Sample records for detrital zircon fingerprint

  1. Detrital Zircons Split Sibumasu in East Gondwana (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Chung, S. L.


    It is widely accepted that Sibumasu developed as a united terrane and originated from NW Australian margin in East Gondwana. Here we report new detrital zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data from Sumatra that, in combination with literature data, challenge and refute the above long-held view. In particular, the East and West Sumatra terranes share nearly identical Precambrian to Paleozoic detrital zircon age distributions and Hf isotopes, indicating a common provenance/origin for them. The Sumatra detrital zircons exhibit a prominent population of ca. 1170-1070 Ma, indistinguishable from those of the Lhasa and West Burma terranes, with detritus most probably sourcing from western Australia. By contrast, Sibuma (Sibumasu excluding Sumatra) detrital zircons display a prevailing population of ca. 980-935 Ma, strongly resembling those of the western Qiangtang terrane, with detrital materials most likely derived from Greater India and Himalayas. Such markedly distinct detrital zircon age profiles between Sumatra and Sibuma require disparate sources/origin for them, provoking disintegration of the widely-adopted, but outdated, term Sibumasu and thus inviting a new configuration of East Gondwana in the early Paleozoic, with Sumatra and West Burma lying outboard the Lhasa terrane in the NW Australian margin and Sibuma situated in the northern Greater Indian margin. More future investigations are needed to establish the precise rifting and drifting histories of Sumatra and Sibuma, as two separated terranes, during the breakup of Gondwana.

  2. Lithofacies control in detrital zircon provenance studies: Insights from the Cretaceous Methow basin, southern Canadian Cordillera (United States)

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.


    High-frequency sampling for detrital zircon analysis can provide a detailed record of fine-scale basin evolution by revealing the temporal and spatial variability of detrital zircon ages within clastic sedimentary successions. This investigation employed detailed sampling of two sedimentary successions in the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin of the southern Canadian Cordillera to characterize the heterogeneity of detrital zircon signatures within single lithofacies and assess the applicability of detrital zircon analysis in distinguishing fine-scale provenance changes not apparent in lithologic analysis of the strata. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin contains two distinct stratigraphic sequences of middle Albian to Santonian clastic sedimentary rocks: submarine-fan deposits of the Harts Pass Formation/Jackass Mountain Group and fluvial deposits of the Winthrop Formation. Although both stratigraphic sequences displayed consistent ranges in detrital zircon ages on a broad scale, detailed sampling within each succession revealed heterogeneity in the detrital zircon age distributions that was systematic and predictable in the turbidite succession but unpredictable in the fluvial succession. These results suggest that a high-density sampling approach permits interpretation of finescale changes within a lithologically uniform turbiditic sedimentary succession, but heterogeneity within fluvial systems may be too large and unpredictable to permit accurate fine-scale characterization of the evolution of source regions. The robust composite detrital zircon age signature developed for these two successions permits comparison of the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin age signature with known plutonic source-rock ages from major plutonic belts throughout the Cretaceous North American margin. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin detrital zircon age signature matches best with source regions in the southern Canadian Cordillera, requiring that the basin developed in close proximity to the

  3. Triassic North American paleodrainage networks and sediment dispersal of the Chinle Formation: A quantitative approach utilizing detrital zircons (United States)

    Blum, M. D.; Umbarger, K.


    The Triassic Chinle Formation is a fluvial succession deposited in a backarc setting across the present-day Colorado Plateau of the southwestern United States. Existing studies have proposed various mechanisms responsible for the unique stratigraphic architecture and depositional sequences of the Chinle. However, these studies lack necessary age control to correlate stratigraphic patterns with contemporaneous mechanisms. This study will collect new samples for detrital zircon analysis, as well as upgrade existing samples (to n=300) from Dickinson and Gehrels (2008), to improve the resolution of Triassic sediment provenance from source-to-sink. The improved dataset allows appraisal of the multiple provenance terranes that contributed to the Chinle depositional system to delineate and reconstruct paleodrainage patterns. The additional samples will be collected systematically from the base of the Chinle, and vertically throughout the section to capture a regional story of how the continental scale drainage reorganized through time. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons will be utilized to provide quantitative fingerprinting information to constrain interpretations for the origin and transport history of the Chinle fluvial succession in time and space.

  4. Detrital zircon ages from southern Norway - implications for the Proterozoic evolution of the southwestern Baltic Shield (United States)

    Knudsen, T.-L.; Andersen, T.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Vestin, J.

    An ion-microprobe (SIMS) U-Pb zircon dating study on four samples of Precambrian metasediments from the high-grade Bamble Sector, southern Norway, gives the first information on the timing of discrete crust-forming events in the SW part of the Baltic Shield. Recent Nd and Pb studies have indicated that the sources of the clastic metasediments in this area have crustal histories extending back to 1.7 to 2.1Ga, although there is no record of rocks older than 1.6Ga in southern Norway. The analysed metasediments are from a sequence of intercalated, centimetre to 10-metre wide units of quartzites, semi-metapelites, metapelites and mafic granulites. The zircons can be grouped in two morphological populations: (1) long prismatic; (2) rounded, often flattened. The BSE images reveal that both populations consist of oscillatory zoned, rounded and corroded cores (detrital grains of magmatic origin), surrounded by homogeneous rims (metamorphic overgrowths). The detrital zircons have 207Pb/206Pb ages between 1367 and 1939Ma, with frequency maxima in the range 1.85 to 1.70Ga and 1.60 to 1.50Ga. There is no correlation between crystal habit and age of the zircon. One resorbed, inner zircon core in a detrital grain is strongly discordant and gives a composite inner core-magmatic outer core 207Pb/206Pb age of 2383 Ma. Two discrete, unzoned zircons have 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1122 and 1133Ma, representing zircon growth during the Sveconorwegian high-grade metamorphism. Also the μm wide overgrowths, embayments in the detrital cores and apparent ``inner cores'' which represent secondary metamorphic zircon growth in deep embayments in detrital grains, are of Sveconorwegian age. The composite-detrital-metamorphic zircon analyses give generally discordant 206Pb/238U versus 207Pb/235U ratios and maximum 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1438Ma. These data demonstrate the existence of a protocrust of 1.7 to 2.0Ga in the southwestern part of the Baltic Shield, implying a break in the overall westward

  5. 3-D Characterization of Detrital Zircon Grains and its Implications for Fluvial Transport, Mixing, and Preservation Bias (United States)

    Markwitz, V.; Kirkland, C. L.; Mehnert, A.; Gessner, K.; Shaw, J.


    Detrital zircon studies can suffer from selective loss of provenance information due to U-Pb age discordance, metamictization, metamorphic overprinting and fluviatile transport processes. The relationship between isotopic composition and zircon grain shape, and how grain shape is modified during transport, is largely unknown. We combine X-ray tomography with U-Pb geochronology to quantify how fluvial transport affects 3-D zircon shape, detrital age signature, and grain density along the Murchison River, whose catchment comprises Eoarchean to Early Paleozoic source rocks in Western Australia. We acquired tomographic volumes and isotopic data from 373 detrital zircons to document changes in size, shape and density in transport direction, and explore how grain shape, age spectra and the proportion of discordant material vary along the channel. Results show that shape characteristics are sensitive to transport distance, stream gradient, proximity to source material, and whether the source consists of primary or recycled zircons. With increasing transport distance, grain lengths decrease more than their widths. Furthermore, the loss of metamict grains occurs at a near constant rate, resulting in a linear increase of mean calculated zircon density by ca. 0.03 g/cm3 per 100 km transport distance. 3-D grain shape is therefore strongly linked to detrital age signature, and mean grain density is a function of the absolute transport distance. 3-D shape characteristics provide valuable information on detrital zircon populations, including the interaction between source materials with fluvial transport processes, which significantly affects preservation bias and, by inference, the representativeness of the sampled data.

  6. In situ detrital zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology (United States)

    Tripathy, A.; Monteleone, B. D.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K.; Hourigan, J. K.


    Detrital studies of both sand and rock are relevant to many problems, ranging from the climate and tectonics feedback debate to the long-term record of orogenic evolution. When applying the conventional (U-Th)/He technique to such studies, two important issues arise. Often, only euhedral grains are permissible for analysis in order to make simple geometric corrections for α-recoil. In detrital samples, this is problematic because euhedral grains can be scarce due to mechanical abrasion during transport, and potentially introduce bias in favour of more proximally sourced grains. Second, inherent to detrital studies is the need to date many grains (>100) per sample to ensure a representative sampling of the sediment source region, thus making robust conventional detrital studies both expensive and time-consuming. UV laser microprobes can improve this by permitting careful targeting of the grain interior away from the α-ejection zone, rendering the α-recoil correction unnecessary, thus eliminating bias toward euhedral grains. In the Noble Gas, Geochemistry, and Geochronology Laboratory at ASU, apatite and zircon have been successfully dated using in situ methods. For this study, the conventional and in situ techniques are compared by dating zircons from a modern river sand that drains a small catchment in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Ladakh Batholith in NW India. This sample has a simple provenance, which allows us to demonstrate the robustness of the in situ method. Moreover, different microbeam techniques will be explored to establish the most efficient approach to obtain accurate and precise U-Th concentrations using synrock, which is our powdered, homogenized, and reconstituted zircon-rock standard. Without this, such in situ U-Th data would be difficult to obtain. 117 zircons were dated using the conventional (U-Th)/He method, revealing dates ranging from 9.70±0.35 to 106.6±3.5 Ma (2σ) with the major mode at 26 Ma. For comparison, 44 grains were dated using the in

  7. Detrital zircon geochronology and provenance of the Chubut Group in the northeast of Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Navarro, Edgardo L.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Belousova, Elena; Guler, M. Verónica; Gehrels, George


    The Chubut Group constitutes the most widespread sedimentary unit in NE Patagonia, characterized by variable-energy fluvial deposits. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons from two sections of the Chubut Group constraint the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks in the northeast of the Somuncurá - Cañadón Asfalto Basin. In the Cañadón Williams area, at San Jorge section, 20 km NW of Telsen locality, dating of 56 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse sandstone indicated a maximum depositional age of 109 ± 1 Ma (n = 4). These sandstones were interpreted to represent shallow channels, associated with a lacustrine system. In the Telsen locality, a laser ablation analysis of 115 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse-grained sandstone, from fluvial channel facies, yielded a maximum depositional age of ca. 106 ± 1 Ma (n = 8). Both ages are consistent with volcanic events of the Barremian to Albian age in the central Patagonian Andes Region. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the San Jorge sample suggest an igneous origin, which is further supported by Th/U values above 0.5 in most of the grains. The distribution of the statistical modes of the main age populations of detrital zircons for the two samples [182, 185 and 189 Ma for Telsen sample (T2S) and 181 ± 1 Ma for San Jorge sample (SJS)] matches the age of the volcanic Marifil Formation. The rocks of the Marifil Formation of these ages are exposed NE to SE of the study area. The abundance of zircons of similar Jurassic ages (n = 52 for SJS and n = 105 for T2S) and the external morphology of the zircons in the sample SJS, implies a close proximity of the source area. Suggestion that the Marifil Formation was the main provenance source is also supported by northeast-southeasterly paleocurrents measured at the San Jorge and Telsen sections.

  8. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from Pegasus Group, Stewart Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.; Tulloch, A.J.; Allibone, A.


    Stewart Island (New Zealand) is relatively unaffected by Cenozoic deformation related to the present-day plate boundary and has thus been a locale of investigations that focus on the relationship between Mesozoic continental margin magmatic rocks and the Western Province (WP) of NZ. Pegasus Group metasedimentary rocks represent the only candidate for WP equivalents on Stewart Island. We measured U-Pb and 207 Pb / 206 Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Pegasus Group in an effort to validate the correlation with the WP. On SI, Pegasus Group is exposed over a small area in the southern Tin Range where it forms amphibolite facies roof pendants and screens among plutons of mid Paleozoic to mid Cretaceous age. Mica schists predominate, with lesser amounts of psammite and metaquartzite and rare calcareous schist and amphibolite. Zircons were extracted from metaquarzite and 24 grains were chosen on the basis of morphology for geochronologic investigation. Sixteen single crystals were dated by U-Pb TIMS; 8 additional grains were studied by the total evaporation method described by Kober. Despite vigorous air abrasion prior to processing, the 16 grains measured by conventional U-Pb TIMS yielded slightly normally discordant ages that we interpret to reflect minor Pb-loss. The 8 grains studied by the total evaporation method yielded more than four analytically identical /sup 207 Pb / 206 Pb ages within each grain at progressively higher temperatures (1515-1580 degrees C) of evaporation. The results permit the following general conclusions: 1) the age range of 420-2700 Ma is grossly similar to that reported from the Greenland Group/Victoria Paragneiss (Ireland 1992) of the Buller Terrane, WP; 2) the zircon population is dominantly 530-680 Ma but a subsidiary population is 900-1100 Ma; 3) no zircons with ages that match the timing of the Ross Orogen (530-480 Ma) were identified; 4) two grains of 420 Ma and a 453 Ma are probably too young for the paleontogically

  9. Silicic melt evolution in the early Izu-Bonin arc recorded in detrital zircons: Zircon U-Pb geochronology and trace element geochemistry for Site U1438, Amami Sankaku Basin (United States)

    Barth, A. P.; Tani, K.; Meffre, S.; Wooden, J. L.; Coble, M. A.


    Understanding the petrologic evolution of oceanic arc magmas through time is important because these arcs reveal the processes of formation and the early evolution of juvenile continental crust. The Izu-Bonin (IB) arc system has been targeted because it is one of several western Pacific intraoceanic arcs initiated at 50 Ma and because of its prominent spatial asymmetry, with widespread development of relatively enriched rear arc lavas. We examined Pb/U and trace element compositions in zircons recovered at IODP Site 351-U1438 and compared them to regional and global zircon suites. These new arc zircon data indicate that detrital zircons will yield new insights into the generation of IB silicic melts and form a set of useful geochemical proxies for interpreting ancient arc detrital zircon provenance. Project IBM drilling target IBM1 was explored by Expedition 351 at Site U1438, located in the proximal back-arc of the northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) at 27.3°N. A 1.2 km thick section of Paleogene volcaniclastic rocks, increasingly lithified and hydrothermally altered with depth, constitutes a proximal rear arc sedimentary record of IB arc initiation and early arc evolution. The ages and compositions of U1438 zircons are compatible with provenance in one or more edifices of the northern KPR and are incompatible with drilling contamination. Melt zircon saturation temperatures and Ti-in-zircon thermometry suggest a provenance in relatively cool and silicic KPR melts. The abundances of selected trace elements with high native concentrations provide insight into the petrogenesis of U1438 detrital zircon host melts, and may be useful indicators of both short and long-term variations in melt compositions in arc settings. The U1438 zircons are slightly enriched in U and LREE and are depleted in Nb compared to zircons from mid-ocean ridges and the Parece-Vela Basin, as predicted for melts in a primitive oceanic arc setting with magmas derived from a highly depleted mantle

  10. Detrital zircon without detritus: a result of 496-Ma-old fluid-rock interaction during the gold-lode formation of Passagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Zeh, Armin


    Zircon and xenotime occur in tourmaline-rich hydrothermal pockets in the auriferous lode of Passagem de Mariana, a world-class gold deposit. Zircon grains show pristine oscillatory zoning, but many of them are altered, exhibiting porous domains filled with graphite. Uranium-Pb dating of zircon, using in-situ laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, yields ages between 3.2 and 2.65 Ga, which match those for detrital zircon of the footwall quartzite of the > 2.65-Ga-old Moeda Formation. Discordant analyses point to zircon-age resetting during the Brasiliano orogeny at ca. 500 Ma. This interpretation is supported by U-Pb dating of euhedral xenotime immediately adjacent to altered zircon within the same tourmaline pocket. The xenotime grains give a Concordia age of 496.3 ± 2.0 Ma, which is identical to that determined for monazite of a quartz-hematite vein-type deposit (i.e., jacutinga lode) in the region (Itabira), another important mineralisation style of gold. The occurrence of relatively abundant inherited detrital zircon, but absence of rock fragments in the tourmaline pocket investigated here, implies that detrital material was completely replaced by tourmaline. The graphite overprint on the altered detrital zircon attests to a reducing fluid, which was likely formed by fluid-rock interaction with carbonaceous phyllite of the Batatal Formation, the host rock of the Passagem lode.

  11. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology: Implications for the provenance and tectonic setting of Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Zhucheng Basin (Jiaodong peninsula, North China). Jin-Long Ni Jun-Lai Liu Xiao-Ling Tang ...

  12. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi


    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  13. Detrital Zircons From the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer, Western Australia: Geochronological, Morphological, and Geochemical Evidence for Diverse >4000 Ma Source Rocks (United States)

    Crowley, J. L.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.; Cox, R. A.


    Detrital zircons from all major clastic units in the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer metasedimentary belts, Western Australia, were analyzed for morphology, internal zoning, inclusion mineralogy, age, and trace element concentrations (latter two obtained by laser-ablation microprobe ICPMS). The results show that zircons were derived from a wide diversity of rocks, including previously described, >4000 Ma grains that are older than any known terrestrial rocks. In three metaconglomerate samples from the western Jack Hills, 4200-3800 Ma zircons ("old grains") comprise 14% of the population, 3800-3600 Ma grains form only 2%, and 3550-3250 Ma zircons ("young grains") are dominant with a significant peak at 3380 Ma. Old and young grains are interpreted as being from similar rock types because they are indistinguishable in trace element concentrations, size (several hundred microns), morphology (subequant, typically fragmented), internal zoning (typically both oscillatory and sector), and U concentration (50-200 ppm). Many of these properties suggest an intermediate plutonic source, whereas an evolved granitic source was previously interpreted from rare-earth element and oxygen isotope data. Detrital zircons in quartzites and metaconglomerates at Mount Narryer differ significantly from zircons from the western Jack Hills. Old grains comprise only 3% (most of which are 4200-4100 Ma), 3800-3600 Ma zircons form 31%, and there are peaks at 3650, 3600, and 3500 Ma. Old and young grains have similar properties that suggest granitic sources, such as elongate prismatic morphology, oscillatory zoning, high U concentrations (100-600 ppm), and xenotime and monazite inclusions. Trace element concentrations are broadly similar to those in Jack Hills zircons, with notable exceptions being generally higher U, smaller Ce and Eu anomalies, and lower Nb/Ta. It is considered unlikely that Jack Hills zircons were derived from granitic gneisses that surround the metasedimentary belts because

  14. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.


    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircons from a conglomeratic barite sandstone in the Sonora allochthon and a calciclastic sandstone in the Mina Mexico foredeep of the Minas de Barita area reveals two main age groups in the Upper Devonian part of the Los Pozos Formation, 1.73-1.65 Ga and 1.44-1.42 Ga; and three main age groups in the Lower Permian part of the Mina Mexico Formation, 1.93-1.91 Ga, 1.45-1.42 Ga, and 1.1-1.0 Ga. Small numbers of zircons with ages of 2.72-2.65 Ga, 1.30-1.24 Ga, ca. 2.46 Ga, ca. 1.83 Ga, and ca. 0.53 Ga are also present in the Los Pozos sandstone. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.73 to 1.65 Ga are considered to have been derived from the Yavapai, Mojave, and Mazatzal Provinces and their transition zones of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The 1.45-1.30 Ga detrital zircons were probably derived from scattered granite bodies within the Mojave and Mazatzal basement rocks in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and possibly from the Southern and Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Provinces of the southern United States. The 1.24-1.0 Ga detrital zircons are believed to have been derived from the Grenville (Llano) Province to the east and northeast or from Grenvilleage intrusions or anatectites to the north. Several detrital zircon ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.91 Ga were probably derived originally from the Archean Wyoming Province and Early Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior region. These older detrital zircons most likely have been recycled one or more times into the Paleozoic sandstones of central Sonora. The 0.53 Ga zircon is believed to have been derived from a Lower Cambrian granitoid or meta-morphic rock northeast of central Sonora, possibly in New Mexico and Colorado, or Oklahoma. Detrital zircon geochronology suggests that most of the detritus in both samples was derived from Laurentia to the north, whereas some detritus in the Permian synorogenic foredeep sequence was derived from the

  15. Detrital zircon ages in Buller and Takaka terranes, New Zealand : constraints on early Zealandia history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Mortimer, N.; Campbell, H.J.; Griffin, W.L.


    Detrital zircon ages are presented for 34 early Palaeozoic sandstones from Buller and Takaka terranes, New Zealand, and formerly adjacent parts of Australia-Antarctica. The Buller-Takaka datasets always have two major groups: Ordovician-late Neoproterozoic, 444-700 Ma (but mainly 540-700 Ma), termed 'Gondwana Assembly' (GA), and early Neoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic, 700-1600 Ma (but mainly 900-1200 Ma), termed 'Rodinia Assembly' (RA). In both terranes, significant age components within these groups are strikingly similar and also have RA/GA ratios, 0.6-1.8. The Cambrian volcanic arc of the Takaka Terrane has contributed little to the zircon patterns. Proportions of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician zircons, characteristic of granitoid sources in the Ross-Delamerian Orogen are low. The zircons are predominantly reworked with contemporary zircons only evident in a few Buller datasets. The zircon patterns suggest that two major sources (late Mesoproterozoic and late Neoproterozoic), enduring over 120 Ma, were widely distributed and it is postulated they form Precambrian basement beneath southern Zealandia. (author).

  16. The Origin of the Chinese Central Tianshan Block in the Southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from Detrital Zircon Study (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Long, X.; Yuan, C.


    The Chinese Central Tianshan Block (CTB) is one of the oldest continental fragments in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Although it is vital for understanding the evolution of the CAOB, its origin has been poorly studied. The CTB was previously suggested to have been originated from the North China, the South China, the Tarim cratons or the East European Craton (Baltica). A total of 165 concordant U-Pb and Hf isotopic analyses of detrital zircon are obtained from three meta-sediments in the CTB, including one meta-sandstone from Xingxingxia formation and one meta-sandstone as well as one quartzite from Kawabulake formation. Detrital zircon grains from the Xingxingxia and Kawabulake formations are dominated by respective youngest age populations at 1002 Ma and 930-960 Ma, providing constraints on the maximum depositional ages for these two formations. Zircon grains from the meta-sediments have very similar age distributions, with two dominant peaks at 0.93-1.0 Ga and 1.0-1.6 Ga and a minor peak at 2.3-2.7 Ga. They have similar Hf isotopic signatures, suggesting that the meta-sediments in the CTB share similar sedimentary provenance. The early Neoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are mainly local-derived, whereas the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic grains are both autochthonous and allochthonous. The occurrence of these Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic zircon grains are coincident with the Nuna breakup and the Rodinia assembly. This suggests that the CTB might experience the tectonic switching of the Nuna to the Rodinia. The distinct Meso-Neoproterozoic age patterns and Hf isotopic compositions of these detrital grains from the CTB and the surrounding blocks indicate that the CTB was not located close to the North China, the South China or the Tarim cratons in Precambrian. Our new data suggest that the CTB was most likely once a part of the East European Craton before the Neoproterozoic. This study was supported by National Basic Research Program of China

  17. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of Cambrian to Triassic miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal strata of Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.


    One hundred and eighty two individual detrital zircon grains from Cambrian through Permian miogeoclinal strata, Ordovician eugeoclinal rocks, and Triassic post-orogenic sediments in northwestern Sonora have been analyzed. During Cambrian, Devonian, Permian, and Triassic time, most zircons accumulating along this part of the Cordilleran margin were shed from 1.40-1.45 and 1.62-1.78 Ga igneous rocks that are widespread in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Zircons with ages of approximately 1.11 Ga are common in Cambrian strata and were apparently shed from granite bodies near the sample site. The sources of 225-280 Ma zircons in our Triassic sample are more problematic, as few igneous rocks of these ages are recognized in northwestern Mexico. Such sources may be present but unrecognized, or the grains could have been derived from igneous rocks of the appropriate ages to the northwest in the Mojave Desert region, to the east in Chihuahua and Coahuila, or to the south in accreted(?) arc-type terranes. Because the zircon grains in our Cambrian and Devonian to Triassic samples could have accumulated in proximity to basement rocks near their present position or in the Death Valley region of southern California, our data do not support or refute the existence of the Mojave-Sonora megashear. Ordovician strata of both miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal affinity are dominated by >1.77 Ga detrital zircons, which are considerably older than most basement rocks in the region. Zircon grains in the miogeoclinal sample were apparently derived from the Peace River arch area of northwestern Canada and transported southward by longshore currents. The eugeoclinal grains may also have come from the Peace River arch region, with southward transport by either sedimentary or tectonic processes, or they may have been shed from off-shelf slivers of continents (perhaps Antarctica?) removed from the Cordilleran margin during Neoproterozoic rifting. It is also possible that the

  18. The lower Mesozoic record of detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of Sonora, Mexico, and its paleogeographic implications


    González-León, Carlos M.; Valencia, Víctor A.; Lawton, Timothy F.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Gehrels, George E.; Leggett, William J.; Montijo-Contreras, Óscar; Fernández, Miguel A.


    Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from each of the formations of the Triassic-Lower Jurassic Barranca and El Antimonio groups of central and northwestern Sonora and from the Lower Jurassic Basomari and Middle Jurassic Lily formations of northern Sonora indicate they contain distinctive zircon populations. A Proterozoic population has peak ages near 1.8, 1.7, 1.6, 1.4, and 1.1 Ga. A population of Permo-Triassic grains with important peak ages near 269, 254, 245, 234 and 227 Ma. A third popula...

  19. Detrital zircon study along the Tsangpo River, SE Tibet (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Chung, S.; Liu, D.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Chu, M.; Ji, J.; Song, B.; Pearson, N. J.


    The interactions among tectonic uplift, river erosion and alluvial deposition are fundamental processes that shape the landscape of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen since its creation from early Cenozoic time. To better understand these processes around the eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, we conducted a study by systematic sampling riverbank sediments along the Tsangpo River, SE Tibet. Detrital zircons separated from the sediments were subjected to U-Pb dating by the SHRIMP II at the Beijing SHRIMP Center and then in-situ measurements of Hf isotope ratios using LA-MC-ICPMS at GEMOC. These results, together with U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data that we recently obtained for the Transhimalayan plutonic and surrounding basement rocks, allow a more quantitative examination of the provenance or protosource areas for the river sediments. Consequently, the percentage inputs from these source areas can be estimated. Our study indicates that, before the Tsangpo River flows into the Namche Barwa Syntaxis of the eastern Himalayas where the River forms a 180° Big Bend gorge and crosscuts the Himalayan sequences, the Gangdese batholith that crops out just north of the River appear to be an overwhelming source accounting for ˜50 % of the bank sediments. The Tethyan Himalayan sequences south of the River are the second important source, with an input of ˜25 %. The proportion of sediment supply changes after the River enters the Big Bend gorge and turns to south: ˜25 % of detrital zircons are derived from the Greater Himalayas so that the input from the Tethyan Himalayas decreases (< 10 %) despite those from the Gangdese batholith remains high ( ˜40 %). Comparing with the sediment budget of the Brahmaputra River in the downstream based on literature Sr, Nd and Os isotope information, which suggests dominant ( ˜90-60 %) but subordinate ( ˜10-40 %) contributions by the (Greater and Lesser) Himalayan and Tibetan (including Tethyan Himalayan) rocks, respectively, the change is interpreted

  20. U-Pb SHRIMP ages of detrital zircons from Hiriyur formation in Chitradurga Greenstone belt and its implication to the Neoarchean evolution of Dharwar craton, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasheeth, A.; Okudaira, T.; Horie, K.; Hokada, T.; Satish Kumar, M.


    We report newly obtained U-Pb SHRIMP ages of detrital zircons from metagreywackes in the Hiriyur Formation (Chitradurga Group, Dharwar Supergroup) from the central eastern part of the Chitradurga greenstone belt. U-Pb analyses yield three major Neoarchean age populations ranging from 2.70 - 2.54 Ga with some minor age population of Mesoarchean. The maximum age of deposition is constrained by the youngest detrital zircon population at 2546 Ma. This is the first report of the occurrence of supracrustal rocks less than 2.58 Ga in the central part of Chitradurga greenstone belt. Close evaluation of detrital ages with the published ages of surrounding igneous rocks suggest that the youngest detrital zircons might be derived from rocks of the Eastern Dharwar craton and the inferred docking of the western and eastern Dharwar cratons happened prior to the deposition of the Hiriyur Formation. The Chitradurga shear zone, dividing the Dharwar craton into western and eastern blocks, probably developed after the deposition. Furthermore, the lower intercept is interpreted as evidence for the Pan-African overprints in the study area. (author)

  1. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the basement of the Central Qilian Terrane: implications for tectonic evolution of northeastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Liu, Changfeng; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yan, Zhu; Jiang, Tian; Song, Zhijie; Liu, Wencan; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Hongyuan


    The Tuolai Group dominates the Central Qilian Terrane, and there are different opinions on the age and tectonic attribute of the Tuolai Group. Based on large-scale geologic mapping and zircon dating, the Tuolai Group is divided into four parts: metamorphic supracrustal rocks, Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks, early-middle Ordovician acid intrusive rocks and middle Ordovician basic intrusive rocks. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks are the redefined Tuolai complex-group and include gneiss and schist assemblage by faulting contact. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS dating was conducted on these samples of gneiss and migmatite from the gneiss assemblage, quartzite, two-mica schist and slate from the schist assemblage. The five detrital samples possess similar age spectra; have detrital zircon U-Pb main peak ages of 1.7 Ga with youngest U-Pb ages of 1150 Ma. They are intruded by Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks. Therefore, the Tuolai Group belonging to late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. With this caveat in mind, we believe that U-Pb detrital zircon dating, together with the geologic constraints obtained from this study and early work in the neighboring regions. We suggest that the formation age of the entire crystalline basement rocks of metasedimentary sequence from the Central Qilian Terrane should be constrained between the Late Mesoproterozoic and the Late Neoproterozoic, but not the previous Paleoproterozoic. The basement of the Central Qilian Terrane contains the typical Grenville ages, which indicates the Centre Qilian Terrane have been experienced the Grenville orogeny event.

  2. Generation of Silicic Melts in the Early Izu-Bonin Arc Recorded by Detrital Zircons in Proximal Arc Volcaniclastic Rocks From the Philippine Sea (United States)

    Barth, A. P.; Tani, K.; Meffre, S.; Wooden, J. L.; Coble, M. A.; Arculus, R. J.; Ishizuka, O.; Shukle, J. T.


    A 1.2 km thick Paleogene volcaniclastic section at International Ocean Discovery Program Site 351-U1438 preserves the deep-marine, proximal record of Izu-Bonin oceanic arc initiation, and volcano evolution along the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR). Pb/U ages and trace element compositions of zircons recovered from volcaniclastic sandstones preserve a remarkable temporal record of juvenile island arc evolution. Pb/U ages ranging from 43 to 27 Ma are compatible with provenance in one or more active arc edifices of the northern KPR. The abundances of selected trace elements with high concentrations provide insight into the genesis of U1438 detrital zircon host melts, and represent useful indicators of both short and long-term variations in melt compositions in arc settings. The Site U1438 zircons span the compositional range between zircons from mid-ocean ridge gabbros and zircons from relatively enriched continental arcs, as predicted for melts in a primitive oceanic arc setting derived from a highly depleted mantle source. Melt zircon saturation temperatures and Ti-in-zircon thermometry suggest a provenance in relatively cool and silicic melts that evolved toward more Th and U-rich compositions with time. Th, U, and light rare earth element enrichments beginning about 35 Ma are consistent with detrital zircons recording development of regional arc asymmetry and selective trace element-enriched rear arc silicic melts as the juvenile Izu-Bonin arc evolved.

  3. Proterozoic to Mesozoic evolution of North-West Africa and Peri-Gondwana microplates: Detrital zircon ages from Morocco and Canada (United States)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Davies, Joshua H. F. L.; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Merle, Renaud; Dal Corso, Jacopo; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fioretti, Anna Maria; Bellieni, Giuliano; Medina, Fida; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; McHone, Greg; Font, Eric; Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil


    The complex history of assemblage and disruption of continental plates surrounding the Atlantic Ocean is in part recorded by the distribution of detrital zircon ages entrained in continental sedimentary strata from Morocco (Central High Atlas and Argana basins) and Canada (Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick). Here we investigate detrital zircon from the latest Triassic (ca. 202 Ma) sedimentary strata directly underlying lava flows of the Central Atlantic magmatic province or interlayered within them. SHRIMP (Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe) and LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) U-Pb ages for zircon range from Paleozoic to Archean with a dominant Neoproterozoic peak, and significant amounts of ca. 2 Ga zircon. These ages suggest a prevailing West African (Gondwanan) provenance at all sampling sites. Notably, the Paleoproterozoic zircon population is particularly abundant in central Morocco, north of the High Atlas chain, suggesting the presence of Eburnean-aged rocks in this part of the country, which is consistent with recent geochronologic data from outcropping rocks. Minor amounts of late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic zircon ages (ca. 1.1-0.9 Ga) in Moroccan samples are more difficult to interpret. A provenance from Avalonia or Amazonia, as proposed by previous studies is not supported by the age distributions observed here. An involvement of more distal source regions, possibly located in north-eastern Africa (Arabian Nubian Shield) would instead be possible. Paleozoic zircon ages are abundant in the Canadian sample, pointing to a significant contribution from Hercynian aged source rocks. Such a signal is nearly absent in the Moroccan samples, suggesting that zircon-bearing Hercynian granitic rocks of the Moroccan Meseta block were not yet outcropping at ca. 200 Ma. The only Moroccan samples that yield Paleozoic zircon ages are those interlayered within the CAMP lavas, suggesting an increased dismantling

  4. Pervasive remagnetization of detrital zircon host rocks in the Jack Hills, Western Australia and implications for records of the early geodynamo (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Maloof, Adam C.; Tailby, Nicholas; Ramezani, Jahandar; Fu, Roger R.; Hanus, Veronica; Trail, Dustin; Bruce Watson, E.; Harrison, T. Mark; Bowring, Samuel A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Coe, Robert S.


    It currently is unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. Paleomagnetic studies indicate that a field with an intensity similar to that of the present day existed 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). Detrital zircon crystals found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia are some of the very few samples known to substantially predate this time. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, these zircons might preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. However, a key unknown is the age and origin of magnetization in the Jack Hills zircons. The identification of >3.9 Ga (i.e., Hadean) field records requires first establishing that the zircons have avoided remagnetization since being deposited in quartz-rich conglomerates at 2.65-3.05 Ga. To address this issue, we have conducted paleomagnetic conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests in combination with U-Pb geochronology to establish the timing of the metamorphic and alteration events and the peak temperatures experienced by the zircon host rocks. These tests include the first conglomerate test directly on the Hadean-zircon bearing conglomerate at Erawandoo Hill. Although we observed little evidence for remagnetization by recent lightning strikes, we found that the Hadean zircon-bearing rocks and surrounding region have been pervasively remagnetized, with the final major overprinting likely due to thermal and/or aqueous effects from the emplacement of the Warakurna large igneous province at ∼1070 million years ago (Ma). Although localized regions of the Jack Hills might have escaped complete remagnetization, there currently is no robust evidence for pre-depositional (>3.0 Ga) magnetization in the Jack Hills detrital zircons.

  5. Investigating the Early Carbon Cycle Using Carbonaceous Inclusions and Dissolved Carbon in Detrital Zircon (United States)

    Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Harrison, M.; Mao, W. L.


    Because the terrestrial rock record extends only to ~4 Ga and older materials thus far identified are limited to detrital zircons, information about volatile abundances and cycles on early Earth is limited. Carbon, for instance, plays an important role not only in the modern biosphere but also in deep recycling of materials between the crust and mantle. We are investigating the record of carbon abundance and origin in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills (W. Australia) using two main approaches. First, carbon may partition into the zircon structure at trace levels during crystallization from a magma, and better understanding of this partitioning behavior will allow for zircon's use as a monitor of magmatic carbon contents. We have measured carbon abundances in zircon from a variety of igneous rocks (gabbro; I-, A-, and S-type granitoids) via SIMS and found that although abundances are typically low (average raw 12C/30Si ~ 1x10-6), S-type granite zircons can reach a factor of 1000 over this background. Around 10% of Hadean zircons investigated show similar enrichments, consistent with other evidence for the derivation of many Jack Hills zircons from S-type granitoids and with the establishment of modern-level carbon abundances in the crust by ca. 4.2 Ga. Diamond and graphite inclusions reported in the Jack Hills zircons by previous studies proved to be contamination by polishing debris, leaving the true abundance of these materials in the population uncertain. On a second front, we have identified and investigated primary carbonaceous inclusions in these zircons. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one concordant 4.10±0.01 Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions (so interpreted due to their enclosure in a crack-free zircon host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit). Their δ13CPDB of -24±5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and, in the absence of a likely inorganic mechanism to produce such a

  6. Detrital zircon typology and U/Pb geochronology for the Miocene Ladrilleros-Juanchaco sedimentary sequence, Equatorial Pacific (Colombia): New constraints on provenance and paleogeography in northwestern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Typology and internal texture analyses were performed on detrital zircons obtained from the Miocene sandstones of the Ladrilleros-Juanchaco sedimentary sequence (Colombia, Equatorial Pacific). This analysis was complemented with zircon U/Pb dating to identify typology-age associations as indicators of sediment provenance. Our results show that zircons with S and P dominant typologies have internal structures/zoning indicative of igneous, and potentially also metamorphic, origins. Morphometric results suggest limited transport from source areas. Both typology and U/Pb data point to the western Cordillera as the principal source of detrital materials for this sedimentary sequence. A paleogeographic reconstruction shows that, during the Late Miocene, significant portions of the western Cordillera were uplifted and actively eroding, thereby forming a fluvio-topographic barrier that prevented sediments from the central Cordillera reaching the Pacific basins. Exhumed Miocene plutons located along the axis of the western Cordillera may also have played a role as geomorphologically active massifs. This study demonstrates that typologic analysis on detrital zircon grains is a useful tool for establishing provenance and paleogeography in complex litho-tectonic areas where overlapping U/Pb signatures can lead to contradictory results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Romanyuk


    Full Text Available The TerraneChrone® (LA-ICP-MS technique has been applied to carry out an integrated study of detrital zircons in sandstones sampled from the basal horizons of the stratotypical Riphean sequence in the Southern Urals, specifically the Navysh and Chudin suites of the Ai Formation of the Burzyan Group in the Bashkir Uplift. The concentrations of trace elements in the detrital zircons suggest that the role of oceanic or marginal-marine complexes among the primary sources of zircons was insignificant, and show a better agreement with the intra-continental rather than passive-margin origin of the Riphean basin, whose basal levels are composed by the Ai Formation. The U/Pb ages of zircons from samples K13-206 and M08-16-1 are generally similar: the Paleoproterozoic zircons predominate (the dominant peaks are actually coincident, 2063 and 2055 Ma, and only a few grains of the Archean age are present. Despite the similar U/Pb ages of the detrital zircons, these two samples considerably differ in their Hf isotopic features and the concentrations of trace elements, which means that the zircons in the studied sandstones are of different geodynamic origin. The characteristics of these zircons can be explained by a model showing the Ai Formation in the Navysh graben that is a rift structure and a predecessor of the Kama-Belaya aulacogene in the inner Volga-Ural region of the Paleoproterozoic supercontinent Columbia. At the initial stage of rifting, the granitoid complexes with a lower total silicic acidity, which composed the graben walls, had been eroded; as a result of erosion, coarse clastic rocks accumulated within the Navysh graben and formed the Navysh suite. A specific “carbonatitic” complex containing zircons (about 2.0, 2.5, 2.85 and 3.6 Ga and the Palaeoarchean crustal material in the substrate of their parent rocks was also eroded. In the final stage of rifting, already at the initial stages of the development of the Kama-Belaya aulacogen

  8. Using Detrital Zircon Geochronology to Constrain Paleogene Provenance and Its Relationship to Rifting in the Zhu 1 Depression, Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ye, Jiaren; Bidgoli, Tandis; Yang, Xianghua; Shi, Hesheng; Shu, Yu


    Paleogene syn-rift successions in the South China Sea are poorly understood and systematic provenance analysis, which could provide clues to their history, is lacking. Here we report 409 new concordant U-Pb ages from detrital zircons separated from the Paleogene Wenchang, Enping, and Zhuhai formations in the Zhu 1 depression, Pearl River Mouth Basin. The new data, combined with the published age data from the region, document changes in the provenance of syn-rift successions. Detrital zircons from the Eocene Wenchang Formation are unimodal, with Jurassic-Cretaceous (180-80 Ma) ages making up >80% of grains. The ages are consistent with the geochronology of intrabasinal highs, dominated by igneous rocks emplaced during the Yanshanian orogeny, and suggest local provenance. By contrast, detrital zircons from the upper Eocene to lower Oligocene Enping Formation form three well-recognized age-clusters, with peaks at 150, 254, and 438 Ma that match documented tectonomagmatism in South China Block (SCB). Combined with increasing numbers of Precambrian zircons, the data suggest increasing influence of regional provenance of the SCB. Similar age peaks are also recognized from the limited number of zircons analyzed from the upper Oligocene Zhuhai Formation and comparability with modern shelf and river sediment indicates the unit was mainly sourced from the SCB and likely transported by a paleo-Pearl River. We infer that the change in provenance, from local uplifts within the Zhu 1 to the SCB, is related to distinct phases of PRMB rift development; however, later changes are best explained by SCB drainage evolution.

  9. Recognition of the Kaweka Terrane in northern South Island, New Zealand : preliminary evidence from Rb-Sr metamorphic and U-Pb detrital zircon ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Mortimer, N.; Campbell, H.J.; Griffin, W.L.


    Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Rb-Sr metamorphic ages from low-grade Torlesse Supergroup metasedimentary rocks from North Canterbury and Marlborough provide preliminary evidence for a continuation of the Kaweka Terrane of the central North Island into the Torlesse Composite Terrane of the South Island. This would extend from the south side of the Wairau Fault in the upper Wairau River valley southwards to the Lake Tennyson and Lake Sumner areas, and as far as Hawarden. Rb-Sr ages indicate Jurassic metamorphism, 170±24 Ma, with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at that time 0.7073 ± 0.0007 i.e. similar to their North Island counterparts. These Kaweka Terrane rocks have detrital zircon ages that follow the distinctive pattern of the Torlesse rocks in general, i.e. substantial (>30%) Permian-Triassic and Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic groupings, but they also have minor youngest age components c. 175-165 Ma which constrain a maximum Early-Middle Jurassic depositional age. In detail, significant, older zircon components are Late Permian-Early Triassic (260-240 Ma) and Late Triassic (220-210 Ma), but the Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic detrital zircon ages are more scattered. The Kaweka Terrane thus forms a linear belt (c. 500 km) along the length of the Torlesse Composite Terrane in both North and South Islands. In the South Island it coincides with the Esk Head Belt, i.e. east of the Rakaia Terrane (Triassic-Late Permian) and west of the Pahau Terrane (Early Cretaceous-Late Jurassic). (author). 61 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons in the Mixteco terrane, southern Mexico: Paleogeographic implications during Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and Paleogene times (United States)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Morales-Yáñez, Axél; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan


    In the northeastern Mixteco terrane of southern Mexico, in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region, the recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons records the paleogeography during the Mesozoic period in the context of the breakup of Pangea, a phenomenon that disarticulated the Sanozama-La Mora paleo-river. The clastic units of southern Mexico in the Ayuquila, Otlaltepec and Zapotitlán Mesozoic basins, as well as in the Atzumba Cenozoic basin, are characterized by detrital zircon contents with ages specific to the Amazonian craton, ranging between 3040 and 1278 Ma. The presence of zircons of Amazonian affinity suggests a provenance by recycling from carrier units such as the La Mora Formation or the Ayú Complex. In the area, the Ayú and Acatlán complexes form the Cosoltepec block, a paleogeographic element that during Early Cretaceous time acted as the divide between the slopes of the paleo-Gulf of Mexico and the paleo-Pacific Ocean. The sedimentological characteristics of the Jurassic-Cenozoic clastic successions in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region denote relatively short transport in braided fluvial systems and alluvial fans. In this way, several basins are recognized around the Cosoltepec block. At the southeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, the Ayuquila and Tecomazúchil formations accumulated in the Ayuquila continental basin on the paleo-Pacific Ocean slope. On the other hand, within the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope, in the Otlaltepec continental basin, the Piedra Hueca and the Otlaltepec formations accumulated. The upper member of the Santa Lucía Formation accumulated in a transitional environment on the southwestern shoulder of the Zapotitlán basin, as well as on the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope. In the Ayuquila basin, a marine transgression is recognized that advanced from south to north during the Late Jurassic. At the northeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, we propose that the Santa Lucía formation attests to a transgression from the paleo-Gulf of Mexico

  11. Detrital zircon provenance of the Hartselle Sandstone Unit, Southeastern USA: Insights into sediment source, paleogeography, and setting (United States)

    Harthy, M. A.; Gifford, J.


    The Hartselle sandstone is an excellent example of an Oil sand, a resource rich in bitumen. The unit is a light-colored thick-bedded to massive quartzose sandstone, that is widespread across an area from Georgia in the east to Mississippi in the west, and south from Alabama to Kentucky as a northern border. Formation thickness ranges from 0 to more than 150 feet. The unit has been stratigraphically dated to the Middle-Upper Mississippian age. One hypothesis suggests that the sandstone unit formed from the geological remains of barrier islands located in the ocean between Gondwana and Laurentia. The Hartselle is thought to have formed by the movement waves and currents along the shoreline, which carried sand and concentrated it into a set of northwest to southeast trending barrier islands. Transgression-regression events shifted the islands back and forth in relation to the position of the shoreline, leading to the large areal extent of the unit. However, the current data are not enough to explain the geographical position of the Hartselle sandstone unit as it is not running parallel to the ancient shoreline. Another mystery is the source of the sand, some believing the source was from the south (Gondwana) and others that erosion was from the north (Laurentia). Detrital zircon provenance analysis will address the uncertainty in sediment source. We will compare zircon U-Pb age spectra to possible Laurentian and Gondwanan source areas to discriminate between these possibilities. In addition, the age of the youngest detrital zircon population will provide additional constraints on the maximum age of deposition for the unit. These detrital ages will also help us to understand the tectonic setting at the time of Hartselle deposition. Lastly, we aim to explain the widespread nature of the unit and the processes involved in the formation of the Hartselle sandstone. When taken together, these interpretations will illuminate the age, depositional and tectonic setting of a

  12. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in metamorphic rocks from northern Kyushu, western Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Terada, Kentaro; Sano, Yuji


    Radiometric ages of detrital zircons in psammitic schists from the Nagasaki, Kurume, Konoha and Kiyama areas, northern Kyushu, were obtained from 238 U/ 206 Pb ratio and isotopic compositions of Pb using a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP II). Zircons from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show bimodal age distribution with peaks at ca. 1900 Ma and 250 Ma. It is suggested from this study that the older zircons were derived from Proterozoic landmass and the Korean Peninsula. Zircons from the Kiyama metamorphic rock show a different pattern with ages concentrated at 380-590 Ma. Such zircons are rare in rock samples from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas, indicating that Kiyama rocks and a different origin than those from the other three areas. The youngest zircons from the Kiyama, Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show ages of 382±23 Ma, 238±13 Ma, 249±13 Ma, and 175±4 Ma, respectively, These data mark the upper age limit of their deposition. Since a continuous igneous activity occurred during the period from 300 to 170 Ma in Far East Asia, and the metamorphic age has been close to the zircon age of each area, these youngest ages for the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas are considered nearly contemporary to the depositional ages. An evaluation of the nature of metamorphism and available ages suggest the possibility that the Nagasaki metamorphic rocks as well as the schist from the Kurume area belong to the Suo zone of the Sangun belt, whereas the metamorphic rocks in the Konoha area may belong to the Ryoke belt or Suo zone of the Sangun belt. (author)

  13. South China provenance of the lower-grade Penglai Group north of the Sulu UHP orogenic belt, eastern China. Evidence from detrital zircon ages and Nd-Hf isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianghui; Chen Fukun; Guo Jinghui; Xie Liewen; Siebel, Wolfgang


    The Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure orogenic belt resulted from the early Mesozoic collision of the North China block and South China block (comprising the Yangtze and the Cathaysia) and subsequent exhumation of the subducted South China continental slabs. This belt consists of tectonically juxtaposed rock units of different metamorphic grade. Provenance of the low-grade metamorphic terranes exposed along the northern part of the belt can offer useful information about the location of the boundary between these two continental blocks. This study reports detrital zircon ages and Nd-Hf isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks of the low-grade Penglai Group, situated north of the Sulu UHP terrane. Results show that detrital zircon grains mostly crystallized during Mesoproterozoic time, clustering at 1.7 Ga to 1.6 Ga and 1.2 Ga. Nd isotopic composition (T DM value) of the Penglai Group suggests that sedimentary sources are similar to average crustal material of the Yangtze block and mostly formed in Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic. Late Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons probably demonstrate the sedimentary material was derived from the boundary of the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks, which was formed by the late Mesoproterozoic convergence. Absence of Neoproterozoic detrital zircons from the Penglai sediments probably suggests a late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic deposition age (about 1.1 Ga to 0.8 Ga). The age and isotopic evidence implies that the Penglai Group originated from the South China block and probably was thrust onto the basement of the North China block during the early Mesozoic continental collision. (author)

  14. Detrital-zircon fission-track geochronology of the Lower Cenozoic sediments, NW Himalayan foreland basin: Clues for exhumation and denudation of the Himalaya during the India-Asia collision (United States)

    Jain, A.; Lal, N.; Suelmani, B.; Awasthi, A. K.; Singh, S.; Kumar, R.


    Detrital-zircon fission-track geochronology of the synorogenically-deposited Subathu-Dagshai-Kasauli-Lower Siwalik Formations of the Sub-Himalayan Lower Cenozoic foreland basin reflects progressive effects of the Himalayan tectonometamorphic events on the Proterozoic-Paleozoic source rock as a consequence of the India-Asia collision. The oldest transgressive marine Subathu Formation (57.0-41.5 Ma) contains a very dominant 302.4 ± 21.9 Ma old detrital zircon FT suite with a few determinable 520.0 Ma grains. This old suite was derived by mild erosion of the Zircon Partially Annealed Zone (ZPAZ) of 240-180 oC, which affected the Himalayan Proterozoic basement and its Tethyan sedimentary cover as a consequence of first imprint of the collision. In addition, 50.0 Ma old detrital zircons in this formation were derived possibly from the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone and the Trans-Himalayan Ladakh Batholith. Sudden source rock changes and unroofing are manifested in the overlying fluvial Dagshai (~30-20 Ma) and Kasauli (20-13 Ma) molassic sediments, which are characterised by dominant 30.0 and 25.0 Ma old youngest zircon FT peaks, respectively. A distinct unconformity spanning for about 10 Myr gets established between the Subathu-Dagshai formations on the basis of detrital- zircon FT ages. Molassic sedimentation since ~30 Ma coincides with the depletion of detritus from the suture zone, and the bulk derivation from the main Higher Himalayan source rock, which has undergone sequentially the UHP-HP-amphibolite facies metamorphism (53-40 Ma) in the extreme north and widespread Eo- and Neo-Himalayan tectonothermal events in the middle. Strength of the Pre-Himalayan Peaks (PHP) >50 Ma in these younger sediments gradually decreases with the intensification of the Himalayan thermal events till the end of the Kasauli sedimentation. Widespread Eo- and Neo-Himalayan metamorphic events (40.0-30.0 and 25.0-15.0 Ma) have almost remobilised the provenance and obliterated most of the

  15. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological and sedimentological study of the Simao Basin, Yunnan: Implications for the Early Cenozoic evolution of the Red River (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Yan, Maodu; Fang, Xiaomin; Song, Chunhui; Zhang, Weilin; Zan, Jinbo; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Bingshuai; Yang, Yongpeng; Zhang, Dawen


    The paleo-Red River is suggested to have been a continental-scale drainage system connecting the Tibetan Plateau to the South China Sea. However, the evolution of the paleo-Red River is still under debate. This study presents new results from sedimentological analyses and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic data from fluvial sedimentary rocks of Paleocene to Oligocene age of the Simao Basin to constrain the nature of the paleo-drainage system of the Red River. The detrital zircon U-Pb results reveal multiple age groups at 190-240 Ma, 260-280 Ma, 450-540 Ma, 1700-1900 Ma and 2400-2600 Ma for the Paleocene to late Eocene Denghei Formation (Fm.), but only one conspicuous peak at 220-240 Ma for the late Eocene-Oligocene Mengla Fm. Provenance analyses illustrate that the former likely had source areas that included the Hoh-Xil, Songpan-Ganzi, northern Qiangtang, Yidun and western Yangtze Terranes, which are consistent with the catchments of the Upper and Lower Jinshajiang Segments, whereas the latter mainly transported material from a limited number of sources, such as the Lincang granitic intrusions west of the Simao Basin. Integrated with available detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and paleogeographic data, our study suggests the existence of a paleo-Red River during the Paleocene to late Eocene that was truncated and lost its northern sources after approximately 35 Ma, due to left-lateral strike-slip faulting of the Ailao Shan-Red River and clockwise rotation of the Lanping-Simao Terrane.

  16. Provenance of the lower Miocene of the Gulf of Mexico from detrital zircon double dating (United States)

    xu, J.


    The lower Miocene interval of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has recently gained increasing attention from oil and gas industry due to its hydrocarbon potential below the salt canopy. However, it has been less well studied than both the underlying Oligocene and overlying middle Miocene strata. The lower Miocene worldwide is a transitional period of tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic change. In particular, it is a period of major tectonic reorganization in the western interior of North America (Rocky Mountains), involving a shift from the Oligocene thermal phase, with abundant volcanic activity recorded in the thick Frio/Vicksburg succession of the GOM, to the Miocene Basin-Range extensional phase. Climatic conditions also changed from a relatively arid Oligocene to wetter Miocene, resulting in increased sediment yields from exhumed tectonic structures. Previous provenance studies used proportions of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments and consideration of likely river courses through known paleogeomorphological elements. Only limited detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb studies on Paleocene strata have been undertaken and there has been no previous U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating in the GOM. In this study we apply the latest analytical approaches, such as DZ U-Pb dating to gain robust source terranes ages and more fully elucidate the complex sediment provenance and dispersal history of GOM. We also employ DZ (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating, combined with DZ U-Pb, to not only define sedimentary provenance but also the exhumation histories of detrital source regions. Samples of lower Miocene outcrop exposures in Texas and Louisiana have been collected to discriminate the varied tectonic and drainage system changes across the basin in lateral. In addition, samples from the Eocene, Oligocene and middle Miocene have been obtained to reveal vertical shift of source terranes contributions. Our initial age data show detrital zircons of lower Miocene sediments come from a wide range of source

  17. Detrital zircon provenance from three turbidite depocenters of the Middle-Upper Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex, central China: Record of collisional tectonics, erosional exhumation, and sediment production (United States)

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.


    To test the idea that the voluminous upper Middle to Upper Triassic turbidite strata in the Songpan-Ganzi complex of central China archive a detrital record of Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane unroofing, we report 2080 single detrital U-Pb zircon ages by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis from 29 eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex sandstone samples. Low (Th/U zircons, consistent with crystallization under UHP conditions, are rare in eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex zircon, and U-Pb ages of low Th/U zircons are incompatible with a Dabie terrane source. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean nearest-neighbor analysis of Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test results reveals that the eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex is not a single contiguous turbidite system but is instead composed of three subsidiary depocenters, each associated with distinct sediment sources. The northeastern depocenter contains zircon ages characterized by Paleozoic and bimodally distributed Precambrian zircon populations, which, together with south-to southeast-directed paleocurrent data, indicate derivation from the retro-side of the Qinling-Dabie (Q-D) collisional orogen wedge. In the central depocenter, the dominantly Paleozoic detrital zircon signature and south-to southwest-oriented paleocurrent indicators reflect a profusion of Paleozoic zircon grains. These data are interpreted to reflect an influx of material derived from erosion of Paleozoic supra-UHP rocks of the Dabie terrane in the eastern Qinling-Dabie orogen, which we speculate may have been enhanced by development of a monsoonal climate. This suggests that erosional unroofing played a significant role in the initial phase of UHP exhumation and likely influenced the petrotectonic and structural evolution of the Qinling-Dabie orogen, as evidenced by compressed Triassic isotherms/grads reported in the Huwan

  18. Detrital Zircon Geo- and Thermochronologic Constraints on Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian Sediment Transport and Tectonics, Southwestern Kansas and Northwestern Arkansas (United States)

    Bidgoli, T. S.; Wang, W.; Moeller, A.; Stockli, D. F.; Watney, L.


    The Late Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian is a critical time interval across the globe, with major changes in tectonics, climate, and eustacy. Transcontinental sediment transport in North America, from the Appalachians to Great Canyon, has been proposed to initiate at this time (Gehrels et al., 2011). In the midcontinent, clastic influx to the Hugoton Embayment and Arkoma Shelf, during widespread carbonate platform deposition, may record evidence for this model, but the limited number of provenance studies has hindered interpretations. To test this model and further constrain sediment dispersal and source-to-sink systems in the midcontinent, we evaluate the provenance of upper Mississippian to middle Pennsylvanian siliciclastic intervals, in two areas, using sandstone component analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating. (1) For the Hugoton Embayment in southwestern Kansas, we focus on sandstones deposited in two valley-filling intervals, the Chester and Morrow. A total of 1100 zircon U-Pb ages have been acquired from samples from 10 boreholes, 6 from Chester and 4 from Morrow. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Chester is characterized by two major zircon U-Pb age clusters of 900-1295 Ma (Grenville) and 390-475 Ma, consistent with sediment delivery from the Appalachian orogen. Morrow strata record a change in provenance, with the presence of two additional age groups, 1300-1500 Ma (24.5%) and 1600-1800 Ma (17.9%), that correspond well with the age of basement rocks in the Granite-Rhyolite and Yavapai-Maztzal provinces, respectively. We ascribe changes in the zircon age spectra and introduction of these grains to the development of local uplifts, like the Nemaha Ridge, in the early Pennsylvanian. Double dating of zircons from these peaks may reveal additional information about these basement sources and the timing of denudation of these uplifts. (2) For the Arkoma shelf, we are analyzing 11 samples, collected from outcrops in northwestern

  19. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Ages from Sarawak: Changes in Provenance Reflecting the Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Galin, T.; Hall, R.


    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. Five sedimentary basins are distinguished with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic of the Sadong-Kuching Basin and were sourced by a Carnian to Norian volcanic arc and erosion of Cathaysian rocks containing zircons of Paleoproterozoic age. Sandstones of the Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Bau-Pedawan Basin have distinctive zircon populations indicating a major change of tectonic setting, including initiation of subduction below present-day West Sarawak in the Late Jurassic. A wide range of inherited zircon ages indicates various Cathaysian fragments as major source areas and the arrival of the SW Borneo Block following subduction beneath the Schwaner Mountains in the early Late Cretaceous. After collision of the SW Borneo Block and the microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension were responsible for basin development on land from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a strike-slip setting. The first episode formed the Kayan Basin in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Early Paleocene, and the second formed the Ketungau Basin and the Penrissen Sandstone in the Middle to Late Eocene. Zircons indicate nearby volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo. Inherited zircon ages indicate an alternation between Borneo and Tin Belt source rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, formed north of the Lupar Line fault. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they are of similar age and provenance as the contemporaneous terrestrial sediments to the south suggesting a narrow steep continental Sundaland margin at the

  20. Petrogenesis, detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology, and tectonic implications of the Upper Paleoproterozoic Seosan iron formation, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Jang, Yirang; Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Park, Jung-Woo; Yi, Keewook; Choi, Seon-Gyu


    This study involves investigations on the Upper Paleoproterozoic iron formation (viz., Seosan iron formation) from the Seosan Group, Gyeonggi Massif of the southwestern Korean Peninsula. It occurs as thin banded layers within meta-arkosic sandstone, formed by alternating processes of chemical (hydrothermal) and detrital depositions under a shallow marine environment. It mainly consists of alternating layers of iron oxides, mostly hematite, and quartz. Minor amounts of magnetite surrounded by muscovite, clinopyroxene and amphibole indicate hydrothermal alteration since its formation. Meta-arkosic sandstone is composed of recrystallized or porphyroclastic quartz and microcline, with small amounts of hematite and pyrite clusters. The Seosan iron formation has high contents of total Fe2O3 and SiO2 with positive Eu anomalies similar to those of other Precambrian banded iron formations, and its formation is clearly related to hydrothermal alteration since its deposition. Detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology data from a meta-arkosic sandstone (SN-1) and an iron formation (SN-2) show mainly two age groups of ca. 2.5 Ga and ca. 1.9-1.75 Ga. This together with intrusion age of the granite gneiss (ca. 1.70-1.65 Ga) clearly indicate that the iron formations were deposited during the Upper Paleoproterozoic. The dominant Paleoproterozoic detrital zircon bimodal age peaks preserved in the Seosan iron formation compare well with those from the South China Craton sedimentary basins, reflecting global tectonic events related to the Columbia supercontinent in East Asia.

  1. What can zircon ages from the Jack Hills detrital zircon suite really tell us about Hadean geodynamics? (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander


    As the only direct sample of the Hadean Earth, detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been the subject of intense investigation over the almost three decades since their discovery. A wide variety of geochemical and isotopic analyses of these grains, as well as their mineral inclusions, have been used variously to support two fundamentally different models for Hadean geodynamics: (i) Some form of (not necessarily modern-style) plate recycling generating felsic (continental-type?) crust at the boundaries [1, 2], or conversely (ii) the persistence of a long-lived, stagnant basaltic lid within which magmatism occurred as a result of internal temperature perturbations and/or impacts [3, 4], a model also generally consistent with a wide range of observations from post-Hadean geochemical reservoirs. Despite the considerable time and resources expended, the majority of these studies uncritically accept the individual U-Pb zircon ages, even though their veracity is key to many of the interpretations [5, 6]. We report here the results of an in-depth evaluation of all published (and new) U-Pb ages from the Jack Hills zircon suite in order to define age populations that can be used with a high degree of confidence in geodynamic interpretations. A notable problem in the interpretation of U-Pb data from ancient zircon grains (including those as young as the Neoarchean) is that disturbance of the systematics even several 100 Ma after crystallization causes data to spread along the concordia curve without becoming discernably discordant within the relatively large error bounds associated with U/Pb ages from in situ dating methods (e.g. SIMS). While 207Pb/206Pb ages are typically more precise, individually they provide no means to detect Pb-loss-induced younging. However, if two or preferably more analyses have been made in the same zircon growth zone, a reasonable evaluation of the possibility of Pb-loss can be made. In the available Jack Hills zircon

  2. Testing the reliability of information extracted from ancient zircon (United States)

    Kielman, Ross; Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander


    Studies combining zircon U-Pb chronology, trace element distribution as well as O and Hf isotope systematics are a powerful way to gain understanding of the processes shaping Earth's evolution, especially in detrital populations where constraints from the original host are missing. Such studies of the Hadean detrital zircon population abundant in sedimentary rocks in Western Australia have involved analysis of an unusually large number of individual grains, but also highlighted potential problems with the approach, only apparent when multiple analyses are obtained from individual grains. A common feature of the Hadean as well as many early Archaean zircon populations is their apparent inhomogeneity, which reduces confidence in conclusions based on studies combining chemistry and isotopic characteristics of zircon. In order to test the reliability of information extracted from early Earth zircon, we report results from one of the first in-depth multi-method study of zircon from a relatively simple early Archean magmatic rock, used as an analogue to ancient detrital zircon. The approach involves making multiple SIMS analyses in individual grains in order to be comparable to the most advanced studies of detrital zircon populations. The investigated sample is a relatively undeformed, non-migmatitic ca. 3.8 Ga tonalite collected a few kms south of the Isua Greenstone Belt, southwest Greenland. Extracted zircon grains can be combined into three different groups based on the behavior of their U-Pb systems: (i) grains that show internally consistent and concordant ages and define an average age of 3805±15 Ma, taken to be the age of the rock, (ii) grains that are distributed close to the concordia line, but with significant variability between multiple analyses, suggesting an ancient Pb loss and (iii) grains that have multiple analyses distributed along a discordia pointing towards a zero intercept, indicating geologically recent Pb-loss. This overall behavior has

  3. Detrital zircons from samples of five Neo proterozoic sandstone units deposited on Uruguay and Argentina: about evolution of paleographic Rio de la Plata craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Poire, D.G.; Pamoukaghlian, K.; Gomez Peral, L.; Finney, S.; Valencia, V.; Blanco, G.


    We report U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from samples of five Neoproterozoic sandstone units deposited on the Rio de la Plata Craton (RPC) in Uruguay and Argentina. Quartz-arenites of the Piedras de Afilar Formation show typical Transamazonian ages, with peaks at 2.00-2.07, 1.87 and 1.78 Ga. However, the most important zircon population is Mesoproterozoic, showing maxima at 1.49, 1.35, 1.25 and 1.0 Ga. Zircons recovered from two sandstone levels in the Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal and Cerros San Francisco formations) are mostly Archean in age, with maxima at 3.2 and 2.7 Ga. Palaeoproterozoic zircons are also prominent in this unit, with peaks at 2.45 and 2.18, with the latter a typical Transamazonian age. Two samples from the Sierras Bayas Group in Tandilia (Argentina) show different age spectra. Sandstones of the Villa Monica Formation show a unimodal zircon population of Transamazonian age (peak at 2.13 Ga). Sandstones of the Cerro Largo Formation are characterized by a dominant Transamazonian zircon population (peaks at 2.15, 2.0 and 1.79), but also important Archean-lowermost Palaeoproterozoic (3.33, 2.99, 2.7, 2.47 Ga) and Mesoproterozoic peaks (1.55, 1.23 and 1.06). The abundance of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons is surprising. A proto-Andean, Mesoproterozoic belt is suggested as the source of the Mesoproterozoic detritus. Archean rocks of the RPC crop out only in the Nico Perez Terrane in Uruguay, suggesting that the Nico Perez Terrane was much closer to Tandilia than it is today. The sinistral reactivation of the Sarandi del Yi Shear Zone in the Cambrian, as a result of tangential collision of the Cuchilla Dionisio-Pelotas Terrane, may explain this observations. The absence of Neoproterozoic zircons shows that the studied units were deposited in a stable continental margin opening to the East and South. These Neoproterozoic basins had obviously no contribution whatsoever from Brasiliano-Pan African belts, supporting the idea of Cambrian terrane

  4. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages of high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Highland and Wanni Complexes, Sri Lanka: Their geochronological correlation with southern India and East Antarctica (United States)

    Kitano, Ippei; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nakano, Nobuhiko; Adachi, Tatsuro; Fitzsimons, Ian C. W.


    The high-grade metamorphic rocks of Sri Lanka place valuable constraints on the assembly of central parts of the Gondwana supercontinent. They are subdivided into the Wanni Complex (WC), Highland Complex (HC) and Vijayan Complex (VC), but their correlation with neighbouring Gondwana terranes is hindered by a poor understanding of the contact between the HC and WC. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb dating of remnant zircon cores from 45 high-grade metamorphic rocks in Sri Lanka reveals two domains with different age characteristics that correlate with the HC and WC and which help constrain the location of the boundary between them. The HC is dominated by detrital zircon ages of ca. 3500-1500 Ma from garnet-biotite gneiss, garnet-cordierite-biotite gneiss, some samples of garnet-orthopyroxene-biotite gneiss and siliceous gneiss (interpreted as paragneisses) and igneous protolith ages of ca. 2000-1800 Ma from garnet-hornblende-biotite gneiss, other samples of garnet-orthopyroxene-biotite gneiss, garnet-two-pyroxene granulite, two-pyroxene granulite and charnockite (interpreted as orthogneisses). In contrast, the WC is dominated by detrital zircon ages of ca. 1100-700 Ma from paragneisses and igneous protolith ages of ca. 1100-800 Ma from orthogneisses. This clearly suggests the HC and WC have different origins, but some of our results and previous data indicate their spatial distribution does not correspond exactly to the unit boundary proposed in earlier studies using Nd model ages. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages in the HC suggest that sedimentary protoliths were eroded from local 2000-1800 Ma igneous rocks and an older Paleoproterozoic to Archean craton. In contrast, the WC sedimentary protoliths were mainly eroded from local late Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic igneous rocks with very minor components from an older 2500-1500 Ma craton, and in the case of the WC precursor sediments there was possibly

  5. The Comparison of Detrital Zircon Ages to Point Count Provenance Analysis for the Pottsville Sandstone in the Northern Appalachian Foreland Basin Venango County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Loveday, S.; Harris, D. B.; Schiappa, T.; Pecha, M.


    The specific sources of sediments deposited in the Appalachian basin prior to and immediately following the Alleghenian orogeny has long been a topic of debate. Recent advances in U-Pb dating of detrital zircons have greatly helped to determine some of the sources of these sediments. For this study, sandstone samples were collected from the Pottsville Formation in the northern Appalachian Foreland Basin, Venango County, Pennsylvania to provide supplementary data for previous work that sought to describe the provenance of the same sediments by point counts of thin sections of the same units. Results of this previous work established that the provenance for these units was transitional recycled orogenic, including multiple recycled sediments, and that a cratonic contribution was not able to be determined clearly. The previous results suggested that the paleoenvironment was a fluvial dominated delta prograding in the northern direction. However, no geochronologic data was found during this study to confirm this interpretation. We sought to verify these results by U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons. Samples were collected from the areas where the previous research took place. U-Pb ages were found from sample at the highest elevation and lowest elevation. In the first sample, sample 17SL01 (younger sample stratigraphically), the zircons yield U-Pb age range peaks at 442-468 ma and 1037-1081 ma. The probability density plot for this specific sample displays a complete age gap from 500 ma to 811 ma. In the second sample, sample 17SL03 (older rock stratigraphically), the zircons yield U-Pb ages range peaks of 424-616 ma and 975-1057 ma. This sample doesn't show any ages younger than 424 ma and it doesn't display the sample age gap as sample 17SL01 does. The ages of zircons are consistent with thin section point counting provenance results from previous research suggesting zircon transport from the northern direction.

  6. Provenance of sediments from Sumatra, Indonesia - Insights from detrital U-Pb zircon geochronology, heavy mineral analyses and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Liebermann, C.; Hall, R.; Gough, A.


    The island of Sumatra is situated at the southwestern margin of the Indonesian archipelago. Although it is the sixth largest island in the world, the geology of the Sumatra sedimentary basins and their underlying basement is relatively poorly understood in terms of their provenance. This work is a multi-proxy provenance study utilizing U-Pb detrital zircon dating by LA-ICP-MS combined with optical and Raman spectroscopy-based heavy mineral analysis. It will help to unravel the stratigraphy of Sumatra, contribute to paleogeographic reconstruction of western SE Asia, and aid a wider understanding of Sumatran petroleum plays. Thin section analyses, heavy mineral assemblages, and >3500 concordant U-Pb zircon ages, from samples acquired during two fieldwork seasons indicate a mixed provenance for Cenozoic sedimentary formations, including both local igneous sources and mature basement rocks. Characteristic Precambrian zircon age spectra are found in all analysed Cenozoic sedimentary strata. These can be correlated with zircon age populations found in Sumatran basement rocks; Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic age groups are dominant (c. 500-600 Ma, c. 850-1000 Ma, c. 1050-1200 Ma). Paleoproterozoic to Archaean zircons occur as minor populations. The Phanerozoic age spectra of the Cenozoic formations are characterised by distinct Carboniferous, Permo-Triassic, and Jurassic-Cretaceous zircon populations. Permo-Triassic zircons are interpreted to come from granitoids in the Malay peninsula or Sumatra itself. Eocene to Lower Miocene strata are characterised by ultrastable heavy minerals such as zircon, tourmaline, and rutile, which together with garnet, suggest the principal sources were igneous and metamorphic basement rocks. Cenozoic zircons appear only from the Middle Miocene onwards. This change is interpreted to indicate a new contribution from a local volcanic arc, and is supported by the occurrence of unstable heavy minerals such as apatite and clinopyroxene, and the

  7. Ti-in-zircon thermometry: applications and limitations (United States)

    Fu, Bin; Page, F. Zeb; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Fournelle, John; Kita, Noriko T.; Lackey, Jade Star; Wilde, Simon A.; Valley, John W.


    The titanium concentrations of 484 zircons with U-Pb ages of ˜1 Ma to 4.4 Ga were measured by ion microprobe. Samples come from 45 different igneous rocks (365 zircons), as well as zircon megacrysts (84) from kimberlite, Early Archean detrital zircons (32), and zircon reference materials (3). Samples were chosen to represent a large range of igneous rock compositions. Most of the zircons contain less than 20 ppm Ti. Apparent temperatures for zircon crystallization were calculated using the Ti-in-zircon thermometer (Watson et al. 2006, Contrib Mineral Petrol 151:413-433) without making corrections for reduced oxide activities (e.g., TiO2 or SiO2), or variable pressure. Average apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures range from 500° to 850°C, and are lower than either zircon saturation temperatures (for granitic rocks) or predicted crystallization temperatures of evolved melts (˜15% melt residue for mafic rocks). Temperatures average: 653 ± 124°C (2 standard deviations, 60 zircons) for felsic to intermediate igneous rocks, 758 ± 111°C (261 zircons) for mafic rocks, and 758 ± 98°C (84 zircons) for mantle megacrysts from kimberlite. Individually, the effects of reduced a_{TiO2} or a_{SiO2}, variable pressure, deviations from Henry’s Law, and subsolidus Ti exchange are insufficient to explain the seemingly low temperatures for zircon crystallization in igneous rocks. MELTs calculations show that mafic magmas can evolve to hydrous melts with significantly lower crystallization temperature for the last 10-15% melt residue than that of the main rock. While some magmatic zircons surely form in such late hydrous melts, low apparent temperatures are found in zircons that are included within phenocrysts or glass showing that those zircons are not from evolved residue melts. Intracrystalline variability in Ti concentration, in excess of analytical precision, is observed for nearly all zircons that were analyzed more than once. However, there is no systematic change in Ti

  8. Constraints of detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes on the provenance of the Triassic Yidun Group and tectonic evolution of the Yidun Terrane, Eastern Tibet (United States)

    Wang, Bai-Qiu; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei Terry; Gao, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Yan, Dan-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu


    Eastern Tibet to the west of the Yangtze Block consists of the Yidun and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes, separated by the Ganzi-Litang suture zone. The Yidun Terrane includes the Zhongza Massif to the west, but the eastern part of the Yidun terrane is covered by the Yidun Group extending from the south (Shangri-La region) to the north (Changtai region). The Yidun Group, from the base upward, includes the Lieyi, Qugasi, Tumugou and Lanashan formations, which are mainly composed of volcanic-flysch successions. Based on the ages of volcanic interlayers and plutonic intrusions, depositional ages of the Qugasi and Tumugou formations are considered to be slightly older than 230 Ma and ca. 220-230 Ma respectively, which are prominently older than the previous estimates. The Yidun Group in the Changtai region has two prominent detrital zircon age peaks at 400-480 and 880-980 Ma and a minor peak at 2.45-2.50 Ga. This pattern suggests a detritus source from the Zhongza Massif, which was a micro-continent separated from the western Yangtze Block. In contrast, the Yidun Group in the Shangri-La region has various zircon age spectra among different formations. The Qugasi Formation in this region has detrital zircon age patterns similar to the Yidun Group in the Changtai region. However, the overlying Tumugou Formation shows distinct age peaks at Triassic (220-240 Ma), Neoproterozoic (~ 720-880 Ma), and Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.75-1.90 Ga). This age pattern is similar to that of the Xikang Group of the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane to the east. The detrital zircon age difference between the Qugasi and Tumugou formations in this region indicates a transition of sedimentary sources from the Zhongza Massif to locally distributed Triassic magmatic rocks at ~ 230 Ma. It is thus suggested that the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane may have been connected to or collided with the southern part of the Yidun Terrane during the Late Triassic, whereas the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane and the northern part of the Yidun Terrane

  9. Timing of deformation and rapid subsidence in the northern Altiplano, Peru: Insights from detrital zircon geochronology of the Ayaviri hinterland basin (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Perez, N. D.; Saylor, J. E.


    Although age constraints on crustal deformation and sediment accumulation prove critical to testing hypotheses of orogenic plateau construction, a common lack of marine facies, volcanic tuffs, and suitable fossils hinders many attempts at chronological reconstructions. A series of elevated retroarc basins along the axis of the Andean orogenic belt provide opportunities to define the timing of deformation and transformation from foreland to hinterland basin configurations. In this study, we present new U-Pb ages of detrital zircons in the Ayaviri intermontane basin of southern Peru (~4 km elevation) in the northern part of the central Andean (Altiplano) plateau. Nearly all sandstone samples show strong unimodal U-Pb age peaks (generally defined by > 5-50 zircons), suggesting these age peaks represent syndepositional volcanism and can be regarded as accurate estimates of true depositional (stratigraphic) age. Integration of these ages with structural and stratigraphic relationships demonstrate the utility of zircon U-Pb geochronology in defining both (1) the timing of basin partitioning and (2) the pace of sediment accumulation. (1) U-Pb ages for several sandstone samples from growth-strata packages associated with two basin-bounding faults reveal structural partitioning of the Ayaviri basin from late Oligocene to Miocene time. In the north, displacement along the southwest-directed Ayaviri thrust fault commenced in late Oligocene time (~28-24 Ma), inducing initial structural partitioning of an upper Eocene-Oligocene, > 5 km thick succession potentially representing an early Andean retroarc foreland basin. In the south, the Ayaviri basin was further disrupted by initial displacement along the northeast-directed Pasani thrust fault in early to middle Miocene time (~18-15 Ma). (2) Additional U-Pb analyses from the Ayaviri basin fill help delimit the long-term rates of sedimentation, suggesting relatively short-lived (< 5 Myr) pulses of accelerated accumulation. Rapid

  10. Ages of detrital zircon from siliciclastic sucessions of the Brasilia belt, southern border of Sao Francisco craton: Implications for the evolution of proterozoic basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, C.S; Machado, N; Ribeiro, A.; Paciullo, F.V.P; Heilbron, M; Gauthier, G


    The determination of the age distribution of detrital zircon suites from greenschist and amphibolite facies metassedimentary rocks using 207 Pb/ 206 Pb laser-ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectometry (LA-ICPMS) was previously discussed by Machado and Gauthier (1996) and is an useful tool on determinating the ages interval of the source area. Although 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are, in principle, mimimum ages, Feng et al. (1993) and Machado and Gauthier (1996) showed that these ages are identical within error to U-Pb ages. The advantage of the method for sedimentary provenance studies is that the number of grains that can be analysed per day (ca. 50) on the same sample, providing a stastically meaningful age distribution. The most significant limitations of the method used in this work are the inability to yield reliable U-Pb values and the large analytical error of, at least, 1-10%. Neverthless, in provenance studies high precision are not required. In this work we report ages of detrital zircon from from lower greenschist metamorphic facies quartzites from the Proterozoic Sao Joao del Rei and Andrelandia basin successions. The data yield information about the ages of the source areas and provide an approach for constraining sedimentation ages in these basins (au)

  11. The earth's oldest known crust - A geochronological and geochemical study of 3900-4200 Ma old detrital zircons from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills, Western Australia (United States)

    Maas, Roland; Kinny, Peter D.; Williams, Ian S.; Froude, Derek O.; Compston, William


    Trace element characteristics were analyzed and inclusions were identified within a suite of pre-3.9 Ga detritral zircons from western Australia representing the earth's oldest-known minerals. A diversity of trace-element compositions was found, particularly in the REE compositions of the old Mt. Narryer zircons, implying a variety of source-rock compositions and hence, the presence of a differentiated crust in the earth 4.15-4.20 Ga ago. Comparisons drawn with data obtained from younger detrital zircons occurring within the same deposits indicate nothing unique about the chemical compositions of the old grains. A number of interelement covariations were observed among the analyzed grains which were independent of age and isotopic characteristics, most notably that occurring between Lu and Hf. A general positive correlation between total LREE and the U + Th contents is also apparent. The findings indicate an origin in felsic igneous rocks, which has implications for early-Archaean crustal evolution.

  12. U Pb and Lu Hf isotope record of detrital zircon grains from the Limpopo Belt Evidence for crustal recycling at the Hadean to early-Archean transition (United States)

    Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel; Klemd, Reiner; Barton, J. M., Jr.


    Detrital zircon grains from Beit Bridge Group quartzite from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt near Musina yield mostly ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, minor 3.15-2.51 Ga components, and numerous older grains grouped at approximately 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 Ga. Two grains yielded concordant Late Hadean U-Pb ages of 3881 ± 11 Ma and 3909 ± 26 Ma, which are the oldest zircon grains so far found in Africa. The combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf datasets and field relationships provide evidence that the sedimentary protolith of the Beit Bridge Group quartzite was deposited after the emplacement of the Sand River Gneisses (3.35-3.15 Ga), but prior to the Neoarchean magmatic-metamorphic events at 2.65-2.60 Ga. The finding of abundant magmatic zircon detritus with concordant U-Pb ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, and 176Hf/ 177Hf of 0.28066 ± 0.00004 indicate that the Sand River Gneiss-type rocks were a predominant source. In contrast, detrital zircon grains older than approximately 3.35 Ga were derived from the hinterland of the Limpopo Belt; either from a so far unknown crustal source in southern Africa, possibly from the Zimbabwe Craton and/or a source, which was similar but not necessarily identical to the one that supplied the Hadean zircons to Jack Hills, Western Australia. The Beit Bridge Group zircon population at >3.35 Ga shows a general ɛHf t increase with decreasing age from ɛHf 3.9Ga = -6.3 to ɛHf 3.3-3.1Ga = -0.2, indicating that Hadean crust older than 4.0 Ga ( TDM = 4.45-4.36 Ga) was rejuvenated during magmatic events between >3.9 and 3.1 Ga, due to a successive mixing of crustal rocks with mantle derived magmas. The existence of a depleted mantle reservoir in the Limpopo's hinterland is reflected by the ˜3.6 Ga zircon population, which shows ɛHf 3.6Ga between -4.6 and +3.2. In a global context, our data suggest that a long-lived, mafic Hadean protocrust with some tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite constituents was destroyed and partly recycled at the Hadean/Archean transition, perhaps

  13. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Geochronologic Constraints on Depositional Age and Sediment Source Terrains of the Late Paleozoic Tepuel-Genoa Basin (United States)

    Griffis, N. P.; Montanez, I. P.; Isbell, J.; Gulbranson, E. L.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cúneo, N. R.; Pagani, M. A.; Taboada, A. C.


    The late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) is the longest-lived icehouse of the Phanerozoic and the only time a metazoan dominated and vegetated world transitioned from an icehouse climate into a greenhouse. Despite several decades of research, the timing, extent of glaciation and the location of ice centers remain unresolved, which prohibits reconstruction of ice volume. The Permo-Carboniferous sediments in the Tepuel-Genoa Basin, Patagonia contains a near complete record of sedimentation from the lower Carboniferous through lower Permian. Outsized clasts, thin pebble-rich diamictites and slumps represent the last of the late Paleozoic glacially influenced deep-water marine sediments in the Mojón de Hierro Fm. and the Paleozoic of Patagonia. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons separated from slope sediments reveal groupings (20 myr bins, n≥5 zircons) with peak depositional ages of 420, 540 to 660 and 1040 Ma. Zircon age populations recovered from the Mojón de Hierro Fm. compare well with bedrock ages of the Deseado Massif of SE Patagonia, suggesting this may be a potential source of sediments. The maximum depositional age of the sediments is 306.05 ± 3.7 Ma (2σ) as determined by the median age of the two youngest concordant zircons that overlap in error. The youngest zircon from the analysis yields a 238U/206Pb age of 301.3 ± 4.5 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 2.3). Younger zircons from the analysis compare well with the age of granite bedrock exposed along the basin margin to the E-NE suggesting they may reflect a more proximal source. These data, which indicate a maximum age of late Carboniferous for the Mojón de Hierro Fm, provide the first geochemical constraints for the timing of final deposition of glaciomarine sediments in the Tepuel-Genoa Basin, and contributes to the biostratigraphic correlation of the late Paleozoic succession in Patagonia with other key LPIA basins that has thus far been hindered by faunal provincialism.

  14. Phanerozoic polyphase orogenies recorded in the northeastern Okcheon Belt, Korea from SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon and K-Ar illite geochronologies (United States)

    Jang, Yirang; Kwon, Sanghoon; Song, Yungoo; Kim, Sung Won; Kwon, Yi Kyun; Yi, Keewook


    We present the SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon and K-Ar illite 1Md/1M and 2M1 ages, suggesting new insight into the Phanerozoic polyphase orogenies preserved in the northeastern Okcheon Belt, Korea since the initial basin formation during Neoproterozoic rifting through several successive contractional orogens. The U-Pb detrital zircon ages from the Early Paleozoic strata of the Taebaeksan Zone suggest a Cambrian maximum deposition age, and are supported by trilobite and conodont biostratigraphy. Although the age spectra from two sedimentary groups, the Yeongwol and Taebaek Groups, show similar continuous distributions from the Late Paleoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic ages, a Grenville-age hiatus (1.3-0.9 Ga) in the continuous stratigraphic sequence from the Taebaek Group suggests the existence of different peripheral clastic sources along rifted continental margin(s). In addition, we present the K-Ar illite 1Md/1M ages of the fault gouges, which confirm fault formation/reactivation during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene (ca. 82-62 Ma) and the Early Miocene (ca. 20-18 Ma). The 2M1 illite ages, at least those younger than the host rock ages, provide episodes of deformation, metamorphism and hydrothermal effects related to the tectonic events during the Devonian (ca.410 Ma) and Permo-Triassic (ca. 285-240 Ma). These results indicate that the northeastern Okcheon Belt experienced polyphase orogenic events, namely the Okcheon (Middle Paleozoic), Songrim (Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic), Daebo (Middle Mesozoic) and Bulguksa (Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic) Orogenies, reflecting the Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Korean Peninsula along the East Asian continental margin.

  15. Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Sedimentary Rocks of the 3.6 - 3.2 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt: No Evidence for Older Continental Crust (United States)

    Drabon, N.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.; Harrington, J.


    The crustal setting of early Archean greenstone belts and whether they formed on or associated with blocks of older continental crust or in more oceanic settings remains a major issue in Archean geology. We report detrital zircon U-Pb age data from sandstones of the 3.26-3.20 Ga Fig Tree and Moodies Groups and from 3.47 to 3.23 Ga meteorite impact-related deposits in the 3.55-3.20 Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. The provenance signatures of these sediments are characterized by zircon age peaks at 3.54, 3.46, 3.40, 3.30, and 3.25 Ga. These clusters are coincident either with the ages of major episodes of felsic to intermediate igneous activity within and around the belt or with the ages of thin felsic tuffs reflecting distant volcanic activity. Only 15 of the reported 3410 grains (old zircons could represent felsic rocks in older, unexposed parts of the BGB sequence, but are too few to provide evidence for a continental source. This finding offers further evidence that the large, thick, high-standing, highly evolved blocks of continental crust with an andesitic bulk composition that characterize the Earth during younger geologic times were scarce in the early Archean.

  16. Detrital U-Pb zircon analysis of an Eocene McMurdo Erratic sandstone, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, T.; Encarnacion, J.; Valencia, V.A.; Roti Roti, J.M.; Rasoazanamparany, C.


    Some of the most important Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in Antarctica are glacial erratics of fossiliferous Palaeogene to Neogene siliclastic rocks known as the McMurdo Erratics. Detrital zircon U-Pb isotopic data reported herein provide new information on the provenance of these siliciclastic rocks. The U-Pb age data from a sandstone glacial erratic that is likely of Eocene age show a dominant age cluster that ranges from 488 to 635 Ma, accompanied by subsidiary Neoproterozoic-Archaean peaks. The dominant Neoproterozoic-Ordovician age cluster, in conjunction with the arkosic lithologies of some erratics and the local presence of granitic and metasedimentary clasts, indicates that the Neoproterozoic-Ordovician basement complex of the Transantarctic Mountains likely served as a major source for the Eocene siliciclastic sediments. This is consistent with derivation of the McMurdo Erratics from locations proximal to the Transantarctic Mountains such as the Discovery Deep and/or major mountain outlet glacier areas. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Palynology and detrital zircon geochronology of the Carboniferous Fenestella Shale Formation of the Tethyan realm in Kashmir Himalaya: Implications for global correlation and floristic evolution (United States)

    Agnihotri, Deepa; Pandita, Sundeep K.; Tewari, Rajni; Ram-Awatar; Linnemann, Ulf; Pillai, S. Suresh K.; Joshi, Arun; Gautam, Saurabh; Kumar, Kamlesh


    First palynological data, supplemented by detrital zircon U-Pb ages, from the Fenestella Shale Formation near the Gund Village in the Banihal area of Jammu and Kashmir State, India, provide new insights into the floristic evolution of Gondwana during the Late Palaeozoic, especially in India, from where the Carboniferous-Permian macro- and microfloral records are impoverished. We also present a first approach to the palynological correlation of the Carboniferous-Permian palynoassemblages described from the various Gondwana countries. The palynomorphs from the Fenestella Shale Formation are fairly well preserved and diversified and include 11 genera and 18 species. While the trilete spores and striate bisaccate pollen grains are scarce, monosaccate pollen taxa mainly - Parasaccites, Plicatipollenites and Potonieisporites are dominant. The assemblage is most similar to the Parasaccites korbaensis palynozone of the Lower Gondwana basins of the Indian peninsula and the Stage 2 palynozone of the late Carboniferous of east Australia. Besides, it is comparable with the known Carboniferous assemblages of Pakistan, Yemen and South America; Carboniferous-early Permian assemblages of South Africa and Permian assemblages of Antarctica. The sediment source of the siliciclastic shelf and delta deposits intercalated in the Fenestella Shale Formation is a hinterland in which Precambrian rocks dominantly were exposed and the Th-U ratios of detrital zircons suggest, that most rocks exposed on the erosion level in the hinterland had a felsic composition. The youngest U-Pb zircon age of the investigated fossiliferous strata is 329 ± 16 Ma (late Visean to early Serpukhovian), providing a maximum age of deposition of the studied succession. Based on the affinities of the palynofloral assemblage and earlier palaeontological records, a warm, temperate and arid climate has been inferred for the Fenestella Shale Formation.

  18. Allogenic and Autogenic Signals in the Detrital Zircon U-Pb Record of the Deep-Sea Bengal Fan (United States)

    Blum, M. D.; Rogers, K. G.; Gleason, J. D.; Najman, Y.


    The Himalayan-sourced Ganges-Brahmaputra river system and the deep-sea Bengal Fan represent Earth's largest sediment-dispersal system. This presentation summarizes a new detrital zircon U-Pb (DZ) provenance record from the Bengal Fan from cores collected during IODP Expedition 354, with coring sites located 1350 km downdip from the shelf margin. Each of our 15 samples were collected from medium- to fine-grained turbidite sand and, based on shipboard biostratigraphic analyses, our samples are late Miocene to late Pleistocene in age. Each sample was analyzed by LA-ICPMS at the Arizona Laserchron facility, with an average of n=270 concordant U-Pb ages per sample. Our goals are to use these data to evaluate the influence of allogenic controls vs. autogenic processes on signal propagation from source-to-sink. At the first order, large-scale sediment transfer to the Bengal Fan clearly records the strong tectonic and climatic forcing associated with the Himalayas and Ganges-Brahmaputra system: after up to 2500 km of river transport, and 1350 km of transport in turbidity currents, the DZ record faithfully represents Himalayan source terrains. The sand-rich turbidite part of the record is nevertheless biased towards glacial periods when rivers extended across the shelf in response to climate-forced sea-level fall, and discharged directly to slope canyons. However, only part of the Bengal Fan DZ record represents either the Ganges or the Brahmaputra, with most samples representing varying degrees of mixing of sediments from the two systems: this mixing, or the lack thereof, represents the signal of autogenic avulsions on the delta plain that result in the two river systems delivering sediment separately to the shelf margin, or together as they do today. Within the allogenic framework established by tectonic processes, the climatic system, and global climate-forced sea-level change, the DZ U-Pb record of sediment mixing or the lack thereof provides a fingerprint of autogenic

  19. Evidence From Detrital Zircon U-Pb Analysis for Suturing of Pre-Mississippian Terranes in Arctic Alaska (United States)

    Moore, T. E.; Potter, C. J.; O'Sullivan, P. B.; Aleinikoff, J. N.


    Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of pre-Mississippian sandstones were determined using SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS techniques for four key geographic parts of the Arctic Alaska terrane, northern Alaska. In the northeastern Brooks Range, a sample of quartz-rich turbidites from the Proterozoic Neroukpuk Quartzite yielded zircon ages ranging from 980 Ma to 2.9 Ga with clusters at 980-1100 Ma, 1680-1850 Ma and 2220-2660 Ma. Quartz and chert-bearing sandstone in the Tulageak well from Ordovician-Silurian argillite in basement beneath the North Slope yielded a broad spectrum of ages between 1.0 to 2.1 Ga and 2.8 Ga, including peaks at 1.0-1.2 and 1.5-1.7 Ga. Paleozoic zircons cluster at 390 and 440 Ma in this sample, indicating it is Devonian. Lithic sandstone from the Silurian Iviagik Group at Cape Dyer on the Lisburne Peninsula yielded a variety of ages from 450 to 1600 Ma, with a large peak at 475-600 Ma and several grains between 1.9 and 2.5 Ga. In contrast to the broad distributions of the latter two samples, zircons in metamorphosed Proterozoic-Cambrian(?) lithic sandstone from the an unnamed metagraywacke unit near Mt. Snowden on the Dalton Highway in the southern Brooks Range are largely 600-650 Ma with lesser clusters at 1050-1200 Ma and 1600-1900 Ga. Samples of quartz-rich Mississippian sandstone at the base of the unconformably overlying Mississippian to Triassic Ellesmerian sequence near three of the pre-Mississippian sample locations were also analyzed. Mississippian sandstones from the West Dease well (near the Tulageak well) and at Cape Dyer on the Lisburne Peninsula display zircon distributions similar to those found in the underlying pre-Mississippian samples, indicating the Mississippian clastic strata are locally derived and that the observed zircon distributions are representative of a broad area. However, the Mississippian Kekiktuk Conglomerate, which rests on the Neroukpuk Quartzite in the northeastern Brooks Range, also contains a variety of ages between 560 and

  20. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from Cenozoic sediments in the southwestern Tarim Basin, NW China: Implications for Eocene-Pliocene source-to-sink relations and new insights into Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic sources (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Fu, Ling; Wu, Chaodong; Song, Yan; Jiang, Zhenxue; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Ziya; Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Bei


    A detailed investigation of potential provenance is still lacking in the southwestern Tarim Basin, which restricts our complete understanding of Cenozoic source-to-sink relations between the basin interior and the Pamir salient - western Kunlun Mountain Range. Debate also exists concerning the potential sources of the Paleogene and Cretaceous igneous detritus present in the Cenozoic sedimentary sequences. Here, we present U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) ages of detrital zircons from the continuous Eocene-Pliocene sediment series in the well-exposed Aertashi section to investigate changes in sediment provenance through time. The U-Pb detrital zircon ages range widely from 45 to 3204 Ma and can be divided into seven main groups: 45-65 Ma (sub-peak at 49 Ma), 67-103 Ma (sub-peak at 95 Ma), 196-251 Ma (sub-peak at 208 Ma), 252-416 Ma (sub-peak at 296 Ma), 417-540 Ma (sub-peak at 446 Ma), 550-1429 Ma (sub-peaks at 614 Ma, 828 Ma and 942 Ma) and 1345-3204 Ma (sub-peaks at 1773 Ma and 2480 Ma). These zircons were mainly derived from the western Kunlun Mountain Range and northern Pamir salient to the west and south. The evolution of the provenance and source-to-sink relationship patterns in the southwestern Tarim Basin can be divided into three stages: (1) The Middle Eocene to Lower Oligocene sediments display a wide variety of detrital zircon ages, suggesting that the source area was extensive. (2) A major change in provenance occurred during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene and was characterized by an abrupt increase in the proportion of Triassic and Lower Paleozoic igneous components, implying a significant adjustment in topography induced by the initial uplift and exhumation of the western Kunlun Mountain Range and northern Pamir salient. (3) In the Late Miocene, the source-to-sink system transformed again, and contributions of Triassic to Lower Paleozoic material weakened substantially due to the sufficient indentation of the Pamir salient. Our integrated analyses of zircon

  1. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating of detrital zircon grains from quartzites of the Eckergneiss Complex, Harz Mountains (Germany): implications for the provenance and the geological history (United States)

    Geisler, Thorsten; Vinx, Roland; Martin-Gombojav, Nergui; Pidgeon, Robert T.


    The Eckergneiss Complex (EGC) is a geologically unique medium- to high-grade metamorphic unit within the Rhenohercynian domain of the Mid-European Variscides. A previously, poorly defined conventional lower U Pb intercept age of about 560 Ma from detrital zircons of metasedimentary rocks has led to speculations about an East Avalonian affinity of the EGC. In order to unravel the provenance and to constrain the age of the sediment protolith, we carried out sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U Pb analyses on detrital zircons from five different EGC quartzite occurrences. The obtained age spectrum indicates a SW Baltica provenance of the detritus. Sveconorwegian ages between 0.9 1.2 Ga are particularly well represented by analyses from metamorphic recrystallization/alteration zones penetrating into igneous zircon. Cadomian (Pan-African) ages, which might reflect a metamorphic event, could not be substantiated. Instead, zircons of igneous origin yielded concordant Lower Devonian and Silurian ages of 410±10, 419±10, and 436±6 Ma (1σ), implying that sedimentation of the EG protolith must have taken place after 410±10 Ma. The lower age limit of the EGC metamorphism is constrained by 295 Ma intrusion ages of the adjacent, nonmetamorphosed Harzburg Gabbronorite and Brocken Granite. Sedimentation and metamorphism must thus have taken place between about 410 Ma and 295 Ma. Given that this time span coincides with most of the sedimentation within the virtually nonmetamorphosed (lowest grade) Rhenohercynian in the Harz Mountains, including the direct vicinity of the EGC, along with the high-grade metamorphism, the EGC can hardly be seen as uplifted local basement. A possible candidate for the root region is an easterly, concealed marginal segment of the Rhenohercynian domain of the Variscides, which is tectonically overridden and suppressed by the Mid-German Crystalline Rise during continent collision. However, based on the concept of strike-slip movement of Variscan

  2. Assessing the role of detrital zircon sorting on provenance interpretations in an ancient fluvial system using paleohydraulics - Permian Cutler Group, Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado (United States)

    Findlay, C. P., III; Ewing, R. C.; Perez, N. D.


    Detrital zircon age signatures used in provenance studies are assumed to be representative of entire catchments from which the sediment was derived, but the extent to which hydraulic sorting can bias provenance interpretations is poorly constrained. Sediment and mineral sorting occurs with changes in hydraulic conditions driven by both allogenic and autogenic processes. Zircon is sorted from less dense minerals due to the difference in density, and any age dependence on zircon size could potentially bias provenance interpretations. In this study, a coupled paleohydraulic and geochemical provenance approach is used to identify changes in paleohydraulic conditions and relate them to spatial variations in provenance signatures from samples collected along an approximately time-correlative source-to-sink pathway in the Permian Cutler Group of the Paradox Basin. Samples proximal to the uplift have a paleoflow direction to the southwest. In the medial basin, paleocurrent direction indicates salt movement caused fluvial pathways divert to the north and northwest on the flanks of anticlines. Channel depth, flow velocity, and discharge calculations were derived from field measurements of grain size and dune and bar cross-stratification indicate that competency of the fluvial system decreased from proximal to the medial basin by up to a factor of 12. Based upon the paleohydraulic calculations, zircon size fractionation would occur along the transect such that the larger zircons are removed from the system prior to reaching the medial basin. Analysis of the size and age distribution of zircons from the proximal and distal fluvial system of the Cutler Group tests if this hydraulic sorting affects the expected Uncompahgre Uplift age distribution.

  3. Enhanced provenance interpretation using combined U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating of detrital zircon grains from lower Miocene strata, proximal Gulf of Mexico Basin, North America (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Stockli, Daniel F.; Snedden, John W.


    Detrital zircon U-Pb analysis is an effective approach for investigating sediment provenance by relating crystallization age to potential crystalline source terranes. Studies of large passive margin basins, such as the Gulf of Mexico Basin, that have received sediment from multiple terranes with non-unique crystallization ages or sedimentary strata, benefit from additional constraints to better elucidate provenance interpretation. In this study, U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating analyses on single zircons from the lower Miocene sandstones in the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin reveal a detailed history of sediment source evolution. U-Pb age data indicate that most zircon originated from five major crystalline provinces, including the Western Cordillera Arc (1800 Ma) terranes. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages record tectonic cooling and exhumation in the U.S. since the Mesoproterozoic related to the Grenville to Laramide Orogenies. The combined crystallization and cooling information from single zircon double dating can differentiate volcanic and plutonic zircons. Importantly, the U-Pb-He double dating approach allows for the differentiation between multiple possible crystallization-age sources on the basis of their subsequent tectonic evolution. In particular, for Grenville zircons that are present in all of lower Miocene samples, four distinct zircon U-Pb-He age combinations are recognizable that can be traced back to four different possible sources. The integrated U-Pb and (U-Th)/He data eliminate some ambiguities and improves the provenance interpretation for the lower Miocene strata in the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin and illustrate the applicability of this approach for other large-scale basins to reconstruct sediment provenance and dispersal patterns.

  4. Pan-Gondwanaland post-collisional extension marked by 650 500 Ma alkaline rocks and carbonatites and related detrital zircons: A review (United States)

    Veevers, J. J.


    Pan-Gondwanaland (650-500 Ma) tectonics is dominated by transcurrent motions driven by post-collisional oblique stresses. Extension is commonly marked by the intrusion of alkaline rocks, in particular A-type granite, nepheline syenite, and carbonatites (ARCs), during or after collision, as well as by field studies. ARCs of this age are common in Africa, South America, India, Antarctica, and Australia, and are indicated by related detrital zircons of 650-500 Ma age in Permian-Triassic and younger sediments from Australia, Antarctica, southern Africa, and India. Structural studies suggest that ARCs fill openings at releasing bends along transcurrent fractures and during reversal of the sense of motion as well as during relaxation of stress after collision. On the Paleo-Pacific margin, 550-500 Ma ARCs of the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province were emplaced syn-tectonically within the Ross orogen during oblique subduction. The concentration of ARC magmas emplaced during the amalgamation of Gondwanaland is correlated with the transtension generated by the 650-570 Ma oblique subduction between Avalonia-Cadomia and the West African craton, and the 550-490 Ma oblique subduction of the Paleo-Pacific underneath Antarctica. In the Eastern Ghats and the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica, ARCs and related zircons were generated 1000-900 Ma during an earlier continental collision.

  5. Contrasting Cu-Au and Sn-W Granite Metallogeny through the Zircon Geochemical and Isotopic Record (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Hawkesworth, Chris; Robb, Laurence; Whitehouse, Martin; Roberts, Nick; Kirkland, Chris


    Magmatic genesis and evolution - mediated by geodynamic setting - exert a primary control on the propensity of granites to be metal fertile. A revolution in our understanding of these petrogenetic processes has been made through a range of mineral-based tools, most notably the common accessory mineral zircon. There is consequently considerable interest in whether the geochemical and isotopic compositions of zircon can be applied to metallogenic problems. The paired magmatic belts of Myanmar have broadly contrasting metallogenic affinities (Sn-W versus Cu-Au), and are interpreted to have formed on the accretionary margin of the subducting Neo-Tethys Ocean. They therefore present the opportunity to geochemically compare and contrast the zircon compositions in two end-member types of granite-hosted mineral deposits generated in collisional settings. We present an integrated zircon isotope (U-Pb, Lu-Hf, O) and trace element dataset that fingerprint: (a) source; (b) redox conditions; and (c) degree of fractionation. These variables all impact on magma fertility, and our key question to address is whether they can be reliably traced and calibrated within the Myanmar zircon record. Granitoid-hosted zircons from the I-type copper arc have juvenile ɛHf (+7 to +12) and mantle-like δ18O (5.3 ‰), whereas zircons from the S-type tin belt have low ɛHf (-7 to -13) and heavier δ18O (6.2-7.7 ‰). Plotting Hf versus U/Yb reaffirms that the tin belt magmas contain greater crustal contributions than the copper arc rocks. Links between whole rock Rb/Sr and zircon Eu/Eu* highlights that the latter can be used to monitor magma fractionation in systems that crystallize plagioclase (low Sr/Y). Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* in zircon are thus sensitive to redox and fractionation respectively, and can be used to evaluate the sensitivity of zircons to the metallogenic affinity of their host rocks. Tin contents that exceed the solubility limit are required in order to make a magmatic

  6. Single-zircon dating by stepwise Pb-evaporation constrains the Archean history of detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, B.; Lippolt, H.J.; Pidgeon, R.T.


    Pb isotope analyses have been carried out on 42 zircon grains from a Western Australian metaconglomerate using stepwise Pb-evaporation directly in the ion source of a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. The metaconglomerate is from the Archean Jack Hills Metasedimentary Belt, and is known from ion microprobe (''SHRIMP'') analyses to contain a complex zircon population with ages between 4.2 Ga and 3.1 Ga. The same complex pattern of ages is found by the Pb evaporation studies. Five grains yielded minimum crystallization ages from 4.17 Ga to 4.07 Ga. The main population appears significantly younger, having been generated at about 3.55-3.3 Ga. The agreement between the two analytical approaches confirms the SHRIMP results and demonstrates the value of the stepwise-evaporation technique in determining the age patterns of mixing zircon populations. In many of the evaporative Pb isotope records the 207/206 ratios remained constant for all evaporation steps, which we interpret as evaporation from concordant zircon phases. However, for the majority of zircons 207/206 ratios increased with increasing evaporation temperature, and usually approached constant values during evaporation at the highest temperatures. This can be attributed to mixing of different radiogenic Pb components from either crystalline zircon phases of different ages or from domains of isotopically disturbed metamict zircon. Present results confirm > 4 Ga zircon ages in the metaconglomerate from the Hack Hills and substantiate formation of crust at a very early stage in the evolution of the earth. Results also confirm a major crust-forming event 3.55-3.3 Ga ago. (orig.)

  7. At what conditions does zircon grow/dissolve during high-T metamorphism? Relating zircon textures to PT-conditions (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Manzotti, Paola; Engi, Martin


    A key question in ziconology is when and how zircon grows during metamorphism. To shed light on zircon forming processes and the corresponding PT-conditions during high-T metamorphism a case study was undertaken. The Ivrea Zone (N-Italy) exposes a lower continental crustal section in which a continuous metamorphic field gradient from amphibolite to granulite facies is documented. This field gradient is thought to reflect protracted heating during late Paleozoic times, with a probable high-T peak in the Permian. We present first results from a primarily textural study supported by U-Pb ages, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-Zrn thermometry. Four types of zircon were identified based on their overgrowth proportions and the preservation of detrital cores. Zircon grains were thus classified as Type1 - detrital grains with no overgrowth or very narrow rims (300 Ma) and appears to reflect an early dehydration phase. Rim2b has Permian ages (median 275 Ma), is by far the most common overgrowth type, found in a wide PT-range. Its development appears related to biotite breakdown. Rim3 is texturally indicative of magmatic zircon, occurs only in diatexites. Rim4 is the latest overgrowth and is locally found at all metamorphic grades. Textural features suggest late fluid-related recrystallization of existing zircon. At lowest grade (675±35°C, 6±2 kbar) zircons show type1 only, overgrowths are too thin to clearly identify the rim type. Further upgrade (~700°C, 7 kbar) type1 and type2 dominate. Type2 zircons show rim1, rim2a and occasionally rim4. At the Mu-out isograd (750±50°C, 8.2±1.4 kbar) most zircons are of type2, now with rim2b instead of 2a, in addition to rim1 and rim4. Near and in granulite facies (to 800°C, 8±2 kbar) mostly zircon type2 and type4 are present. While rim1 gets more narrow with increasing metamorphic grade, rim2b grows significantly thicker. Occasionally rim2a and rim4 occur. Close to the Bt-out isograd (~860°C, 9.2±1.7 kbar), mostly type3 and type4 are

  8. Sediment provenance in contractional orogens: The detrital zircon record from modern rivers in the Andean fold-thrust belt and foreland basin of western Argentina (United States)

    Capaldi, Tomas N.; Horton, Brian K.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Odlum, Margaret L.


    This study analyzes detrital zircon U-Pb age populations from Andean rivers to assess whether active synorogenic sedimentation accurately records proportional contributions from varied bedrock source units across different drainage areas. Samples of modern river sand were collected from west-central Argentina (28-33°S), where the Andes are characterized by active uplift and deposition in diverse contractional provinces, including (1) hinterland, (2) wedge-top, (3) proximal foreland, and (4) distal broken foreland basin settings. Potential controls on sediment provenance were evaluated by comparing river U-Pb age distributions with predicted age spectra generated by a sediment mixing model weighted by relative catchment exposure (outcrop) areas for different source units. Several statistical measures (similarity, likeness, and cross-correlation) are employed to compare how well the area-weighted model predicts modern river age populations. (1) Hinterland basin provenance is influenced by local relief generated along thrust-bounded ranges and high zircon fertility of exposed crystalline basement. (2) Wedge-top (piggyback) basin provenance is controlled by variable lithologic durability among thrust-belt bedrock sources and recycled basin sediments. (3) Proximal foreland (foredeep) basin provenance of rivers and fluvial megafans accurately reflect regional bedrock distributions, with limited effects of zircon fertility and lithologic durability in large (>20,000 km2) second-order drainage systems. (4) In distal broken segments of the foreland basin, regional provenance signatures from thrust-belt and hinterland areas are diluted by local contributions from foreland basement-cored uplifts.

  9. Detrital K-feldspar thermochronology of the Nanaimo Group: Characterization of Basement and Extraregional Basin Contributions (United States)

    Isava, V.; Grove, M.; Mahoney, J. B.; Kimbrough, D. L.


    The Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene Nanaimo Group covers the contact between Triassic basement Wrangellia terrane and the Jurassic-Cretaceous Coast Plutonic Complex (CPC) in southern British Columbia. Prior detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf studies indicate a change in sediment source for the Nanaimo basin, from the primitive CPC in Santonian-Early Campanian time to an isotopically evolved continental extraregional source during the late Campanian/Maastrictian. Two notably different areas have been proposed as potential source regions: (1) the Idaho/Boulder batholith and Belt Supergroup, and (2) the Mojave/Salinia segment of structurally disrupted late Cretaceous southern California margin. Single crystal 40Ar/39Ar laser fusion of ca. 100-200 grains apiece from seven detrital K-feldspar samples from Santonian-Maastrichtian strata of the northern Nanaimo Group constrain the history of the sediments' source regions. The two oldest samples, from the K-feldspar poor Comox and Extension Fms., display a monotonic increasing distribution of cooling ages 80-125 Ma that reflects shallow erosion of the CPC. In contrast, Late Campanian strata of the Cedar District and De Courcy Fms. exhibit a more pronounced cluster of cooling ages 80-95 Ma as well as a greater proportion of Jurassic ages that represent progressively deeper erosion of the CPC. Evidence for an extraregional sediment source appears abruptly in the Geoffrey Fm. by 72 Ma, matching the time of local-to-extraregional shift indicated in detrital zircon U-Pb studies. Over 90% of the detrital K-feldspars from these arkosic sandstones yield cooling ages of 70-80 Ma, with sparse older ages associated with the CPC. Samples from the successively younger Spray and Gabriola Fms. also yield >90% K-feldspar ages younger than 80 Ma and exhibit age maxima of 68 Ma and 65 Ma, respectively. These results are distinct from detrital zircon U-Pb and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages of the southern Sierra Nevada, Mojave/Salina, and northern

  10. Role of zircon in tracing crustal growth and recycling (United States)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I. S.; Armstrong, R. A.; Claoue-Long, J. C.; Kinny, P. D.; Foster, J. J.; Kroener, A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Myers, J. S.

    Single crystal ion probe ages of zircons is discussed, which allow much better time resolution compared to other geochronological methods, although the technique is not without problems. Rocks from two areas that contain composite zircon populations, including true magmatic zircons as well as a variety of xenocrystic types are described. It is often difficult to distinguish these; xenocrystic zircons, for example, cannot always be identified on the basis of morphology alone. Additional evidence is needed before making age interpretations. Evidence is also presented of zircon growth long after the original time of crystallization, in some cases apparently at temperatures less than 300 C. The spectacular discovery of 4.1 to 4.2 Ga detrital zircons in metaquartzites from the Mount Narryer area of Western Australia is described. Similar zircons with ages as old as 4276 Ma have been found in the nearby Jack Hills area. The source areas or parent lithologies of these zircons have not yet been determined, but the author expects that they may be unrecognized or buried antecedents of the K rich Narryer gneisses. U or Th concentrations of zircon cannot be used to discriminate between felsic and mafic source rocks.

  11. Provenance of detrital zircons from the Ribeira and Dom Feliciano Belts, comparison with African equivalents and implications on Western Gondwana amalgamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Frimmel, H.E.; Nutman, A.P.; Preciozzi, F.


    The geologic make-up of southern Brazil has been defined by processes related to the Brasiliano orogenic cycle and, in particular, to con tractional tectonic events that led to the amalgamation of different terranes, which culminated in the formation of Western Gondwana (Campos Neto and Figueiredo, 1995; Brito Neves and Cordani, 1991; Brito Neves et al, 1999, Campos Neto, 2000). Polycyclic deformation and metamorphism that masked the characteristics, including the age records, of the protoliths were associated with the juxtaposition of these different terranes. Ophiolitic remains and magmatic arc roots signal the existence of fossil subduction and collision zones, whereas intense post-tectonic to an orogenic granitic magmatism marks the end of the orogenic cycle towards the end of the Neoproterozoic Era. U-Pb dating of domains within single zircon grains has proven to be a very powerful tool for the unraveling of the complex tecto no-thermal evolution as well as in characterizing the provenance of the original sediments. This is due to the high resistance to weathering and to high closure temperatures with respect to the U-Pb isotope system in zircon. Over the past decade, the standard technique for this analytical approach has become the analyses of U-Pb isotope ratios by SHRIMP, preceded by cathodoluminescence analysis (McClaren et al 1994). In this study, a set of 11 new SHRIMP analyses on detrital zircon grains from the major metasedimentary units of the Ribeira and Dom Feliciano Belts of the southeastern portion of South America is presented and the data are compared with available analyses for the Gariep Belt (Basei et al. 2005) and a new analysis for the Damara Belt. Combined with available Sm-Nd bulk rock isotope data, the results will form the basis for a revised tectonic model for the formation of Western Gondwana

  12. Provenance analysis of the Late Triassic Yichuan Basin: constraints from zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianghong


    Full Text Available Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating has been performed on detrital zircons from the Chunshuyao Formation sandstone of Yichuan Basin. The ages of 85 detrital zircon grains are divided into three groups: 252-290 Ma, 1740-2000 Ma, and 2400-2600 Ma. The lack of Early Paleozoic and Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages indicates that there is no input from the Qinling Orogen, because the Qinling Orogen is characterized by Paleozoic and Neoproterozoic material. In combination with previous research, we suggest that the source of the Chunshuyao Formation is most likely recycled from previous sedimentary rocks from the North China Craton. In the Late Triassic, the Funiu ancient land was uplifted which prevented source material from the Qinling Orogen. Owing to the Indosinian orogeny, the strata to the east of the North China Craton were uplifted and eroded. The Yichuan Basin received detrital material from the North China Craton.

  13. Zircon ages in granulite facies rocks: decoupling from geochemistry above 850 °C? (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Engi, Martin


    Granulite facies rocks frequently show a large spread in their zircon ages, the interpretation of which raises questions: Has the isotopic system been disturbed? By what process(es) and conditions did the alteration occur? Can the dates be regarded as real ages, reflecting several growth episodes? Furthermore, under some circumstances of (ultra-)high-temperature metamorphism, decoupling of zircon U-Pb dates from their trace element geochemistry has been reported. Understanding these processes is crucial to help interpret such dates in the context of the P-T history. Our study presents evidence for decoupling in zircon from the highest grade metapelites (> 850 °C) taken along a continuous high-temperature metamorphic field gradient in the Ivrea Zone (NW Italy). These rocks represent a well-characterised segment of Permian lower continental crust with a protracted high-temperature history. Cathodoluminescence images reveal that zircons in the mid-amphibolite facies preserve mainly detrital cores with narrow overgrowths. In the upper amphibolite and granulite facies, preserved detrital cores decrease and metamorphic zircon increases in quantity. Across all samples we document a sequence of four rim generations based on textures. U-Pb dates, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-zircon concentrations show an essentially continuous evolution with increasing metamorphic grade, except in the samples from the granulite facies, which display significant scatter in age and chemistry. We associate the observed decoupling of zircon systematics in high-grade non-metamict zircon with disturbance processes related to differences in behaviour of non-formula elements (i.e. Pb, Th, U, Ti) at high-temperature conditions, notably differences in compatibility within the crystal structure.

  14. Dating the Indo-Asia collision in NW Himalaya: constraints from Sr-Nd isotopes and detrital zircon (U-Pb) and Hf isotopes of Paleogene-Neogene rocks in the Katawaz basin, NW Pakistan (United States)

    Zhuang, Guangsheng; Najman, Yani; Millar, Ian; Chauvel, Catherine; Guillot, Stephane; Carter, Andrew


    The time of collision between the Indian and Asian plates is key for understanding the convergence history and the impact on climatic systems and marine geochemistry. Despite much active research, the fundamental questions still remain elusive regarding when and where the Indian plate collided with the Asian plate. Especially in the west Himalaya, the questions become more complex due to disputes on the amalgamation history of interoceanic Kohistan-Ladakh arcs (KLA) with Karakoram of the Asian plate and the Indian plate. Here, we present a result of multiple-isotopic geochemistry and geochronology study in the Katawaz Basin in NW Pakistan, a remnant oceanic basin on the western Indian plate which was the repository for the sediments eroded from the west Himalaya ( Qayyum et al., 1996, 1997a, 1997b, 2001; Carter et al., 2010), to evaluate the time and character of collision in this region. In this study, we analyzed 22 bulk mudstone samples for Sr-Nd isotopes and 11 medium-grained sandstones for detrital zircon (U-Pb) geochronology and Hf isotopes. We constructed the Cenozoic chronology in the Katawaz Basin based on our newly collected detrital zircon U-Pb ages and fission track ages. We present the first record of Katawaz chronology that constrained the Khojak Formation to be current study revealed that the Katawaz sedimentary sequence ranges in age from Eocene to the earliest Miocene. The samples from the Nisai Formation show the 87Sr/86Sr - ɛNd values overlapping those of the end member of the Karakoram of Asian origin, revealing the arrival of Asian detritus on the Indian plate prior to 50 Ma. There are two parallel lines of evidence supporting this conclusion: (1) young zircon grains (Journal of the Geological Society 154, 753-756. Qayyum, M., Lawrence, R.D., Niem, A.R., 1997b. Molasse-Delta-flysch continuum of the Himalayan orogeny and closure of the Paleogene Katawaz Remnant Ocean, Pakistan. International geology review 39, 861-875. Qayyum, M., Niem, A

  15. Paleogeographic changes across the Pennsylvanian-Permian boundary within the Mid-Continent (USA) inferred from detrital zircon geochronology of continental deposits (United States)

    Soreghan, M. J.; Soreghan, G. S.


    The Permo-Pennsylvanian was characterized by intense orogenesis associated with Pangaean assembly, and profound climate shifts as earth transitioned from full icehouse conditions in the Pennsylvanian-early Permian to collapse into greenhouse conditions by latest Permian time. The modern U.S. Midcontinent was part of equatorial western Pangaea (North America) sandwiched between a continental-scale orogenic zone to the east and south (Appalachian-Ouachita-Marathon orogenic belt) and a series of basement-cored, intra-plate uplifts along western Pangaea (Ancestral Rocky Mountains). Here, we present a compilation of detrital zircon geochronology data from the Permo-Pennsylvanian of the Midcontinent as well as coeval strata of the east and west to explore sediment dispersal and potential tectonic and climatic influences on these provenance signatures. Zircon provenance data come from mostly eolian and fluvial silt- and sandstones of Early Pennsylvanian through Mid Permian age, although some data include marine sandstones. Our new data were acquired by LA-ICPMS at the University of Arizona Laserchron, and predominant age groups include >2500 Ma (Archean), 1600-1800 Ma (Yavapai-Matzatzal), 1300-900 Ma (Grenville), 790-570 Ma (Neoproterozoic), and 480-360 (E-M Paleozoic). However, the relative distributions of these populations exhibit distinctive temporal differences, especially across the Pennsylvanian-Permian boundary, but also spatially in comparison to published data from the Appalachian-Ouachita-Marathon basin, Ancestral Rocky Mountain basins, and the western Pangaean margin. Although the Central Pangaean Mountains, and in particular the Grenville-age basement rocks, were a dominant source of sediment to the Midcontinent, the data suggest an abrupt introduction of Neoproterozoic zircons in the early Permian. This signature also appears within the Ancestral Rocky Mountains region, but is rare along the western margin and the Appalachian basin in the early Permian. This

  16. Detrital thermochronology of Rhine, Elbe and Meuse river sediment (Central Europe): implications for provenance, erosion and mineral fertility (United States)

    Glotzbach, C.; Busschers, F. S.; Winsemann, J.


    Here we present detrital apatite fission track (AFT), zircon fission track (ZFT) and a few apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) data of Middle Pleistocene to modern Rhine, Meuse and Elbe river sediments in order to resolve processes that control detrital age distributions (provenance, erosion and mineral fertility). We used a modelling approach to compare observed with theoretically predicted age distributions from an interpolated in situ AFT and ZFT age map. In situ cooling ages do show large differences in the Rhine drainage basin, facilitating the differentiation between different source regions. Inconsistencies between observed and theoretical age distributions of the Meuse and Elbe samples can be explained by mixing and reworking of sediments with different provenances (Meuse Middle Pleistocene terrace sediment) and a yet unexplored source region with old AFT ages (Elbe samples). Overall, the results show that detrital thermochronology is capable of identifying the provenance of Middle Pleistocene to modern sediments. The AFT age distributions of Rhine sediments are dominated ( 70%) by AFT ages representing the Alps. A possible explanation is higher erosion rates in the Alps as compared to areas outside the Alps. A Late Pleistocene sample from the Upper Rhine Graben contains apatite grains from the Molasse and Hegau volcanics, which we explain with a shift of the headwaters of the Rhine to the north as a result of intense Middle Pleistocene Riss glaciation. Contrary to the observed dominance of Alpine-derived AFT ages in Rhine sediments, the relative contribution of zircon ages with sources in the Alps is lower and significantly decreases downstream, suggesting a major source of zircons outside the Alps. This can be explained by increased zircon fertility of sediments derived from the Rhenish massif. Therefore, we conclude that erosion and mineral fertility are the main processes controlling detrital AFT and ZFT age distributions of the sampled river sediment. In case of

  17. Evidence of early Archean crust in northwest Gondwana, from U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis of detrital zircon, in Ediacaran surpacrustal rocks of northern Spain (United States)

    Naidoo, Thanusha; Zimmermann, Udo; Vervoort, Jeff; Tait, Jenny


    The Mora Formation (Narcea Group) is one of the oldest Precambrian supracrustal successions in northern Spain. Here, we use U-Pb and in situ Hf isotope analysis on detrital zircon to determine its age and provenance. The youngest U-Pb dates constrain the maximum depositional age of the Mora Formation at 565 ± 11 Ma. Results indicate: (1) a dominant Ediacaran zircon population (33%; 565-633 Ma, Cadomian) within a spectrum of Neoproterozoic ages (40%; 636-996 Ma); and (2) smaller Mesoproterozoic (5%; 1004-1240 Ma), Palaeoproterozoic (11%; 1890-2476 Ma) and Archean (11%; 2519-3550 Ma) populations. Results here do not point to one specific cratonic source area; instead, detritus may have been derived from the West African craton and Amazonia, or even the concealed Iberian basement. The lack of 1.3-1.8 Ga grains suggests exclusion of the Sahara Craton as a major source, but this is not certain. This mixed composition favours a complex source history with reworking of detritus across terrane/craton boundaries. Hafnium isotope compositions indicate a range of crustal and juvenile sources, with initial ɛHf values between -15.8 and 11.1, and Hf model ages from 0.8 to 3.7 Ga. For Neoproterozoic zircons (80%), juvenile components (ɛHf(i) +10) may be related to Rodinia fragmentation and the onset of an active margin setting leading to the Cadomian orogeny. Palaeoproterozoic to Paleoarchean grains (20%) all have negative ɛHf values and Meso- to Eoarchean Hf model ages. This indicates an early (Archean) sialic crustal component for northwestern Gondwana.

  18. U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis of detrital zircons from Mesozoic strata of the Gravina belt, southeast Alaska (United States)

    Yokelson, Intan; Gehrels, George E.; Pecha, Mark; Giesler, Dominique; White, Chelsi; McClelland, William C.


    The Gravina belt consists of Upper Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous marine clastic strata and mafic-intermediate volcanic rocks that occur along the western flank of the Coast Mountains in southeast Alaska and coastal British Columbia. This report presents U-Pb ages and Hf isotope determinations of detrital zircons that have been recovered from samples collected from various stratigraphic levels and from along the length of the belt. The results support previous interpretations that strata in the western portion of the Gravina belt accumulated along the inboard margin of the Alexander-Wrangellia terrane and in a back-arc position with respect to the western Coast Mountains batholith. Our results are also consistent with previous suggestions that eastern strata accumulated along the western margin of the inboard Stikine, Yukon-Tanana, and Taku terranes and in a fore-arc position with respect to the eastern Coast Mountains batholith. The history of juxtaposition of western and eastern assemblages is obscured by subsequent plutonism, deformation, and metamorphism within the Coast Mountains orogen, but may have occurred along an Early Cretaceous sinistral transform system. Our results are inconsistent with models in which an east-facing subduction zone existed along the inboard margin of the Alexander-Wrangellia terrane during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time.

  19. A comparative study of detrital zircon ages from river sediment and rocks of the Karoo Supergroup (Late Carboniferous to Jurassic), Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Gondwanaland’s southern continental margin



    M.Sc. (Geology) The Mzimvubu River, situated in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, drains essentially strata of the Late Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup with minor intersection of the underlying Devonian Msikaba Formation near the mouth of the river at Port St. Johns. Rock- and river sediment samples were collected at specific points from within the Mzimvubu River drainage basin, based on changes in the geology through which the rivers flow. Detrital zircon age populatio...

  20. Late Permian rivers draining the uplifted Cape Fold Belt: magnetostratigraphy and detrital thermochronology of Karoo Basin sediments (United States)

    Tohver, E.; Schmieder, M.; Arosio, R.; Lanci, L.; Jourdan, F.; Wilson, A.; Ratcliffe, K.; Payenberg, T.; Flint, S.


    The Cape Fold Belt and Karoo Basin of southern Africa formed during the Permian orogeny that affected the 13,000 km southern margin of the Gondwanan continent. In this report, we synthesize new and recent magnetostratigraphic and geochronologic data to establish a chronostratigraphic framework for Karoo Basin sedimentation for comparison with the thermal/exhumation history of the Cape Fold Belt. The source-sink model is evaluated using new data from detrital muscovite and zircon from 2 km composite section of fluvial sandstone and mudstones deposited at ca.275 - 260 Ma. Coherent age populations of detrital zircon grains indicate rapid incorporation of contemporary volcanic ashbeds into the sedimentary record. In contrast, cooling age distributions of detrital muscovite are typically ca. 5 - 10 Ma older than the age of deposition; similar lag times are observed from modern sediments in active mountain belts. Trace element geochemical signatures demonstrate a clear shift towards crustal recycling via headland erosion in the Beaufort Group relative to the underlying Ecca Group. These observations pinpoint the age of uplift for the Cape Fold Belt, which began to function as the major sediment source for the foreland Karoo Basin with the deposition of the uppermost Ecca Group and basal Beaufort Group.

  1. U–Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high‐pressure/ low‐temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori : tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.


    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U–Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite–Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds

  2. Primary Data on U/Pb-Isotope Ages and Lu/Hf-Isotope Geochemical Systematization of Detrital Zircons from the Lopatinskii Formation (Vendian-Cambrian Transition Levels) and the Tectonic Nature of Teya-Chapa Depression (Northeastern Yenisei Ridge) (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. B.; Priyatkina, N. S.; Rud'ko, S. V.; Shatsillo, A. V.; Collins, W. J.; Romanyuk, T. V.


    The main results are presented on U/Pb-isotope dating of 100 detrital zircons and, selectively, on the Lu/Hf-isotope system of 43 grains from sandstones of the Lopatinskii formation (the lower stratigraphic level of the Chingasan group). Ages from 896 ± 51 to 2925 ± 38 Ma were obtained with a pronounced maximum of 1890 Ma in the curve of probability density, along with ɛHf estimates from +8.4 to-15.1, which allow one to throw doubt upon the molasse nature of the Lopatinskii formation.

  3. Transformations to granular zircon revealed: Twinning, reidite, and ZrO2 in shocked zircon from Meteor Crater (Arizona, USA) (United States)

    Cavosie, Aaron; Timms, Nicholas E.; Erickson, Timmons M.; Hagerty, Justin J.; Hörz, Friedrich


    Granular zircon in impact environments has long been recognized but remains poorly understood due to lack of experimental data to identify mechanisms involved in its genesis. Meteor Crater in Arizona (United States) contains abundant evidence of shock metamorphism, including shocked quartz, the high pressure polymorphs coesite and stishovite, diaplectic SiO2 glass, and lechatelierite (fused SiO2). Here we report the presence of granular zircon, a new shocked mineral discovery at Meteor Crater, that preserve critical orientation evidence of specific transformations that occurred during its formation at extreme impact conditions. The zircon grains occur as aggregates of sub-µm neoblasts in highly shocked Coconino Formation Sandstone (CFS) comprised of lechatelierite. Electron backscatter diffraction shows that each grain consists of multiple domains, some with boundaries disoriented by 65°, a known {112} shock-twin orientation. Other domains have crystallographic c-axes in alignment with {110} of neighboring domains, consistent with the former presence of the high pressure ZrSiO4 polymorph reidite. Additionally, nearly all zircon preserve ZrO2 + SiO2, providing evidence of partial dissociation. The genesis of CFS granular zircon started with detrital zircon that experienced shock-twinning and reidite formation from 20 to 30 GPa, ultimately yielding a phase that retained crystallographic memory; this phase subsequently recrystallized to systematically oriented zircon neoblasts, and in some areas partially dissociated to ZrO2. The lechatelierite matrix, experimentally constrained to form at >2000 °C, provided an ultra high-temperature environment for zircon dissociation (~1670 °C) and neoblast formation. The capacity of granular zircon to preserve a cumulative P-T record has not been recognized previously, and provides a new method for retrieving histories of impact-related mineral transformations in the crust at conditions far beyond which most rocks melt.

  4. Provenance of detrital zircons from the Ribeira and Dom Feliciano Belts, comparison with African equivalents and implications on western Gondwana amalgamation. Geological Society of London-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Frimmel, H.E.; Nutman, A.P.; Preciozzi, F.


    The geologic make-up of southern Brazil has been defined by processes related to the Brasiliano orogenic cycle and, in particular, to con tractional tectonic events that led to the amalgamation of different terranes, which culminated in the formation of Western Gondwana (Campos Neto and Figueiredo, 1995; Brito Neves and Cordani,1991; Brito Neves et al, 1999, Campos Neto, 2000). Polycyclic deformation and metamorphism that masked the characteristics, including the age records, of the protoliths were associated with the juxtaposition of these different terranes. Ophiolitic remains and magmatic arc roots signal the existence of fossil subduction and collision zones, whereas intense post-tectonic to an orogenic granitic magmatism marks the end of the orogenic cycle towards the end of the Neoproterozoic Era. U-Pb dating of domains within single zircon grains has proven to be a very powerful tool for the unraveling of the complex tecto no-thermal evolution as well as in characterizing the provenance of the original sediments. This is due to the high resistance to weathering and to high closure temperatures with respect to the U-Pb isotope system in zircon. Over the past decade, the standard technique for this analytical approach has become the analyses of U-Pb isotope ratios by SHRIMP,preceded by cathodoluminescence analysis (McClaren et al 1994). In this study, a set of 11 new SHRIMP analyses on detrital zircon grains from the major metasedimentary units of the Ribeira and Dom Feliciano Belts of the southeastern portion of South America is presented and the data are compared with available analyses for the Gariep Belt (Basei et al. 2005) and a new analysis for the Damara Belt. Combined with available Sm-Nd bulk rock isotope data, the results will form the basis for a revised tectonic model for the formation of Western Gondwana

  5. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.


    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  6. Provenance and detrital zircon geochronologic evolution of lower Brookian foreland basin deposits of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, and implications for early Brookian tectonism (United States)

    Moore, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Potter, Christopher J.; Donelick, Raymond A.


    The Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part of the Brookian sequence of northern Alaska consists of syntectonic deposits shed from the north-directed, early Brookian orogenic belt. We employ sandstone petrography, detrital zircon U-Pb age analysis, and zircon fission-track double-dating methods to investigate these deposits in a succession of thin regional thrust sheets in the western Brooks Range and in the adjacent Colville foreland basin to determine sediment provenance, sedimentary dispersal patterns, and to reconstruct the evolution of the Brookian orogen. The oldest and structurally highest deposits are allochthonous Upper Jurassic volcanic arc–derived sandstones that rest on accreted ophiolitic and/or subduction assemblage mafic igneous rocks. These strata contain a nearly unimodal Late Jurassic zircon population and are interpreted to be a fragment of a forearc basin that was emplaced onto the Brooks Range during arc-continent collision. Synorogenic deposits found at structurally lower levels contain decreasing amounts of ophiolite and arc debris, Jurassic zircons, and increasing amounts of continentally derived sedimentary detritus accompanied by broadly distributed late Paleozoic and Triassic (359–200 Ma), early Paleozoic (542–359 Ma), and Paleoproterozoic (2000–1750 Ma) zircon populations. The zircon populations display fission-track evidence of cooling during the Brookian event and evidence of an earlier episode of cooling in the late Paleozoic and Triassic. Surprisingly, there is little evidence for erosion of the continental basement of Arctic Alaska, its Paleozoic sedimentary cover, or its hinterland metamorphic rocks in early foreland basin strata at any structural and/or stratigraphic level in the western Brooks Range. Detritus from exhumation of these sources did not arrive in the foreland basin until the middle or late Albian in the central part of the Colville Basin.These observations indicate that two primary provenance areas provided

  7. Are there impact-formed zircons in the Hadean record? (United States)

    Wielicki, M. M.; Lu, X.; Bell, E. A.; Schmitt, A. K.; Harrison, T. M.


    Detrital Hadean zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, show a remarkable cluster of crystallization temperatures at 680±25°C. This is particularly surprising as a simple model relating rock composition and Zr concentration predicts that a very broad spectrum of crystallization temperatures (ca. 650°C to 1000°C) with a median value of 780°C, would result from impact melting of the Earth's surface. Magmatic fractionation would tend to increase the aforementioned values. Given the predicted high rate of impacts during the Hadean, the absence of such a population in the Jack Hills zircons could signal a profound sampling problem, a hint of a history much different than previously supposed, or our lack of understanding of zircon formation due to impact related processes. We have begun to examine the latter issue by investigating the crystallization temperatures of zircons formed in melt sheets preserved in the geologic record. The Sudbury Igneous Complex, formed at 1850±3 Ma within the second largest impact crater on Earth, includes two igneous units termed the Black and Felsic Norites. Examination of zircons from each by SIMS confirms their crystallization age at 1847.3±2.2 Ma and yields Ti-in-zircon temperatures of 720°C and 750°C, respectively. This is consistent with that predicted from zircon saturation systematics. A statistical test indicates that the combined norite population is distinct from the Hadean temperature distribution. Thus the question arises: where are the Hadean zircons expected to have formed at >780°C via impact processes? Similar analysis is being pursued for zircons from the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa, which should provide further information on impact-formed zircon temperature spectra.

  8. U-Pbdating on detrital zircon and Nd and Hf isotopes related to the provenance of siliciclastic rocks of the Amazon Basin: Implications for the origin of Proto-Amazonas River (United States)

    Dantas, Elton Luiz; Silva Souza, Valmir; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira Cruz, Lucieth; Mendes Conceição, Anderson


    Previous provenance studies along the Amazonas river have demonstrated that the Amazon drainage basin has been reorganized since the Late Cretaceous with the uplift of the Andes and the establishment of the transcontinental Amazon fluvial system from Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene (Hoorn et al., 1995; Potter, 1997, Wesselingh et al., 2002; Figueiredo et al. 2009, Campbell et al., 2006, Nogueira et al. 2013).There is a lack of data from Eastern and Central Amazonia and only limited core data from the Continental Platform near to current Amazonas river mouth. Central Amazonia is strategic to unveil the origin of Amazonas River because it represents the region where the connection of the Solimões and Amazonas basin can be studied through time (Nogueira et al. 2013). Also, there is a shortage of information on the old Precambrian and Paleozoic sediment sources relative to Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Solimões and Amazonas basins. We collected stratigraphic data, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Nd and Hf isotopes from Precambrian, Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Northwestern border of Amazonas Basin. They are exposed in the Presidente Figueiredo region and in the scarps of Amazon River, and occur to the east of the Purus Arch. This Northwest-Southeast trending structural feature that divides the Solimões and Amazonas basin was active at various times since the Paleozoic. Detrital zircon ages for the Neoproterozoic Prosperança Formation yielded a complex signature, with different populations of Neoproterozoic (550, 630 and 800 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic to Archean sources (1.6, 2.1 and 2.6 Ga). Also Nd and Hf isotopes show two groups of TDM model ages between 1.4 to 1.53 Ga and 2.2 and 3.1 Ga. Sediments typical of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Nhamundá and Manacapuru Formations revealed NdTDM model ages of 1.7, 2.2 and 2.7 Ga, but Hf isotopes and U-Pb zircon ages are more varied. They characterize a

  9. Integrated Laser Ablation U/Pb and (U-Th)/He Dating of Detrital Accessory Minerals from the Naryani River, Central Nepal (United States)

    Horne, A.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.


    The newly developed 'laser ablation double dating' (LADD) technique, an integrated laser microprobe U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating method, could be an exceptionally valuable tool in detrital thermochronology for identifying sedimentary provenance and evaluating the exhumation history of a source region. A recent proof-of-concept study has used LADD to successfully date both zircon and titanite crystals from the well-characterized Fish Canyon tuff, but we also believe that another accessory mineral, rutile, could be amenable to dating via the LADD technique. To continue the development of the method, we present an application of LADD to detrital zircon, titanite, and rutile from a sample collected on the lower Naryani River of central Nepal. Preliminary analyses of the sample have yielded zircon U/Pb dates ranging from 31.4 to 2405 Ma; zircon (U-Th)/He from 1.8 to 15.4 Ma; titanite U/Pb between 18 and 110 Ma; titanite (U-Th)/He between 1 and 16 Ma; rutile U/Pb from 6 to 45 Ma; and rutile (U-Th)/He from 2 to 25 Ma. In addition to the initial data, we can use Ti-in-zircon, Zr-in-titanite, and Zr-in-rutile thermometers to determine the range of possible long-term cooling rates from grains with U/Pb ages younger than collision. Thus far our results from zircon analyses imply a cooling rate of approximately 15°C/Myr; titanite analyses imply between 10 and 67°C/Myr; and rutile between 9 and 267°C/Myr. This spread in potential cooling rates, especially in the order of magnitude differences of cooling rates calculated from the rutile grains, suggests that the hinterland source regions of the Naryani river experienced dramatically different exhumation histories during Himalayan orogenisis. Ongoing analyses will expand the dataset such that we can more adequately characterize the range of possibilities represented in the sample.

  10. Excess hafnium-176 in meteorites and the early Earth zircon record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Connelly, James; Thrane, Kristine


    The long-lived Lu-to- Hf decay system is a powerful tool to understand ancient chemical fractionation events associated with planetary differentiation. Detrital Hadean zircons (>3.8 Gyr) from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt of Western Australia record extremely enriched Hf-isotope signals sug...... crust prior to ~4.4 Gyr. This new view suggests continuous juvenile crustal growth and recycling throughout the Hadean and Archean eras, perhaps analogous to modern plate tectonics....

  11. Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust (United States)

    Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kita, Noriko T.; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Valley, John W.


    In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios ( δ7Li = - 19 to + 13‰) about five times more variable than those recorded in primitive ocean floor basalts (2 to 8‰), but similar to continental crust and its weathering products. Values of δ7Li below - 10‰ are found in zircons that formed as early as 4300 Ma. The high Li compositions indicate that primitive magmas were not the source of Jack Hills zircons and the fractionated values of δ7Li suggest that highly weathered regolith was sampled by these early Archean magmas. These new Li data provide evidence that the parent magmas of ancient zircons from Jack Hills incorporated materials from the surface of the Earth that interacted at low temperature with liquid water. These data support the hypothesis that continental-type crust and oceans existed by 4300 Ma, within 250 million years of the formation of Earth and the low values of δ7Li suggest that weathering was extensive in the early Archean.

  12. New Zircon U-Pb Age Constrain of the Origin of Devil's River Uplift (SW Texas) and Insights into the Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic Evolution of the Southern Margin of Laurentia (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Dickerson, P. W.; Stockli, D. F.


    The Devils River Uplift (DRU) in SW Texas records the evolution of the southern Laurentian margin from Grenvillian orogenesis and assembly of Rodinia, to its fragmentation by rifting, and to the amalgamation of Pangaea. It was cored by a well (Shell No. 1 Stewart), penetrating Precambrian gneisses and Cambrian metasediments and sandstones. New zircon LA-ICP-MS data from a total of 10 samples elucidate the crystallization and depositional ages, as well as the detrital provenance, of Precambrian and Cambrian rocks from the DRU. Zircons from five Precambrian crystalline basement samples (6000-9693') yield uniform U-Pb crystallization ages of 1230 Ma that are similar to ages for young gneisses of the Valley Spring Domain (Llano uplift) in central Texas, where they mark the cessation of arc magmatism within the Grenville orogenic belt. The 1230 Ma igneous basement is overlain by L.-M. Cambrian metasedimentary rocks ( 4000-6000') with maximum depositional ages of 533-545 Ma. Detrital zircons from Cambrian strata are dominated by a 1070-1080 Ma population, likely derived from basement units exposed in Texas (Llano uplift, Franklin Mts.), with minor contributions from local 1230 Ma Precambrian basement and the 1380-1500 Ma Granite Rhyolite Province. The L.-M. Cambrian interval is dominated (>80%) by Neoproterozoic detrital magmatic zircons with two major distinct age clusters at 570-700 Ma and 780-820 Ma, supporting a two-stage Rodinia rift model and providing strong evidence for major Cryogenian-Eocambrian intraplate magmatism along the southern margin of Rodinia. Moreover, detrital zircon signatures for L.-M. and U. Cambrian strata strongly correlate with those from the Cuyania terrane of W. Argentina - notably the W. Sierras Pampeanas (Sa. Pie de Palo, Sa. de Maz): 1230 Ma from metasandstones (PdP); 1081-1038 Ma from metasiliciclastics (PdP, SdM); Cryogenian-Eocambrian [774 & 570 Ma] plutons (SdM, PdP). In summary, these new zircon U-Pb data from DRU in SW Texas show

  13. Zircon evidence for incorporation of terrigenous sediments into the magma source of continental basalts. (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu


    Crustal components may be incorporated into continental basalts by either shallow contamination or deep mixing. While the former proceeds at crustal depths with common preservation of refractory minerals, the latter occurs at mantle depths with rare survival of relict minerals. Discrimination between the two mechanisms has great bearing to subcontinental mantle geochemistry. Here we report the occurrence of relict zircons in Cenozoic continental basalts from eastern China. A combined study of zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry indicates that detrital zircons were carried by terrigenous sediments into a subcontinental subduction zone, where the zircon were transferred by fluids into the magma sources of continental basalts. The basalts were sampled from three petrotectonic units with distinct differences in their magmatic and metamorphic ages, making the crustal contamination discernible. The terrigenous sediments were carried by the subducting oceanic crust into the asthenospheric mantle, producing both soluble and insoluble materials at the slab-mantle interface. These materials were served as metasomatic agents to react with the overlying mantle wedge peridotite, generating a kind of ultramafic metasomatites that contain the relict zircons. Therefore, the occurrence of relict zircons in continental basalts indicates that this refractory mineral can survive extreme temperature-pressure conditions in the asthenospheric mantle.

  14. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies: Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen P. Nutman


    Full Text Available A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite siliceous rocks – known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880–3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthogneisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7% and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%, as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%, with domains with apatite habit now occupied by intergrowths of muscovite + quartz ± Fe-oxides ± baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays ± silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%, but with petrographic

  15. Cenozoic exhumation and tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range, northern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the heavy mineral compositions, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and seismic interpretations (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Wu, C.; Wang, J.; Zhou, T.; Zhang, C.; Li, J.


    The Qaidam Basin is the largest intermountain basin within the Tibetan Plateau. The Cenozoic sedimentary flling characteristics of the basin was significantly influenced by the surrounding tectonic belt, such as the Altyn Tagh Range to the north-west and Qimen Tagh Range to the south. The tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range and the structural relationship between the Qaidam Basin and Qimen Tagh Range remain controversial. To address these issues, we analyzed thousands of heavy mineral data, 720 detrital zircon ages and seismic data of the Qaidam Basin. Based on the regional geological framework and our kinematic analyses, the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range can be divided into two stages. From the Early Eocene to the Middle Miocene, the Devonian (400-360 Ma) and Permian to Triassic (300-200 Ma) zircons which were sourced from the Qimen Tagh Range and the heavy mineral assemblage of zircon-leucoxene-garnet-sphene on the north flank of the Qimen Tagh Range indicated that the Qimen Tagh Range has been exhumed before the Eocene and acted as the primary provenance of the Qaidam Basin. The Kunbei fault system (i.e. the Kunbei, Arlar and Hongliuquan faults) in the southwest of the Qaidam Basin, which can be seen as a natural study window of the Qimen Tagh Range, was characterized by left-lateral strike-slip faults and weak south-dipping thrust faults based on the seismic sections. This strike-slip motion was generated by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau caused by the onset of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Since the Middle Miocene, the primary mineral assemblages along the northern flank of the Qimen Tagh Range changed from the zircon-leucoxene-garnet-sphene assemblage to the epidote-hornblende-garnet-leucoxene assemblage. Simultaneously, the Kunbei fault system underwent intense south-dipping thrusting, and a nearly 2.2-km uplift can be observed in the hanging wall of the Arlar fault. We attributed these variations to the rapid uplift event of

  16. Reworked Middle Jurassic sandstones as a marker for Upper Cretaceous basin inversion in Central Europe—a case study for the U-Pb detrital zircon record of the Upper Cretaceous Schmilka section and their implication for the sedimentary cover of the Lausitz Block (Saxony, Germany) (United States)

    Hofmann, Mandy; Voigt, Thomas; Bittner, Lucas; Gärtner, Andreas; Zieger, Johannes; Linnemann, Ulf


    The Saxonian-Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Elbsandsteingebirge, E Germany and Czech Republic, Elbtal Group) comprises Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks from Upper Cenomanian to Santonian age. These sandstones were deposited in a narrow strait of the sea linking the northern Boreal shelf to the southern Tethyan areas. They were situated between the West Sudetic Island in the north and the Mid-European Island in the south. As known by former studies (e.g. Tröger, Geologie 6/7:717-730, 1964; Tröger, Geologie von Sachsen, Schweizerbart, 311-358, 2008; Voigt and Tröger, Proceedings of the 4th International Cretaceous Symposium, 275-290, 1996; Voigt, Dissertation, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 1-130, 1995; Voigt, Zeitschrift der geologischen Wissenschaften 37(1-2): 15-39, 2009; Wilmsen et al., Freiberger Forschungshefte C540: 27-45, 2011) the main sedimentary input came from the north (Lausitz Block, southern West-Sudetic Island). A section of Turonian to Coniacian sandstones was sampled in the Elbsandsteingebirge near Schmilka (Elbtal Group, Saxony, Germany). The samples were analysed for their U-Pb age record of detrital zircon using LA-ICP-MS techniques. The results show main age clusters typical for the Bohemian Massif (local material) and are interpreted to reflect the erosion of uniform quartz-dominated sediments and basement rocks. Surprisingly, these rocks lack an expected Upper Proterozoic to Lower Palaeozoic age peak, which would be typical for the basement of the adjacent Lausitz Block (c. 540-c. 560 Ma). Therefore, the Lausitz Block basement must have been covered by younger sediments that acted as source rocks during deposition of the Elbtal Group. The sandstones of the Elbe valley (Elbtal Group, Schmilka section) represent the re-deposited sedimentary cover of the Lausitz Block in inverse order. This cover comprised Permian, Triassic, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits, which are eroded already today and cannot be investigated. Within the samples of the

  17. U-Pb detrital zircon ages of the upper metasedimentary sequences in the region of the Guarinos Greenstone Belt, Goiás, Brazil; Idades U-Pb de zircão detrítico da sequência metassedimentar superior na região do Greenstone Belt de Guarinos, Goiás

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    Silva, Alex Joaquim Choupina Andrade; Simões, Luiz Sérgio Amarante, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geociências e Meio Ambiente


    At the north portion of the Archean Block of Goiás occur two greenstone belts (Guarinos and Pilar de Goiás) covered by a younger meta sedimentary sequence, attributed by different authors to the Araxá Group and by other to the Serra da Mesa/Serra Dourada and, by other writers, simply as Mesoproterozoic Sequence. Although there are lithostratigraphic similarities between the Araxá and Serra da Mesa groups, most recent studies have shown that the evolution of basins and their sedimentation ages have peculiarities that differentiate one from the other. This work presents geochronological data of U-Pb on detrital zircon grains obtained by laser ablation method (LA-MC-ICP-MS) in quartzite samples. The youngest zircon has the age of 1405 ± 10 Ma, marking the maximum depositional age and indicating source area. The samples have a higher frequency of Paleoproterozoic zircons, between 1796 and 2472 Ma and the oldest populations of mesoneoarchean age between 2672 and 3112 Ma. Whereas the Paleoproterozoic to Archean zircons can be derived from the rocks that form the Archean Block of Goiás, the mesoproterozoic source is still uncertain, perhaps this source can be related to the Goiás Tin Province rocks. (author)

  18. Investigating high zircon concentrations in the fine fraction of stream sediments draining the Pan-African Dahomeyan Terrane in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, Roger M.; Johnson, Christopher C.; Horstwood, Matthew S.A.; Lapworth, Dan J.; Knights, Katherine V.; Kemp, Simon J.; Watts, Michael; Gillespie, Martin; Adekanmi, Michael; Arisekola, Tunde


    Sixteen hundred stream sediments (<150 μm fraction) collected during regional geochemical surveys in central and SW Nigeria have high median and maximum concentrations of Zr that exceed corresponding Zr concentrations found in stream sediments collected from elsewhere in the World with similar bedrock geology. X-ray diffraction studies on a sub-set of the analysed stream sediments showed that Zr is predominantly found in detrital zircon grains. However, the main proximal source rocks (Pan-African ‘Older Granites’ of Nigeria and their Proterozoic migmatitic gneiss country rocks) are not enriched in zircon (or Zr). Nevertheless, U–Pb LA-ICP-MS dating with cathodoluminescence imaging on detrital zircons, both from stream sediment samples and underlying Pan-African ‘Older Granites’ confirms a local bedrock source for the stream sediment zircons. A combination of tropical/chemical weathering and continuous physical weathering, both by ‘wet season’ flash flooding and ‘dry season’ unidirectional winds are interpreted to have effectively broken down bedrock silicate minerals and removed much of the resultant clay phases, thereby increasing the Zr contents in stream sediments. The strong correlation between winnowing index (Th/Al) and Zr concentration across the study area support this interpretation. Therefore, ‘anomalous’ high values of Zr, as well as other elements concentrated in resistant ‘heavy’ minerals in Nigeria’s streams may not reflect proximal bedrock concentrations of these elements. This conclusion has important implications for using stream sediment chemistry as an exploration tool in Nigeria for primary metal deposits associated with heavy minerals.

  19. Zircon dating of Devonian-Carboniferous rocks from the Bombala area, New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircombe, K.N.; McQueen, K.G.


    Zircons from two igneous and two sedimentary units in the Bombala area of southeastern New South Wales have been examined by the sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) to establish a time frame in which to interpret these rocks. Previous studies have correlated these rocks with Late Devonian units of the south coast, solely upon the basis of stratigraphy and lithology as palaeontological evidence was absent. The two igneous units are the Hospital Porphyry and Paradise Porphyry occurring beneath the sedimentary units. Both give a Frasnian age that can be correlated with the Boyd Volcanic Complex. The sedimentary samples are from the basal and upper sections of the Rosemeath Formation, a fluvial 'redbed' consisting of conglomerate, coarse sandstone, and associated red siltstone and mudstone. Detrital zircons from the basal conglomeratic section at Kilbrechin indicate a dominant provenance from local Silurian granites and volcanics and a maximum depositional age that can be correlated with the Frasnian-Famennian Merrimbula Group. However, detrital zircons from the upper coarse sandstone section of the Rosemeath Formation at Endeavour Lookout challenge the positive correlation trend with a lack of Silurian-age grains and a presence of grains ranging from Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous in age. These results imply either that the south coast correlation is not valid for the upper sequences, or that the Merrimbula Group sequences also extend upward into the Carboniferous. The general coarseness of the Rosemeath Formation also suggests a relatively local provenance. No Early Carboniferous source is known in the immediate vicinity suggesting that Early Carboniferous igneous activity in this region of the Lachlan Orogen may have been more extensive than is currently realised. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  20. Characterization of inclusions in terrestrial impact formed zircon: Constraining the formation conditions of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia (United States)

    Faltys, J. P.; Wielicki, M. M.; Sizemore, T. M.


    Due to the discovery and subsequent geochemical analysis of Hadean terrestrial material (e.g. detrital zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia), a dramatic paradigm shift has occurred in the hypothesized near surface conditions of the first 500 million years of Earth's evolution. From a hellish setting riddled with impactors and not fit for life to a much milder environment that may have been uniquely suitable for the origin of life. Geochemical analyses of these ancient materials have been used to suggest the presence of water at or near the surface as well as the existence of continental crust during the Hadean, both of which have been suggested as necessary for the origin of life. However, the intensity of extraterrestrial bombardment during the Hadean and the effects of such events on the origin of life remains poorly understood. Clearly, as evidenced by Phanerozoic impact events, extraterrestrial impactors have the potential to dramatically effect the environment, particularly the biosphere. Early Earth likely experienced multiple large impact events, as evidenced by the lunar record, however whether those impacts were sufficient to frustrate the origin of life remains an open question. Although multiple lines of evidence, including the inclusion population, suggest the formation of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills as crystallizing in an under-thrust environment from S-type magmas, a recent study has suggested their formation in an impact melt environment analogous to a portion of the Sudbury Igneous Complex at the Sudbury impact structure. To determine between these two formation scenarios we have under-taken an inclusion study of terrestrial impact formed zircon from four of the largest terrestrial impact structures (Sudbury, Canada; Manicouagan, Canada; Vredefort, South Africa; Morokweng, South Africa), to compare to the vast inclusion dataset that exists for Jack Hills zircon. Preliminary data suggests a different inclusion population, from Hadean zircon

  1. Precambrian-Cambrian provenance of Matinde Formation, Karoo Supergroup, northwestern Mozambique, constrained from detrital zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotope data (United States)

    Bicca, Marcos Müller; Jelinek, Andrea Ritter; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; de Carvalho Lana, Cristiano; Alkmim, Ana Ramalho


    The Permian-Triassic time interval was a period of high sedimentation rates in the intracontinental Karoo rift basin of northwestern Mozambique, reflecting high exhumation rates in the surrounding high ground Precambrian-Cambrian basement and juxtaposed nappes. U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS dating and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons from the Late Permian-Early Triassic Matinde Formation of the Karoo Supergroup is used as a reliable proxy to map denudation patterns of source regions. Data allow discrimination of U-Pb age populations of ca. 1250-900 Ma, a secondary population between ca. 900-700 and a major contribution of ages around ca. 700-490 Ma. Zircon grains of the Mesoproterozoic age population present Mesoproterozoic (1000-1500 Ma) to Paleoproterozoic (1800-2300 Ma) Hf TDM ages, with positive (0 to +11) and negative εHf values (-3 to -15), respectively. The younger U-Pb age population also presents two different groups of zircon grains according to Lu-Hf isotopes. The first group comprise Paleoproterozoic (1800-2300 Ma) ages, with highly negative εHf values, between -10 and -22, and the second group exhibits Mesoproterozoic ages (1200-1500 Ma), with increased juvenile εHf values (ca. 0 to -5). These Hf isotopes reinforce the presence of unexposed ancient crust in this region. The oldest U-Pb age population resembles the late stages of Grenville Orogeny and the Rodinia Supercontinent geotectonic activity mostly represented by magmatic rocks, which are widely present in the basement of northern Mozambique. The juvenile Hf-isotope signature with an older age component is associated to rocks generated from subduction processes with crust assimilation by continental arcs, which we correlate to rocks of the Nampula Complex, south and east of the Moatize-Minjova Basin. The U-Pb ages between 900 and 700 Ma were correlated to the calc-alkaline magmatism registered in the Guro Suite, related to the breakup phase of Rodinia, and mark the western limit of the Moatize

  2. Permian arc evolution associated with Panthalassa subduction along the eastern margin of the South China block, based on sandstone provenance and U-Pb detrital zircon ages of the Kurosegawa belt, Southwest Japan (United States)

    Hara, Hidetoshi; Hirano, Miho; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Toshiro; Ueda, Hayato


    We have studied the petrography, geochemistry, and detrital zircon U-Pb ages of sandstones from shallow-marine forearc sediments, accretionary complexes (ACs), and metamorphosed accretionary complexes (Meta-ACs) within the Kurosegawa belt of Southwest Japan. Those rocks formed in a forearc region of a Permian island arc associated with subduction of the Panthalassa oceanic crust along the eastern margin of the South China block (Yangtze block). The provenance of the shallow-marine sediments was dominated by basaltic to andesitic volcanic rocks and minor granitic rocks during the late Middle to Late Permian. The ACs were derived from felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks during the Late Permian. The provenance of Meta-ACs was dominated by andesitic volcanic rocks in the Middle Permian. The provenance, source rock compositions, and zircon age distribution for the forearc sediments, ACs and Meta-ACs have allowed us to reconstruct the geological history of the Permian arc system of the Kurosegawa belt. During the Middle Permian, the ACs were accreted along the eastern margin of the South China block. The Middle Permian arc was an immature oceanic island arc consisting of andesitic volcanic rocks. During the Late Permian, the ACs formed in a mature arc, producing voluminous felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks. A forearc basin developed during the late Middle to Late Permian. Subsequently, the Middle Permian ACs and part of the Late Permian AC underwent low-grade metamorphism in the Late to Early Jurassic, presenting the Meta-ACs.

  3. Faulting and erosion in the Argentine Precordillera during changes in subduction regime: Reconciling bedrock cooling and detrital records (United States)

    Fosdick, Julie C.; Carrapa, Barbara; Ortíz, Gustavo


    The Argentine Precordillera is an archetypal retroarc fold-and-thrust belt that records tectonics associated with changing subduction regimes. The interactions between exhumation and faulting in the Precordillera were investigated using apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry from the Precordillera and adjacent geologic domains. Inverse modeling of thermal histories constrains eastward in-sequence rock cooling associated with deformation and erosion from 18 to 2 Ma across the Central Precordillera tracking thrusting during this time. The youngest AHe ages (5-2 Ma) and highest erosion rates are located in the eastern and western extremities of the Precordillera and indicate that recent denudation is concentrated at its structural boundaries. Moreover, synchronous rapid Pliocene cooling of the Frontal Cordillera, Eastern Precordillera, and Sierra del Valle Fértil was coeval with initiation of basement-involved faulting in the foreland. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from the ca. 16-8.1 Ma Bermejo foreland basin strata suggests fluvial connectivity westward beyond the Frontal Cordillera to the Main Cordillera and Coast Range followed by an important shift in sediment provenance at ca. 10 Ma. At this time, we suggest that a substantial decrease in Permo-Triassic igneous sources in the Frontal Cordillera and concurrent increase in recycled zircons signatures of Paleozoic strata are best explained by uplift and erosion of the Precordillera during widening of the thrust-belt. Bedrock thermochronology and modeling indicate a 2-6 Myr lag time between faulting-related cooling in the hinterland and the detrital record of deformation in the foreland basin, suggesting that for tectonically active semi-arid settings, bedrock cooling may be more sensitive to onset of faulting. We suggest that high erosion rates in the Frontal Cordillera and Eastern Precordillera are associated with increased interplate coupling during shallowing of the

  4. Paleoproterozoic mojaveprovince in northwestern Mexico? Isotopic and U-Pb zircon geochronologic studies of precambrian and Cambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Caborca, Sonora (United States)

    Lang, Farmer G.; Bowring, S.A.; Matzel, J.; Maldonado, G.E.; Fedo, C.; Wooden, J.


    Whole-rock Nd isotopic data and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Caborca area, northern Sonora, reveal that these rocks are most likely a segment of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Supporting this conclusion are the observations that paragneiss from the ??? 1.75 Ga Bamori Complex has a 2.4 Ga Nd model age and contains detrital zircons ranging in age from Paleo- proterozoic (1.75 Ga) to Archean (3.2 Ga). Paragneisses with similar age and isotopic characteristics occur in the Mojave province in southern California. In addition, "A-type" granite exposed at the southern end of Cerro Rajon has ca 2.0 Ga Nd model age and a U-Pb zircon age of 1.71 Ga, which are similar to those of Paleoproterozoic granites in the Mojave province. Unlike the U.S. Mojave province, the Caborcan crust contains ca. 1.1 Ga granite (Aibo Granite), which our new Nd isotopic data suggest is largely the product of anatexis of the local Precambrian basement. Detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian miogeoclinal arenites at Caborca show dominant populations ca. 1.7 Ga, ca. 1.4 Ga, and ca. 1.1 Ga, with subordinate Early Cambrian and Archean zircons. These zircons were likely derived predominately from North American crust to the east and northeast, and not from the underlying Caborcan basement. The general age and isotopic similarities between Mojave province basement and overlying miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks in Sonora and southern California is necessary, but not sufficient, proof of the hypothesis that Sonoran crust is allochthonous and was transported to its current position during the Mesozoic along the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear. One viable alternative model is that the Caborcan Precambrian crust is an isolated, autochthonous segment of Mojave province crust that shares a similar, but not identical, Proterozoic geological history with Mojave province crust found in the southwest United States ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  5. Stratigraphy, tectonics and detrital zircon U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) geochronology of the Rio Preto Belt and northern Paramirim corridor, NE, Brazil

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    Alcantara, Davi da Costa Bezerra Gobira de; Uhlein, Alexandre; Caxito, Fabricio de Andrade; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (CPMTC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisa Professor Manoel Teixeira da Costa; Dussin, Ivo, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia


    Two important Proterozoic metasedimentary sequences, the Rio Preto and Santo Onofre Groups, crop out along the northwestern margin of the Sao Francisco craton and in northern Paramirim corridor, respectively. The Rio Preto Group, involved in the eponymous fold-thrust belt along the northwestern cratonic boundary, comprises the Formosa (garnet schist, quartz schist, quartzite, chlorite-sericite schist and ferriferrous quartz schist) and Canabravinha (quartzite, micaceous quartzite, metarhytmite, phylite, schist and metaturbidite) formations. The Santo Onofre Group occurs exclusively in the Paramirim corridor, and is composed of quartzite and minor carbonaceous or Mn-rich phylite. These units record sedimentation in shallow to deep-water marine settings related to rift basins, and were deformed and metamorphosed under green schist facies conditions during the Brasiliano orogeny. Here we present 427 new detrital zircon U-Pb ages, which constrain the maximum depositional ages of ca. 971 Ma for the Santo Onofre Group, ca. 912 Ma for the Canabravinha Formation, and ca. 65 Ma for the Formosa Formation of the Rio Preto Group. Our data suggests that the Santo Onofre and the Rio Preto Groups accumulated in two distinct basin settings. The latter, composed mostly of sandy rocks, would represent a relatively stable, shallow-marine shelf environment. The Rio Preto Group, with metadiamictite, quartzite, pelitic and rhythmitic rocks, represents a shallow to deep marine environment influenced by gravity flows. Both groups were probably deposited in the Late Tonian, and are potential correlatives of the lower (pre-glacial) units of the Macaubas Group of the Aracuai belt. (author)

  6. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircons in plutonic rocks from the central Famatinian arc, Argentina (United States)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.; Camilletti, Giuliano C.; Bergantz, George W.


    The Famatinian arc formed around the South Iapetus rim during the Ordovician, when oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the West Gondwana margin. We present combined in situ U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses for zircon to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Famatinian magmatism. Zircon crystals sampled from four intermediate and silicic plutonic rocks confirm previous observations showing that voluminous magmatism took place during a relatively short pulse between the Early and Middle Ordovician (472-465 Ma). The entire zircon population for the four plutonic rocks yields coherent εHf negative values and spreads over several ranges of initial εHf(t) units (-0.3 to -8.0). The range of εHf units in detrital zircons of Famatinian metasedimentary rocks reflects a prolonged history of the cratonic sources during the Proterozoic to the earliest Phanerozoic. Typical tonalites and granodiorites that contain zircons with evolved Hf isotopic compositions formed upon incorporating (meta)sedimentary materials into calc-alkaline metaluminous magmas. The evolved Hf isotope ratios of zircons in the subduction related plutonic rocks strongly reflect the Hf isotopic character of the metasedimentary contaminant, even though the linked differentiation and growth of the Famatinian arc crust was driven by ascending and evolving mantle magmas. Geochronology and Hf isotope systematics in plutonic zircons allow us understanding the petrogenesis of igneous series and the provenance of magma sources. However, these data could be inadequate for computing model ages and supporting models of crustal evolution.

  7. New SHRIMP zircon results from Broken Hill: towards robust stratigraphic and event timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.W.; Stevens, B.P.J.


    Full text: Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology is a powerful means of elucidating geological ages, providing that it is integrated with unequivocal field constraints, and providing that the fundamental assumptions which are behind any isotopic dating methods are geologically validated. In an attempt to better quantify the timing of Broken Hill's complex history and to reduce some current uncertainties, we report initial results from a new U-Pb SHRIMP investigation. This program was planned within the background of our own disparate stratigraphic and structural approaches to Broken Hill geology, and with objectives to (a) benchmark our new age results with those of previous workers as well as our own previous work in the Broken Hill Group, (b) evaluate and test the evidence for reported Archaean basement terrain, (c) date stratigraphic units in the upper parts of the Willyama Supergroup, (d) better constrain the timing of deformational events. Our U-Pb SHRIMP work on zircons from layered paragneisses in the Redan Geophysical Zone near Farmcote was catalysed by Nutman and Ehlers' (1998a) preferred interpretation that these 'strondhjemitic' gneisses represent an original ∼2650 Ma protolith. Our work finds zircon provenance age signatures typical of almost all ca. 1700 Ma metasediments, whether in the Broken Hill Block or other Australian Palaeoproterozoic settings. This therefore suggests that the rocks are not Archaean basement, but are part of a Thackaringa Group package possibly deposited about 1705-1710 Ma ago. New SHRIMP work on the Alma Gneiss provides a magmatic age of 1704±3 Ma, and a minimum stratigraphic age for host Thackaringa Group. This result is within error of our ages for other granitoids (1703±3 Ma, 1704±3 Ma) in the same stratigraphic position near Farmcote. As the Thackaringa Group is no more than 1000-1500 metres thick and includes 1710-1700 Ma detrital zircons, pan of the Alma Gneiss intrusion may well have been shallowly intruded, and akin to

  8. U-Pb SHRIMP-RG zircon ages and Nd signature of lower Paleozoic rifting-related magmatism in the Variscan basement of the Eastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Martinez, F.J.; Iriondo, A.; Dietsch, C.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Peucat, J.J.; Cires, J.; Reche, J.; Capdevila, R.


    The ages of orthogneisses exposed in massifs of the Variscan chain can determine whether they are part of a pre-Neoproterozoic basement, a Neoproterozoic, Panafrican arc, or are, in fact, lower Paleozoic, and their isotopic compositions can be used to probe the nature of their source rocks, adding to the understanding of the types, distribution, and tectonic evolution of peri-Gondwanan crystalline basement. Using SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd isotopic analysis, pre-Variscan metaigneous rocks from the N??ria massif in the Eastern Pyrenean axial zone and the Guilleries massif, 70km to the south, have been dated and their Nd signatures characterized. All dated orthogneisses from the N??ria massif have the same age within error, ~457Ma, including the Ribes granophyre, interpreted as a subvolcanic unit within Caradocian sediments contemporaneous with granitic magmas intruded into Cambro-Ordovician sediments at deeper levels. Orthogneisses in the Guilleries massif record essentially continuous magmatic activity during the Ordovician, beginning at the Cambro-Ordovician boundary (488??3Ma) and reaching a peak in the volume of magma in the early Late Ordovician (~460Ma). Metavolcanic rocks in the Guilleries massif were extruded at 452??4Ma and appear to have their intrusive equivalent in thin, deformed veins of granitic gneiss (451??7Ma) within metasedimentary rocks. In orthogneisses from both massifs, the cores of some zircons yield Neoproterozoic ages between ~520 and 900Ma. The age of deposition of a pre-Late Ordovician metapelite in the Guilleries massif is bracketed by the weighted average age of the youngest detrital zircon population, 582??11Ma, and the age of cross-cutting granitic veins, 451??7Ma. Older detrital zircons populations in this metapelite include Neoproterozoic (749-610Ma; n=10), Neo- to Mesoproterozoic (1.04-0.86Ga; n=7), Paleoproterozoic (2.02-1.59Ga; n=5), and Neoarchean (2.74-2.58Ga; n=3). Nd isotopic analyses of the N??ria and Guilleries

  9. Elucidating tectonic events and processes from variably tectonized conglomerate clast detrital geochronology: examples from the Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China (United States)

    Cleven, Nathan; Lin, Shoufa; Davis, Donald; Xiao, Wenjiao; Guilmette, Carl


    This work expands upon detrital zircon geochronology with a sampling and analysis strategy dating granitoid conglomerate clasts that exhibit differing degrees of internal ductile deformation. As deformation textures within clastic material reflect the variation and history of tectonization in the source region of a deposit, we outline a dating methodology that can provide details of the provenance's tectonomagmatic history from deformation-relative age distributions. The method involves bulk samples of solely granitoid clasts, as they are representative of the magmatic framework within the provenance. The clasts are classified and sorted into three subsets: undeformed, slightly deformed, and deformed. LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology is performed on zircon separates of each subset. Our case study, involving the Permian Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, analyzes each of the three clast subsets, as well as sandstone detrital samples, at three stratigraphic levels to yield a profile of the unroofed provenance. The age spectra of the clast samples exhibit different, wider distributions than sandstone samples, considered an effect of proximity to the respective provenance. Comparisons of clast data to sandstone data, as well as comparisons between stratigraphic levels, yield indications of key tectonic processes, in addition to the typical characteristics provided by detrital geochronology. The clast data indicates a minimal lag time, implying rapid exhumation rates, whereas sandstone data alone would indicate a 90 m.y. lag time. Early Paleozoic arc building episodes appear as Ordovician peaks in sandstone data, and Silurian-Devonian peaks in clast data, indicating a younging of magmatism towards the proximal provenance. A magmatic hiatus starts in the Devonian, correlating with the latest age of deformed clasts, interpreted as timing of collisional tectonics. Provenance interpretation using the correlations seen between the clast and sandstone

  10. The White Nile as a source for Nile sediments: Assessment using U-Pb geochronology of detrital rutile and monazite (United States)

    Be'eri-Shlevin, Yaron; Avigad, Dov; Gerdes, Axel


    Basement terranes exposed at the headwaters of the White Nile include Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Congo Craton, whose northern sectors were severely reworked during Neoproterozoic orogeny. New U-Pb analyses of detrital rutile and monazite from early Quaternary to Recent coastal quartz sands of Israel, at the northeast extension of the Nile sedimentary system, yield mostly late Neoproterozoic ages, with a dominant peak at ca. 600 Ma. While derivation from the reworked sectors of the Craton cannot be negated, the absence of pre-Neoproterozoic rutile and monazite indicates that the detrital contribution from the Congo cratonic nuclei into the main Nile was insignificant. The near absence of White Nile basement-derived heavy minerals from the Nile sands arriving at the Eastern Mediterranean may be explained by a number of factors such as relatively minor erosion of the Cratonic basement nuclei during the Quaternary, late connection of the White Nile to the main Nile system with a possibility that northern segments connected prior to more southerly ones, and a long-term effective sediment blockage mechanism at the mouth of White Nile. Likewise, our previous study demonstrated that Nile sands display a detrital zircon U-Pb-Hf pattern consistent with significant recycling of NE African Paleozoic sediments. It is thus plausible that any detrital contribution from White Nile basement rocks was thoroughly diluted by eroded Paleozoic sediments, or their recycled products, which were likely the greatest sand reservoir in the region. This study adds to previous studies showing the advantage of a multi mineral U-Pb geochronology strategy in constraining sediment provenance patterns.

  11. Detrital Zircon Provenance Record of Pre-Andean to Modern Tectonics in the Northern Andes: Examples from Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia (United States)

    George, S. W. M.; Jackson, L. J.; Horton, B. K.


    Detrital zircon U-Pb age distributions from modern rivers and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill in the northern Andes provide insights into pre-Andean, Andean, and active uplift and exhumation of distinctive sediment source regions. Diagnostic age signatures enable straightforward discrimination of competing sediment sources within the Andean magmatic arc (Western Cordillera-Central Cordillera), retroarc fold-thrust belt (Eastern Cordillera-Subandean Zone), and Amazonian craton (composed of several basement provinces). More complex, however, are the mid/late Cenozoic provenance records generated by recycling of basin fill originally deposited during early/mid Mesozoic extension, late Mesozoic thermal subsidence, and early Cenozoic shortening. Although subject to time-transgressive trends, regionally significant provenance patterns in Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia reveal: (1) Triassic-Jurassic growth of extensional subbasins fed by local block uplifts (with commonly unimodal 300­-150 Ma age peaks); (2) Cretaceous deposition in an extensive postrift setting fed by principally cratonic sources (with common 1800-900 Ma ages); and (3) Cenozoic growth of a broad flexural basin fed initially fed by magmatic-arc rocks (100-0 Ma), then later dominance by thrust-belt sedimentary rocks with progressively greater degrees of basin recycling (yielding diverse and variable age populations from the aforementioned source regions). U-Pb results from modern rivers and smaller subbasins prove useful in evaluating source-to-sink relationships, downstream mixing relationships, hinterland-foreland basin connectivity, paleodrainage integration, and tectonic/paleotopographic reconstructions. Most but not all of the elevated intermontane basins in the modern hinterland of the northern Andes contain provenance records consistent with genesis in a broader foreland basin developed at low elevation. Downstream variations within modern axial rivers and Cenozoic axial basins inform predictive models of

  12. Late ordovician stratigraphy, zircon provenance and tectonics, Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, C.L.; Fanning, C.M.


    Ordovician quartz turbidites of the Lachlan Fold Belt in southeastern Australia accumulated in a marginal sea and overlapped an adjoining island arc (Molong volcanic province) developed adjacent to eastern Gondwana. The turbidite succession in the Shoalhaven River Gorge, in the southern highlands of New South Wales, has abundant outcrop and graptolite sites. The succession consists of, from the base up, a unit of mainly thick-bedded turbidites (undifferentiated Adaminaby Group), a unit with conspicuous bedded chert (Numeralla Chert), a unit with common thin-bedded turbidites [Bumballa Formation (new name)] and a unit of black shale (Warbisco Shale). Coarse to very coarse sandstone in the Bumballa Formation is rich in quartz and similar to sandstone in the undifferentiated Adaminaby Group. Detrital zircons from sandstone in the Bumballa Formation, and from sandstone at a similar stratigraphic level from the upper Adaminaby Group of the Genoa River area in eastern Victoria, include grains as young as 453-473 Ma, slightly older than the stratigraphic ages. The dominant detrital ages are in the interval 500-700 Ma (Pacific Gondwana component) with a lessor concentration of Grenville ages (1000-1300 Ma). This pattern resembles other Ordovician sandstones from the Lachlan Fold Belt and also occurs in Triassic sandstones and Quaternary sands from eastern Australia. The Upper Ordovician succession is predominantly fine grained, which reflects reduced clastic inputs from the source in the Middle Cambrian to earliest Ordovician Ross-Delamerian Fold Belts that developed along the eastern active margin of Gondwana. Development of subduction zones in the Late Ordovician marginal sea are considered to be mainly responsible for the diversion of sediment and the resulting reduction in the supply of terrigenous sand to the island arc and eastern part of the marginal sea. Sixty zircons from each sample were analysed and results are presented. Methods following standard procedures

  13. Paleozoic and Paleoproterozoic Zircon in Igneous Xenoliths Assimilated at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Vazquez, J. A.; Wooden, J. L.


    Historically active Redoubt Volcano is a basalt-to-dacite cone constructed upon the Jurassic-early Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. New SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age and trace-element concentration results for zircons from gabbroic xenoliths and crystal-rich andesitic mush from a late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposit indicate that ~310 Ma and ~1865 Ma igneous rocks underlie Redoubt at depth. Two gabbros have sharply terminated prismatic zircons that yield ages of ~310 Ma. Zircons from a crystal mush sample are overwhelmingly ~1865 Ma and appear rounded due to incomplete dissolution. Binary plots of element concentrations or ratios show clustering of data for ~310-Ma grains and markedly coherent trends for ~1865-Ma grains; e.g., ~310-Ma grains have higher Eu/Eu* than most of the ~1865-Ma grains, the majority of which form a narrow band of decreasing Eu/Eu* with increasing Hf content which suggests that ~1865-Ma zircons come from igneous source rocks. It is very unlikely that detrital zircons from a metasedimentary rock would have this level of homogeneity in age and composition. One gabbro contains abundant ~1865 Ma igneous zircons, ~300-310 Ma fluid-precipitated zircons characterized by very low U and Th concentrations and Th/U ratios, and uncommon ~100 Ma zircons. We propose that (1) ~310 Ma gabbro xenoliths from Redoubt Volcano belong to the same family of plutons dated by Aleinikoff et al. (USGS Circular 1016, 1988) and Gardner et al. (Geology, 1988) located ≥500 km to the northeast in basement rocks of the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes and (2) ~1865 Ma zircons are inherited from igneous rock, potentially from a continental fragment that possibly correlates with the Fort Simpson terrane or Great Bear magmatic zone of the Wopmay Orogen of northwestern Laurentia. Possibly, elements of these Paleoproterozoic terranes intersected the Paleozoic North American continental margin where they may have formed a component of the basement to the Wrangellia

  14. Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on the magmatic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc

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    Yu-Ming Lai


    Full Text Available The complete volcanic sequences restored in the Coastal Range of Taiwan are key archives for better understanding the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc. This paper reports (1 new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data of fourteen volcanic samples from different sequences of four major volcanoes in the Coastal Range, (2 Hf isotopic data of dated magmatic and detrital zircons from two offshore volcanic islands, Lutao and Lanyu. These data indicate that the arc magmatism in the Coastal Range started at ~15 Ma, most active at ~9 Ma, and ceased at ~4.2 Ma. Magmatic zircons from the arc rocks show a significant variation in Hf isotopic composition, with εHf(T values varying from +24.9 to +4.8. As pointed out by our previous studies, old continental zircons that show Cathaysian-type ages and Hf isotope features are common in samples from the Yuemei, Chimei, and Lanyu volcanoes, supporting the notion for the influence of the existence of an accreted micro-continent or continental fragment plays a role in the petrogenesis. Such inherited zircons are not observed in the Chengkuang’ao and Tuluanshan volcanoes and uncommon in Lutao, implying the discontinuity or a limited extent of the accreted continental fragment. The εHf(T values are high and positive from ~15 - 8 Ma (+25 to +15; ±5ε-unit variation, and became lower from ~6 to 4.2 Ma (+20 to +8; ±6ε units and the lowest from ~1.3 Ma (+19 to +5; ±7ε units. Such a temporal variation in zircon Hf isotopic ratios can be also identified in whole-rock Hf and Nd isotopic compositions, which decrease from ~6 Ma when the Northern Luzon Arc may have started colliding with the Eurasian continental margin.

  15. Using the magmatic record to constrain the growth of continental crust-The Eoarchean zircon Hf record of Greenland (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.


    Southern West Greenland contains some of the best-studied and best-preserved magmatic Eoarchean rocks on Earth, and these provide an excellent vantage point from which to view long-standing questions regarding the growth of the earliest continental crust. In order to address the questions surrounding early crustal growth and complementary mantle depletion, we present Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) analyses of the U-Pb and Hf isotope compositions of zircon from eleven samples of the least-altered meta-igneous rocks from the Itsaq (Amîtsoq) Gneisses of the Isukasia and Nuuk regions of southern West Greenland. This analytical technique allows a less ambiguous approach to determining the age and Hf isotope composition of complicated zircon. Results corroborate previous findings that Eoarchean zircon from the Itsaq Gneiss (∼3.85 Ga to ∼3.63 Ga) were derived from a broadly chondritic source. In contrast to the Sm-Nd whole rock isotope record for southern West Greenland, the zircon Lu-Hf isotope record provides no evidence for early mantle depletion, nor does it suggest the presence of crust older than ∼3.85 Ga in Greenland. Utilizing LASS U-Pb and Hf data from the Greenland zircons studied here, we demonstrate the importance of focusing on the magmatic (rather than detrital) zircon record to more confidently understand early crustal growth and mantle depletion. We compare the Greenland Hf isotope data with other Eoarchean magmatic complexes such as the Acasta Gneiss Complex, Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt, and the gneissic complexes of southern Africa, and all lack zircons with suprachondritic Hf isotope compositions. In total, these data suggest only a very modest volume of crust was produced during (or survived from) the Hadean and earliest Eoarchean. There remains no record of planet-scale early Earth mantle depletion in the Hf isotope record prior to 3.8 Ga.

  16. Episodic growth and homogenization of plutonic roots in arc volcanoes from combined U-Th and (U-Th)/He zircon dating (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Robertson, Richard; Lovera, Oscar M.; Kislitsyn, Roman


    Tracing the fate of unerupted magma is challenging because plutonic roots of young volcanoes are largely inaccessible. Here we develop the use of zircon age spectra to determine crystal provenance and source rocks for volcanic products, in analogy to detrital crystals in sediments. U-Th zircon crystallization ages for the Soufrière Volcanic Complex, Saint Lucia (Lesser Antilles) frequently predate their eruption as determined from combined U-Th and (U-Th)/He zircon dating. The oldest dated eruptions are 273 ± 15 ka and 264 ± 8 ka (1σ uncertainty) for Morne Bonin dacite and Bellevue pumice deposit, respectively. The most recent eruptions formed morphologically pristine domes in the center of the Qualibou depression (Belfond: 13.6 ± 0.4 ka; Terre Blanche: 15.3 ± 0.4 ka). U-Th (U-Pb) zircon crystallization ages determined for crystal rims and interiors range between near-eruption ages to ∼ 600 ka. Older xenocrysts are absent. Zircon crystallization age distributions are complex, yet systematic: crystal rim ages in the most recently erupted volcanic rocks match those of co-erupted plutonic inclusions, whereas crystal interiors are equivalent to the cumulative distribution of zircon ages from older eruptions. This is evidence that silicic lava domes and pyroclastic flows share a common source that is located underneath the Qualibou depression, where the intrusive roots of this long-lived arc volcanic system became homogenized through thermal and mechanical reprocessing of individual batches of unerupted magma from earlier volcanic episodes within timescales of < 100 ka.

  17. U-Pb systematics of zircon and titanite from the Gardnos impact structure, Norway: Evidence for impact at 546 Ma? (United States)

    Kalleson, E.; Corfu, F.; Dypvik, H.


    Zircon and titanite were investigated in impactites of the Gardnos structure, a crater formed in Sveconorwegian (ca. 1 Ga) crust, which was then overridden in the Devonian by Caledonian nappes. Observed deformation features in zircons are granular texture, planar microstructures, and likely the incorporation of organic carbon during impact causing black staining of the zircon grains. The grains were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cathode luminescence (CL) and dated by U-Pb isotope dilution - thermo-ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). Zircon grains without impact related features have U-Pb data showing moderate discordance (5-13%) and indicating formation ages mostly in the range of 1600-1000 Ma, except detrital zircon ages as old as >2481 Ma, reflecting the diversity of target rocks in the area. Titanite with concordant ages of 995-999 Ma dates metamorphism during final juxtaposition of the Telemarkia on the Idefjorden terrane to the east. Zircon grains with demonstrated or presumed shock features yield highly discordant (14-40%) U-Pb data, with a majority of them plotting along an array with a lower intercept of about 340 Ma reflecting the influence of the Caledonian orogeny and recent Pb-loss. One zircon grain was totally reset at 379 Ma during late Caledonian metamorphism, which also caused local growth of new titanite. A specific group of zircon grains yields data with relatively high discordance for moderate U contents, and five of these analyses, including that of a grain with proven granular or aggregate texture, fit a discordia line with an upper intercept of 546 ± 5 Ma. These features are interpreted as indicating zircon break-down to an amorphous state during impact, with subsequent recrystallization into microcrystalline aggregates causing extensive to complete Pb loss. We further suggest that their crystallinity prevented Pb loss during the Caledonian orogeny, while the small subgrain size and increasing metamictisation allowed

  18. Proterozoic events recorded in quartzite cobbles at Jack Hills, Western Australia: New constraints on sedimentation and source of > 4 Ga zircons (United States)

    Grange, Marion L.; Wilde, Simon A.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Pidgeon, Robert T.


    Rare heavy mineral bands within quartzite cobbles were identified in two conglomerate units within the Jack Hills belt, Western Australia. Seven zircon-bearing cobbles were analysed from one location (site 152) and three from another (site 154), both approximately 1 km west of the site where zircons in excess of 4 Ga are abundant (W74 'discovery' site). Individual pebbles from the 152 site reveal three distinctive features, containing either zircons > 3.0 Ga in age, 4 Ga was discovered from the entire suite of pebbles, in contrast to the well-studied W74 site. A single detrital zircon with an age of 1220 ± 42 Ma from location 152 is the youngest grain so far reported from sedimentary rocks at Jack Hills. It shows magmatic oscillatory zoning and thus implies at least two sedimentary cycles within the Proterozoic; requiring erosion of an igneous precursor, incorporation into a clastic sediment, induration and subsequent erosion and transport to be hosted in the conglomerate. The nearest source for rocks of this age is the Bangemall Supergroup in the Collier Basin, ˜ 100 km northeast in the Capricorn Orogen. This would imply tectonic interleaving of originally more extensive Bangemall rocks, possibly related to activity along the Cargarah Shear Zone that traverses the Jack Hills belt. The lack of > 4.1 Ga zircons in the pebbles is highly significant, suggesting the immediate source of ancient zircons was no longer present at the Earth's surface. This equates with a general lack of ancient crystals noted in rocks that contain Proterozoic zircons from previous studies and implies that such grains diminish in number as earlier sedimentary rocks were successively recycled.

  19. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies (United States)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas


    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  20. Detrital zircon dating and tracing the provenance of dinosaur bone beds from the Late Cretaceous Wangshi Group in Zhucheng, Shandong, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei An


    Full Text Available The mass burial of dinosaur bone fossils in the Late Cretaceous Wangshi Group in Zhucheng, Shandong Province has been a research focus in recent years. However, the provenance of the dinosaur bone fossils and the accurate depositional age of the bone beds remain ambiguous. Through U–Pb dating of detrital zircons collected from six conglomerate samples from the dinosaur bone beds, we found that the youngest single grain age (YSG of sample 090414-24-D was 77.3 Ma, representing the maximum depositional age of the dinosaur fossil beds and sediments. This also indicates that the Hongtuya Formation was deposited during the Campanian. Dating results revealed an age peak of 120–110 Ma, which corresponds with the peak age of volcanic rocks of the Lower Cretaceous Qingshan Group. The volcanic rocks of the Qingshan Group are mainly exposed in Laiyang, to the north of Zhucheng, although a few also appear to the south and northwest. Through analysis of conglomerate composition and palaeocurrents in the sediments containing the bone beds, we found that the three different data sets of gravel compositions of the conglomerates were mainly composed of volcanic or pyroclastic rocks. Three different data sets of palaeocurrents suggested that the main sediment source of the Wangshi Group dinosaur bone beds was from the north−northwest of the Basin. Only one data set had a provenance south of the basin. This study revealed that the areas of Laiyang and the Yishu Fault Zone were the main provenance areas of both the dinosaur bone fossils and the sediments of the Wangshi Group in Zhucheng. The southern margin of the Zhucheng Basin may be a secondary source area. This research provides an important basis for judging the deposition time and the sediment source of fossil layers in the Wangshi Group, as well as reconstructing the palaeogeography of the Wangshi Group in the Jiaolai Basin.

  1. The Cambrian to Devonian odyssey of the Brabant Massif within Avalonia: A review with new zircon ages, geochemistry, Sm-Nd isotopes, stratigraphy and palaeogeography (United States)

    Linnemann, Ulf; Herbosch, Alain; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Pin, Christian; Gärtner, Andreas; Hofmann, Mandy


    This study provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the Early Palaeozoic evolution of the Brabant Massif belonging to the Anglo-Brabant Deformation Belt. Situated at the southeastern side of Avalonia microplate, it is the only well-known part of the northern passive margin of the Rheic Ocean. The Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary pile is > 13 km thick, with > 9 km for the Cambrian only. The unraveling of this continuous registration reflects the successive rifting and drifting of Avalonia from the Gondwana mainland, followed by soft-collisional processes with Baltica and finally the formation of Laurussia. Based on recently established detailed stratigraphy, sedimentology and basin development, on U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses of igneous and detrital zircon grains along with geochemical data including Sm-Nd isotopes, a new geodynamic and palaeogeographic evolution is proposed. Brabant Megasequence 1 (lower Cambrian to lowermost Ordovician, > 9 km thick) represents an embayment of the peri-Gondwanan rift from which the Rheic Ocean has evolved. Detrital zircon ages demonstrate that the Brabant is a typical peri-Gondwanan terrane with a major Pan-African (Neoproterozoic age) and a mixed West African and Amazonian source (Palaeoproterozoic, Archaean and some Mesoproterozoic age). The transition towards the Avalonia drifting is marked by an unconformity and a short volcanic episode. The northward drift of Avalonia towards Baltica is recorded by the Megasequence 2 (Middle to Upper Ordovician, 1.3 km thick). The source for Mesoproterozoic zircons vanished, as the result of the Rheic Ocean opening and the isolation from Amazonian sources. The transition to Megasequence 3 is marked by a drastic change in palaeobathymetry and an important (sub)volcanic episode during a tectonic instability period (460-430 Ma), reflecting the Avalonia-Baltica soft docking as also shown by the reappearance of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons, typical of Baltica. Unradiogenic Nd isotope

  2. Identification of Detrital Carbonate in East Cepu High (United States)

    Sari, R.; Andika, I. K.; Haris, A.; Miftah, A.


    East Cepu High is a part of horst – graben series which formed by extensional tectonic processes during Paleogene in North East Java Basin. Due to excellent paleogeography position, the carbonate build-up was growth very well and as the main reservoir in East Cepu High. Sea level change have important factor to provide variation of facies in each carbonate buildup, one of emerging facies is detrital carbonate. Detrital carbonate indicated by onlap horizon featured with carbonate build up body. Based on paleogeography, fluctuation of sea level change and sediment source, detrital carbonate formed in leeward area in lowstand or highstand phases. Distinguish between detrital carbonate facies with other facies, advanced seismic processing performed by using continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and seismic inversion. CWT is one method of spectral decomposition used to find the frequency that represent a facies. The result from seismic inversion will support the interpretation for facies distribution. As the result, seismic data which have interval frequency 10 – 45 Hz and Acoustic Impedance (AI) value above 35000 (from cross plot between acoustic impedance and gamma ray) can be interpreted as detrital carbonate. Based on seismic interpretation, detrital carbonate facies distributed along leeward area with geometrical spreading. The lateral facies change from detrital carbonate to shale was identified which causing this facies become potential as hydrocarbon reservoir with stratigraphic trap. Based on the earlier studies, North East Java Basin have a strong hydrocarbon migration to fill the reservoir, therefore the detrital carbonate have high chance to be a new hydrocarbon prospect in this area.

  3. Pre-Alpine evolution of the Seckau Complex (Austroalpine basement/Eastern Alps): Constraints from in-situ LA-ICP-MS Usbnd Pb zircon geochronology (United States)

    Mandl, Magdalena; Kurz, Walter; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Fritz, Harald; Klötzli, Urs; Schuster, Ralf


    The Variscan European Belt is a complex orogen with its southern margin partly obscured by Alpine tectonics and metamorphism. We present a study of one of the units, the Seckau Complex, that constitute the southern part of the Variscan European Belt in the Eastern Alps in order to clarify its origin, age and lithostratigraphy. The magmatic and geochronological evolution of this Complex in the northwestern part of the Seckau Nappe (as part of the Austroalpine Silvretta-Seckau Nappe System) was investigated by zircon Usbnd Pb dating of paragneisses and metagranitoids coupled with petrological and geochemical data. This reveals the distinction of three newly defined lithostratigraphic/lithodemic sub-units: (1) Glaneck Metamorphic Suite, (2) Hochreichart Plutonic Suite and (3) Hintertal Plutonic Suite. The Glaneck Metamorphic Suite is mainly composed of fine-grained paragneisses that yield Usbnd Pb zircon ages in the range between 2.7 Ga and 2.0 Ga, as well as concordia ages from 572 ± 7 Ma to 559 ± 11 Ma. All of these ages are interpreted as detrital zircon ages originating from an igneous source. The paragneisses are the host rock for the large volumes of metagranitoids of the Hochreichart Plutonic Suite and the Hintertal Plutonic Suite. The Hochreichart Plutonic Suite comprises highly fractionated melts with mainly S-type characteristics and late Cambrian to Early Ordovician Usbnd Pb zircon ages (508 ± 9 Ma to 486 ± 9 Ma), interpreted as magmatic protolith ages. The Hintertal Plutonic Suite is composed of metagranitoids with Late Devonian to early Carboniferous (365 ± 11 Ma and 331 ± 10 Ma) protolith ages, that intruded during an early phase of the Variscan tectonometamorphic event. The metagranitoids of the Hintertal Plutonic Suites define a magmatic fractionation trend, seen in variable Rb/Sr ratios. On this base they can be further subdivided into (a) the Griessstein Pluton characterized by S-type metagranitoids and (b) the Pletzen Pluton distinguished by

  4. Origin and tectonic evolution of early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of North China Craton (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Biao; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Yang, Chuan


    The origin and tectonic evolution of the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) are widely debated. This paper presents detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of early Paleozoic strata in the Zhangjiatun arc terrane of central Jilin Province, northeast (NE) China, and compares them with the Bainaimiao and Jiangyu arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC. Detrital zircons from early Paleozoic strata in three arc terranes exhibit comparable age groupings of 539-430, 1250-577, and 2800-1600 Ma. The Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean ages and Hf isotopic composition of the detrital zircons imply the existence of the Precambrian fragments beneath the arc terranes. Given the evidences from geology, igneous rocks, and detrital zircons, we proposed that the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC are a united arc terrane including the exotic Precambrian fragments, and these fragments shared a common evolutionary history from Neoproterozoic to early-middle Paleozoic.

  5. Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Zoige depression in the Songpan-Ganzi flysch basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb ages and fission-track ages of the Triassic sedimentary sequence (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Tong, Lili


    The Zoige depression is an important depocenter within the northeast Songpan-Ganzi flysch basin, which is bounded by the South China, North China and Qiangtang Blocks and forms the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. This paper discusses the sediment provenance and Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Zoige depression in the Songpan-Ganzi flysch basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau, using the detrital zircon U-Pb ages and apatite fission-track data from the Middle to Late Triassic sedimentary rocks in the area. The U-Pb ages of the Middle to Late Triassic zircons range from 260-280 Ma, 429-480 Ma, 792-974 Ma and 1800-2500 Ma and represent distinct source region. Our new results demonstrate that the detritus deposited during the Middle Triassic (Ladinian, T2zg) primarily originated from the Eastern Kunlun and North Qinling Orogens, with lesser contributions from the North China Block. By the Late Triassic (early Carnian, T3z), the materials at the southern margin of the North China Block were generally transported westward to the basin along a river network that flowed through the Qinling region between the North China and South China Blocks: this interpretation is supported by the predominance of the bimodal distribution of 1.8 Ga and 2.5 Ga age peaks and a lack of significant Neoproterozoic zircon. Since the Late Triassic (middle Carnian, T3zh), considerable changes have occurred in the source terranes, such as the cessation of the Eastern Kunlun Orogen and North China Block sources and the rise of the northwestern margin of the Yangtze Block and South Qinling Orogen. These drastic changes are compatible with a model of a sustained westward collision between the South China and North China Blocks during the late Triassic and the clockwise rotation of the South China Block progressively closed the basin. Subsequently, orogeny-associated folds have formed in the basin since the Late Triassic (late Carnian), and the study area was generally subjected to uplifting and

  6. Relict zircon U-Pb age and O isotope evidence for reworking of Neoproterozoic crustal rocks in the origin of Triassic S-type granites in South China (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang; Zhao, Zi-Fu; Xia, Xiao-Ping


    Granites derived from partial melting of sedimentary rocks are generally characterized by high δ18O values and abundant relict zircons. Such relict zircons are valuable in tracing the source rocks of granites and the history of crustal anatexis. Here we report in-situ U-Pb ages, O isotopes and trace elements in zircons from Triassic granites in the Zhuguangshan and Jiuzhou regions, which are located in the Nanling Range and the Darongshan area, respectively, in South China. Zircon U-Pb dating yields magma crystallization ages of 236 ± 2 Ma for the Zhuguangshan granites and 246 ± 2 Ma to 252 ± 3 Ma for the Jiuzhou granites. The Triassic syn-magmatic zircons are characterized by high δ18O values of 10.1-11.9‰ in Zhuguangshan and 8.5-13.5‰ in Jiuzhou. The relict zircons show a wide range of U-Pb ages from 315 to 2185 Ma in Zhuguangshan and from 304 to 3121 Ma in Jiuzhou. Nevertheless, a dominant age peak of 700-1000 Ma is prominent in both occurrences, demonstrating that their source rocks were dominated by detrital sediments weathered from Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks. Taking previous results for regional granites together, Neoproterozoic relict zircons show δ18O values in a small range from 5 to 8‰ for the Nanling granites but a large range from 5 to 11‰ for the Darongshan granites. In addition, relict zircons of Paleozoic U-Pb age occur in the two granitic plutons. They exhibit consistently high δ18O values similar to the Triassic syn-magmatic zircons in the host granites. These Paleozoic relict zircons are interpreted as the peritectic product during transient melting of the metasedimentary rocks in response to the intracontinental orogenesis in South China. Therefore, the relict zircons of Neoproterozoic age are directly inherited from the source rocks of S-type granites, and those of Paleozoic age record the transient melting of metasedimentary rocks before intensive melting for granitic magmatism in the Triassic.

  7. Early to Middle Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains, Northwest China: Evidence from sedimentology and detrital zircon geochronology (United States)

    Ji, Hongjie; Tao, Huifei; Wang, Qi; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Dongxu; Qiu, Junli; Liao, Peng


    The Bogda Mountains, as an important intracontinental orogenic belt, are situated in the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and are a key area for understanding the Mesozoic evolution of the CAOB. However, the tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains remains controversial during the Mesozoic Era, especially the Early to Middle Jurassic Periods. The successive Lower to Middle Jurassic strata are well preserved and exposed along the northern flank of the Western Bogda Mountains and record the uplift processes of the Bogda Mountains. In this study, we analysed sedimentary facies combined with detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology at five sections of Lower to Middle Jurassic strata to detect the tectonic evolution and changes of provenance in the Bogda area. During Early to Middle Jurassic times, the fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine environments dominated in the western section of the Bogda area. The existence of Early Triassic peak age indicates that the Bogda Mountains did not experience uplift during the period of early Badaowan Formation deposition. The Early Triassic to Late Permian granitoid plutons and Carboniferous volcanic rocks from the Barkol and Santanghu areas were the main provenances. The significant change in the U-Pb age spectrum implies that the Eastern Bogda Mountains initiated uplift in the period of late Badaowan Formation deposition, and the Eastern Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin were partially partitioned. The Eastern Bogda Mountains gradually became the major provenance. From the period of early Sangonghe to early Toutunhe Formations deposition, the provenance of the sediments and basin-range frame were similar to that of late Badaowan. However, the Eastern Bogda Mountains suffered intermittent uplift three times, and successive denudation. The uplifts respectively happened in early Sangonghe, late Sangonghe to early Xishanyao, and late Xishanyao to early Toutunhe. During the deposition stage of Toutunhe Formation, a

  8. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detrital zircon and apatite fission track data in the Liaoxi basins: Implication to Meso-Cenozoic thermo-tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the North China Craton · Yi Yan Xiaoqiong Hu Ge Lin Weiliang Liu Zhengjiang Song · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Detrital zircon and apatite fission track (ZFT and AFT) ...

  9. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada (United States)

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.


    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  10. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.


    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  11. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

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    Yusheng Wan


    Full Text Available The Central Hebei Basin (CHB is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeast–southwest direction with an area of >350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedimentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1 and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1 have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41–2.51 and ∼2.5 Ga, respectively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher ΣREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Ybn values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5 mainly contain ∼2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins have εHf (2.5 Ga values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, ∼2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  12. Depositional history of a condensed shallow marine reservoir succession: stratigraphy and detrital zircon geochronology of the Jurassic Sto Formation, Barents Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klausen, T. G.; Müller, R.; Sláma, Jiří; Olaussen, S.; Rismyhr, B.; Helland-Hansen, W.


    Roč. 175, č. 1 (2018), s. 130-145 ISSN 0016-7649 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : binary alloys * deposition * erosion * geochronology * lead * lead alloys * sea level * silicate minerals * uranium alloys * zircon Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.037, year: 2016

  13. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints. (United States)

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie


    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  14. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunqiang Tao

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6 images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1 Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2 Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3 A larger sample (83 pairs was collected. (4 A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5 A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  15. Detrital zircon fission-track thermochronology and magnetic fabric of the Amaga Formation (Colombia): Intracontinental deformation and exhumation events in the northwestern Andes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piedrahita, V. A.; Bernet, M.; Chadima, Martin; Sierra, G. M.; Marín-Cerón, M. I.; Toro, G. E.


    Roč. 356, JUL 1 2017 (2017), s. 26-42 ISSN 0037-0738 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Panama-Choco Block * Northern Andean Block * Amaga Formation * zircon fission track * anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.373, year: 2016

  16. Petrologic and zircon U-Pb geochronological characteristics of the pelitic granulites from the Badu Complex of the Cathaysia Block, South China (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiwen; Zhai, Mingguo; Liu, Bo; Cui, Xiahong


    The recognition of the Indosinian Orogeny in the South China block has been controversial and difficult because of strong weathering and thick cover. High temperature (HT) and high pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks related to this orogeny were considered to be absent from this orogenic belt until the recent discovery of eclogite and granulite facies meta-igneous rocks, occurring as lenses within the meta-sedimentary rocks of the Badu Complex. However, metamorphic state of these meta-sedimentary rocks is still not clear. Besides, there have been no geochronological data of HT pelitic granulites previously reported from the Badu Complex. This paper presents petrographic characteristics and zircon geochronological results on the newly discovered kyanite garnet gneiss, pyroxene garnet gneiss and the HT pelitic granulites (sillimanite garnet gneiss). Mineral assemblages are garnet + sillimanite + ternary feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + biotite for the HT pelitic granulite, kyanite + ternary feldspar + garnet + sillimanite + plagioclase + quartz + biotite for the kyanite garnet gneiss, and garnet + biotite + pyroxene + plagioclase + ternary feldspar + quartz for the pyroxene garnet gneiss, respectively. Decompressional coronas around garnet grains can be observed in all these pelitic rocks. Typical granulite facies mineral assemblages and reaction textures suggest that these rocks experienced HP granulite facies metamorphism and overprinted decompression along a clockwise P-T loop. Results from integrated U-Pb dating and REE analysis indicate the growth of metamorphic zircons from depleted heavy REE sources (100-50 chondrite) compared with detrital zircons derived from granitic sources (typically > 1000 chondrite). Metamorphic zircons in HP granulite exhibit no or subdued negative Eu anomalies, which perhaps indicate zircon overgrowth under eclogite facies conditions. The zircon overgrowth ages range from 250 to 235 Ma, suggesting that HP granulite (eclogite) to

  17. Proterozoic intracontinental basin succession in the western margin of the São Francisco Craton: Constraints from detrital zircon geochronology (United States)

    Martins-Ferreira, Marco Antonio Caçador; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Dias, Airton Natanael Coelho; Campos, José Eloi Guimarães


    The age and stratigraphic position of Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic covers that occur along the western border of the São Francisco Craton (SFC) are still uncertain. Based on detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic survey, combined with U-Pb and Lu-Hf zircon dating, we present a new proposal for the stratigraphy and correlation with similar sequences, situated in other regions of the SFC, the Chapada Diamantina and Northern Espinhaço. Our study demonstrates that the so-called Traíras Formation (Araí Group) has a maximum depositional age of 1543 ± 31 Ma. The zircon distribution pattern shows a dominant Rhyacian source and minor contribution of Statherian, Calymmian, Neoarchean and Paleoarchean sources. The Rhyacian zircon grains have dominant positive εHf (t) signature, suggesting a large contribution from the juvenile Paleoproterozoic terranes, most probably from the Goiás Massif, located west of the study area. The Calymmian maximum depositional age, calculated for the upper Araí Group (Traíras Formation), leads to the conclusion that the Serra da Mesa Group (ca. 1.55 Ga maximum depositional age) and the Traíras Formation have coexisted in time, possibly forming a larger sag basin, although laterally heterogeneous. The data presented also allow a new geotectonic interpretation for the Goiás Massif, since it necessarily had to be connected to the São Francisco Craton during the Mesoproterozoic. This excludes the possibility that this massif was accreted to the São Francisco Craton in the Brasiliano Collage, as previously believed. The study also sheds light to the always debated tectonic relationship between the Serra da Mesa Granite (intrusive or basement) and Serra da Mesa Group (ca. 1.57 crystallization age and 1.55 Ga maximum depositional age, respectively). Furthermore, based on the new data, we present a stratigraphic revision for the actual Araí and Paranoá groups, proposing to raise the Traíras Formation to group status and its

  18. 207Pb-206Pb zircon ages of eastern and western Dharwar craton, southern India : Evidence for contemporaneous Archaean crust (United States)

    Maibam, B.; Goswami, J. N.; Srinivasan, R.


    Dharwar craton is one of the major Archaean crustal blocks in the Indian subcontinent. The craton is comprised of two blocks, western and eastern. The western domain is underlain by orthogneisses and granodiorites (ca. 2.9-3.3 Ga) collectively termed as Peninsular Gneiss [e.g., 1] interspersed with older tracts of metasedimentary and metamorphosed igneous suites (Sargur Group and Dharwar Group; [2]). The eastern part of the craton is dominated by Late Archaean (2.50-2.75 Ga) granitoids and their gneissic equivalents. They are interspersed with schist belts (also of Sargur Group and Dharwar Group), which are lithologically similar to the Dharwar Supergroup in the western block, but are in different metamorphic dress. Here we report 207Pb-206Pb age of zircons separated from the metasedimentary and gneissic samples from the two blocks to constrain the evolution of the Dharwar craton during the early Archaean. Detrital zircons of the metasedimentary rocks from both the blocks show a wide range of overlapping ages between ~2.9 to >3.5 Ga. Zircon ages of the orthogneisses from the two blocks showed that most of the analysed grains of the eastern Dharwar block are found to be of the age as old as the western Dharwar gneisses. Imprints of younger events could be discerned from the presence of overgrowths in zircons from the studied samples throughout the craton. Our data suggest that crust forming cycles in the two blocks of the Dharwar craton occurred contemporaneously during the Archaean. References [1] Beckinsale, R.D., Drury, S.A., Holt, R.W. (1980) Nature 283, 469-470. [2] Swami Nath J., Ramakrishnan M., Viswanatha M.N. (1976) Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind., 107, 149-175.

  19. Detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double-dating of Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic Zagros foreland basin strata in the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq (United States)

    Barber, D. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.


    The NW Zagros orogen is the result of the multistage collisional history associated with Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian continents and final closure of Neotethys. Siliciclastic strata preserved within a ~400 km segment of the NW Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR) provide a widespread record of exhumation and sedimentation. As a means of assessing NW Zagros foreland basin evolution and chronostratigraphy, we present coupled detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb and (U-Th)/He geo-thermochronometric data of Upper Cretaceous to Pliocene siliciclastic strata from the Duhok, Erbil, and Suleimaniyah provinces of IKR. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age analyses reveal that the foreland basin fill in IKR in general was dominantly derived from Pan-African/Arabian-Nubian, Peri-Gondwandan, Eurasian, and Cretaceous volcanic arc terrenes. However, the provenance of these strata varies systematically along strike and through time, with an overall increase in complexity upsection. DZ age distribution of Paleocene-Eocene strata is dominated by a ~95 Ma grain age population, likely sourced from the Late Cretaceous Hassanbag-Bitlis volcanic arc complex along the northern margin of Arabia. In contrast, DZ U-Pb age distributions of Neogene strata show a major contribution derived from various Eurasian (e.g., Iranian, Tauride, Pontide; ~45, 150, 300 Ma) and Pan-African (~550, 950 Ma) sources. The introduction of Eurasian DZ ages at the Paleogene-Neogene transition likely records the onset of Arabian-Eurasian collision. Along strike to the southeast, the DZ U-Pb spectra of Neogene strata show a decreased percentage of Pan-African, Peri-Gondwandan, Tauride, and Ordovician ages, coupled with a dramatic increase in 40-50 Ma DZ ages that correspond to Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic rocks in Iran. Combined with paleocurrent data, this suggests that Neogene sediments were transported longitudinally southeastward through an unbroken foreland basin

  20. Numerical modeling perspectives on zircon crystallization and magma reservoir growth at the Laguna del Maule volcanic field, central Chile (United States)

    Andersen, N. L.; Dufek, J.; Singer, B. S.


    Magma reservoirs in the middle to upper crust are though to accumulate incrementally over 104 -105 years. Coupled crystallization ages and compositions of zircon are a potentially powerful tracer of reservoir growth and magma evolution. However, complex age distributions and disequilibrium trace element partitioning complicate the interpretation of the zircon record in terms of magmatic processes. In order to make quantitative predictions of the effects of magmatic processes that contribute reservoir growth and evolution—such as cooling and crystallization, magma recharge and mixing, and rejuvenation and remelting of cumulate-rich reservoir margins—we develop a model of zircon saturation and growth within a numerical framework of coupled thermal transfer, phase equilibrium, and magma dynamics. We apply this model to the Laguna del Maule volcanic field (LdM), located in central Chile. LdM has erupted at least 40 km3 of rhyolite from 36 vents distributed within a 250 km2 lake basin. Ongoing unrest demonstrates the large, silicic magma system beneath LdM remains active to this day. Zircon from rhyolite erupted between c. 23 and 1.8 ka produce a continuous distribution of 230Th-238U ages ranging from eruption to 40 ka, as well as less common crystal domains up to 165 ka and rare xenocrysts. Zircon trace element compositions fingerprint compositionally distinct reservoirs that grew within the larger magma system. Despite the dominantly continuous distributions of ages, many crystals are characterized by volumetrically substantial, trace element enriched domains consistent with rapid crystal growth. We utilize numerical simulations to assess the magmatic conditions required to catalyze these "blooms" of crystallization and the magma dynamics that contributed to the assembly of the LdM magma system.

  1. Sediment unmixing using detrital geochronology (United States)

    Sharman, Glenn R.; Johnstone, Samuel A.


    Sediment mixing within sediment routing systems can exert a strong influence on the preservation of provenance signals that yield insight into the effect of environmental forcing (e.g., tectonism, climate) on the Earth's surface. Here, we discuss two approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data in an effort to characterize complex changes in the sedimentary record. First, we summarize 'top-down' mixing, which has been successfully employed in the past to characterize the different fractions of prescribed source distributions ('parents') that characterize a derived sample or set of samples ('daughters'). Second, we propose the use of 'bottom-up' methods, previously used primarily for grain size distributions, to model parent distributions and the abundances of these parents within a set of daughters. We demonstrate the utility of both top-down and bottom-up approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data within a well-constrained sediment routing system in central California. Use of a variety of goodness-of-fit metrics in top-down modeling reveals the importance of considering the range of allowable that is well mixed over any single best-fit mixture calculation. Bottom-up modeling of 12 daughter samples from beaches and submarine canyons yields modeled parent distributions that are remarkably similar to those expected from the geologic context of the sediment-routing system. In general, mixture modeling has the potential to supplement more widely applied approaches in comparing detrital geochronologic data by casting differences between samples as differing proportions of geologically meaningful end-member provenance categories.

  2. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.


    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  3. Magmatic tempo of Earth's youngest exposed plutons as revealed by detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology. (United States)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Spencer, Christopher J; Danišík, Martin; Hoiland, Carl W


    Plutons are formed by protracted crystallization of magma bodies several kilometers deep within the crust. The temporal frequency (i.e. episodicity or 'tempo') of pluton formation is often poorly constrained as timescales of pluton formation are largely variable and may be difficult to resolve by traditional dating methods. The Hida Mountain Range of central Japan hosts the youngest exposed plutons on Earth and provides a unique opportunity to assess the temporal and spatial characteristics of pluton emplacement at high temporal resolution. Here we apply U-Pb geochronology to zircon from the Quaternary Kurobegawa Granite and Takidani Granodiorite in the Hida Mountain Range, and from modern river sediments whose fluvial catchments include these plutons in order to reconstruct their formation. The U-Pb data demonstrate that the Kurobegawa pluton experienced two magmatic pulses at ~2.3 Ma and ~0.9 Ma; whereas, to the south, the Takidani pluton experienced only one magmatic pulse at ~1.6 Ma. These data imply that each of these magmatic systems were both spatially and temporally distinct. The apparent ~0.7 Myr age gap between each of the three magmatic pulses potentially constrains the recharge duration of a single pluton within a larger arc plutonic complex.

  4. Tectonic implications of U-Pb (zircon) Geochronology of Chor Granitoids of the Lesser Himalaya, Himachal Pradesh, NW Himalaya (United States)

    Singh, P.; Bhakuni, S. S.


    Granitoids of various ages ranging from Proterozoic to Tertiary occur throughout the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. The occurrence of the Neoproterozoic granitoids are very less in the Himalayan orogen. One of the best example of Neoproterozoic granitoids is Chor granitoids, which are the intrusive granite bodies in the Paleoproterozoic of the Lesser Himalayan Crystallines of the Jutogh Group. In the central part these granites are non-foliated homogeneous that are porphyritic and peraluminous in nature (Singh et al., 2002; Bhargava et al., 2014, 2016), whereas in the peripheral part these are foliated showing south directed shear sense of movement. In this work we present the U-Pb (zircon) geochronology of two different granites samples of the Chor granitoids of Himachal Pradesh, NW Himalaya. The Jutogh Group of rocks is thrust over the Lesser Himalayan Sequence along the Jutogh Thrust or MCT. The geochronology of the Chor Granitoids and Lesser Himalayan Crystallines and their relationship with each other, including with the Indian shield are sparsely obscure. U-Pb zircon geochrnological age populations from these granitoids yield ages between 780 and 980 Ma. One sample gives the prominent age spectra for 206Pb/238U with weighted mean age of 908.3 ± 6.7 Ma (2σ) MSWD = 2.4 (n = 18). Similarly another sample gives the age of crystallization with weight mean age of 917 ± 17 Ma (2σ) MSWD = 3 (n = 11) and Th/U ratios of both samples are >0.1, indicating their magmatic origin. As a result of ductile shearing of granites along the MCT during the Cenozoic Himalayan Orogeny, the age has reduced to 780 Ma. The Neoproterozoic age of Chor granite matches with the Neoproterozoic detrital zircon age (800 to 1000 Ma by Parrish and Hodges 1996, Decelles et al., 2000) of the HHC. On the basis of U-Pb (zircon) geochronological ages, it is revealed that the source of zircons of the Chor granite and HHC rocks was the northern margin of the Pan-African orogen. The Chor granitoids was

  5. Detrital carbon pools in temperate forests: magnitude and potential for landscape-scale assessment (United States)

    John Bradford; Peter Weishampel; Marie-Louise Smith; Randall Kolka; Richard A. Birdsey; Scott V. Ollinger; Michael G. Ryan


    Reliably estimating carbon storage and cycling in detrital biomass is an obstacle to carbon accounting. We examined carbon pools and fluxes in three small temperate forest landscapes to assess the magnitude of carbon stored in detrital biomass and determine whether detrital carbon storage is related to stand structural properties (leaf area, aboveground biomass,...

  6. Australian provenance for Upper Permian to Cretaceous rocks forming accretionary complexes on the New Zealand sector of the Gondwana land margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, A.L.; Barley, M.E.


    U-Pb (SHRIMP) detrital zircon age patterns are reported for 12 samples of Permian to Cretaceous turbiditic quartzo-feldspathic sandstone from the Torlesse and Waipapa suspect terranes of New Zealand. Their major Permian to Triassic, and minor Early Palaeozoic and Mesoproterozoic, age components indicate that most sediment was probably derived from the Carboniferous to Triassic New England Orogen in northeastern Australia. Rapid deposition of voluminous Torlesse/Waipapa turbidite fans during the Late Permian to Late Triassic appears to have been directly linked to uplift and exhumation of the magmatically active orogen during the 265-230 Ma Hunter-Bowen event. This period of cordilleran-type orogeny allowed transport of large volumes of quartzo-feldspathic sediment across the convergent Gondwana land margin. Post-Triassic depocentres also received (recycled?) sediment from the relict orogen as well as from Jurassic and Cretaceous volcanic provinces now offshore from southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. The detailed provenance-age fingerprints provided by the detrital zircon data are also consistent with progressive southward derivation of sediment: from northeastern Queensland during the Permian, southeastern Queensland during the Triassic, and northeastern New South Wales - Lord Howe Rise - Norfolk Ridge during the Jurassic to Cretaceous. Although the dextral sense of displacement is consistent with the tectonic regime during this period, detailed characterisation of source terranes at this scale is hindered by the scarcity of published zircon age data for igneous and sedimentary rocks in Queensland and northern New South Wales. Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic age components cannot be adequately matched with likely source terranes in the Australian-Antarctic Precambrian craton, and it is possible they originated in the Proterozoic cores of the Cathaysia and Yangtze Blocks of southeast China. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  7. Zircon-rutile-ilmenite froth flotation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Denham, D.L. Jr.


    This patent describes a method for separating a mixture of minerals comprising at least zircon, ilmenite and rutile. It comprises adding an acid solution to the mixture to acidify to a pH of between about 2.0 and 6.0; adding starch to the mixture to depress the ilmenite and the rutile; adding a source of fluoride ions to the mixture to provide a negative surface charge on the zircon surface to activate the zircon; adding an amine cationic collector to the mixture to float the activated zircon; subjecting the mixture containing the added acid solution, the fluoride ions, the starch and the cationic collector, to froth flotation; and withdrawing a float product comprising the zircon and a sink product comprising the ilmenite and rutile

  8. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.


    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAHER, A.


    The decomposition of Rosetta zircon by fusion with different types of alkalis has been investigated. These alkalis include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and eutectic mixture of both. The influences of the reaction temperature, zircon to alkalis ratio, fusion time and the stirring of the reactant on the fusion reaction have been evaluated. The obtained results favour the decomposition of zircon with the eutectic alkalis mixture by a decomposition efficiency of 96% obtained at 500 0 C after one hour

  10. Zircon (U-Th)/He Thermochronometric Constraints on Himalayan Thrust Belt Exhumation, Bedrock Weathering, and Cenozoic Seawater Chemistry (United States)

    Colleps, Cody L.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Singh, Birendra P.; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Myrow, Paul M.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Horton, Brian K.


    Shifts in global seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr are often utilized as proxies to track global weathering processes responsible for CO2 fluctuations in Earth history, particularly climatic cooling during the Cenozoic. It has been proposed, however, that these isotopic records instead reflect the weathering of chemically distinctive Himalayan lithologies exposed at the surface. We present new zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometric and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic evidence from the Himalaya of northwest India to explore these contrasting interpretations concerning the driving mechanisms responsible for these seawater records. Our data demonstrate in-sequence southward thrust propagation with rapid exhumation of Lesser Himalayan strata enriched in labile 187Os and relatively less in radiogenic 87Sr at ˜16 Ma, which directly corresponds with coeval shifts in seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr. Results presented here provide substantial evidence that the onset of exhumation of 187Os-enriched Lesser Himalayan strata could have significantly impacted the marine 187Os/188Os record at 16 Ma. These results support the hypothesis that regional weathering of isotopically unique source rocks can drive seawater records independently from shifts in global-scale weathering rates, hindering the utility of these records as reliable proxies to track global weathering processes and climate in deep geologic time.

  11. Cosmogenic 3He in detrital gold (United States)

    Stuart, Finlay; Yakubovich, Olga; Caracedo, Ana; Nesterenok, Alexander


    Since the measurement of cosmogenic He in an alluvial diamond by McConville and Reynolds (1996) the application of cosmogenic noble gases to individual detrital grains to quantify surface processes has not been vigorously pursued. The likely low rate of diffusion of cosmogenic He in native metals, and their resistance to weathering and disintegration during erosion and transport, makes them a potential record of long-term Earth surface processes. In an effort to assess the extent that detrital refractory metals record the exposure history during transport and storage we have undertaken a reconnaissance study of the He isotope composition in 18 grains (2-200 mg) of native gold, copper, silver, and PtPd, Pt3Fe and OsIr alloys from alluvial placer deposits from around the world. 4He is dominantly the result of U and Th decay within the grains, or decay of 190Pt in the Pt-rich alloys. 3He is measurable in 13 grains, concentrations range up to 2.7E+6 atoms/g. 3He/4He are always in excess of the crustal radiogenic ratio, up to 306 Ra. Although nucleogenic 3He produced by (n,α) reactions on 6Li, and 3He from trapped hydrothermal fluids, are present, the majority of the 3He is cosmogenic in origin. Using newly calculated cosmogenic 3He production rates in heavy metals, and a determination of the effect of implantation based on the stopping distances of spallogenic 3He and 3H, the grains have 3Hecos concentrations that are equivalent to 0.35 to 1.5 Ma exposure at Earth's surface. In a study of detrital gold grains from several sites in Scotland we have found that 10 % have 3He concentrations that are significantly in excess of that generated since the Last Glacial Maximum. These studies demonstrate that, with refinement, cosmogenic 3He in refractory detrital minerals can be used to quantify sediment transport and storage on the 1-10 Ma timescale. P. McConville & J.H. Reynolds (1989). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 2365-75.

  12. Archean crustal evolution of the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Western Australia, as revealed by the U-Pb age and Hf-isotope compositions of zircon from the granitic gneisses (United States)

    Sylvester, P.; Souders, K.; Crowley, J. L.; Myers, J.


    The Narryer Gneiss Terrane of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, is an important area for studies of early crustal evolution because of the preservation of (1) detrital zircons of Hadean to Archean age in the Jack Hills and Mt. Narryer metasedimentary belts, and (2) several widespread units of granitic gneisses emplaced between ca. 3.7 and 2.6 Ga. We have analyzed the U-Pb geochronology and Hf-isotope geochemistry of magmatic zircons from 38 samples of the granitic gneisses using laser ablation - (multicollector) - ICPMS. The sample suite is dominated by the Meeberrie gneiss, a banded quartz-microcline-oligoclase-biotite gneiss of monzogranite to granodiorite composition, and the Dugel gneiss, a leucocratic, pegmatite-layered syenogranite gneiss, but gneisses of dioritic to tonalitic composition, as well as less deformed granite sheets, are also represented. Magmatic zircons were identified on the basis of the preservation of oscillatory zoning in BSE and CL images, igneous Th/U ratios (>0.2), and concordant U-Pb isotopic systematics with low common Pb contents. The results indicate many of the gneisses are composed of the products of multiple magmatic events, as has been reported previously for samples of the Meeberrie gneiss (Kinny & Nutman, 1996, Precambrian Res. 78, 165-178). Major ages of magmatism preserved in the gneisses occurred at ca. 3685-3665 Ma, 3620-3565 Ma, 3495-3440 Ma, 3375-3330 Ma, and 3300-3260 Ma. The late granite sheets crystallized at 2710-2645 Ma. Hf-isotope compositions of the zircons trend to less radiogenic values with decreasing age, with ɛHf values of ca. 0 to -5 for 3.7-3.4 Ga gneisses, ca. -1 to -9 for 3.4-3.2 Ga gneisses and ca. -5 to -20 for the late granite sheets. The array of the Hf isotopic compositions with time for the entire sample set are fit well by a regression indicating a source reservoir with a 176Lu/177Hf of 0.022 extracted from the depleted mantle at 3.9 Ga. This suggests that the Narryer gneisses and late granite

  13. Origin and tectonic evolution of upper Triassic Turbidites in the Indo-Burman ranges, West Myanmar (United States)

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Lin; Cai, Fulong; Wang, Houqi; Xu, Qiang; Zaw, Than


    The Pane Chaung Formation is exposed in the Indo-Burman Ranges, and has been involved in collision between the Indian Plate and West Burma Block. However, controversies exist over the provenance and paleogeographic reconstruction of the Pane Chaung Formation. This study presents new petrographical and detrital zircon Usbnd Pb ages and Hf isotopic data from the Pane Chaung Formation in Rakhine Yoma and Chin Hills, west Myanmar. The depositional age of the Pane Chaung Formation is Late Triassic, indicated by the Carnian-Norian Halobia fossils and maximum depositional ages between 233.0 ± 2.5 Ma and 206.2 ± 1.8 Ma. Upper Triassic sandstones contain 290-200 Ma detrital zircons, εHf(t) values of - 6 to 11 and TDMC of 1.6 to 0.6 Ga, interpreted to be derived from West Papua region. The most abundant zircon age population of 750-450 Ma is derived from Pan-African orogenic belts in Australia. Zircons of 1250-900 Ma age were derived from the Grenvillian orogen in Australia. Archean zircons are interpreted to be derived from the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons in Western Australia. Detrital zircon ages of the Pane Chaung Formation are distinct from similar aged strata in Indochina and Sibumasu, but comparable to NW Australia (Carnarvon Basin) and Greater India (Langjiexue Formation). It is suggested that the Pane Chaung Formation was deposited in a Late Triassic submarine fan along the northern margin of Australia.

  14. An SDN-Based Fingerprint Hopping Method to Prevent Fingerprinting Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhao


    Full Text Available Fingerprinting attacks are one of the most severe threats to the security of networks. Fingerprinting attack aims to obtain the operating system information of target hosts to make preparations for future attacks. In this paper, a fingerprint hopping method (FPH is proposed based on software-defined networks to defend against fingerprinting attacks. FPH introduces the idea of moving target defense to show a hopping fingerprint toward the fingerprinting attackers. The interaction of the fingerprinting attack and its defense is modeled as a signal game, and the equilibriums of the game are analyzed to develop an optimal defense strategy. Experiments show that FPH can resist fingerprinting attacks effectively.

  15. Sulfur in zircons: A new window into melt chemistry (United States)

    Tang, H.; Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Barboni, M.; Harrison, T. M.


    The abundance and isotopic composition of sulfur are important tools for exploring the photochemistry of the atmosphere, the thermal history of mantle and igneous rocks, and ancient metabolic processes on the early Earth. Because the oldest terrestrial samples are zircons, we developed a new in-situ procedure to analyze the sulfur content of zircons using the CAMECA ims 1290 at UCLA. We analyzed zircons from three metaluminous/I-type granites (reduced and oxidized Peninsular range and Elba), which exhibit low sulfur abundance with the average of 0.5ppm, and one peraluminous/S-type zircon (Strathbogie Range), which shows an elevated sulfur level with the average of 1.5ppm. Additionally, we found that sulfur content ranges between 0.4 and 2.3 ppm in young volcanic zircons (St. Lucia). Our analyses of zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, whose ages range between 3.4 and 4.1 Ga, show a variety of sulfur contents. Three out of the ten zircons are consistent with the sulfur contents of S-type zircons; the rest have low sulfur contents, which are similar to those of I-type zircons. The high sulfur content in some of these Jack Hills zircons can be interpreted as indicating their origin in either a S-type granite or a volcanic reservoir. We favor the former interpretation since the Ti-in-zircon temperatures of our Jack Hills zircons is lower than those of volcanic zircons. Future work will be undertaken to develop a systematic understanding of the relationship between melt volatile content, melt chemistry, and zircon sulfur content.

  16. Inflight dissociation of zircon in air plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yugeswaran, S; Selvarajan, V [Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P V; Thiyagarajan, T K [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400 085 (India); Nair, Janardhanan [Ion Arc Technologies Pvt Ltd, Coimbatore (India)


    Thermal dissociation of zircon can be conveniently carried out in a plasma reactor, which is characterized by high temperature, high energy density and high quench rate. Zirconia is recovered from this partially dissociated zircon by alkali leaching. Dissociation of zircon has been conventionally carried out in argon gas, which is expensive. The present paper reports experimental results on thermal dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium. Process simulation for 'inflight' dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium is also presented. The experimental system consists of a central hollow graphite electrode, which acts as the cathode and a graphite anode. The material to be processed is fed centrally through the cathode. The unique feature of the system is that it uses air as the working gas to generate the thermal plasma. The system has been used to study in-flight dissociation of zircon in the thermal plasma jet. Dissociation was carried out over 10-25 kW power range. Results of the study indicate that complete dissociation of zircon to ZrO{sub 2} and silica could be accomplished at 25 kW in air plasma.

  17. Inflight dissociation of zircon in air plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugeswaran, S; Selvarajan, V; Ananthapadmanabhan, P V; Thiyagarajan, T K; Nair, Janardhanan


    Thermal dissociation of zircon can be conveniently carried out in a plasma reactor, which is characterized by high temperature, high energy density and high quench rate. Zirconia is recovered from this partially dissociated zircon by alkali leaching. Dissociation of zircon has been conventionally carried out in argon gas, which is expensive. The present paper reports experimental results on thermal dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium. Process simulation for 'inflight' dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium is also presented. The experimental system consists of a central hollow graphite electrode, which acts as the cathode and a graphite anode. The material to be processed is fed centrally through the cathode. The unique feature of the system is that it uses air as the working gas to generate the thermal plasma. The system has been used to study in-flight dissociation of zircon in the thermal plasma jet. Dissociation was carried out over 10-25 kW power range. Results of the study indicate that complete dissociation of zircon to ZrO 2 and silica could be accomplished at 25 kW in air plasma.

  18. Auto-regenerative thermoluminescence dating using zircon inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templer, R.H.


    Fired ceramics containing zircon inclusions have been dated by allowing the zircons to regenerate their own thermoluminescence (TL) signal, hence auto-regenerative TL dating. The technique is conceptually straightforward. One first measures the TL accrued since the last heating of the material. The zircon grains are then stored for six months and the TL signal regenerated through self-irradiation is measured. Since the internal dose-rate for zircon is dominated by the internal component the age of the sample is simply given by the ratio of the natural to auto-regenerated signal times the laboratory storage period. The technique, however, requires the measurement of a very small auto-regenerated signal, which introduces a number of experimental and physical complications. The methods for overcoming these problems and successfully dating zircons by auto-regeneration are described. (Author)

  19. Zircon-scale insights into the history of a Supervolcano, Bishop Tuff, Long Valley, California, with implications for the Ti-in-zircon geothermometer (United States)

    Reid, M.R.; Vazquez, J.A.; Schmitt, A.K.


    Zircon has the outstanding capacity to record chronological, thermal, and chemical information, including the storage history of zoned silicic magma reservoirs like the one responsible for the Bishop Tuff of eastern California, USA. Our novel ion microprobe approach reveals that Bishop zircon rims with diverse chemical characteristics surround intermediate domains with broadly similar compositions. The highest Y, REE, U, and Th concentrations tend to accompany the largest excesses in Y + REE3+:P beyond what can be explained by xenotime substitution in zircon. Apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures of Ti-in-zircon temperatures are probably better explained by sources of inaccuracy in the temperature estimates. After apparently nucleating from different melts, zircons from across the Bishop Tuff compositional spectrum may have evolved to broadly similar chemical and thermal conditions and therefore it is possible that there was no significant thermal gradient in the magma reservoir at some stage in its evolution. There is also no compelling evidence for punctuated heat ?? chemical influxes during the intermediate stages of zircon growth. Judging by the zircon record, the main volume of the erupted magma evolved normally by secular cooling but the latest erupted portion is characterized by a reversal in chemistry that appears to indicate perfusion of the magma reservoir by-or zircon entrainment in-a less evolved melt from the one in which the zircons had previously resided. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  20. The Effect of Element Substitution on Ti-in-Zircon Geothermometry in Volcanic Zircons from Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (United States)

    Lee, S. L.; Hattori, K.


    Despite the extensive application of the Ti-in-zircon geothermometer, its accuracy in natural systems remains uncertain. In order to investigate the parameters contributing to Ti in zircon, we examined zircons from dacitic eruption products of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, from the Pliocene (>2.5-2.7 Ma), 35000BP and 1991AD. All samples are unaltered and quenched from magmas at 790-825°C (Fe-Ti-oxide thermometry). Furthermore, the magma conditions of 1991 samples are well characterized: 780°C (cummingtonite rims on hornblende, Fe-Ti-oxide thermometry), 2 kbar pressure, 5.5-6.5 wt.% H2O and fO2 of NNO+1.6. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures are 760, 744 and 738°C (oldest to youngest). Zircon Ti concentrations are low (2.0-8.8 ppm), show positive covariation with U (35.6-639 ppm), Th (18.7-696 ppm), ∑REE (237-1310 ppm) and Y (247-1770 ppm), and negative covariation with Hf (7610-12000 ppm). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer by Ferry and Watson (2007) yields mean temperatures of 690, 666 and 663°C (oldest to youngest), using TiO2 activity=0.6, SiO2 activity=1 and -40°C pressure correction. Therefore, temperatures calculated using this method are underestimated by >100°C. We suggest that elements in the Zr site impact the substitution of Ti in the Si site of zircon. Ti shows a positive covariation with Zr/Hf (37.0-57.3, r2=0.551). The ionic radius of Hf4+ is smaller than Zr4+, whereas cations like U4+, Th4+, REE3+ and Y3+ are larger. The departure from the ideal crystal configuration is evaluated using the parameter Zr/(Hf-x), whereby x=U4+, Th4+, ∑REE and Y3+. Ti contents are more strongly correlated with the parameter than Zr/Hf (r2=0.559, 0.565, 0.608, 0.616; respectively). This suggests that large cations replacing Zr strain the lattice, reducing the amount of Ti incorporated into zircon. This further suggests that ZrSiO4 activity is less than 1 in natural rocks, resulting in the systematic underestimation of Ti-in-zircon temperatures.

  1. Advanced Fingerprint Analysis Project Fingerprint Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GM Mong; CE Petersen; TRW Clauss


    The work described in this report was focused on generating fundamental data on fingerprint components which will be used to develop advanced forensic techniques to enhance fluorescent detection, and visualization of latent fingerprints. Chemical components of sweat gland secretions are well documented in the medical literature and many chemical techniques are available to develop latent prints, but there have been no systematic forensic studies of fingerprint sweat components or of the chemical and physical changes these substances undergo over time.

  2. (De)coupled zircon metamictization, radiation damage, and He diffusivity (United States)

    Ault, A. K.; Guenthner, W.; Reiners, P. W.; Moser, A. C.; Miller, G. H.; Refsnider, K. A.


    We develop and apply a new protocol for targeting crystals for the zircon (U-Th)/He (He) thermochronometry to maximize effective U (eU) and corresponding closure temperature variability to develop zircon He date-eU correlations observed in some datasets. Our approach exploits visual proxies for radiation damage accumulation (metamictization) during zircon selection. We show that by purposefully targeting a spectrum of zircon textures from pristine to metamict grains, it is possible to generate broad eU variation in suites of zircon from a single sample and zircon He date-eU-metamictization trends that can be exploited to resolve increasingly complex thermal histories. We present plane light photographs, eU concentration, and zircon He results from 59 individual zircons from nine crystalline rock samples. Six of the nine samples come from exposed Proterozoic granitoids on SE Baffin Island, Canada; Boulder Creek, CO; Sandia Mountains, NM; and Mecca Hills, CA. We report data from three Archean Baffin samples to compare with the Proterozoic Baffin sample date-eU-metamictization trend. In each Proterozoic sample, target zircons display a spectrum of metamictization from pristine, transparent crystals to purple-brown, translucent grains. Progressive loss of transparency and increase in discoloration consistently corresponds to an increase in eU in all samples. Individual zircon eU varies from 89-1885 ppm and, within each sample, the total eU spread is 538 ppm to 1374 ppm. For any given eU value, the Archean zircon appear comparatively more metamict than the Proterozoic Baffin grains and samples collectively define a 1681 ppm range in eU, with more restrictive intrasample eU spreads (199-1120 ppm). Proterozoic samples from Baffin, Sandia, and Front Range yield negative zircon He date-eU correlations with intrasample date ranges of 90-783 Ma. Increasing eU and younger dates correspond with increasing metamictization. In contrast, all three Proterozoic Mecca Hills samples

  3. Complex Effects of Ecosystem Engineer Loss on Benthic Ecosystem Response to Detrital Macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rossi

    Full Text Available Ecosystem engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of ecosystem response to disturbance and undermine ecosystem stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies the response to macroalgal detrital enrichment of sediment biogeochemical properties, microphytobenthos and macrofauna assemblages. A field manipulative experiment was done on an intertidal sandflat (Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands. Lugworms were deliberately excluded from 1× m sediment plots and different amounts of detrital Ulva (0, 200 or 600 g Wet Weight were added twice. Sediment biogeochemistry changes were evaluated through benthic respiration, sediment organic carbon content and porewater inorganic carbon as well as detrital macroalgae remaining in the sediment one month after enrichment. Microalgal biomass and macrofauna composition were measured at the same time. Macroalgal carbon mineralization and transfer to the benthic consumers were also investigated during decomposition at low enrichment level (200 g WW. The interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment did not modify sediment organic carbon or benthic respiration. Weak but significant changes were instead found for porewater inorganic carbon and microalgal biomass. Lugworm exclusion caused an increase of porewater carbon and a decrease of microalgal biomass, while detrital enrichment drove these values back to values typical of lugworm-dominated sediments. Lugworm exclusion also decreased the amount of macroalgae remaining into the sediment and accelerated detrital carbon mineralization and CO2 release to the water column. Eventually, the interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment affected macrofauna abundance and diversity, which collapsed at high level of enrichment only when the lugworms were present. This study reveals that in nature the

  4. Complex Effects of Ecosystem Engineer Loss on Benthic Ecosystem Response to Detrital Macroalgae. (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Gribsholt, Britta; Gazeau, Frederic; Di Santo, Valentina; Middelburg, Jack J


    Ecosystem engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of ecosystem response to disturbance and undermine ecosystem stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies the response to macroalgal detrital enrichment of sediment biogeochemical properties, microphytobenthos and macrofauna assemblages. A field manipulative experiment was done on an intertidal sandflat (Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands). Lugworms were deliberately excluded from 1× m sediment plots and different amounts of detrital Ulva (0, 200 or 600 g Wet Weight) were added twice. Sediment biogeochemistry changes were evaluated through benthic respiration, sediment organic carbon content and porewater inorganic carbon as well as detrital macroalgae remaining in the sediment one month after enrichment. Microalgal biomass and macrofauna composition were measured at the same time. Macroalgal carbon mineralization and transfer to the benthic consumers were also investigated during decomposition at low enrichment level (200 g WW). The interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment did not modify sediment organic carbon or benthic respiration. Weak but significant changes were instead found for porewater inorganic carbon and microalgal biomass. Lugworm exclusion caused an increase of porewater carbon and a decrease of microalgal biomass, while detrital enrichment drove these values back to values typical of lugworm-dominated sediments. Lugworm exclusion also decreased the amount of macroalgae remaining into the sediment and accelerated detrital carbon mineralization and CO2 release to the water column. Eventually, the interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment affected macrofauna abundance and diversity, which collapsed at high level of enrichment only when the lugworms were present. This study reveals that in nature the role of this

  5. Beneficiation of low grade zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehim, A.A.


    The zircon concentrate obtained from black sands, contains considerable amount of rutile and some ilmenite. It is necessary to separate these minerals before the metallurgical processing of zircon, as otherwise the zirconium products obtained will be contaminated with large amount of titanium. The present work explores the possibility of purification of zircon from rutile and other minerals by flotation. Effective separation can be obtained by selective flotation using oleic acid and liquid glass in alkaline medium or sodium silicon fluoride in weak acidic medium. (author)

  6. Zircon/fluid trace element partition coefficients measured by recrystallization of Mud Tank zircon at 1.5 GPa and 800-1000 °C (United States)

    Ayers, John C.; Peters, Timothy J.


    Hydrothermal zircon grains have trace element characteristics such as low Th/U, high U, and high rare earth element (REE) concentrations that distinguish them from magmatic, metamorphic, and altered zircon grains, but it is unclear whether these characteristics result from distinctive fluid compositions or zircon/fluid fractionation effects. New experiments aimed at measuring zircon/fluid trace element partition coefficients Dz/f involved recrystallizing natural Mud Tank zircon with low trace element concentrations in the presence of H2O, 1 m NaOH, or 1 m HCl doped with ∼1000 ppm of rare earth elements (REE), Y, U and Th and ∼500 ppm of Li, B, P, Nb, Ba, Hf, and Ta. Experiments were run for 168 h at 1.5 GPa, 800-1000 °C, and fO2 = NNO in a piston cylinder apparatus using the double capsule method. LA-ICP-MS analysis shows that run product zircon crystals have much higher trace element concentrations than in Mud Tank zircon starting material. Dz/f values were estimated from run product zircon analyses and bulk composition using mass balance. Most elements behave incompatibly, with median Dz/f being highest for Hf = 8 and lowest for B = 0.02. Addition of NaOH or HCl had little influence on Dz/f values. Dz/f for LREE are anomalously high, likely due to contamination of run product zircon with quenched solutes enriched in incompatible elements, so DLREE were estimated using lattice strain theory. Brice curves for +3 ions yield zircon/fluid DLu/DLa of ∼800-5000. A Brice curve fit to +4 ions yielded DCe4+ values. Estimated concentrations of Ce3+ and Ce4+ show that the average Ce4+/Ce3+ in zircon of 27 is much higher than in fluid of 0.02. Th and U show little fractionation, with median DTh/DU = 0.7, indicating that the low Th/U in natural hydrothermal zircon is inherited from the fluid. Natural fluid compositions estimated from measured Dz/f and published compositions of hydrothermal zircon grains from aplite and eclogite reflect the mineralogy of the host rock, e

  7. A method for evaluating basement exhumation histories from closure age distributions of detrital minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, Oscar M.; Grove, Marty; Kimbrough, David L.; Abbott, Patrick L.


    We have developed a two-dimensional, thermokinetic model that predicts the closure age distributions of detrital minerals from pervasively intruded and differentially exhumed basement. Using this model, we outline a method to determine the denudation history of orogenic regions on the basis of closure age distributions in synorogenic to postorogenic forearc strata. At relatively high mean denudation rates of 0.5 km m.y.-1 sustained over millions of years, magmatic heating events have minimal influence upon the age distributions of detrital minerals such as K-feldspar that are moderately retentive of radiogenic Ar. At lower rates, however, the effects of batholith emplacement may be substantial. We have applied the approach to detrital K-feldspars from forearc strata derived from the deeply denuded Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB). Agreement of the denudation history deduced from the detrital K-feldspar data with thermochronologic constraints from exposed PRB basement lead us to conclude that exhumation histories of magmatic arcs should be decipherable solely from closure age distributions of detrital minerals whose depositional age is known. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union

  8. Fission track dating of zircon: a multichronometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpena, J.


    Scattering in Fission Track ages of zircons of a single rock is possible when they present morphological and geochemical variations, if the greatest care is not taken in the choice of the etching conditions and the counting of tracks. The Fission Track study of two heterogeneous populations of zircons from the Mont Blanc granite and from the Gran Paradiso gneisses allows to show that zircon may work as a multichronometer

  9. Correlation of Brunhes detrital-layer stratigraphy into the North Atlantic from Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea) (United States)

    Channell, J. E.; Hodell, D. A.; Romero, O. E.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Mazaud, A.; Roehl, U.


    IODP Site U1302-U1303, on the SE flank of Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea), has a record of detrital layers that extends through most of the Brunhes Chron. The age model is built by tandem matching of relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope data (δ18O) from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) to reference records, indicating a mean Brunhes sedimentation rate of 14 cm/kyr. Sedimentation back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 18 is characterized by detrital layers that are detected by higher than background gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) density, peaks in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) indicators for detrital carbonate (Ca/Sr) and detrital silicate (Si/Sr), an ice-rafted debris (IRD) proxy (>106 μm), magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic grain-size peaks. The age model enables correlation of Site U1302/03 to IODP Site U1308 (re-drill of DSDP Site 609) in the heart of the central Atlantic IRD belt where an age model and a similar set of detrital-layer proxies have already been derived. Ages of Heinrich layers H1, H2, H4, H5 and H6 are within ~2 kyr at the two sites (H0, H3 and H5a are not observed at Site U1308), and agree with previous work at Orphan Knoll within ~3 kyr. At Site U1308, Brunhes detrital layers are restricted to peak glacials and glacial terminations back to MIS16, however, these same proxies at Site U1302/03 indicate detrital layers distributed throughout the record in both glacial and most interglacial stages. At Site U1302/03, we distinguish Heinrich-type layers in glacial stages, which are associated with IRD (some of which have near-synchronous analogues at Site U1308), from detrital layers within interglacial stages manifested by multiple detrital layer proxies (including Ca/Sr) but usually not associated with IRD, that may be attributed to a distinct depositional process, namely drainage and debris-flow events funneled down the nearby NAMOC (North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel).

  10. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, S.E.


    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206 Pb and 238 U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.0 +- 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 +- 5.7 and 92.4 +- 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 +- 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.9 +- 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 +- 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 +- 59.6 and 705.5 +- 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. (orig.)

  11. Thermal diffusivity of samarium-gadolinium zirconate solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Wan, C.L.; Xu, Q.; Wang, J.D.; Qu, Z.X.


    We synthesized samarium-gadolinium zirconate solid solutions and determined their thermal diffusivities, Young's moduli and thermal expansion coefficients, which are very important for their application in thermal barrier coatings. Samarium-gadolinium zirconate solid solutions have extremely low thermal diffusivity between 20 and 600 deg. C. The solid solutions have lower Young's moduli and higher thermal expansion coefficients than those of pure samarium and gadolinium zirconates. This combination of characteristics is promising for the application of samarium and gadolinium zirconates in gas turbines. The mechanism of phonon scattering by point defects is discussed

  12. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS


    Full Text Available an accuracy figure of 76.8%. This small difference between the two figures is indicative of the validity of the proposed secondary classification module. Keywords?fingerprint core; fingerprint delta; primary classifi- cation; secondary classification I..., namely, the fingerprint core and the fingerprint delta. Forensically, a fingerprint core is defined as the innermost turning point where the fingerprint ridges form a loop, while the fingerprint delta is defined as the point where these ridges form a...

  13. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks (United States)

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.


    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  14. Oxygen diffusion in zircon (United States)

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.


    Oxygen diffusion in natural, non-metamict zircon was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions at temperatures ranging from 765°C to 1500°C. Dry experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure by encapsulating polished zircon samples with a fine powder of 18O-enriched quartz and annealing the sealed capsules in air. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels (7-70 MPa) or a piston cylinder apparatus (400-1000 MPa) on zircon samples encapsulated with both 18O-enriched quartz and 18O water. Diffusive-uptake profiles of 18O were measured in all samples with a particle accelerator, using the 18O(p, α) 15N reaction. For dry experimental conditions at 1100-1500°C, the resulting oxygen diffusivities (24 in all) are well described by: D dry (m 2/s) = 1.33 × 10 -4exp(-53920/T) There is no suggestion of diffusive anisotropy. Under wet conditions at 925°C, oxygen diffusion shows little or no dependence upon P H 2O in the range 7-1000 MPa, and is insensitive to total pressure as well. The results of 27 wet experiments at 767-1160°C and 7-1000 MPa can be described a single Arrhenius relationship: D wet (m 2/s) = 5.5 × 10 -12exp(-25280/T) The insensitivity of oxygen diffusion to P H 2O means that applications to geologic problems can be pursued knowing only whether the system of interest was 'wet' (i.e., P H 2O > 7MPa ) or 'dry'. Under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust), zircons are extremely retentive of their oxygen isotopic signatures, to the extent that δ 18O would be perturbed at the center of a 200 μm zircon only during an extraordinarily hot and protracted event (e.g., 65 Ma at 900°C). Under wet conditions, δ 18O may or may not be retained in the central regions of individual crystals, cores or overgrowth rims, depending upon the specific thermal history of the system.

  15. Marked spatial gradient in the topographic evolution of the Andes spanning the Chilean flat-slab transition: evidence from stable isotope paleoaltimetry and zircon double dating (United States)

    Hoke, G. D.; McPhillips, D. F.; Giambiagi, L.; Garzione, C. N.; Mahoney, J. B.; Strecker, M. R.


    The major changes in the subduction angle of the Nazca plate are often hypothesized to have important consequences for the tectonic evolution of the Andes. Temporal and spatial patterns of topographic growth and exhumation are indicators that should help elucidate any linkages to subduction angle. Here, we combine observations from stable isotope paleoaltimetry with detrital zircon double dating between 30 and 35°S to demonstrate a consistent increase in surface and rock uplift in the Andes south of 32°S. The stable isotope data are from Miocene pedogenic carbonates collected from seven different basin sequences spanning different tectonic and topographic positions in the range. Paleoelevations between 1 km and 1.9 km are calculated using modern local isotope-elevation gradients along with carbonate-formation temperatures determined from clumped isotope studies in modern soils. Present day, low elevation foreland localities were at their present elevations during the Miocene, while three of the intermontane basins experienced up to 2 km of surface uplift between the end of deposition during the late Miocene and present. Detrital zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and U-Pb double dating in three modern drainage basins (Tunuyán, Arroyo Grande and Río de los Patos) reveals clear Miocene exhumation signals south of the flat slab with no recent exhumation apparent at 32°S. The exhumation pattern is consistent with paleoaltimetry results. Interestingly, the maximum inferred surface uplift is greatest where the crust is thinnest, and the timing of the observed changes in elevation and exhumation has not been linked to any documented episodes of large-magnitude crustal shortening in the eastern half of the range. The spatial pattern of surface uplift and exhumation seems to mimic the Pampean flat slab's geometry, however, it could be equally well explained by eastward migration of a crustal root via ductile deformation in the lower crust and is not related to flat-slab subduction.

  16. A new estimate of detrital redox-sensitive metal concentrations and variability in fluxes to marine sediments (United States)

    Cole, Devon B.; Zhang, Shuang; Planavsky, Noah J.


    The enrichment and depletion of redox sensitive trace metals in marine sediments have been used extensively as paleoredox proxies. The trace metals in shale are comprised of both detrital (transported or particulate) and authigenic (precipitated, redox-driven) constituents, potentially complicating the use of this suite of proxies. Untangling the influence of these components is vital for the interpretation of enrichments, depletions, and isotopic signals of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), uranium (U), and vanadium (V) observed in the rock record. Traditionally, a single crustal average is used as a cutoff for detrital input, and concentrations above or below this value are interpreted as redox derived authigenic enrichment or depletion, while authigenic isotopic signals are frequently corrected for an assumed detrital contribution. Building from an extensive study of soils across the continental United States - which upon transport will become marine sediments - and their elemental concentrations, we find large deviations from accepted crustal averages in redox-sensitive metals (Fe, Cr, U, V) compared to typical detrital tracers (Al, Ti, Sc, Th) and provide new estimates for detrital contributions to the ocean. The variability in these elemental ratios is present over large areas, comparable to the catchment-size of major rivers around the globe. This heterogeneity in detrital flux highlights the need for a reevaluation of how the detrital contribution is assessed in trace metal studies, and the use of confidence intervals rather than single average values, especially in local studies or in the case of small authigenic enrichments.

  17. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Jim; Pai, Tun-Wen; Cheng, Mox


    A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS), successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM), based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates. PMID:25835186

  18. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jim Chen


    Full Text Available A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS, successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM, based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates.

  19. Morphology versus U-Pb systematics in zircon: A high-resolution isotopic study of a zircon population from a Variscan dike in the Central Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.J.; Meier, M.; Oberli, F.; Steiger, R.H.


    U/Pb isotopic measurements on individual zircon crystals combined with morphological analyses permit the identification of three distinct components within the zircon population of the Saedelhorn diorite, a Variscan dike from the western Gotthard (Central Alps, Switzerland): (i) 94% of the grains in the zircon population are elongate crystals with pronounced skeletal morphology indicative of rapid growth from a supercooled melt. (ii) 5% of the population consist of turbid, mostly subhedral zircons frequently showing D-type morphology and elevated uranium contents compared to the skeletal variety. Single-crystal and multi-grain U-Pb isotopic data of group (i) and (ii) zircons define an intrusion age of 293 + 5/ -4 m.y. for the dike. (iii) Rare, transparent zircon crystals (< 1% of the zircons population) yield apparent U-Pb ages in the range of 370-490 m.y. and display morphological and isotopic characteristics closely resembling those of a Caledonian orthogneiss intruded by the dike. This implies presence of assimilated wall-rock components in the macroscopically homogeneous dike sample. (orig./WB)

  20. Preparation and properties of calcium zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, M.; Bucko, M.; Rog, G.


    Dense samples of calcium zirconate were prepared. Electrical conductivity of the samples were measured in the temperature range 873 - 1273 K by both the d.c. four probe and the impedance spectroscopy methods. Calcium zirconate with small excess of calcium oxide appeared to be oxygen ion conductor. It was applied as an electrolyte in solid-state galvanic cells. (author)

  1. Fingerprint pores extractor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngenge, NA


    Full Text Available , this is not always the case because of diseases and hash working conditions that affect fingerprints. In order to maintain high level of security independent of varying fingerprint image quality research suggests the use of other fingerprint features to compliment...

  2. Touchless fingerprint biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Labati, Ruggero Donida; Scotti, Fabio


    Offering the first comprehensive analysis of touchless fingerprint-recognition technologies, Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics gives an overview of the state of the art and describes relevant industrial applications. It also presents new techniques to efficiently and effectively implement advanced solutions based on touchless fingerprinting.The most accurate current biometric technologies in touch-based fingerprint-recognition systems require a relatively high level of user cooperation to acquire samples of the concerned biometric trait. With the potential for reduced constraints, reduced hardw

  3. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kale


    Full Text Available The CO2 adsorption by calcium zirconate was explored at pre- and post- combustion temperature condition. The several samples of the calcium zirconate were prepared by different methods such as sol-gel, solid-solid fusion, template and micro-emulsion. The samples of the calcium zirconate were characterized by measurement of surface area, alkalinity/acidity, and recording the XRD patterns and SEM images. The CO2 adsorptions by samples of the calcium zirconate were studied in the temperature range 100 to 850 oC and the CO2 adsorptions were observed in the ranges of 6.88 to 40.6 wt % at 600 0C and 8 to 16.82 wt% at in between the temperatures 200 to 300 oC. The effect of Ca/Zr mol ratio in the samples of the calcium zirconate on the CO2 adsorption and alkalinity were discussed. The adsorbed moisture by the samples of the calcium zirconate was found to be useful for the CO2 adsorption. The promoted the samples of the calcium zirconate by K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, Ag+ and La3+ showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The exposure time of CO2 on the samples of the calcium zirconate showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The samples of the calcium zirconate were found to be regenerable and reusable several times for the adsorption of CO2 for at the post- and pre-combustion temperature condition. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC Undip. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd June 2012, Revised: 28th August 2012, Accepted: 30th August 2012[How to Cite: K. B. Kale, R. Y. Raskar, V. H. Rane and A. G.  Gaikwad (2012. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 124-136. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3686.124-136] [How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  4. Gold in Accessory Zircon (the Kozhim Massif, Subpolar Urals) (United States)

    Denisova, Yuliya; Pystin, Aleksandr


    The crystals of zircon due to their resistance to external impact of various processes can reveal information about the environment of their formation and the inclusions observed of them. Zircon contains different mineral inclusions: biotite, plagioclase, quartz, apatite, etc. However, there is no information about gold inclusions in the zircons from granites of the Sudpolar Urals. The study results of the inclusions of gold in accessory zircon of the Kozhim granitic massif are presented in this paper. The studied mineral is a dark-brown translucent short-prismatic crystal containing the inclusion of gold and the allocations of quartz. According to studies, the inclusion of gold formed during the growth of zircon and it is the gold covered with a thin film of oxide gold. It was confirmed that the crystallization of the studied zircon occurred at a temperature of 800°C and above on the stage of formation of granites of Kozhim massif. The assumption is made about the additional temperature in the course of which was caused by decreasing of temperature up to 700° C and below during postmagmatic stage.

  5. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  6. Twinning in Zircon: Not a High-Pressure Phenomenon (United States)

    Jones, G. A.; Moser, D.; Shieh, S. R.; Barker, I.


    Microtwins in zircon are commonly found in shocked terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples and are potentially important for shock history and crater reconstruction. Twinning is easily observed with both the optical microscope and variety of electron beam techniques. Twinning as a deformation mechanism is consistent with the high strain rates generated during impact. No constitutive relationships, or even general limits on the physical conditions required for twinning in zircon are known, however. Present speculation on the critical quantity for twin formation, i.e. 10s of GPa of shock pressure (Moser et al. 2011, Timms et al., 2012), has no basis in the underlying mechanisms of twin nucleation, which are related to the motion of dislocations. This erroneous value is due to conflation of twinning sensu stricto with a phase transformation to reidite. Reidite occurs as twin-like lamellae occupying the {112} planes which are thought to be a mirror plane for twinning. We review the crystallographic theory of twinning in zircon. We then evaulate several theories on the nucleation of twins along with their necessary stresses involved. Our aim is to show that shock microtwins in zircon can be a `low pressure' shock phenomenon. This 'low pressure' hypothesis is supported by natural samples. These zircons are from the lower crust nearly 80 km from the centre of the Vredefort impact structure—the most distal zircon shock microstructures yet found in the lithosphere. Twins are present in 10% of the zircon grains greater than 50 µm in diameter. As an extensive, 'low pressure' phenomenon, twins are an easily recognized and potentially widespread record of Earth's impact history.Moser, D.E., Cupelli, C. L., Barker, I., Flowers, R. M., Mowman, J. R., Wooden, J. and Hart, R. (2011) New zircon shock phenomena and their use for dating and […] analysis of the Vredefort dome, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 48(2), 117-139.Timms, N.E., Reddy, S. M., Healy, D., Nemchin, A. A

  7. Unraveling the tectonic evolution of a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian active margin in the Ribeira Orogen (Se Brazil): U-Pb and Lu-Hf provenance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Gabriel Lamounier de F. [Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Schmitt, Renata; Bongiolo, Everton M.; Mendes, Julio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Basei, Miguel S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)


    Full text: The Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Central Ribeira Orogen, in SE Brazil, presents two contrasting tectonic domains in its southern portion: (a) The Arc Domain constituted of Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic magmatic rocks and low P-high T metamorphic para (Sao Fidelis Group) - and ortho- derived units (in Oriental Terrane); and (b) The Basement Domain, constituted of a Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic medium P-high T metamorphic para (Palmital-Buzios Succession)- and ortho-derived units (in Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain). Our work focuses on paraderived rocks sequences from both domains. The provenance analysis using U-Pb and Lu-Hf in zircon grains is presented here as an effective tool to unravel the paleogeography and nature of the pre-collisional sedimentary basins. We performed 505 analyses (U-Pb) on detrital zircon grains and some metamorphic overgrowths from six paragneiss samples. Besides, 141 analyses (Lu-Hf) in six samples only on the detrital zircon grains domains. All samples present a main peak from Neoproterozoic sources (750-570 Ma) and the other minor peak in the Stenian/Tonian periods (1200-850Ma), this indicate an orogenic contribution for this basin. Scarce register from the Mesoproterozoic and two peaks in the Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.6 and 1.9 Ga) are recognized as a contribution from an ancient continent. The Lu-Hf data reveals a juvenile source for the detrital zircon grains from Buzios Succession while Palmital and Sao Fidelis Group units show a main crustal signature for their detrital zircon population. Based on the U-Pb and Lu-Hf data presented here, plus petrological data, geological correlations, and compilation of data from literature, we propose a tectonic model for the origin of para-derived rocks from the eastern part of the Ribeira Orogen. Starting with an extensional environment of ca. 600 Ma in a back-arc basin (Buzios succession deposition) and continuing as an active margin between 570 and 550 Ma in the fore-arc and prism

  8. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition. (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K


    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  9. U-Pb age constraints for the La Tuna Granite and Montevideo Formation (Paleoproterozoic, Uruguay): Unravelling the structure of the Río de la Plata Craton (United States)

    Pamoukaghlián, Karina; Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert; Poiré, Daniel G.; Chemale, Farid; Frei, Dirk; Will, Thomas M.


    The Río de la Plata Craton is a continental block that crops out in Uruguay, eastern Argentina, southernmost Brazil and Paraguay. It comprises in Uruguay the Piedra Alta, Tandilia and Nico Pérez terranes, separated by the Colonia and the Sarandí del Yí megashears. The La Tuna Granite, which intrudes the Araminda metasandstones in the Tandilia Terrane, was considered Cambrian in age and the intruded sandstones were assigned to the Neoproterozoic Piedras de Afilar Formation. We show that the granite is Paleoproterozoic in age and that the host metasandstones do not belong to the Piedras de Afilar Formation, but to the Paleoproterozoic Montevideo Formation. U-Pb LA ICP-MS of zircon ages for the La Tuna Granite yielded a concordant crystallization age of 2156 ± 26 Ma. Furthermore a metamorphic event at 2010 ± 9 Ma is revealed by Pb stepwise leaching dating of monazites. U-Pb detrital zircon ages of the host Araminda metasandstone yield an upper intercept discordia age of 2152 ± 29 Ma, which marks the intrusion of the La Tuna pluton, and which is in accordance with the zircon U-Pb LA ICP MS constraints. A concordant U-Pb detrital zircon age of 2465 ± 40 Ma provides a maximum depositional age constraint for the metapsammites. Comparing quartz arenites of the Ediacaran Piedras de Afilar Formation with the Araminda metaquartzites, we conclude that they are very similar regarding petrology but they differ in age and metamorphic overprint. Detrital zircons in quartz arenites of the Piedras de Afilar Formation show youngest ages of 1.0 Ga. On the other hand, detrital zircons recovered from the Araminda metasandstones and the age of the intruding granite allow interpreting a depositional age between 2465 and 2150 Ma. Nd model ages show crustal residence times in average more than 200 myr older for the Tandilia Terrane both in Uruguay and Argentina, with a significant Neoarchean component, which is lacking in the Piedra Alta Terrane. Whereas the Piedra Alta Terrane was

  10. Fabrication of zircon for disposition of weapons plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.C.; Huang, J.Y.; Serrano, P.L.


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In an effort to address the problems of long term storage and nuclear waste minimization, zircon has been proposed as a host medium for plutonium and other actinides recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons. The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of large scale fabrication of Pu-bearing zircon. Since PuO 2 is thermodynamically less stable than ZrO 2 , it is expected that the process parameters determined for synthesizing ZrSiO 4 (zircon) would be applicable to those for PuSiO 4 (Pu-zircon). Furthermore, since the foremost concern in plutonium processing is the potential for contamination release, this work emphasizes the development of process parameters, using zircon first, to anticipate potential material problems in the containment system for reaction mixtures during processing. Stoichiometric mixtures of ZrO 2 and SiO 2 , in hundred-gram batches, have been subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at temperatures near 1,500 C and pressures approximately 10,000 psi. The product materials have been analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction, and are found to consist of zircon after approximately two hours of reaction time. From this work, it is clear that the fabrication of large quantities of Pu-zircon is feasible. The most notable result of this work is evidence for the existence of container problems. This result, in turn, suggests potential solutions to these problems. Experiments with the quartz inner container, the glass sealant, a sacrificial metal barrier, and a metal outer container are being investigated to mitigate these potential hazards

  11. Tectonic isolation from regional sediment sourcing of the Paradox Basin (United States)

    Smith, T. M.; Saylor, J.; Sundell, K. E.; Lapen, T. J.


    The Appalachian and Ouachita-Marathon mountain ranges were created by a series of tectonic collisions that occurred through the middle and late Paleozoic along North America's eastern and southern margins, respectively. Previous work employing detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated that fluvial and eolian systems transported Appalachian-derived sediment across the continent to North America's Paleozoic western margin. However, contemporaneous intraplate deformation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (ARM) compartmentalized much of the North American western interior and mid-continent. We employ lithofacies characterization, stratigraphic thickness, paleocurrent data, sandstone petrography, and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology to evaluate source-sink relationships of the Paradox Basin, which is one of the most prominent ARM basins. Evaluation of provenance is conducted through quantitative comparison of detrital zircon U-Pb distributions from basin samples and potential sources via detrital zircon mixture modeling, and is augmented with sandstone petrography. Mixing model results provide a measure of individual source contributions to basin stratigraphy, and are combined with outcrop and subsurface data (e.g., stratigraphic thickness and facies distributions) to create tectonic isolation maps. These maps elucidate drainage networks and the degree to which local versus regional sources influence sediment character within a single basin, or multiple depocenters. Results show that despite the cross-continental ubiquity of Appalachian-derived sediment, fluvial and deltaic systems throughout much of the Paradox Basin do not record their influence. Instead, sediment sourcing from the Uncompahgre Uplift, which has been interpreted to drive tectonic subsidence and formation of the Paradox Basin, completely dominated its sedimentary record. Further, the strong degree of tectonic isolation experienced by the Paradox Basin appears to be an emerging, yet common

  12. Silica-calcium zirconate nanocomposite, studying its thermal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silica–calcium zirconate nanocomposite was prepared in a two-step procedure. First, nanocalcium zirconate was synthesized by the modified sol–gel method; then, silica was added to the prepared sol and the resulting product was calcined at 700–1000° C. Dilatometric measurements were performed to determine the ...

  13. Mid-1970's imbalance in zircon supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gordon, D.V.; Collins, R.E.


    Mining and the historical development of the zircon market are briefly reviewed. Causes of the fluctuations in the zircon demand and supply and in the price are discussed. Possible adjustments (such as substitution of other materials in the steel foundry) are listed. Future uses of zircon will probably be limited to those which can justify high prices and those for which there are no substitutes. (DLC)

  14. Photogrammetric fingerprint unwrapping (United States)

    Paar, Gerhard; del Pilar Caballo Perucha, Maria; Bauer, Arnold; Nauschnegg, Bernhard


    Fingerprints are important biometric cues. Compared to conventional fingerprint sensors the use of contact-free stereoscopic image acquisition of the front-most finger segment has a set of advantages: Finger deformation is avoided, the entire relevant area for biometric use is covered, some technical aspects like sensor maintenance and cleaning are facilitated, and access to a three-dimensional reconstruction of the covered area is possible. We describe a photogrammetric workflow for nail-to-nail fingerprint reconstruction: A calibrated sensor setup with typically 5 cameras and dedicated illumination acquires adjacent stereo pairs. Using the silhouettes of the segmented finger a raw cylindrical model is generated. After preprocessing (shading correction, dust removal, lens distortion correction), each individual camera texture is projected onto the model. Image-to-image matching on these pseudo ortho images and dense 3D reconstruction obtains a textured cylindrical digital surface model with radial distances around the major axis and a grid size in the range of 25-50 µm. The model allows for objective fingerprint unwrapping and novel fingerprint matching algorithms since 3D relations between fingerprint features are available as additional cues. Moreover, covering the entire region with relevant fingerprint texture is particularly important for establishing a comprehensive forensic database. The workflow has been implemented in portable C and is ready for industrial exploitation. Further improvement issues are code optimization, unwrapping method, illumination strategy to avoid highlights and to improve the initial segmentation, and the comparison of the unwrapping result to conventional fingerprint acquisition technology.

  15. Response of zircon to melting and metamorphism in deep arc crust, Fiordland (New Zealand): implications for zircon inheritance in cordilleran granites (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shrema; Kemp, A. I. S.; Collins, W. J.


    The Cretaceous Mount Daniel Complex (MDC) in northern Fiordland, New Zealand was emplaced as a 50 m-thick dyke and sheet complex into an active shear zone at the base of a Cordilleran magmatic arc. It was emplaced below the 20-25 km-thick, 125.3 ± 1.3 Ma old Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO) and is characterized by metre-scale sheets of sodic, low and high Sr/Y diorites and granites. 119.3 ± 1.2 Ma old, pre-MDC lattice dykes and 117.4 ± 3.1 Ma late-MDC lattice dykes constrain the age of the MDC itself. Most dykes were isoclinally folded as they intruded, but crystallised within this deep-crustal, magma-transfer zone as the terrain cooled and was buried from 25 to 50 km (9-14 kbar), based on published P-T estimated from the surrounding country rocks. Zircon grains formed under these magmatic/granulite facies metamorphic conditions were initially characterized by conservatively assigning zircons with oscillatory zoning as igneous and featureless rims as metamorphic, representing 54% of the analysed grains. Further petrological assignment involved additional parameters such as age, morphology, Th/U ratios, REE patterns and Ti-in-zircon temperature estimates. Using this integrative approach, assignment of analysed grains to metamorphic or igneous groupings improved to 98%. A striking feature of the MDC is that only 2% of all igneous zircon grains reflect emplacement, so that the zircon cargo was almost entirely inherited, even in dioritic magmas. Metamorphic zircons of MDC show a cooler temperature range of 740-640 °C, reflects the moderate ambient temperature of the lower crust during MDC emplacement. The MDC also provides a cautionary tale: in the absence of robust field and microstructural relations, the igneous-zoned zircon population at 122.1 ± 1.3 Ma, derived mostly from inherited zircons of the WFO, would be meaningless in terms of actual magmatic emplacement age of MDC, where the latter is further obscured by younger (ca. 114 Ma) metamorphic overgrowths

  16. Physics and fingerprints (United States)

    Voss-de Haan, Patrick


    This article discusses a variety of aspects in the detection and development of fingerprints and the physics involved in it. It gives an introduction to some basic issues like composition and properties of fingerprint deposits and a rudimentary framework of dactyloscopy; it covers various techniques for the visualization of latent fingerprints; and it concludes with a view of current research topics. The techniques range from very common procedures, such as powdering and cyanoacrylate fuming, to more demanding methods, for example luminescence and vacuum metal deposition, to fairly unusual approaches like autoradiography. The emphasis is placed on the physical rather than the forensic aspects of these topics while trying to give the physicist—who is not dealing with fingerprinting and forensic science on a daily basis—a feeling for the problems and solutions in the visualization of latent fingerprints.

  17. Gabor filter based fingerprint image enhancement (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xiang


    Fingerprint recognition technology has become the most reliable biometric technology due to its uniqueness and invariance, which has been most convenient and most reliable technique for personal authentication. The development of Automated Fingerprint Identification System is an urgent need for modern information security. Meanwhile, fingerprint preprocessing algorithm of fingerprint recognition technology has played an important part in Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This article introduces the general steps in the fingerprint recognition technology, namely the image input, preprocessing, feature recognition, and fingerprint image enhancement. As the key to fingerprint identification technology, fingerprint image enhancement affects the accuracy of the system. It focuses on the characteristics of the fingerprint image, Gabor filters algorithm for fingerprint image enhancement, the theoretical basis of Gabor filters, and demonstration of the filter. The enhancement algorithm for fingerprint image is in the windows XP platform with matlab.65 as a development tool for the demonstration. The result shows that the Gabor filter is effective in fingerprint image enhancement technology.

  18. Natural radioactivity and radon specific exhalation rate of zircon sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, S.; Verita, S.; Bruzzi, L.; Albertazzi, A.


    The study focuses on the radon emanation from zircon sands and their derivatives, which are widely used in many sectors of industry. In particular, the results obtained by experimental measurements on samples of zircon sands and zircon flours commonly used in Italian ceramic industries are reported. Zircon sands contain a significant concentration of natural radioactivity because Th and U may substitute zirconium in the zircon crystal lattice. The relevant routes of exposure of workers to T.E.N.O.R.M. from zircon materials are external radiation and internal exposure, either by inhalation of aerosols in dusty working conditions or by inhalation of radon in workplaces. The main objective of this investigation is to provide experimental data able to better calculate the internal exposure of workers due to radon inhalation. Zircon samples were surveyed for natural radioactivity, radon specific exhalation rate and emanation fraction. Measurements of radioactivity concentration were carried out using γ-spectrometry. Methods used for determining radon consisted in determining the 222 Rn activity accumulated in a vessel after a given accumulation build-up time. The average activity concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th in samples result about 2600 and 550 Bq kg-1, respectively; these concentrations are significantly higher than the world average noticed in soils, rocks and Earth crust. The 222 Rn specific exhalation rates result very low probably due to the low porosity of the material and the consequent difficulty for radon to be released from the zircon crystal lattice. (author)

  19. Detrital rutile geochemistry and thermometry from the Dabie orogen: Implications for source-sediment links in a UHPM terrane (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Xiao, Yilin; Wörner, G.; Kronz, A.; Simon, K.; Hou, Zhenhui


    This study explores the potential of detrital rutile geochemistry and thermometry as a provenance tracer in rocks from the Central Dabie ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) zone in east-central China that formed during Triassic continental collision. Trace element data of 176 detrital rutile grains selected from local river sediments and 91 rutile grains from distinct bedrocks in the Shuanghe and Bixiling areas, obtained by both electron microprobe (EMP) and in situ LA-ICP-MS analyses, suggest that geochemical compositions and thermometry of detrital rutiles are comparable to those from their potential source rocks. After certification of the Cr-Nb discrimination method for the Central Dabie UHPM zone, we show that 29% of the detrital rutiles in the Shuanghe area were derived from metamafic sources whereas in the Bixiling area that it is up to 76%. Furthermore, the proportion of distinct types of detrital rutiles combined with modal abundances of rutile in metapelites and metamafic bedrocks can be used to estimate the proportion of different source lithologies. Based on this method the proportion of mafic source rocks was estimated to ∼10% at Shuanghe and >60% at Bixiling, respectively, which is consistent with the proportions of eclogite (the major rutile-bearing metamafic rock) distribution in the field. Therefore, the investigation of detrital rutiles is a potential way to evaluate the proportion of metamafic rocks and even to prospect for metamafic bodies in UHPM terranes. Zr-in-rutile temperatures were calculated at different pressures and compared with temperatures derived from rock-in rutiles and garnet-clinopyroxene Fe-Mg thermometers. Temperatures calculated for detrital rutiles range from 606 °C to 707 °C and 566 °C to 752 °C in Shuanghe and Bixiling, respectively, at P = 3 GPa with an average temperatures of ca. 630 °C for both areas. These temperature averages and ranges are similar to those calculated for rutiles from surrounding source rocks

  20. Influence of some additions on zircon synthesis and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryacheva, Z.E.; Poplevina, O.G.; Suvorov, S.A.; Toropov, A.N.


    Kinetics of zircon synthesis from pure ZrO 2 and SiO 2 is studied in the presence of additions of magnesium, calcium and rare earth oxides. The addition introduction accelerates zircon formation, its yield reaching 97% at 1600 deg C. Constants of zircon formation reaction rate are determined in the presence of additions of various oxides. It is shown that synthetic zircon surpasses the natural one in tensile and density properties at similar thermostability. It is stable to the effect of molten alkaline borosilicate glass and does not polute it

  1. Fingerprints in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, K.


    Gene research has shown that factors causing cancer, or carcinogens, may leave marks typical of each particular carcinogen (fingerprints) in the genotype of the cell. Radiation, for instance, may leave such fingerprints in a cancer cell. In particular, the discovery of a gene called p53 has yielded much new information on fingerprints. It has been discovered, for example, that toxic fungus and UV-radiation each leave fingerprints in the p53 gene. Based on the detection of fingerprints, it may be possible in the future to tell a cancer patient what factor had trigged the maglinancy

  2. Juvenile crust formation in the Zimbabwe Craton deduced from the O-Hf isotopic record of 3.8-3.1 Ga detrital zircons (United States)

    Bolhar, Robert; Hofmann, Axel; Kemp, Anthony I. S.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Wind, Sandra; Kamber, Balz S.


    Hafnium and oxygen isotopic compositions measured in-situ on U-Pb dated zircon from Archaean sedimentary successions belonging to the 2.9-2.8 Ga Belingwean/Bulawayan groups and previously undated Sebakwian Group are used to characterize the crustal evolution of the Zimbabwe Craton prior to 3.0 Ga. Microstructural and compositional criteria were used to minimize effects arising from Pb loss due to metamorphic overprinting and interaction with low-temperature fluids. 207Pb/206Pb age spectra (concordance >90%) reveal prominent peaks at 3.8, 3.6, 3.5, and 3.35 Ga, corresponding to documented geological events, both globally and within the Zimbabwe Craton. Zircon δ18O values from +4 to +10‰ point to both derivation from magmas in equilibrium with mantle oxygen and the incorporation of material that had previously interacted with water in near-surface environments. In εHf-time space, 3.8-3.6 Ga grains define an array consistent with reworking of a mafic reservoir (176Lu/177Hf ∼0.015) that separated from chondritic mantle at ∼3.9 Ga. Crustal domains formed after 3.6 Ga depict a more complex evolution, involving contribution from chondritic mantle sources and, to a lesser extent, reworking of pre-existing crust. Protracted remelting was not accompanied by significant mantle depletion prior to 3.35 Ga. This implies that early crust production in the Zimbabwe Craton did not cause complementary enriched and depleted reservoirs that were tapped by later magmas, possibly because the volume of crust extracted and stabilised was too small to influence (asthenospheric) mantle isotopic evolution. Growth of continental crust through pulsed emplacement of juvenile (chondritic mantle-derived) melts, into and onto the existing cratonic nucleus, however, involved formation of complementary depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle since the early Archaean, indicative of strongly coupled evolutionary histories of both reservoirs, with limited evidence for recycling and lateral

  3. U-Pb dating, geochemistry, and tectonic implications of the Songpan-Ganzi block and the Longmen Shan, Chiba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.L.; Li, D.P.; Zhou, J.


    The Songpan-Ganzi triangular tectonic block is surrounded by the East Kunlun-Qaidam block in the north, the Qiangtang block in the southwest, and the Longmen Shan in the southeast. The Longmen Shan is the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia. The tectonic affinity and relationship of these regions with the Yangtze and North China blocks have been rigorously debated. In this paper, we present our recent studies on the geochemistry of the Precambrian to Triassic classic sedimentary rocks from this area. Detrital zircons were extracted from the sedimentary rocks for U-Pb dating by SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS. Nd depleted mantle model ages indicate that these provenances have an affinity to the Yangtze craton and Qinling Shan, in contrast to those of the North China craton. All strata, from Cambrian to late Triassic, contain detrital zircon U-Pb ages of 1400 to 600 Ma, with most falling between 900-720 Ma. The Songpan-Ganzi block was the most important part of the Northern Tethys in the Triassic period, in addition to being the largest flysch basin in the world. The Longmen Shan thrust belt comprises both the telescoped, unmetamorphosed, shallow water carbonate-dominated passive margin of the Yangtze craton and its crystalline basement. The western and northern margins of the Yangtze craton, as well as the Qinling Shan, were the sources of sediments in the Songpan-Ganzi block and the Longmen Shan. The oldest dated detrital zircons indicate that the Yangtze craton started forming during the period 2800-2200 Ma. Because the basement of the Yangtze craton experienced multi-episodic intracrustal processes, the oldest basement components account for only a small portion of the provenance components. The detrital zircon ages of 2200-1400 Ma indicate a major contribution of the Qinling Shan and/or the northwestern margin of the Yangtze craton to the clastic sediments in the Songpan-Ganzi block. The presence of detrital zircon of Neoproterozoic to Triassic ages

  4. Dating of zircons by the fission track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio Hernandez, L.M.


    This work describes the methodology to date zircons by the Fission Track Method. A brief discussion is made of the physical principles of the method, physical properties of zircons and the geochemical properties of uranium. When starting with a hand sample, a mineral separation is required; to do this the following steps are needed: crushing and sieving of the sample, washing and drying, magnetic separation, heavy liquid separation (Bromoform 2.89 g/cm 3 , Diyodomethane = 3.31 g/cm 3 ), and manual separation on a stereoscopic microscope. Once the zircon concentrate is obtained, these are mounted on a FEP teflon mount, then polished and etched on an eutectic mix of 10 g. of KOH + 7.2 g. of NaOH, heated to 210 Centigrade degrees. Afterwards the mounts are prepared for irradiation, sterilizing and putting on top of them an external detector (a thin sheet of muscovite poor in uranium content). The package is then wrapped in plastic and sent to the reactor together with standard zircons of known age (Fish Canyon Tuff: Naeser, 1981), mounted in the same way, plus standard glasses of known uranium content. The package was irradiated in a site known as SIRCA (Rotatory Capsules Irradiation System). Then the package is left to decay for several days, and then the external detectors are etched in a 48% concentrated hydrofluoric acid for 5 minutes. Once the samples are processed through the mentioned steps, spontaneous tracks appear in the zircons and induced tracks appear in the external detectors. On counting the tracks one obtains ρ s (spontaneous track density) and ρ 1 (induced track density). These two parameters together with another one called '#zeta #' (obtained from the standard zircons and glasses), are used to obtain the age of the sample. Zircons from Cerro de Mercado, Durango were dated and the age obtained was 30 ±5 Ma. This date is in agreement with similar results obtained by Fleisher and Naeser (1975) for zircons of the same locality and dated by the

  5. Contributions of detrital subsidies to aboveground spiders during secondary succession, revealed by radiocarbon and stable isotope signatures. (United States)

    Haraguchi, Takashi F; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tayasu, Ichiro


    Prey subsidies originating from detritus add nutrients and energy to arboreal communities. Measurement of this subsidy is required in the understanding of how food web dynamics respond to changes in surrounding environments. Shrub spiders are one of the key predators involved in food web coupling. We evaluate the effects of potential changes in prey availabilities during secondary succession on the contribution of subsidy from detrital food webs to shrub spiders and how different spider feeding guilds used the subsidy of prey from detrital food webs. We measured the relative importance of the subsidy for the spider feeding guilds, using the ratios of stable isotopes of C (δ(13)C), and N (δ(15)N) and C isotope discrimination (Δ(14)C). Diet age was calculated from Δ(14)C values, because old diet ages of spiders indicate that the spiders consume prey from detrital food sources. Dominant aerial prey (Diptera) had a distinctively old diet age compared with arboreal prey, which indicates that aerial prey were subsidized from detrital food webs. Sit-and-wait spiders tended to have an older diet age than active hunting spiders, which indicates that sit-and-wait spiders depended more on subsidies. Diet age varied only slightly for spiders in stands of different ages, indicating that rates at which spiders use grazing and detrital prey are probably determined more by foraging strategies and not by stand age. A dominance of sit-and-wait predators will lead to higher detrital subsidy inputs in shrub habitats. This study highlights the effect of shrub spider community structure (feeding guild composition) on the volume of the subsidy received from the detrital food web.

  6. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Budi Sulistyo; Pristi Hartati; Sunardjo


    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  7. Empirical constraints on the effects of radiation damage on helium diffusion in zircon (United States)

    Anderson, Alyssa J.; Hodges, Kip V.; van Soest, Matthijs C.


    In this study, we empirically evaluate the impact of radiation damage on zircon (U-Th)/He closure temperatures for a suite of zircon crystals from the slowly cooled McClure Mountain syenite of south-central Colorado, USA. We present new zircon, titanite, and apatite conventional (U-Th)/He dates, zircon laser ablation (U-Th)/He and U-Pb dates, and zircon Raman spectra for crystals from the syenite. Titanite and apatite (U-Th)/He dates range from 447 to 523 Ma and 88.0 to 138.9 Ma, respectively, and display no clear correlation between (U-Th)/He date and effective uranium concentration. Conventional zircon (U-Th)/He dates range from 230.3 to 474 Ma, while laser ablation zircon (U-Th)/He dates show even greater dispersion, ranging from 5.31 to 520 Ma. Dates from both zircon (U-Th)/He datasets decrease with increasing alpha dose, indicating that most of the dispersion can be attributed to radiation damage. Alpha dose values for the dated zircon crystals range from effectively zero to 2.15 × 1019 α /g, spanning the complete damage spectrum. We use an independently constrained thermal model to empirically assign a closure temperature to each dated zircon grain. If we assume that this thermal model is robust, the zircon radiation damage accumulation and annealing model of Guenthner et al. (2013) does not accurately predict closure temperatures for many of the analyzed zircon crystals. Raman maps of the zircons dated by laser ablation document complex radiation damage zoning, sometimes revealing crystalline zones in grains with alpha dose values suggestive of amorphous material. Such zoning likely resulted in heterogeneous intra-crystalline helium diffusion and may help explain some of the discrepancies between our empirical findings and the Guenthner et al. (2013) model predictions. Because U-Th zoning is a common feature in zircon, radiation damage zoning is likely to be a concern for most ancient, slowly cooled zircon (U-Th)/He datasets. Whenever possible, multiple

  8. Thermoluminescence of zircon: a kinetic model

    CERN Document Server

    Turkin, A A; Vainshtein, D I; Hartog, H W D


    The mineral zircon, ZrSiO sub 4 , belongs to a class of promising materials for geochronometry by means of thermoluminescence (TL) dating. The development of a reliable and reproducible method for TL dating with zircon requires detailed knowledge of the processes taking place during exposure to ionizing radiation, long-term storage, annealing at moderate temperatures and heating at a constant rate (TL measurements). To understand these processes one needs a kinetic model of TL. This paper is devoted to the construction of such a model. The goal is to study the qualitative behaviour of the system and to determine the parameters and processes controlling TL phenomena of zircon. The model considers the following processes: (i) Filling of electron and hole traps at the excitation stage as a function of the dose rate and the dose for both (low dose rate) natural and (high dose rate) laboratory irradiation. (ii) Time dependence of TL fading in samples irradiated under laboratory conditions. (iii) Short time anneali...

  9. Sedimentary Provenance Constraints on the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Paleogeography of the Sichuan Basin, SW China (United States)

    Li, Y.; He, D.; Li, D.; Lu, R.


    Sedimentary provenance of the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous sediments in the Sichuan Basin is constrained by sandstone petrology and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, which provides critical insights into mid-late Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the Sichuan Basin. Petrographic analyses of 22 sandstone samples indicate moderate to high mature sediments and are primarily derived from cratonic or recycled sources. U-Pb age data for the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous detrital zircons generally show populations at 130-200, 200-330, 400-490, 680-890, 1730-1960, and 2360-2600 Ma, with up-section variations. The Middle Jurassic sediments contain a relatively high density of 1.85 and 2.5 Ga zircons and a low density of the 800 Ma zircons, which are consistent with derivation mainly from the Songpan-Ganzi terrane and the South Qinling belt, and secondarily from the Western Jiangnan Orogen. The Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sedimentation with a scattered age distribution shared common multiple-source to sink systems that were predominantly draining towards the south and southeast, but increasingly drained southward, and were later disrupted by a synchronous northeastward drainage capture. Late Cretaceous sediments have a distinct reduction in Block.

  10. Biogenic magnetite, detrital hematite, and relative paleointensity in Quaternary sediments from the Southwest Iberian Margin (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Margari, V.; Skinner, L. C.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kesler, M. S.


    Magnetic properties of late Quaternary sediments on the SW Iberian Margin are dominated by bacterial magnetite, observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with contributions from detrital titanomagnetite and hematite. Reactive hematite, together with low organic matter concentrations and the lack of sulfate reduction, lead to dissimilatory iron reduction and availability of Fe(II) for abundant magnetotactic bacteria. Magnetite grain-size proxies (κARM/κ and ARM/IRM) and S-ratios (sensitive to hematite) vary on stadial/interstadial timescales, contain orbital power, and mimic planktic δ18O. The detrital/biogenic magnetite ratio and hematite concentration are greater during stadials and glacial isotopic stages, reflecting increased detrital (magnetite) input during times of lowered sea level, coinciding with atmospheric conditions favoring hematitic dust supply. Magnetic susceptibility, on the other hand, has a very different response being sensitive to coarse detrital multidomain (MD) magnetite associated with ice-rafted debris (IRD). High susceptibility and/or magnetic grain-size coarsening, mark Heinrich stadials (HS), particularly HS2, HS3, HS4, HS5, HS6 and HS7, as well as older Heinrich-like detrital layers, indicating the sensitivity of this region to fluctuations in the position of the polar front. Relative paleointensity (RPI) records have well-constrained age models based on planktic δ18O correlation to ice-core chronologies, however, they differ from reference records (e.g. PISO) particularly in the vicinity of glacial maxima, mainly due to inefficient normalization of RPI records in intervals of enhanced hematite input.

  11. Pengaruh Temperatur, Waktu, dan Aditif Dalam Pembuatan Zircon Micronized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Research on temperature, time and additives effects on milling process in micronized-zircon production has been conducted. The production of zircon micronized started from sorting process on mining products then followed by beneficiation, roasting, leaching, dryng and milling processes. The results showed that the optimum conditions of the roasting process was at the temperature of 425 °C, in 25 minutes and using 4% additives. In these conditions, micronized zircon (2 µm obtained as much as 92.10% in10 minutes milling time.

  12. U-Th-Pb systematics in zircon and titanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zartman, R.E.; Kwak, L.M.


    U-Th-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon and titanite were made for two core samples of granite from borehole ATK-1 drilled into the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton. One of the samples from near the bottom of the hole (990.97 to 996.78 m) yielded zircon and titanite that were slightly to severely disturbed isotopically. Eight fractions of zircon give an upper concordia intercept age of 2625 ± 16 Ma (MSWD = 34), which, based on an evaluation of the more concordant data points and on other geochronological results, is interpreted as being slightly too young. The time of crystallization is probably better approximated by the 207 Pb/ 206 Pb age of 2665 Ma determined on a slightly (∼8 percent) discordant titanite. The other sample from near the surface (3.85 to 9.61 m) generally revealed even more severely disturbed isotopic systematics for both zircon and titanite. The complex nature of the disturbances probably resulted from the penetration of meteoritic water into rock already modified by post-crystallization hydrothermal alteration. Nuclide migration occurred in both minerals -- during the Middle or Late Proterozoic for the zircon and during the modern weathering cycle for the titanite. Material balance calculations are used to demonstrate a recent relative gain of radiogenic Pb and/or loss of Th and U from the freshest-looking, least-altered titanite by exchange with altered, leucoxenite-bearing titanite

  13. Detrital illite crystals identified from crystallite thickness measurements in siliciclastic sediments (United States)

    Aldega, L.; Eberl, D.D.


    Illite crystals in siliciclastic sediments are heterogeneous assemblages of detrital material coming from various source rocks and, at paleotemperatures >70 ??C, of superimposed diagenetic modification in the parent sediment. We distinguished the relative proportions of 2M1 detrital illite and possible diagenetic 1Md + 1M illite by a combined analysis of crystal-size distribution and illite polytype quantification. We found that the proportions of 1Md + 1M and 2M1 illite could be determined from crystallite thickness measurements (BWA method, using the MudMaster program) by unmixing measured crystallite thickness distributions using theoretical and calculated log-normal and/or asymptotic distributions. The end-member components that we used to unmix the measured distributions were three asymptotic-shaped distributions (assumed to be the diagenetic component of the mixture, the 1Md + 1M polytypes) calculated using the Galoper program (Phase A was simulated using 500 crystals per cycle of nucleation and growth, Phase B = 333/cycle, and Phase C = 250/ cycle), and one theoretical log-normal distribution (Phase D, assumed to approximate the detrital 2M1 component of the mixture). In addition, quantitative polytype analysis was carried out using the RockJock software for comparison. The two techniques gave comparable results (r2 = 0.93), which indicates that the unmixing method permits one to calculate the proportion of illite polytypes and, therefore, the proportion of 2M1 detrital illite, from crystallite thickness measurements. The overall illite crystallite thicknesses in the samples were found to be a function of the relative proportions of thick 2M1 and thin 1Md + 1M illite. The percentage of illite layers in I-S mixed layers correlates with the mean crystallite thickness of the 1Md + 1M polytypes, indicating that these polytypes, rather than the 2M1 polytype, participate in I-S mixed layering.

  14. Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia R, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios del Posgrado, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia G, N., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Av. Colon y Av. Tollocan, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3} in the bulk of zircon. The Dy{sup 3+} is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy{sup 3+} has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

  15. Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Garcia R, G.; Garcia G, N.


    When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy 3+ , Eu 3+ and Er 3 in the bulk of zircon. The Dy 3+ is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy 3+ has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

  16. Dealing with Insufficient Location Fingerprints in Wi-Fi Based Indoor Location Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Dong


    Full Text Available The development of the Internet of Things has accelerated research in the indoor location fingerprinting technique, which provides value-added localization services for existing WLAN infrastructures without the need for any specialized hardware. The deployment of a fingerprinting based localization system requires an extremely large amount of measurements on received signal strength information to generate a location fingerprint database. Nonetheless, this requirement can rarely be satisfied in most indoor environments. In this paper, we target one but common situation when the collected measurements on received signal strength information are insufficient, and show limitations of existing location fingerprinting methods in dealing with inadequate location fingerprints. We also introduce a novel method to reduce noise in measuring the received signal strength based on the maximum likelihood estimation, and compute locations from inadequate location fingerprints by using the stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Our experiment results show that our proposed method can achieve better localization performance even when only a small quantity of RSS measurements is available. Especially when the number of observations at each location is small, our proposed method has evident superiority in localization accuracy.

  17. Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited) (United States)

    Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.


    Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

  18. Two-stage model of development of heterogeneous uranium-lead systems in zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, N.N.; Zevchenkov, O.A.


    Behaviour of isotope systems of multiphase zircons at their two-stage distortion is considered. The results of calculations testify to the fact that linear correlations on the diagram with concordance can be explained including two-stage discovery of U-Pb systems of cogenetic zircons if zircon is considered physically heterogeneous and losing in its different part different ratios of accumulated radiogenic lead. ''Metamorphism ages'' obtained by these two-stage opening zircons are intermediate, and they not have geochronological significance while ''crystallization ages'' remain rather close to real ones. Two-stage opening zircons in some cases can be diagnosed by discordance of their crystal component

  19. hapter 3 Sedimentology of the newly identified middle lake beds unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassy Mtelela

    relationship and pilot detrital zircon geochronology, these isolated, enigmatic strata are herein informally ... exposures with uncertain age relationships, but which can be divided into five distinctive ... very little geologic attention until very.

  20. Crystallization process of zircon and fergusonite during hydrothermal alteration in Nechalacho REE deposit, Thor Lake, Canada (United States)

    Hoshino, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kon, Y.; Tsunematsu, M.


    The core samples of two drill holes, which penetrate sub-horizontal mineralized horizons at Nechalacho REE deposit in the Proterozoic Thor Lake syenite, Canada, were studied in order to clarify magmatic and hydrothermal processes that enriched HFSE (e.g. Zr, Nb, Y and REE). Zircon is the most common REE minerals in Nechalacho REE deposit. The zircon is divided into five types as follows: Type-1 zircon occurs as single grain in phlogopite and the chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by a steeply-rising slope from the LREE to the HREE with a positive Ce-anomaly and negative Eu-anomaly. This chemical characteristic is similar to that of igneous zircon. Type-2 zircon consists of HREE-rich magmatic porous core and LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal rim. This type zircon is mostly included in phlogopite and fluorite, and occasionally in microcline. Type-3 zircon is characterized by euhedral to anhedral crystal, occurring in a complex intergrowth with REE fluorocarbonates. Type-3 zircons have high contents of REE, Nb and fluorine. Type-4 zircon consists of porous-core and -rim zones, but their chemical compositions are similar to each other. This type zircon is a subhedral crystal rimmed by fergusonite. Type-5 zircon is characterized by smaller, porous and subhedral to anhedral crystals. The interstices between small zircons are filled by fergusonite. Type-4 and -5 zircons show low REE and Nb contents. Occurrences of these five types of zircon are different according to the depth and degree of the alteration by hydrothermal solutions rich in F- and CO3 of the two drill holes, which permit a model for evolution of the zircon crystallization in Nechalacho REE deposit as follows: (1) type-1 (single magmatic zircon) is formed in miaskitic syenite. (2) LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal zircon formed around HREE-rich magmatic zircon (type-2 zircon); (3) type-3 zircon crystallized thorough F and CO3-rich hydrothermal alteration of type-2 zircon which formed the complex

  1. Developing Zircon as a Probe of Planetary Impact History (United States)

    Wielicki, Matthew


    The identification of Meteor Crater in Arizona as an extraterrestrial impact by Eugene Shoemaker provided the first evidence of this geologic phenomenon and opened the door to a new field of research that has eventually lead to the identification of over ~150 terrestrial impact structures. Subsequently impacts have been evoked in the formation of the moon, delivery of volatiles and bio-precursors to early Earth, creation of habitats for the earliest life and, in more recent times, major mass extinction events. However, understanding the impact flux to the Earth-Moon system has been complicated by the constant weathering and erosion at Earth's surface and the complex nature of impactite samples such that only a hand full of terrestrial craters have been accurately and precisely dated. Currently 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analysis of impactite samples is commonly used to infer impact ages but can be problematic due to the presence of relic clasts, incomplete 40Ar outgassing or excess 40Ar, and recoil and shock effects. The work presented here attempts to develop zircon geochronology to probe planetary impact histories as an alternative to current methods and provides another tool by which to constrain the bolide flux to the Earth-Moon system. Zircon has become the premier geo-chronometer in earth science and geochemical investigation of Hadean zircon from Western Australia has challenged the long-standing, popular conception that the near-surface Hadean Earth was an uninhabitable and hellish world; Zircons may preserve environmental information regarding their formation and thus provide a rare window into conditions on early Earth. Isotopic and petrologic analyses of these ancient grains have been interpreted to suggest that early Earth was more habitable than previously envisioned, with water oceans, continental crust, and possibly even plate tectonics. The Hadean is also suspected to be a time of major planetary bombardment however identifying impact signatures within

  2. Fingerprint Change: Not Visible, But Tangible. (United States)

    Negri, Francesca V; De Giorgi, Annamaria; Bozzetti, Cecilia; Squadrilli, Anna; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Leonardi, Francesco; Bisogno, Luigi; Garofano, Luciano


    Hand-foot syndrome, a chemotherapy-induced cutaneous toxicity, can cause an alteration in fingerprints causing a setback for cancer patients due to the occurrence of false rejections. A colon cancer patient was fingerprinted after not having been able to use fingerprint recognition devices after 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. The fingerprint images were digitally processed to improve fingerprint definition without altering the papillary design. No evidence of skin toxicity was present. Two months later, the situation returned to normal. The fingerprint evaluation conducted on 15 identification points highlighted the quantitative and qualitative fingerprint alteration details detected after the end of chemotherapy and 2 months later. Fingerprint alteration during chemotherapy has been reported, but to our knowledge, this particular case is the first ever reported without evident clinical signs. Alternative fingerprint identification methods as well as improved biometric identification systems are needed in case of unexpected situations. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Online fingerprint verification. (United States)

    Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K


    As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications.

  4. Annealing effects on cathodoluminescence of zircon (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Y.; Nishido, H.; Noumi, Y.


    U-Pb zircon dating (e. g., SHRIMP) is an important tool to interpret a history of the minerals at a micrometer-scale, where cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging allows us to recognize internal zones and domains with different chemical compositions and structural disorder at high spatial resolution. The CL of zircon is attributed by various types of emission centers, which are extrinsic ones such as REE impurities and intrinsic ones such as structural defects. Metamictization resulted from radiation damage to the lattice by alpha particles from the decay of U and Th mostly causes an effect on the CL features of zircon as a defect center. However, slightly radiation-damaged zircon, which is almost nondetectable by XRD, has not been characterized using CL method. In this study, annealing effects on CL of zircon has been investigated to clarify a recovery process of the damaged lattice at low radiation dose. A single crystal of zircon from Malawi was selected for CL measurements. It contains HfO2: 2.30 w.t %, U: 241 ppm and Th: 177 ppm. Two plate samples perpendicular to c and a axes were prepared for annealing experiments during 12 hours from room temperature to 1400 degree C. Color CL images were captured using a cold-cathode microscope (Luminoscope: Nuclide ELM-3R). CL spectral measurements were conducted using an SEM (JEOL: JSM-5410) combined with a grating monochromator (Oxford: Mono CL2) to measure CL spectra ranging from 300 to 800 nm in 1 nm steps with a temperature controlled stage. The dispersed CL was collected by a photoncounting method using a photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu: R2228) and converted to digital data. All CL spectra were corrected for the total instrumental response. Spectral analysis reveals an anisotropy of the CL emission bands related to intrinsic defect center in blue region, radiation-induced defect center from 500 to 700 nm, and trivalent Dy impurity center at 480 and 580 nm, but their relative intensities are almost constant. CL on the

  5. Trace-element and Nd-isotope systematics in detrital apatite of the Po river catchment: Implications for provenance discrimination and the lag-time approach to detrital thermochronology (United States)

    Malusà, Marco G.; Wang, Jiangang; Garzanti, Eduardo; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Villa, Igor M.; Wittmann, Hella


    Detrital thermochronology is often employed to assess the evolutionary stage of an entire orogenic belt using the lag-time approach, i.e., the difference between the cooling and depositional ages of detrital mineral grains preserved in a stratigraphic succession. The impact of different eroding sources to the final sediment sink is controlled by several factors, including the short-term erosion rate and the mineral fertility of eroded bedrock. Here, we use apatite fertility data and cosmogenic-derived erosion rates in the Po river catchment (Alps-Apennines) to calculate the expected percentage of apatite grains supplied to the modern Po delta from the major Alpine and Apenninic eroding sources. We test these predictions by using a cutting-edge dataset of trace-element and Nd-isotope signatures on 871 apatite grains from 14 modern sand samples, and we use apatite fission-track data to validate our geochemical approach to provenance discrimination. We found that apatite grains shed from different sources are geochemically distinct. Apatites from the Lepontine dome in the Central Alps show relative HREE enrichment, lower concentrations in Ce and U, and higher 147Sm/144Nd ratios compared to apatites derived from the External Massifs. Derived provenance budgets point to a dominant apatite contribution to the Po delta from the high-fertility Lepontine dome, consistent with the range independently predicted from cosmonuclide and mineral-fertility data. Our results demonstrate that the single-mineral record in the final sediment sink can be largely determined by high-fertility source rocks exposed in rapidly eroding areas within the drainage. This implies that the detrital thermochronology record may reflect processes affecting relatively small parts of the orogenic system under consideration. A reliable approach to lag-time analysis would thus benefit from an independent provenance discrimination of dated mineral grains, which may allow to proficiently reconsider many

  6. A new geological framework for south-central Madagascar, and its relevance to the "out-of-Africa" hypothesis (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.Y.; Macey, P.H.; Delor, C.; Amelin, Y.; Armstrong, R.A.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.


    The Precambrian shield of south-central Madagascar, excluding the Vohibory region, consists of three geologic domains, from north to south: Antananarivo, Ikalamavony-Itremo, and Anosyen-Androyen. The northern Antananarivo domain represents the Neoarchean sector of the Greater Dharwar Craton amalgamated at 2.52-2.48. Ga. The Greater Dharwar Craton is overlain by several groups of Meso- to Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Ambatolampy, Manampotsy, Ampasary, Sahantaha, and Maha Groups) each with a common and diagnostic signature of Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.2-1.8. Ga). The central domain (Ikalamavony-Itremo) consists of two distinct parts. The Itremo Sub-domain, in the east, is a structurally intercalated sequence of Neoarchean gneiss and shallow marine metasedimentary rocks of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic age (Itremo Group), the latter with Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons ranging in age between 2.2 and 1.8. Ga. The Ikalamavony Sub-domain, to the west, contains abundant volcano-clastic metasediments and lesser quartzite (Ikalamavony Group), formed between 1.03. Ga and 0.98. Ga, and intruded by igneous rocks (Dabolava Suite) of Stenian-Tonian age. Structurally intercalated with these are sheets of Neoarchean gneiss (~2.5. Ga) and Neoproterozoic metaclastic rocks (Molo Group). Like the Itremo Group, quartzite of the Ikalamavony Group has detrital zircons of Paleoproterozoic age (2.1-1.8. Ga). The southern domain of Anosyen-Androyen consists of a newly recognized suite of Paleoproterozoic igneous rocks (2.0-1.8. Ga), and stratified supracrustal rocks also having Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.3-1.8. Ga). The contact between the Anosyen-Androyen and Ikalamavony-Itremo domains, formerly known as the Ranotsara-Bongolava shear zone, is a tightly folded and highly flattened boundary that was ductilely deformed in Ediacaran time. It is roughly equivalent to the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone in south India, and it defines approximately the boundary between the Archean

  7. Fingerprint separation: an application of ICA (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Singh, Deepak Kumar; Kalra, Prem Kumar


    Among all existing biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method, which has been successfully used in numerous applications. Fingerprint-based identification is the most recognized tool in biometrics because of its reliability and accuracy. Fingerprint identification is done by matching questioned and known friction skin ridge impressions from fingers, palms, and toes to determine if the impressions are from the same finger (or palm, toe, etc.). There are many fingerprint matching algorithms which automate and facilitate the job of fingerprint matching, but for any of these algorithms matching can be difficult if the fingerprints are overlapped or mixed. In this paper, we have proposed a new algorithm for separating overlapped or mixed fingerprints so that the performance of the matching algorithms will improve when they are fed with these inputs. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been used as a tool to separate the overlapped or mixed fingerprints.

  8. Peculiar Feldspar And Quartz Inclusions Within Zircons From Anorthosites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Eliwa, H. A.; Dawoud, M. I.; Khalaf, I. M.; Negendank, J. F.; Itaya, T.


    Zircons from three anorthosite outcrops along Wadi Dib area, north Eastern Desert of Egypt contain abundant and conspicuous inclusions of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and apatite. These anorthosites, as (50-100m thick) layers, represent the top of mafic-ultramafic intrusions exhibiting rhythmic layering visible by reputation of melanocratic and leucocratic layers. Field and microscopic studies exhibit that these anorthosites were affected by the action of residual magmatic solutions associated with the late stage crystallization of the younger granites, which modified their mineralogical composition. They are composed totally of plagioclase with subordinate amount of clinoenstatite, augite, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, and quartz. Accessories are magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and zircon. The abundance and the mode of occurrence of K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite with apatite and zircon among the megacrysts suggest their formation is ascribed to the interaction with the residual solutions. The microprobe data exhibit difference between feldspar and amphiboles contained herein zircons and those as anorthosite mineral constituents. The genetic relationship between zircons and their inclusions suggests later growth of zircons than inclusions and most probably at the final stage of rock modification. Zircons are magmatic and found in the interstitial feldspar and quartz among plagioclase megacrysts in aggregates or as individual grains. The microscopic and SEM images investigation exhibit that most zircons are subhedral to euhedral equant and prismatic crystals. Most zircons have same range of crystal morphologies and internal growth structures with predominance of prism /{100/} and pyramid /{101/} and occasionally prism /{110/} and pyramid /{111/}. No evidences for poly-faceted grains, inherited cores or later overgrowths were detected. CL images distinguished zircons with visible core-rim structures and others with regular and continuous growth zones contained herein

  9. Zircon U-Pb ages of Guyana greenstone-gneiss terrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, A.K. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Olszewski, W.J. Jr. (New Hampshire Univ., Durham (USA))


    Isotopic U-Pb studies of zircons collected from weathered metagreywackes of the Barama-Mazaruni Supergroup of northern Guyana, South America, demonstrate an age of origin of ca. 2250 Ma. This is the best estimate for the age of the associated metavolcanic rocks. Zircons from weathered gneiss of the Bartica complex, adjacent to the volcanic-sedimentary belts, yield a similar age. The contiguous greenstone-gneiss terrane of eastern Venezuela is also of similar age and comparable greenstone-gneiss terranes of eastern Suriname and French Guiana are probably also of this age. Continental crust formation of a style closely comparable to that of the Canadian Archean occurred on a very widespread scale in the Lower Proterozoic of the Guiana shield. The lead losses from the weathered zircons are comparable to those from zircons from fresh rock from the adjacent terrane of Venezuela, and the advantages of field concentration from numerous saprolite exposures warrant use of such material in future geochronological studies of the region.

  10. Raman study of radiation-damaged zircon under hydrostatic compression (United States)

    Nasdala, Lutz; Miletich, Ronald; Ruschel, Katja; Váczi, Tamás


    Pressure-induced changes of Raman band parameters of four natural, gem-quality zircon samples with different degrees of self-irradiation damage, and synthetic ZrSiO4 without radiation damage, have been studied under hydrostatic compression in a diamond anvil cell up to ~10 GPa. Radiation-damaged zircon shows similar up-shifts of internal SiO4 stretching modes at elevated pressures as non-damaged ZrSiO4. Only minor changes of band-widths were observed in all cases. This makes it possible to estimate the degree of radiation damage from the width of the ν3(SiO4) band of zircon inclusions in situ, almost independent from potential “fossilized pressures” or compressive strain acting on the inclusions. An application is the non-destructive analysis of gemstones such as corundum or spinel: broadened Raman bands are a reliable indicator of self-irradiation damage in zircon inclusions, whose presence allows one to exclude artificial color enhancement by high-temperature treatment of the specimen.

  11. Radioactivity in the zircon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.H.


    In a presentation from the Zircon Industry, it was shown that zircon sand contains significant concentrations of uranium, 3,500 to 4,500 Bq/kg, and thorium, 400 to 600 Bq/kg. Deposits mainly occur in South Africa, Australia, India and the USA. The mining is done by dredging or by just shoveling the sand onto trucks. The separation could be done by dry or wet concentration. Also the milling could be by dry or wet processes. The dry process has the highest risk of dust generation. The maximum potential annual dose for the milling process has been assessed to be about 5mSv. Measurements from South Africa and Australia indicate lower doses, 0.2 to 1 mSv/y

  12. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li


    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...

  13. Study on internal to surface fingerprint correlation using optical coherence tomography and internal fingerprint extraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, LN


    Full Text Available of, the above-mentioned works. Internal fingerprint zone detection is an improvement as it uses fuzzy c-means to improve clustering performance, uses better cluster result postprocessing, and improves upon the fine-tuning procedure through... Internal fingerprint extraction consists of two main parts: fingerprint zone detection and extraction. Zone detection uses fuzzy c-means clustering to approximate the location of the papillary junction (i.e., the internal fingerprint zone). Edge detection...

  14. Modeling Audio Fingerprints : Structure, Distortion, Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.


    An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted,

  15. Fingerprint re-alignment: a solution based on the true fingerprint center point

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS


    Full Text Available Solution Based on the True Fingerprint Center Point Ishmael S. Msiza, Brain Leke-Betechuoh, and Tendani Malumedzha Biometrics Research Group ? Information Security CSIR, Modelling & Digital Science Unit Pretoria, Republic of South Africa e... with a pattern that belongs to the Tented Arch (TA) fingerprint class. Fingerprints that belong to the TA class have a single core and a single delta, with the core located almost directly above the delta, as depicted in figure 3 (b). Many singular...

  16. Mass-spectrometric mining of Hadean zircons by automated SHRIMP multi-collector and single-collector U/Pb zircon age dating: The first 100,000 grains (United States)

    Holden, Peter; Lanc, Peter; Ireland, Trevor R.; Harrison, T. Mark; Foster, John J.; Bruce, Zane


    The identification and retrieval of a large population of ancient zircons (>4 Ga; Hadean) is of utmost priority if models of the early evolution of Earth are to be rigorously tested. We have developed a rapid and accurate U-Pb zircon age determination protocol utilizing a fully automated multi-collector ion microprobe, the ANU SHRIMP II, to screen and date these zircons. Unattended data acquisition relies on the calibration of a digitized sample map to the Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) sample-stage co-ordinate system. High precision positioning of individual grains can be produced through optical image processing of a specified mount location. The focal position of the mount can be optimized through a correlation between secondary-ion steering and the spot position on the target. For the Hadean zircon project, sample mounts are photographed and sample locations (normally grain centers) are determined off-line. The sample is loaded, reference points calibrated, and the target positions are then visited sequentially. In SHRIMP II multiple-collector mode, zircons are initially screened (ca. 5 s data acquisition) through their 204Pb corrected 207Pb/206Pb ratio; suitable candidates are then analyzed in a longer routine to obtain better measurement statistics, U/Pb, and concentration data. In SHRIMP I and SHRIMP RG, we have incorporated the automated analysis protocol to single-collector measurements. These routines have been used to analyze over 100,000 zircons from the Jack Hills quartzite. Of these, ca. 7%, have an age greater than 3.8 Ga, the oldest grain being 4372 +/- 6 Ma (2[sigma]), and this age is part of a group of analyses around 4350 Ma which we interpret as the age when continental crust first began to coalesce in this region. In multi-collector mode, the analytical time taken for a single mount with 400 zircons is approximately 6 h; whereas in single-collector mode, the analytical time is ca. 17 h. With this productivity, we can produce

  17. U-Pb geochronology of modern river sands from the flat-slab segment of the southern central Andes, Argentina, 29-31°S: Implications for Neogene foreland and hinterland basin evolution (United States)

    Capaldi, T.; Horton, B. K.; McKenzie, R.; Stockli, D. F.


    This study investigates how Andean river sediments in the flat-slab segment of western Argentina record active mixing of lithologically and geochemically distinct source regions comprising the Principal Cordillera, Frontal Cordillera, Precordillera fold-thrust belt, Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and recycled Neogene basin fill. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results for modern river sands discriminate variations from hinterland source regions, through river tributaries and main trunks of the Bermejo, Jachal, San Juan, and Mendoza rivers, and their respective fluvial megafans within the active foreland basin. Proportions of proximal zircon populations in the hinterland trunk rivers (with extensive Permian-Triassic and Cenozoic igneous exposures) diminish downstream with progressive contributions from the frontal Precordillera fold-thrust belt (dominantly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks) and Pampean basement uplifts. However, this systematic downstream dilution is perturbed in several catchments by significant recycling of older foreland basin fill. The degree of recycling depends on the position and extent of Oligocene-Pliocene exposures within the catchments. To discern the effects of the variable detrital zircon sources, multiple statistical methods are utilized. Quantitative comparisons suggest that variations in detrital zircon age distributions among the modern sands, and with older foreland basin fill and exposed bedrock, are dependent on spatial and temporal variations in exhumation and drainage network evolution within their respective Andean catchments. The present surface area of competing source regions and the configuration of hinterland tributary rivers largely dictate the degree of downstream dilution and/or recycling. This study provides a modern analogue and baseline for reconstructing Neogene shifts in foreland basin provenance, depositional systems, and drainage configurations during a critical transition to flat-slab subduction.

  18. Fingerprint fake detection by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund


    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  19. Classical and quantum fingerprinting strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.; Walgate, J.; Sanders, B.


    Full text: Fingerprinting enables two parties to infer whether the messages they hold are the same or different when the cost of communication is high: each message is associated with a smaller fingerprint and comparisons between messages are made in terms of their fingerprints alone. When the two parties are forbidden access to a public coin, it is known that fingerprints composed of quantum information can be made exponentially smaller than those composed of classical information. We present specific constructions of classical fingerprinting strategies through the use of constant-weight codes and provide bounds on the worst-case error probability with the help of extremal set theory. These classical strategies are easily outperformed by quantum strategies constructed from line packings and equiangular tight frames. (author)

  20. Do Hf isotopes in magmatic zircons represent those of their host rocks? (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Cai, Yue; Goldstein, Steven L.; Yang, Tao


    Lu-Hf isotopic system in zircon is a powerful and widely used geochemical tracer in studying petrogenesis of magmatic rocks and crustal evolution, assuming that zircon Hf isotopes can represent initial Hf isotopes of their parental whole rock. However, this assumption may not always be valid. Disequilibrium partial melting of continental crust would preferentially melt out non-zircon minerals with high time-integrated Lu/Hf ratios and generate partial melts with Hf isotope compositions that are more radiogenic than those of its magma source. Dissolution experiments (with hotplate, bomb and sintering procedures) of zircon-bearing samples demonstrate this disequilibrium effect where partial dissolution yielded variable and more radiogenic Hf isotope compositions than fully dissolved samples. A case study from the Neoproterozoic Jiuling batholith in southern China shows that about half of the investigated samples show decoupled Hf isotopes between zircons and the bulk rocks. This decoupling could reflect complex and prolonged magmatic processes, such as crustal assimilation, magma mixing, and disequilibrium melting, which are consistent with the wide temperature spectrum from ∼630 °C to ∼900 °C by Ti-in-zircon thermometer. We suggest that magmatic zircons may only record the Hf isotopic composition of their surrounding melt during crystallization and it is uncertain whether their Hf isotopic compositions can represent the primary Hf isotopic compositions of the bulk magmas. In this regard, using zircon Hf isotopic compositions to trace crustal evolution may be biased since most of these could be originally from disequilibrium partial melts.

  1. Fingerprint multicast in secure video streaming. (United States)

    Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray


    Digital fingerprinting is an emerging technology to protect multimedia content from illegal redistribution, where each distributed copy is labeled with unique identification information. In video streaming, huge amount of data have to be transmitted to a large number of users under stringent latency constraints, so the bandwidth-efficient distribution of uniquely fingerprinted copies is crucial. This paper investigates the secure multicast of anticollusion fingerprinted video in streaming applications and analyzes their performance. We first propose a general fingerprint multicast scheme that can be used with most spread spectrum embedding-based multimedia fingerprinting systems. To further improve the bandwidth efficiency, we explore the special structure of the fingerprint design and propose a joint fingerprint design and distribution scheme. From our simulations, the two proposed schemes can reduce the bandwidth requirement by 48% to 87%, depending on the number of users, the characteristics of video sequences, and the network and computation constraints. We also show that under the constraint that all colluders have the same probability of detection, the embedded fingerprints in the two schemes have approximately the same collusion resistance. Finally, we propose a fingerprint drift compensation scheme to improve the quality of the reconstructed sequences at the decoder's side without introducing extra communication overhead.

  2. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.


    Full Text Available Bulk and accessory mineral composition of fresh and weathered crystalline rocks, and sedimentary deposits overlying the crystalline-sedimentary unconformity have been examined in core samples from 28 drill holes in Estonia. Before the Late Vendian to Early Cambrian regional subsidence and sedimentation, the region represented a flat plateau within the Svecofennian Domain. Palaeo-and Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, regardless their different initial mineral composition, subcrop under the Upper Vendian/Lower Cambrian sedimentary cover as usually intensely weathered rocks (saprolites composed of residual quartz, altered micas and prevailing clay minerals mainly of the kaolinite group. Thus, the bulk mineral composition of any basement crystalline rocks imparts no specific inherited rock-forming minerals into the covering sedimentary rocks. From the variety of accessory and opaque minerals of crystalline rocks, only zircon populations survived in saprolites. Crystalline rocks of different origin yield different zircons. Relationships between the zircon typology of the basement rocks having specific areas of distribution and the sedimentary rocks immediately overlying those crystalline rocks were the main subject of this study. The result is that siliciclastic sedimentary rocks covering weathered crystalline rocks only in places inherited zircons with typological features characteristic of specific basement areas. In northeastern Estonia, local lenses of the Oru Member (the earliest Upper Vendian sedimentary rocks in Estonia resembling the debris of weathered crystalline rocks yield accessory zircon which in a 1-2 m thick layer above the basement surface is similar to the zircons of the underlying weathering mantle of certain crystalline rocks. In the next unit, the Moldova Member, up to 43 m above the basement surface, a mixture of zircons resembling those of various local basement rocks has been found. Further upwards, in the Vendian and Lower

  3. Chemical characterisation of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazulla Barreda, M. F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Blasco Roca, E.; Orduna Cordero, M.


    The present paper addresses the development of a methodology that allows the complete chemical characterisation of zircon cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments including minor and major elements. To develop the methodology, five zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide pigments with different hues were selected, studying the different measurement process steps, from sample preparation to the optimisation of the measurement of the different components of the pigments by spectroscopic techniques (WD-XRF and elemental analysis by combustion and IR detection). The chemical characterisation method developed was validated with synthetic standards prepared from the mixture of certified reference materials and pure oxides because no certified referenced materials of this type of pigments were commercially available. The developed method can be used for a complete chemical characterization of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments with a very low uncertainty for all the elements analysed. (Author)

  4. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde


    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems {010} and {110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system {001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system {110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the crust, and, possibly, the timing of

  5. Advances in fingerprint analysis. (United States)

    Hazarika, Pompi; Russell, David A


    Fingerprints have been used in forensic investigations for the identification of individuals since the late 19th century. However, it is now clear that fingerprints can provide significantly more information about an individual. Here, we highlight the considerable advances in fingerprinting technology that can simultaneously provide chemical information regarding the drugs ingested and the explosives and drugs handled by a person as well as the identity of that individual. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Influence of Skin Diseases on Fingerprint Recognition (United States)

    Drahansky, Martin; Dolezel, Michal; Urbanek, Jaroslav; Brezinova, Eva; Kim, Tai-hoon


    There are many people who suffer from some of the skin diseases. These diseases have a strong influence on the process of fingerprint recognition. People with fingerprint diseases are unable to use fingerprint scanners, which is discriminating for them, since they are not allowed to use their fingerprints for the authentication purposes. First in this paper the various diseases, which might influence functionality of the fingerprint-based systems, are introduced, mainly from the medical point of view. This overview is followed by some examples of diseased finger fingerprints, acquired both from dactyloscopic card and electronic sensors. At the end of this paper the proposed fingerprint image enhancement algorithm is described. PMID:22654483

  7. Influence of Skin Diseases on Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Drahansky


    Full Text Available There are many people who suffer from some of the skin diseases. These diseases have a strong influence on the process of fingerprint recognition. People with fingerprint diseases are unable to use fingerprint scanners, which is discriminating for them, since they are not allowed to use their fingerprints for the authentication purposes. First in this paper the various diseases, which might influence functionality of the fingerprint-based systems, are introduced, mainly from the medical point of view. This overview is followed by some examples of diseased finger fingerprints, acquired both from dactyloscopic card and electronic sensors. At the end of this paper the proposed fingerprint image enhancement algorithm is described.

  8. Future of ocean resources: The next 25 years

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    for needy cement industry as lime. (2) Detrital deposits like the heavy metal placers, such as magnetite (off Norway and Japan), ilmenite (central west coast of India), zircon, monazite and thorite (off Kerala), wolframite and cassiterite (off Malaysia...

  9. The significance of zircon characteristic and its uranium concentration in evaluation of uranium metallogenetic prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yaosong; Zhu Jiechen; Xia Yuliang


    Zircon characteristic and its relation to uranium metallogenetic process have been studied on the basis of physics properties and chemical compositions. It is indicated that the colour of zircon crystal is related to uranium concentration; on the basis of method of zircon population type of Pupin J.P., the sectional plan of zircon population type has been designed, from which result that zircon population type of uranium-producing rock body is distributed mainly in second section, secondly in fourth section; U in zircon presents synchronous increase trend with Th, Hf and Ta; the uranium concentration in zircon from uranium-producing geologic body increases obviously and its rate of increase is more than that of the uranium concentration in rock; the period, in which uranium concentration in zircon is increased, is often related to better uranium-producing condition in that period of this area. 1785 data of the average uranium concentration in zircon have been counted and clear regularity has been obtained, namely the average uranium concentrations in zircon in rich uranium-producing area, rock, geologic body and metallogenetic zone are all higher than that in poor or no uranium-producing area, rock, geologic body and metallogenetic zone. This shows that the average uranium concentration in zircon within the region in fact reflects the primary uranium-bearing background in region and restricts directly follow-up possibility of uranium mineralization. On the basis of this, the uranium source conditions of known uranium metallogenetic zones and prospective provinces have been discussed, and the average uranium concentrations in zircon from magmatic rocks for 81 districts have been contrasted and graded, and some districts in which exploration will be worth doing further are put forward

  10. Contribution to the study of xenotime and zircon flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorzeli, Isabella Bernstein; Torem, Mauricio Leonardo


    Flotation and electrokinetics behaviour have studied with xenotime (YPO 4 ) and zircon (Zr Si O 4 ) from a mixture of grains with 90% xenotime and 10% zircon, produced in cassiterite concentration process. Micro flotation and zeta potential have been also studied, by using oleic acid P.A. and DP1-6256 as collectors, and sodium metasillicate and Procol DA911 as modifier agents

  11. Fingerprint start the next generation of payment method : Fingerprint payment: a new mode of mobile payment


    Wu, Chong


    In the generation of mobile internet, fingerprint payment is one of the most popular topics at the moment. China has a big market and many users are using the mobile payment methods. There are a large number of mobile phones equipped with fingerprint recognition technology. As we know, fingerprint payment brings us more convenience and safety. We do not need to use many bankcards, and fingerprint also eliminates the users from the trouble of queuing to pay. However, users send traditional dig...

  12. Seawater and Detrital Marine Pb Isotopes as Monitors of Antarctic Weathering Following Ice Sheet Development (United States)

    Fenn, C.; Martin, E. E.; Basak, C.


    Comparisons of seawater and detrital Pb isotopes from sites proximal to Antarctica at the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT) are being used to understand variations in continental weathering associated with the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Previous work has shown that seawater and detrital archives yield similar isotopic values during Eocene warmth, which is interpreted to record congruent chemical weathering of the continent. In contrast, distinct isotopic values for the two phases at the EOT represents increased incongruent mechanical weathering during growth of the ice sheet. For this study we expanded beyond the initial glaciation at the EOT to determine whether less dramatic changes in ice volume and climate also produce variations in weathering and intensity that are recorded by seawater and detrital Pb isotopes. We collected Nd and Pb isotope data from extractions of Fe-Mn oxide coatings of bulk decarbonated marine sediments, which preserve seawater isotopic values, and from complete dissolutions of the remaining silicate fraction for Ocean Drilling Program Site 748 on Kerguelen Plateau (1300 m modern water depth). The data spans an interval of deglaciation from ~23.5-27 Ma documented by δ18O that has been equated to a ~30% decrease in ice volume on Antarctica (Pekar and Christie-Blick, 2008, Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol.). Initial results from Site 748 include the first ɛNd values for intermediate waters in the Oligocene Southern Ocean and reveal a value of ~-8 over the entire 3.5 my interval, which is consistent with values reported for deep Indian Ocean sites at this time and similar to deeper Southern Ocean sites. Corresponding detrital ɛNd values are less radiogenic and decrease from -9 to -13 during the study interval. Detrital 206Pb/204Pb values also decrease during the warming interval, while seawater 206Pb/204Pb values increase. The decrease in detrital values indicates the composition of source materials entering

  13. Reference point detection for improved fingerprint matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Kalker, A.A.C.M.; Veen, van der M.; Bazen, A.; Delp, E.J.; Wong, P.W.


    One of the important stages of fingerprint recognition is the registration of the fingerprints with respect to the original template. This is not a straightforward task as fingerprint images may have been subject to rotations and translations. Popular techniques for fingerprint registration use a

  14. Late Triassic sedimentary records in the northern Tethyan Himalaya: Tectonic link with Greater India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawen Cao


    Full Text Available The Upper Triassic flysch sediments (Nieru Formation and Langjiexue Group exposed in the Eastern Tethyan Himalayan Sequence are crucial for unraveling the controversial paleogeography and paleotectonics of the Himalayan orogen. This work reports new detrital zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for clastic rocks from flysch strata in the Shannan area. The mineral modal composition data suggest that these units were mainly sourced from recycled orogen provenances. The chemical compositions of the sandstones in the strata are similar to the chemical composition of upper continental crust. These rocks have relatively low Chemical Index of Alteration values (with an average of 62 and Index of Compositional Variability values (0.69, indicating that they experienced weak weathering and were mainly derived from a mature source. The geochemical compositions of the Upper Triassic strata are similar to those of graywackes from continental island arcs and are indicative of an acidic-intermediate igneous source. Furthermore, hornblende and feldspar experienced decomposition in the provenance, and the sediment became enriched in zircon and monazite during sediment transport. The detrital zircons in the strata feature two main age peaks at 225–275 Ma and 500–600 Ma, nearly continuous Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic ages, and a broad inconspicuous cluster in the Tonian–Stenian (800–1200 Ma. The detrital zircons from the Upper Triassic sandstones in the study area lack peaks at 300–325 Ma (characteristic of the Lhasa block and 1150–1200 Ma (characteristic of the Lhasa and West Australia blocks. Therefore, neither the Lhasa block nor the West Australia blocks likely acted as the main provenance of the Upper Triassic strata. Newly discovered Permian–Triassic basalt and mafic dikes in the Himalayas could have provided the 225–275 Ma detrital zircons. Therefore, Indian and Himalayan units were the main provenances of the flysch

  15. Timing and sources of pre-collisional Neoproterozoic sedimentation along the SW margin of the Congo Craton (Kaoko Belt, NWNamibia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Košler, J.; Sláma, Jiří; Janoušek, V.


    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2014), s. 386-401 ISSN 1342-937X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : detrital zircons * protolith ages * geochronology * Neoproterozoic Kaoko Belt * geochronology (Namibia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 8.235, year: 2014

  16. Groundwater budgets for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys, Mohave County, Arizona, 2007-08 (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Truini, Margot


    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources, initiated an investigation of the hydrogeology and water resources of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys in northwestern Arizona in 2005, and this report is part of that investigation. Water budgets were developed for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys to provide a generalized understanding of the groundwater systems in this rural area that has shown some evidence of human-induced water-level declines. The valleys are within the Basin and Range physiographic province and consist of thick sequences of permeable alluvial sediment deposited into basins bounded by relatively less permeable igneous and metamorphic rocks. Long-term natural recharge rates (1940-2008) for the alluvial aquifers were estimated to be 1,400 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for Detrital Valley, 5,700 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and 6,000 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Natural discharge rates were assumed to be equal to natural recharge rates, on the basis of the assumption that all groundwater withdrawals to date have obtained water from groundwater storage. Groundwater withdrawals (2007-08) for the alluvial aquifers were less than 300 acre-ft/yr for Detrital Valley, about 9,800 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and about 4,500 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Incidental recharge from leaking water-supply pipes, septic systems, and wastewater-treatment plants accounted for about 35 percent of total recharge (2007-08) across the study area. Natural recharge and discharge values in this study were 24-50 percent higher than values in most previously published studies. Water budgets present a spatially and temporally "lumped" view of water resources and incorporate many sources of uncertainty in this study area where only limited data presently are available.

  17. Data Compression of Fingerprint Minutiae




    Biometric techniques have usual advantages over conventional personal identification technique. Among various commercially available biometric techniques such as face, fingerprint, Iris etc., fingerprint-based techniques are the most accepted recognition system. Fingerprints are trace or impression of patterns created byfriction ridges of the skin in the fingers and thumbs. Steganography usually used in smart card is a safe technique for authenticating a person. In steganography, biometric ch...

  18. Quantifying the influence of sediment source area sampling on detrital thermochronometer data (United States)

    Whipp, D. M., Jr.; Ehlers, T. A.; Coutand, I.; Bookhagen, B.


    Detrital thermochronology offers a unique advantage over traditional bedrock thermochronology because of its sensitivity to sediment production and transportation to sample sites. In mountainous regions, modern fluvial sediment is often collected and dated to determine the past (105 to >107 year) exhumation history of the upstream drainage area. Though potentially powerful, the interpretation of detrital thermochronometer data derived from modern fluvial sediment is challenging because of spatial and temporal variations in sediment production and transport, and target mineral concentrations. Thermochronometer age prediction models provide a quantitative basis for data interpretation, but it can be difficult to separate variations in catchment bedrock ages from the effects of variable basin denudation and sediment transport. We present two examples of quantitative data interpretation using detrital thermochronometer data from the Himalaya, focusing on the influence of spatial and temporal variations in basin denudation on predicted age distributions. We combine age predictions from the 3D thermokinematic numerical model Pecube with simple models for sediment sampling in the upstream drainage basin area to assess the influence of variations in sediment production by different geomorphic processes or scaled by topographic metrics. We first consider a small catchment from the central Himalaya where bedrock landsliding appears to have affected the observed muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age distributions. Using a simple model of random landsliding with a power-law landslide frequency-area relationship we find that the sediment residence time in the catchment has a major influence on predicted age distributions. In the second case, we compare observed detrital apatite fission-track age distributions from 16 catchments in the Bhutan Himalaya to ages predicted using Pecube and scaled by various topographic metrics. Preliminary results suggest that predicted age distributions scaled

  19. A short and long range study of mullite-zirconia-zircon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendtorff, Nicolas M.; Conconi, Maria S.; Aglietti, Esteban F. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC: CONICET-CIC) (Argentina); Chain, Cecilia Y.; Pasquevich, Alberto F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rivas, Patricia C. [CONICET (Argentina); Martinez, Jorge A., E-mail:; Caracoche, Maria C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)


    In the field of refractory materials, ceramics containing mullite-zirconia are the basis of those most used in the industry of glass and steel. It is known that the addition of zircon improves the behavior of the refractory used in service. Knowing that some mullite-zirconia composites properties as fracture strength and the elastic modulus E are associated with the material microstructure integrity, the eventual thermal decomposition of zircon into zirconia and silica could seriously alter the material elastic properties. In this paper the phase content of a series of mullite-zirconia-zircon (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-ZrSiO{sub 4}) composites is determined at atomic level via perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and compared with that derived from the long range X-ray diffraction technique. PAC results on the as-prepared materials indicate that all nominal zircon is present and that it involves two types of nanoconfigurations, one of them describing aperiodic regions. The thermomechanical properties already reported for these materials could be related to the crystalline to aperiodic zircon concentrations ratio they exhibit.

  20. Zircon (Hf, O isotopes) as melt indicator: Melt infiltration and abundant new zircon growth within melt rich layers of granulite-facies lenses versus solid-state recrystallization in hosting amphibolite-facies gneisses (central Erzgebirge, Bohemian Massif) (United States)

    Tichomirowa, Marion; Whitehouse, Martin; Gerdes, Axel; Schulz, Bernhard


    In the central Erzgebirge within the Bohemian Massif, lenses of high pressure and ultrahigh pressure felsic granulites occur within meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous amphibolite-facies felsic rocks. In the felsic granulite, melt rich parts and restite form alternating layers, and were identified by petrology and bulk rock geochemistry. Mineral assemblages representing the peak P-T conditions were best preserved in melanocratic restite layers. In contrast, in the melt rich leucocratic layers, garnet and related HP minerals as kyanite are almost completely resorbed. Both layers display differences in accessory minerals: melanosomes have frequent and large monazite and Fe-Ti-minerals but lack xenotime and apatite; leucosomes have abundant apatite and xenotime while monazite is rare. Here we present a detailed petrographic study of zircon grains (abundance, size, morphology, inclusions) in granulite-facies and amphibolite-facies felsic gneisses, along with their oxygen and hafnium isotope compositions. Our data complement earlier Usbnd Pb ages and trace element data (REE, Y, Hf, U) on zircons from the same rocks (Tichomirowa et al., 2005). Our results show that the degree of melting determines the behaviour of zircon in different layers of the granulites and associated amphibolite-facies rocks. In restite layers of the granulite lenses, small, inherited, and resorbed zircon grains are preserved and new zircon formation is very limited. In contrast, new zircons abundantly grew in the melt rich leucocratic layers. In these layers, the new zircons (Usbnd Pb age, trace elements, Hf, O isotopes) best preserve the information on peak metamorphic conditions due to intense corrosion of other metamorphic minerals. The new zircons often contain inherited cores. Compared to cores, the new zircons and rims show similar or slightly lower Hf isotope values, slightly higher Hf model ages, and decreased oxygen isotope ratios. The isotope compositions (Hf, O) of new zircons indicate

  1. Finding the "true" age: ways to read high-precision U-Pb zircon dates (United States)

    Schaltegger, U.; Schoene, B.; Ovtcharova, M.; Sell, B. K.; Broderick, C. A.; Wotzlaw, J.


    Refined U-Pb dating techniques, applying an empirical chemical abrasion treatment prior to analysis [1], and using a precisely calibrated double isotope Pb, U EARTHTIME tracer solution, have led to an unprecedented two problems: (A) Post-crystallization Pb loss from decay damaged areas is considered to be mitigated by applying chemical abrasion techniques. The success of such treatment can, however, not be assumed a priori. The following examples demonstrate that youngest zircons are not biased by lead loss but represent close-to-youngest zircon growth: (i) coincidence of youngest zircon dates with co-magmatic titanite in tonalite; (ii) coincidence with statistically equivalent clusters of 206Pb/238U dates from zircon in residual melts of cogenetic mafic magmas; (iii) youngest zircons in ash beds of sedimentary sequences do not violate the stratigraphic superposition, whereas conventional statistical interpretation (mean or median values) does; (iv) results of published inter-laboratory cross-calibration tests using chemical abrasion on natural zircon crystals of the same sample arrive at the same 206Pb/238U result within case of single, significantly younger dates (>3 sigma), and are common in many pre-Triassic and hydrothermally altered rocks. (B) Pre-eruptive/pre-intrusive growth is found to be the main reason for scattered zircon ages in igneous rocks. Zircons crystallizing from the final magma batch are called autocrystic [3]. Autocrystic growth will happen in a moving or stagnant magma shortly before or after the rheological lockup by the crystals. Last crystallizing zircons in the interstitial melt may therefore postdate emplacement of the magma. The range of 206Pb/238U ages may yield a time frame for the cooling of a given magma batch, which could be added to quantitative thermal models of magma emplacement and cooling. Hf isotopes and trace elements of the dated zircon are used to trace the nature of the dated grains [4], specifically for identification of

  2. Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutia Score Matching


    J, Ravi.; Raja, K. B.; R, Venugopal. K.


    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae ...

  3. Refractory Materials of Zirconate. Part 2: Synthesis and some properties of strontium, zirconate, calcium zirconate and barium zirconate (United States)

    Okubo, Tsutomo; Yonemochi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kazuo; Maeda, Minoru


    Chemical compounds SrZrO3, CaZrO3, and BaZrO3 were synthesized by solid reaction and arc fusion, and their properties examined. Results were as follows: (1) in the synthesis of CaZrO3 by solid reaction, ZrO2 solid solution with cubic form was produced, which then changed into CaZrO3; (2) the BaZrO3 was a cubic form and did not show any transformation, while SrZrO3 and CaZrO3 with an orthorhombic form transformed to a cubic form at high temperature; and (3) the solubility of BaZrO3 in acid and its vaporization rate at a high temperature were greater than those of zirconates.

  4. The composition of zircon in Variscan granites from Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins, H. C.B.


    Full Text Available A group of slightly peraluminous Variscan plutons in Northern Portugal were selected from the study of zircon composition. The selected plutons are: the Vila Pouca de Aguiar and the Lavadores-Madalena plutons with I-type affinities and the Vieira do Minho pluton, an l-S transitional type. Zircon occurs as euhedral to subhedral crystals and exhibit finely concentric oscillatory magmatic zoning mainly related to variations of Hf, Y, U and Th concentrations. Most zircon crystals show the dominant “xenotime” substitution. The zircon crystals have Zr/Hf ratio in the range of 21 to 52, with no significant differences between the different granites. These values are in the same range of other peraluminous granites and are in accordance with a crustal signature of zircon. Moreover, the range of Zr/Hf values in zircon crystals overlaps with that of crustal sources and consequently to the potential protoliths proposed in the genesis of the Vieira do Minho and the Vila Pouca de Aguiar plutons, namely meta-igneous crustal sources at different levels. Although zircon from the Lavadores-Madalena pluton has a compositional range similar to the other plutons, an origin by hibridisation has been proposed. However, similar zircon chemistry between this pluton and Vila Pouca de Aguiar and Vieira do Minho plutons could also suggest a similar crustal source.Se han seleccionado tres plutones graniticos variscos en el norte de Portugal para el estudio de la composición del circón. Los plutones son: Vila Pouca de Aguiar y Lavadores-Madalena con afinidad de tipo-I y el plutón de Vieira do Minho de tipo transicional I-S. Los circones se presentan en cristales euhédricos a subhédricos y tienen zonados magmáticos, concéntricos oscilatorios finos ligados principalmente a variaciones de las concentraciones del Hf, Y, U y Th. La mayoría de los cristales de circón muestran la sustitución dominante “xenotima”. Los zircones tienen relaciones Zr/Hf que var

  5. Fingerprint verification prediction model in hand dermatitis. (United States)

    Lee, Chew K; Chang, Choong C; Johor, Asmah; Othman, Puwira; Baba, Roshidah


    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. A case-control study involving 100 patients with hand dermatitis. All patients verified their thumbprints against their identity card. Registered fingerprints were randomized into a model derivation and model validation group. Predictive model was derived using multiple logistic regression. Validation was done using the goodness-of-fit test. The fingerprint verification prediction model consists of a major criterion (fingerprint dystrophy area of ≥ 25%) and two minor criteria (long horizontal lines and long vertical lines). The presence of the major criterion predicts it will almost always fail verification, while presence of both minor criteria and presence of one minor criterion predict high and low risk of fingerprint verification failure, respectively. When none of the criteria are met, the fingerprint almost always passes the verification. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.937, and the goodness-of-fit test showed agreement between the observed and expected number (P = 0.26). The derived fingerprint verification failure prediction model is validated and highly discriminatory in predicting risk of fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Ion-probe U–Pb dating of authigenic and detrital opal from Neogene-Quaternary alluvium (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid; Paces, James B.


    Knowing depositional ages of alluvial fans is essential for many tectonic, paleoclimatic, and geomorphic studies in arid environments. The use of U–Pb dating on secondary silica to establish the age of Neogene-Quaternary clastic sediments was tested on samples of authigenic and detrital opal and chalcedony from depths of ∼25 to 53 m in boreholes at Midway Valley, Nevada. Dating of authigenic opal present as rinds on rock clasts and in calcite/silica cements establishes minimum ages of alluvium deposition; dating of detrital opal or chalcedony derived from the source volcanic rocks gives the maximum age of sediment deposition.Materials analyzed included 12 samples of authigenic opal, one sample of fracture-coating opal from bedrock, one sample of detrital opal, and two samples of detrital chalcedony. Uranium–lead isotope data were obtained by both thermal ionization mass spectrometry and ion-microprobe. Uranium concentrations ranged from tens to hundreds of μg/g. Relatively large U/Pb allowed calculation of 206Pb/238U ages that ranged from 1.64±0.36 (2σ) to 6.16±0.50 Ma for authigenic opal and from 8.34±0.28 to 11.2±1.3 Ma for detrital opal/chalcedony. Three samples with the most radiogenic Pb isotope compositions also allowed calculation of 207Pb/235U ages, which were concordant with 206Pb/238U ages from the same samples.These results indicate that basin development at Midway Valley was initiated between about 8 and 6 Ma, and that the basin was filled at long-term average deposition rates of less than 1 cm/ka. Because alluvium in Midway Valley was derived from adjacent highlands at Yucca Mountain, the low rates of deposition determined in this study may imply a slow rate of erosion of Yucca Mountain. Volcanic strata underlying the basin are offset by a number of buried faults to a greater degree than the relatively smooth-sloping bedrock/alluvium contact. These geologic relations indicate that movement on most faults ceased prior to erosional

  7. An effective one-dimensional anisotropic fingerprint enhancement algorithm (United States)

    Ye, Zhendong; Xie, Mei


    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric technologies. The performance of the minutiae extraction and the speed of the fingerprint verification system rely heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images, so the enhancement of the low fingerprint is a critical and difficult step in a fingerprint verification system. In this paper we proposed an effective algorithm for fingerprint enhancement. Firstly we use normalization algorithm to reduce the variations in gray level values along ridges and valleys. Then we utilize the structure tensor approach to estimate each pixel of the fingerprint orientations. At last we propose a novel algorithm which combines the advantages of onedimensional Gabor filtering method and anisotropic method to enhance the fingerprint in recoverable region. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the database of Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004, and the results show that our algorithm performs within less time.

  8. New Insights on the Recrystallization and New Growth of Extensively Radiation-damaged Zircon (United States)

    Hanchar, J. M.; Schmitz, M. D.; Wirth, R.


    Approximately 10 grams of cm-sized nearly metamict zircon crystals from the Saranac Prospect in the Bancroft District of Ontario were combined by breaking into small pieces and then ground under ethanol to a fine powder with an agate mortar and pestle in order to make enough homogeneously mixed material for multiple powder X-Ray and diffraction scans, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurements, and chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS). While these large zircon crystals ground to a powder have a larger surface area and not in the same physical state (i.e., brown and metamict) as what is typically analyzed in single zircon CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb analysis (clear euhedral grains), the physical and chemical changes that occur during the heat treatment used in CA-TIMS are thought to be similar processes. Aliquots of the ground zircon powder were annealed in situ using a Pt furnace in a powder diffractometer during which time simultaneous powder diffraction patterns were acquired starting at 25°C, at elevated temperature (from 500°C to 1400°C) at selected time intervals, and then again at 25°C. The powder X-ray diffraction results indicate that below ~900°C the recrystallization of the zircon powder commences but is incomplete, even after 36 hours, with diffuse low intensity diffraction peaks. At 1150°C the zircon powder shows significant recrystallization. At 1150°C, the recrystallization is essentially complete in less than one hour. Before heating the zircon powder samples consisted of clear, transparent to brown, translucent, complexly zoned fragments. After heating at 900°C the zircon powder retained a smaller percentage of clear or brown complexly zoned fragments, while the majority of material had transformed to oscillatory or irregularly zoned, dominantly white opaque microcrystalline fragments. The clear fragments were hypothesized to be preexisting original crystalline zircon, the brown

  9. The Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic passive margin Lajeado Group and Apiaí Gabbro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.C. Campanha


    Full Text Available The Lajeado Group in the Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil, corresponds to an open-sea carbonate platform, comprised of seven overlapping siliciclastic and carbonatic formations, intruded in its upper portion by the Apiaí Gabbro. These rocks have a Neoproterozoic tectonometamorphic overprint related to arc magmatism and the Brasiliano collisional orogeny. Geochronological constraints are given by new U-Pb SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS data for Lajeado Group detrital zircons and for magmatic zircons from the Apiaí Gabbro. The youngest detrital zircons in the Lajeado Group are 1400–1200 Ma, and constrain its maximum age of deposition to be <1200 Ma, whereas the 877 ± 8 Ma age for magmatic zircons in the Apiaí Gabbro give the minimum age. Detritus source areas are mainly Paleoproterozoic (2200–1800 Ma with some Archean and Mesoproterozoic contribution (1500–1200 Ma, with distal or tectonic stable cratonic character. The Lajeado Group should be a Stenian–Tonian carbonate platform passive margin of a continent at this time, namely the Columbia/Nuna or the Rodinia. The Apiaí Gabbro displays similar age to other intrusive basic rocks in the Lajeado and Itaiacoca groups and represents tholeiitic MORB-like magmatism that we relate to the initial break-up of a Mesoproterozoic continent and the formation of the Brasiliano oceans.

  10. Strontium zirconate as silicon and aluminum scavenger in yttria stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Hansen, Karin Vels; Chorkendorff, Ib


    Here we report on strontium zirconate as a getter for silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystals for cleaning purposes. YSZ single crystals were covered with strontium zirconate powder and heat treated at 1450°C in water vapor. After treatment the YSZ...... by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the interface region between bump and YSZ single crystal bulk was examined. EDS showed a homogeneous distribution of silicon and aluminum through the cross section of a bump. The results suggest strontium zirconate as a good getter for silicon and aluminum from bulk...

  11. An Introduction to DNA Fingerprinting. (United States)

    Hepfer, Carol Ely; And Others


    Provides background information on DNA fingerprinting, and describes exercises for introducing general biology students at the high school or college level to the methodology and applications of DNA fingerprinting. (PR)

  12. U-Pb dating by zircon dissolution method using chemical abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Lucy, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Chemale Junior, Farid [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia; Hartmann, Leo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Dussin, Ivo A.; Kawashita, Koji [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP, (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Geocronologicas


    Chemical abrasion was carried out on zircons grains of the Temora II standard for U-Pb dating prior to analyses using in situ Laser Ablation-Multi Collector Ion Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) followed by the Isotope Dissolution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ID-TIMS) method. The proposed methodology was herein applied in order to reduce primarily the effects of secondary Pb loss, the presence of common lead and/or silicate impurities. Nine Temora II zircon grains were analyzed by the laser ablation method yielding an age of 418.3 +- 4.3 Ma. Zircon grains of a same population were separated for chemical abrasion before dissolution and mass spectrometry analyses. Six fractions of them were separated for isotope dissolution using {sup 235}U-{sup 205}Pb mixed spike after we have checked and assured the laboratory conditions of low blank values for total Pb of less than 2 pg/g. The obtained U-Pb zircon age by the ID-TIMS method was 415.7 +- 1.8 Ma (error 0.43 %) based on four successful determinations. The results are consistent with the published ages for the Temora diorite (Temora I - 416.75 +- 1.3 Ma; Temora II - 416.78 +- 0.33 Ma) and established as 416 +- 0.33 Ma. The technique is thus recommended for high precision U-Pb zircon analyses (error < 1 %), mainly for high resolution stratigraphic studies of Phanerozoic sequences. (author)

  13. An investigation of fake fingerprint detection approaches (United States)

    Ahmad, Asraful Syifaa'; Hassan, Rohayanti; Othman, Razib M.


    The most reliable biometrics technology, fingerprint recognition is widely used in terms of security due to its permanence and uniqueness. However, it is also vulnerable to the certain type of attacks including presenting fake fingerprints to the sensor which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. Particularly, the aim is to identify the most recent literature related to the fake fingerprint recognition and only focus on software-based approaches. A systematic review is performed by analyzing 146 primary studies from the gross collection of 34 research papers to determine the taxonomy, approaches, online public databases, and limitations of the fake fingerprint. Fourteen software-based approaches have been briefly described, four limitations of fake fingerprint image were revealed and two known fake fingerprint databases were addressed briefly in this review. Therefore this work provides an overview of an insight into the current understanding of fake fingerprint recognition besides identifying future research possibilities.

  14. Predicting the performance of fingerprint similarity searching. (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Fingerprints are bit string representations of molecular structure that typically encode structural fragments, topological features, or pharmacophore patterns. Various fingerprint designs are utilized in virtual screening and their search performance essentially depends on three parameters: the nature of the fingerprint, the active compounds serving as reference molecules, and the composition of the screening database. It is of considerable interest and practical relevance to predict the performance of fingerprint similarity searching. A quantitative assessment of the potential that a fingerprint search might successfully retrieve active compounds, if available in the screening database, would substantially help to select the type of fingerprint most suitable for a given search problem. The method presented herein utilizes concepts from information theory to relate the fingerprint feature distributions of reference compounds to screening libraries. If these feature distributions do not sufficiently differ, active database compounds that are similar to reference molecules cannot be retrieved because they disappear in the "background." By quantifying the difference in feature distribution using the Kullback-Leibler divergence and relating the divergence to compound recovery rates obtained for different benchmark classes, fingerprint search performance can be quantitatively predicted.

  15. Studies on Chromatographic Fingerprint and Fingerprinting Profile-Efficacy Relationship of Saxifraga stolonifera Meerb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Dong Wu


    Full Text Available This work investigated the spectrum-effect relationships between high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprints and the anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities of aqueous extracts from Saxifraga stolonifera. The fingerprints of S. stolonifera from various sources were established by HPLC and evaluated by similarity analysis (SA, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA. Nine samples were obtained from these 24 batches of different origins, according to the results of SA, HCA and the common chromatographic peaks area. A testosterone-induced mouse model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH was used to establish the anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities of these nine S. stolonifera samples. The model was evaluated by analyzing prostatic index (PI, serum acid phosphatase (ACP activity, concentrations of serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT, prostatic acid phosphatase (PACP and type II 5α-reductase (SRD5A2. The spectrum-effect relationships between HPLC fingerprints and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities were investigated using Grey Correlation Analysis (GRA and partial least squares regression (PLSR. The results showed that a close correlation existed between the fingerprints and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities, and peak 14 (chlorogenic acid, peak 17 (quercetin 5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and peak 18 (quercetin 3-O-β-l-rhamno-pyranoside in the HPLC fingerprints might be the main active components against anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia. This work provides a general model for the study of spectrum-effect relationships of S. stolonifera by combing HPLC fingerprints with a testosterone-induced mouse model of BPH, which can be employed to discover the principle components of anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia bioactivity.

  16. Detrital and early chemical remanent magnetization in redbeds and their rock magnetic signature: Zicapa Formation, southern Mexico (United States)

    Sierra-Rojas, Maria Isabel; Molina-Garza, Roberto Stanley


    Poles from continental redbeds are a large fraction of the world's palaeomagnetic database. Nonetheless, the time of acquisition and origin of the remanent magnetization of redbeds has been long debated. We report palaeomagnetic data, rock magnetic data and microscope observations for Lower Cretaceous redbeds in southern Mexico. These data allow us to discriminate between the hysteresis properties of remanent magnetizations of detrital and chemical origin, and to establish the early origin of a chemical remanence. Red sandstones of the Zicapa Formation contain a multicomponent remanence revealed by thermal demagnetization, and consisting of three stable components with partially overlapping laboratory unblocking temperatures of 600 °C, (low, intermediate and high temperature, respectively). They are interpreted as a viscous remanence residing in detrital magnetite, a chemical remanence residing in authigenic hematite and a depositional remanence residing in detrital hematite, respectively. The low-temperature component is nearly parallel to the recent dipole field. The tilt-corrected overall site means of the intermediate (chemical) and high temperature (depositional) components are indistinguishable (Dec = 282.0°, Inc = 12.4°, k = 13.33, α95 = 10.1°, N = 17, for the intermediate temperature; and Dec = 272.5°, Inc = 16.5°, k = 14.04, α95 = 11, N = 14, for the high temperature). Elongation/inclination analysis suggests that depositional and chemical components require applying an f = factor of approximately 0.4. Both of these components define a magnetic polarity zonation, but the polarity of the chemical and detrital components may or may not be the same. The chemical remanence coincides, more often than not, with the polarity of the depositional remanence of the overlying (younger) strata, suggesting a delay in remanence acquisition of tens to a few hundred ka for the chemical component. Pigmentary and detrital haematite were recognized with microscopic

  17. NORM exposure to workers at a zircon sand processing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, T.; Israelson, C.


    The National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (NIRH) has estimated doses to workers at a Danish zircon-processing industry. Calculations of internal doses were made after measuring dust concentrations in the working area and content of radium-226 and thorium-232 in the zircon sand. The total effective dose from internal and external irradiation was calculated to approximately 0,75 mSv/y. (orig.)

  18. Point defects in crystalline zircon (zirconium silicate), ZrSiO4: electron paramagnetic resonance studies (United States)

    Tennant, W. C.; Claridge, R. F. C.; Walsby, C. J.; Lees, N. S.

    This article outlines the present state of knowledge of paramagnetic defects in crystalline zircon as obtained mainly, but not exclusively, from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies in crystalline zircon (zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4). The emphasis is on single-crystal studies where, in principle, unambiguous analysis is possible. Firstly, the crystallography of zircon is presented. Secondly, the relationships between available crystal-site symmetries and the symmetries of observed paramagnetic species in zircon, and how these observations lead to unambiguous assignments of point-group symmetries for particular paramagnetic species are detailed. Next, spin-Hamiltonian (SH) analysis is discussed with emphasis on the symmetry relationships that necessarily exist amongst the Laue classes of the crystal sites in zircon, the paramagnetic species occupying those sites and the SH itself. The final sections of the article then survey the results of EPR studies on zircon over the period 1960-2002.

  19. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, C. N.; Krás Borges, R. M.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    1192/195, April (2014), s. 208-225 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : zircon * A-type granites * S-type granites * Wiborg batholith * Brazil * Krušné hory/Erzgebirge Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.482, year: 2014

  20. Three-dimensional fingerprint recognition by using convolution neural network (United States)

    Tian, Qianyu; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua


    With the development of science and technology and the improvement of social information, fingerprint recognition technology has become a hot research direction and been widely applied in many actual fields because of its feasibility and reliability. The traditional two-dimensional (2D) fingerprint recognition method relies on matching feature points. This method is not only time-consuming, but also lost three-dimensional (3D) information of fingerprint, with the fingerprint rotation, scaling, damage and other issues, a serious decline in robustness. To solve these problems, 3D fingerprint has been used to recognize human being. Because it is a new research field, there are still lots of challenging problems in 3D fingerprint recognition. This paper presents a new 3D fingerprint recognition method by using a convolution neural network (CNN). By combining 2D fingerprint and fingerprint depth map into CNN, and then through another CNN feature fusion, the characteristics of the fusion complete 3D fingerprint recognition after classification. This method not only can preserve 3D information of fingerprints, but also solves the problem of CNN input. Moreover, the recognition process is simpler than traditional feature point matching algorithm. 3D fingerprint recognition rate by using CNN is compared with other fingerprint recognition algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed 3D fingerprint recognition method has good recognition rate and robustness.

  1. Macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER


    Full Text Available This is a qualitative comparison of the distribution of macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic, based on our own data from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean and available data from literature. The macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic bottoms from both regions could be distinguished by the presence of a high number of regional exclusive non-carbonated species, and the presence of a high number of maërl-forming species in the Mediterranean. Further, regional differences in the distribution of some exclusive species allowed the distinction of three zones in the Northeastern Atlantic (United Kingdom, French Brittany and Galicia, while no differences were found within the Western Mediterranean. However, the algal communities considered in the selected literature could not be qualitatively distinguished, and all the samples should be considered as maërl beds. Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatolithon calcareum were the most widespread maërl forming species in the two regions, while in the Western Mediterranean Spongites fruticulosus was also very frequent. According to the differences in the species composition of the basal and erect strata of these beds, and also in their species richness, five different morphologies of macroalgal-dominated detritic bottoms could be distinguished. Their main characteristic species and their biogeographical distribution are detailed.

  2. Latent fingerprints on different type of screen protective films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttana Sudjaroen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the quality of latent fingerprint on different types of screen protective films including screen protector, matte screen protector, anti-fingerprint clear screen protector and anti-fingerprint matte screen protector by using black powder method in developing latent fingerprints. The fingerprints were performed by 10 volunteers whose fingers (right index, right thumb, left index and left thumb were stubbing at different types of screen protective films and subsequently latent fingerprints were developed by brushing with black powder. Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS counted the numbers of minutiae points from 320 latent fingerprints. Anti-fingerprint matte screen protective film produced the best quality of latent fingerprint with an average minutiae point 72.65, followed by matte screen protective film, clear screen protective film and anti-fingerprint clear screen protective film with an average minutiae point of 155.2, 135.0 and 72.65 respectively. The quality of latent fingerprints developed between a clear and a matte surface of screen protective films showed a significant difference (sig>0.05, whereas the coat and the non-coat with anti-fingerprint chemical revealed a non-significant difference (sig<0.05 in their number of minutiae points.

  3. Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides) (United States)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold


    We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustaömer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the İstanbul Terrane (Bakırlıkıran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic Üzümdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kasımlar Formations; Beyşehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the Üzümdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kasımlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger Üzümdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kasımlar Formation compared to the Üzümdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution

  4. Sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the southern Qiangtang basin: Implications for the Lhasa-Qiangtang collision timing (United States)

    Ma, Anlin; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Han, Zhong; Lai, Wen


    The Mesozoic stratigraphic record of the southern Qiangtang basin in central Tibet records the evolution and closure of the Bangong-Nujiang ocean to the south. The Jurassic succession includes Toarcian-Aalenian shallow-marine limestones (Quse Formation), Aalenian-Bajocian feldspatho-litho-quartzose to feldspatho-quartzo-lithic sandstones (shallow-marine Sewa Formation and deep-sea Gaaco Formation), and Bathonian outer platform to shoal limestones (Buqu Formation). This succession is truncated by an angular unconformity, overlain by upper Bathonian to lower Callovian fan-delta conglomerates and litho-quartzose to quartzo-lithic sandstones (Biluoco Formation) and Callovian shoal to outer platform limestones (Suowa Formation). Sandstone petrography coupled with detrital-zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis indicate that the Sewa and Gaaco formations contain intermediate to felsic volcanic detritus and youngest detrital zircons (183-170 Ma) with ɛHf(t) ranging widely from +13 to -25, pointing to continental-arc provenance from igneous rocks with mixed mantle and continental-crust contributions. An arc-trench system thus developed toward the end of the Early Jurassic, with the southern Qiangtang basin representing the fore-arc basin. Above the angular unconformity, the Biluoco Formation documents a change to dominant sedimentary detritus including old detrital zircons (mainly >500 Ma ages in the lower part of the unit) with age spectra similar to those from Paleozoic strata in the central Qiangtang area. A major tectonic event with intense folding and thrusting thus took place in late Bathonian time (166 ± 1 Ma), when the Qiangtang block collided with another microcontinental block possibly the Lhasa block.

  5. On the presence of upper paleocene rocks in the foreland succession at Cabo Nariz, Tierra del Fuego, Chile: Geology and new palynological and U-Pb data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Pavlishina, Polina; Godoy, Estanislao; Herve, Francisco; Fanning, C.Mark


    On the west coast of Tierra del Fuego, south of Cabo Nariz, in Chile, Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene sedimentary successions of the Magallanes foreland basin crop out. The presence of dinoflagellate cysts, as well as radiometric U-Pb SHPJMP dating of detrital zircons, indicate that this succession ranges from the Campanian to Thanetian (Late Paleocene) in age. The base of the exposed sedimentary succession comprises siltstones of external platform facies (Cerro Cuchilla Formation), which are thrust over the Cabo Nariz Beds. The latter fonnation is divided into two members: a lower siltstone-dominated turbidite facies member and an upper member of sandstone-dominated turbidites, with sandstone and conglomerate channel facies. The presence of dinocysts in the Cerro Cuchilla Formation suggests a late Campanian to early Danian age. The fossil content in the Cabo Nariz Beds indicate a Selandian (Middle Paleocene) depositional age in accordance with the detrital zircon ages which provide a maximum possible Campanian age (76.5±0.7 Ma), and very close to the Thanetian (Late Paleocene) (57.6±1 Ma) depositional ages for the lower and upper member, respectively. The sedimentary succession of Cabo Nariz Beds, is interpreted as a north-northwest prograding submarine fan of middle to Late Paleocene age. It is considered to represent the deposition of detritus derived from an uplifting orogen located to the south. The detrital zircon age spectra suggest that there was a period of low intensity of magmatic activity in the source area around the K-T boundary

  6. Phase quantification of mullite-zirconia and zircon commercial powders using PAC and XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendtorff, Nicolas M.; Conconi, Maria S.; Aglietti, Esteban F. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC: CONICET-CIC) (Argentina); Chain, Cecilia Y.; Pasquevich, Alberto F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rivas, Patricia C. [CONICET (Argentina); Martinez, Jorge A., E-mail:; Caracoche, Maria C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)


    The short range technique of the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) and x-ray diffraction (Rietveld) methods have been employed to determine the phase content in commercial mullite-zirconia and zircon raw materials that are ordinarily used to produce ceramic materials. The PAC technique, which probes zirconium-containing compounds at nanoscopic level, showed that zircon contains crystalline ZrSiO{sub 4} and an important amount of a structurally distorted zircon, which is also observed accompanying monoclinic zirconia in mullite-zirconia. This particular zircon phase was not detected by the long range x-ray diffraction-Rietveld technique. After an annealing treatment, important changes in crystalline contents of the powders allow confirming, by the x-ray diffraction-Rietveld method, the preexistence of this particular zircon phase. This fact must be taken into account when preparing multicomposites based on the present raw materials.

  7. Fingerprints in compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge


    In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(log⁡N) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(log⁡log⁡N) query time...

  8. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  9. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate from...... different fingers. Our model achieves good performance on an NIST-FBI fingerprint database of 258 matched fingerprint pairs....

  10. Collusion-resistant multimedia fingerprinting: a unified framework (United States)

    Wu, Min; Trappe, Wade; Wang, Z. Jane; Liu, K. J. Ray


    Digital fingerprints are unique labels inserted in different copies of the same content before distribution. Each digital fingerprint is assigned to an inteded recipient, and can be used to trace the culprits who use their content for unintended purposes. Attacks mounted by multiple users, known as collusion attacks, provide a cost-effective method for attenuating the identifying fingerprint from each coluder, thus collusion poses a reeal challenge to protect the digital media data and enforce usage policies. This paper examines a few major design methodologies for collusion-resistant fingerprinting of multimedia, and presents a unified framework that helps highlight the common issues and the uniqueness of different fingerprinting techniques.

  11. Dna fingerprinting - review paper


    Blundell, Renald


    Before the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was established, DNA fingerprinting technology has relied for years on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Variable Number of Tandom Repeats (VNTR) analysis, a very efficient technique but quite laborious and not suitable for high throughput mapping. Since its, development, PCR has provided a new and powerful tool for DNA fingerprinting.

  12. Ion Irradiation Damage in Zirconate and Titanate Ceramics for Pu Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Martin W.; Begg, Bruce D.; Finnie, K.; Colella, Michael; Li, H.; McLeod, Terry; Smith, Katherine L.; Zhang, Zhaoming; Weber, William J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai


    In this paper, we discuss the effect of ion irradiation on pyrochlore-rich titanate and defect-fluorite zirconate ceramics designed for plutonium immobilization. Samples, with Ce as an analogue for Pu, were made via oxide routes and consolidated by cold-pressing and sintering. Ion irradiation damage was carried out with 2 MeV Au2+ ions to a fluence of 5 ions nm-2 in the accelerator facilities within the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were examined by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Samples underwent accelerated leach testing at pH 1.75 (nitric acid) at 90 C for 28 days. The zirconate samples were more ion-irradiation damage resistant than the titanate samples, showing little change after ion-irradiation whereas the titanate samples formed an amorphous surface layer ∼ 500 nm thick. While all samples had high aqueous durability, the titanate leach rate was ∼ 5 times that of the zirconate. The ion-irradiation increased the leach rate of the titanate without impurities by ∼ 5 times. The difference in the leach rates between irradiated and unirradiated zirconate samples is small. However, the zirconates were less able to incorporate impurities than the titanate ceramics and required higher sintering temperatures, ∼ 1500 C compared to 1350 C for the titanates.

  13. Theoretical modeling of zircon's crystal morphology according to data of atomistic calculations (United States)

    Gromalova, Natalia; Nikishaeva, Nadezhda; Eremin, Nikolay


    Zircon is an essential mineral that is used in the U-Pb dating. Moreover, zircon is highly resistant to radioactive exposure. It is of great interest in solving both fundamental and applied problems associated with the isolation of high-level radioactive waste. There is significant progress in forecasting of the most energetically favorable crystal structures at the present time. Unfortunately, the theoretical forecast of crystal morphology at high technological level is under-explored nowadays, though the estimation of crystal equilibrium habit is extremely important in studying the physical and chemical properties of new materials. For the first time, the thesis about relation of the equilibrium shape of a crystal with its crystal structure was put forward in the works by O.Brave. According to it, the idealized habit is determined in the simplest case by a correspondence with the reticular densities Rhkl of individual faces. This approach, along with all subsequent corrections, does not take into account the nature of atoms and the specific features of the chemical bond in crystals. The atomistic calculations of crystal surfaces are commonly performed using the energetic characteristics of faces, namely, the surface energy (Esurf), which is a measure of the thermodynamic stability of the crystal face. The stable crystal faces are characterized by small positive values of Esurf. As we know from our previous research (Gromalova et al.,2015) one of the constitutive factors affecting the value of the surface energy in calculations is a choice of potentials model. In this regard, we studied several sets of parameters of atomistic interatomic potentials optimized previously. As the first test model («Zircon 1») were used sets of interatomic potentials of interaction Zr-O, Si-O and O-O in the form of Buckingham potentials. To improve playback properties of zircon additionally used Morse potential for a couple of Zr-Si, as well as the three-particle angular harmonic

  14. U-Pb ages in zircon of the Grao Mogol diamond-bearing conglomerate (Espinhaco supergroup): implications for the diamond origin in the Espinhaco range in Minas Gerais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Mario Luiz de Sa Carneiro; Silva, Marcio Celio Rodrigues da; Babinski, Marly; Scholz, Rixcardo


    The Espinhaco Range in the Grao Mogol region, center-north of Minas Gerais state, is composed by fine grained quartzites with large cross stratifications (Resplandescente Formation), which are covered with erosional unconformity by monomictic conglomerates, and medium to coarse grained quartzites (Grao Mogol Formation), both units belonging to the Espinhaco Supergroup, of Proterozoic age. At the locality known as 'Pedra Rica' (signify Rich Rock, an old diamond digging), rocks of these formations were sampled and separated detrital zircons to acquire U-Pb by Laser Ablation Inductively LA-ICPMS) ages. The analyzed grains are rounded to slightly rounded and show oscillatory zoning. The obtained results indicate a maximum depositional age of 1,595±20 Ma for the Resplandescente Formation, and 1,052±50 Ma for the Grao Mogol Formation. The comparison between the obtained data and the available ages for the Diamantina region and proximities, in the same diamond province, indicates a strong evidence for the existence of at least two primary mineralizing events in the basin, in the age range of 1.35 to 1.05 Ga. (author)

  15. Electronic fingerprinting of the dead. (United States)

    Rutty, G N; Stringer, K; Turk, E E


    To date, a number of methods exist for the capture of fingerprints from cadavers that can then be used in isolation as a primary method for the identification of the dead. We report the use of a handheld, mobile wireless unit used in conjunction with a personal digital assistant (PDA) device for the capture of fingerprints from the dead. We also consider a handheld single-digit fingerprint scanner that utilises a USB laptop connection for the electronic capture of cadaveric fingerprints. Both are single-operator units that, if ridge detail is preserved, can collect a 10-set of finger pad prints in approximately 45 and 90 s, respectively. We present our observations on the restrictions as to when such devices can be used with cadavers. We do, however, illustrate that the images are of sufficient quality to allow positive identification from finger pad prints of the dead. With the development of mobile, handheld, biometric, PDA-based units for the police, we hypothesize that, under certain circumstances, devices such as these could be used for the accelerated acquisition of fingerprint identification data with the potential for rapid near-patient identification in the future.

  16. Extrusion and properties of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, S.; Millar, C.E.; Pedersen, L.


    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates was investi......The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates...

  17. A Computational Discriminability Analysis on Twin Fingerprints (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Sharing similar genetic traits makes the investigation of twins an important study in forensics and biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most commonly found types of forensic evidence. The similarity between twins’ prints is critical establish to the reliability of fingerprint identification. We present a quantitative analysis of the discriminability of twin fingerprints on a new data set (227 pairs of identical twins and fraternal twins) recently collected from a twin population using both level 1 and level 2 features. Although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, the similarity of fingerprints of twins is significantly different from that between genuine prints of the same finger. Twins fingerprints are discriminable with a 1.5%~1.7% higher EER than non-twins. And identical twins can be distinguished by examine fingerprint with a slightly higher error rate than fraternal twins.

  18. Fingerprinting with Wow (United States)

    Yu, Eugene; Craver, Scott


    Wow, or time warping caused by speed fluctuations in analog audio equipment, provides a wealth of applications in watermarking. Very subtle temporal distortion has been used to defeat watermarks, and as components in watermarking systems. In the image domain, the analogous warping of an image's canvas has been used both to defeat watermarks and also proposed to prevent collusion attacks on fingerprinting systems. In this paper, we explore how subliminal levels of wow can be used for steganography and fingerprinting. We present both a low-bitrate robust solution and a higher-bitrate solution intended for steganographic communication. As already observed, such a fingerprinting algorithm naturally discourages collusion by averaging, owing to flanging effects when misaligned audio is averaged. Another advantage of warping is that even when imperceptible, it can be beyond the reach of compression algorithms. We use this opportunity to debunk the common misconception that steganography is impossible under "perfect compression."

  19. Effect of pressure on Zircon's (ZrSiO4) Raman active modes: a first-principles study (United States)

    Sheremetyeva, Natalya; Cherniak, Daniele; Watson, Bruce; Meunier, Vincent

    Zircon is a mineral commonly found in the Earth crust. Its remarkable properties have given rise to considerable attention. This includes possible inclusion of radioactive elements in natural samples, which allows for geochronological investigations. Subsequently, Zircon was proposed as possible host material for radioactive waste management. Internal radiation damage in zircon leads to the destruction of its crystal structure (an effect known as metamictization) which is subject to ongoing research. Recently, the effect of pressure and temperature on synthetic zircon has been analyzed experimentally using Raman spectroscopy which led to the calibration of zircon as a pressure sensor in diamond-anvil cell experiments. While there have been a number of theoretical studies, the effect of pressure on the Raman active modes of zircon has not been investigated theoretically. Here we present a first-principles pressure calibration of the Raman active modes in Zircon employing density-functional theory (DFT). We find excellent quantitative agreement of the slopes ∂ω / ∂P with the experimental ones and are able to rationalize the ω vs. P behavior based on the details of the vibrational modes.

  20. High-temperature mechanical properties of a uniaxially reinforced zircon-silicon carbide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.


    This paper reports that mechanical properties of a monolithic zircon ceramic and zircon-matrix composites uniaxially reinforced with either uncoated or BN-coated silicon carbide monofilaments were measured in flexure between 25 degrees and 1477 degrees C. Monolithic zircon ceramics were weak and exhibited a brittle failure up to abut 1300 degrees C. An increasing amount of the plastic deformation was observed before failure above about 1300 degrees C. In contrast, composites reinforced with either uncoated or BN-coated Sic filaments were stronger and tougher than the monolithic zircon at all test temperatures between 25 degrees and 1477 degrees. The ultimate strength and work-of-fracture of composite samples decreased with increasing temperature. A transgranular matrix fracture was shown by the monolithic and composite samples tested up to about 1200 degrees C, whereas an increasing amount of the intergranular matrix fracture was displayed above 1200 degrees C

  1. Tools for quality control of fingerprint databases (United States)

    Swann, B. Scott; Libert, John M.; Lepley, Margaret A.


    Integrity of fingerprint data is essential to biometric and forensic applications. Accordingly, the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division has sponsored development of software tools to facilitate quality control functions relative to maintaining its fingerprint data assets inherent to the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) and Next Generation Identification (NGI). This paper provides an introduction of two such tools. The first FBI-sponsored tool was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and examines and detects the spectral signature of the ridge-flow structure characteristic of friction ridge skin. The Spectral Image Validation/Verification (SIVV) utility differentiates fingerprints from non-fingerprints, including blank frames or segmentation failures erroneously included in data; provides a "first look" at image quality; and can identify anomalies in sample rates of scanned images. The SIVV utility might detect errors in individual 10-print fingerprints inaccurately segmented from the flat, multi-finger image acquired by one of the automated collection systems increasing in availability and usage. In such cases, the lost fingerprint can be recovered by re-segmentation from the now compressed multi-finger image record. The second FBI-sponsored tool, CropCoeff was developed by MITRE and thoroughly tested via NIST. CropCoeff enables cropping of the replacement single print directly from the compressed data file, thus avoiding decompression and recompression of images that might degrade fingerprint features necessary for matching.

  2. Enhance Criminal Investigation by Proposed Fingerprint Recognition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, S.H.; Maolod, A.T.; Mohammad, A.A.


    Law enforcement officers and forensic specialists spend hours thinking about how fingerprints solve crimes, and trying to find, collect, record and compare these unique identifiers that can connect a specific person to a specific crime. These individuals understand that a basic human feature that most people take for granted, can be one of the most effective tools in crime solving.This research exploits our previous work to be applicable in criminal investigation field. The present study aims to solve the advance crime by strength fingerprint’s criminal investigation to control the alterations happen intentionally to criminals’ fingerprint. That done by suggest strategy introduce an optimal fingerprint image feature’s vector to the person and then considers it to be stored in database for future matching. Selecting optimal fingerprint feature’s vector strategy deal with considering 10 fingerprints for each criminal person (take the fingerprint in different time and different circumstance of criminal such as finger is dirty, wet, trembling, etc.). Proposal begun with apply a proposed enrollment on all 10 fingerprint for each criminal, the enrollment include the following consequence steps; begin with preprocessing step for each of 10 images including enhancement, then two level of feature extraction (first level to extract arches, whorls, and loops, where second level extract minutiae), after that applying proposed Genetic Algorithm to select optimal fingerprint, master fingerprint, which in our point of view present the most universal image which include more detailed features to recognition. Master fingerprint will be feature’s vector which stored in database. Then apply the proposed matching by testing fingerprints with these stored in database.While, measuring of criminal fingerprint investigation performance by calculating False Reject Rate (FRR)and False Accept Rate (FAR) for the traditional system and the proposed in criminal detection field. The

  3. Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Peri-Pacific Accretionary Evolution of the Mongolian Collage System: Insights From Geochemical and U-Pb Zircon Data From the Ordovician Sedimentary Wedge in the Mongolian Altai (United States)

    Jiang, Y. D.; Schulmann, K.; Kröner, A.; Sun, M.; Lexa, O.; Janoušek, V.; Buriánek, D.; Yuan, C.; Hanžl, P.


    Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic accretionary processes of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt have been evaluated so far mainly using the geology of ophiolites and/or magmatic arcs. Thus, the knowledge of the nature and evolution of associated sedimentary prisms remains fragmentary. We carried out an integrated geological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological study on a giant Ordovician metasedimentary succession of the Mongolian Altai Mountains. This succession is characterized by dominant terrigenous components mixed with volcanogenic material. It is chemically immature, compositionally analogous to graywacke, and marked by significant input of felsic to intermediate arc components, pointing to an active continental margin depositional setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest a source dominated by products of early Paleozoic magmatism prevailing during the Cambrian-Ordovician and culminating at circa 500 Ma. We propose that the Ordovician succession forms an "Altai sedimentary wedge," the evolution of which can be linked to the geodynamics of the margins of the Mongolian Precambrian Zavhan-Baydrag blocks. This involved subduction reversal from southward subduction of a passive continental margin (Early Cambrian) to the development of the "Ikh-Mongol Magmatic Arc System" and the giant Altai sedimentary wedge above a north dipping subduction zone (Late Cambrian-Ordovician). Such a dynamic process resembles the tectonic evolution of the peri-Pacific accretionary Terra Australis Orogen. A new model reconciling the Baikalian metamorphic belt along the southern Siberian Craton with peri-Pacific Altai accretionary systems fringing the Mongolian microcontinents is proposed to explain the Cambro-Ordovician geodynamic evolution of the Mongolian collage system.

  4. Enthalpy of formation of zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Navrotsky, A.


    Using high-temperature solution calorimetry in molt 2PbO · B 2 O 3 , the enthalpy of reaction of the formation of zircon, ZrSiO 4 , from its constituent oxides has been determined: Δ 4 H 977 (ZrSiO 4 ) = -27.9 (±1.9) kJ/mol. With previously reported data for the heat contents of ZrO 2 SiO 2 and ZrSiO 4 and standard-state enthalpies of formation of ZrO 2 and SiO 2 , we obtain Δ f H 298 degrees. (ZrSiO 4 ) = -2034.2 (±3.1) kJ/mol and Δ t G 298 degrees (ZrSiO 4 ) = -1919.8 kJ/mol. The free energy value is in excellent agreement with a range previously estimated from solid-state reaction equilibria. At higher temperature also the data are in close agreement with existing data, though the data sets diverge somewhat with increasing T. In this paper the limitations of the data for predicting the breakdown temperature of zircon into its constituent oxides are discussed


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini M.G.


    Full Text Available Ridge orientation field is an important feature for fingerprint matching and fingerprint reconstruction. Matching of the altered fingerprint against its unaltered mates can be done by extracting the available features in the altered fingerprint and using it along with approximated ridge orientation. This paper presents a method for approximating ridge orientation field of altered fingerprints. In the proposed method, sine and cosine of doubled orientation of the fingerprint is decomposed using orthogonal wavelets and reconstructed back using only the approximation coefficients. No prior information about the singular points is needed for orientation approximation. The method is found suitable for orientation estimation of low quality fingerprint images also.

  6. Current—voltage characteristics of lead zirconate titanate/nickel bilayered hollow cylindrical magnetoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-An, Pan; Shen-Gen, Zhang; Jian-Jun, Tian; Li-Jie, Qiao; Jun-Sai, Sun; Volinsky, Alex A.


    Current–voltage measurements obtained from lead zirconate titanate/nickel bilayered hollow cylindrical magnetoelectric composite showed that a sinusoidal current applied to the copper coil wrapped around the hollow cylinder circumference induces voltage across the lead zirconate titanate layer thickness. The current–voltage coefficient and the maximum induced voltage in lead zirconate titanate at 1 kHz and resonance (60.1 kHz) frequencies increased linearly with the number of the coil turns and the applied current. The resonance frequency corresponds to the electromechanical resonance frequency. The current–voltage coefficient can be significantly improved by optimizing the magnetoelectric structure geometry and/or increasing the number of coil turns. Hollow cylindrical lead zirconate titanate/nickel structures can be potentially used as current sensors. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. Depositional Record of the Bagua Basin, Northern Peru: Implications for Climate and Tectonic Evolution of Tropical South America (United States)

    Moreno, F.; George, S. W. M.; Williams, L. A.; Horton, B. K.; Garzione, C. N.


    The Andes Mountains exert critical controls on the climate, hydrology, and biodiversity of South America. The Bagua Basin, a low elevation (400-600 m) intermontane basin in northern Peru, offers a unique opportunity to study the ecological, climatic, and structural evolution of the western topographic boundary of the Amazonian foreland. Situated between the Marañon fold-thrust belt of the Western Cordillera and basement block uplifts of the Eastern Cordillera, the Bagua region contains a protracted, semi-continuous record of Triassic through Pleistocene sedimentation. Whereas Triassic-Cretaceous marine deposits were potentially related to extension and regional thermal subsidence, a Paleocene-Eocene shift to shallow marine and fluvial systems marks the onset of foreland basin conditions. Oligocene-Miocene sedimentation corresponds to a braided-meandering fluvial system with exceptional development of paleosols. In this study, we use new detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and oxygen stable isotopic datasets to establish a chronology of pre-Andean and Andean processes within the Bagua Basin. Detrital zircon geochronology provides constraints on when the Western and Eastern cordilleras shed sediments into the basin. Syndepositional zircons within Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene strata provide key age control for a previously poorly constrained depositional chronology. Preliminary results suggest a dramatic provenance shift in which Paleocene deposits contain almost exclusively cratonic populations (500-1600 Ma) whereas Eocene deposits show a mix of syndepositional zircons from the magmatic arc, recycled Mesozoic zircons, and cratonic zircon populations. Oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O) of carbonate nodules from Neogene paleosols will help elucidate when the Eastern Cordillera became an orographic barrier intercepting moisture from the Amazon basin to the east. Together, these records will help uncover the history of tectonics and climate interaction in tropical South

  8. Three-dimensional imaging of artificial fingerprint by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Cheng, Yezeng


    Fingerprint recognition is one of the popular used methods of biometrics. However, due to the surface topography limitation, fingerprint recognition scanners are easily been spoofed, e.g. using artificial fingerprint dummies. Thus, biometric fingerprint identification devices need to be more accurate and secure to deal with different fraudulent methods including dummy fingerprints. Previously, we demonstrated that Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images revealed the presence of the artificial fingerprints (made from different household materials, such as cement and liquid silicone rubber) at all times, while the artificial fingerprints easily spoofed the commercial fingerprint reader. Also we demonstrated that an analysis of the autocorrelation of the OCT images could be used in automatic recognition systems. Here, we exploited the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the artificial fingerprint by OCT to generate vivid 3D image for both the artificial fingerprint layer and the real fingerprint layer beneath. With the reconstructed 3D image, it could not only point out whether there exists an artificial material, which is intended to spoof the scanner, above the real finger, but also could provide the hacker's fingerprint. The results of these studies suggested that Optical Coherence Tomography could be a powerful real-time noninvasive method for accurate identification of artificial fingerprints real fingerprints as well.

  9. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 1236.5... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... photographed. Such fingerprints and photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local law...

  10. Ancient xenocrystic zircon in young volcanic rocks of the southern Lesser Antilles island arc (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Williams, Ian S.; Arculus, Richard; Kröner, Alfred; García-Casco, Antonio; Lázaro, Concepción; Buhre, Stephan; Wong, Jean; Geng, Helen; Echeverría, Carlos Morales; Jeffries, Teresa; Xie, Hangqian; Mertz-Kraus, Regina


    The Lesser Antilles arc is one of the best global examples in which to examine the effects of the involvement of subducted sediment and crustal assimilation in the generation of arc crust. Most of the zircon recovered in our study of igneous and volcaniclastic rocks from Grenada and Carriacou (part of the Grenadines chain) is younger than 2 Ma. Within some late Paleogene to Neogene ( 34-0.2 Ma) lavas and volcaniclastic sediments however, there are Paleozoic to Paleoarchean ( 250-3469 Ma) xenocrysts, and Late Jurassic to Precambrian zircon ( 158-2667 Ma) are found in beach and river sands. The trace element characteristics of zircon clearly differentiate between different types of magmas generated in the southern Lesser Antilles through time. The zircon population from the younger arc (Miocene, 22-19 Ma, to Present) has minor negative Eu anomalies, well-defined positive Ce anomalies, and a marked enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), consistent with crystallization from very oxidized magmas in which Eu2 + was in low abundance. In contrast, zircon from the older arc (Eocene to mid-Oligocene, 30-28 Ma) has two different REE patterns: 1) slight enrichment in the light (L)REE, small to absent Ce anomalies, and negative Eu anomalies and 2) enriched High (H)REE, positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies (a similar pattern is observed in the xenocrystic zircon population). The combination of positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies in the zircon population of the older arc indicates crystallization from magmas that were variably, but considerably less oxidized than those of the younger arc. All the igneous zircon has positive εHf(t), reflecting derivation from a predominantly juvenile mantle source. However, the εHf(t) values vary significantly within samples, reflecting considerable Hf isotopic heterogeneity in the source. The presence of xenocrystic zircon in the southern Lesser Antilles is evidence for the assimilation of intra-arc crustal sediments and

  11. Near-Optimal Fingerprinting with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyás Gábor György


    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated that people show large behavioural uniqueness. This has serious privacy implications as most individuals become increasingly re-identifiable in large datasets or can be tracked, while they are browsing the web, using only a couple of their attributes, called as their fingerprints. Often, the success of these attacks depends on explicit constraints on the number of attributes learnable about individuals, i.e., the size of their fingerprints. These constraints can be budget as well as technical constraints imposed by the data holder. For instance, Apple restricts the number of applications that can be called by another application on iOS in order to mitigate the potential privacy threats of leaking the list of installed applications on a device. In this work, we address the problem of identifying the attributes (e.g., smartphone applications that can serve as a fingerprint of users given constraints on the size of the fingerprint. We give the best fingerprinting algorithms in general, and evaluate their effectiveness on several real-world datasets. Our results show that current privacy guards limiting the number of attributes that can be queried about individuals is insufficient to mitigate their potential privacy risks in many practical cases.

  12. Perfect zircon for rock dating no fairy tale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The scheme used to date rocks is based on the radioactive decay of uranium. Minute traces of uranium locked inside the zircon crystals have been decaying over aeons, producing lead. Scientists know that the decay occurs at a fixed rate and how quickly it happens. By measuring the relative amounts of uranium and lead encased in the crystals, scientists can determine how old the rock is. But sometimes lead is lost from zircon crystals via processes such as weathering (if the rocks were exposed on the surface) or deformation and metamorphism (if the rocks had crystallised deep in the earth and been subjected to high temperatures and pressure). Hence the special nature of the Temora rocks- a 417 million years old zirconium-containing rock which have been partially exposed in recent times in a remote paddock in NSW, Australia. SHRIMP dating was used for initial tests on the Temora rocks. Then, in December last year, the sample was sent to the world-recognised authority, Canada's Royal Ontario Museum, for independent analysis and dating via chemical decomposition. The museum confirmed the near perfect quality of the zircon and its age

  13. Late magmatic stage of the zoned Caleu pluton (Central Chile): insights from zircon crystallization conditions (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M.; Gutierrez, F. J.; Chang-Qiang, M.; Jianwei, L.; Yuanyuan, L.


    The Caleu pluton consists of three N-S elongated lithological zones: Gabbro-Diorite Zone (GDZ), Tonalite Zone (TZ) and Granodiorite Zone (GZ); western, middle and eastern portions of the pluton, respectively. The zones are thought to be previously differentiated in a common, isotopically depleted (Sr-Nd), subjacent magma reservoir at a 4 kbar equivalent depth. The emplacement should have occurred at the climax of the Cretaceous rifting. We present preliminary results of U238/Pb206 zircon geochronology; zircon saturation, Tsat(Zrn), and crystallization temperatures (Ti-in-Zrn); as well as relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, based on: (i) the sluggish REE and HFSE subsolidus diffusivities in zircon; (ii) the behavior of Ti4+↔Si4+ and Ce4+↔Zr4+ isovalent replacement, in addition to a constrained TiO2 activity in almost all typical crustal rocks; and (iii) relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, respectively. The latter are obtained by interpolation of the partition coefficients of trivalent (REE) and tetravalent (HFSE) curves in Onuma diagrams for each zircon, and then estimating relative Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ratios. Results obtained from 4 samples (a total of 77 zircon grains) collected from the three mentioned lithological zones indicate U/Pb ages of approximately 99.5 ±1.5 Ma, 96.8 ±0.6 Ma, and 94.4 +2.2 -0.8 Ma; and Ti-in Zrn ranges of ca. 720-870°C, ca. 680-820°C and ca. 750-840°C, for the GDZ, TZ and GZ samples, respectively. On the other hand Tsat(Zrn) of ca. 750-780°C in the TZ, and ca. 830-890°C in the GZ, were obtained. As expected saturation temperatures are similar or higher than Ti-in-Zrn obtained in zircon grains of TZ and GZ, respectively. Cathodoluminiscence images in zircon suggest a magmatic origin, due to absence of complex zoning patterns and fairly well conserved morphologies. Exceptionally the GDZ sample zircons show evidence of inheritance, indicating a xenocrystic and/or antecrystic origin. A relative Ce

  14. Chemical abrasion-SIMS (CA-SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from the late Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; Coble, Matthew A.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Colgan, Joseph P.; John, David A.


    Zircon geochronology is a critical tool for establishing geologic ages and time scales of processes in the Earth's crust. However, for zircons compromised by open system behavior, achieving robust dates can be difficult. Chemical abrasion (CA) is a routine step prior to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) dating of zircon to remove radiation-damaged parts of grains that may have experienced open system behavior and loss of radiogenic Pb. While this technique has been shown to improve the accuracy and precision of TIMS dating, its application to high-spatial resolution dating methods, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is relatively uncommon. In our efforts to U-Pb date zircons from the late Eocene Caetano caldera by SIMS (SHRIMP-RG: sensitive high resolution ion microprobe, reverse geometry), some grains yielded anomalously young U-Pb ages that implicated Pb-loss and motivated us to investigate with a comparative CA and non-CA dating study. We present CA and non-CA 206Pb/238U ages and trace elements determined by SHRIMP-RG for zircons from three Caetano samples (Caetano Tuff, Redrock Canyon porphyry, and a silicic ring-fracture intrusion) and for R33 and TEMORA-2 reference zircons. We find that non-CA Caetano zircons have weighted mean or bimodal U-Pb ages that are 2–4% younger than CA zircons for the same samples. CA Caetano zircons have mean U-Pb ages that are 0.4–0.6 Myr older than the 40Ar/39Ar sanidine eruption age (34.00 ± 0.03 Ma; error-weighted mean, 2σ), whereas non-CA zircons have ages that are 0.7–1.3 Myr younger. U-Pb ages do not correlate with U (~ 100–800 ppm), Th (~ 50–300 ppm) or any other measured zircon trace elements (Y, Hf, REE), and CA and non-CA Caetano zircons define identical trace element ranges. No statistically significant difference in U-Pb age is observed for CA versus non-CA R33 or TEMORA-2 zircons. Optical profiler measurements of ion microprobe pits demonstrate consistent depths of ~ 1.6

  15. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes. (United States)

    Tims, Sebastian; van Wamel, Willem; Endtz, Hubert P; van Belkum, Alex; Kayser, Manfred


    Human fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically restricted DNA diversity. We tested the suitability of physical fingerprints for revealing human host information, with geographic inference as example, via microbial DNA fingerprinting. We showed that the transient exogenous fingertip microflora is frequently different from the resident endogenous bacteria of the same individuals. In only 54% of the experiments, the DNA analysis of the transient fingertip microflora allowed the detection of defined, but often not the major, elements of the resident microflora. Although we found microbial persistency in certain individuals, time-wise variation of transient and resident microflora within individuals was also observed when resampling fingerprints after 3 weeks. While microbial species differed considerably in their frequency spectrum between fingerprint samples from volunteers in Europe and southern Asia, there was no clear geographic distinction between Staphylococcus strains in a cluster analysis, although bacterial genotypes did not overlap between both continental regions. Our results, though limited in quantity, clearly demonstrate that the dynamic fingerprint microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes including geographic ones. Overall, our results suggest that human fingerprint microflora is too dynamic to allow for forensic marker developments for retrieving human information.

  16. 西藏拉萨地块过铝质花岗岩中继承锆石的物源区示踪及其古地理意义%Tracing the provenance of inheritedzircons from peraluminous granites in the Lhasa Terrane and its paleogeographic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱弟成; 赵志丹; 牛耀龄; 王青; DILEK Yildirim; 管琪; 刘勇胜; 莫宣学


    富含继承锆石的过铝质花岗岩一般来源于富铝质岩石(如变泥质岩)的部分熔融,因而分析这些继承锆石的U-Pb 年龄可以像分析沉积岩碎屑锆石的U-Pb年龄一样,提供过铝质花岗岩源区物质中碎屑沉积物物源区的丰富信息.本文报道了中部拉萨地块早侏罗世过铝质花岗岩的全岩地球化学和锆石U -Pb年代学数据,结合拉萨地块已有二叠纪和晚三叠世过铝质花岗岩的继承锆石年代学数据,总结了目前已有的拉萨地块过铝质花岗岩的继承锆石U-Pb年龄特征(共199个谐和测点).这些过铝质花岗岩属强过铝质S型花岗岩,其中的继承锆石定义了1250 ~1100Ma(峰值1181±14Ma)和550 ~450Ma (峰值494±7Ma)2个最突出的年龄群,分别可比于拉萨地块古生代沉积岩的碎屑锆石年龄峰值(约1170Ma)和寒武纪火山岩的侵位时代,明显不同于西羌塘、安多和特提斯喜马拉雅新元古代-古生代沉积岩中的碎屑锆石年龄频谱.拉萨地块过铝质花岗岩中约1181Ma的继承锆石,可能与拉萨地块古生代沉积岩中的同期碎屑锆石一样,都来自澳大利亚南西部Albany-Fraser 造山带和东南极Wilkes等地,而约494的继承锆石,既可能来自澳大利亚西部,也可能来自拉萨地块本地.本文提供了拉萨地块与澳大利亚大陆北缘具有古地理联系的过铝质花岗岩继承锆石U-Pb年龄证据.拉萨地块的研究实践表明,采用过铝质花岗岩继承锆石和古生代沉积岩碎屑锆石相结合的锆石U-Pb年代学方法,可为重建冈瓦纳大陆北缘其它微陆块的古地理和构造岩浆演化提供重要约束.%Peraluminous granites with abundant zircon inheritance are derived from partial melting of Al-rich rocks ( e. G. Metapelite). Thus the U-Pb age data of inherited zircons from peraluminous granites provide insights into provenance of clastic sediments in their source region, as do the detrital zircons from sedimentary

  17. Attendance fingerprint identification system using arduino and single board computer (United States)

    Muchtar, M. A.; Seniman; Arisandi, D.; Hasanah, S.


    Fingerprint is one of the most unique parts of the human body that distinguishes one person from others and is easily accessed. This uniqueness is supported by technology that can automatically identify or recognize a person called fingerprint sensor. Yet, the existing Fingerprint Sensor can only do fingerprint identification on one machine. For the mentioned reason, we need a method to be able to recognize each user in a different fingerprint sensor. The purpose of this research is to build fingerprint sensor system for fingerprint data management to be centralized so identification can be done in each Fingerprint Sensor. The result of this research shows that by using Arduino and Raspberry Pi, data processing can be centralized so that fingerprint identification can be done in each fingerprint sensor with 98.5 % success rate of centralized server recording.

  18. Security and matching of partial fingerprint recognition systems (United States)

    Jea, Tsai-Yang; Chavan, Viraj S.; Govindaraju, Venu; Schneider, John K.


    Despite advances in fingerprint identification techniques, matching incomplete or partial fingerprints still poses a difficult challenge. While the introduction of compact silicon chip-based sensors that capture only a part of the fingerprint area have made this problem important from a commercial perspective, there is also considerable interest on the topic for processing partial and latent fingerprints obtained at crime scenes. Attempts to match partial fingerprints using singular ridge structures-based alignment techniques fail when the partial print does not include such structures (e.g., core or delta). We present a multi-path fingerprint matching approach that utilizes localized secondary features derived using only the relative information of minutiae. Since the minutia-based fingerprint representation, is an ANSI-NIST standard, our approach has the advantage of being directly applicable to already existing databases. We also analyze the vulnerability of partial fingerprint identification systems to brute force attacks. The described matching approach has been tested on one of FVC2002"s DB1 database11. The experimental results show that our approach achieves an equal error rate of 1.25% and a total error rate of 1.8% (with FAR at 0.2% and FRR at 1.6%).

  19. Entropy based fingerprint for local crystalline order (United States)

    Piaggi, Pablo M.; Parrinello, Michele


    We introduce a new fingerprint that allows distinguishing between liquid-like and solid-like atomic environments. This fingerprint is based on an approximate expression for the entropy projected on individual atoms. When combined with local enthalpy, this fingerprint acquires an even finer resolution and it is capable of discriminating between different crystal structures.

  20. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints (United States)

    Friesen, J. Brent


    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…



    Yogita Verma*, Prof. Bhagwati Charan Patel


    Fingerprints are most extensively and effectively appropriate for the proof of identity in present days. Mostly because of their uniqueness among the people, public acceptance, originality, stability through life, and their least risk of invasion. Fingerprint technology, which is basically a biometric system, is utilized to identify an individual based on their physical qualities. Fingerprint matching is the trendiest biometric method appropriate to provide authentication. Fingerprint verific...

  2. Interoperability between Fingerprint Biometric Systems: An Empirical Study


    Gashi, I.; Mason, S.; Lugini, L.; Marasco, E.; Cukic, B.


    Fingerprints are likely the most widely used biometric in commercial as well as law enforcement applications. With the expected rapid growth of fingerprint authentication in mobile devices their importance justifies increased demands for dependability. An increasing number of new sensors,applications and a diverse user population also intensify concerns about the interoperability in fingerprint authentication. In most applications, fingerprints captured for user enrollment with one device may...

  3. A medium resolution fingerprint matching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammad Bahaa-Eldin


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel minutiae based fingerprint matching system is proposed. The system is suitable for medium resolution fingerprint images obtained by low cost commercial sensors. The paper presents a new thinning algorithm, a new features extraction and representation, and a novel feature distance matching algorithm. The proposed system is rotation and translation invariant and is suitable for complete or partial fingerprint matching. The proposed algorithms are optimized to be executed on low resource environments both in CPU power and memory space. The system was evaluated using a standard fingerprint dataset and good performance and accuracy were achieved under certain image quality requirements. In addition, the proposed system was compared favorably to that of the state of the art systems.

  4. Information Theoretical Analysis of Identification based on Active Content Fingerprinting


    Farhadzadeh, Farzad; Willems, Frans M. J.; Voloshinovskiy, Sviatoslav


    Content fingerprinting and digital watermarking are techniques that are used for content protection and distribution monitoring. Over the past few years, both techniques have been well studied and their shortcomings understood. Recently, a new content fingerprinting scheme called {\\em active content fingerprinting} was introduced to overcome these shortcomings. Active content fingerprinting aims to modify a content to extract robuster fingerprints than the conventional content fingerprinting....

  5. Fingerprint matching with optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolla, Y


    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition is an important security technique with a steadily growing usage for the identification and verification of individuals. However, current fingerprint acquisition systems have certain disadvantages, which include...

  6. Separation of zircon from the beach sand deposit of Srikurmam area, Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.S.U.; Sharma, A.K.; Seshadrinath, S.T.; Fahmi, Sohail; William Prasad, Ch.; Nagabhushanam, B.


    Beach sand placer deposits occur along the eastern and western coasts of India, which contain heavy minerals, such as ilmenite, rutile, garnet, monazite, zircon and sillimanite. Among these, zircon is used in zircaloys (nuclear industry), ceramics, refractories, abrasives, etc. Separation and chemical characterization of pure zircon is a prelude for understanding the different elements and impurities present and its industrial application. In recent times, several methods are developed for beneficiation and separation of individual heavy minerals from beach sands. In this paper, separation of zircon from beach sand of Srikurmam area, Andhra Pradesh was taken up as a case study. The process flow sheet adopted for separation and isolation of pure zircon from beach sand sample consists of desliming of beach sand, wet tabling of sand fraction, removal of magnetite by low intensity magnetic separation from table concentrate, perm roll magnetic separation and induced roll magnetic separation of table concentrate. The concentrates were further subjected to iso-dynamic magnetic separator after observing impurity present in the sample under binocular stereomicroscope. In the present process, about 95% pure zircon was obtained. Further concentration of zircon was carried out under the binocular stereomicroscope by hand picking of impurity to obtain 99.5% pure zircon concentrate. The pure zircon concentrate was analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by chemical method for characterization of zircon and cross validation of physical processes through which the zircon concentrate was obtained. Chemical analysis of the pure zircon concentrate indicated 63.15 to 64.79% ZrO 2 and 32.2 to 32.8% SiO 2 . These values are nearer to that of pure zircon, which stoichiometrically contains 67.2% ZrO 2 and 32.8 % SiO 2 with little iron. In the present study, ZrO 2 +HfO 2 content varies from 65.27 to 66.17% and hafnium from 1.25 to 1.46% HfO 2 in the zircon concentrate. The variation

  7. Uranium and Thorium in zircon sands processed in Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazin, Clovis A.; Farias, Emerson E. G. de


    Zircon the main mineral of zirconium is a silicate mineral product (ZrSiO 4 ) obtained from beach sand deposits, along with other minerals such as kyanite, ilmenite, and rutile. All zircons contain some radioactive impurities due to the presence of uranium, thorium and their respective decay products in the crystalline structure of zircon, as well as potassium-40. Uranium and thorium substitute Zr 4+ in the mineral through an internal process called isomorphous replacement of zirconium. For this study, samples were collected both from a mineral sand processing plant located in the coastal region of Northeastern brazil and from the beach sands used in the process. The aim of this study was to assess the 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K contents in the beach sands and in the mineral products extracted from the sands in that facility, with special emphasis on zircon. Measurements were performed through gamma spectrometry, by using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Activity concentration for 238 U and 232 Th in zircon sands ranged from 5462±143 to 19286±46 Bq kg -1 and from 1016±7 to 7162±38 Bq kg -1 , respectively. For 40 K, on the other hand, activity concentration values ranged from 81±14 to 681±26 Bq Kg -1 . The results of the measurements carried out for raw sand samples showed activity concentrations between 2.7±0.6 and 7.9±0.9 Bq kg -1 and 6.5±0.4 and 9.4±0.6 Bq kg -1 for 238 U and 23T h respectively, and from 48.8±3.1 to 76.1±2.4 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Activity concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th in kyanite, ilmenite and rutile samples were also determined. (author)

  8. Sex Determination from Fingerprint Ridge Density | Gungadin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted with an aim to establish a relationship between sex and fingerprint ridge density. The fingerprints were taken from 500 subjects (250 males and 250 females) in the age group of 18-60 years. After taking fingerprints, the ridges were counted in the upper portion of the radial border of each print for all ...

  9. Isotopic (U-Pb, Nd) and geochemical constraints on the origins of the Aileu and Gondwana sequences of Timor (United States)

    Boger, S. D.; Spelbrink, L. G.; Lee, R. I.; Sandiford, M.; Maas, R.; Woodhead, J. D.


    Detrital zircon U-Pb age data collected from the argillitic sedimentary rocks of the Timorese Aileu Complex and Gondwana Sequence indicate that both units were derived from a common source containing 200-600 Ma, 900-1250 Ma and 1450-1900 Ma zircon. The modally most significant age population within this range of ages dates to c. 260 Ma. The observed spectrum of ages can be traced to the eastern active margin of Pangaea and its immediate foreland, which today is best exposed along the northeast coast of Australia. Compared to the relative homogeneity of the detrital zircon age data, geochemical and Nd isotopic data show that the mudstones of the Aileu Complex are on average more siliceous, have higher K2O/Na2O, Rb/Sr, Th/Sc and yield notably older Nd TDM model ages when compared to those from the Gondwana Sequence. These data are interpreted to suggest that, although both sequences share a common east Pangaea provenance, they were eroded from different sections of this active margin and deposited in spatially separated basins. The present proximity of these units is a result of their tectonic juxtaposition during the Pliocene to Recent collision between the northern edge of the Indo-Australia plate and the Banda Arc.

  10. Integrated fingerprinting in secure digital cinema projection (United States)

    Delannay, Damien; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Mas Ribes, Joan M.; Boucqueau, Jean M.; Nivart, Jean-Francois


    This paper describes the functional model of a combined conditional access and fingerprinting copyright (-or projectionright) protection system in a digital cinema framework. In the cinema industry, a large part of early movie piracy comes from copies made in the theater itself with a camera. The evolution towards digital cinema broadcast enables watermark based fingerprinting protection systems. Besides an appropriate fingerprinting technology, a number of well defined security/cryptographic tools are integrated in order to guaranty the integrity of the whole system. The requirements are two-fold: On one side, we must ensure that the media content is only accessible at exhibition time (under specific authorization obtained after an ad-hoc film rental agreement) and contains the related exhibition fingerprint. At the other end, we must prove our ability to retrieve the fingerprint information from an illegal copy of the media.

  11. A Tale of Two Earths: Reconciling the Lunar and Terrestrial Hadean Records


    Boehnke, Patrick


    Studying early Earth history is complicated by the fact that the rock record doesn’t extend past 4 Ga and our only record for the Hadean (>4 Ga) comes to us from detrital zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia. The Hadean zircon record extends back to almost 4.4 Ga and has revealed that the early Earth may have had liquid water, a felsic crust, plate boundary interactions, and possibly a biosphere. On the other hand, analyses of lunar and meteoritic samples are used to argue for a...

  12. The timing of tertiary metamorphism and deformation in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.


    The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex of southern Idaho and northern Utah exposes 2.56-Ga orthogneisses and Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks that were intruded by 32-25-Ma granitic plutons. Pluton emplacement was contemporaneous with peak metamorphism, ductile thinning of the country rocks, and top-to-thewest, normal-sense shear along the Middle Mountain shear zone. Monazite and zircon from an attenuated stratigraphic section in the Middle Mountain were dated with U-Pb, using a SHRIMP-RG (reverse geometry) ion microprobe. Zircons from the deformed Archean gneiss preserve a crystallization age of 2532 ?? 33 Ma, while monazites range from 32.6 ?? 0.6 to 27.1 ?? 0.6 Ma. In the schist of the Upper Narrows, detrital zircons lack metamorphic overgrowths, and monazites produced discordant U-Pb ages that range from 52.8 ?? 0.6 to 37.5 ?? 0.3 Ma. From the structurally and stratigraphically highest unit sampled, the schist of Stevens Spring, narrow metamorphic rims on detrital zircons yield ages from 140-110 Ma, and monazite grains contained cores that yield an age of 141 ??2 Ma, whereas rims and some whole grains ranged from 35.5 ?? 0.5 to 30.0 ?? 0.4 Ma. A boudinaged pegmatite exposed in Basin Creek is deformed by the Middle Mountains shear zone and yields a monazite age of 27.6 ?? 0.2 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate two periods of monazite and metamorphic zircon growth: a poorly preserved Early Cretaceous period (???140 Ma) that is strongly overprinted by Oligocene metamorphism (???32-27 Ma) related to regional plutonism and extension. ?? 2011 by The University of Chicago.

  13. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin


    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  14. Enhancing security of fingerprints through contextual biometric watermarking. (United States)

    Noore, Afzel; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Houck, Max M


    This paper presents a novel digital watermarking technique using face and demographic text data as multiple watermarks for verifying the chain of custody and protecting the integrity of a fingerprint image. The watermarks are embedded in selected texture regions of a fingerprint image using discrete wavelet transform. Experimental results show that modifications in these locations are visually imperceptible and maintain the minutiae details. The integrity of the fingerprint image is verified through the high matching scores obtained from an automatic fingerprint identification system. There is also a high degree of visual correlation between the embedded images, and the extracted images from the watermarked fingerprint. The degree of similarity is computed using pixel-based metrics and human visual system metrics. The results also show that the proposed watermarked fingerprint and the extracted images are resilient to common attacks such as compression, filtering, and noise.

  15. Implementation of Minutiae Based Fingerprint Identification System Using Crossing Number Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system which recognizes a person by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological (e.g., fingerprints, face, retina, iris or behavioral (e.g., gait, signature characteristic possessed by that person. Among all the presently employed biometric techniques, fingerprint identification systems have received the most attention due to the long history of fingerprints and its extensive use in forensics. Fingerprint is reliable biometric characteristic as it is unique and persistence. Fingerprint is the pattern of ridges and valleys on the surface of fingertip. However, recognizing fingerprints in poor quality images is still a very complex job, so the fingerprint image must be preprocessed before matching. It is very difficult to extract fingerprint features directly from gray scale fingerprint image. In this paper we have proposed the system which uses minutiae based matching algorithm for fingerprint identification. There are three main phases in proposed algorithm. First phase enhance the input fingerprint image by preprocessing it. The enhanced fingerprint image is converted into thinned binary image and then minutiae are extracted by using Crossing Number Concept in second phase. Third stage compares input fingerprint image (after preprocessing and minutiae extraction with fingerprint images enrolled in database and makes decision whether the input fingerprint is matched with the fingerprint stored in database or not.

  16. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min


    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  17. Sedimentology, provenance and geochronology of the Miocene Qiuwu Formation: Implication for the uplift history of Southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Zhang


    Full Text Available Located on the south of the Gangdese, the Qiuwu Formation has traditionally been considered as Eocene coal-bearing clastic sediments consisting of sandstone, mudstone and conglomerate, unconformably on top of Gangdese batholith. However, its precise age and depositional environment remain ambiguous. Here, we present a newly measured stratigraphic section near the Ngamring County, western Xigaze. Detrital zircon U–Pb ages were also applied to trace the provenance of sediments and to constrain the maximum depositional age of the Qiuwu Formation. Sedimentary facies analyses indicate subaqueous fan and alluvial fan depositional environments. Clast composition of the conglomerate is dominated by magmatic rocks at the lower part, while chert and mafic detritus occur in the upper part, suggesting a southern source. Sandstone modal analyses indicate that the compositions of quartz, feldspar and lithic grains changed from transitional arc to dissected arc, implying the unroofing of the Gangdese arc. Detrital zircon U–Pb ages of the Qiuwu Formation are compared with those from Gangdese magmatic rocks and Yarlung-Zangbo ophiolites, suggesting that the Gangdese arc is a main source of the Qiuwu detritus and that the southern source played a role during the later stage. The major peak of detrital zircon ages is at 45–55 Ma, which corresponds to Linzizong volcanic rocks in southern Gangdese arc. The weighted mean age of the five youngest zircons from the lower part of the section is 21.0 ± 2.2 Ma, suggesting that the Qiuwu Formation was deposited in early Miocene, coeval with other conglomerates exposed along the southern margin of Gangdese. Combining new observations with previously published data, we propose that the provenance of the Qiuwu Formation had shifted from a single northern source to double sources from both the north and the south. Activities of Great Counter Thrust were primarily responsible for the shift by making the south area a

  18. Wear and microstructural characteristics of spray atomized zircon sand reinforced LM13 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, K.; Pandey, O.P. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University Patiala, Punjab (India)


    The requirement of the high performance light weight materials demands the development of varieties of materials within the economical range to get it commercialized. Light weight aluminium alloys are used in several structural applications like automotive, aerospace, defense industry and other fields of engineering. The ceramic particle reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites (AMCs) have emerged as a suitable candidate for commercial applications. A variety of processing routes have been adopted to manufacture AMCs. In the present work LM13 alloy reinforced with zircon sand is formed via spray forming. During experimentation a self prepared convergent-divergent nozzle is used for inert gas atomization of the melt which is subsequently deposited on copper substrate placed vertically below the atomizer. The zircon sand particles are injected in the atomization zone by external injectors aligned perpendicular to the gas atomization axis. Zircon sand has been found to have new promising economical commercial candidate due to its easy availability and good mechanical properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity and good thermal stability. The microhardness of cast alloy and spray formed composite shows that the spray formed zircon sand reinforced composite has higher hardness. Also the lower wear rate has been observed in case of the zircon sand reinforced AMC as compared to LM13 alloy. This behaviour is further analyzed in light of microstructural features of the spray deposited composite using optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A comparative study of this material (LM13/Zircon sand) with the parent alloy (LM13) is presented in this work. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Assessment of source material (U and Th) in exploration, mining, processing of zircon sand in Central Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedi Hermawan; Pandu Dewanto; Sudarto


    From 2004 to 2008, according to data released by the Commerce Department, the volume of zircon sand and concentrates exports has increased highly. One of many locations in Indonesia that widely available zircon sand is Kalimantan island. For example, Central Kalimantan Province in 2007 to 2008 exports about 51,000 tones up to 79,000 tones of zircon sand annually. The concentration of source material in the zircon sand is important to be known because the presence of natural radioactive U and Th in zircon sand has the potential radiation hazard. Therefore it is necessary to conduct an assessment the potential reserves related to the source material contained in the zircon sand and radiation safety that are applied in the process of mining or processing of zircon sand. In this paper the location of mining and processing of zircon sand is restricted to the province of Central Kalimantan. From the assessment obtained that source material which is carried by zircon sand export form the province of Central Kalimantan have the potential to exceed the limits set by the BAPETEN Chairman Decree No.9 of 2006 About the Implementation of the Additional Protocol to the Accountability System and Control of Nuclear Materials. In terms of compliance with radiation safety, required increased surveillance of K3 during mining, process / processing by the worker, supervisor / supervisors and regional management company to be able the achievement of compliance with the provisions of the management of materials and the safety of radiation sources based on national regulations (BAPETEN) and international. (author)

  20. Improvement of conditions for ceramics sintering on the base of lead zirconate-titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinchuk, M.D.; Kim, P.V.; Bykov, I.P.; Lyashchenko, A.B.


    Lead zirconate-titanate powders of different graininess are studied for their phase composition. The finest grains of the powder consist of lead zirconate-titanate with the rhombohedral structure. Grains of 3-5 μm size are a mixture of lead zirconate-titanate and lead titanate, the latter exceeding 50% (by weight) causes the effect of anomalous expansion in the process of sintering. Control of the technological parameters of the synthesis permits producing powder with favourable correlation of the above phases and grain sizes. Sintering of such a powder induces no effect of the anomalous expansion with an increased density of the product attained

  1. An Efficient Reconfigurable Architecture for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S. Bhairannawar


    Full Text Available The fingerprint identification is an efficient biometric technique to authenticate human beings in real-time Big Data Analytics. In this paper, we propose an efficient Finite State Machine (FSM based reconfigurable architecture for fingerprint recognition. The fingerprint image is resized, and Compound Linear Binary Pattern (CLBP is applied on fingerprint, followed by histogram to obtain histogram CLBP features. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT Level 2 features are obtained by the same methodology. The novel matching score of CLBP is computed using histogram CLBP features of test image and fingerprint images in the database. Similarly, the DWT matching score is computed using DWT features of test image and fingerprint images in the database. Further, the matching scores of CLBP and DWT are fused with arithmetic equation using improvement factor. The performance parameters such as TSR (Total Success Rate, FAR (False Acceptance Rate, and FRR (False Rejection Rate are computed using fusion scores with correlation matching technique for FVC2004 DB3 Database. The proposed fusion based VLSI architecture is synthesized on Virtex xc5vlx30T-3 FPGA board using Finite State Machine resulting in optimized parameters.

  2. Extrapolation of zircon fission-track annealing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palissari, R.; Guedes, S.; Curvo, E.A.C.; Moreira, P.A.F.P.; Tello, C.A.; Hadler, J.C.


    One of the purposes of this study is to give further constraints on the temperature range of the zircon partial annealing zone over a geological time scale using data from borehole zircon samples, which have experienced stable temperatures for ∼1 Ma. In this way, the extrapolation problem is explicitly addressed by fitting the zircon annealing models with geological timescale data. Several empirical model formulations have been proposed to perform these calibrations and have been compared in this work. The basic form proposed for annealing models is the Arrhenius-type model. There are other annealing models, that are based on the same general formulation. These empirical model equations have been preferred due to the great number of phenomena from track formation to chemical etching that are not well understood. However, there are two other models, which try to establish a direct correlation between their parameters and the related phenomena. To compare the response of the different annealing models, thermal indexes, such as closure temperature, total annealing temperature and the partial annealing zone, have been calculated and compared with field evidence. After comparing the different models, it was concluded that the fanning curvilinear models yield the best agreement between predicted index temperatures and field evidence. - Highlights: ► Geological data were used along with lab data for improving model extrapolation. ► Index temperatures were simulated for testing model extrapolation. ► Curvilinear Arrhenius models produced better geological temperature predictions

  3. Fingerprint and Face Identification for Large User Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Ko


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the state-of-the-art of the current biometric (fingerprint and face technology, lessons learned during the investigative analysis performed to ascertain the benefits of using combined fingerprint and facial technologies, and recommendations for the use of current available fingerprint and face identification technologies for optimum identification performance for applications using large user population. Prior fingerprint and face identification test study results have shown that their identification accuracies are strongly dependent on the image quality of the biometric inputs. Recommended methodologies for ensuring the capture of acceptable quality fingerprint and facial images of subjects are also presented in this paper.

  4. Going back in time with zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.; Faurie, J.


    Uranium-lead age dating, with zircon as the agent is the most recent advance in exploring rocks and minerals to define their stratigraphic sequence. The authors believe it will have a tremendous effect on the accurate mapping of the earth's mineral resources, including those of Antartica; indeed, even of the moon

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Diffusivity of Holmium and Praseodymium Zirconates


    Stopyra M.; Niemiec D.; Moskal G.


    A2B2O7 oxides with pyrochlore or defected fluorite structure are among the most promising candidates for insulation layer material in thermal barrier coatings. The present paper presents the procedure of synthesis of holmium zirconate Ho2Zr2O7 and praseodymium zirconate Pr2Zr2O7 via Polymerized-Complex Method (PCM). Thermal analysis of precursor revealed that after calcination at relatively low temperature (700°C) fine-crystalline, single-phase material is obtained. Thermal diffusivity was me...

  6. Zircon reveals protracted magma storage and recycling beneath Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Claiborne, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Flanagan, D.M.; Clynne, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.


    Current data and models for Mount St. Helens volcano (Washington, United States) suggest relatively rapid transport from magma genesis to eruption, with no evidence for protracted storage or recycling of magmas. However, we show here that complex zircon age populations extending back hundreds of thousands of years from eruption age indicate that magmas regularly stall in the crust, cool and crystallize beneath the volcano, and are then rejuvenated and incorporated by hotter, young magmas on their way to the surface. Estimated dissolution times suggest that entrained zircon generally resided in rejuvenating magmas for no more than about a century. Zircon elemental compositions reflect the increasing influence of mafic input into the system through time, recording growth from hotter, less evolved magmas tens of thousands of years prior to the appearance of mafic magmas at the surface, or changes in whole-rock geochemistry and petrology, and providing a new, time-correlated record of this evolution independent of the eruption history. Zircon data thus reveal the history of the hidden, long-lived intrusive portion of the Mount St. Helens system, where melt and crystals are stored for as long as hundreds of thousands of years and interact with fresh influxes of magmas that traverse the intrusive reservoir before erupting. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  7. Fingerprint: A Unique and Reliable Method for Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Kumar Bose


    Full Text Available Fingerprints have been the gold standard for personal identification within the forensic community for more than one hundred years. It is still universal in spite of discovery of DNA fingerprint. The science of fingerprint identification has evolved over time from the early use of finger prints to mark business transactions in ancient Babylonia to their use today as core technology in biometric security devices and as scientific evidence in courts of law throughout the world. The science of fingerprints, dactylography or dermatoglyphics, had long been widely accepted, and well acclaimed and reputed as panacea for individualization, particularly in forensic investigations. Human fingerprints are detailed, unique, difficult to alter, and durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as lifelong markers of human identity. Fingerprints can be readily used by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster

  8. The Origin of DIRT (Detrital Input and Removal Treatments): the Legacy of Dr. Francis D. Hole (United States)

    Townsend, K. L.; Lajtha, K.; Caldwell, B.; Sollins, P.


    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a key role in the cycling and retention of nitrogen and carbon within soil. Both above and belowground detrital inputs determine the nature and quantity of SOM. Studies on detrital impacts on SOM dynamics are underway at several LTER, ILTER and LTER-affiliated sites using a common experimental design, Detrital Input and Removal Treatments (DIRT). The concept for DIRT was originally based on experimental plots established at the University of Wisconsin Arboretum by Dr. Francis D. Hole in 1956 to study the effects of detrital inputs on pedogenesis. These plots are located on two forested sites and two prairie sites within the arboretum. Manipulations of the forested sites include double litter, no litter and removal of the O and A horizons. Manipulations of the prairie sites include harvest, mulch, bare and burn. These original treatments have largely been maintained since 1956. After 40 years of maintenance, there were significant differences in soil carbon between the double and no litter plots. The double litter plots had increased by nearly 30% while the no litter plots had decreased over 50%. The original DIRT plots are now 50 years old and have been re-sampled, where possible, for total carbon and nitrogen, labile and recalcitrant carbon fractions, net and gross nitrogen mineralization rates, and SOM bioavailability through CO2 respiration. The soils were fractionated by density to examine the role of carbon in each density fraction. The mean age of carbon in each fraction was determined by radiocarbon dating. This sampling and analysis is of special significance because it provides a glimpse into the future SOM trajectories for the new DIRT sites: Harvard Forest (MA), Bousson (PA), Andrews Experimental Forest (OR) and Sikfokut (Hungary).



    Zhao, Bo; Haldar, Justin P.; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L.


    Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is an emerging quantitative MR imaging technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameters in an efficient experiment. In this work, we present an estimation-theoretic framework to evaluate and design MR fingerprinting experiments. More specifically, we derive the Cram��r-Rao bound (CRB), a lower bound on the covariance of any unbiased estimator, to characterize parameter estimation for MR fingerprinting. We then formulate an optimal experi...

  10. Image Processing and Features Extraction of Fingerprint Images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To demonstrate the importance of the image processing of fingerprint images prior to image enrolment or comparison, the set of fingerprint images in databases (a) and (b) of the FVC (Fingerprint Verification Competition) 2000 database were analyzed using a features extraction algorithm. This paper presents the results of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malathi


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been exponential growth in the use of bio- metrics for user authentication applications. Automated Fingerprint Identification systems have become popular tool in many security and law enforcement applications. Most of these systems rely on minutiae (ridge ending and bifurcation features. With the advancement in sensor technology, high resolution fingerprint images (1000 dpi pro- vide micro level of features (pores that have proven to be useful fea- tures for identification. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for fingerprint matching based on pores by reliably extracting the pore features The extraction of pores is done by Marker Controlled Wa- tershed segmentation method and the centroids of each pore are con- sidered as feature vectors for matching of two fingerprint images. Experimental results shows that the proposed method has better per- formance with lower false rates and higher accuracy.

  12. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.


    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  13. Fingerprint enhancement using a multispectral sensor (United States)

    Rowe, Robert K.; Nixon, Kristin A.


    The level of performance of a biometric fingerprint sensor is critically dependent on the quality of the fingerprint images. One of the most common types of optical fingerprint sensors relies on the phenomenon of total internal reflectance (TIR) to generate an image. Under ideal conditions, a TIR fingerprint sensor can produce high-contrast fingerprint images with excellent feature definition. However, images produced by the same sensor under conditions that include dry skin, dirt on the skin, and marginal contact between the finger and the sensor, are likely to be severely degraded. This paper discusses the use of multispectral sensing as a means to collect additional images with new information about the fingerprint that can significantly augment the system performance under both normal and adverse sample conditions. In the context of this paper, "multispectral sensing" is used to broadly denote a collection of images taken under different illumination conditions: different polarizations, different illumination/detection configurations, as well as different wavelength illumination. Results from three small studies using an early-stage prototype of the multispectral-TIR (MTIR) sensor are presented along with results from the corresponding TIR data. The first experiment produced data from 9 people, 4 fingers from each person and 3 measurements per finger under "normal" conditions. The second experiment provided results from a study performed to test the relative performance of TIR and MTIR images when taken under extreme dry and dirty conditions. The third experiment examined the case where the area of contact between the finger and sensor is greatly reduced.

  14. Recovery of latent fingerprints and DNA on human skin. (United States)

    Färber, Doris; Seul, Andrea; Weisser, Hans-Joachim; Bohnert, Michael


    The project "Latent Fingerprints and DNA on Human Skin" was the first systematic research in Europe dealing with detection of fingerprints and DNA left by offenders on the skin of corpses. One thousand samples gave results that allow general statements on the materials and methods used. The tests were carried out according to a uniform trial structure. Fingerprints were deposited by natural donors on corpses. The latent fingerprints were treated with magnetic powder or black fingerprint powder. Afterward, they were lifted with silicone casting material (Isomark(®)) or gelatine foil. All lifts were swabbed to recover DNA. It was possible to visualize comparable and identifiable fingerprints on the skin of corpses (16%). In the same categories, magnetic powder (18.4%) yielded better results than black fingerprint powder (13.6%). The number of comparable and identifiable fingerprints decreased on the lifts (12.7%). Isomark(®) (14.9%) was the better lifting material in comparison with gelatine foil (10.1%). In one-third of the samples, DNA could be extracted from the powdered and lifted latents. Black fingerprint powder delivered the better result with a rate of 2.2% for full DNA profiles and profiles useful for exclusion in comparison with 1.8% for the magnetic powder traces. Isomark(®) (3.1%) yielded better results than gelatine foil (0.6%). © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Elemental and Isotopic Tomography at Single-Atom-Scale in 4.0 and 2.4 Ga Zircons (United States)

    Valley, J. W.; Reinhard, D. A.; Snoeyenbos, D.; Lawrence, D.; Martin, I.; Kelly, T. F.; Ushikubo, T.; Strickland, A.; Cavosie, A. J.


    Atom probe tomography can determine identity (mass/charge ratio) and 3-D position of individual atoms in minerals such as zircon. These data provide unique information for understanding the thermal history and mechanisms of mineral reaction and exchange, including radiation damage. Nine needle-shaped specimens ~100 nm in diameter (at the apex) were sampled from 2 zircons by FIB and analyzed with a local-electrode atom probe (LEAP), CAMECA LEAP 4000X HR. The LEAP uses pulsed-laser heating to field evaporate the tip of a zircon needle and accelerates the ions into a position-sensitive TOF-MS. With due care for complex isobaric interferences (molecules, multiple ionizations) and background correction, it is possible to individually identify up to 10E8 atoms/needle (36% detection efficiency) by mass/charge (MRP ~ 1000@ m/n=16Da) and position (X-Y-Z coordinates on 0.2 nm scale) (Kelly & Larson 2012). The 3-D distribution of Pb and Y differ at atom-scale in the 2 zircons. Zircon #1 (4007 Ma, Jack Hills, W. Australia, Cavosie 2005, Ushikubo et al. 2008, Bouvier et al. 2011) is homogeneous in Pb and Y. In contrast, incompatible elements, including Pb and Y, are concentrated in equant 5-10 nm dia. domains, spaced ~50 nm apart in zircon #2 (2438 Ma, Albion-Raft R-Grouse Ck core complex, Utah, Strickland et al. 2011). U is homogeneously distributed in both zircons. The analyzed domains suffered 4-8 x 10E15 α-decay events/mg due to U and Th decay and yet both zircons yield >97% concordant U-Pb ages by SIMS, suggesting annealing of radiation damage during the life of the zircons. The 207-Pb/206-Pb ratios for these nm-scale domains, as measured by LEAP, average 0.17 for the 2.4 Ga Zrc2 (3 needles) and 0.43 for the 4.0 Ga Zrc1 (5 needles). These ratios are less precise (±40% 2σ) due to ultra-small sample size, but are in excellent agreement with values measured by SIMS, 0.1684 and 0.4269, respectively. Thus Pb in both zircons is radiogenic. The Pb-Y-rich domains and lack of

  16. U-Pb Dating of Zircons and Phosphates in Lunar Meteorites, Acapulcoites and Angrites (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Zeigler, R. A.; Yin, Q. Z.; Korotev, R. L.; Joliff, B. L.; Amelin, Y.; Marti, K.; Wu, F. Y.; Li, X. H.; Li, Q. L.; hide


    Zircon U-Pb geochronology has made a great contribution to the timing of magmatism in the early Solar System [1-3]. Ca phosphates are another group of common accessory minerals in meteorites with great potential for U-Pb geochronology. Compared to zircons, the lower closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for apatite and merrillite (the most common phosphates in achondrites) makes them susceptible to resetting during thermal metamorphism. The different closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for zircon and apatite provide us an opportunity to discover the evolutionary history of meteoritic parent bodies, such as the crystallization ages of magmatism, as well as later impact events and thermal metamorphism. We have developed techniques using the Cameca IMS-1280 ion microprobe to date both zircon and phosphate grains in meteorites. Here we report U-Pb dating results for zircons and phosphates from lunar meteorites Dhofar 1442 and SaU 169. To test and verify the reliability of the newly developed phosphate dating technique, two additional meteorites, Acapulco, obtained from Acapulco consortium, and angrite NWA 4590 were also selected for this study as both have precisely known phosphate U-Pb ages by TIMS [4,5]. Both meteorites are from very fast cooled parent bodies with no sign of resetting [4,5], satisfying a necessity for precise dating.

  17. The first discovery of Hadean zircon in garnet granulites from the Sutam River (Aldan Shield) (United States)

    Glukhovskii, M. Z.; Kuz'min, M. I.; Bayanova, T. B.; Lyalina, L. M.; Makrygina, V. A.; Shcherbakova, T. F.


    For the first time in Russia, a Hadean zircon grain with an age of 3.94 Ga (ID-TIMS) has been discovered in high-aluminous garnet granulites of the Aldan Shield among the U-Pb zircons with an age from 1.92 Ga. In this connection, the problems of its parental source, the petrogenesis of granulites that captured this zircon, and the mechanism of occurrence of these deep rocks in the upper horizons of the crust have been solved. The comparison of the geochemistry of garnet granulites and the middle crust has shown that the granulites are enriched in the entire range of rare-earth elements (except for the Eu minimum), as well as in Al2O3, U, and Th and are depleted in the most mobile elements (Na, Ca, Sr). In the upper part of the allitic weathering zone of the middle crust, which formed under conditions of arid climate, this zircon grain was originated from the weathered granites from the middle crust. In the latter case, they were empleced discretely in the upper granite-gneiss crust under high pressure conditions (the rutile age is 1.83-1.82 Ga). The zircon with an age of 3.94 Ga is comparable to the Hadean zircons from orthogneisses of the Acasta region (Canadian Shield, 4.03-3.94 Ga).

  18. Study of nanoconfigurations in Zircon-Mullite composites using perturbed angular correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, Cecilia Y., E-mail:; Pasquevich, Alberto F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rivas, Patricia C. [CONICET (Argentina); Martinez, Jorge A.; Caracoche, Maria C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rendtorff, Nicolas M. [CONICET (Argentina); Conconi, Maria S. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC: CONICET-CIC) (Argentina); Aglietti, Esteban F. [CONICET (Argentina)


    It has been already published that, at nanoscopic level, zircon exhibits wide regions of aperiodic material not detected by the ordinary techniques used to analyse the obtained product in the production of ceramic materials. In this paper it is reported how the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique has assisted the interpretation of a mismatch between experiment and theoretical estimation of a mechanical property in some zircon-mullite composites. In fact, it has been proved that the difference observed between the calculated and the experimental value of the elastic modulus in composites of the form (1-x) ZrSiO{sub 4} - x 3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2} (with x = 15, 25, 35 and 45 wt.%) behaves very similarly as the relative amount of aperiodic zircon determined by PAC. This result allows to re-interpret the mullite role during the materials preparation.

  19. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper conducts a petrogeochemical analysis of the Lower Cretaceous Laiyang Group's sandstones, compares the .... graded bedding (figure 3a, b), rhythmic bedding. (figure 3c) ...... cryptic signatures of polycyclic sources, climate change,.

  20. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences,. Beijing 100083 ...... which was originally deeply buried in the basement, began to .... the shallow crust, and the Wulian MCC developed.

  1. Towards reconstruction of overlapping fingerprints using plasma spectroscopy (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin; Yoh, Jack J.


    Chemical analysis is commonly used in the field of forensic science where the precise discrimination of primary evidence is of significant importance. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) exceeds other spectroscopic methods in terms of the time required for pre- and post-sample preparation, the insensitivity to sample phase state be it solid, liquid, or gas, and the detection of two-dimensional spectral mapping from real time point measurements. In this research, fingerprint samples on various surface materials are considered in the chemical detection and reconstruction of fingerprints using the two-dimensional LIBS technique. Strong and distinct intensities of specific wavelengths represent visible ink, natural secretion of sweat, and contaminants from the environment, all of which can be present in latent fingerprints. The particular aim of the work presented here is to enhance the precision of the two-dimensional recreation of the fingerprints present on metal, plastic, and artificially prepared soil surface using LIBS with principal component analysis. By applying a distinct wavelength discrimination for two overlapping fingerprint samples, separation into two non-identical chemical fingerprints was successfully performed.

  2. Zircon and ilmenite from the beach placers of southern coast of Tamil Nadu, east coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angusamy, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Loveson, V.J.


    Zircons were studied from the two different zones of enrichment of placer deposits namely, Kanyakumari-Kuttankuli (KK) and Kallar-Vaippar (VP) along the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. The average heavy mineral contents were 67 wt % for KK and 64 wt % in VP region. The heavy mineral assemblage of the two zones were akin to each other. However, monazite was present in the KK region. In KK, zircons were rounded (44.5 - 63.2 %), overgrown (4.1-16 %), and euhedral (9-4.9 %) while in VP, they are largely broken (47.8-59.6 %), rounded (22.2-38.9 %), and euhedral (7.3-8.1 %). Mean length and breadth of zircons of KK and VP ranged from 0.22-0.26 mm and 0.07-0.13 mm and, 0.06 - 0.16 mm and 0.07-0.11 mm, respectively. Zircons of VP are more fine-grained and well-rounded than KK. The northerly currents, in the Gulf of Mannar, must have transported and deposited the heavy minerals due to the inflection of coastline, and downwarped basinal structure. REE pattern of zircons exhibit Eu and Ce anomalies which could be explained only in terms of crystallochemical factors and the bulk compositional differences of the melt. In the study area, abundance of rounded zircons, length/breadth (L/B) ratios, reduced major axis (RMA) angles, indicated that the source rock for zircons must have been primarily of charnockites. The distribution, composition and REE content of zircons compare well with that of other countries where it is currently under exploitation. (author)

  3. Interpretation of zircon coronae textures from metapelitic granulites of the Ivrea–Verbano Zone, northern Italy: two-stage decomposition of Fe–Ti oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kovaleva


    Full Text Available In this study, we report the occurrence of zircon coronae textures in metapelitic granulites of the Ivrea–Verbano Zone. Unusual zircon textures are spatially associated with Fe–Ti oxides and occur as (1 vermicular-shaped aggregates 50–200 µm long and 5–20 µm thick and as (2 zircon coronae and fine-grained chains, hundreds of micrometers long and ≤ 1 µm thick, spatially associated with the larger zircon grains. Formation of such textures is a result of zircon precipitation during cooling after peak metamorphic conditions, which involved: (1 decomposition of Zr-rich ilmenite to Zr-bearing rutile, and formation of the vermicular-shaped zircon during retrograde metamorphism and hydration; and (2 recrystallization of Zr-bearing rutile to Zr-depleted rutile intergrown with quartz, and precipitation of the submicron-thick zircon coronae during further exhumation and cooling. We also observed hat-shaped grains that are composed of preexisting zircon overgrown by zircon coronae during stage (2. Formation of vermicular zircon (1 preceded ductile and brittle deformation of the host rock, as vermicular zircon is found both plastically and cataclastically deformed. Formation of thin zircon coronae (2 was coeval with, or immediately after, brittle deformation as coronae are found to fill fractures in the host rock. The latter is evidence of local, fluid-aided mobility of Zr. This study demonstrates that metamorphic zircon can nucleate and grow as a result of hydration reactions and mineral breakdown during cooling after granulite-facies metamorphism. Zircon coronae textures indicate metamorphic reactions in the host rock and establish the direction of the reaction front.

  4. Provenance and tectonic significance of the Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary successions of central and nothern Madagascar (United States)

    De Waele, B.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Macey, P.H.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Tucker, R.D.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Bauer, W.; Key, R.M.; Potter, C.J.; Armstrong, R.A.; Miller, J.A.; Randriamananjara, T.; Ralison, V.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Bejoma, M.


    New detrital zircon U–Pb age data obtained from various quartzite units of three spatially separated supracrustal packages in central and northern Madagascar, show that these units were deposited between 1.8 and 0.8 Ga and have similar aged provenances. The distribution of detrital zircon ages indicates an overwhelming contribution of sources with ages between 2.5 and 1.8 Ga. Possible source rocks with an age of 2.5 Ga are present in abundance in the crustal segments (Antananarivo, Antongil and Masora Domains) either side of a purported Neoproterozoic suture ("Betsimisaraka Suture Zone"). Recently, possible source rocks for the 1.8 Ga age peak have been recognised in southern Madagascar. All three supracrustal successions, as well as the Archaean blocks onto which they were emplaced, are intruded by mid-Neoproterozoic magmatic suites placing a minimum age on their deposition. The similarities in detrital pattern, maximum and minimum age of deposition in the three successions, lend some support to a model in which all of Madagascar's Archaean blocks form a coherent crustal entity (the Greater Dharwar Craton), rather than an amalgamate of disparate crustal blocks brought together only during Neoproterozoic convergence. However, potential source terranes exist outside Madagascar and on either side of the Neoproterozoic sutures, so that a model including a Neoproterozoic suture in Madagascar cannot be dispelled outright.

  5. Cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qin; Guo Ying; Huang Duan


    With the increasing popularity of fingerprint identification technology, its security and privacy have been paid much attention. Only the security and privacy of biological information are insured, the biological technology can be better accepted and used by the public. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum bit (qbit)-based scheme to solve the security and privacy problem existing in the traditional fingerprint identification system. By exploiting the properties of quantm mechanics, our proposed scheme, cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme, can achieve the unconditional security guaranteed in an information-theoretical sense. Moreover, this novel quantum scheme can invalidate most of the attacks aimed at the fingerprint identification system. In addition, the proposed scheme is applicable to the requirement of remote communication with no need to worry about its security and privacy during the transmission. This is an absolute advantage when comparing with other traditional methods. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the communication security and the privacy of users’ information for the fingerprint identification. (paper)

  6. Impact of Finger Type in Fingerprint Authentication (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Bours, Patrick; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

    Nowadays fingerprint verification system is the most widespread and accepted biometric technology that explores various features of the human fingers for this purpose. In general, every normal person has 10 fingers with different size. Although it is claimed that recognition performance with little fingers can be less accurate compared to other finger types, to our best knowledge, this has not been investigated yet. This paper presents our study on the topic of influence of the finger type into fingerprint recognition performance. For analysis we employ two fingerprint verification software packages (one public and one commercial). We conduct test on GUC100 multi sensor fingerprint database which contains fingerprint images of all 10 fingers from 100 subjects. Our analysis indeed confirms that performance with small fingers is less accurate than performance with the others fingers of the hand. It also appears that best performance is being obtained with thumb or index fingers. For example, performance deterioration from the best finger (i.e. index or thumb) to the worst fingers (i.e. small ones) can be in the range of 184%-1352%.

  7. Determination of Uranium, Thorium and Radium 226 in Zircon containig sands by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzano, P.


    The industrial utilization of Zircon sands for the production of refractories presents radiological problems owing to the risk of inhalation of Uranium, Thorium and their decay products, present in high concentrations in such materials. A method of analysis was realized for the determination of Uranium, Thorium and Radium-226 in Zircon sands, including the total dissolution of the sample, radiochemical separation and final measurement by alpha spectrometry with surface barrier detector. The concentrations of the main alpha-emitting radionuclides presents in two samples of Zircon sands have been determined and the possibility of disequilibrium along the decay series has been pointed out

  8. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the metapelitic granulites from NW of Madurai, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, D.


    Zircon cathodoluminescent imaging and SHRIMP U-Pb dating were carried out for metapelitic rocks (sapphirine-hearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses) from the NW of Madurai, Southern India. The cathodoluminescence images reveal the complex, inhomogeneous internal structure having irregular-shaped core and overgrowths. Zircon grains have obliterated oscillatory zoning. SHRIMP U-Pb chronological results yield ages of 550 ± 15 Ma and 530 ± 50 Ma as a time of metamorphic overprint, and the age of 2509 ± 12 Ma and 2509 ± 30 Ma corresponding to a timing of protolith formation for sapphirine-bearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses respectively. Zircon ages reflect that continental crust in the NW of Madurai region resulted from the recycling of Archaean protolith of an igneous origin similar to the preserved crust in the southern part of Dharwar craton. The present SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages are in close agreement with earlier published Nd isotopic data which suggest an extended precrustal history of their protoliths. The abraded zircon grains indicate multiple recycling and repeated metamorphism that has ultimately resulted in present day continental crust exposed in Madurai region. These SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages from metapelitic UHT granulites are also significant to understanding the architecture of the SGT during the amalgamation of Gondwana in Neoproterozoic time. (author)

  9. Pb, U, Ti, Hf and Zr distributions in zircons determined by proton microprobe and fission track techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.J.; Gulson, B.L.; Cookson, J.A.


    A proton microprobe has been used to determine Pb, Tl, Hf and Zr distributions across four single zircon crystals separated from a 'rapakivi' granite. The Pb and Zr data are quantitative: Pb and Tl concentrations were below the measurable limits for determinations in situ by most other techniques. The distribution of U in the same crystals was determined by the fission track technique. Limits on precision of U allow only a qualitative correlation of U and Pb, whereas the Tl and Pb correlation is more exactly determined. Zircons with distinct cores and overgrowths exhibited uniform Zr and Hf concentrations across the crystals, whereas the high U rims and 'inclusions' (domains) also had high Tl and Pb contents. Since almost all the Pb in these zircons is derived by radioactive decay of U, the Tl substitution has paralleled that of U. The results indicate that the high U domains are 'hot spots' rather than a separate mineral phase. The strong positive correlation of U and Pb indicates that there is little U daughter product migration relative to U, within the crystal. However, for the zircon population investigated here, the data are equivocal on the question of whether U addition to zircon crystals is associated with new zircon growth or not. In either case, the heterogeneous U and Pb distributions complicate any interpretations of U-Pb isotopic analysis for such zircon populations. (author)

  10. Distributed construction of quantum fingerprints


    Ambainis, Andris; Shi, Yaoyun


    Quantum fingerprints are useful quantum encodings introduced by Buhrman, Cleve, Watrous, and de Wolf (Physical Review Letters, Volume 87, Number 16, Article 167902, 2001; quant-ph/0102001) in obtaining an efficient quantum communication protocol. We design a protocol for constructing the fingerprint in a distributed scenario. As an application, this protocol gives rise to a communication protocol more efficient than the best known classical protocol for a communication problem.

  11. Devonian post-orogenic extension-related volcano-sedimentary rocks in the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, NW China: Implications for the Paleozoic tectonic transition in the North Qaidam Orogen (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Feng, Qiao; Chen, Gang; Chen, Yan; Zou, Kaizhen; Liu, Qian; Jiao, Qianqian; Zhou, Dingwu; Pan, Lihui; Gao, Jindong


    The Maoniushan Formation in the northern part of the North Qaidam Orogen (NQO), NW China, contains key information on a Paleozoic change in tectonic setting of the NQO from compression to extension. Here, new zircon U-Pb, petrological, and sedimentological data for the lower molasse sequence of the Maoniushan Formation are used to constrain the timing of this tectonic transition. Detrital zircons yield U-Pb ages of 3.3-0.4 Ga with major populations at 0.53-0.4, 1.0-0.56, 2.5-1.0, and 3.3-2.5 Ga. The maximum depositional age of the Maoniushan Formation is well constrained by a youngest detrital zircon age of ∼409 Ma. Comparing these dates with geochronological data for the region indicates that Proterozoic-Paleozoic zircons were derived mainly from the NQO as well as the Oulongbuluk and Qaidam blocks, whereas Archean zircons were probably derived from the Oulongbuluk Block and the Tarim Craton. The ∼924, ∼463, and ∼439 Ma tectonothermal events recorded in this region indicate that the NQO was involved in the early Neoproterozoic assembly of Rodinia and early Paleozoic microcontinental convergence. A regional angular unconformity between Devonian and pre-Devonian strata within the NQO suggests a period of strong mountain building between the Oulongbuluk and Qaidam blocks during the Silurian, whereas an Early Devonian post-orogenic molasse, evidence of extensional collapse, and Middle to Late Devonian bimodal volcanic rocks and Carboniferous marine carbonate rocks clearly reflect long-lived tectonic extension. Based on these results and the regional geology, we suggest that the Devonian volcano-sedimentary rocks within the NQO were formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting similar to that of the East Kunlun Orogen, indicating that a major tectonic transition from compression to extension in these two orogens probably commenced in the Early Devonian.

  12. Multi-mode Li diffusion in natural zircons: Evidence for diffusion in the presence of step-function concentration boundaries (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Rudnick, Roberta L.; McDonough, William F.; Bose, Maitrayee; Goreva, Yulia


    Micron- to submicron-scale observations of Li distribution and Li isotope composition profiles can be used to infer the mechanisms of Li diffusion in natural zircon. Extreme fractionation (20-30‰) within each single crystal studied here confirms that Li diffusion commonly occurs in zircon. Sharp Li concentration gradients frequently seen in zircons suggest that the effective diffusivity of Li is significantly slower than experimentally determined (Cherniak and Watson, 2010; Trail et al., 2016), otherwise the crystallization/metamorphic heating of these zircons would have to be unrealistically fast (years to tens of years). Charge coupling with REE and Y has been suggested as a mechanism that may considerably reduce Li diffusivity in zircon (Ushikubo et al., 2008; Bouvier et al., 2012). We show that Li diffused in the direction of decreasing Li/Y ratio and increasing Li concentration (uphill diffusion) in one of the zircons, demonstrating charge coupling with REE and Y. Quantitative modeling reveals that Li may diffuse in at least two modes in natural zircons: one being slow and possibly coupled with REE+Y, and the other one being fast and not coupled with REE+Y. The partitioning of Li between these two modes during its diffusion may depend on the pre-diffusion substitution mechanism of REE and Y in the zircon lattice. Based on our results, sharp Li concentration gradients are not indicative of limited diffusion, and can be preserved at temperatures >700 °C on geologic timescales. Finally, large δ7 Li variations observed in the Hadean Jack Hills zircons may record kinetic fractionation, rather than a record of ancient intense weathering in the granite source materials.

  13. Analyze of viability of ZrSiO_4-Fe_2O_3 pigments synthesis, from decomposition of the zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prim, S.R.; Folgueiras, M.V.; Winter, D.M.


    Zircon pigments are commonly used in ceramic industry due to their high chemical and thermal stability. In the present work, the viability of synthesis of a zircon ceramic pigment from intermediate products obtained from decomposition zircon sand with NaOH and/or KOH at 750 and 850 °C was studied. The intermediate products were used as raw materials to produce pigments. Iron oxide from rolling process of sheet metal was used as chromophore. The crystalline phases formed were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results have shown that it was possible to obtain the partial decomposition of zircon which enables the development of the synthesis of zircon pigment. (author)

  14. Electrophoretic growth of lead zirconate titanate nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, S.J.; Seraji, S.; Forbess, M.J.; Wu Yun; Chou, T.P.; Nguyen, C.; Cao Guozhong [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    Nanorods of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-a ferro- and piezoelectric material-up to 10 {mu}m in length and 70 to 150 nm in diameter are produced by sol-gel electrophoresis of PZT in a track-etched polycarbonate membrane, which is used as a template. (orig.)

  15. Secure fingerprint identification based on structural and microangiographic optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zaki, Farzana; Wang, Yahui; Huang, Qiongdan; Mei, Xin; Wang, Jiangjun


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows noncontact acquisition of fingerprints and hence is a highly promising technology in the field of biometrics. OCT can be used to acquire both structural and microangiographic images of fingerprints. Microangiographic OCT derives its contrast from the blood flow in the vasculature of viable skin tissue, and microangiographic fingerprint imaging is inherently immune to fake fingerprint attack. Therefore, dual-modality (structural and microangiographic) OCT imaging of fingerprints will enable more secure acquisition of biometric data, which has not been investigated before. Our study on fingerprint identification based on structural and microangiographic OCT imaging is, we believe, highly innovative. In this study, we performed OCT imaging study for fingerprint acquisition, and demonstrated the capability of dual-modality OCT imaging for the identification of fake fingerprints.

  16. Study of noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints using UV laser (United States)

    Li, Hong-xia; Cao, Jing; Niu, Jie-qing; Huang, Yun-gang; Mao, Lin-jie; Chen, Jing-rong


    Latent fingerprints present a considerable challenge in forensics, and noninvasive procedure that captures a digital image of the latent fingerprints is significant in the field of criminal investigation. The capability of photography technologies using 266nm UV Nd:YAG solid state laser as excitation light source to provide detailed images of unprocessed latent fingerprints is demonstrated. Unprocessed latent fingerprints were developed on various non-absorbent and absorbing substrates. According to the special absorption, reflection, scattering and fluorescence characterization of the various residues in fingerprints (fatty acid ester, protein, and carbosylic acid salts etc) to the UV light to weaken or eliminate the background disturbance and increase the brightness contrast of fingerprints with the background, and using 266nm UV laser as excitation light source, fresh and old latent fingerprints on the surface of four types of non-absorbent objects as magazine cover, glass, back of cellphone, wood desktop paintwork and two types of absorbing objects as manila envelope, notebook paper were noninvasive detected and appeared through reflection photography and fluorescence photography technologies, and the results meet the fingerprint identification requirements in forensic science.

  17. Structural analysis of radiation damage in zircon and thorite: An X-ray absorption spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farges, F.; Calas, G.


    Metamictization effects have been investigated in zircon, thorite, uranothorite, and thorogummite using X-ray absorption spectroscopy at Zr-K, Th-L III edges. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of metamict samples are characterized by a major contribution due to the O nearest neighbors with some contributions from next-nearest neighbors (Si and Zr in zircon, Si in thorite). In zircon, Zr-O distances decrease by ∼0.1 angstrom while the coordination number of Zr decreases from 8 to 7. In contrast, the eightfold coordination of Th in crystalline thorite is preserved in metamict thorite, Si second neighbors around Zr or Th are generally observed in metamict samples with distances close to those measured in crystalline phases. No other contribution to EXAFS is observed in thorite, but Zr-Zr distances are observed in zircon. They decrease by ca. 0.3 Angstrom as a function of zircon metamictization. Metamictization processes are characterized by a loss of medium range order. There is no evidence for decomposition into crystalline oxides. The structural interpretation of EXAFS data must take into account the creation of O vacancies arising from a displacement or tilting of the SiO 4 tetrahedra during metamictization of zircon-like structures. If the cation can take a lower coordination number (as in the case of Zr), a coordination change allows the local structure to be partly maintained during metamictization. If not, as for Th, the local structure is rapidly destroyed

  18. Holistic processing of fingerprints by expert forensic examiners. (United States)

    Vogelsang, Macgregor D; Palmeri, Thomas J; Busey, Thomas A


    Holistic processing is often characterized as a process by which objects are perceived as a whole rather than a compilation of individual features. This mechanism may play an important role in the development of perceptual expertise because it allows for rapid integration across image regions. The present work explores whether holistic processing is present in latent fingerprint examiners, who compare fingerprints collected from crime scenes against a set of standards taken from a suspect. We adapted a composite task widely used in the face recognition and perceptual expertise literatures, in which participants were asked to match only a particular half of a fingerprint with a previous image while ignoring the other half. We tested both experts and novices, using both upright and inverted fingerprints. For upright fingerprints, we found weak evidence for holistic processing, but with no differences between experts and novices with respect to holistic processing. For inverted fingerprints, we found stronger evidence of holistic processing, with weak evidence for differences between experts and novices. These relatively weak holistic processing effects contrast with robust evidence for holistic processing with faces and with objects in other domains of perceptual expertise. The data constrain models of holistic processing by demonstrating that latent fingerprint experts and novices may not substantively differ in terms of the amount of holistic processing and that inverted stimuli actually produced more evidence for holistic processing than upright stimuli. Important differences between the present fingerprint stimuli and those in the literature include the lack of verbal labels for experts and the absence of strong vertical asymmetries, both of which might contribute to stronger holistic processing signatures in other stimulus domains.

  19. Major zircon megacryst suites of the Indo-Pacific lithospheric margin (ZIP) and their petrogenetic and regional implications (United States)

    Sutherland, Lin; Graham, Ian; Yaxley, Gregory; Armstrong, Richard; Giuliani, Gaston; Hoskin, Paul; Nechaev, Victor; Woodhead, Jon


    Zircon megacrysts (± gem corundum) appear in basalt fields of Indo-Pacific origin over a 12,000 km zone (ZIP) along West Pacific continental margins. Age-dating, trace element, oxygen and hafnium isotope studies on representative zircons (East Australia-Asia) indicate diverse magmatic sources. The U-Pb (249 to 1 Ma) and zircon fission track (ZFT) ages (65 to 1 Ma) suggest thermal annealing during later basalt transport, with < 1 to 203 Ma gaps between the U-Pb and ZFT ages. Magmatic growth zonation and Zr/Hf ratios (0.01-0.02) suggest alkaline magmatic sources, while Ti—in—zircon thermometry suggests that most zircons crystallized within ranges between 550 and 830 °C. Chondrite-normalised multi-element plots show variable enrichment patterns, mostly without marked Eu depletion, indicating little plagioclase fractionation in source melts. Key elements and ratios matched against zircons from magmatic rocks suggest a range of ultramafic to felsic source melts. Zircon O-isotope ratios (δ18O in the range 4 to 11‰) and initial Hf isotope ratios (ɛHf in the range +2 to +14) encompass ranges for both mantle and crustal melts. Calculated Depleted Mantle (TDM 0.03-0.56 Ga) and Crustal Residence (0.20-1.02 Ga) model ages suggest several mantle events, continental break-ups (Rodinia and Gondwana) and convergent margin collisions left imprints in the zircon source melts. East Australian ZIP sites reflect prolonged intraplate magmatism (~85 Ma), often during times of fast-migrating lithosphere. In contrast, East Asian-Russian ZIP sites reflect later basaltic magmatism (<40 Ma), often linked to episodes of back-arc rifting and spreading, slow-migrating lithosphere and slab subduction.

  20. Provenance analysis of the Pliocene Ware Formation in the Guajira Peninsula, northern Colombia: Paleodrainage implications (United States)

    Pérez-Consuegra, Nicolás; Parra, Mauricio; Jaramillo, Carlos; Silvestro, Daniele; Echeverri, Sebastián; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, José María; Escobar, Jaime


    The Cocinetas Basin in the Guajira Peninsula, the northernmost tip of South America, today has a dry climate with low rainfall (ten months) and no year-long rivers or permanent standing bodies of fresh water. In contrast, the fossil and geological record indicate that the Cocinetas Basin was much wetter during the Miocene-Pliocene (∼17-2.8 Ma). Water needed to sustain the paleofauna could either have originated from local sources or been brought by a larger river system (e.g. proto Magdalena/Orinoco river) with headwaters either in Andean ranges or the Guyana shield. We present a provenance study of the Pliocene Ware Formation, using petrographic analysis of conglomerate clasts and heavy minerals, and U-Pb dating of 140 detrital zircons. Clasts and heavy minerals are typical of ensialic metamorphic and igneous sources. The detrital zircon age distribution indicates the Guajira ranges as the most probable sediment source. The overall results indicate that the fluvial system of the Ware Formation drained the surrounding ranges. The water was probably derived by local precipitation onto the Guajira peninsula.

  1. Rapid cooling rates at an active mid-ocean ridge from zircon thermochronology (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Perfit, Michael R.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Smith, Matthew C.; Cotsonika, Laurie A.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Ridley, W. Ian


    Oceanic spreading ridges are Earth's most productive crust generating environment, but mechanisms and rates of crustal accretion and heat loss are debated. Existing observations on cooling rates are ambiguous regarding the prevalence of conductive vs. convective cooling of lower oceanic crust. Here, we report the discovery and dating of zircon in mid-ocean ridge dacite lavas that constrain magmatic differentiation and cooling rates at an active spreading center. Dacitic lavas erupted on the southern Cleft segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge, an intermediate-rate spreading center, near the intersection with the Blanco transform fault. Their U–Th zircon crystallization ages (29.3-4.6+4.8 ka; 1δ standard error s.e.) overlap with the (U–Th)/He zircon eruption age (32.7 ± 1.6 ka) within uncertainty. Based on similar 238U-230Th disequilibria between southern Cleft dacite glass separates and young mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) erupted nearby, differentiation must have occurred rapidly, within ~ 10–20 ka at most. Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicates crystallization at 850–900 °C and pressures > 70–150 MPa are calculated from H2O solubility models. These time-temperature constraints translate into a magma cooling rate of ~ 2 × 10-2 °C/a. This rate is at least one order-of-magnitude faster than those calculated for zircon-bearing plutonic rocks from slow spreading ridges. Such short intervals for differentiation and cooling can only be resolved through uranium-series (238U–230Th) decay in young lavas, and are best explained by dissipating heat convectively at high crustal permeability.

  2. Cognitive Fingerprints (United States)


    is another cognitive fingerprint that has been used extensively for authorship . This work has been ex- tended to authentication by relating keyboard...this work is the inference of high-level features such as personality, gender , and dominant hand but those features have not been integrated to date

  3. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future. (United States)

    Nybom, Hilde; Weising, Kurt; Rotter, Björn


    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67-73 and Nature 1985, 316:76-79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the novel method that allowed us for the first time to discriminate between humans, animals, plants and fungi on the individual level using DNA markers. A newsletter coined "Fingerprint News" was launched, T-shirts were sold, and the proceedings of the Berne conference filled a first book on "DNA fingerprinting: approaches and applications". Four more conferences were about to follow, one on each continent, and Alec Jeffreys of course was invited to all of them. Since these early days, methodologies have undergone a rapid evolution and diversification. A multitude of techniques have been developed, optimized, and eventually abandoned when novel and more efficient and/or more reliable methods appeared. Despite some overlap between the lifetimes of the different technologies, three phases can be defined that coincide with major technological advances. Whereas the first phase of DNA fingerprinting ("the past") was dominated by restriction fragment analysis in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, the advent of the PCR in the late 1980s gave way to the development of PCR-based single- or multi-locus profiling techniques in the second phase. Given that many routine applications of plant DNA fingerprinting still rely on PCR-based markers, we here refer to these methods as "DNA fingerprinting in the present", and include numerous examples in the present review. The beginning of the third phase actually dates back to 2005, when several novel, highly parallel DNA sequencing

  4. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan


    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  5. A novel interaction fingerprint derived from per atom score contributions: exhaustive evaluation of interaction fingerprint performance in docking based virtual screening. (United States)

    Jasper, Julia B; Humbeck, Lina; Brinkjost, Tobias; Koch, Oliver


    Protein ligand interaction fingerprints are a powerful approach for the analysis and assessment of docking poses to improve docking performance in virtual screening. In this study, a novel interaction fingerprint approach (PADIF, protein per atom score contributions derived interaction fingerprint) is presented which was specifically designed for utilising the GOLD scoring functions' atom contributions together with a specific scoring scheme. This allows the incorporation of known protein-ligand complex structures for a target-specific scoring. Unlike many other methods, this approach uses weighting factors reflecting the relative frequency of a specific interaction in the references and penalizes destabilizing interactions. In addition, and for the first time, an exhaustive validation study was performed that assesses the performance of PADIF and two other interaction fingerprints in virtual screening. Here, PADIF shows superior results, and some rules of thumb for a successful use of interaction fingerprints could be identified.

  6. Optimal experiment design for magnetic resonance fingerprinting. (United States)

    Bo Zhao; Haldar, Justin P; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L


    Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is an emerging quantitative MR imaging technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameters in an efficient experiment. In this work, we present an estimation-theoretic framework to evaluate and design MR fingerprinting experiments. More specifically, we derive the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), a lower bound on the covariance of any unbiased estimator, to characterize parameter estimation for MR fingerprinting. We then formulate an optimal experiment design problem based on the CRB to choose a set of acquisition parameters (e.g., flip angles and/or repetition times) that maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio efficiency of the resulting experiment. The utility of the proposed approach is validated by numerical studies. Representative results demonstrate that the optimized experiments allow for substantial reduction in the length of an MR fingerprinting acquisition, and substantial improvement in parameter estimation performance.

  7. Similar sediment provenance of low and high arsenic aquifers in Bangladesh (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Yang, Q.; Li, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Zhang, Y.; Rasbury, T.; Hemming, G.


    Geogenic arsenic (As) in drinking water, especially in groundwater, is estimated to have affected the health of over 100 million people worldwide, with nearly half of the total at risk population in Bangladesh. Sluggish flow and reducing biogeochemical environment in sedimentary aquifers have been shown as the primary controls for the release of As from sediment to the shallower groundwater in the Holocene aquifer. In contrast, deeper groundwater in the Pleistocene aquifer is depleted in groundwater As and sediment-extractable As. This study assesses the origin of the sediment in two aquifers of Bangladesh that contain distinctly different As levels to ascertain whether the source of the sediment is a factor in this difference through measurements of detrital mica Ar-Ar age, detrital zircon U-Pb age, as well as sediment silicate Sr and Nd isotopes. Whole rock geochemical data were also used to illuminate the extent of chemical weathering. Detrital mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages and detrital zircon U-Pb ages show no statistical difference between high-As Holocene sediment and low-As Pleistocene sediment, but suggest an aquifer sediment source of both the Brahmaputra and the Ganges rivers. Silicate 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd further depict a major sediment source from the Brahmaputra river, which is supported by a two end member mixing model using 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentrations. Pleistocene and Holocene sediments show little difference in weathering of mobile elements including As, while coarser sediments and a longer history of the Pleistocene aquifer suggest that sorting and flushing play more important roles in regulating the contrast of As occurrence between these two aquifers.

  8. Time resolution of geologic events on the Keweenaw Peninsula and implications for development of the Midcontinent Rift system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.W.; Paces, J.B.


    Three flood-type lava flows from the Keweenaw Peninsula in upper Michigan have been precisely dated, using U-Pb analyses of zircon and baddeleyite. Zircons were extracted from pegmatoid segregations within two basaltic flows. Ages from the Copper City Flow, near the base of the Portage Lake Volcanics, and the Greenstone Flow, near the top, are 1096.2±1.8 Ma and 1094.0±1.5 Ma, respectively (95% confidence errors). U-Pb analyses of baddeleyite from these samples are in general agreement with the zircon results although some fractions appear slightly older, possibly due to 222 Rn loss. The age of an andesite flow from the Lake Shore Traps, 1000 m above the Portage Lake Volcanics and within the Copper Harbour Conglomerate, is 1087.2±1.6 Ma from analyses of zircon. This gives an age for sedimentation within the Copper Harbor Conglomerate. These ages, along with stratigraphic data, indicate a subsidence rate of 1.3 -0.6 +1.8 mm/y during eruption of the Portage Lake Volcanics and 0.2±0.1 mm/y (1σ errors) for the transitional period from flood basalt eruption to clastic sedimentation. Magma eruption rates were at least 0.02-0.05 km 3 /y during emplacement of the Portage Lake Volcanics. Rates as high as 0.2-0.6 km 3 /y are inferred from regional stratigraphic data and currently available precise dates from throughout the Lake Superior basin. These values are comparable to the high rates of magma production estimated for Phanerozoic continental flood basalt provinces. Analyses of three detrital zircon grains from a sandstone at the base of the Copper Harbor Conglomerate give ages from 1101 to 1106 Ma. A fraction consisting of 29 detrital zircon grains has an age of 1104±2 Ma indicating that sediments within the Copper Harbor Conglomerate were probably derived almost entirely from lower Keweenawan rocks. (orig./WB)

  9. A fingerprint key binding algorithm based on vector quantization and error correction (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Qian; Lv, Ke; He, Ning


    In recent years, researches on seamless combination cryptosystem with biometric technologies, e.g. fingerprint recognition, are conducted by many researchers. In this paper, we propose a binding algorithm of fingerprint template and cryptographic key to protect and access the key by fingerprint verification. In order to avoid the intrinsic fuzziness of variant fingerprints, vector quantization and error correction technique are introduced to transform fingerprint template and then bind with key, after a process of fingerprint registration and extracting global ridge pattern of fingerprint. The key itself is secure because only hash value is stored and it is released only when fingerprint verification succeeds. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our ideas.

  10. Missing data reconstruction using Gaussian mixture models for fingerprint images (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Yeole, Rushikesh D.; Rao, Shishir P.; Mulawka, Marzena; Troy, Mike; Reinecke, Gary


    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 25 May 2016, was replaced with a revised version on 16 June 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF, but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. One of the most important areas in biometrics is matching partial fingerprints in fingerprint databases. Recently, significant progress has been made in designing fingerprint identification systems for missing fingerprint information. However, a dependable reconstruction of fingerprint images still remains challenging due to the complexity and the ill-posed nature of the problem. In this article, both binary and gray-level images are reconstructed. This paper also presents a new similarity score to evaluate the performance of the reconstructed binary image. The offered fingerprint image identification system can be automated and extended to numerous other security applications such as postmortem fingerprints, forensic science, investigations, artificial intelligence, robotics, all-access control, and financial security, as well as for the verification of firearm purchasers, driver license applicants, etc.

  11. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries. (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G


    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  12. Fingerprint recognition system by use of graph matching (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Shen, Jun; Zheng, Huicheng


    Fingerprint recognition is an important subject in biometrics to identify or verify persons by physiological characteristics, and has found wide applications in different domains. In the present paper, we present a finger recognition system that combines singular points and structures. The principal steps of processing in our system are: preprocessing and ridge segmentation, singular point extraction and selection, graph representation, and finger recognition by graphs matching. Our fingerprint recognition system is implemented and tested for many fingerprint images and the experimental result are satisfactory. Different techniques are used in our system, such as fast calculation of orientation field, local fuzzy dynamical thresholding, algebraic analysis of connections and fingerprints representation and matching by graphs. Wed find that for fingerprint database that is not very large, the recognition rate is very high even without using a prior coarse category classification. This system works well for both one-to-few and one-to-many problems.

  13. Utilizing AFIS searching tools to reduce errors in fingerprint casework. (United States)

    Langenburg, Glenn; Hall, Carey; Rosemarie, Quincy


    Fifty-six (56) adjudicated, property crime cases involving fingerprint evidence were reviewed using a case-specific AFIS database tool. This tool allowed fingerprint experts to search latent prints in the cases against a database of friction ridge exemplars limited to only the individuals specific to that particular case. We utilized three different methods to encode and search the latent prints: automatic feature extraction, manual encoding performed by a student intern, and manual encoding performed by a fingerprint expert. Performance in the study was strongest when the encoding was conducted by the fingerprint expert. The results of the study showed that while the AFIS tools failed to locate all of the identifications originally reported by the initial fingerprint expert that worked the case, the AFIS tools helped to identify 7 additional latent prints that were not reported by the initial fingerprint expert. We conclude that this technology, when combined with fingerprint expertise, will reduce the number of instances where an erroneous exclusion could occur, increase the efficiency of a fingerprint unit, and be a useful tool for reviewing active or cold cases for missed opportunities to report identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the introduction of secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS


    Full Text Available The concept of fingerprint classification is an important one because of the need to, before executing a database search procedure, virtually break the fingerprint template database into smaller, manageable partitions. This is done in order to avoid...

  15. Snake Model Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm in Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingying Zhang


    Full Text Available Automatic fingerprint identification technology is a quite mature research field in biometric identification technology. As the preprocessing step in fingerprint identification, fingerprint segmentation can improve the accuracy of fingerprint feature extraction, and also reduce the time of fingerprint preprocessing, which has a great significance in improving the performance of the whole system. Based on the analysis of the commonly used methods of fingerprint segmentation, the existing segmentation algorithm is improved in this paper. The snake model is used to segment the fingerprint image. Additionally, it is improved by using the global optimization of the improved genetic algorithm. Experimental results show that the algorithm has obvious advantages both in the speed of image segmentation and in the segmentation effect.

  16. Artificial fingerprint recognition by using optical coherence tomography with autocorrelation analysis (United States)

    Cheng, Yezeng; Larin, Kirill V.


    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most widely used methods of biometrics. This method relies on the surface topography of a finger and, thus, is potentially vulnerable for spoofing by artificial dummies with embedded fingerprints. In this study, we applied the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to distinguish artificial materials commonly used for spoofing fingerprint scanning systems from the real skin. Several artificial fingerprint dummies made from household cement and liquid silicone rubber were prepared and tested using a commercial fingerprint reader and an OCT system. While the artificial fingerprints easily spoofed the commercial fingerprint reader, OCT images revealed the presence of them at all times. We also demonstrated that an autocorrelation analysis of the OCT images could be potentially used in automatic recognition systems.

  17. A fingerprint classification algorithm based on combination of local and global information (United States)

    Liu, Chongjin; Fu, Xiang; Bian, Junjie; Feng, Jufu


    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most important technologies in biometric identification and has been wildly applied in commercial and forensic areas. Fingerprint classification, as the fundamental procedure in fingerprint recognition, can sharply decrease the quantity for fingerprint matching and improve the efficiency of fingerprint recognition. Most fingerprint classification algorithms are based on the number and position of singular points. Because the singular points detecting method only considers the local information commonly, the classification algorithms are sensitive to noise. In this paper, we propose a novel fingerprint classification algorithm combining the local and global information of fingerprint. Firstly we use local information to detect singular points and measure their quality considering orientation structure and image texture in adjacent areas. Furthermore the global orientation model is adopted to measure the reliability of singular points group. Finally the local quality and global reliability is weighted to classify fingerprint. Experiments demonstrate the accuracy and effectivity of our algorithm especially for the poor quality fingerprint images.

  18. Efficient Filtering of Noisy Fingerprint Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Liliana Costin


    Full Text Available Fingerprint identification is an important field in the wide domain of biometrics with many applications, in different areas such: judicial, mobile phones, access systems, airports. There are many elaborated algorithms for fingerprint identification, but none of them can guarantee that the results of identification are always 100 % accurate. A first step in a fingerprint image analysing process consists in the pre-processing or filtering. If the result after this step is not by a good quality the upcoming identification process can fail. A major difficulty can appear in case of fingerprint identification if the images that should be identified from a fingerprint image database are noisy with different type of noise. The objectives of the paper are: the successful completion of the noisy digital image filtering, a novel more robust algorithm of identifying the best filtering algorithm and the classification and ranking of the images. The choice about the best filtered images of a set of 9 algorithms is made with a dual method of fuzzy and aggregation model. We are proposing through this paper a set of 9 filters with different novelty designed for processing the digital images using the following methods: quartiles, medians, average, thresholds and histogram equalization, applied all over the image or locally on small areas. Finally the statistics reveal the classification and ranking of the best algorithms.

  19. On the connection of the ESR characteristics of zircons with the degree of their defectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyash, I.V.; Brik, A.E.; Derski, L.S.; Larikov, A.L.; Ponomarenko, A.N.


    The dynamic characteristics of the electron-hole centres (EHC) in zircons with various degree of defectiveness have been studied. Crystalline and amorphous regions are typical of different sets of EHC, having essentially different relaxation characteristics. Lack of cross-relaxation between these centres shows that they are localized in different parts of the crystal. The influence of autoirradiation and of corresponding defectiveness of the matrix upon the intensity of the EHC signals (V i ) has been studied. In the specimens of high crystallinity V i increases as the content of radioactive elements and defectiveness increases. In the essentially metamict specimens the situation reverses. Interpretation of this effect is given considering the dose dependence of the ESR signals and the ratio of the crystal and metamict volumes in the studied object. The transformations of the EHC set is traced along the amorphization of the zircon matrix due to the autoirradiation. ESR signals corresponding to different phases in zircon have been recorded. The correlation of the zircon grain size and the static magnetic susceptibility with V i have been studied. In the specimens of high crystallinity such correlation is absent and in metamict specimens the intensities V i decrease as the grain sizes decrease. The interpretation of this fact is proposed. It has been shown that the ESR studies reflect the processes of income and migration of the impurity elements in zircons and the ways of the zircon crystal matrix decay in a geological time scale. The factors controlling such a decay have been found. (author)

  20. Study on Accuracy of Judgments by Chinese Fingerprint Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu


    Full Text Available The interpretation of fingerprint evidence depends on the judgments of fingerprint examiners. This study assessed the accuracy of different judgments made by fingerprint examiners following the Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation (ACE process. Each examiner was given five marks for analysis, comparison, and evaluation. We compared the experts′ judgments against the ground truth and used an annotation platform to evaluate how Chinese fingerprint examiners document their comparisons during the identification process. The results showed that different examiners demonstrated different accuracy of judgments and different mechanisms to reach them.

  1. Fingerprint Sensors: Liveness Detection Issue and Hardware based Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Memon


    Full Text Available Securing an automated and unsupervised fingerprint recognition system is one of the most critical and challenging tasks in government and commercial applications. In these systems, the detection of liveness of a finger placed on a fingerprint sensor is a major issue that needs to be addressed in order to ensure the credibility of the system. The main focus of this paper is to review the existing fingerprint sensing technologies in terms of liveness detection and discusses hardware based ‘liveness detection’ techniques reported in the literature for automatic fingerprint biometrics.

  2. Fingerprints as a Proxy for Readership of Sales Flyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus J.; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe


      Can readership of sales flyers and free newspapers be estimated by revealing fingerprints? In this paper we report the results of an empirical analysis based on 4604 flyer-pages conducted to assess the feasibility of the method. Results are encouraging, and indicate that the method presently may...... serve as a conservative estimate of readership. Advertising management may thus use the fingerprints-approach as an alternative audience measure and thereby assess the convergent validity of the traditional interview method and the fingerprint approach. While the fingerprint method appears valid...

  3. Evaluation of fingerprint deformation using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Gutierrez da Costa, Henrique S.; Maxey, Jessica R.; Silva, Luciano; Ellerbee, Audrey K.


    Biometric identification systems have important applications to privacy and security. The most widely used of these, print identification, is based on imaging patterns present in the fingers, hands and feet that are formed by the ridges, valleys and pores of the skin. Most modern print sensors acquire images of the finger when pressed against a sensor surface. Unfortunately, this pressure may result in deformations, characterized by changes in the sizes and relative distances of the print patterns, and such changes have been shown to negatively affect the performance of fingerprint identification algorithms. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that is capable of imaging the subsurface of biological tissue. Hence, OCT may be used to obtain images of subdermal skin structures from which one can extract an internal fingerprint. The internal fingerprint is very similar in structure to the commonly used external fingerprint and is of increasing interest in investigations of identify fraud. We proposed and tested metrics based on measurements calculated from external and internal fingerprints to evaluate the amount of deformation of the skin. Such metrics were used to test hypotheses about the differences of deformation between the internal and external images, variations with the type of finger and location inside the fingerprint.

  4. A network identity authentication system based on Fingerprint identification technology (United States)

    Xia, Hong-Bin; Xu, Wen-Bo; Liu, Yuan


    Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. However, most of the automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) is not run via Internet/Intranet environment to meet today's increasing Electric commerce requirements. This paper describes the design and implementation of the archetype system of identity authentication based on fingerprint biometrics technology, and the system can run via Internet environment. And in our system the COM and ASP technology are used to integrate Fingerprint technology with Web database technology, The Fingerprint image preprocessing algorithms are programmed into COM, which deployed on the internet information server. The system's design and structure are proposed, and the key points are discussed. The prototype system of identity authentication based on Fingerprint have been successfully tested and evaluated on our university's distant education applications in an internet environment.

  5. Capacity and optimal collusion attack channels for Gaussian fingerprinting games (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Moulin, Pierre


    In content fingerprinting, the same media covertext - image, video, audio, or text - is distributed to many users. A fingerprint, a mark unique to each user, is embedded into each copy of the distributed covertext. In a collusion attack, two or more users may combine their copies in an attempt to "remove" their fingerprints and forge a pirated copy. To trace the forgery back to members of the coalition, we need fingerprinting codes that can reliably identify the fingerprints of those members. Researchers have been focusing on designing or testing fingerprints for Gaussian host signals and the mean square error (MSE) distortion under some classes of collusion attacks, in terms of the detector's error probability in detecting collusion members. For example, under the assumptions of Gaussian fingerprints and Gaussian attacks (the fingerprinted signals are averaged and then the result is passed through a Gaussian test channel), Moulin and Briassouli1 derived optimal strategies in a game-theoretic framework that uses the detector's error probability as the performance measure for a binary decision problem (whether a user participates in the collusion attack or not); Stone2 and Zhao et al. 3 studied average and other non-linear collusion attacks for Gaussian-like fingerprints; Wang et al. 4 stated that the average collusion attack is the most efficient one for orthogonal fingerprints; Kiyavash and Moulin 5 derived a mathematical proof of the optimality of the average collusion attack under some assumptions. In this paper, we also consider Gaussian cover signals, the MSE distortion, and memoryless collusion attacks. We do not make any assumption about the fingerprinting codes used other than an embedding distortion constraint. Also, our only assumptions about the attack channel are an expected distortion constraint, a memoryless constraint, and a fairness constraint. That is, the colluders are allowed to use any arbitrary nonlinear strategy subject to the above

  6. Uniform Local Binary Pattern for Fingerprint Liveness Detection in the Gaussian Pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Jiang


    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition schemas are widely used in our daily life, such as Door Security, Identification, and Phone Verification. However, the existing problem is that fingerprint recognition systems are easily tricked by fake fingerprints for collaboration. Therefore, designing a fingerprint liveness detection module in fingerprint recognition systems is necessary. To solve the above problem and discriminate true fingerprint from fake ones, a novel software-based liveness detection approach using uniform local binary pattern (ULBP in spatial pyramid is applied to recognize fingerprint liveness in this paper. Firstly, preprocessing operation for each fingerprint is necessary. Then, to solve image rotation and scale invariance, three-layer spatial pyramids of fingerprints are introduced in this paper. Next, texture information for three layers spatial pyramids is described by using uniform local binary pattern to extract features of given fingerprints. The accuracy of our proposed method has been compared with several state-of-the-art methods in fingerprint liveness detection. Experiments based on standard databases, taken from Liveness Detection Competition 2013 composed of four different fingerprint sensors, have been carried out. Finally, classifier model based on extracted features is trained using SVM classifier. Experimental results present that our proposed method can achieve high recognition accuracy compared with other methods.

  7. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)


    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  8. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops (United States)

    Peterman, Emily M.; Reddy, Steven M.; Saxey, David W.; Snoeyenbos, David R.; Rickard, William D. A.; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages. PMID:27617295

  9. [Studies on fingerprinting of Flos Buddleja by RP-HPLC]. (United States)

    Han, Peng; Cui, Ya-jun; Guo, Hong-zhu; Guo, De-an


    To establish fingerprinting of Flos Buddleja by using RP-HPLC for the quality control. The HPLC condition was as follows: Inertsil ODS-3 C18 analytical column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm), gredient eluation with MeCN (0.1% TFA)-H2O (0.1%TFA), flow rate 1.0 mL x min(-1), detection wavelength 254 nm. 10 commercial samples were analyzed to establish a fingerprinting. Among the obtained fingerprinting, most of the detected peaks were separated effectively. The accuracy, repeatability and stability of this method were satisfied. The RSDs of relative retention time and area of aimed peaks which existed in all samples wereless than 5%. Theresults were in accordance with the request of fingerprinting. The established fingerprinting can be used for the quality control of Flos Buddleja.

  10. Fingerprint matching on smart card: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baruni, Kedimotse P


    Full Text Available Fingerprint Match-on-Card (MoC) offers the highest degree of privacy and security to cardholders as the fingerprint never leaves the secure environment of a smart card. The level of security of a biometric system is evaluated by the location where...

  11. Reaction of strontium zirconate with refractory borides and carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowker, J.C.; Lane, J.E.


    The chemical compatibility of the potential oxide ceramic matrix material, strontium zirconate, and several different potential nonoxide ceramic reinforcement materials was studied by elevated temperature reaction. Results are presented in this paper

  12. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.H.; Tang, K.; Taranenko, N.I.; Allman, S.L.; Chang, L.Y.


    The application of DNA fingerprinting has become very broad in forensic analysis, patient identification, diagnostic medicine, and wildlife poaching, since every individual`s DNA structure is identical within all tissues of their body. DNA fingerprinting was initiated by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). In 1987, Nakamura et al. found that a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) often occurred in the alleles. The probability of different individuals having the same number of tandem repeats in several different alleles is very low. Thus, the identification of VNTR from genomic DNA became a very reliable method for identification of individuals. DNA fingerprinting is a reliable tool for forensic analysis. In DNA fingerprinting, knowledge of the sequence of tandem repeats and restriction endonuclease sites can provide the basis for identification. The major steps for conventional DNA fingerprinting include (1) specimen processing (2) amplification of selected DNA segments by PCR, and (3) gel electrophoresis to do the final DNA analysis. In this work we propose to use laser desorption mass spectrometry for fast DNA fingerprinting. The process and advantages are discussed.

  13. FPRandom: Randomizing core browser objects to break advanced device fingerprinting techniques


    Laperdrix , Pierre; Baudry , Benoit; Mishra , Vikas


    International audience; The rich programming interfaces (APIs) provided by web browsers can be diverted to collect a browser fingerprint. A small number of queries on these interfaces are sufficient to build a fingerprint that is statistically unique and very stable over time. Consequently, the fingerprint can be used to track users. Our work aims at mitigating the risk of browser fingerprinting for users privacy by 'breaking' the stability of a fingerprint over time. We add randomness in the...

  14. Straightforward fabrication of black nano silica dusting powder for latent fingerprint imaging (United States)

    Komalasari, Isna; Krismastuti, Fransiska Sri Herwahyu; Elishian, Christine; Handayani, Eka Mardika; Nugraha, Willy Cahya; Ketrin, Rosi


    Imaging of latent fingerprint pattern (aka fingermark) is one of the most important and accurate detection methods in forensic investigation because of the characteristic of individual fingerprint. This detection technique relies on the mechanical adherence of fingerprint powder to the moisture and oily component of the skin left on the surface. The particle size of fingerprint powder is one of the critical parameter to obtain excellent fingerprint image. This study develops a simple, cheap and straightforward method to fabricate Nano size black dusting fingerprint powder based on Nano silica and applies the powder to visualize latent fingerprint. The nanostructured silica was prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and then modified with Nano carbon, methylene blue and sodium acetate to color the powder. Finally, as a proof-of-principle, the ability of this black Nano silica dusting powder to image latent fingerprint is successfully demonstrated and the results show that this fingerprint powder provides clearer fingerprint pattern compared to the commercial one highlighting the potential application of the nanostructured silica in forensic science.

  15. An Investigation on the Problem of Thinning in Fingerprint Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Omeiza


    Full Text Available A high-integrity thinning procedure for binarised fingerprints is proposed in this paper. Several authors and software developers have approached the thinning problems in fingerprint-processing differently. Their approach produced in most cases, fingerprint skeletons with low reliability and thus require additional minutiae-pruning stage to discard the erroneous minutiae in the obtained skeletons. The work involves a careful blending of some already existing algorithms to achieve optimal performance in thinning binarised fingerprint images. The algorithms considered are as follows. The "Zhang and Suen" parallel algorithm for thinning digital patterns, the improved parallel thinning algorithm by Holt and company and template-based thinning algorithm by Stentiford and Mortimer. The idea of combining these stand-alone algorithms to improve the quality of obtained objects skeleton in general image processing was first suggested in a text by Parker in 1998. However, his work does not specifically address the fingerprint problem. This work has examined and proves the plausibility of this thinning approach in the particular case of fingerprint application domain. The thinning procedure obtained satisfactory skeletons for fingerprint applications.

  16. Making DNA Fingerprints. (United States)

    Nunley, Kathie F.


    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  17. Pressure-induced phase transformation in zircon-type orthovanadate SmVO4 from experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, C; Garg, Alka B; Errandonea, D; Sans, J A; Rodriguez-Hernández, P; Radescu, S; Muñoz, A; Achary, S N; Tyagi, A K


    The compression behavior of zircon-type samarium orthovanadate, SmVO 4 , has been investigated using synchrotron-based powder x-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations of up to 21 GPa. The results indicate the instability of ambient zircon phase at around 6 GPa, which transforms to a high-density scheelite-type phase. The high-pressure phase remains stable up to 21 GPa, the highest pressure reached in the present investigations. On pressure release, the scheelite phase is recovered. The crystal structure of the high-pressure phase and the equations of state for the zircon- and scheelite-type phases have been determined. Various compressibilities, such as the bulk, axial and bond compressibilities, estimated from the experimental data are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained from theoretical calculations. The calculated elastic constants show that the zircon structure becomes mechanically unstable beyond the transition pressure. Overall there is good agreement between the experimental and theoretical findings. (paper)

  18. Do Zircon age Spectra Record Magmatic Cyclicity at Soufrière (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles)? (United States)

    Schmitt, A. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Lindsay, J. M.


    The Soufrière Volcanic Center (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles) is a long-lived arc-volcanic system that evolved over the past 5 - 6 Ma. Its most recent volcanic activity between 20 and 40 ka was concentrated within the prominent Qualibou topographic depression and produced two voluminous pyroclastic deposits: Choiseul and the overlying Belfond. In addition, several dacitic lava domes exist within the Qualibou depression. Because evidence of earlier volcanic activity in long-lived magma systems is frequently obliterated by subsequent eruptive or volcano-tectonic events, high spatial resolution U-Th dating of zircon combined with (U-Th)/He dating is a powerful tool to identify magma crystallization episodes at depth and to link these to the eruptive record. U-Th model ages and disequilibrium corrected U-Pb ages for 56 individual zircons from Soufrière lavas (Morne Bonin, Belfond, Terre Blanche) and pumice (Choiseul, Belfond) were determined by secondary ionization mass spectrometry. The majority of results is on unpolished zircons where analysis pits integrate over the outermost ~10 μm of individual grains with a lateral spatial resolution of ~40 μm. Selected grains were subsequently analyzed by (U-Th)/He methods. Belfond and Terre Blanche (U-Th)/He zircon ages (~20 ka) agree with previous 14C charcoal ages, whereas Morne Bonin ages are much older (~250 ka). Overall, the U-Th zircon crystallization age spectrum reveals a remarkable range between ~20 and ~600 ka and displays multiple peaks, among which the most prominent are tentatively identified at ~40 ka, ~80 ka, ~130 ka, ~200 ka and ~500 ka. The distribution of rim ages indicates that most zircons lack overgrowth dating from just prior to the eruption, but the youngest ages for each sample overlap with the eruption ages. Soufrière zircons thus reveal magma intrusion, cooling, and crystallization cycles within the underlying plutonic system for which the volcanic stratigraphic record is sketchy.

  19. Vitality detection in personal authentication systems using fingerprints


    Coli, Pietro


    Fingerprints are considered as the sign of each human being, and this has contributed the development of biometric applications based on such features. Since 2002, an important vulnerability has been shown: it is possible to deceive fingerprint scanners through artificial replicas of fingertips. In order to address this shortcoming it is need to recognize a spoofing attempt with artificial fingers looking for some “life signs” each time an user submit a fingerprint (vitality detection problem...

  20. Mechanisms and timescales of generating eruptible rhyolitic magmas at Yellowstone caldera from zircon and sanidine geochronology and geochemistry (United States)

    Stelten, Mark; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Glessner, Justin G


    We constrain the physical nature of the magma reservoir and the mechanisms of rhyolite generation at Yellowstone caldera via detailed characterization of zircon and sanidine crystals hosted in three rhyolites erupted during the (ca. 170 – 70 ka) Central Plateau Member eruptive episode – the most recent post-caldera magmatism at Yellowstone. We present 238U-230Th crystallization ages and trace-element compositions of the interiors and surfaces (i.e., unpolished rims) of individual zircon crystals from each rhyolite. We compare these zircon data to 238U- 230Th crystallization ages of bulk sanidine separates coupled with chemical and isotopic data from single sanidine crystals. Zircon age and trace-element data demonstrate that the magma reservoir that sourced the Central Plateau Member rhyolites was long-lived (150 – 250 kyr) and genetically related to the preceding episode of magmatism, which occurred ca. 256 ka. The interiors of most zircons in each rhyolite were inherited from unerupted material related to older stages of Central Plateau Member magmatism or the preceding late Upper Basin Member magmatism (i.e., are antecrysts). Conversely, most zircon surfaces crystallized near the time of eruption from their host liquids (i.e., are autocrystic). The repeated recycling of zircon interiors from older stages of magmatism demonstrates that sequentially erupted Central Plateau Member rhyolites are genetically related. Sanidine separates from each rhyolite yield 238U-230Th crystallization ages at or near the eruption age of their host magmas, coeval with the coexisting zircon surfaces, but are younger than the coexisting zircon interiors. Chemical and isotopic data from single sanidine crystals demonstrate that the sanidines in each rhyolite are in equilibrium with their host melts, which considered along with their near-eruption crystallization ages suggests that nearly all CPM sanidines are autocrystic. The paucity of antecrystic sanidine crystals relative to

  1. Isotope, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectrometer studies of heterogeneous zircons from radioactive granites in the Grenville structural province, Quebec and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimsaite, J.


    Heterogeneous zircons yielded discordant Pb-U, Pb-Th, and 207 Pb- 206 Pb isotopic ages. Most data points fall below the concordia curve, implying losses of daughter elements, bqt they define a discordia line that intersects the concordia at approximately 90 Ma and 1020 Ma. To obtain evidence for mobilization of U and radiogenic Pb, zircon grains were studied using a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer. High magnification backscattered and secondary electron images of the zircon revealed narrow fractures, zoning and diverse mineral inclusions. Three groups of mineral inclusions observed were: 1) those predating zoned zircon and apparently serving as a nucleus; 2) uraninite, feldspar, and apatite associated with the growth and zoning of the host zircon; and 3) fracture-fillings that postdate crystallization of the host zircon. The U- and Pb-rich inclusions incorporated into the zircon grains during and after its crystallization markedly affect isotopic ages of the host zircon. Migration of Pb and U have occurred along fractures in zircon. Zircon, uraninite, and other associated minerals have decomposed and complex reactions have taken place between the liberated Zr, U, Th and other elements to produce overgrowths on mineral grains and unidentified Zr-bearing material in fractures

  2. The thermodynamics of latent fingerprint corrosion of metal elements and alloys. (United States)

    Bond, John W


    Redox reactions taking place between the surface of a metal and fingerprint residue have been expressed thermodynamically in terms of both the Nernst equation for reduction potential and the complexation constant for the formation of complex metal halide ions in aqueous solution. These expressions are used to explain experimental results for the corrosion of 10 different metal elements by fingerprint residue in air at room temperature. Corrosion of noble metals, such as silver and gold, supports the proposition that the degree of metal corrosion is enhanced by the presence of chloride ions in eccrine sweat. Extending the experiments to include 10 metal alloys enabled the construction of a fingerprint corrosion series for 20 different metals. Fingerprint corrosion on metals alloyed with > approximately 40% copper was found to display third level fingerprint detail. A comparison of both conventional ink on paper and digital (Livescan) fingerprinting techniques with fingerprints deposited on 9 Karat gold alloy has shown that gold alloy depositions are least susceptible to third level detail obliteration by poor fingerprint capturing techniques.

  3. On the valency state of radiogenic lead in zircon and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramers, J.; Frei, Robert; Newville, M.


    nucleus comes to rest. Further, a zircon grain, being small, should remain highly oxidizing in its interior by the constant loss of ß-particles, maintaining the 4+ state of radiogenic Pb. From its effective ion radius, similar to that of Zr4+, and its charge, Pb4+ has to be compatible in the zircon...... not resemble that of PbO2. The arguments why radiogenic Pb should be tetravalent are based on analogies with studies relating to the tetravalent state of 234Th and the hexavalent state of 234U, which show that a-recoil in silicates generates a strongly oxidizing environment at the site where the recoiling......-recoil damaged sites could be leached out by any electrolyte solution that reduces it to the divalent state, making it both incompatible and soluble. Thus, discordia can be generated in weathering. The curious observation that discordant Archaean zircon suites generally define trends to lower intercepts at up...

  4. Screen Fingerprints as a Novel Modality for Active Authentication (United States)


    Screen fingerprint is the new cyber biometric modality that we have proposed to measure and analyze active authentication. The screen finger a new biometric modality for active authentication. Such a fingerprint is acquired by taking a screen recording of the computer being used and...extracting discriminative visual feature from the recording. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active authentication, screen fingerprints, biometrics 16. SECURITY

  5. Fingerprinting Mobile Devices Using Personalized Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Andreas


    Full Text Available Recently, Apple removed access to various device hardware identifiers that were frequently misused by iOS third-party apps to track users. We are, therefore, now studying the extent to which users of smartphones can still be uniquely identified simply through their personalized device configurations. Using Apple’s iOS as an example, we show how a device fingerprint can be computed using 29 different configuration features. These features can be queried from arbitrary thirdparty apps via the official SDK. Experimental evaluations based on almost 13,000 fingerprints from approximately 8,000 different real-world devices show that (1 all fingerprints are unique and distinguishable; and (2 utilizing a supervised learning approach allows returning users or their devices to be recognized with a total accuracy of 97% over time

  6. The Pan-African continental margin in northeastern Africa: Evidence from a geochronological study of granulites at Sabaloka, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroener, A.


    Ion microprobe zircon ages, a Nd model age and Rb-Sr whole-rock dates are reported from the high-grade gneiss terrain at Sabaloka on the River Nile north of Khartoum, formally considered to be part of the Archaean/early Proterozoic Nile craton. The granulites, which are of both sedimentary and igneous derivation, occur as remnants in migmatites. Detrital zircon ages range from ≅ 1000 to ≅ 2650 Ma and prove the existence of Archaean to late Proterozoic continental crust in the sedimentary source region. The Nd model age for one sedimentary granulite is between 1.26 (T CHUR ) and 1.70 (T DM ) Ga and provides a mean crustal residence age for the sedimentary precursor. Igneous zircons in enderbitic gneiss crystallized at 719±81 Ma ago, an age that also corresponds to severe Pb loss in the detrital zircons and whic probably reflects the granulite event at Sabaloka. The Rb-Sr data indicate isotropic homogenization at about 700 Ma ago in the granulites and severe post-granulite disturbance at ≅ 570 Ma in the migmatites. We associate this disturbance with hydration, retrograde metamorphism and anatexis that produced undeformed granites ≅ 540 Ma ago. The ≅ 700 Ma granulite event at Sabaloka suggests that this part of the Sudan belongs to the Pan-African Mozambique belt while the ancient Nile craton lay farther west. The gneisses studied here may represent the infrastructure of the ancient African continental margin onto which the juvenile arc assemblage of the Arabian-Nubian shield was accreted during intense horizontal shortening and crustal interstacking of a major collision event. (orig.)

  7. Dating of zircon from high-grade rocks: Which is the most reliable method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Kröner


    Full Text Available Magmatic zircon in high-grade metamorphic rocks is often characterized by complex textures as revealed by cathodoluminenscence (CL that result from multiple episodes of recrystallization, overgrowth, Pb-loss and modifications through fluid-induced disturbances of the crystal structure and the original U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics. Many of these features can be recognized in 2-dimensional CL images, and isotopic analysis of such domains using a high resolution ion-microprobe with only shallow penetration of the zircon surface may be able to reconstruct much of the magmatic and complex post-magmatic history of such grains. In particular it is generally possible to find original magmatic domains yielding concordant ages. In contrast, destructive techniques such as LA-ICP-MS consume a large volume, leave a deep crater in the target grain, and often sample heterogeneous domains that are not visible and thus often yield discordant results which are difficult to interpret. We provide examples of complex magmatic zircon from a southern Indian granulite terrane where SHRIMP II and LA-ICP-MS analyses are compared. The SHRIMP data are shown to be more precise and reliable, and we caution against the use of LA-ICP-MS in deciphering the chronology of complex zircons from high-grade terranes.

  8. Pb-Pb zircon ages of the Porto Nacional high-grade metamorphic terrain, northern portion of the Goias Massif, central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorayeb, Paulo Sergio de Sousa; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias]. E-mail:;; Barros, Gisele Ribeiro de [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica (PIBIC)]. E-mail:


    Single zircon Pb-evaporation ages were determined for a mafic granulite, two enderbites and a kinzigite of the Porto Nacional High-Grade Metamorphic Terrain (PNHGT) in the Goias massif. Zircons from mafic granulites and one of the enderbites of yielded average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages of 2125{+-}3 Ma and 2153{+-}1 Ma, respectively, being interpreted as minimum ages of the igneous protoliths. The other enderbite, whose zircons presented round terminations, yielded an average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb age of 2097 {+-} 2 Ma. Zircons from the kinzigite, displaying cores and rims overgrowth, presented {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages ranging between 2027 and 2115 Ma. However, a very homogeneous zircon crystal without overgrowth yielded age of 2100 {+-} 2 Ma, with a distinctive low Th/U value (0.02). This zircon is interpreted as a metamorphic crystal and its age probably sets the age of the granulite facies metamorphism, indicating that the PNHGT is a result of the Transamazonian thermotectonic event. (author)

  9. A Change in Igneous Activity of the Jack Hills Zircon Sources ca. 3.9 Ga (United States)

    Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.


    New Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperature (Txlln) data for Jack Hills zircons reveal that the tight clustering of Hadean grains around a Txlln of 680°C, possibly indicative of felsic-to-intermediate minimum melting conditions, continues to ~3.92 Ga. Between 3.92-3.82 Ga the 680°C clustering ceases and most concordant grains cluster around an apparent Txlln of 610°C. A small group of zircons with higher Txlln (~750°C), present during the Hadean, is also observed during this period. After 3.82 Ga a Hadean-like distribution resumes for ~100 Ma. This large, concordant, low-Ti group at ~3.9 Ga is statistically distinct from the Hadean distribution and appears to be unique in the Jack Hills zircon record. The existence of coeval high- and low-Ti groups suggests that two distinct zircon-forming processes are distinguishable ~3.9 Ga, unlike during the Hadean. The significant numbers of zircons with apparent Txlln below 600°C may be suggestive of subsolidus formation, since igneous units with solidii below 600°C are relatively rare. The higher-Ti group is more consistent with an intermediate to mafic igneous origin but metamorphic overprinting or subsolidus formation at granulite grade cannot be ruled out by Txlln alone. A substantial proportion of the high-Ti group display oscillatory and disrupted oscillatory zoning in cathodoluminescence images, usually indicative of igneous origins and later metamorphism, respectively; most low-Ti grains are homogeneous. Several of each group display patchy zonation indicative of metamorphic overprinting. Although several grains with apparent Txlln >600°C display oscillatory zonation, the majority of the low-Ti group do not show textural evidence for igneous origins. We interpret these results to indicate the transition from a mechanism(s) that produced dominantly 680°C apparent zircon temperatures at ca. 3.9 Ga to include a new zircon-forming process in the sediment source(s), likely a protracted period of metamorphism

  10. An investigation on the problem of thinning in fingerprint processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high-integrity thinning procedure for binarised fingerprints is proposed in this paper. Several authors and software developers have approached the thinning problems in fingerprint-processing differently. Their approach produced in most cases, fingerprint skeletons with low reli abi lity and thus require additional ...

  11. Towards a complete rule-based classification approach for flat fingerprints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Webb, L


    Full Text Available fingerprints. This work implements an algorithm which includes new rules to account for more instances of flat fingerprints with missing singular points, specifically when the delta of a Right Loop or Left Loop fingerprint is not captured, when one of the loops...

  12. Simultaneous determinations of U-Pb age and REE abundances for zircons using AfF excimer laser ablation-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Takafumi


    Using a laser-ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICPMS), U-Pb age and rare earth element (REE) abundances have been determined simultaneously from a single 20 μm ablation pit of zircon. The laser ablation system utilizing 193 nm wave-length ArF excimer laser produces stable and reproducible signal intensities resulted in good precisions on measurements of element concentrations and isotopic ratios. Because of the higher energy density of the deep ultra-violet laser beam, ablation fractionation between Pb and U were reduced even with the prolonged ablation, and thus accuracy of Pb-U age was improved significantly. A chicane-type ion lens system was applied to a quadrupole-based ICPMS instrument. With the chicane ion lens, higher elemental sensitivity (4 times or light mass range and 3 times for mid to heavy mass range) and lower white background ( 238 U- 206 Pb ages for Nancy standard zircon (Nancy 91500), SHRIMP calibration standard zircon (SL13) and Antarctic zircon (PMA7) obtained in this study were 1064 ± 24 Ma, 569 ± 78 Ma and 2438 ± 101 Ma (2-sigma), respectively. Relative age differences from previous reports were 0.2%, 0.4% and 3.2% respectively, demonstrative of high reliability of the method. The REE abundances in zircon samples were calibrated using a NIST 610 glass standard reference material. The resulting REE abundance data for zircons (Nancy 91500 and SL13) show good agreement with those for literature values within the analytical precision of ∼20%. The matrix effect that may occur between the synthetic glass standard and zircon crystals is obviously smaller than the precision and thus negligible for this precision levels. The data presented here demonstrate clearly that the combination of ArF excimer laser an ICPMS equipped with the chicane ion lens has a potential to become a significant tool for zircon geochemistry. (author)

  13. New zircon (U-Th)/He and U/Pb eruption age for the Rockland tephra, western USA (United States)

    Coble, Matthew A.; Burgess, Seth D.; Klemetti, Erik W.


    Eruption ages of a number of prominent Quaternary volcanic deposits remain inaccurately and/or imprecisely constrained, despite their importance as regional stratigraphic markers in paleo-environment reconstruction and as evidence of climate-altering eruptions. Accurately dating volcanic deposits presents challenging analytical considerations, including poor radiogenic yield, scarcity of datable minerals, and contamination of crystal populations by magma, eruption, and transport processes. One prominent example is the Rockland tephra, which erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center in the southern Cascade arc. Despite a range in published eruption ages from 0.40 to 0.63 Ma, the Rockland tephra is extensively used as a marker bed across the western United States. To more accurately and precisely constrain the age of the Rockland tephra-producing eruption, we report U/Pb crystallization dates from the outermost ∼2 μm of zircon crystal faces (surfaces) using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our new weighted mean 238U/206Pb age for Rockland tephra zircon surfaces is 0.598 ± 0.013 Ma (2σ) and MSWD = 1.11 (mean square weighted deviation). As an independent test of the accuracy of this age, we obtained new (U-Th)/He dates from individual zircon grains from the Rockland tephra, which yielded a weighted mean age of 0.599 ± 0.012 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 5.13). We also obtained a (U-Th)/He age of 0.628 ± 0.014 Ma (MSWD = 1.19) for the Lava Creek Tuff member B, which was analyzed as a secondary standard to test the accuracy of the (U-Th)/He technique for Quaternary tephras, and to evaluate assumptions made in the model-age calculation. Concordance of new U/Pb and (U-Th)/He zircon ages reinforces the accuracy of our preferred Rockland tephra eruption age, and confirms that zircon surface dates sample zircon growth up to the time of eruption. We demonstrate the broad applicability of coupled U/Pb zircon-surface and single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He geochronology to accurate

  14. Extracting subsurface fingerprints using optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akhoury, SS


    Full Text Available Subsurface Fingerprints using Optical Coherence Tomography Sharat Saurabh Akhoury, Luke Nicholas Darlow Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract Physiologists have found... approach to extract the subsurface fingerprint representation using a high-resolution imaging technology known as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). ...

  15. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)


    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  16. Quality and matching performance analysis of three-dimensional unraveled fingerprints (United States)

    Wang, Yongchang; Hao, Qi; Fatehpuria, Abhishika; Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Lau, Daniel L.


    The use of fingerprints as a biometric is both the oldest mode of computer-aided personal identification and the most-relied-on technology in use today. However, current acquisition methods have some challenging and peculiar difficulties. For higher performance fingerprint data acquisition and verification, a novel noncontact 3-D fingerprint scanner is investigated, where both the detailed 3-D and albedo information of the finger is obtained. The obtained high-resolution 3-D prints are further converted into 3-D unraveled prints, to be compatible with traditional 2-D automatic fingerprint identification systems. As a result, many limitations imposed on conventional fingerprint capture and processing can be reduced by the unobtrusiveness of this approach and the extra depth information acquired. To compare the quality and matching performances of 3-D unraveled with traditional 2-D plain fingerprints, we collect both 3-D prints and their 2-D plain counterparts. The print quality and matching performances are evaluated and analyzed by using National Institute of Standard Technology fingerprint software. Experimental results show that the 3-D unraveled print outperforms the 2-D print in both quality and matching performances.

  17. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili


    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  18. Generation of DNA profiles from fingerprints developed with columnar thin film technique. (United States)

    Plazibat, Stephanie L; Roy, Reena; Swiontek, Stephen E; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    Partial-bloody fingerprints and partial fingerprints with saliva are often encountered at crime scenes, potentially enabling the combination of fingerprint and DNA analyses for absolute identification, provided that the development technique for fingerprint analysis does not inhibit DNA analysis. 36 partial-bloody fingerprints and 30 fingerprints wetted with saliva, all deposited on brass, were first developed using the columnar-thin-film (CTF) technique and then subjected to short tandem repeat (STR) DNA analysis. Equal numbers of samples were subjected to the same DNA analysis without development. Tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum, or Alq3, was evaporated to deposit CTFs for development of the prints. DNA was extracted from all 132 samples, quantified, and amplified with AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler Plus Amplification Kit. Additionally, DNA analyses were conducted on four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had been subjected to CTF deposition and four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had not been subjected to CTF deposition. Complete and concordant autosomal STR profiles of the same quality were obtained from both undeveloped and CTF-developed fingerprints, indicating that CTF development of fingerprints preserves DNA and does not inhibit subsequent DNA analysis. Even when there were no fingerprints, CTF deposition did not lead to inhibition of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dielectric Strontium Zirconate Sprayed by a Plasma Torch.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Janata, Marek


    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), s. 225-230 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Electrical properties * Strontium Zirconate * Insulators Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics

  20. On Realistically Attacking Tor with Website Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao


    Full Text Available Website fingerprinting allows a local, passive observer monitoring a web-browsing client’s encrypted channel to determine her web activity. Previous attacks have shown that website fingerprinting could be a threat to anonymity networks such as Tor under laboratory conditions. However, there are significant differences between laboratory conditions and realistic conditions. First, in laboratory tests we collect the training data set together with the testing data set, so the training data set is fresh, but an attacker may not be able to maintain a fresh data set. Second, laboratory packet sequences correspond to a single page each, but for realistic packet sequences the split between pages is not obvious. Third, packet sequences may include background noise from other types of web traffic. These differences adversely affect website fingerprinting under realistic conditions. In this paper, we tackle these three problems to bridge the gap between laboratory and realistic conditions for website fingerprinting. We show that we can maintain a fresh training set with minimal resources. We demonstrate several classification-based techniques that allow us to split full packet sequences effectively into sequences corresponding to a single page each. We describe several new algorithms for tackling background noise. With our techniques, we are able to build the first website fingerprinting system that can operate directly on packet sequences collected in the wild.

  1. Apollo 12 breccia 12013: Impact-induced partial Pb loss in zircon and its implications for lunar geochronology (United States)

    Thiessen, F.; Nemchin, A. A.; Snape, J. F.; Bellucci, J. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.


    Apollo 12 breccia 12013 is composed of two portions, one grey in colour, the other black. The grey portion of the breccia consists mainly of felsite thought to have formed during a single crystallisation event, while the black part is characterized by presence of lithic fragments of noritic rocks and individual plagioclase crystals. In this study, U-Pb analyses of Ca-phosphate and zircon grains were conducted in both portions of the breccia. The zircon grains within the grey portion yielded a large range of ages (4154 ± 7 to 4308 ± 6 Ma, 2σ) and show decreasing U and Th concentrations within the younger grains. Moreover, some grains exhibit recrystallisation features and potentially formation of neoblasts. The latter process requires high temperatures above 1600-1700 °C leading to the decomposition of the primary zircon grain and subsequent formation of new zircon occurring as neoblasts. As a result of the high temperatures, the U-Pb system of the remaining original zircon grains was most likely open for Pb diffusion causing partial resetting and the observed range of 207Pb/206Pb ages. The event that led to the Pb loss in zircon could potentially be dated by the U-Pb system in Ca-phosphates, which have a weighted average 207Pb/206Pb age across both lithologies of 3924 ± 3 Ma (95% conf.). This age is identical within error to the combined average 207Pb/206Pb age of 3926 ± 2 Ma that was previously obtained from Ca-phosphates within Apollo 14 breccias, zircon grains in Apollo 12 impact melt breccias, and the lunar meteorite SaU 169. This age was interpreted to date the Imbrium impact. The zircon grains located within the black portion of the breccia yielded a similar range of ages (4123 ± 13 to 4328 ± 14 Ma, 2σ) to those in the grey portion. Given the brecciated nature of this part of the sample, the interpretation of these ages as representing igneous crystallisation or resetting by impact events remains ambiguous since there is no direct link to their

  2. U-Pb geochronology of zircons form lunar Breccia 73217 using a sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I.S.


    U-Pb age determinations on four lunar zircons from existing thin-sections of one highland breccia, 73217, using the recently constructed ion microprobe SHRIMP, are reported. The analytical reproducibility of SHRIMP is demonstrated, and procedures for measuring Pb/U, Th/U, and corecting for initial Pb are explained. Electron microprobe analyses for the zircons are also reported. The results show that the four zircons survived the lunar cataclysm without any identifiable effects on their U-Pb systematics. All four indicate a single age of 4356 +23 or -14 m.y. The zircons have experienced small variable amounts of Pb loss since crystallization, from almost zero up to about 10 percent. If this occurred during one later event, then age of the latter is between 1100 and 2300 m.y. 18 references

  3. Efficient internal and surface fingerprint extraction and blending using optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Darlow, Luke Nicholas; Connan, James


    Optical coherence tomography provides a 3D representation of fingertip skin where surface and internal fingerprints are found. These fingerprints are topographically identical. However, the surface skin is prone to damage, distortion, and spoofing; and the internal fingerprint is difficult to access and extract. This research presents a novel scaling-resolution approach to fingerprint zone detection and extraction. Furthermore, a local-quality-based blending procedure is also proposed. The accuracy of the zone-detection algorithm is comparable to an earlier work, yielding a mean-squared error of 25.9 and structural similarity of 95.8% (compared to a ground-truth estimate). Blending the surface and internal fingerprints improved the National Institute of Science and Technology's Fingerprint Image Quality scores and the average maximum match scores (when matched against conventional surface counterparts). The fingerprint blending procedure was able to combine high-quality regions from both fingerprints, thus mitigating surface wrinkles and anomalous poor-quality regions. Furthermore, spoof detection via a surface-to-internal fingerprint comparison was proposed and tested.

  4. Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.


    In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African’s zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm 3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm 3 , respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223–662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing. - Highlights: • Gamma-rays interaction of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa studied. • Measured energy is during 223–662 keV. • Different μ m between the two zircons observ