthy controls without OAB symptoms to undergo quantitative sensory testing with cutaneous thermal pain temporal summation. The primary study outcome was the degree of temporal summation, as reflected in the magnitude of positive slope of the line fitted to the series of 10 stimuli at the 49°C target temperatures. Linear regression and analysis of covariance were utilized to compare the degree of temporal summation between study groups. The standardized slope of temporal summation trials for women with OAB was significantly higher than for controls (β = 3.43, 95% confidence interval = 0.6-6.2, P = 0.017). The adjusted means ±SE of the standardized temporal summation slopes for the full OAB and control groups were 3.0 ± 0.5 (95% confidence interval = 2.0, 4.1) and 1.7 ± 0.5 (95% confidence interval = 0.7, 2.7), respectively. In this preliminary study, we demonstrated that women with OAB refractory to primary and secondary therapies exhibited greater thermal cutaneous temporal summation than women without OAB symptoms. This suggests that central sensitization, indexed by temporal summation, may be an underlying factor contributing to OAB in some women. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1108-1112, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Urgent-SQ implant in treatment of overactive bladder syndrome: 9-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Dick A; Farag, Fawzy; Heesakkers, John P

    2013-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve (PTN) is an established therapy for the treatment of refractory overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). The Urgent-SQ™ is an implant that is surgically placed near the PTN and activated by an external pulse generator, allowing for "on demand" PTN stimulation, without the need for needle insertion. The current study presents results of a 9-year, open-label, follow-up of eight patients to address the long term safety and efficacy of the implant. In 2003, eight patients with refractory OAB received a Urgent-SQ™ implant and were systematically followed up for 1 year. After that, the follow up continued as open-label study. The seven patients who still had the implant were contacted after 9 years and evaluated with an interview, physical exam, ankle X-ray, voiding diaries, and completed questionnaires about adverse events, performance, efficacy, safety, and quality of life (validated iQoL). Six of the seven patients still had sensory and loco-motor responses on stimulation at 9-year follow-up. Three of four patients who had a successful treatment response at 1 year, still use the device. The fourth patient restarted therapy. The implants are intact with no migration and/or displacement. All patients reported easy handling of the Urgent-SQ™. One patient reported sporadic spontaneous sensory responses. One patient reported occasional localized ankle discomfort. After 9 years of clinical experience, we demonstrated that implant driven PTNS with the Urgent-SQ™ is a safe therapy for OAB. The implant has a long lifespan and is well tolerated by patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neurochemical and neuroendocrine correlates of overactive bladder at first demyelinating episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Evangelopoulos, Maria-Eleftheria; Sfagos, Constantinos; Markianos, Manolis

    2016-11-01

    Bladder dysfunction is frequent during the course of multiple sclerosis (MS), observed in up to 75% of patients. Urinary symptomatology can be a feature of the first episode of MS in a minority of cases, and most often shows characteristics of an overactive bladder (OAB), with voiding symptoms seen less frequently, often in combination with OAB. The neural control of micturition is complex, involving systems located in the brain, spinal cord, and periphery, and implicating central noradrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic activities. Urinary disorders are also linked to anxiety and depression, conditions connected to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In this study we aimed to investigate neurochemical and neuroendocrine correlates of bladder dysfunction in early MS. We included 101 patients at first demyelinating episode suggestive of MS that were drug-free at assessment. We evaluated the presence of urinary symptomatology and estimated CSF levels of the main metabolites of noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine, as well CSF-ACTH and serum cortisol. In total, 15 patients (15%) reported urinary dysfunction suggestive of OAB. Four of these had coexistent voiding symptomatology. The serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA was significantly reduced (P = 0.017) in patients with OAB syndrome, while there were no differences in the metabolites of noradrenaline (MHPG) and of dopamine (HVA). Additionally, significantly lower serum cortisol (P = 0.009) and borderline lower CSF-ACTH (P = 0.08) were found in patients with OAB. MS patients with OAB syndrome at the first demyelinating episode show reductions in central serotonergic activity and stress hormones. Whether the same changes persist at later disease stages remains to be investigated. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:955-958, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A multiplexed analysis approach identifies new association of inflammatory proteins in patients with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Emily; Vetter, Joel; Bliss, Laura; Lai, H Henry; Mysorekar, Indira U; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common debilitating bladder condition with unknown etiology and limited diagnostic modalities. Here, we explored a novel high-throughput and unbiased multiplex approach with cellular and molecular components in a well-characterized patient cohort to identify biomarkers that could be reliably used to distinguish OAB from controls or provide insights into underlying etiology. As a secondary analysis, we determined whether this method could discriminate between OAB and other chronic bladder conditions. We analyzed plasma samples from healthy volunteers (n = 19) and patients diagnosed with OAB, interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), or urinary tract infections (UTI; n = 51) for proinflammatory, chemokine, cytokine, angiogenesis, and vascular injury factors using Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) analysis and urinary cytological analysis. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to perform univariate and multivariate comparisons between patient groups (controls, OAB, IC/BPS, and UTI). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit for each MSD analyte on 1) OAB patients and controls, 2) OAB and IC/BPS patients, and 3) OAB and UTI patients. Age, race, and sex were included as independent variables in all multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the diagnostic potential of a given analyte. Our findings demonstrate that five analytes, i.e., interleukin 4, TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, serum amyloid A, and Tie2 can reliably differentiate OAB relative to controls and can be used to distinguish OAB from the other conditions. Together, our pilot study suggests a molecular imbalance in inflammatory proteins may contribute to OAB pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Structured behavioral treatment research protocol for women with mixed urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K; Borello-France, Diane; Sung, Vivian W

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim is to provide detailed rationale and methodology for the development and implementation of a perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise research protocol for women who self-chose surgical intervention and who may or may not have been offered behavioral treatments initially. This protocol is part of the ESTEEM trial (Effects of Surgical Treatment Enhanced with Exercise for Mixed Urinary Incontinence Trial) which was designed to determine the effect of a combined surgical and perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention versus surgery alone on improving mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. As part of a multi-site, prospective, randomized trial of women with MUI electing midurethral sling (MUS) surgical treatment, participants were randomized to a standardized perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention + MUS versus MUS alone. The specific behavioral intervention included: education on voiding habits, pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), bladder training (BT), strategies to control urgency and reduce/prevent urinary symptoms, and monitoring/promoting adherence to behavioral recommendations. To ensure consistency across all eight research sites in the pelvic floor disorders network (PFDN), selective behavioral treatments sessions were audiotaped and audited for protocol adherence. The behavioral intervention protocol includes individualization of interventions using an algorithm based on pelvic floor muscle (PFM) assessment, participant symptoms, and findings from the study visits. We present, here, the specific perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise interventions administered by study interventionists. This paper details a perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention research study protocol developed for women undergoing surgery for MUI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pharmacokinetic drug interaction study between overactive bladder drugs mirabegron and tolterodine in Japanese healthy postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yuki; Iitsuka, Hiromi; Toyoshima, Junko; Kuroishi, Kentaro; Hatta, Toshifumi; Kaibara, Atsunori; Katashima, Masataka; Moy, Selina; Sawamoto, Taiji

    2016-12-01

    Mirabegron, the first selective β 3 -adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), inhibits cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP2D6. This study was performed in Japanese healthy postmenopausal female volunteers to assess any pharmacokinetic drug interaction between mirabegron and tolterodine, another OAB drug and a sensitive substrate of CYP2D6. Tolterodine 4 mg was orally administered from Days 1-7 and co-administered with mirabegron 50 mg from Days 8-14. Mirabegron 50 mg increased maximum concentration (C max ) and area under the concentration-time curve from zero to 24 h after dosing (AUC 24h ) of tolterodine by 2.06-fold (90% confidence interval [CI] 1.81, 2.34) and 1.86-fold (90% CI 1.60, 2.16), respectively, and increased C max and AUC 24h of the metabolite 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine by 1.36-fold (90% CI 1.26, 1.47) and 1.25-fold (90% CI 1.15, 1.37), respectively. This suggested a weak pharmacokinetic drug interaction between mirabegron and tolterodine. Mean change from baseline of Fridericia's QT correction formula (ΔQTcF) was slightly higher on Day 14 than on Day 7. No subject had QTcF >480 msec or ΔQTcF >60 msec. All the treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. Mirabegron 50 mg was considered to be safe and well tolerated when coadministered with tolterodine 4 mg in healthy postmenopausal female volunteers. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Balance Training Enhances Vestibular Function and Reduces Overactive Proprioceptive Feedback in Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, Isabella K; Dalin, Daniela; Wehrle, Anja; Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Dietterle, Joerg; Weiller, Cornelius; Gollhofer, Albert; Maurer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Postural control in elderly people is impaired by degradations of sensory, motor, and higher-level adaptive mechanisms. Here, we characterize the effects of a progressive balance training program on these postural control impairments using a brain network model based on system identification techniques. Methods and Material: We analyzed postural control of 35 healthy elderly subjects and compared findings to data from 35 healthy young volunteers. Eighteen elderly subjects performed a 10 week balance training conducted twice per week. Balance training was carried out in static and dynamic movement states, on support surfaces with different elastic compliances, under different visual conditions and motor tasks. Postural control was characterized by spontaneous sway and postural reactions to pseudorandom anterior-posterior tilts of the support surface. Data were interpreted using a parameter identification procedure based on a brain network model. Results: With balance training, the elderly subjects significantly reduced their overly large postural reactions and approximated those of younger subjects. Less significant differences between elderly and young subjects' postural control, namely larger spontaneous sway amplitudes, velocities, and frequencies, larger overall time delays and a weaker motor feedback compared to young subjects were not significantly affected by the balance training. Conclusion: Balance training reduced overactive proprioceptive feedback and restored vestibular orientation in elderly. Based on the assumption of a linear deterioration of postural control across the life span, the training effect can be extrapolated as a juvenescence of 10 years. This study points to a considerable benefit of a continuous balance training in elderly, even without any sensorimotor deficits.

  19. Balance Training Enhances Vestibular Function and Reduces Overactive Proprioceptive Feedback in Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, Isabella K.; Dalin, Daniela; Wehrle, Anja; Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Dietterle, Joerg; Weiller, Cornelius; Gollhofer, Albert; Maurer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Postural control in elderly people is impaired by degradations of sensory, motor, and higher-level adaptive mechanisms. Here, we characterize the effects of a progressive balance training program on these postural control impairments using a brain network model based on system identification techniques. Methods and Material: We analyzed postural control of 35 healthy elderly subjects and compared findings to data from 35 healthy young volunteers. Eighteen elderly subjects performed a 10 week balance training conducted twice per week. Balance training was carried out in static and dynamic movement states, on support surfaces with different elastic compliances, under different visual conditions and motor tasks. Postural control was characterized by spontaneous sway and postural reactions to pseudorandom anterior-posterior tilts of the support surface. Data were interpreted using a parameter identification procedure based on a brain network model. Results: With balance training, the elderly subjects significantly reduced their overly large postural reactions and approximated those of younger subjects. Less significant differences between elderly and young subjects' postural control, namely larger spontaneous sway amplitudes, velocities, and frequencies, larger overall time delays and a weaker motor feedback compared to young subjects were not significantly affected by the balance training. Conclusion: Balance training reduced overactive proprioceptive feedback and restored vestibular orientation in elderly. Based on the assumption of a linear deterioration of postural control across the life span, the training effect can be extrapolated as a juvenescence of 10 years. This study points to a considerable benefit of a continuous balance training in elderly, even without any sensorimotor deficits. PMID:28848430

  20. Comparison of inflammatory urine markers in patients with interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akira; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Gotoh, Momokazu; Egawa, Shin; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2018-01-25

    Chronic inflammatory conditions seem to be a shared characteristic in patients with interstitial cystitis (IC) and overactive bladder (OAB). Thus, we measured 40 inflammatory urine markers in IC patients with or without Hunner's lesions (HIC and NHIC respectively) and OAB patients. Urine was collected from consecutive HIC patients, NHIC patients, and age and gender-matched OAB patients with no history of IC, recurrent urinary tract infection or bladder cancer. The diagnosis of IC was based on the Asian IC guideline criteria. A representative 40 inflammatory growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines in urine were measured using a MILLIPLEX immunoassay kit. Statistical differences in these markers among the groups were determined by nonparametric ANOVA followed by multiple comparison test. The diagnostic efficiency of these markers was measured using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, and chemokines including CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL8, and CXCL10 were significantly increased in HIC (n = 30) and NHIC (n = 30) patients compared with OAB (n = 28) patients. The significant increases in CXCL8 and CXCL10 were also found in HIC patients compared with NHIC patients. However, there were no significant differences in the other urine markers among the groups. Area under the curves for VEGF, CXCL10, CXCL8, IL-1α, CCL5, CCL2, IL-6, and CXCL1 to detect IC in these patients were 0.87, 0.86, 0.81, 0.80, 0.80, 0.71, 0.66, and 0.50 respectively. The increases in angiogenesis-associated proteins such as VEGF and CXCL10 may be pathophysiologically important for the development of IC.

  1. Adverse event assessment of antimuscarinics for treating overactive bladder: a network meta-analytic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Kessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overactive bladder (OAB affects the lives of millions of people worldwide and antimuscarinics are the pharmacological treatment of choice. Meta-analyses of all currently used antimuscarinics for treating OAB found similar efficacy, making the choice dependent on their adverse event profiles. However, conventional meta-analyses often fail to quantify and compare adverse events across different drugs, dosages, formulations, and routes of administration. In addition, the assessment of the broad variety of adverse events is dissatisfying. Our aim was to compare adverse events of antimuscarinics using a network meta-analytic approach that overcomes shortcomings of conventional analyses. METHODS: Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialized Trials Register, previous systematic reviews, conference abstracts, book chapters, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials comparing at least one antimuscarinic for treating OAB with placebo or with another antimuscarinic, and adverse events as outcome measures. Two authors independently extracted data. A network meta-analytic approach was applied allowing for joint assessment of all adverse events of all currently used antimuscarinics while fully maintaining randomization. RESULTS: 69 trials enrolling 26'229 patients were included. Similar overall adverse event profiles were found for darifenacin, fesoterodine, transdermal oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine, and trospium chloride but not for oxybutynin orally administered when currently used starting dosages were compared. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed generally applicable transparent network meta-analytic approach summarizes adverse events in an easy to grasp way allowing straightforward benchmarking of antimuscarinics for treating OAB in clinical practice. Most currently used antimuscarinics seem to be equivalent first choice drugs to start the treatment of OAB except for

  2. Patient-targeted websites on overactive bladder: What are our patients reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Aisling A; Hickling, Duane; Didomizio, Laura; Sanaee, May; Shehata, Fady; Zee, Rebekah; Khalil, Hisham

    2018-02-01

    Patients often turn to the Internet for information on medical conditions. We sought to evaluate the quality and readability of highly visible websites on overactive bladder (OAB). A survey of 42 consecutive patients attending outpatient urogynecology clinics was performed to identify the most commonly used Internet search engines and search terms for information on OAB. The three most commonly used search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo!) were then queried using the three most commonly used search terms. The first 20 relevant websites from each search were reviewed. After excluding duplicates, 35 websites were analyzed. Website quality of information on OAB was evaluated using the DISCERN score, JAMA benchmark criteria, and Health on the Net code (HONcode) accreditation status. Readability was assessed using the Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Dale-Chall indices. Websites were classified as advertisement/commercial (31%), health portal (29%), professional (26%), patient group (6%), and other (9%). The overall mean DISCERN score was 44 ± 18 (maximum possible score of 80). Three websites (9%) met all four JAMA benchmark criteria. Seventeen percent of websites provided adequate information on content authorship and contributions. Median SMOG and Dale-Chall indices were 9.9 (IQR 9.3-11.2) and 9.0 (IQR 8.1-9.4), respectively. Nine websites (26%) were HONcode certified. Popular websites on OAB are of low quality, written for a high school to college-level readership, and often lack adequate information to assess the potential for commercial bias. Patients should be cautioned that incomplete and potentially biased information on OAB is prevalent online. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impact of overactive bladder symptoms on work activity: The ACTIVHA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapariz, M; Mora, A M; Roset, M

    2018-04-01

    To analyse the impact of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms on the work activity of patients in Spain. An observational, multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted with 149 urologists and 131 gynaecologists of Spain and included patients diagnosed with OAB, according to clinical judgment, who were of working age (18-65 years). We collected sociodemographic, clinical and work activity data. The patients filled out the Bladder Control Self-Assessment Questionnaire (B-SAQ) and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-General Health (WPAI-GH). The effect of each symptom on the daily and occupational activity was assessed. The results were stratified according to sex and the presence of emergency and urinary incontinence (UI) according to the B-SAQ. We assessed 768 patients (89% women), with a mean (SD) age of 52.5 (9.3) years and 2.6 (2.6) years of OAB progression. The most common symptoms according to the patients were urgent urination (89.8%), nocturia (75.7%), urge incontinence (68.5%) and frequent urination (68.2%). Ninety-six percent of the patients adopted adaptive measures for their OAB. According to the B-SAQ, 543 patients (71%) presented urgent urination; of these, 294 (54%) showed UI. The symptom that most affected work activity was frequent urination (59.8%). According to the WPAI-GH, the patients reported an impact of 32% during the workday (41% in patients with urgent urination and UI) and a loss of work time of 6.5% (9.9% in patients with urgent urination and UI). The symptoms of OAB negatively affect work activity, especially in patients who have urgent urination and UI. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Expert consensus on scientific evidence available on the use of botulinum toxin in overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, M; Salinas, J; Arlandis, S; Díez, J; Jiménez, M; Rebassa, M; Angulo, J C

    2014-05-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a pathology impairing patients' quality of life and with a high percentage of patients who are refractory to medication. In this paper, technical opinion of an «expert panel» is assessed in order to gain the most reliable professional consensus on scientific evidence available on the criteria of use of Onabotulinumtoxin A (OnabotA) in OAB. according to DELPHI method, 42 panelists answered a survey of 93 items divided into four strategic areas including clinical criteria and recommendations in order to improve, at different levels, the current approach to patients with OAB. The recent advances in the field, areas of controversy and their real application possibilities in the different areas of our health care system were taken into consideration. Two rounds of the questionnaire were completed by all experts. In the first round, a criteria consensus was reached for 64 of 93 (68.8%) questions analyzed; in the second round the consensus reached was for 83 items evaluated (89.25%). An agreement among panelist was reached for: 1) definition, classification, detection and differential diagnosis; 2) medical treatment; 3) surgical treatment; 4) role of OnabotA in the treatment of OAB. the consensus is broadly in line with the latest scientific evidence on OAB. The panelists believe that it is necessary to propose a change in the current definition of OAB and that it seems necessary to improve the screening tools too. Medical treatment of OAB must be tailored to each patient, staged and progressive. The use of OnabotA (Botox(®)) could imply therapeutic advantages with respect to other treatments, and positions itself as a safe and effective alternative to treat drug refractory OAB. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural adaptation to Spanish (Spain) of the "Overactive Bladder - Family Impact Measure (OAB-FIM)" questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlandis Guzmán, S; Martínez Cuenca, E; Martínez García, R; Bonillo García, M A; Rejas, J; Broseta-Rico, E

    2017-06-01

    The OAB-FIM was developed as a measure of the impact of an overactive bladder (OAB) on relatives who live with the patient. The objective of this study was conduct a cultural adaptation to Spanish (Spain) of the OAB-FIM questionnaire. The adaptation included a conceptual and linguistic validation phase, as well as a phase for measuring the psychometric properties in 25 relatives [mean age, 63.0 years (SD, 14.3); 44% women] who regularly live with patients with OAB, who are of either sex and 18 years of age or older. We measured conceptual and linguistic equivalence, internal reliability, construct validity and content validity. We assessed the applicability and administration load. The OAB-FIM was conceptually and linguistically equivalent to the original, maintaining its 6 domains: social, travel, worry, irritability, sleep and sex. The interagreement correctly placed all items in their domain, except for number 10, which was placed more in worry than in irritability, motivates its reformulation. Some 2.95% of the items were missing. The floor and ceiling effects of the items varied, respectively, between 20-28%, and 0-16%. The mean time for completing the questionnaire was 5.2minutes (SD, 2.8), and 24% of the participants required some type of assistance. The α-Cronbach coefficient varied between 0.948-0.839. The correlations with similar scales in the family were moderate-high (0.407-0.753) or small-moderate with those administered to the patient (0.004-0.423). We obtained a Spanish (Spain) version of the OAB-FIM that was conceptually and linguistically equivalent to the original. The questionnaire showed good internal consistency, content and construct validity and applicability. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Impact of daily number of urgency urinary incontinence episodes on overactive bladder patient reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Brenes, F J; Lizarraga, I; Rejas, J; Trillo, S; Ochayta, D; Arumi, D

    2016-04-01

    To explore the impact of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) on well-being in non-institutionalized patients with overactive bladder (OAB) in a community sample. A cross-sectional web-based study was conducted in the general population, including males and females, >18 years of age. Patients with probable OAB were identified using a validated algorithm together with a score ≥8 on the OAB-V8 scale. Presence of coping behavior was considered determinant for the clinical diagnosis of OAB. Individual well-being was determined through a battery of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measurements including assessment of health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), sleep disturbances (MOS Sleep), and life satisfaction (LISAT-8). Patients were grouped according to the number of daily UUI episodes (UUI severity): 0 (dry OAB),1, 2-3, or ≥4. Multivariate analysis to evaluate factors independently affecting quality of life was undertaken. A total of 396 patients (52.5% women, mean age: 55.3 [11.1] years, OAB-V8 mean score: 14.5 [7.9]) out of 2035 subjects participating from the general population met the criteria for OAB: 203 (51.3%) with 0episodes, 119 (30.1%) with 1, 52 (13.1%) with 2 or 3, and 22 (5.6%) with ≥4 episodes. A statistically significant linear adjusted association was found between number of UUI episodes and PRO scores. Participants with more episodes had poorer health profiles and self-evaluated quality of life, worse life satisfaction, and more sleep disturbances and fewer hours of sleep per night. Number of incontinence episodes was independent factor to affect quality of life using both LISAT-8 and MOS questionnaires. Severity of UUI was significantly associated with poorer individual well-being in subjects with OAB in a community sample in Spain. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of fecal retention is important in the management of overactive bladder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You Jin; Seo, Bo Seon; Lee, Jun Ho; Jeong, Su Jin

    2017-02-01

    The investigation of fecal retention using objective and patient-friendly tools, rather than the diagnosis of constipation, might be important in the management of overactive bladder (OAB) in children. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and grade of fecal retention in children with OAB and to determine the effectiveness of laxative treatment for fecal retention in the management of OAB in children. This study included 88 children with OAB aged 5-15 years. Fecal retention was defined as type 1/2 feces (Bristol stool form scale) or a Leech score above eight points, and constipation was determined according to the ROME III criteria. Among the 88 children, 71 with fecal retention or constipation were treated with oral laxatives (polyethylene glycol 3,350/4,000 or lactulose) for 2 weeks, and the responses to the treatment were assessed. Among the 88 children, 63 (71.6%) had a Leech score above eight points as assessed by plain abdominal radiography, 52 (59.1%) had type 1/2 feces (Bristol stool form scale), 24 (27.3%) had functional constipation and only 6 (6.8%) had none of either. Among the 71 children who received laxative treatment for 2 weeks, 58 (81.7%) reported an improvement in OAB symptoms. Additionally, the number of children with a Leech score above eight points was significantly higher in the good response group than in the poor response group (P = 0.014). Investigation of fecal retention with the Leech scoring system and laxative treatment might be helpful in the management of OAB in children. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:490-494, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Position statement: a clinical approach to the management of adult non-neurogenic overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Lee, Dominic; Gani, Johan; Gillman, Michael; Maher, Christopher; Brennan, Janelle; Johns Putra, Lydia; Ahmad, Laura; Chan, Lewis Lw

    2018-01-15

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent medical condition that has an adverse impact on various health-related quality-of-life domains, including a significant psychosocial and financial burden. This position statement, formulated by members of the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand and the UroGynaecological Society of Australasia, summarises the current recommendations for clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies in patients with non-neurogenic OAB, and guides clinicians in the decision-making process for managing the condition using evidence-based medicine. Main recommendations: Diagnosis and initial management should be based on thorough clinical history, examination and basic investigations to exclude underlying treatable causes such as urinary tract infection and urological malignancy. Initial treatment strategies for OAB involve conservative management with behavioural modification and bladder retraining. Second-line management involves medical therapy using anticholinergic or β3 agonist drugs provided there is adequate assessment of bladder emptying. If medical therapy is unsuccessful, further investigations with urodynamic studies and cystourethroscopy are recommended to guide further treatment. Intravesical botulinum toxin and sacral neuromodulation should be considered in medical refractory OAB. Changes in management as a result of this statement: OAB is a constellation of urinary symptoms and is a chronic condition with a low likelihood of cure; managing patient expectations is essential because OAB is challenging to treat. At present, the exact pathogenesis of OAB remains unclear and it is likely that there are multiple factors involved in this disease complex. Current medical treatment remains far from ideal, although minimally invasive surgery can be effective. Further research into the pathophysiology of this common condition will hopefully guide future developments in disease management.

  9. Balance Training Enhances Vestibular Function and Reduces Overactive Proprioceptive Feedback in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella K. Wiesmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Postural control in elderly people is impaired by degradations of sensory, motor, and higher-level adaptive mechanisms. Here, we characterize the effects of a progressive balance training program on these postural control impairments using a brain network model based on system identification techniques.Methods and Material: We analyzed postural control of 35 healthy elderly subjects and compared findings to data from 35 healthy young volunteers. Eighteen elderly subjects performed a 10 week balance training conducted twice per week. Balance training was carried out in static and dynamic movement states, on support surfaces with different elastic compliances, under different visual conditions and motor tasks. Postural control was characterized by spontaneous sway and postural reactions to pseudorandom anterior-posterior tilts of the support surface. Data were interpreted using a parameter identification procedure based on a brain network model.Results: With balance training, the elderly subjects significantly reduced their overly large postural reactions and approximated those of younger subjects. Less significant differences between elderly and young subjects' postural control, namely larger spontaneous sway amplitudes, velocities, and frequencies, larger overall time delays and a weaker motor feedback compared to young subjects were not significantly affected by the balance training.Conclusion: Balance training reduced overactive proprioceptive feedback and restored vestibular orientation in elderly. Based on the assumption of a linear deterioration of postural control across the life span, the training effect can be extrapolated as a juvenescence of 10 years. This study points to a considerable benefit of a continuous balance training in elderly, even without any sensorimotor deficits.

  10. Which single-item measures of overactive bladder symptom treatment correlate best with patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Martin C; Oelke, Matthias; Vogel, Monika; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

    2011-04-01

    While complex symptom scales are important research tools, simpler, preferably single item scales may be more useful for routine clinical practise in the evaluation of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). This study aimed to compare multiple single-item scales at baseline and after treatment with patient-reported overall rating of treatment efficacy. In a pre-planned secondary analysis of a previously reported observational study, 4,450 patients were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks open-label treatment with solifenacin. Apart from episode counting for classical OAB symptoms, the following single-item rating scales were applied: Indevus Urgency Severity Scale, Urgency Perception Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), quality of life question of the IPSS, and general health and bladder problem questions of the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ). At baseline OAB symptoms correlated at best moderately with each (r = 0.285-0.508) other or with any of the rating scales (r = 0.060-0.399). Pair-wise correlations between treatment-associated symptom or scale improvements tended to be tighter (r = 0.225-0.588). When compared to patient-reported efficacy, the VAS (r = 0.487) and the bladder problem question of the KHQ (r = 0.452) showed the tightest correlation, whereas all symptom and rating scale improvements exhibited poor correlation with patient-reported tolerability (r ≤ 0.283). The VAS and the bladder problem question of the KHQ show the greatest promise as single-item scales to assess problem intensity in OAB patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of Inferior Oblique Muscle Overaction Existence Time and Surgical Outcomes in Infantile Esotropia

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    Mehmet Ragıp Ekmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluation of inferior oblique muscle overaction (IOOA existence time and surgical outcomes in infantile esotropia. Material and Method: A total of 100 patients who underwent operation for infantile esotropia (IE were included in the study. Full ophthalmic assessment, including ocular motility, best-corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, any of alternant prism cover test or Hirschberg/Krimsky test, was performed. Results: Forty-nine patients (49% were male and (51% were female. The mean age at IE diagnosis was 23.2±18.6 months. The mean follow-up time was 43.7±18.0 months. The mean horizontal deviation - corrected and uncorrected - was 36.75±10.45 PD and 40.05±8.39 PD, respectively. We found that there was no statistically significant relationship between existence time of IOOA and the age at IE diagnosis (p: 0.486, p: 0.251. IOOA was detected in 69 patients. Inferior oblique (IO muscle weakening procedures were performed in 45 of 69 patients. In 45 patients who had undergone surgery for IOOA, 24 (53.3% had bilateral IO recession, 10 (22.2% had bilateral IO tenotomy, 8 (17.7% had unilateral IO tenotomy, 1(2.2% had unilateral myectomy, 1 (2.2% had bilateral myectomy, and 1 (2.2% had bilateral anteroposition. IOOA degrees after IO recession and tenotomy surgery were found to be significantly lower than the preoperative values (p=0.0586, p=0.7258. Discussion: There was no statistically significant relationship between the existence time of IOOA and the age of IE diagnosis. We concluded that IO tenotomy and IO recession surgical techniques are effective and safe procedures for cases which have IOOA associated with IE. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 419-23

  12. [Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with overactive bladder. Patient management in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlandis Guzmán, Salvador; García Matres, María Justa; González Segura, Diego; Rebollo, Pablo

    2009-09-01

    The control of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms, without worsening voiding symptoms, has become an important therapeutic goal in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of other associated LUTS in patients with OAB. Epidemiological, observational, cross-sectional and multi-centre study, carried out at urology clinics/divisions throughout Spain. The sample included male patients older than 40 who came in for a urology consultation with filling symptoms compatible with OAB. Patient data were collected from the clinical history (demographic data, prostatic disease, other urological and concomitant diseases, OAB and other LUTS symptom data, diagnostic method and treatment data) and from the interview with the patient (I-PSS questionnaire). 1,754 patients were included in the study. Mean age (SD) of patients was 65.4 (9.7) years. 74.2% of patients presented a prostatic disease, mainly benign prostatic hyperplasia (90.6%); 8.4% had other urologic diseases and 67.4% had at least one concomitant disease relevant to OAB. 99% of all patients had had at least one urological diagnostic test, 78.4% had received some kind of drug to treat symptoms and 61.3% had taken hygiene or dietetic measures. Filling symptoms were more frequent (93.3%) than voiding symptoms (83.9%). Mean score in the I-PSS was 16.3 (5.6) points, symptoms scored as moderate in 1,153 patients (67.9%) and as severe in 463 patients (27.3%). Most male patients aged over 40 years with OAB symptoms showed other LUTS which worsened their quality of life. Taking this high revalence into account, it seems necessary to manage these patients' diagnosis and treatment according to their symptoms.

  13. Electronic bladder diaries of differing duration versus a paper diary for data collection in overactive bladder.

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    Abrams, Paul; Paty, Jean; Martina, Reynaldo; Newgreen, Donald T; van Maanen, Rob; Paireddy, Asha; Kuipers-deGroot, Trudy; Ridder, Arwin

    2016-08-01

    This observational study compared data values, reliability, consistency and compliance collected by electronic and paper diaries of differing durations. Subjects ≥18 years with overactive bladder (OAB) on stable antimuscarinic treatment for ≥12 weeks were assigned to one of five, 15-week diary schedules in this randomized, parallel-group observational study. Sample size was sufficient to assess reliability and consistency of diary data with adequate precision. Reliability was assessed via intraclass correlation coefficients, variability with ANCOVAs, and consistency using Cronbach's alpha. Demographic characteristics of randomized subjects were representative of OAB trial populations. For mean volume voided, reliability was comparable across diary groups. For incontinence, reliability improved with increasing diary duration. For micturition frequency, electronic 7-day diary results had highest reliability and lowest variability. Lowest overall reliability was observed in the 3-day paper diary. Consistency was highest in the electronic continuous groups; Cont A (daily measurements throughout the study period [fully Continuous]) and Cont B (daily measurements for some but not all endpoints of interest [Partially Continuous]). Compliance was generally high; across groups ≥90% of diaries had at least one entry per day. There was no significant change in average micturition frequency with diary duration, suggesting no diary fatigue. One-third of subjects in the electronic Cont B group also reported micturitions as incontinence when they only needed to report incontinence; they also reported lowest satisfaction with the study. The electronic 7-day and electronic Cont A schedules (who reported incontinence and micturitions throughout the study) had lowest residual errors. For future OAB trials, 7-day or continuous electronic diaries may improve accuracy and reliability of micturition and incontinence frequency data compared with shorter collection periods and paper

  14. The analysis of incontinence episodes and other count data in patients with overactive bladder by Poisson and negative binomial regression.

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    Martina, R; Kay, R; van Maanen, R; Ridder, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies in overactive bladder have traditionally used analysis of covariance or nonparametric methods to analyse the number of incontinence episodes and other count data. It is known that if the underlying distributional assumptions of a particular parametric method do not hold, an alternative parametric method may be more efficient than a nonparametric one, which makes no assumptions regarding the underlying distribution of the data. Therefore, there are advantages in using methods based on the Poisson distribution or extensions of that method, which incorporate specific features that provide a modelling framework for count data. One challenge with count data is overdispersion, but methods are available that can account for this through the introduction of random effect terms in the modelling, and it is this modelling framework that leads to the negative binomial distribution. These models can also provide clinicians with a clearer and more appropriate interpretation of treatment effects in terms of rate ratios. In this paper, the previously used parametric and non-parametric approaches are contrasted with those based on Poisson regression and various extensions in trials evaluating solifenacin and mirabegron in patients with overactive bladder. In these applications, negative binomial models are seen to fit the data well. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Correlation between overactive bladder symptom score and neuropsychological parameters in Alzheimer’s disease patients with lower urinary tract symptom

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    Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Lee, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Tae; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores. PMID:27802001

  16. Overactive bladder and autonomic dysfunction: Lower urinary tract symptoms in females with postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Melissa R; Chang-Kit, Laura; Raj, Satish R; Black, Bonnie K; Milam, Douglas F; Reynolds, W Stuart; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2017-03-01

    Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) represents an autonomic disorder predominantly affecting females between 15 and 50 years of age. POTS is a chronic disorder (>6 months) characterized by an excessive heart rate increment on standing (>30 beats/min) in the presence of characteristic symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion or sympathetic activation. Patients have clinically been noted to describe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), although urologic symptoms have not been methodically assessed in the POTS population. Herein, we present data from a pilot study designed to identify and quantitate overactive bladder (OAB) in patients diagnosed with POTS. Patients admitted to the Vanderbilt Autonomic Dysfunction Center between June 2009 and October 2010 for evaluation for the potential diagnosis of POTS completed a validated, standardized questionnaire for OAB (OAB-q) at presentation. Symptom score and subscale analyses were conducted. Subscale health related quality of life (HRQL) scores were transformed into a 0-100 scale, with higher scores reflecting superior HRQL. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Thirty-two females presented for evaluation of symptoms consistent with POTS. Twenty-nine women were subsequently diagnosed with POTS with 19 of these patients completing the OAB-q questionnaire (65.5% response rate). Average age was 33.5 ± 8.3 years. Symptom severity transformed score was 26.0 ± 16.4, with 13 of 19 patients (68.4%) meeting clinical criteria for diagnosis of probable clinically significant OAB. Nocturia was the most bothersome symptom, followed by increased daytime frequency and urgency. This pilot study describes bothersome lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients presenting with POTS as assessed by patient-reported questionnaire data. Nocturia demonstrated the greatest negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL), while social interaction was the least affected HRQL domain. In patients with dysautonomia, this data provides a

  17. Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation Improves Female Sexual Function in Women With Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

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    Musco, Stefania; Serati, Maurizio; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Lumi, Ermal; Parisi, Annunziata Isabella; Del Popolo, Giulio; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is an established treatment for overactive bladder (OAB), especially in women with other concomitant pelvic disorders, such as sexual impairment. To evaluate the impact of PTNS on female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in women undergoing PTNS for OAB and analyze the results. An observational prospective study was conducted in two Italian centers. Consecutive women undergoing PTNS for dry OAB were enrolled from May 2013 to June 2014. All patients were asked to complete the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the OAB short-form questionnaire, and a 24-hour bladder diary at baseline and 3 months later, at the end of the PTNS course. Patients with an FSFI total score no higher than 26.55 at inclusion were considered as presenting with FSD. Patients with an FSFI total score higher than 26.55 after treatment (if the increase in FSFI score was ≥20%) were considered FSD objective responders. Sexuality was assessed using the FSFI. The 24-hour bladder diary and completed OAB short-form questionnaire were assessed before and after PTNS to evaluate OAB symptoms. Forty-one women were evaluable. Twenty-one of 41 women (51%; mean age = 51 ± 10.67 years) were considered affected by FSD at inclusion. All FSFI domains showed statistically significant improvement in women with FSD (P < .05). In particular, 9 of 21 patients with FSD (43%) objectively responded (before treatment: mean FSFI total score = 18.11, range 10.8-26.3; after treatment: mean FSFI total score = 31.04, range 27.6-35). Also, women without FSD at baseline reported statistically significant improvement in their sexual function based on FSFI scores (P < .05). No significant correlations were seen between data questionnaires. PTNS improves sexual function in women with dry OAB. This amelioration is independent of urinary symptoms. Further studies are needed to confirm a possible role of PTNS in treating FSD. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine

  18. The effect of extended release tolterodine used for overactive bladder treatment on female sexual function

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    Athanasios Zachariou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Overactive bladder (OAB is a common condition, especially in middle aged women, requiring long term therapy with anticholinergics to maintain symptoms relief. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of tolterodine extended release (ER used for OAB treatment on the sexual function of women. Materials and Methods Between August 2010 and August 2014, 220 women with confirmed OAB, attended Urogynecology Outpatient Clinic and were prospectively enrolled in this study. 158 women were evaluated, with a comprehensive history, physical examination, urodynamic studies and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. 73 patients of group A (control group received no treatment and 85 patients of group B received an anticholinergic regimen – tolterodine ER 4mg once daily. Data were evaluated again in accordance with FSFI after three months, using SPSS software. Results A statistically significant increase was noted in group B in domains of desire (pre-treatment 2.5±0.2 to 4.5±0.2 post-treatment, arousal (3.1±0.2 to 3.1±0.2 respectively, lubrication (3.4±0.3 to 4.3±0.3 respectively, orgasm (3.5±0.3 to 4.5±0.3 respectively, satisfaction (2.6±0.2 to 4.2±0.3 respectively and pain (2.4±0.2 to 4.6±0.4 respectively after three months treatment with tolterodine ER. In group A there were no statistically significant changes in pre and post treatment values (p>0.05. Total FSFI score for group B was significantly higher after tolterodine treatment (26.5±1.5 compared to pre-treatment values (17.4±1.4, p0,05 respectively. Conclusions This preliminary study demonstrates that treatment of OAB with tolterodine ER was found to have positive effect on sexual function of patients with OAB.

  19. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical stimulation for overactive bladder in children: An assessment per session.

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    Veiga, Maria Luiza; Queiroz, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Maria Clara; Braga, Ana Aparecida Nascimento Martineli; Sousa, Ariane Sampaio; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2016-10-01

    Neuromodulation has emerged as an effective therapeutic option for treatment of OAB in children. However, to our knowledge, no study has yet evaluated the results of neuromodulation on a session-by-session basis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of complete response of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms for each session of transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS), in a protocol of 20 sessions of therapy. This is a prospective study of the improvement of LUTS in children with isolated OAB. Included in this study were children over the age of 4 years who complained of urinary urgency, had bell-or tower-shaped uroflowmetry patterns, and post-void residual urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to urinary tract abnormalities. All patients underwent parasacral transcutaneous neurostimulation (TENS). The development of symptoms was observed right before each session using a visual analog scale (VAS) in which 0 means the absence of improvement and 10 represents maximum improvement of symptoms. We noted a complete resolution of symptoms (urgency, urge incontinence, frequency, and holding maneuvers) in some patients starting after the third session. In the 10th and 20th (last) sessions, 12 (17.4%) and 38 (55.1%) patients reported a complete resolution of symptoms. After complete resolution, 12 (17.4%) patients reported that their symptoms worsened to a minimum level of 40% improvement, but this was temporary and all returned to 100% improvement. Children who showed an improvement level greater than 50% in the fifth treatment session were 4.18 (p = 0.007) times more likely to have success in the last treatment session. We found that a patient can experience complete symptom resolution as quickly as following the third session of TENS. The complete response rate progressively increases with the number of sessions, slowly until the 12th session and more rapidly after that. When symptom improvement of at least 50% is reported in the fifth session, there is a

  20. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder in constipated children: The role of constipation.

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    Veiga, Maria Luiza; Costa, Elen Veruska; Portella, Inaah; Nacif, Ananda; Martinelli Braga, Ana Aparecida; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2016-12-01

    Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an effective method for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), and, additionally, it accelerates bowel transit time. Therefore, not only does parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), but it also resolves the problem of constipation in a significant number of children. Since TENS has a positive effect on LUTS and on the symptoms of fecal retention, it is possible that its action regarding OAB could be directly associated with the improvement in constipation. In other words, the positive effect of parasacral TENS in OAB would be because constipation was resolved. The objective of this study was to test that hypothesis. To test the hypothesis that the positive effect of parasacral TENS in OAB would be because constipation had improved with this method. In this prospective study, children with OAB alone were submitted to parasacral TENS. The inclusion criteria consisted of children with idiopathic OAB alone The Rome III criteria for children of 4-18 years of age were used to diagnose constipation. All the children were treated with 20 sessions of parasacral TENS applied for 20 min, three times weekly on alternating days (Figure). No instructions were given to the participants with respect to diet, laxatives, or pharmaceutical treatment for constipation throughout the study period. None of the patients used anticholinergics. Standard urotherapy was prescribed. Parasacral TENS improves OAB and constipation. The presence of constipation before treatment was not associated with a poorer prognosis insofar as the resolution of the symptoms of OAB was concerned. Likewise, there was no association between the resolution of constipation with parasacral TENS and the resolution of OAB. There was no statistically significant difference in urinary symptoms between the constipated and nonconstipated children. There was an improvement in urgency

  1. Safety and tolerability of β3-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome - insight from transcriptosome and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Gravas, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    We have reviewed the safety and tolerability of β3-adrenoceptor agonists, specifically mirabegron and solabegron, a newly emerging drug class for the treatment of the overactive bladder syndrome. We discuss them mechanistically in the context of expression and other preclinical data. Based on a

  2. Voiding diary might serve as a useful tool to understand differences between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder.

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    Kim, Sung Han; Oh, Shin Ah; Oh, Seung-June

    2014-02-01

    To identify the voiding characteristics of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder. Between September 2005 and June 2010, 3-day voiding diaries of 49 consecutive bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients and 301 overactive bladder patients were prospectively collected at an outpatient clinic and retrospectively analyzed. The characteristics of the two groups were not significantly different. However, all voiding variables including volume and frequency were significantly different except for the total voided volume: patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis showed significantly higher voiding frequencies, smaller maximal and mean voided volume, and more constant and narrower ranges of voided volume compared with overactive bladder patients (P interstitial cystitis were shorter and more consistent during the day and night (P interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder patients differ significantly according to 3-day voiding diary records. These findings provide additional information regarding the differences between these two diseases in the outpatient clinical setting. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder: results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fesoterodine in an aging population trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagg, Adrian; Khullar, Vik; Marschall-Kehrel, Daniela; Michel, Martin C.; Oelke, Matthias; Darekar, Amanda; Bitoun, Caty E.; Weinstein, David; Osterloh, Ian

    2013-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder (OAB). Twelve-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-one outpatient clinics in Europe, Israel, and Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-four individuals aged 65 and older (47%

  4. Long-term safety, efficacy, and tolerability of imidafenacin in the treatment of overactive bladder: a review of the Japanese literature

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    Masumori N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Naoya MasumoriDepartment of Urology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Imidafenacin is an antimuscarinic agent with high affinity for the M3 and M1 muscarinic receptor subtypes and low affinity for the M2 subtype, and is used to treat overactive bladder. Several animal studies have demonstrated that imidafenacin has organ selectivity for the bladder over the salivary glands, colon, heart, and brain. In Phase I studies in humans, the approximately 2.9-hour elimination half-life of imidafenacin was shorter than that of other antimuscarinics such as tolterodine and solifenacin. Imidafenacin was approved for clinical use in overactive bladder in Japan in 2007 after a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II study and a propiverine-controlled Phase III study conducted in Japanese patients demonstrated that imidafenacin 0.1 mg twice daily was clinically effective for treating overactive bladder and was not inferior to propiverine for reduction of episodes of incontinence, with a better safety profile than propiverine. Several short-term clinical studies have demonstrated that imidafenacin also improves sleep disorders, nocturia, and nocturia-related quality of life. In addition, it is speculated that addon therapy with imidafenacin is beneficial for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia whose overactive bladder symptoms are not controlled by alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists. No cognitive impairment or influence of imidafenacin on the QTc interval has been observed. Although there have been very few relevant long-term clinical studies, the available information suggests the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of imidafenacin, with less frequent severe adverse events, such as dry mouth and constipation. In addition, imidafenacin can be used safely for a long time even for cognitively vulnerable elderly patients with symptoms of overactive bladder. Thus, it is highly likely that imidafenacin is

  5. Evaluation and treatment of the overactive bladder Avaliação e tratamento da bexiga hiperativa

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    Eric S. Rovner

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The overactive bladder is characterized by symptoms of frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence, substantially affecting the quality of life of millions of people throughout the world. The symptoms are associated with significant social, psychological, occupational, domestic, physical, and sexual problems. Despite the considerable impact of this condition on quality of life, sufferers are often unwilling to discuss their problem with family members or health care professionals. This situation is unfortunate, for much can be done to alleviate the symptoms of this distressing condition. It is therefore of utmost importance that medical education about symptoms of the overactive bladder and other related problems be improved to help health care professionals identify and treat patients who will benefit from therapy. This article reviews current thinking regarding definition, epidemiology, quality of life effects, evaluation, and management of the overactive bladder.A bexiga hiperativa é caracterizada pelos sintomas de freqüência, urgência e urge-incontinência e afeta de forma significativa o estilo de vida de milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. Os sintomas são responsáveis por problemas nas esferas social, psicológica, ocupacional, doméstica, física e sexual dos pacientes. Apesar do considerável impacto desta condição sobre a qualidade de vida, grande parte dos pacientes reluta em discutir o problema com membros da família ou profissionais de saúde. Esta situação é lamentável, já que existem muitas maneiras de aliviar os sintomas da hiperatividade vesical. Por essa razão, é fundamental que se aprimore a educação médica sobre os sintomas de hiperatividade vesical e outros problemas relacionados, de modo a preparar os profissionais de saúde a identificar e tratar os pacientes com esta condição. Este artigo é uma revisão dos conceitos atuais, definição, epidemiologia, efeitos sobre a qualidade de vida, avaliação e

  6. Re: Prospective Pilot Study of Mirabegron in Pediatric Patients with Overactive Bladder

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    Sinharib Çitgez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL COMMENT Overactive bladder (OAB is a highly prevalent disorder in the pediatric population. This event negatively affects and impairs children’s development. Antimuscarinics are the mainstay pharmacological management of OAB, but their side effects profile limits their use. Mirabegron, a new molecule with a distinct mechanism of action (b3-adrenoreceptor agonist, was recently approved as monotherapy for idiopathic OAB in adults but has not been studied in the pediatric population. Blais et al. have evaluated the efficacy and safety of mirabegron in the treatment of urinary incontinence in children with idiopathic OAB who were refractory to and/or intolerant of antimuscarinics. This prospective off-label study, using an adjusted-dose regimen of mirabegron (25-50 mg, included pediatric patients with refractory urinary incontinence due to OAB. Patients without symptom improvement or with partial response under intensive behavioral protocol and medical therapy (at least two different antimuscarinic agents were included in the study. Their primary outcome was better reported efficacy than with the use of prior anticholinergic medication. Secondary end points were tolerability and safety. Families were questioned for continence, side effects, compliance, and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC questionnaire. A total of 58 patients (14 girls, 44 boys were enrolled in a mirabegron open-label trial. The median age at initiation of mirabegron was 10.1 years [interquartile range (IQR: 8.8-13.5]. The median duration of treatment was 11.5 months (IQR: 6.0-15.0. The median bladder capacity improved from 150 ml to 200 ml (p<0.001. Continence improved in 52 of 58, with 13 being completely dry. The median PPBC score improved from 4.0 to 2.0 (p<0.001. The authors also assessed the safety of mirabegron. All electrocardiogram and blood tests remained normal. No significant change in blood pressure (<5 mmHg and heart rate (fewer than five beats

  7. You are what you eat: the impact of diet on overactive bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms.

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    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2014-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a clinical syndrome describing the symptom complex of urgency, with or without urgency incontinence and is usually associated with frequency and nocturia. The symptoms associated with OAB are common and whilst not life threatening are known to have a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL). There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of OAB symptoms. Whilst fluid in-take is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of caffeine, carbonated drinks and artificial sweeteners are less well understood. Consequently the aim of this paper is to review the evidence and investigate the effect of diet on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The inhibitory effects of pudendal nerve stimulation on bladder overactivity in spinal cord injury dogs: is early stimulation necessary?

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    Chen, Guoqing; Liao, Limin; Dong, Qian; Ju, Yanhe

    2012-01-01

    To determine the inhibitory effects of pudendal nerve stimulation (5 Hz) on bladder overactivity at early and late stages of spinal cord injury in dogs. The study was performed in eight dogs with chronic spinal cord transection at the T9-T10 level. Group 1 (four dogs) underwent electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve one month after spinal cord transection. Group 2 (four dogs) underwent stimulation six months after spinal cord transection. The bladders were removed for histological examination of fibrosis after the stimulation. The bladder capacity and the compliance were significantly increased (p stimulation in group 1, but not in group 2. The nonvoiding contractions were inhibited in both groups by electrical stimulation. Collagen fiber was increased, while elastic fiber was significantly decreased (p stimulation can increase the bladder capacity and compliance only during the early period before the bladder wall becomes fibrosit and can inhibit the nonvoiding contraction during two stages. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  9. A Narrative Review of Patient-reported Outcomes in Overactive Bladder: What is the Way of the Future?

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    Chapple, Christopher R; Kelleher, Con J; Evans, Chris J; Kopp, Zoe; Siddiqui, Emad; Johnson, Nathan; Mako, Morgan

    2016-11-01

    Debate exists on overactive bladder (OAB) treatment-response assessment in clinical trials and the nature and shortcomings of the different endpoints used in OAB clinical research. To evaluate current evidence and tools that measure OAB treatment response in clinical trials and to inform the development of a new multidimensional patient-reported outcome (PRO) that could be used as a primary endpoint in OAB trials. We conducted a narrative review of OAB literature available in the PubMed database published between January 1, 2004 and June 30, 2015. Eighty articles were selected for full text review. The assessment of treatment outcomes in OAB is challenging due to the heterogeneity of symptoms and reliance on PROs. OAB studies report a high level of placebo effect and the placebo response is poorly understood. We found significant correlations between PRO measures and bladder diaries. There is evidence of several issues with the bladder diary: burden, over/underestimation, recall period, and lack of validation. Trials for other conditions-interstitial cystitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, headache, and restless legs syndrome-have used symptom scales rather than diaries to measure treatment outcomes and some now incorporate PRO measures as primary, coprimary, and secondary endpoints. The International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society recommends evaluation of satisfaction, symptoms, health-related quality of life, and adverse events. There is strong evidence of the shortcomings in current approaches to measuring OAB outcomes in clinical trials and recognition that a new simpler approach which incorporates symptom and health-related quality of life assessment could provide a more comprehensive, standardized approach to OAB assessment. Overactive bladder is a urinary syndrome. Individuals experience different symptoms to varying degrees, which poses difficulties in accurately measuring the effect of treatment. This review found evidence and

  10. A prospective, observational study to assess the association between dry mouth and solifenacin treatment in patients with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junsoo; Chun, Ji-Youn; Kim, Jang Hwan; Cheon, Si-Yeol; Song, Miho; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul; Choi, Jong Bo; Seo, Ju Tae; Cho, Sung Yong

    2015-02-01

    Dry mouth is among the most common side effects of antimuscarinic therapy. This study evaluated the drug-related change in dry mouth after the solifenacin treatment and the impact of dry mouth on the drug efficacy against overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). OAB patients (n = 331) were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, 8-week observational study of solifenacin treatment. Participants were >20 years of age and presented with OAB symptoms for ≥3 months, a total overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) of ≥3, and an urgency score of ≥2. Primary endpoints were changes in dry mouth according to baseline dry mouth status using Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and the effect of dry mouth to the drug efficacy according to improvements in the OABSS. Three hundred and thirty-three patients were initially screened for the study, with 331 actually enrolled. One hundred and ninety-four patients completed the study. Mean total XI scores increased by 2.8 points in the entire patient population, with larger increases for patients stratified into the non-dry mouth group (NDG) versus the dry mouth group (DG) (4.0 vs. 1.9, p = 0.015) at study baseline. Mean total OABSSs decreased by 3.2 points, with no significant differences between the NDG and the DG (-3.4 vs. -3.0 points, p = 0.578). The dry mouth aggravated in 71 patients (29.2 %) (NDG 30.1 % and DG 27.1 %), but only 10/331 individuals (3.0 %) stopped medication due to xerostomia. Dry mouth progressed in approximately 30 % of the OAB patients, regardless of its presence before solifenacin treatment. However, OAB symptoms were well relieved by solifenacin, and the adverse influence of dry mouth on drug persistence was low.

  11. Older People's Preferences for Side Effects Associated with Antimuscarinic Treatments of Overactive Bladder: A Discrete-Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decalf, Veerle H; Huion, Anja M J; Benoit, Dries F; Denys, Marie-Astrid; Petrovic, Mirko; Everaert, Karel C M M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the importance older people attribute to the different side effects associated with oral antimuscarinic treatments for overactive bladder (OAB) could help inform prescribers, healthcare policy makers and the drug industry. Our objective was to quantify the importance of the most prevalent cognitive and side effects of oral antimuscarinic treatments for OAB in older people. We conducted a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) with the assistance of an interviewer with community-dwelling and hospitalized older people aged >65 years. The DCE involved two hypothetical drugs for imaginary OAB, with three levels of four side effects for each drug, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Overactive Bladder and EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire were also administered. Data were analysed using a conditional logit model. In total, 276 older people participated in the study. The median age was 75 years (interquartile range [IQR] 69-80), 63% were women and 21% had OAB syndrome. The most unwanted side effect in the choice of antimuscarinics for OAB was severe cognitive effects, followed by severe constipation, severe blurred vision, severe dry mouth, moderate cognitive effects and moderate constipation. Severe cognitive effects were at least 1.7 times as important as severe constipation. Exploratory subgroup analysis showed that none of the attributes was found to be significant in people who scored as anxious or depressed on the EQ-5D, and preferences about cognitive effects, constipation and blurred vision were equal in people with and without OAB. Older people attribute more importance to loss of cognitive function as a possible side effect of antimuscarinic treatment than to the three most prevalent possible side effects of this treatment.

  12. Prevalence of overactive bladder in China, Taiwan and South Korea: Results from a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Liao, Limin; Wang, Jianye; Yoo, Tag Keun; Chu, Romeo; Sumarsono, Budiwan

    2017-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in individuals aged ≥40 years in China, Taiwan, and South Korea. The present cross-sectional population-representative Internet-based study investigated OAB symptoms in men and women aged ≥40 years using the overactive bladder symptom score. Additional instruments included the International Index of Erectile Function (men only) and the Sexual Quality of Life - Female (women only) questionnaires, as well as Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC). In all, 8284 individuals participated in the study. The prevalence of OAB was 20.8% overall (women 22.1%, men 19.5%) and increased significantly with age, from 10.8% in those aged 40-44 years to 27.9% in those aged >60 years (P = .001). The presence of comorbid conditions (e.g. neurological disease, diabetes) was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of OAB. Increasing symptom severity was associated with significantly worsening patient perception of bladder condition responses. Just under half (48%) of those with no OAB had no lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), whereas 88% of those with severe symptoms had all 3 LUTS (International Continence Society definition) symptom categories (voiding, post-micturition, and storage symptoms). Of those without OAB, 10% reported visiting healthcare professionals for urinary symptoms, compared with 64% of those with severe OAB symptoms (P = .001). Increased symptom severity was significantly associated with lower sexual quality of life in both men and women. OAB symptoms were found to affect 1 in 5 individuals aged ≥40 years in China, Taiwan, and South Korea, becoming more common with increasing age. The results suggest that many more individuals with OAB could benefit by consulting healthcare professionals. © 2017 The Authors. LUTS Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. The Effect of Electrical Nerve Stimulation in Management of Overactive Bladder in the Pediatric Population; A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Roshdibonab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In traditional medicine and recent years, nerve stimulation has been introduced as a replacement therapy for managing several disorders such as overactive bladder. However, there is still controversy in this regard. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aimed to assess the effectiveness of electrical nerve stimulation in treatment of overactive bladder.Methods: The present systematic review and meta-analysis attempted to gather the evidence existing in Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences and CINHAL databases until the end of October 2017. Summarization of the articles was done by 2 independent researchers and finally, pooled effect size was reported as standardized mean difference (SMD or overall odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (95% CI. In all analyses p

  14. Anticholinergic drugs versus non-drug active therapies for non-neurogenic overactive bladder syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Cody, June D; Alhasso, Ammar; Stewart, Laurence

    2012-12-12

    Overactive bladder syndrome is defined as urgency with or without urgency incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia. Pharmacotherapy with anticholinergic drugs is often the first line medical therapy, either alone or as an adjunct to various non-pharmacological therapies after conservative options such as reducing intake of caffeine drinks have been tried. Non-pharmacologic therapies consist of bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback, behavioural modification, electrical stimulation and surgical interventions. To compare the effects of anticholinergic drugs with various non-pharmacologic therapies for non-neurogenic overactive bladder syndrome in adults. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 4 September 2012), which includes searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE, and the reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised, controlled trials of treatment with anticholinergic drugs for overactive bladder syndrome or urgency urinary incontinence in adults in which at least one management arm involved a non-drug therapy. Trials amongst patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction were excluded. Two authors evaluated the trials for appropriateness for inclusion and risk of bias. Two authors were involved in the data extraction. Data extraction was based on predetermined criteria. Data analysis was based on standard statistical approaches used in Cochrane reviews. Twenty three trials were included with a total of 3685 participants, one was a cross-over trial and the other 22 were parallel group trials. The duration of follow up varied from two to 52 weeks. The trials were generally small and of poor methodological quality. During treatment, symptomatic improvement was more common amongst those participants on anticholinergic drugs compared with bladder training in seven small trials (73/174, 42% versus 98/172, 57% not

  15. Phase II study on the efficacy and safety of the EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8539 for nonneurogenic overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, C R; Abrams, P; Andersson, K-E; Radziszewski, P; Masuda, T; Small, M; Kuwayama, T; Deacon, S

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8539 in patients with overactive bladder syndrome. This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, multicenter study with a 2-week single blind placebo run-in phase. The 435 patients were randomized to receive twice daily ONO-8539 (30, 100 or 300 mg), placebo or once daily tolterodine (4 mg). At the end of the 12-week treatment no statistically significant difference was found between ONO-8539 and placebo in the change from baseline in the number of micturitions per 24 hours. The primary end points for 30, 100 and 300 mg ONO-8539, and placebo were -1.02, -1.53, -1.31 and -1.40, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between any ONO-8539 group and placebo in the change from baseline in the number of urgency or urinary urgency incontinence episodes per 24 hours, or the mean volume voided per micturition, which were secondary end points. Statistically significant differences for tolterodine vs placebo were observed in the change from baseline in the number of micturitions (p = 0.045), urgency episodes (p = 0.04) and mean volume voided per micturition (p overactive bladder, suggest a minimal role for EP1 receptor antagonism in the management of overactive bladder syndrome. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dealing with complex overactive bladder syndrome patient profiles with focus on fesoterodine: in or out of the EAU guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesakkers J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available John Heesakkers,1 Montserrat Espuña Pons,2 Philip Toozs Hobson,3 Emmanuel Chartier-Kastler4 1Department of Urology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands; 2Pelvic Floor Unit, ICGON, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Urogynecology, Birmingham Women’s Hospital, Birmingham, UK; 4Department of Urology, Academic Hospital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Pierre et Marie Curie Medical School, Paris 6 University, Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France Abstract: Overactive bladder (OAB syndrome is a common, complex, and challenging condition. To assist the management of these patients, the European Association of Urology (EAU updates its guidelines annually. This review reports the presentations from the symposium titled “Dealing with complex OAB patient profiles: in or out of the EAU guidelines?” held at the 32nd EAU Annual Congress in March 2017 in London. The symposium focused on three groups of OAB patients: women who may also suffer pelvic organ prolapse, stress urinary incontinence, the genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM; patients at risk of cognitive impairment; and elderly patients. The aim of the symposium was to determine how the 2017 EAU guidelines can best assist physicians, as well as to assess the benefits of fesoterodine in these patients. The EAU guidelines recommend antimuscarinic agents (grade A for the medical treatment of OAB. In women, OAB is correlated with GSM, both of which are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Fesoterodine decreases OAB symptoms and the associated limitation of physical activity. A combination of fesoterodine and vaginal estrogens is appropriate for OAB associated with GSM. In patients at risk of cognitive impairment, prescribers should pay particular attention to the choice of medication. Fesoterodine is a Pgp substrate with limited ability to cross the blood–brain barrier, which may explain the lack

  17. Does industry-sponsored education foster overdiagnosis and overtreatment of depression, osteoporosis and over-active bladder syndrome? An Australian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara; Swandari, Swestika; Fabbri, Alice; Grundy, Quinn; Moynihan, Ray; Bero, Lisa

    2018-02-13

    To investigate patterns of industry-sponsored educational events that focus on specific health conditions for which there are concerns about overdiagnosis and overtreatment. This retrospective cohort study examines publicly reported industry-sponsored events in Australia from October 2011 to September 2015 for three conditions potentially subject to overdiagnosis and overtreatment: depression, osteoporosis and overactive bladder. We used a database of transparency reports to identify events with a focus on depression, osteoporosis and overactive bladder and compared these with other sponsored events. We hypothesised that companies marketing treatments for each condition would sponsor related events and that target audiences would mainly work in primary care, reflecting a broad patient population. Event and attendee characteristics, sponsoring companies, related marketed treatments, cost-effectiveness ratings and dispensing rates. Over the study period, we identified 1567 events focusing on depression, 1375 on osteoporosis and 190 on overactive bladder (total n=3132, with 96 660 attendees). These events were attended by primary care doctors more often than sponsored events without a focus on these three conditions: relative risk (RR)=3.06 (95% CI 2.81 to 3.32) for depression, RR=1.48 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.55) for osteoporosis and RR=2.59 (95% CI 2.09 to 3.21) for overactive bladder. Servier, which markets agomelatine and AstraZeneca (quetiapine) sponsored 51.2% and 23.0% of depression events, respectively. Amgen and GlaxoSmithKline, which co-market denosumab, sponsored 49.5% of osteoporosis events and Astellas and Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL) (mirabegron and solifenacin) sponsored 80.5% of overactive bladder events. This 4-year overview of industry-sponsored events on three overdiagnosed and overtreated conditions found that primary care clinicians were often targeted, dinner was often provided and that a few companies sponsored most events. In most cases

  18. Accuracy of ultrasound-measured bladder wall thickness for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.M. Ali

    measured urinary bladder wall thickness. (BWT) in the diagnosis of detrusor overactivity (DO). Subjects and methods: Patients who had undergone urodynamic testing due to irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were evaluated for ...

  19. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your bladder at all Have signs of a bladder infection (fever, burning when you urinate, frequent urination) Urinate small amounts, frequently Alternative Names Neurogenic detrusor overactivity; NDO; Neurogenic bladder sphincter dysfunction; NBSD ...

  20. Assessment of the efficacy of desmopressin in treatment of Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida ElBaz

    2015-03-31

    , detrusor muscle overactivity at night and lack of arousal from sleep, led to the proposal of various lines of treatment such as behavioral treatment, medical treatment like imipramine, oxybutynin, alarm therapy, hypnosis and.

  1. Imprisoned in the Cultural Stereotypes of Overactive Bladder: Cultural Meanings of Disease and Sick Role Adaptation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Judy Yuen-Man

    2016-01-01

    Diseases often carry cultural meanings and metaphors, and these meanings can influence illness experiences and behavioral responses. This research investigated how old cultural stereotypes and new social understandings of overactive bladder (OAB) intertwined to influence sick role adaptation and behavioral responses among those with OAB. A qualitative approach using in-depth individual, semistructured interviews was adopted. Thirty patients having OAB were purposively sampled from a patient self-help group for people with OAB. The cultural stereotypes about OAB-as an "old people" disease, as a hopeless disease without cure, as a sexually related disease, and as a disease of substance use-had significant impact on the social and illness experiences of participants, leading to difficulty in adapting to their sick role, indicated by behavioral responses of denial, concealment, resignation, and self-seclusion. Cultural stereotypes of OAB significantly influenced sick role adaptation, which affected illness experiences of persons with OAB. These cultural stereotypes were associated with behavioral responses that led to difficulties in coping with OAB.

  2. β3-Adrenoceptor agonists for overactive bladder syndrome: Role of translational pharmacology in a repositioning clinical drug development project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Martin C; Korstanje, Cees

    2016-03-01

    β3-Adrenoceptor agonists were originally considered as a promising drug class for the treatment of obesity and/or type 2 diabetes. When these development efforts failed, they were repositioned for the treatment of the overactive bladder syndrome. Based on the example of the β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron, but also taking into consideration evidence obtained with ritobegron and solabegron, we discuss challenges facing a translational pharmacology program accompanying clinical drug development for a first-in-class molecule. Challenges included generic ones such as ligand selectivity, species differences and drug target gene polymorphisms. Challenges that are more specific included changing concepts of the underlying pathophysiology of the target condition while clinical development was under way; moreover, a paucity of public domain tools for the study of the drug target and aspects of receptor agonists as drugs had to be addressed. Nonetheless, a successful first-in-class launch was accomplished. Looking back at this translational pharmacology program, we conclude that a specifically tailored and highly flexible approach is required. However, several of the lessons learned may also be applicable to translational pharmacology programs in other indications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Pharmacoeconomic study of using solifenacin for the treatment of urge urinary incontinence in patients with overactive bladder syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avksent'eva, M V; Gerasimova, K V; Khachatrian, G R; Frolov, M Iu; Omel'ianovskiĭ, V V; Avksent'ev, N A

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB), accompanied by incontinence, is a relatively common disease. Currently, in the Russian Federation, unfortunately, management of patients with OAB includes the recommendations for symptomatic use of incontinence pads without pharmacotherapy. Along with this, the market is represented by a number of drugs that can reduce the occurrence of adverse symptoms associated with OAB syndrome. This study presents the pharmacoeconomic analysis of use of solifenacin for the treatment of patients with the OAB syndrome in Russia. Based on previous clinical studies, formal mathematical model for the development of OAB have been suggested, taking into account the concomitant symptoms (urinary incontinence), and complications (urinary tract infections, skin infections, depression and fractures). The model considers the direct medical and non-medical costs, as well as indirect social costs, arising from the traditional management of patients with OAB syndrome (no medication) and the use of solifenacin. As a result, it was found that the use of solifenacin is economically feasible option for the management of patients with OAB within 1 year, the difference in costs between these strategies per patient is 2,385 rubles. The use of solifenacin ceases to be a resource-saving if the cost of incontinence pads will reduced by more than half of the basic price included in the calculations, or if the effectiveness of solifenacin would be 15% lower than the value used in the basic model.

  4. Effects of Bilateral Superior Oblique "Hang-Back" Recession in Treatment of A-pattern Strabismus with Superior Oblique Overaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueping; Ma, Huizhi; Zhao, Kanxing

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of bilateral hang-back recession of superior oblique (SO) muscles in the treatment of A-pattern strabismus with superior oblique overaction (SOOA). Thirty-one (31) patients (62 eyes) with A-pattern horizontal deviation and SOOA underwent hang-back recession of SO and retrospective analysis of the surgical amount of hang-back recession of SO, preoperative and postoperative A-pattern, ocular motility, and corrected objective torsion. Patients were evaluated before and 6 to 9 months after surgery. The average A-pattern horizontal deviation was 27.58 ± 11.47 prism diopters (PD) before surgery and 3.48 ± 3.70 PD after surgery (n=31, Precession ranged from 4 to 10 mm (mean: 7.62 ± 1.18 mm), which was related to the preoperative A-pattern and corrected A-pattern. There were no surgical complications. SO hang-back recession is a safe and efficient option for A-pattern caused by SOOA.

  5. Persistence and concomitant medication in patients with overactive bladder treated with antimuscarinic agents in primary care. An observational baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, A; Navarro-Artieda, R; Ruiz-Torrejón, A; Sáez-Zafra, M; Coll-de Tuero, G

    2016-03-01

    To assess therapeutic persistence and its relationship with concomitant medication in patients treated with fesoterodine versus tolterodine and solifenacin for overactive bladder (OAB) in standard clinical practice conditions. An observational, multicentre retrospective study was performed based on medical registries of patients followed-up in primary care (PC). Three study groups were analysed. Persistence was defined as the time (in months) without withdrawing from the initial therapy or without changing to another medication for at least 30 days after the initial prescription. The concomitant medications were antidepressants, anxiolytic/hypnotic agents, antibiotics, antiseptic agents, laxatives and skin products. We employed the SPSSWIN program version 17 (statistical significance, P<.05). We selected 3094 patients for the study. The median age was 54.0 years and 62.2% were women. The patients treated with fesoterodine shown greater treatment persistence (12 months) when compared with those who took solifenacin and tolterodine (40.2% vs. 34.7% and 33.6%, respectively; P=.008). They also showed a lower use of concomitant medication (1.1 vs. 1.2 and 1.2 drugs, respectively; percentages: 61.6% vs. 67.1% and 70.1%, respectively; P<.03). The patients undergoing OAB treatment with fesoterodine, when compared with those taking solifenacin and tolterodine, were associated with greater treatment persistence and a reduced use of concomitant medication. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Pelvic floor electrostimulation in women with urinary incontinence and/or overactive bladder syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez-Roig, J; Souza, D L B; Espelt, A; Costa-Marín, M; Belda-Molina, A M

    2013-01-01

    Electrostimulation (ES) is one of the techniques employed in conservative treatment of urinary incontinence (UI) and/or overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). Nevertheless, there is controversy in the scientific literature regarding its effectiveness as monotherapy. To evaluate the scientific evidence on ES of the pelvic floor in women with UI and with/without OAB. A systematic review of clinical trials was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane, PEDro, Elsevier (Doyma) and EnFisPo (1980-2011). Quality of study registries was evaluated and information was obtained from those that presented the inclusion criteria established in the review. The 27 clinical trials were included in the review: 13 randomized controlled trials, 11 randomized non-controlled trials and 3 non-randomized trials. Most of the clinical trials conclude that ES is effective in the treatment of UI and OAB in women. However, better methodological quality studies are needed to obtain a higher level of scientific evidence and to know the optimal current modality, type and parameters for each type of UI and OAB. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of main diagnosis tools in women with overactive bladder. Clinical history, micturition diary and urodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fando, L; Carracedo, D; Jiménez, M; Gómez de Vicente, J M; Martínez, L; Gómez-Cañizo, C; Gómez, V; Burgos, F J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present clinical research is to analyze, in the light of the best scientific evidence, the performance and the cost of the main diagnostic tools for overactive bladder (OAB). It is an exploratory transversal study in which 199 women diagnosed of OAB between 2006 and 2008 were selected and underwent to following prospective analyses: physical examination, urine analysis, micturition diary (MD) and urodynamic study (UDS). A percentage of 80% was assumed as highly sensitive and a diagnostic difference among tests of 10% would be considered clinically relevant. Tests' sensitivity for diagnosis of OAB was statistically established by two ways: isolated and combined. Besides, the direct and indirect costs of these tests performance were conducted. Cost-effectiveness study of clinical history (CH), MD and US for the diagnosis of OAB was performed. Overall sensitivity for OAB diagnosis is low for the 3 tests used in isolated way, whilst the combination of any two tests shows good overall sensitivity. The combination of CH and MD has appeared as the most cost-effective alternative to OAB diagnosis. For OAB diagnosis, CH-DM combination shows the same sensitivity than the association of either of them with the UDS, but unlike to these, it shows the lowest cost. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Spina Bifida Occulta and Its Relationship With Overactive Bladder in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun Wei; Xing, Yu Rong; Wen, Yi Bo; Li, Tian Fang; Xie, Jia Feng; Feng, Quan De; Shang, Xiao Ping; Li, Yun Long; Feng, Jin Jin; Wang, Xin Xin; Zhai, Rong Qun; He, Xiang Fei; Chen, Tao; Liu, Xin Jian; Wen, Jian Guo

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and its relationship with the presence of overactive bladder (OAB) in middle-aged and elderly people in China. A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out at 7 communities in Zhengzhou City, China from December 15, 2013 to June 10, 2014, where residents aged over 40 years were randomly selected to participate. All of the participants underwent lumbosacral radiographic analysis and relevant laboratory tests. A questionnaire including basic information, past medical history and present illness, and the OAB symptom score was filled out by all participants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis with a P-value of 0.05). In men, age, SBO, and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P0.05). In women, age, SBO, and HCI were risk factors for OAB (P0.05). The prevalence of SBO is high and it is related to OAB in middle-aged and elderly people in China.

  9. Can the preoperative fundus extorsion in infantile esotropia predict the development of postoperative inferior oblique overaction and dissociated vertical deviation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonae A; Eom, Youngsub; Suh, Young-Woo

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between fundus extorsion before surgery and the development of inferior oblique overaction (IOOA) and dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) after surgery in patients with infantile esotropia. Retrospective comparative observational study. Forty patients who had not had preoperative IOOA or DVD, and had undergone surgery for infantile esotropia were included. A fundus examination was carried out under general anesthesia before surgery. There were 21 subjects with preoperative fundus extorsion (extorsion group), and 19 subjects without torsion (no torsion group). The development of IOOA and DVD after surgery was evaluated. After surgery, IOOA developed in 14 patients (66.7%) and DVD in 17 patients (80%) in the extorsion group. In contrast, IOOA developed in 2 patients (10.5%) and DVD in 6 patients (31.6%) in the no torsion group (p extorsion assessed on general anesthesia before surgery, IOOA and DVD were more likely to develop after surgery. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proliferation of Interstitial Cells in the Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis and the Preventive Effect of Imatinib

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho, Maria; Triguero, Domingo; Lafuente-Sanchis, Aranzazu; Garcia-Pascual, Angeles

    2017-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide- (CYP-) induced cystitis in the rat is a well-known model of bladder inflammation that leads to an overactive bladder, a process that appears to involve enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production. We investigated the changes in the number and distribution of interstitial cells (ICs) and in the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in the bladder and urethra of rats subjected to either intermediate or chronic CYP treatment. Pronounced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of ICs were ...

  11. OnabotulinumtoxinA 100U provides significant improvements in overactive bladder symptoms in patients with urinary incontinence regardless of the number of anticholinergic therapies used or reason for inadequate management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, K-D; Chapple, C; Herschorn, S; Joshi, M; Zhou, J; Nardo, C; Nitti, V W

    2014-10-01

    A prespecified pooled analysis of two placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials evaluated whether the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for their discontinuation affected the treatment response to onabotulinumtoxinA 100U in overactive bladder (OAB) patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Patients with symptoms of OAB received intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA 100U or placebo, sparing the trigone. Change from baseline at week 12 in UI episodes/day, proportion of patients reporting a positive response ('greatly improved' or 'improved') on the treatment benefit scale (TBS), micturition and urgency were evaluated by number of prior anticholinergics (1, 2 or ≥ 3) and reason for their discontinuation (insufficient efficacy or side effects). Adverse events (AE) were assessed. Patients had taken an average of 2.4 anticholinergics before study enrolment. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced UI episodes/day from baseline vs. placebo, regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics (-2.82 vs. -1.52 for one prior anticholinergic; -2.58 vs. -0.58 for two prior anticholinergics; and -2.92 vs. -0.73 for three or more prior anticholinergics; all p reason for discontinuation. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced the episodes of urgency and frequency of micturition vs. placebo in all groups. AEs were well tolerated, with a comparable incidence in all groups. In patients with symptoms of OAB who were inadequately managed by one or more anticholinergics, onabotulinumtoxinA 100U provided significant and similar treatment benefit and safety profile regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for inadequate management of OAB. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00910845, NCT00910520. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Predictive factors of adverse events after intravesical suburothelial onabotulinumtoxina injections for overactive bladder syndrome-A real-life practice of 290 cases in a single center.

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    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Ong, Hueih-Ling; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2017-01-01

    Patients often experience adverse events (AEs) after intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) treatment for overactive bladder refractory to antimuscarinic agents. We investigated the prevalence and predictive factors of AEs in such patients. A total of 290 patients underwent intravesical BoNT-A (100 U) suburothelial injection. The age, gender, overactive bladder subtypes, medical co-morbidities, and neurological diseases of the patients were recorded. The maximum flow rate (Q max ), voided volume, post-void residual (PVR) volume, and voiding efficiency (VE) at baseline were analyzed to identify adverse events within 3 months after treatment. Acute urinary retention (AUR) developed in 24 patients (8.3%), and urinary tract infection (UTI) occurred in 44 (15.2%) within 3 months of treatment. Large PVR volume (>200 ml) occurred in 81 (27.9%), 68 (24.3%), and 49 (18.4%) patients 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment, respectively. AUR developed significantly more often in men, patients >61 years old, those with a baseline Q max ≤15 ml/sec, PVR ≥100 ml, and VE 61 years, low Q max , low voiding efficiency, and large PVR at baseline were also risk factors for adverse events. AUR, UTI, and large PVR volume are common AEs after BoNT-A treatment. Patients with overactive bladders that are at risk of developing AEs after BoNT-A injection should be informed of the possible AEs. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:142-147, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence in western Turkey: results of a population-based survey.

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    Zumrutbas, Ali E; Bozkurt, Ali I; Tas, Erdogan; Acar, Cenk I; Alkis, Okan; Coban, Kazim; Cetinel, Bulent; Aybek, Zafer

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in western Turkey. This cross-sectional, population-based survey was carried out between May and October 2012. A random sample of 2128 women and men aged ≥18 years was selected from the health registries. A questionnaire including sociodemographic data, comorbid conditions, lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence symptoms, body mass index, vital signs, and dipstick urinalysis was developed. The questions were answered by the participants, and remaining data were provided by the site staff. International Continence Society definitions were used. A total of 1571 (74%) individuals agreed to participate, and analysis were carried out on 1555 people (636 men [40.9%] and 919 women [59.1%]) after 16 individuals with a nitrite-positive dipstick test were excluded. Lower urinary tract symptoms were reported by 71.0% of the study population. The prevalence of storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms were 56.1% (44.2% men, 64.1% women), 39.3% (40.9% men, 37.8% women) and 30.7% (38.6% men, 28.7% women), respectively. The most prevalent storage symptom was urgency, which was reported by 29.3% of the study population (20.1% men, 35.6% women). The prevalence of urge, stress and mixed urinary incontinence were: 6.5% (3.9% men, 8.2% women), 14.1% (3.9% men, 21.2% women) and 5.6% (0.8% men, 9.0% women), respectively. The present study is the first and largest population-based survey evaluating the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in Turkey. Our findings show these symptoms are highly prevalent in western Turkey. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Efficacy and safety of combination therapy with tamsulosin, dutasteride and imidafenacin for the management of overactive bladder symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial (DIrecT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, Tomonori; Asakura, Hirotaka; Seki, Narihito; Tokunaga, Shoji

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination therapy with dutasteride and imidafenacin in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and persistent overactive bladder symptoms. A total of 163 patients presenting an enlarged prostate (volume >30 mL) and persistent overactive bladder symptoms despite at least 8 weeks of tamsulosin were randomized to receive tamsulosin and dutasteride, or tamsulosin, dutasteride and imidafenacin at a 1:1 ratio. The primary end-point was the mean change from baseline to week 24 in total overactive bladder symptom score. The mean change in total overactive bladder symptom score from baseline at week 24 was -1.99 (95% confidence interval -2.57 to -1.41) in the tamsulosin and dutasteride group, and -3.12 (95% confidence interval -3.72 to -2.52) in the tamsulosin, dutasteride and imidafenacin group. The tamsulosin, dutasteride and imidafenacin group significantly improved total overactive bladder symptom score at week 24 as compared with the tamsulosin and dutasteride group; the mean difference was -1.18 (-2.02 to -0.34). The between-group difference was statistically significant as early as week 4. The total International Prostate Symptom Score, storage subscore, quality of life index, and benign prostatic hyperplasia impact index also significantly improved in the tamsulosin, dutasteride and imidafenacin group. Tamsulosin, dutasteride and imidafenacin combination therapy improves overactive bladder symptoms and quality of life without causing serious adverse drug reactions in patients with enlarged prostate not responding to tamsulosin. This combination therapy seems to represent a promising therapeutic option in these patients. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Use of free uroflowmetry vs pressure-flow studies in the diagnosis of overactive bladder syndrome in females.

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    Nowakowski, Ł; Futyma, K; Ziętek, A; Bogusiewicz, M; Gałczyński, K; Rechberger, T

    2016-12-01

    To determine if pressure-flow study (PFS) parameters, including flow index (FI) calculated by dividing average urethral flow by maximal urethral flow, increase the accuracy of urodynamic studies in the diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB). Retrospective study to evaluate the medical history and urodynamic examination results of female patients diagnosed with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) between January 2014 and December 2015. Patients were stratified into four groups depending on the type of LUTS: OAB; stress urinary incontinence (SUI); mixed urinary incontinence with predominant SUI symptoms (MUI-SUI); and mixed urinary incontinence with predominant OAB symptoms (MUI-OAB). OAB was diagnosed in 26 (15%) patients, SUI was diagnosed in 93 (52%) patients, MUI-OAB was diagnosed in 43 (24%) patients, and MUI-SUI was diagnosed in 17 (9%) patients. FI calculated using free uroflowmetry (FI-free) was significantly lower in the OAB group compared with the other groups (p<0.01). Analysis revealed no difference in FI-free between the SUI, MUI-SUI and MUI-OAB groups. Significant differences were found between the study groups for most free uroflowmetric parameters, including maximal urethral flow, average urethral flow and micturition volume (p<0.05). Similar differences were not found in PFS parameters. The decrease in the urethral lumen due to the presence of a transurethral catheter in patients with OAB, in contrast to women with SUI and MUI, was not found to influence FI calculated using free uroflowmetry or PFS. FI may serve as an important objective diagnostic tool for OAB, but only when calculated from free uroflowmetry parameters when assessing patients with LUTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biofeedback as a first-line treatment for overactive bladder syndrome refractory to standard urotherapy in children.

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    Ebiloglu, Turgay; Kaya, Engin; Köprü, Burak; Topuz, Bahadır; Irkilata, Hasan Cem; Kibar, Yusuf

    2016-10-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and dysfunctional voiding (DV) are subgroups of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). Standard urotherapy is the first-line treatment option of OAB in children. The aim was to investigate the use of biofeedback as a first-line treatment option in OAB refractory to standard urotherapy, and determine the factors affecting efficacy. Between 2005 and 2015, we retrospectively analyzed a total of 136 hospital records of children with OAB who had not previously used any anticholinergics and were refractory to standard urotherapy. Patients with urgency and/or urge incontinence and/or making holding maneuvers to suppress urgency were defined as having OAB symptoms, and resolution of these complaints was defined as successful biofeedback therapy. Seventy-three of 136 OAB patients' urgency recovered by biofeedback therapy with the success rate of 53% (p < 0.001). Sixty-two of 101 patients with holding maneuvers (success rate 61%) (p < 0.001), 70 of 101 patients with urgency incontinence (success rate 69%) (p < 0.001), 76 of 114 patients with daytime incontinence (success rate 66%) (p = 0.023), 87 of 97 patients with enuresis (success rate 89%) (p = 0.009), and 27 of 39 patients with dysuria (success rate 69%) (p = 0.007) recovered from their symptoms significantly. The mean lower urinary tract symptom score (LUTSS) was 16.38 and 8.18 before and after biofeedback therapies, respectively (p < 0.001) (Table). Patients without holding maneuvers (p = 0.045), daytime incontinence (p = 0.030), and enuresis (p = 0.045) had better recovery compared to the opposites. Biofeedback can be thought of as the first-line treatment option when standard urotherapy fails in children with OAB. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cues to urinary urgency and urge incontinence: how those diagnosed with overactive bladder syndrome differ from undiagnosed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnell, Kathleen A; Torstrick, Alex; Victor, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the extent to which cues are reported to be associated with urinary urgency incontinence and urinary urgency. Descriptive and correlational study comparing 2 groups. An online questionnaire assessing the extent to which 19 environmental, 3 mood, 3 cognitive, 3 stress incontinence, 1 bladder volume cue, and 3 unlikely cues were associated with episodes of urinary urgency incontinence and urgency was administered. Three hundred six participants were randomly drawn from a panel of respondents maintained by Zoomerang, Inc. Approximately half (n = 150) had self-reported diagnoses of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and half did not. Cue ratings were compared between persons with and without OAB and between likely and unlikely cues. The most frequently reported environmental cues were "On the way to the bathroom" and "Arrival at home/opening front door"; these cues were reported by both groups. Respondents with and without OAB showed significant differences in the mean number of cues associated with urinary urgency incontinence and with urinary urgency; persons with OAB were always higher. Significant differences between persons with and without OAB were found for 28 of 32 cues associated with incontinence and 25 of 32 cues associated with urinary urgency. To investigate response bias, within-subjects analyses compared mean responses to the 3 unlikely cues to means of all other cues. Analyses revealed that scores for unlikely cues were significantly lower than scores for likely cues. Cues associated with urgency incontinence and urgency were frequently reported by both groups. However, responding to cues was significantly more frequent among those who had been diagnosed with OAB. These findings may have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of urinary urgency incontinence.

  18. Can Surgical Technique Affect the Success of Endoscopic Treatment in Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux and Overactive Bladder Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Şahan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective “Traditional subureteral transurethral injection” (STING and “Double hydrodistention-implantation” (Double-HIT injection techniques for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR treatment are a less invasive, yet very effective options. The influence of injection techniques in treatment success is not adequately searched in children with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB. The objective of this study to compare the short-term success rates of STING and Double-HIT techniques in children with OAB-VUR complex. Materials and Methods Children who underwent endoscopic injection for VUR between 2010 and 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped into two groups according to the surgical techniques (STING or Double-HIT. Success of the treatment was defined with a negative voiding cystourethrogram at the 6th postoperative week. Patients were evaluated according to sex, age, pre- and postoperative reflux grades, laterality, type and volume of bulking agent and presence of OAB. Results Both groups were similar in terms of sex, age, lower urinary tract dysfunction, reflux grade and success rates. Surgical technique, score of pediatric lower urinary tract symptom questionnaire, age, sex, laterality of reflux and type of the bulking agent found to have no effect on the overall success rates (p>0.05. Presence of OAB and/or a high grade reflux were identified as statistically significant predictive factors that could affect the treatment results. Conclusion The short-term surgical success of the double-HIT and STING techniques showed no difference in children with OAB. The presence of a high grade reflux and/or OAB seemed to be the main factors for overall success in endoscopic VUR surgery.

  19. Synergistic effect of iontophoresis and chemical enhancers on transdermal permeation of tolterodine tartrate for the treatment of overactive bladder

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    D. Prasanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of the study was to evaluate the synergistic transdermal permeation effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis technique on tolterodine tartrate (TT transdermal gel and to evaluate its pharmacokinetic properties. Materials and Methods Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of formulations. Skin permeation rates were evaluated using the Keshary-chein type diffusion cells in order to optimize the gel formulation. In-vivo studies of the optimized formulation were performed in a rabbit model and histopathology studies of optimized formulation were performed on rats. Results Transdermal gels were formulated successfully using Taguchi robust design method. The type of penetration enhancer, concentration of penetration enhancer, current density and pulse on/off ratio were chosen as independent variables. Type of penetration enhancer was found to be the significant factor for all the responses. Permeation parameters were evaluated when maximum cumulative amount permeated in 24 hours (Q24 was 145.71 ± 2.00µg/cm2 by CIT4 formulation over control (91.89 ± 2.30µg/cm2. Permeation was enhanced by 1.75 fold by CIT4 formulation. Formulation CIT4 containing nerolidol (5% and iontophoretic variables applied (0.5mA/cm2 and pulse on/off ratio 3:1 was optimized. In vivo studies with optimized formulation CIT4 showed increase in AUC and T1/2 when compared to oral suspension in rabbits. The histological studies showed changes in dermis indicating the effect of penetration enhancers and as iontophoresis was continued only for two cycles in periodic fashion so it did not cause any skin damage observed in the slides. Conclusion Results indicated that iontophoresis in combination with chemical enhancers is an effective method for transdermal administration of TT in the treatment of overactive bladder.

  20. Differences in Urodynamic Parameters Between Women With Interstitial Cystitis and/or Bladder Pain Syndrome and Severe Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ji Sung; Kang, Sung Gu; Park, Jae Young; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kang, Seok Ho; Park, Hong Seok; Moon, Du Geon; Cheon, Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Kim, Je Jong; Oh, Mi Mi

    2016-08-01

    To identify differences in urodynamic parameters between female outpatients with interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or bladder pain syndrome (BPS) and severe overactive bladder (OAB). This cross-sectional study included 24 and 28 consecutive IC/BPS and severe OAB female patients, respectively. IC/BPS was defined based on the American Urological Association guideline, and severe OAB was defined based on baseline symptoms recorded in a voiding diary. Before treatment, symptom assessment using questionnaires and a 3-day voiding diary, as well as laboratory tests, were performed at the initial visit. The patients' baseline characteristics and urodynamic parameters were compared between the IC/BPS and severe OAB groups. The IC/BPS group showed fewer episodes of urge incontinence and shorter duration of symptoms than the severe OAB group (P = .019, P = .017, respectively). Volumes at first sense, normal desire, strong desire, and maximal capacity during filling cystometry (MBC) were significantly higher in the severe OAB group than in the IC/BPS group (P <.001, P <.001, P = .006, P <.001, respectively). The IC/BPS and severe OAB groups showed significant differences in urodynamic parameters in terms of MBC and the volume discrepancy between MBC and maximal voided volume (P <.001, both). The receiver operating characteristic curve also showed an area under the curve of 0.760 and 0.783 for MBC and volume discrepancy, respectively (both P <.001). Data from our study suggest that combined with other clinical findings, urodynamic studies could provide useful information to differentiate between a diagnosis of IC/BPS or severe OAB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of objective and subjective factors in the adherence to antimuscarinics when treating overactive bladder in employed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, Kirill Vladimirovich; Loparev, Sergey; Kuzina, Irina; Prokofyeva, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    This study examines subjective reasons for the refusal of treatment and the state of objective status markers of various factors influencing the resistance of patients when treating overactive bladder by antimuscarinic drugs (AMs). The socioeconomic and medical parameters were studied in 2465 patients aged 18-60 years (1446 women (58.7%), 1019 men (41.3%); mean age was 52.1) taking AMs during the year. The study control was carried out by studying passport data, employers' income certificates, patients' ambulatory medical records, the use of OABq-SF and MOS SF-36 questionnaires, voiding diaries and uroflowmetry. The average time to reach the 30-day break in the AM administration was 177 days. During the 12-month follow up, 74.7% of patients discontinued their participation. In total, 35.9% of patients stated medical reasons for the refusal of AM treatment; in 31.9% of individuals in the group the deviation of objective health status markers from average sample values was established. Economic reasons for the refusal were given by 20.4% of patients; in 18.5% of individuals economic status markers were different from average sample values. In 24.1% of cases of refusal of treatment, patients indicated social and psychological reasons; objective social and psychological status markers were altered in 35.9%. The percentage of patients indicating economic and medical reasons for the refusal of AM treatment is statistically uniform with respect to the percentage of patients with objective disturbances of health and economic statuses. The percentage of patients indicating social and psychological factors as a reason for the refusal of treatment was significantly lower than the percentage of patients with altered social and psychological status markers. These results can be used in practical healthcare when predicting adherence to AM use.

  2. [Analysis of overactive bladder and urinary incontinence in working women aged between 25 and 64 years. EPICC study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Agulló, E; Ruiz-Cerdá, J L; Arlandis, S; Rebollo, P; Pérez, M; Chaves, J

    2010-07-01

    Urinary symptoms Overactive Bladder (OAB) and Urinary Incontinence (UI) result in an important personal and economic impact. This work concentrates on the detailed analysis of OAB and UI (derived symptoms and tendencies in medical consultation and resource consumption), in a sample of working women aged 25-64. Study within the framework of the EPICC study of the Spanish Association of Urology (epidemiologic, observational, multicentric, national study) and concentrates on the detailed analysis of the characteristics of the sample of working women aged 25-64 (N=3090) and of the subgroup of individuals with VH and/or IU (N=307). 4.01% of the subjects presented UI alone, 2.69% OAB alone, 3.24% presented both pathologies. There exists association between UI and/or VH presence and frequent urinary infections, hypertension and diabetes. Taking into account individuals with UI and/or OAB, 28.01% had problems to retain urine, and 16.94% suffered leakage daily; 27.36% suffered uncontrollable urge to urinate daily; 57.65% had never sought medical advice, 35.40% had visited an specialist, 23.13% would like to visit an specialist in incontinence; 28.01% had received treatment, from which 55.81% had received physiotherapy and 25.58% pharmacologic treatment. In this study, specific data about VH and IU in working women aged 25-64 are presented, including those referring to the magnitude of these conditions and use of sanitary resources in subjects with UI and/or OAB, aiming at contributing to a better diagnose and handling of patients and resources.

  3. Durable Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term OnabotulinumtoxinA Treatment in Patients with Overactive Bladder Syndrome: Final Results of a 3.5-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Victor W; Ginsberg, David; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Sussman, David; Radomski, Sidney; Sand, Peter; De Ridder, Dirk; Jenkins, Brenda; Magyar, Andrew; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    These are the final results of the prospective, multicenter, long-term (3.5-year) study of the efficacy/safety of onabotulinumtoxinA for overactive bladder syndrome. Patients who completed either of 2, 24-week phase 3 trials could enter a 3-year extension and continue treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA 100 U as needed to control overactive bladder symptoms. Data were analyzed by the treatment(s) received (up to 6) and in discrete subgroups that received 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 treatments (to evaluate the consistency of the response after repeat treatments in the same patient groups). Assessments included the change from baseline in the number of urinary incontinence episodes per day and the proportion of patients who reported improvement/great improvement in urinary symptoms on the TBS (Treatment Benefit Scale) at week 12 as co-primary end points. Other end points were the change from baseline in I-QOL (Incontinence Quality of Life), the number of urgency and micturition episodes per day; duration of effect; the number of adverse events; and the initiation of intermittent catheterization. Consistent mean reductions in urinary incontinence were observed following continued onabotulinumtoxinA treatment, ranging from -3.1 to -3.8 in the overall population and -2.9 to -4.5 in the discrete subgroups. Durable improvements were seen in overactive bladder symptoms and quality of life. A high proportion of patients rated their condition as improved/greatly improved. The median duration of effect was 7.6 months. The most common adverse event was urinary tract infection. The rate of de novo catheterization after the first treatment was 4.0% and it ranged from 0.6% to 1.7% after subsequent treatments. Long-term onabotulinumtoxinA treatment consistently decreased overactive bladder symptoms and improved quality of life with no new safety signals. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coffee intake, health-related quality of life, and associated factors of overactive bladder in older Korean women living in rural South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongok; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Kyunghwa; Park, SoMi

    2018-03-12

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common health problem in older women. The aim of the study was to investigate coffee consumption, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and associated factors of OAB in older Korean women living in rural South Korea. A total of 248 women aged 65 years and older participated in this study. Chi-square tests, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regressions were performed. The means of coffee consumption between OAB and non-OAB groups were not significantly different. Women with OAB showed significantly lower HRQOL than women with stress urinary incontinence only. OAB was associated with high body mass index and poor health status.

  5. Increased expression of interleukin (IL-6 family members and receptors in urinary bladder with cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced bladder inflammation in female rats

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    Beatrice eGirard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that JAK-STAT signaling pathways contribute to increased voiding frequency and referred pain of CYP-induced cystitis in rats. Potential upstream chemical mediator(s that may be activated by CYP-induced cystitis to stimulate JAK/STAT signaling are not known in detail. In these studies, members of the interleukin (IL-6 family of cytokines including, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and associated receptors, IL-6 receptor (R α, LIFR and gp130 were examined in the urinary bladder in control and CYP-treated rats. Cytokine and receptor transcript and protein expression and distribution were determined in urinary bladder after cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced cystitis using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Acute (4 hr; 150 mg/kg; i.p., intermediate (48 hr; 150 mg/kg; i.p. or chronic (75 mg/kg; i.p., once every 3 days for 10 days cystitis was induced in adult, female Wistar rats with CYP treatment. Q-PCR analyses revealed significant (p ≤ 0.01 CYP duration- and tissue- (e.g., urothelium, detrusor dependent increases in LIF, IL-6, IL-6Rα, LIFR and gp130 mRNA expression. Western blotting demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.01 increases in IL-6, LIF and gp130 protein expression in whole urinary bladder with CYP treatment. CYP-induced cystitis significantly (p ≤ 0.01 increased LIF-immunoreactivity (IR in urothelium, detrusor, and suburothelial plexus whereas increased gp130-IR was only observed in urothelium and detrusor. These studies suggest that IL-6 and LIF may be potential upstream chemical mediators that activate JAK/STAT signaling in urinary bladder pathways.

  6. OnabotulinumtoxinA 100 U significantly improves all idiopathic overactive bladder symptoms and quality of life in patients with overactive bladder and urinary incontinence: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; MacDiarmid, Scott; Khullar, Vik; Radziszewski, Piotr; Nardo, Christopher; Thompson, Catherine; Zhou, Jihao; Haag-Molkenteller, Cornelia

    2013-08-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome with urinary incontinence (UI) is prevalent in the population and impairs health-related quality of life (HRQOL). To assess the impact on efficacy, safety, and HRQOL of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX(®), Allergan, Inc.) treatment in patients with OAB with UI. This pivotal, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study enrolled patients with idiopathic OAB with ≥ 3 urgency UI episodes over 3 d and ≥ 8 micturitions per day who were inadequately managed by anticholinergics. OnabotulinumtoxinA at a 100U dose (n=277) or placebo (n=271), administered as 20 intradetrusor injections of 0.5 ml. Co-primary end points were change from baseline in the number of UI episodes per day and proportion of patients reporting positive treatment response on the treatment benefit scale (TBS) at week 12. Additional end points included other OAB symptoms (episodes of urinary urgency incontinence, micturition, urgency, and nocturia) and HRQOL (Incontinence Quality of Life [I-QOL], King's Health Questionnaire [KHQ]). Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, and initiation of clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC). OnabotulinumtoxinA significantly decreased UI episodes per day at week 12 (-2.95 for onabotulinumtoxinA versus -1.03 for placebo; p<0.001). Reductions from baseline in all other OAB symptoms were also significantly greater following onabotulinumtoxinA compared with placebo (p ≤ 0.01). Patients perceived a significant improvement in their condition, as measured by patients with a positive treatment response on the TBS (62.8% for onabotulinumtoxinA versus 26.8% for placebo; p<0.001). Clinically meaningful improvements from baseline in all I-QOL and KHQ multi-item domains (p<0.001 versus placebo) indicated positive impact on HRQOL. AEs were mainly localised to the urinary tract. Mean PVR was higher in the onabotulinumtoxinA group (46.9 ml versus 10.1 ml at week 2; p<0

  7. Sympathetic overactivity precedes metabolic dysfunction in a fructose model of glucose intolerance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Katia De; Senador, Danielle D.; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of high levels of fructose in humans and animals leads to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. There are questions as to the role of the autonomic changes in the time course of fructose-induced dysfunction. C57/BL male mice were given tap water or fructose water (100 g/l) to drink for up to 2 mo. Groups were control (C), 15-day fructose (F15), and 60-day fructose (F60). Light-dark patterns of arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR), and their respective variabilities were measured. Plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and glucose tolerance were quantified. Fructose increased systolic AP (SAP) at 15 and 60 days during both light (F15: 123 ± 2 and F60: 118 ± 2 mmHg) and dark periods (F15: 136 ± 4 and F60: 136 ± 5 mmHg) compared with controls (light: 111 ± 2 and dark: 117 ± 2 mmHg). SAP variance (VAR) and the low-frequency component (LF) were increased in F15 (>60% and >80%) and F60 (>170% and >140%) compared with C. Cardiac sympatho-vagal balance was enhanced, while baroreflex function was attenuated in fructose groups. Metabolic parameters were unchanged in F15. However, F60 showed significant increases in plasma glucose (26%), cholesterol (44%), triglycerides (22%), insulin (95%), and leptin (63%), as well as glucose intolerance. LF of SAP was positively correlated with SAP. Plasma leptin was correlated with triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Results show that increased sympathetic modulation of vessels and heart preceded metabolic dysfunction in fructose-consuming mice. Data suggest that changes in autonomic modulation may be an initiating mechanism underlying the cluster of symptoms associated with cardiometabolic disease. PMID:22319048

  8. The prevalence of overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence in a Turkish women population; associated risk factors and effect on Quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarici, Hasmet; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Telli, Onur; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Eroglu, Muzaffer; Bozkurt, Selen

    2016-05-24

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence in Turkish women; furthermore, to assess the impact on the quality of life. A cross-sectional, epidemiological study was carried out in women of reproductive age to define overactive bladder syndrome, urinary incontinence, ICIQ-SF score and medical care seeking. The women's average age was 34.4 ± 5.26 years. The prevalence of UI was 26.9%. Stress UI was the predominant form. The prevalence of UI increased with age, BMI, number of pregnancies and children delivered. The prevalence of OAB was 20.7%. Women with OAB were older and had greater number of pregnancies than women without OAB. History of nocturnal enuresis was a significant risk factor for OAB and UUI. Women with MUI had more frequent and more abundant leakage of urine. 10.7% of women sought medical care for their condition. Although prevalence estimates differ across studies, the available evidence indicates that UI and OAB are highly prevalent conditions among women. UI had negative effect on QoL, but only severely-affected women sought medical care. Public health and clinical management programs are needed to determine diagnosis and management of these social problems.

  9. Specific Changes in Brain Activity During Urgency in Women with Overactive Bladder after Successful Sacral Neuromodulation: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, Steven J; Bhavsar, Rupal; Rao, Hengyi; Wein, Alan J; Detre, John A; Arya, Lily A; Smith, Ariana L

    2018-04-06

    The mechanism of sacral neuromodulation is poorly understood. We compared brain activity during urgency before and after sacral neuromodulation in women with overactive bladder and according to response to treatment. Women with refractory overactive bladder who elected for sacral neuromodulation were invited to undergo a functional magnetic resonance imaging exam before and after treatment. During the imaging exams, the bladder was filled until urgency was experienced. Regions of interest were identified a priori, and brain activity in these regions of interest was compared before and after treatment as well as according to treatment response. A whole brain exploratory analysis with an uncorrected voxel level threshold of pbrain regions that changed after sacral neuromodulation. Among 12 women who underwent a pretreatment functional magnetic resonance imaging exam, seven were successfully treated with sacral neuromodulation and underwent a posttreatment exam. After sacral neuromodulation, brain activity decreased in the left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (all pbrain regions with increased activity after sacral neuromodulation. Pretreatment brain activity levels in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, and right sensorimotor cortex were higher in women who underwent successful treatment (all pBrain activity during urgency changes after successful sacral neuromodulation. Sacral neuromodulation may be more effective in women with higher levels of pretreatment brain activity during urgency. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sympathetic overactivity and arrhythmias in tetanus: electrocardiographic analysis Hiperatividade simpática e arritmias no tétano: análise eletrocardiográfica

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    Gustavo Trindade Henriques Filho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the advances in the control of pulmonary insufficiency in tetanus, the cardiovascular system has increasingly been shown to be a determining factor in morbidity and mortality but detailed knowledge of the cardiovascular complications in tetanus is scanty. The 24h-Holter was carried out in order to detect arrhythmias and sympathetic overactivity in 38 tetanus patients admitted to an ICU. The SDNN Index (standard deviation from the normal R-to-R intervals, was useful in detecting adrenergic tonus, and ranged from 64.1 ± 27 in the more severe forms of tetanus to 125 ± 69 in the milder ones. Sympathetic overactivity occurred in 86.2% of the more severe forms of the disease, but was also detected in 33% of the milder forms. Half the patients had their sympathetic overactivity detected only by the Holter. The most frequent arrhythmias were isolated supraventricular (55.2% and ventricular (39.4% extrasystoles. There was no association of the arrhythmias with the clinical form of tetanus or with the presence of sympathetic overactivity. The present study demonstrated that major cardiovascular dysfunction, particularly sympathetic overactivity, occurs in all forms of tetanus, even in the milder ones. This has not been effectively detected with traditional monitoring in ICU and may not be properly treated.Com os avanços no controle da insuficiência respiratória no tétano, o sistema cardiovascular tem participado de forma crescente na morbidade e mortalidade da doença, mas o conhecimento dessas complicações é escasso. No intuito de detectar arritmias e hiperatividade simpática, o holter de 24 h foi utilizado em 38 pacientes com tétano admitidos numa UTI de doenças infecciosas. O índice SDNN (desvio standard dos intervalos normais R-a-R, foi útil na detecção do tônus adrenérgico, e variou de 64,1 ± 27 nas formas mais severas de tétano a 125 ± 69 nas formas mais leves. Hiperatividade simpática ocorreu em 86,2% das formas

  11. Validação do International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB para a língua portuguesa Validation of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB for Portuguese

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    Simone Botelho Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e validar o questionário International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB para a língua portuguesa. MÉTODOS: dois tradutores brasileiros, cientes dos objetivos da pesquisa, traduziram o ICIQ-OAB para o português e as duas traduções geradas foram retrotraduzidas por outros dois tradutores ingleses. As diferenças entre as versões foram harmonizadas e pré-testadas em um estudo piloto. A versão final do ICIQ-OAB foi aplicada junto com a versão já traduzida e validada do questionário International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF em 142 pacientes, entre homens e mulheres, com sintomas miccionais irritativos. Para validação do ICIQ-OAB foram testadas propriedades psicométricas: confiabilidade (consistência interna e teste-reteste e validade de construto. O reteste foi realizado quatro semanas após a primeira entrevista. RESULTADOS: a confiabilidade do instrumento foi avaliada por meio do Coeficiente α Cronbach, tendo como resultado geral 0,7. O teste-reteste avaliou a estabilidade do instrumento por meio do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e apresentou resultado de 0,91 e 0,95, quando comparados aos questionários ICIQ-OAB e ICIQ-SF, respectivamente. Comparando os instrumentos por meio do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson foi encontrado 0,7 (p=0,0001, o que confirma a validade de critério do estudo. A validade concorrente foi avaliada pela correlação entre algumas variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas e o escore final do ICIQ-OAB. CONCLUSÃO: a versão em português do ICIQ-OAB traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil apresentou confiabilidade e validade de constructo satisfatórias e foi considerada válida para avaliação dos sintomas miccionais irritativos de pacientes brasileiros de ambos os sexos.PURPOSE: to translate, culturally adapt and validate the questionnaire

  12. Increased serum adipokines implicate chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of overactive bladder syndrome refractory to antimuscarinic therapy.

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    Hsin-Tzu Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that chronic inflammation is involved in overactive bladder (OAB syndrome. OAB could be a subtype of neurogenic inflammation. This pilot study investigated serum adipokine levels in patients with OAB refractory to antimuscarinic therapy. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with OAB-dry (n = 16 or OAB-wet (n = 14 refractory to previous antimuscarinic treatment were prospectively enrolled in this study, a group of 26 normal subjects without lower urinary tract symptoms served as controls. Concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP, nerve growth factor (NGF, and adipokines including interleukins ([IL], IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, insulin, and leptin were quantified using a bead-based human serum adipokine panel B kit. Data were analyzed using the LX 200 platform. Patients were further classified as having dry or wet OAB and having medical diseases or not. The serum CRP, NGF, and adipokine levels were compared between OAB patients and the controls, and between OAB subgroups. RESULTS: The serum concentrations of CRP, NGF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in OAB-dry and OAB-wet patients were significantly higher than among the controls. There was no significant difference in adipokine levels between OAB-dry and OAB-wet, or between OAB patients with and without medical diseases. Serum CRP and NGF levels were significantly higher only in OAB-wet or OAB patients with medical diseases than among controls. The MCP-1 levels, on the other hand, were significantly higher in OAB-dry or OAB patients with disease, than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Both OAB-dry and OAB-wet patients showed increased serum CRP, NGF, and adipokine levels compared with the controls, suggesting chronic inflammation of the bladder involving both peripheral and central mechanisms in all OAB patients refractory to antimuscarinic therapy. The increased serum adipokine levels were

  13. Establishing the content validity of the King's Health Questionnaire in men and women with overactive bladder in the US.

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    Margolis, Mary Kay; Vats, Vasudha; Coyne, Karin S; Kelleher, Con

    2011-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) consists of the symptoms of urinary urgency (with or without urgency incontinence) and increased urinary frequency and nocturia. As OAB is defined by symptoms, the patient is the best source of information for assessing the impact of the condition on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). This assessment can be conducted through the use of valid patient-reported questionnaires, meaning the questionnaire has demonstrated content validity, among other acceptable psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content validity of the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) in patients with OAB in the US. Men and women with continent or incontinent OAB were recruited from a clinical research site in the US. Participants completed the KHQ and were then asked about the instructions, items, and response options. Data were analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. A total of 24 participants (18 women, 6 men; mean [± SD] age 59.0  ± 11.1 years) with OAB were interviewed and provided feedback on the KHQ. Participants reported that overall, the KHQ covers the key aspects in which OAB impacts patients' daily lives. Most KHQ items and response options were acceptable and understandable to the participants; however, a few minor issues were noted. In item 3, shopping was not considered by some participants to be a household task, while shopping and cleaning were not relevant to some of the men. Two sets of items ('limit social life' and 'limit ability to see/visit friends' and 'bladder problem affect sleep' and 'feel worn out or tired') were perceived as redundant, while 'depressed' (item 12) and 'anxious or nervous' (item 13) were perceived by some participants as too intense. Some participants were unsure if the intended meaning of 'change your underclothes when they get wet' was about changing wet underwear or frequency of incontinence episodes. The KHQ demonstrated content validity and can be considered a relevant and appropriate

  14. Predictors of outcome in children and adolescents with overactive bladder treated with parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

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    Hoffmann, Anselmo; Sampaio, Clara; Nascimento, Ana Aparecida; Veiga, Maria Luiza; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2018-02-01

    Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has emerged as an effective treatment for overactive bladder (OAB) in view of its high success rates in improving lower urinary tract symptoms and constipation, with no direct side effects. However, the clinical characteristics associated with the outcomes remain to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential predictors of outcome in children with OAB treated using parasacral TENS. This was a prospective study of children with symptoms of isolated OAB, enrolled consecutively to the study and treated with parasacral TENS (figure). Isolated OAB was defined as the presence of urinary urgency with no signs of dysfunctional voiding. The symptoms were considered completely resolved when a patient's parents/guardians or the patients themselves reported a 100% improvement. Parasacral TENS was performed twice weekly for a total of 20 sessions of 20 min each at 10 Hz. The potential predictive factors evaluated were: sex, age, daytime incontinence, nocturia, a prior history of urinary tract infection, the presence of nocturnal enuresis, constipation and holding maneuvers. Eighty-three patients with a mean age of 7.8 ± 2.8 years were included in the study. Complete resolution of symptoms was achieved in 47 (56.6%). Following parasacral TENS treatment, a significant response was reported in 96.4% of cases. Of the 55 patients with nocturnal enuresis, partial resolution was achieved in 30 cases (54.5%), with a statistically significant association between nocturnal enuresis and the patient's response to treatment (p urinary tract dysfunction has not previously been reported. The identification of factors capable of predicting therapeutic failure may allow professionals to select those specific patients who would benefit from a multimodal approach in the treatment of this pathology, which has such a significant impact on the quality of life of affected patients. Nocturnal enuresis was the only

  15. [Efficacy of combination therapy of tamsulosin and solifenacin for mild and moderate benign prostatic hyperplasia with overactive bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Wei; Xin, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Ren, Xiao-Qiang; Shang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Wei; Li, Hui-Bing; Xiao, Fei; Shao, Chang-Shuai

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination therapy of tamsulosin and solifenacin for mild and moderate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with overactive bladder (OAB). We randomly divided 166 patients with BPH and concomitant OAB into a mild obstruction symptom group (n = 88) and a moderate obstruction symptom group (n =78), 48 of the former group treated with 0. 2 mg tamsulosin + 5 mg solifenacin and the other 40 with 0. 2 mg tamsulosin; 36 of the latter group treated with 0. 2 mg tamsulosin + 5 mg solifenacin and the other 42 with 0. 2 mg tamsulosin, all administered once daily for 12 weeks. We obtained the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), urine storage period symptom score (USPSS), voiding symptom score (VSS), Qmax, residual urine volume, OAB symptom score (OABSS) and adverse reactions, and compared them among different Among the patients with mild obstruction symptoms, the combination of tamsulosin and solifenacin achieved remark-groups. able improvement in IPSS, USPSS, Qmax and OABSS as compared with the baseline (P 0. 05) , while tamsulosin improved IPSS only (P tamsulosin alone in improving IPSS (9.7 micro 3.0 vs 15.8 micro 3.3), USPSS (8. 1 micro 1.7 vs 12.3 micro 3.1), Qmax ([18.6 micro 2.3] ml/s vs [14.2 micro 2.3] ml/s ), and OABSS (5.3micro 1.3 vs 9.7 micro 2.7) (P 0. 05). In those with moderate obstruction symptoms, the combination therapy significantly improved IPSS, VSS, Qmax and OABSS (P 0. 05) in comparison with the baseline. The tamsulosin therapy achieved obvious improvement in IPSS, VSS, Qmax, OABSS and residual urine. The combination therapy showed a better effect than tamsulosin only in OABSS (4. 8 +/-1.5 vs 6.5 +/-2.5, P tamsulosin and solifenacin is obviously safe and efficacious in the treatment (P > 0.05). events of both mild and moderate BPH with concomitant OAB, and it is superior to tamsulosin alone.

  16. Evidence available on the use of the selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder.

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    Angulo, J C; Khullar, V; Nitti, V W; Siddiqui, E

    2013-01-01

    Mirabegron, the selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist, heralds the latest development for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). To present the evidence available on the efficacy and tolerability of mirabegron and to discuss this treatment's potential in our setting. We reviewed 11 studies conducted with mirabegron in patients with OAB (2 phase II, 9 phase III), all studies were compared to placebo with 6 studies also including tolterodine as an additional arm. Greater emphasis shall be given to the main phase III trials performed in Europe, the USA and Australia evaluating efficacy and safety after 12 weeks (NCT00662909, NCT00689104, NCT00912964) and safety after 12 months (NCT00688688). The combined analyses of these 12 week studies is also available, with emphasis on global efficacy (FAS), efficacy with regard to incontinence (FAS i) and safety (SAF). More than 50% of patients had previously discontinued anticholinergics medication for OAB, thus allowing us to obtain data on the effectiveness of mirabegron in patients already treated with anticholinergics. Mirabegron is an efficacious drug which presents a statistically significant reduction in the number of incontinence episodes and in urinary frequency as of 4 weeks, with a higher percentage of dry patients and a higher percentage of patients with reduction ≥50% in the number of incontinence episodes than placebo. The efficacy of mirabegron 50 and 100mg in the reduction of incontinence episodes occurs in de novo patients and who have received antimuscarinics, with adjusted mean difference and improvement in urinary frequency greater in treated patients. Its tolerability is very similar to placebo particularly for the adverse effects of the antimuscarinics (dry mouth, constipation and blurred vision). A minimal, non-clinically significant change is observed in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse. Its efficacy is long-term. Mirabegron at the doses of 50 and 100mg presents an improvement versus

  17. Overactivity of Liver-Related Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: Electrophysiological Findings indb/dbMice.

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    Gao, Hong; Molinas, Adrien J R; Miyata, Kayoko; Qiao, Xin; Zsombok, Andrea

    2017-11-15

    . Despite the importance of the brain-liver pathway, the overall activity of liver-related neurons in control and diabetic conditions is not known. This is a significant gap in knowledge, which prevents developing strategies to improve glucose homeostasis via altering the brain-liver pathway. One of the key findings of our study is the overall shift toward excitation in liver-related hypothalamic neurons in the diabetic condition. This overactivity may be one of the underlying mechanisms of elevated sympathetic activity known in metabolically compromised patients and animal models. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711140-11$15.00/0.

  18. Prevalence of the overactive bladder among Iranian women based on the International Continence Society definition: a population-based study.

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    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    There is a continuing debate on the accurate prevalence estimates of overactive bladder (OAB) among different ethnicities and regions. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of OAB, associated risk factors, and the impact of OAB on the quality of life and sexual function of Iranian women. A total of 8748 women between 15 and 55 years of age enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The definition of the 2002 International Continence Society (ICS) was applied to assess the prevalence of OAB. All participants underwent a detailed history and physical examination that included an evaluation of quality of life, coping strategies and treatment-seeking behavior, laboratory tests, urinalysis and current or previous therapy. The degree of bother was quantified using s visual analog scale (VAS). The overall prevalence of OAB was found to be 18.2% and increased with age from 10.9% in adults aged 15-29 years to 26.2% in those aged >50 years old (test for trend, P = 0.001). A negative impact of OAB on sexual function was reported by 72.3% of the women. Frequency was the most commonly reported symptom (67% of women), followed by urgency (54%). Subjects with OAB had a higher prevalence of anxiety (28.2 vs. 8.8%; P = 0.001), depression (38.2 vs. 18.2%; P = 0.02) and tiredness (16.4 vs. 2.7%; P = 0.001), and they reported significant impairment in carrying out household chores (P = 0.01), physical activities (P = 0.01) and work-related activities (P = 0.01) as well as negative effects on education (P = 0.02), sleep (P = 0.001), relationships (P = 0.001) and annual income (P = 0.01). The prevalence of OAB in Iranian women is higher than that reported in many previous studies in developed and developing countries. Our results reveal that OAB is a highly prevalent condition among Iranian women and that is has a serious impact on quality of life and sexual function.

  19. Computation of induced electric field for the sacral nerve activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Hattori, Junya; Laakso, Ilkka; Takagi, Airi; Shimada, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    The induced electric field/current in the sacral nerve by stimulation devices for the treatment of bladder overactivity is investigated. Implanted and transcutaneous electrode configurations are considered. The electric field induced in the sacral nerve by the implanted electrode is largely affected by its surrounding tissues, which is attributable to the variation in the input impedance of the electrode. In contrast, the electric field induced by the transcutaneous electrode is affected by the tissue conductivity and anatomical composition of the body. In addition, the electric field induced in the subcutaneous fat in close proximity of the electrode is comparable with the estimated threshold electric field for pain. These computational findings explain the clinically observed weakness and side effect of each configuration. For the transcutaneous stimulator, we suggest that the electrode contact area be increased to reduce the induced electric field in the subcutaneous fat. (paper)

  20. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldazza, Carlo Vecchioli; Morosetti, Carolina; Giampieretti, Rosita; Lorenzetti, Rossana; Baroni, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    This study compared percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training (ES + PFMT) in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). 60 women with OAB were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. In group A, women underwent ES with PFMT, in group B women underwent PTNS. A statistically significant reduction in the number of daily micturitions, episodes of nocturia and urge incontinence was found in the two groups but the difference was more substantial in women treated with PTNS; voided volume increased in both groups. Quality of life improved in both groups, whereas patient perception of urgency improved only in women treated with PTNS. Global impression of improvement revealed a greater satisfaction in patients treated with PTNS. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTNS and ES with PFMT in women with OAB, but greater improvements were found with PTNS. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  1. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled study

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    Carlo Vecchioli Scaldazza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction This study compared percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training (ES + PFMT in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB. Materials and Methods 60 women with OAB were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. In group A, women underwent ES with PFMT, in group B women underwent PTNS. Results A statistically significant reduction in the number of daily micturitions, episodes of nocturia and urge incontinence was found in the two groups but the difference was more substantial in women treated with PTNS; voided volume increased in both groups. Quality of life improved in both groups, whereas patient perception of urgency improved only in women treated with PTNS. Global impression of improvement revealed a greater satisfaction in patients treated with PTNS. Conclusion This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTNS and ES with PFMT in women with OAB, but greater improvements were found with PTNS.

  2. Cost profiles and budget impact of rechargeable versus non-rechargeable sacral neuromodulation devices in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblett, Karen L; Dmochowski, Roger R; Vasavada, Sandip P; Garner, Abigail M; Liu, Shan; Pietzsch, Jan B

    2017-03-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is a guideline-recommended third-line treatment option for managing overactive bladder. Current SNM devices are not rechargeable, and require neurostimulator replacement every 3-6 years. Our study objective was to assess potential cost effects to payers of adopting a rechargeable SNM neurostimulator device. We constructed a cost-consequence model to estimate the costs of long-term SNM-treatment with a rechargeable versus non-rechargeable device. Costs were considered from the payer perspective at 2015 reimbursement levels. Adverse events, therapy discontinuation, and programming rates were based on the latest published data. Neurostimulator longevity was assumed to be 4.4 and 10.0 years for non-rechargeable and rechargeable devices, respectively. A 15-year horizon was modeled, with costs discounted at 3% per year. Total budget impact to the United States healthcare system was estimated based on the computed per-patient cost findings. Over the 15-year horizon, per-patient cost of treatment with a non-rechargeable device was $64,111 versus $36,990 with a rechargeable device, resulting in estimated payer cost savings of $27,121. These cost savings were found to be robust across a wide range of scenarios. Longer analysis horizon, younger patient age, and longer rechargeable neurostimulator lifetime were associated with increased cost savings. Over a 15-year horizon, adoption of a rechargeable device strategy was projected to save the United States healthcare system up to $12 billion. At current reimbursement rates, our analysis suggests that rechargeable neurostimulator SNM technology for managing overactive bladder syndrome may deliver significant cost savings to payers over the course of treatment. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:727-733, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Is there any Relationship Between Bladder Trabeculation and Efficacy and Safety of Intravesical Botulinum Toxin A Injection in Refractory Idiopathic Overactive Bladder Women?

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    Mahtab Zargham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A might serve as a minimally invasive substitute in patients with refractory idiopathic overactive bladder (RIOAB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes related to two different doses of abo-BTX-A (AboBTX-A in patients with RIOAB. Materials and Methods: This prospective clinical trial was performed on 55 women with RIOAB. After determination of trabeculation grade, 300 (no or mild or 500 (moderate or severe unit of AboBTX-A (Dysport was intravesicaly injected. Before 1, 3, and 6 months after intervention, lower urinary tract symptoms during 24 h were recorded. Results: Of the study population, 62% had severe bladder trabeculation. The mean duration of overactive bladder (OAB was 1.76 versus 5.85 years, for no or mild versus severe trabeculation, respectively. After injections of 300- and 500-unit dosage, there were 19% and 26% early complications such as urinary retention. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in OAB score after 1 month (P < 0.001 and duration of OAB symptoms, over three follow-up times (P < 0.001. The mean preinjection OAB scores between patients with and without recurrence were statistically significant (29.36 vs. 25.07; P < 0.03. Urinary tract infection as a late complication was distinguished in four patients. Conclusion: In RIOAB, by adjusted dosage of AboBTX-A related to the grade of bladder trabeculation, in addition to maintain efficacy, consequent complications might not be affected by dosage and the drug dosage could be increased to nearly 60% with less concern associated to complication

  4. A randomized, multicenter, controlled study, comparing efficacy and safety of a new complementary and alternative medicine (CAM versus Solifenacin Succinate in women with overactive bladder syndrome

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    Carlo Vecchioli-Scaldazza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To assess efficacy and tolerability of a new complementary and alternative medicine (CAM consisting of vitamins (C and D, herbal products (cucurbita maxima, capsicum annum, polygonum capsicatum and amino acid L-Glutammina, in the treatment of female Overactive Bladder syndrome (OAB. Materials and methods: 90 consecutive women with OAB symptoms were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, controlled study. Women were divided randomly into two groups of 45 patients each. In group A, women received Solifenacin Succinate (SS, 5 mg. once a day for 12 weeks. In group B, women received CAM, 930 mg, twice daily for 12 weeks. Women were assessed with 3-day micturition diary, Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS, Overactive Bladder questionnaire Short Form (OAB-q SF and Patient Global Impression of Improvement questionnaire (PGI-I. Results: 8 patients in group A and 1 patient in group B dropped out from therapy because of side effects. A reduction in the number of daily micturitions, nocturia and episodes of urge incontinence was present with both SS and CAM with statistically highly significant differences, but CAM was significantly more effective than SS. PPIUS and OAB-q SF showed improvements with both SS and CAM with a more significant efficacy of CAM. PGI-I, demonstrated improvements in the two groups of patients with a greater satisfaction expressed by patients treated with CAM. Conclusions: the small number of patients does not permit definitive conclusions; however, the results of the research showed the greater effectiveness and tolerability of CAM.

  5. [Prevalence and characterization of overactive bladder detected in a population in Madrid with self-administered OAB-V3 questionnaire in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Javier C; Calderín, María P; Fernández, Yolanda; González, Miriam; Gómez, Esther; Herreros, Maria B; Peñasco, Purificación; Zapatero, Manuela; Dorado, Juan F

    2018-02-01

    Determining the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of overactive bladder (OAB) in a Spanish population and evaluate the impact of these symptoms on well-being and labour productivity in this population. Transversal study. Primary health care, Madrid, Spain. Males and females >30 years. Classification by primary care physicians with the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool abbreviated version (OAB-V3). Subjects with score ≥3 and a similarly balanced control population with score <3 were clinically investigated. History, physical examination, urinalysis, sonography, general well-being scale and the questionnaires PPBC, OAB-q y WPAI-SHP. A total 923 subjects were screened, of which 209 (22.6%), 35% males and 65% females, had probable OAB. Age distribution increased from 11.1% in 4th decade to 44.4% in 9th decade. Kappa coefficient between suspected OAB and definite diagnosis was .83. The area under ROC curve for diagnosis based on OAB-V3 questionnaire and the presence of perceived bother and coping strategies was 92%. Subjects classified by score ≥3 had worse well-being, higher PPBC score and worse parameters on total OAB-q and transformed scores for each OAB-q subscale (P<.0001). In these subjects labour productivity was not affected (P=.14) but the capacity to perform regular activities was (P<.0001). OAB-V3 is a simple questionnaire to screen OAB with good predictive accuracy in a primary care setting and reveals important implications on health related quality of life issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Psychometric validation of the OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 scales for the screening of patients with probable overactive bladder in the Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Francisco J; Angulo, Javier C; Ochayta, David; Rejas, Javier; Arumí, Daniel; Cañadas, Ana; Lizarraga, Isabel

    2014-12-23

    To perform the psychometric validation in the Spanish population of the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool (OAB-V8) scale and its abbreviated version OAB-V3 for screening patients with probable overactive bladder (OAB). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a population aged over 18 years, which was representative of the prevalence of OAB in Spain using an online methodology (Internet survey). Psychometric properties included feasibility, reliability, and validity. Subjects were classified according to the likelihood of OAB, using an automated algorithm validated previously. ROC curve analysis was performed, and the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were also assessed. A total of 2,035 subjects with a mean+SD age of 52.7+12.1 years were included (50.8%) men. In total 13.7% were classified as «Probable», 27.9% «Possible», and 58.3% «No» OAB. The internal consistency of both OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 scales was high (0.894 and 0.851, respectively). The item-total correlation coefficients were high; 0.87-0.88 and 0.71-0.83, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for OAB-V8 was 0.826 (confidence interval 95% 0.695-0.901) and it was 0.828 (confidence interval 0.623-0.922) for OAB-V3. The optimum cut-off value of OAB-V8 for detecting probable OAB was≥8 points (AUC=0.895, sensitivity 0.875, specificity 0.735), while for the OAB-V3 it was ≥ 3 (AUC=0.910, sensitivity 0.828, specificity 0.825). Both OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 scales were considered useful online self-administered screening tools, which were also feasible, reliable and valid for the detection of patients with probable OAB in the general population in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A new technique of laparoscopic implantation of stimulation electrode to the pudendal nerve for treatment of refractory fecal incontinence and/or overactive bladder with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possover, Marc

    2014-01-01

    To show a new technique of laparoscopic implantation of electrodes for stimulation of the pudendal nerve for treatment of fecal incontinence and/or overactive bladder with urinary incontinence. Step-by-step explanation of the technique using videos and pictures (educative video). Hyperactivity of the bladder with urinary incontinence, in particular the non-neurogenic form of the condition, but also fecal incontinence may affect millions of women worldwide without any comorbidities and in particular without any neurologic disorders or prolapsed organs. First-line conservative treatments do not always result in sufficient improvement of symptoms and are often associated with disabling adverse effects leading to treatment failure. Electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerves has emerged as an alternative and attractive treatment in refractory cases. A novel technique of implantation of an electrode to the pudendal nerve has been developed for treatment of fecal incontinence and of hyperactivity of the bladder with urinary incontinence. The laparoscopic approach is the only technique that enables placement of an electrode in direct contact with the endopelvic portion of the pudendal nerve within the protection of the pelvis. Laparoscopic transperitoneal implantation of a stimulation electrode to the endopelvic portion of the pudendal nerve. This technique of transperitoneal placement of an electrode to the endopelvic portion of the pudendal nerve is an effective, safe, and reproducible day procedure for treatment of intractable hyperactive bladder, urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, and a combination of both forms of incontinence. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Add-On Effect of Solifenacin for Patients with Remaining Overactive Bladder after Treatment with Tamsulosin for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Obstruction

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    Naoya Masumori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the add-on effect of solifenacin for Japanese men with remaining overactive bladder (OAB symptoms after tamsulosin monotherapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO in real-life clinical practice. Methods. Patients aged ≥ 50 having remaining OAB symptoms (≥ 3 of OAB symptom score (OABSS with ≥2 of urgency score after at least 4 weeks treatment by 0.2 mg of tamsulosin for BPO/LUTS received 2.5 or 5.0 mg of solifenacin for 12 weeks. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, QOL index and OABSS, maximum flow rate (Qmax and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR were determined. Results. A total of 48 patients (mean age 72.5 years completed the study. There were significant improvement in IPSS (15.1 to 11.2 and QOL index (4.2 to 3.0 by add-on of solifenacin. Although the IPSS storage symptom score was significantly improved, there were no changes observed in the IPSS voiding symptom score. The OABSS showed significant improvement (8.0 to 4.8. No changes were observed in Qmax and PVR. Conclusions. Under the supervision of an experienced urologist, the additional administration of solifenacin to patients with BPO/LUTS treated with tamsulosin, is effective in controlling remaining OAB symptoms.

  9. Safety and Effectiveness of Mirabegron in Patients with Overactive Bladder Aged ≥75 Years: Analysis of a Japanese Post-Marketing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Nozawa, Yumiko; Kato, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Kuroishi, Kentarou

    2017-09-12

    A 12-week post-marketing study was conducted to provide real-world data on Japanese patients with overactive bladder (OAB) initiating treatment with mirabegron. This post-hoc analysis focused on safety and effectiveness of mirabegron in patients aged ≥75 versus mass index (BMI; BMI < 18.5: 4.2% vs 3.2%), longer OAB duration (≥3 years: 24.6% vs 20.3%) and more severe OAB symptoms (severe: 17.0% vs 11.2%). A significantly greater percentage of patients aged ≥75 versus <75 years had comorbidities (77.8% vs 66.0%) and used concomitant drugs (58.3% vs 48.7%; P < 0.001). Incidence of ADR was observed in 7.00% and 5.19% of patients aged ≥75 versus <75 years, respectively. At EoT, mirabegron treatment was reported 'effective' in 79.3% versus 82.1% of patients aged ≥75 versus <75 years, respectively. Mean total OABSS decreased significantly from baseline, and exceeded the MCIC in 61.0% and 65.9% of patients aged ≥75 and <75 years, respectively. Similar changes were observed for I-PSS QoL in both groups. In a real-world clinical setting, mirabegron was well-tolerated and effective in patients aged ≥75 and <75 years. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Validation of the Spanish version of the questionnaire «Benefit, satisfaction and willingness to continue the treatment» in patients with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M A; Cambronero, J

    2013-09-01

    To perform the linguistic and psychometric validation of the Spanish version of the BSW (Benefit, Satisfaction and Willingness to continue) questionnaire. Epidemiologic, observational, multicenter, prospective (October 2008-February 2009) study in patients ≥40 years old with de novo overactive bladder syndrome who start treatment with antimuscarinics by physicians assessment. Data was recorded at baseline (face-to-face) and the follow-up of the study after 1 and 3 months (closed surveys by phone). Morisky-Green questionnaire was used to assess compliance. Bladder Control Self-assessment Questionnaire (B-SAQ) and BSW questionnaire were completed, performing the validation of BSW. 312 evaluable patients were recruited, 93 remained until the 3 months visit. 65% and 71% of patients were not compliant with treatment at 1 and 3 months, respectively. The correlation between the BSW and the B-SAQ questionnaires after 1 and 3 months was moderate and statistically significant. The internal consistency between the BSW questionnaire items was high (Cronbach alpha: 0,89 at 1 month and 0,84 at 3 months). 92% of patients understood the questions and 84% were able to fill the BSW questionnaire without need of previous instructions (N=25). The BSW questionnaire has been shown to be a feasible, valid and reliable tool to know the patient self-assessment of the treatment, according to its psychometric properties. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of urodynamics in stress urinary incontinence: A critical appraisal

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    Shirish Dattatraya Yande

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Urodynamic study in SUI has a potential of giving much more information than demonstration of Detrusor Overactivity alone. The predominant symptom of urge urinary incontinence can predictably diagnose detrusor overactivity in these cases. However, the incidence of asymptomatic detrusor overactivity remains as high as 15% and may have implication in postoperative results. This study clearly shows that there is a definite incidence of significant voiding dysfunction, which cannot be reliably evaluated without properly conducted pressure flow study. This factor may govern the choice of correct treatment which also predicts the outcome more reliably. Preoperative urodynamic study thus adds a dimension of precision to evaluation of the patients of SUI and may also influence technique and outcome measures in this group of patients.

  12. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerability of mirabegron for the treatment of storage lower urinary tract symptoms/overactive bladder: Comparison with placebo and tolterodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastianelli, Arcangelo; Russo, Giorgio I; Kaplan, Steven A; McVary, Kevin T; Moncada, Ignacio; Gravas, Stavros; Chapple, Christopher; Morgia, Giuseppe; Serni, Sergio; Gacci, Mauro

    2017-12-03

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirabegron 50 mg and 100 mg in the treatment of storage lower urinary tract symptoms/overactive bladder in comparison with a placebo and tolterodine 4 mg. A total of 491 articles were collected and eight randomized studies were identified as eligible for this meta-analysis. Overall, eight trials were included in the meta-analysis evaluating 10 248 patients. Mirabegron at both doses of 50 mg and 100 mg, and and tolterodine 4 mg were significantly associated with the reduction of incontinence episodes per 24 h, reduction of mean number of micturitions per 24 h, increase of voided volume and reduction of urgency episodes per 24 h, compared to a placebo. Both mirabegron 50 mg and mirabegron 100 mg were associated with a significant reduction of nocturia episodes when compared with a placebo. Conversely, tolterodine 4 mg did not prove to be more effective than a placebo in the reduction of nocturia episodes. Furthermore, mirabegron 50 mg showed a slightly, but significantly, better efficacy than tolterodine 4 mg in the improvement of nocturia episodes. Mirabegron 50 mg and mirabegron 100 mg shared the same risk of overall treatment-emergent adverse events rate with the placebo. Otherwise, tolterodine 4 mg was associated with a significantly greater risk than the placebo. However, mirabegron 100 mg showed a slight trend toward an increased risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.41; P = 0.08) and cardiac arrhythmia (odds ratio 2.18; P = 0.06). Mirabegron is an effective treatment for patients with storage lower urinary tract symptoms/overactive bladder, providing a reduction of incontinence, urgency and frequency; an improvement of voided volume with a slight, but statistically, significant improvement of nocturia; with a good safety profile. These findings should be considered for the treatment planning of patients with storage lower urinary tract symptoms/overactive bladder. © 2017

  13. Effectiveness of Retropubic Tension-Free Vaginal Tape and Transobturator Inside-Out Tape Procedures in Women With Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Yeon; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Young-Suk; Seo, Ju Tae; Kim, Jang Hwan; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We compared the effectiveness of the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the transobturator inside-out tape (TVT-O) in treating symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Women with urodynamic SUI and OAB (mean urgency episodes ≥1 and frequency ≥8/24 hours on a 3-day voiding diary) were assigned to the TVT or TVT-O group. Preoperative measures were based on a urodynamic study, 3-day voiding diary, the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTSSF), and the urgency perception scale (UPS). At 12 postoperative months, the 3-day voiding diary, symptoms questionnaire, patient satisfaction, and standing stress test were assessed. The primary endpoint was change in the number of urgency episodes/24 hours from baseline to 12 months. Results In this group of 132 women, 42 received TVT and 90 received TVT-O. The mean urgency episodes/24 hours decreased from 6.3±5.5 to 1.6±3.2 in the TVT group and from 5.1±4.4 to 1.8±3.0 in the TVT-O group. The mean percent change was significantly greater after TVT than after TVT-O (73% vs. 60%, P=0.049). All subscales of BFLUTSSF and UPS were significantly improved using either method, with significantly greater improvement seen in the quality of life (QoL) domain after TVT (P=0.002). There were no significant differences in the cure and satisfaction rates between the two groups. Conclusions Intervention with the TVT or the TVT-O significantly improved symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and OAB. Urgency and QoL significantly improved after TVT compared with that after TVT-O. PMID:24143294

  14. Antimuscarinic Use in Females With Overactive Bladder Syndrome Increases the Risk of Depressive Disorder: A 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Weng, Sung-Shun; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Li-Ting

    2017-08-01

    To date, the relationship between antimuscarinics for overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome and depressive disorder still remains unclear. Therefore, this retrospective cohort study examined the association between antimuscarinic use and the subsequent risk of depressive disorder using a population-based data set. This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We selected 1952 OAB women who received antimuscarinics as the study cohort and 9760 OAB women who did not receive antimuscarinics as the comparison cohort. Each subject was tracked for 3 years from her index date to determine all those who were subsequently diagnosed with depressive disorder. Results indicated that the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for depressive disorder in OAB women who received antimuscarinics was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.64) compared with those OAB women who did not receive antimuscarinics. In addition, the adjusted HRs for subsequent depressive disorder for OAB women aged 18-39, 40-59, and ≥60 years who received antimuscarinics were 1.83 (95%CI, 1.27-2.64), 1.36 (95%CI, 1.03-1.81), and 1.16 (95%CI, 0.86-1.56), respectively, compared with those OAB women who did not receive antimuscarinics. We concluded that women with OAB who received antimuscarinics had a significantly higher risk of subsequent depressive disorder compared with those OAB women who did not receive antimuscarinics. Accordingly, clinicians should be alert to the relationship between antimuscarinics usage and depressive disorder in OAB women and provide appropriate instructions for these patients. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Once-daily trospium chloride 60 mg extended-release provides effective, long-term relief of overactive bladder syndrome symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Norman R; Dmochowski, Roger R; Staskin, David R; Siami, Paul F; Sand, Peter K; Oefelein, Michael G

    2011-09-01

    Once-daily extended-release (XR) trospium chloride has been evaluated for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) in two 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. This pooled analysis of the 9-month open-label extensions to these studies evaluated the long-term efficacy and tolerability of trospium XR. Following double-blind treatment, subjects with OAB could enter the open-label period, during which they received trospium 60 mg XR once daily for 36 weeks. The primary efficacy variables were changes from baseline in the number of toilet voids and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes per day at Week 48. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Of the 1,027 subjects who completed double-blind treatment, 944 (92%) continued into the open-label period (placebo-to-trospium, N = 483; trospium-to-trospium, N = 461); 332 (68.7%) and 335 (72.7%), respectively, completed the open-label period. At Week 48, the mean change from baseline in the number of toilet voids/day was -3.21 in the placebo-to-trospium group and -3.35 in the trospium-to-trospium group, and the median change from baseline in the number of UUI episodes/day was -2.33 in both groups. Efficacy was maintained relative to Week 12 in trospium-to-trospium subjects, while improvement was seen following trospium initiation in placebo-to-trospium subjects. Improvement from baseline was also observed on secondary efficacy parameters at Week 48. Trospium was well tolerated; dry mouth and constipation were the most common class treatment-emergent AEs. Central nervous system AEs were rare and did not increase with long-term treatment. Long-term treatment of OAB with once-daily trospium 60 mg XR is effective and well tolerated. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Critical evaluation of the overactive bladder and urgency urinary incontinence association with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a relatively young adult male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Murat; Yazici, Ozgur; Kafkasli, Alper; Sabuncu, Kubilay; Salepci, Banu; Narter, Fehmi; Gungor, Gulten A; Yucetas, Ugur

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of Overactive Bladder (OAB) and Urgency Urinary Incontinence (UUI) in males with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) using the OSAS grading system. A total of 194 patients who underwent Polysomnography (PSG) were included in our prospective cross sectional study. Patients were divided into four groups according to Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI). Group 1, 35 patients with normal AHI (Bladder (OAB-V8), ICIQ-SF, and IPSS questionnaires were filled out for all patients. Prevalence of OAB, UUI, nocturia, and scores of OAB-V8, ICIQ-SF, IPSS were compared between the study groups. The statistical analysis was adjusted by the demographics of age and BMI. The mean age was 44.6 ± 11.2 years, and the mean BMI was 29.9 ± 4.9 within the whole study group, and both were statistically different between the groups. The scores of OAB-V8 (P = 0.298), ICIQ-SF (P = 0.392), IPSS total, IPSS storage, and IPSS voiding (P = 0.268, P = 0.380, P = 0.167, respectively), the prevalence of OAB (P = 0.078), UUI (P = 0.423), and nocturia (P = 0.096) were not statistically different between the study groups. Our findings demonstrated that there is no increase in prevalence of OAB and UUI in relatively young adult male with OSAS. Furthermore, analysis revealed that the higher OSAS grade does not mean the higher prevalence of OAB. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effectiveness of Short Term Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation for Non-neurogenic Overactive Bladder Syndrome in Adults: A Meta-analysis

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    Elita Wibisono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term PTNS for non-neurogenic OAB in adults systematically by comparing with sham procedure and other treatments. Methods: we performed a systematic review of cohort study. Data sources were MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, National Library for Health, Cochrane, and google scholar from 2005 through 2015. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. Heterogeneity of effects was assessed by calculating I2 statistic. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 for RCT meta-analysis. Results: we analized 11 randomised controlled trial (RCT and five prospective non-comparative studies with variable success rate. Based on percentage of responders, the results were 37.3% - 81.8% in PTNS group, 0% - 20.9% in sham group, 54.8% in anti-muscarinic group, and 89.7% in multimodal group. The decrease of voiding symptoms episodes per day was found in PTNS (0.7-4.5, sham (0.3-1.5, and anti-muscarinic (0.6-2.9 groups. In meta-analysis of four RCTs, the results favour PTNS over sham procedure with overall risk ratio of 7.32(95% CI of 1.69-32.16, p=0.09, I2=54%. Conclusion: there is an evidence of effectiveness of short term PTNS in treatment of non-neurogenic OAB. PTNS is proven significantly better than sham procedure. Key words: overactive bladder, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation, sham, anti-muscarinic, voiding symptoms.

  18. Trospium chloride has no effect on memory testing and is assay undetectable in the central nervous system of older patients with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskin, D; Kay, G; Tannenbaum, C; Goldman, H B; Bhashi, K; Ling, J; Oefelein, M G

    2010-08-01

    Muscarinic receptors in the brain play an important role in cognitive function, especially memory, and there is growing awareness that specific antimuscarinic drugs for overactive bladder (OAB) may have adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects. Selection of an antimuscarinic OAB drug with reduced potential for CNS effects could be especially beneficial in the elderly people, in whom even the modest cognitive impairment may negatively affect independence. The purpose of the study is to determine if trospium chloride is assay detectable in the CNS of older adults with OAB and to assess whether deterioration of memory occurs in these individuals. Twelve cognitively intact older adults (>or=65-75 years old) with OAB were given extended-release trospium chloride 60 mg once daily over a 10-day period to achieve plasma steady-state levels. Standardised memory testing (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised) was performed predose and postdose. Cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were drawn on day 10 and assayed for trospium chloride. Predose (day 0) and postdose (day 10) results on the memory tests were compared using a reliable change index to assess a meaningful change in learning or memory. Trospium chloride levels in all the CSF samples (n = 72) of all participants were assay undetectable (memory testing revealed no significant net drug effect on learning or recall. This is the first study to investigate for the presence of an OAB antimuscarinic in the human brain, performed by assaying for concentrations of trospium chloride and correlating with simultaneous clinical cognitive safety measures. The results of both pharmacological and neuropsychological testing support the hypothesis of a lack of detectable CNS penetration for the quaternary amine trospium chloride.

  19. Outcomes of different protocols of pelvic floor physical therapy and anti-cholinergics in women with wet over-active bladder: A 4-year follow-up.

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    Azuri, Joseph; Kafri, Rachel; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Stav, Kobi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the 4-year outcomes of three protocols of pelvic floor physical therapy and anticholinergic drug in women with wet over-active bladder (OAB). One hundred and sixty-four women were randomly allocated to one of four interventions: drug therapy (DT), bladder training (BT), pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), or combined pelvic floor rehabilitation (CPFR) that includes BT, PFMT, and behavioral advice. The active treatment in each group lasted 3 months. Of the 132 women who completed a 1-year follow-up, 120 women (90%) responded to our questionnaires and therefore were included in this study. Outcome measures were the number of voids per day, number of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes per week, completely dry rate and Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire (I-QOL) at 4 years. After 4 years of follow-up, the outcome measures improved significantly and equally in all four groups. The median number of UUI episodes/week dropped by 3, 1, 2, and 2 in the DT, BT, PFMT, and CPFR groups, respectively (P = ns). The dry rates were 25%, 31%, 44%, 34% in the DT, BT, PFMT, and CPFR groups, respectively (P = ns). I-QOL scores improved significantly in all four groups. Women who suffer from wet-OAB may experience the same degree of long-term improvement following various pelvic floor physical therapy protocols as they would from drug therapy. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:755-758, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of extracorporeal magnetic energy stimulation on bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life in female patients with stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tsia-Shu; Tseng, Ling-Hong; Lin, Yi-Hao; Liang, Ching-Chung; Lu, Ching-Yi; Pue, Leng Boi

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of extracorporeal magnetic stimulation (EMS) for the treatment of bothersome and severe symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) in female patients. A retrospective review was conducted on patients with SUI and OAB who were referred to EMS therapy. Successful treatment for the bothersome symptoms of OAB and SUI was defined as score ≤1 for questions 2 and 3 on the Urodynamic Distress Inventory-6. The objective cure of SUI and OAB was defined as no urinary leakage during the cough stress test and any urgency, urge incontinence and voiding frequency of less than eight times per 24 h based on the 3-day bladder diary, after the 9 weeks of treatment, respectively. Ninety-three patients with SUI or OAB underwent a 9-week course of EMS at 20 min twice weekly. Seventy-two (77%) patients completed EMS treatment. Geographical factor and poor economic status were two main factors for dropout. A total of 94.1% (32 of 34) and 86.8% (33 of 38) of subjects had successful treatment for the bothersome symptoms of OAB and SUI, respectively. In contrast, the cure rate for OAB and SUI was only 61.7% and 42.1%, respectively. There was also a significant improvement in both Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (bothersome on lower urinary tract symptoms) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form (quality of life) total score in both groups after EMS. EMS is a safe and effective alternative method for treating SUI and OAB. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Epidemiology and impact of urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and other lower urinary tract symptoms: results of the EPIC survey in Russia, Czech Republic, and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Mikhail Iosifovich; Zachoval, Roman; Ozyurt, Ceyhun; Schäfer, Thomas; Christensen, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB), and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in the Czech Republic, Russia, and Turkey. Stage one of this population-based survey consisted of computer-assisted telephone interviews to obtain prevalence estimates of storage, voiding, and post-micturition LUTS. Stage two face-to-face interviews evaluated subjects with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI), stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or OAB (case group) and a control group (subjects with other incontinence or LUTS complaints, or no symptoms). Prevalence of LUTS categories were determined for each country based on International Continence Society (ICS) criteria. A total of 3130 individuals agreed to participate in the survey, which found high rates of LUTS (men 80%; women 84%) and OAB (men 18%; women 28%). Duration of urinary symptoms was relatively brief (approximately 60% ≤ 3 years) and was associated with relatively modest effects on quality of life and work performance in the majority of individuals. Forty percent had consulted with a healthcare provider about their urinary symptoms, of whom 37% had consulted with a physician and 34% with an urologist, and 12% had been treated with a prescription medication. Drug therapy, while uncommon, was associated with a high degree of self-reported improvement (96%). Because of between-country population differences, aggregate results may not always be representative of results for each of the three countries individually. Study limitations include reliance on patient self-report, and potential bias introduced by patients who declined to participate in the survey. The results of this epidemiologic survey found high rates of LUTS and OAB, but low levels of medical consultation and very low use of medication treatment, despite high levels of improvement when medications were used.

  2. Adverse Events of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis--Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-03-16

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections have been proposed to treat both overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) in patients with refractory conditions. We compared adverse events (AEs) after BoNT-A treatment between IC/BPS and OAB in women. IC/BPS patients who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive suburothelial injections of BoNT-A (100 U) followed by hydrodistention. Age matched OAB female patients refractory to antimuscarinic agents underwent BoNT-A (100 U) injections. The bladder capacity, maximum flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR), and voiding efficiency (VE) at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and the post-treatment AEs were analyzed between groups. Finally, 89 IC/BPS and 72 OAB women were included. In the OAB group, the bladder capacity and PVR increased, and VE decreased significantly at three and six months after BoNT-A treatment. In the IC/BPS group, the Qmax increased significantly at six months. There were significant differences in changes of capacity, Qmax, PVR and VE between the two groups. Moreover, OAB patients suffered more frequently from events of hematuria, UTI, and large PVR (>200 mL), but less frequently from events of straining to void. In conclusion, OAB women had higher PVR volume and lower VE than those in IC/BPS after BoNT-A injections. These results imply that the bladder contractility of OAB patients are more susceptible to BoNT-A, which might reflect the different mechanisms of action of Botox on bladder dysfunction. Further investigations to confirm this hypothesis are warranted.

  3. Adverse Events of Intravesical Onabotulinum Toxin A Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis—Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Chen Kuo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A injections have been proposed to treat both overactive bladder (OAB and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS in patients with refractory conditions. We compared adverse events (AEs after BoNT-A treatment between IC/BPS and OAB in women. IC/BPS patients who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive suburothelial injections of BoNT-A (100 U followed by hydrodistention. Age matched OAB female patients refractory to antimuscarinic agents underwent BoNT-A (100 U injections. The bladder capacity, maximum flow rate (Qmax, post-void residual (PVR, and voiding efficiency (VE at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and the post-treatment AEs were analyzed between groups. Finally, 89 IC/BPS and 72 OAB women were included. In the OAB group, the bladder capacity and PVR increased, and VE decreased significantly at three and six months after BoNT-A treatment. In the IC/BPS group, the Qmax increased significantly at six months. There were significant differences in changes of capacity, Qmax, PVR and VE between the two groups. Moreover, OAB patients suffered more frequently from events of hematuria, UTI, and large PVR (>200 mL, but less frequently from events of straining to void. In conclusion, OAB women had higher PVR volume and lower VE than those in IC/BPS after BoNT-A injections. These results imply that the bladder contractility of OAB patients are more susceptible to BoNT-A, which might reflect the different mechanisms of action of Botox on bladder dysfunction. Further investigations to confirm this hypothesis are warranted.

  4. Adverse Events of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis—Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections have been proposed to treat both overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) in patients with refractory conditions. We compared adverse events (AEs) after BoNT-A treatment between IC/BPS and OAB in women. IC/BPS patients who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive suburothelial injections of BoNT-A (100 U) followed by hydrodistention. Age matched OAB female patients refractory to antimuscarinic agents underwent BoNT-A (100 U) injections. The bladder capacity, maximum flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR), and voiding efficiency (VE) at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and the post-treatment AEs were analyzed between groups. Finally, 89 IC/BPS and 72 OAB women were included. In the OAB group, the bladder capacity and PVR increased, and VE decreased significantly at three and six months after BoNT-A treatment. In the IC/BPS group, the Qmax increased significantly at six months. There were significant differences in changes of capacity, Qmax, PVR and VE between the two groups. Moreover, OAB patients suffered more frequently from events of hematuria, UTI, and large PVR (>200 mL), but less frequently from events of straining to void. In conclusion, OAB women had higher PVR volume and lower VE than those in IC/BPS after BoNT-A injections. These results imply that the bladder contractility of OAB patients are more susceptible to BoNT-A, which might reflect the different mechanisms of action of Botox on bladder dysfunction. Further investigations to confirm this hypothesis are warranted. PMID:26999201

  5. Use of health care resources and associated costs in non-institutionalized vulnerable elders with overactive bladder treated with antimuscarinic agents in the usual medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, A; Rejas-Gutiérrez, J; Navarro-Artieda, R; Aguado-Jodar, A; Ruíz-Torrejón, A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the use of resources and health costs in vulnerable elderly institutionalized patients with overactive bladder (OAB) treated with fesoterodine, tolterodine or solifenacin in routine medical practice. A multicenter retrospective study, from the records of patients treated during 2008-2010 in three geographical locations and starting treatment with antimuscarinic (fesoterodine, solifenacin and tolterodine) for OAB. The attribute of vulnerability was based on collecting at least 3 of the Vulnerable Elders Survey criteria-13, age>75 years, poor/average age for health and difficulty in at least one daily physical activity. morbidity, persistence and resource use and costs. Monitoring of patients was conducted over 52 weeks. A general linear model with covariates and bootstraping (1000) at random was used to construct the 95% CI of the cost differences between drugs. Records of 552 patients (50.8% women, mean age: 80.2 years) were analyzed. Treated with fesoterodine (N=58), solifenacin (N=252) or tolterodine (N=212). The use of absorbent was 20.7%, 29.4% and 33.0% (P=.186), respectively. Persistence to treatment was slightly greater with fesoterodine. The patient healthcare costs/year were lower with fesoterodine, €1,775 (1550-2014) vs. solifenacin €2,062 (1911-2223) and tolterodine €2,149 (1,978-2,307), P=.042, as a result of lower utilization visits and concomitant medication. Despite the potential limitations of the study, the vulnerable elderly non institutionalized patients with OAB treated with fesoterodine, compared to solifenacin or tolterodine were associated with lower resource utilization and healthcare costs. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors associated with dose escalation of fesoterodine for treatment of overactive bladder in people >65 years of age: A post hoc analysis of data from the SOFIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Adrian; Darekar, Amanda; Arumi, Daniel; Khullar, Vik; Oelke, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    To investigate factors which may influence dose escalation of antimuscarinics for overactive bladder (OAB) in older patients and how dose escalation affects treatment efficacy. A post hoc analysis of data from the 12-week randomized, placebo controlled phase of the SOFIA study investigating treatment with fesoterodine in older people with OAB. Predictors and outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years with OAB who did or did not choose to escalate from fesoterodine 4 to 8 mg before the first dose-escalation choice point (week 4) and at the end of the study (week 12) were assessed. Variables which significantly increased likelihood of dose escalation were, at baseline, body mass index (OR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.01, 1.12; P = 0.0222), and male gender (OR: 2.06, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32; P = 0.0028) and at week 4, change from baseline in urgency episodes (OR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.05, 1.20; P = 0.0008), patient perception of bladder control (PPBC) (OR: 1.44, 95% CI 1.12, 1.84; P = 0.004). At week 12, dose escalation was associated with slightly reduced treatment outcomes compared to week 4 non-escalators. No baseline disease related factor associated with dose escalation was identified. Magnitude of change in urgency episodes and reduction in PPBC at 4 weeks were associated with dose escalation. These data may be of use to healthcare providers as they allow judgement to be made in individual patients, allowing treatment decisions to be made. At end of treatment, improvements in efficacy and quality of life were achieved in both escalators and non-escalators. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Testing and Treating Women after Unsuccessful Conservative Treatments for Overactive Bladder or Mixed Urinary Incontinence: A Model-Based Economic Evaluation Based on the BUS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Goranitis

    Full Text Available To compare the cost-effectiveness of bladder ultrasonography, clinical history, and urodynamic testing in guiding treatment decisions in a secondary care setting for women failing first line conservative treatment for overactive bladder or urgency-predominant mixed urinary incontinence.Model-based economic evaluation from a UK National Health Service (NHS perspective using data from the Bladder Ultrasound Study (BUS and secondary sources.Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision tree and a 5-year time horizon based on the outcomes of cost per woman successfully treated and cost per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and a value of information analysis are also undertaken.Bladder ultrasonography is more costly and less effective test-treat strategy than clinical history and urodynamics. Treatment on the basis of clinical history alone has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of £491,100 per woman successfully treated and an ICER of £60,200 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women on the basis of urodynamics. Restricting the use of urodynamics to women with a clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only is the optimal test-treat strategy on cost-effectiveness grounds with ICERs of £19,500 per woman successfully treated and £12,700 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women based upon urodynamics. Conclusions remained robust to sensitivity analyses, but subject to large uncertainties.Treatment based upon urodynamics can be seen as a cost-effective strategy, and particularly when targeted at women with clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only. Further research is needed to resolve current decision uncertainty.

  8. Treatment of overactive bladder in the older patient: pooled analysis of three phase III studies of darifenacin, an M3 selective receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jenelle; Glavind, Karin; Kralidis, Georg; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of darifenacin, an M(3) selective receptor antagonist, in the subgroup of older patients from a pooled analysis of three phase III, multicentre, randomized, double-blind clinical trials in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). 317 patients aged > or =65 years with OAB symptoms (urge incontinence, urgency and frequency) received up to 12 weeks' oral treatment with darifenacin 7.5 mg or 15 mg once daily or matching placebo. Efficacy was evaluated from daily electronic diary records. Safety endpoints included withdrawal rates and treatment-related adverse events. Darifenacin treatment of patients aged > or =65 years was associated with a dose-related, significant improvement of all the major symptoms of OAB. At week 12, the median reduction in incontinence episodes/week was greater with darifenacin 7.5 mg or 15 mg than in the corresponding placebo arms (66.7% vs. 34.8% and 75.9% vs. 44.8%, respectively, both p constipation (7.5 mg, 18.6%; 15 mg, 23.6%; placebo, 6.4%), typically mild or moderate. Use of constipation remedies (laxatives, stool softeners or fibre supplements) was low and similar between groups (7.5 mg, 10.3%; 15 mg, 16.4%; placebo, 10.0%). There were few withdrawals due to treatment-related adverse events (7.5 mg, 1.0%; 15 mg, 9.1%; placebo, 2.7%), and no nervous system or cardiovascular safety concerns. The results demonstrate excellent efficacy, tolerability and safety with darifenacin 7.5 mg and 15 mg once-daily treatment for OAB in older patients.

  9. Health economics perspective of fesoterodine, tolterodine or solifenacin as first-time therapy for overactive bladder syndrome in the primary care setting in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Aguado-Jodar, Alba; Ruiz-Torrejón, Amador; Ibáñez-Nolla, Jordi; Kvasz, Marion

    2013-10-21

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is associated with high healthcare costs, which may be partially driven by drug treatment. There is little comparative data on antimuscarinic drugs with respect to resource use and costs. This study was conducted to address this gap and the growing need for naturalistic studies comparing health economics outcomes in adult patients with OAB syndrome initiating treatment with different antimuscarinic drugs in a primary care setting in Spain. Medical records from the databases of primary healthcare centres in three locations in Spain were assessed retrospectively. Men and women ≥18 years of age who initiated treatment with fesoterodine, tolterodine or solifenacin for OAB between 2008 and 2010 were followed for 52 weeks. Healthcare resource utilization and related costs in the Spanish National Health System were compared. Comparisons among drugs were made using multivariate general linear models adjusted for location, age, sex, time since diagnosis, Charlson comorbidity index, and medication possession ratio. A total of 1,971 medical records of patients (58.3% women; mean age, 70.1 [SD:10.6] years) initiating treatment with fesoterodine (n = 302), solifenacin (n = 952) or tolterodine (n = 717) were examined. Annual mean cost per patient was €1798 (95% CI: €1745; €1848). Adjusted mean (95% bootstrap CI) healthcare costs were significantly lower in patients receiving fesoterodine (€1639 [1542; 1725]) compared with solifenacin (€1780 [€1699; €1854], P = 0.022) or tolterodine (€1893 [€1815; €1969], P = 0.001). Cost differences occurred because of significantly fewer medical visits, and less use of absorbent products and OAB-related concomitant medication in the fesoterodine group. Compared with solifenacin and tolterodine, fesoterodine was a cost-saving therapy for treatment of OAB in the primary care setting in Spain.

  10. The effects of reactive oxygen species on calcium- and carbachol-induced contractile responses in beta-escin permeabilized rat bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlu-Kandilci, N Tugba; Sahin-Erdemli, Inci

    2008-12-01

    The effect of reactive oxygen species on contractions in beta-escin permeabilized rat detrusor was investigated. Cumulative calcium contractions were inhibited by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl (*OH) but not by superoxide (O(2) *). The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and the mitochondrial blocker carbonyl cyanide p-trifluromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) decreased the calcium contractions, however in their presence, H(2)O(2) and *OH did not have further effect. Carbachol contractions were inhibited by either H(2)O(2)/*OH/O(2) * or CPA/FCCP. In the presence of CPA, carbachol contractions were not affected by H(2)O(2) and *OH but further decreased by O(2) *. On the other hand, only H(2)O(2) and *OH elicited additional inhibition in carbachol responses in the presence of FCCP. Inositol triphosphate contraction was inhibited by *OH whereas none of the radicals affect carbachol induced calcium sensitization. These results show that H(2)O(2) and *OH affects sarcoplasmic reticulum where O(2) * acts on mitochondria to change contractions in rat detrusor smooth muscle.

  11. Validation of a Dutch version of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis: an observational web-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Blok, Bertil F M; Heesakkers, John P; Heerings, Marco; Lemmens, Wim A; Donders, Rogier

    2015-10-30

    In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) the impact of urological symptoms on quality of life and daily activities is considerable. Yet, a substantial percentage of patients may not be urologically evaluated and thus fail to be treated concordantly. The 8-item Actionable questionnaire is a validated English screening tool for the detection of neurogenic bladder overactivity in MS. To enable the use of the 8-item Actionable in The Netherlands and Belgium we translated the questionnaire into the Dutch language and investigated the test-retest reliability and the concurrent validity of the Dutch version. The process of translating the English Actionable questionnaire into the Dutch language included forward translations and back-translations. Then, in an online observational study, MS patients completed the Dutch Actionable at Days 1 and 8, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life 54-Items (MSQoL-54) and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Profile (MSIP) questionnaires at Day 1; the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was assessed by phone at Day 1. For assessment of the test-retest reliability Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between the Day 1 and Day 8 Actionable scores was calculated. For assessment of the concurrent validity r values were calculated between the Day 1 Actionable score and the EDSS score, the Physical and Mental MSQoL-54 composites, and the MSIP domain and symptom disability scores. N = 141 (106 female, 35 male) (80 relapsing remitting, 48 progressive, 13 unknown), mean age 47.8 (standard deviation [SD] 10.4) years, mean EDSS score 4.7 (SD 1.8); 137 patients completed the Day 8 assessment. Pearson's r between Actionable scores Day 1 and Day 8: 0.85 (P < .0001). Pearson's r between Actionable score Day 1 and scores for EDSS 0.41 (P < 0.0001), MSQoL-54 Physical -0.31 (P = 0.0002), MSQoL-54 Mental -0.29 (P = 0.0005), MSIP Excretion and Reproductive Functions 0.44 (P < 0.0001), Muscle and Movement Functions 0.39 (P

  12. Comparative study of the B-SAQ, OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 questionnaires as screening tools for overactive bladders in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Calderín, M P; Fernández, Y; González, M; Gómez, E; Herreros, M B; Peñasco, P; Zapatero, M; Dorado, J F

    To compare the capacity shown by 3 self-assessment questionnaires validated in Spanish (B-SAQ, OAB-V8 and OAB-V3) for the screening of patients with overactive bladder (OAB) in clinical practice. A noninterventional observational study was conducted of men and women older than 30 years evaluated in primary care consultations. The clinical diagnosis of OAB was conducted through a case history review, physical examination, urine analysis, ultrasonography and voiding diary. The presence of coping strategies and discomfort was investigated. The differential diagnosis was established in patients with symptoms not due to OAB. We assessed the correlation between the clinical tests and diagnosis (kappa .6 good; >.8 excellent) and ROC curves to define the capacity to screen the assessed questionnaires. A total of 411 patients were investigated. OAB was detected in 207 (50.4%) patients, other causes for the lower urinary tract symptoms were detected in 63 (15.3%), and 141 (34.3%) patients had no diagnosis. The voiding diary suggested OAB in 197 (47.9%) patients. The correlation between the clinical diagnosis and the diagnosis based on the voiding diary was .702. The correlation between the clinical diagnosis and B-SAQ, OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 was .59, .673 and .732, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was .799 for B-SAQ; .837 for OAB-V8 and .867 for OAB-V3 (OAB-V3 vs. OAB-V8, P=.02; OAB-V3 vs. B-SAQ, P<.0001). The AUC for the voiding diary was .852 (OAB-V3 vs. diary, P=.47). OAB-V3 is a simple questionnaire with excellent performance for screening OAB in a specific population and that is superior to the OAB-V8 and B-SAQ. The accuracy of the voiding diary for the same indication is equivalent to that of the OAB-V3 in our setting. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of 2015 Update to the Beers Criteria on Estimates of Prevalence and Costs Associated with Potentially Inappropriate Use of Antimuscarinics for Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehs, Brandon T; Davis, Cralen; Ng, Daniel B; Gooch, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Research has demonstrated that the use of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is highly prevalent among older individuals and may lead to increased healthcare costs, adverse drug reactions, hospitalizations, and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the 2015 updates to the Beers Criteria on estimates of prevalence and cost associated with potenti