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Sample records for determining radioactive substances

  1. Comparative animal studies for the determination of the extracellular space with several radioactively labelled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pippart, S.

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the total extracellular space and of the extracellular space of the organs (liver, lungs, heart, spleen, brain) was determined with the aid of 5 radioactively labelled substances, each in 10 rats. The test substances (inulin- 3 H, 51 Cr-EDTA, thiosulfate- 35 S, NH 4 - 82 Br, 60 Co-vitamin B 12 ) are described in the relevant literature as substances for the determination of the extracellular space and as clearance substances. (BSC/AK) [de

  2. Radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.; Hyslop, C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to show how to assess the detriment resulting from the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The minimum information required for the assessments is given for seven radionuclides of interest from the point of view of environmental contamination. The seven radionuclides are tritium, krypton-85, strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-137, radium-226 and plutonium-239. Information is given on the radiation doses and the radiation effects on man due to these radioisotopes. (AN)

  3. Comparative animal studies for the determination of the extracellular space with several radioactively labelled substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippart, S

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the total extracellular space and of the extracellular space of the organs (liver, lungs, heart, spleen, brain) was determined with the aid of 5 radioactively labelled substances, each in 10 rats. The test substances (inulin-/sup 3/H, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA, thiosulfate-/sup 35/S, NH/sub 4/-/sup 82/Br, /sup 60/Co-vitamin B/sub 12/) are described in the relevant literature as substances for the determination of the extracellular space and as clearance substances.

  4. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  5. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  6. Process and device for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This invention describes a process for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance consisting in determining the positions and energy losses associated to the interactions of the Compton effect and the photoelectric interactions that occur owing to the emission of gamma photons by the radioactive material and in deducing an information on the spatial distribution of the radioactive substance, depending on the positions and energy losses associated to the interactions of the Compton effect of these gamma photons and the positions and energy losses associated to the subsequent photoelectric interactions of these same photons. The invention also concerns a processing system for identifying, among the signals representing the positions and energy losses of the interactions of the Compton effect and the photoelectric interactions of the gamma photons emitted by a radioactive source, those signals that are in keeping with the gamma photons that have been subjected to an initial interaction of the Compton effect and a second and last photoelectric interaction. It further concerns a system for determining, among the identified signals, the positions of the sources of several gamma photons. This detector of Compton interaction can be used with conventional Auger-type imaging system (gamma camera) for detecting photoelectric interactions [fr

  7. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  8. Device for ray diagnosis for determining the distribution of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, L.

    1976-01-01

    A ray diagnosing device for determining the distribution of radioactive substances in a body has a measuring head containing the ray probe, means for moving the head for a scanning line by line of the part to be examined, a setting device for the line distance and a printer actuated by the ray probe for inscribing an image corresponding to the activity distribution upon a writing sheet. The invention is particularly characterized in that the printer has a number of printing keys each of which is made to correspond to a specific line spacing and that there is an adjusting device for selectively switching on and off each one of the keys

  9. Radioactive substance solidifying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To easily solidify radioactive substances adhering to the surfaces of solid wastes without scattering in the circumference by paints, and further to reduce surface contamination concentrations. Constitution: Solid wastes are placed on a hanging plate, and dipped in paints within a paint dipping treatment tank installed at the lower part of a treatment tank by means of a monorail hoist, and the surfaces of said solid wastes are coated with paints, thereby to solidify the radioactivity on the surfaces of the solid wastes. After dipping, the solid wastes are suspended up to a paint spraying tank to dry the paints. After drying, non-contaminated paints are atomized to apply through an atomizing tube onto the solid wastes. After drying the atomized paints, the solid wastes are carried outside the treatment tank by means of the monorail hoist. (Yoshino, Y.)

  10. Specific activity isolation and determination of radioactive Estrogenic Substances in White Clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupiales T, G.; Mejia M, G.

    1986-01-01

    Due to high number of leguminous that exhibit estrogenic activity, subterranean clover between others, which causes infertility in sheep that eat it. It has been considered that white clover (Trifolium repens, variety Ladino, is an specie of low estrogenic activity, however at Bogota City (Colombia) it has high estrogenic activity and may cause reduction in the dairy cattle fertility. Research done in the IAN (today Ingeominas) over this clover variety, showed that the radioactivity substances presents in the white clover have high activity for stradiol, affecting organs from mouse females; Isoflavonoids from vegetables have an anabolism and utero tropic action; estrogenic activity of clover leaves, was exponentially proportional to the amount of ultraviolet radioactivity, falling upon plants during leaves development stage

  11. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances; Analyse des modalites de fixation des valeurs limites d'exposition et d'emission pour les substances chimiques et radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  12. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr

  13. The administration of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, P.J.; Godfrey, B.E.; O'Brien, R.

    1983-01-01

    A brief history is given of the evolution of a system to approve the licensing of doctors and dentists to use radioactive medicinal products in man. Currently, the Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC) is appointed by UK Health Ministers to advise them on the granting, renewal, suspension, revocation and variation of certificates. The type of information requested on the application form for a certificate is outlined. (UK)

  14. Radioactive substance removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Jun; Tayama, Ryuichi; Teruyama, Hidehiko; Hikichi, Takayoshi.

    1992-01-01

    If inert gases are jetted from a jetting device to liquid metals in a capturing vessel, the inert gases are impinged on the inner wall surface of the capturing vessel, to reduce the thickness of a boundary layer as a diffusion region of radioactive materials formed between the inner wall surface of the capturing vessel and the liquid metals. Further, a portion of the boundary layer is peeled off to increase the adsorption amount of radioactive materials by the capturing vessel. When the inert gases are jetted on the inner or outer circumference of the capturing vessel to rotate the capturing vessel, the flow of the liquid metals is formed along with the rotation, and the thickness of the boundary layer is reduced or the boundary layer is peeled off to increase the absorption amount of the radioactive materials. If gas bubbles are formed in the liquid metals by the inert gases, the liquid metals are stirred by the gas bubbles to reduce the thickness of the boundary layer or peel it off, thereby enabling to increase the adsorption amount of the radioactive materials. Since it is not necessary to pass through the rotational member to the wall surface of the vessel, safety and reliability can be improved. (N.H.)

  15. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Determining Original Inventory Amount of Radioactive Substances from Unmonitored Radionuclide Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.T.; Blunt, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to determine the air emissions inventory of the Savannah River Site. To satisfy regulatory requirements, a new equation has been developed to determine original inventory amounts from unmonitored radionuclide emissions

  17. Flask for highly radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The flask for highly radioactive substances described in this invention comprises a thick steel cylinder with leak proof closures at both ends and made up of several coaxial rings in rolled sheet steel, fitted into each other and welded to each other along their edges. The inner ring is preferably in sheet steel with a lining on its internal side, for instance a stainless steel lining. Likewise the outer ring is preferably in sheet steel with a covering on its outer side. The cylindrical body of the flask is welded by its lower end to a forged steel bottom and by its upper end to a forged steel ring. The bottom can also be made with several partitions. This forged steel ring has an inside peripheral shoulder and the upper end of the flask is closed in a leak proof manner by an initial forged steel plus resting on this shoulder and bolted to it and by a second plug bolted to the free end of this ring [fr

  18. Determination of substances by radiothermometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.

    1976-01-01

    For determination, nitrogen is bubbled through a solution containing radioactive Kr, Xe, Rn or another aerogen in addition to the substance determined. A continuous or intermittent addition of the titrating solution results in the release of reaction heat, thus increasing the temperature of the reaction mixture, which releases a radioactive gas. Upon reaching the equivalence point, the cold titrating reagent cools the reaction mixture, thus reducing the radioactive substance release. The equivalence point lies at the point of intersection of the extended linear parts of the curve of the dependence of released radioactivity on the volume of the titrating solution added. (M.K.)

  19. An action plan for radioactive substances regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document sets out an action plan for the Agency's Radioactive Substances Regulation function. Our vision is to secure continuous improvement in the protection of the public and the environment from the harmful effects of radioactive substances. Radioactive Substances Regulation will work with others to realise this vision and contribute to the Agency's role in achieving sustainable development. We will also work to ensure that the Agency achieves its objectives in an efficient, consistent and integrated way. The main elements of our Action Plan are as follows: establishing indicators of sustainability and the means and methods of monitoring them; establishing performance indicators and a programme of targets and objectives to be achieved; establishing a database of all premises subject to RSA93 and to use it for work planning, resource targeting, and improvement to radioactive waste management; provision of systems of procedures and technical guidance to ensure nationally consistent and cost- effective regulation; establishing systems to audit the implementation of the procedures and guidance; ensuring quality of regulation by defining technical competencies of inspectors and the training programmes to secure them; an R and D programme targeted on improving radioactive waste management and radioactive substances regulation; and full and effective participation in development of national policy

  20. Determination of the potential radiation exposure of the population close to the Asse II mine caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation using the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, D.; Wittwer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1978 125.787 packages filled with low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste were emplaced in the mining plant Asse II. Volatile radioactive substances like H-3, C-14 and Rn-222 are released from the emplaced waste. These substances reach the ventilated parts of the mine and are released with the discharge air. The potential radiation exposure of the population caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation is determined by the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM). As result the maximal deductions of volatile radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation of the Asse II mine lead to radiation exposure of the population, which is considerably lower than the permissible values of application rate.

  1. Influence of humic acids on the migration behavior of radioactive and non-radioactive substances under conditions close to nature. Synthesis, radiometric determination of functional groups, complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

    2000-04-01

    The interaction behavior of humic acids with uranium(VI) and the influence of humic substances on the migration behavior of uranium was investigated. A main focus of this work was the synthesis of four different humic acid model substances and their characterization and comparison to the natural humic acid from Aldrich. A radiometric method for the determination of humic acid functional groups was applied in addition to conventional methods for the determination of the functionality of humic acids. The humic acid model substances show functional and structural properties comparable to natural humic acids. Modified humic acids with blocked phenolic OH were synthesized to determine the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids. A synthesis method for 14 C-labeled humic acids with high specific activity was developed. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural humic acids with uranium(VI) was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthetic model substances show an interaction behavior with uranium(VI) that is comparable to natural humic acids. This points to the fact that the synthetic humic acids simulate the functionality of their natural analogues very well. For the first time the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids was investigated by applying a modified humic acid with blocked phenolic OH groups. The formation of a uranyl hydroxy humate complex was identified by laserspectroscopic investigations of the complexation of Aldrich humic acid with uranium(VI) at pH7. The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich in humic substances was investigated in column experiments. A part of uranium migrates non-retarded through the sediment, bound to humic colloids. The uranium migration behavior is strongly influenced by the kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with the humic colloids

  2. Radioactive Substances Regulations, 1959 under the Radioactive Substances Act 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    These Regulations as amended lay down maximum permissible concentrations and doses and prescribe radiation protection measures for personnel. They provide for the licensing procedures for radioactive materials and irradiating apparatus and the conditions to be complied with for their handling, packaging, transport and disposal. The Schedules to the Regulations contain tables of maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations, models of licence application forms and labels. (NEA) [fr

  3. A method and apparatus for preparing the storage of noxious substances, in particular radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the storage of radioactive substances. It deals with a method for storing a substance, in particular a noxious or radioactive substance, comprising trapping said substance in a solid substance by bombarding said solid substance with ions of the above substance, so that the latter reaches a certain concentration level in the solid substance. This is applicable to the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  4. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  5. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  6. A container for containing and protecting a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a container adapted to contain and protect a radio-active substance. That container comprises a heat sensitive device for automatically (and, preferably, sealingly) enclosing and protecting the radio-active substance, should room temperature reach a predetermined level. Thus, the radio-active substance cannot escape in case of fire. Preferably, a bolt is also provided, capable of being actuated at a temperature slightly above the temperature actuating the protective device so as to maintain the radioactive substance protected. This can be applied to containers containing a radio-active substance such as polonium 210 [fr

  7. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emara, A E [National Center for radiation Research and Technology Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs.

  8. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs

  9. Kinetic assays for determining in vitro APS reductase activity in plants without the use of radioactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychkova, Galina; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Sagi, Moshe

    2012-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (APR; EC 1.8.4.9) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of APS to sulfite and AMP, a key step in the sulfate assimilation pathway in higher plants. In spite of the importance of this enzyme, methods currently available for detection of APR activity rely on radioactive labeling and can only be performed in a very few specially equipped laboratories. Here we present two novel kinetic assays for detecting in vitro APR activity that do not require radioactive labeling. In the first assay, APS is used as substrate and reduced glutathione (GSH) as electron donor, while in the second assay APS is replaced by an APS-regenerating system in which ATP sulfurylase catalyzes APS in the reaction medium, which employs sulfate and ATP as substrates. Both kinetic assays rely on fuchsin colorimetric detection of sulfite, the final product of APR activity. Incubation of the desalted protein extract, prior to assay initiation, with tungstate that inhibits the oxidation of sulfite by sulfite oxidase activity, resulted in enhancement of the actual APR activity. The reliability of the two methods was confirmed by assaying leaf extract from Arabidopsis wild-type and APR mutants with impaired or overexpressed APR2 protein, the former lacking APR activity and the latter exhibiting much higher activity than the wild type. The assays were further tested on tomato leaves, which revealed a higher APR activity than Arabidopsis. The proposed APR assays are highly specific, technically simple and readily performed in any laboratory.

  10. Radioactive substances detection at solid waste incinerators entrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourjat, V.; Carre, J.; Perrier-Rosset, A.

    2001-01-01

    SYCTOM'S incinerators, operated by TIRU will soon be fitted out with radioactivity control systems to prevent entrance of radioactive waste. Such implementation aims at reducing health risks due to exposition of operators working in incinerators or in sites receiving incineration residues. Radioactive wastes are supposed to be well managed: in the case where the radioactive elements period is short, they have to be stored for a precise time; in all the other cases, a statutory organism dealing with radioactive waste (ANDRA) has to take charge of them. Meanwhile they may arrived in incinerators by mistake. It's difficult to regulate radioactivity control systems for technical reasons; the measured values can be really different from these in the truck because of radiation decreasing; moreover it can't be correlated to an activity, hence it can't be compared to exemption values or to the limits that characterise a radioactive substance. It can explain why regulated documents don't indicate the way to fix alarm threshold. Implementing such a system is not sufficient: when the alarm sound, the following steps can be applied: checking the missing of interference, potential truck return to sender, putting the truck in quarantine, information of authorities and main actors, calling on a specialize company to locate, extract and package the radiation source, storage of this source and spectrometric analysis to identify and quantify the radioactive elements in order to determinate its way of elimination. (authors)

  11. Measurement and analysis of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Here are gathered the abstracts presented to the 3. summer university of the year 2001 whose main themes were the destructive (5 conferences) and nondestructive (8 conferences) analyses applied to nuclear industry. The points of view of different organisms (as DSIN: Directorate for the Safety of Nuclear Installations, IPSN: Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety, OPRI: Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations, TUI: Institute for Transuranium Elements, COGEMA, EDF: Electric Utilities, ANDRA: French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, France) concerning the needs involved in nuclear facilities control, the methods of radionuclide speciation in use internationally, the measurements and analyses of radioactive substances are given too as well as some general concepts concerning 1)the laser-matter interaction 2)the ions production 3)the quality applied to the measurements and analyses 4)the standard in activity metrology. (O.M.)

  12. Radioactive substances monitoring programme. Report for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Substances Act 1993 provides for controls to be exercised over the use and keeping of radioactive materials and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive wastes. The Environment Agency (the Agency) has been responsible for administration and enforcement of the Act in England and Wales since its formation on 1 April 1996. Prior to this date the work was undertaken by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP). In support of its regulatory functions HMIP commissioned independent monitoring. This report presents the results from monitoring undertaken in 1995. The 1995 HMIP programme required operators of certain sites to provide samples of their liquid effluents for independent radiochemical analysis. The results provide checks on site operators' returns and insights into their quality assurance (QA) procedures and analytical techniques. The analyses were undertaken by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC) at its laboratories in Teddington, Middlesex. The programme also included checks on solid low level radioactive waste destined for land disposal at the site operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Drigg in Cumbria. (author)

  13. Radioactive substances found on the contaminated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiba, T; Ohashi, S; Shibata, M; Mizube, T

    1954-01-01

    Radiochemical investigation of the substance collected from the surface of tuna fish which were brought back by the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru was performed. Most of the radioactivity was found on the scales which could not be decontaminated by treating with H/sub 2/O; 80% of the activity was removed by washing the dried scales with 3N HCl. Paper chromatographic separation of the HCl fraction showed the presence of /sup 140/Ba, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 132/Te, and probably /sup 95/Zr, /sup 140/La, and rare earths.

  14. Monitoring programme. Radioactive substances - report for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The monitoring of radioactive substances in the vicinity of nuclear sites in the United Kingdom by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, acts as an independent check on the operator's returns, on the environmental impact of radioactive waste disposal at authorised sites and on radiation doses to critical groups of the public. In 1994 the programme included the analysis of 160 effluent samples, the analysis of low-level solid radioactive waste destined for the British Nuclear Fuels site at Drigg, and the analysis of a total of 290 environmental samples and direct monitoring at over 150 locations. The materials monitored are those that might result in exposure of the public to radiation by non-food pathways and complements monitoring by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. Radiation exposures by these pathways which may have been incurred in 1994 are similar to those in previous years and, in all cases, fall substantially below the International Commission on Radiological Protection's recommended principal dose limit of 1mSv per year. (UK)

  15. Charging scheme for Radioactive Substances Act regulation 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The Environment Act 1995 provides for the Environment Agency ('the Agency') to recover the costs and expenses incurred by the Agency and by the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in carrying out their functions in relation to the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 ('the Act'). The Act deals with the keeping and use of radioactive substances, and with the accumulation and disposal of radioactive waste

  16. Upper parameters of toxicity (LDsub(50/30)) of some radioactive and chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.; Kupriyanova, V.M.; Zasedatelev, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicities of radioactive ( 90 Sr, 210 Po) and chemical (lead nitrate, mercuric chloride) substances were compared using equivalent procedures. Ninety six doses of toxic substances in various concentrations were tested on mice to which these substances were administered by intragastric intubation. The material was processed and analyzed by conventional methods used in toxicology. The upper limits of toxicity for the tested substances were determined from their LDsub(50/30) values by various methods of calculation

  17. The existing state of sewage sludge containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Makoto; Hisaoka, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive substances were discharged over a wide range from the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a result, in sewer system, especially in the combined sewer system that jointly collects rainwater and sewage, radioactive substances accumulated on the surface of urban areas were transferred together with rainwater to sewage plants and accumulated there. In the process of further treatment, radioactive substances were transferred to and concentrated in sewage sludge, and a high concentration of radioactive substances were detected in incineration ash. For this reason, some sewage plants still continuously store dewatered sludge, incinerator ash, etc. This paper introduces the current state of waste treatment from the published data from each local government in Tohoku and Kanto districts. As for the sewer, which is essential as a lifeline, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, together with the Japan Sewage Works Association, established 'Investigative Commission on Radioactive Substance Countermeasures in Sewerage System.' This group grasped the damage situation due to radioactive substances, and summarized the measures to be taken by sewage managers, such as the storage method for sewage sludge containing radioactive substances as well as the method for the volume reduction of sewage sludge. (O.A.)

  18. Measurement and analysis of radioactive substances; Mesure et analyse de substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Here are gathered the abstracts presented to the 3. summer university of the year 2001 whose main themes were the destructive (5 conferences) and nondestructive (8 conferences) analyses applied to nuclear industry. The points of view of different organisms (as DSIN: Directorate for the Safety of Nuclear Installations, IPSN: Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety, OPRI: Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations, TUI: Institute for Transuranium Elements, COGEMA, EDF: Electric Utilities, ANDRA: French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, France) concerning the needs involved in nuclear facilities control, the methods of radionuclide speciation in use internationally, the measurements and analyses of radioactive substances are given too as well as some general concepts concerning 1)the laser-matter interaction 2)the ions production 3)the quality applied to the measurements and analyses 4)the standard in activity metrology. (O.M.)

  19. Original jurisdiction in matters relating to transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Decisions on actions for avoidance of government supervision in matters of transport of radioactive substances are placed under the original jurisdiction of administrative courts. (Kassel Administrative Court, decision of 20 December 1988 - 8 A 699/88). (orig.) [de

  20. Radioactive substances in the Danish building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbak, K.

    1986-01-01

    Building materials as any other materials of natural occurrence contain small concentrations of natural radioactive elements. This natural radioactivity affects people inside buildings. This publiccation refers measurements of the Danish building materials, and radiation doses originating from this source affecting the Danish population are related to the other components of background radioactivity. (EG)

  1. Radiological consequences of radioactive substances in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1982-01-01

    A review of radiological consequences of radioactive substances in building materials is given. Where the other contributing papers are dealing with technical problems and measuring techniques, this paper is going beyond the term dose and is considering the risk by radioactive substances in building materials in relation to conventional risks. The present state of international standards is also discussed. If a limit of 1 mSv is adopted, it is shown that this limit is just met at present conditions. (Author) [de

  2. Longitudinal dispersion of radioactive substances in Federal waterways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, W.J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde (BfG), Koblenz (Germany); Speer, W.; Luellwitz, T.; Cremer, M.; Tolksdorf, W.

    2007-08-15

    In the context of radioactivity monitoring in German Federal Waterways (BWStr) by the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) according to the Precautionary Radiation Protection Act (StrVG), the prediction of the dispersion of radioactive substances in water is one of the key tasks. The aim is the forecasting of the longitudinal dispersion of concentrations of soluble hazardous substances in flowing water. These predictions are based on the so-called dispersion tests with tritium as a tracer that the BfG has performed since 1980. Characteristic parameters like discharge-dependent flow velocities, dispersion and elimination constants related to emission sources or selected river sections are determined. They will serve as basis for a mathematical model to forecast discharge-dependent flow velocities, expected impact times, concentration maxima, and the duration of critical increases in concentrations. In the following, the results obtained till now from three investigation campaigns on the River Weser and its source rivers Werra and Fulda are described. (orig.)

  3. Radioactive Substances Act, 1957, No 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Act as amended regulates the possession, sale and use of radioactive materials and irradiating apparatus. It sets up a Radiological Advisory Council to advise the competent authorities on questions within the scope of the Act, also with a view to radiation protection. The Council's rules of procedure are laid down. The Act also provides that, subject to prescribed exemptions, no person may hold, use or sell radioactive materials without a licence. (NEA) [fr

  4. Safety in the management of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Henia; Rey, Ana; Leon, Alba; Jelen, Miguel

    1994-01-01

    A brief explanation of radiation protection,external irradiation,internal contamination,risk factors, active laboratory design,localization,ventilation,working surfaces,area distribution,classification of active laboratory.Radiopharmacy laboratory,shielding, area monitoring,personal dosimetry,rules for management of open sources,maximum admitted limits for radionuclides currently used in radiopharmacy.Decontamination of active areas and materials,surfaces,equipment s.Decontamination of hands.Waste disposal.Radioactive materials transportation.Reception of radioactive materials.Bibliography

  5. Implementation vigenere algorithm using microcontroller for sending SMS in monitoring radioactive substances transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi Abimanyu; Nurhidayat; Jumari

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of safety and security of radioactive substances from the sender to the receiver is to be secured for not to harm humans. In general, monitoring the transport of radioactive materials is done by communication with a telephone conversation to determine the location and rate of exposure radioactive substances. From the aspect of safety, communication through telephone conversations easily interpreted by others, in addition the possibility of human-error is quite high. SMS service is known for its ease in terms of use so that SMS can be used as a substitute for communication through telephone conversations to monitor the rate of radiation exposure and the position of radioactive substances in the transport of radioactive substances. The system monitors the transport of radioactive materials developed by implement vigenere algorithms using a microcontroller for sending SMS (Short Message Service) to communicate. Tests was conducted to testing encryption and description and computation time required. From the test results obtained they have been successfully implemented vigenere algorithm to encrypt and decrypt the messages on the transport of radioactive monitoring system and the computational time required to encrypt and decrypt the data is 13.05 ms for 36 characters and 13.61 for 37 characters. So for every single character require computing time 0.56 ms. (author)

  6. Monitoring programme. Radioactive substances report for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    In the United Kingdom, Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution commissions independent monitoring of radioactive discharges to the environment. This report presents the results of such monitoring for 1994. It covers nuclear sites, two non-nuclear sites which use large amounts of tritium and several landfill sites which receive low-level radioactive waste for controlled burial. The monitoring programme concentrates on activity levels in environmental materials that might result in exposure of the public to radiation from non-food pathways. The results show that exposures from these pathways in 1994 remain similar to those in previous years and in all cases are estimated to have been substantially lower than the International Commission on Radiological Protection's recommended dose limit of 1mSv per year. (6 figures; 20 tables; 29 references) (UK)

  7. Method for determining immunochemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'connor, J.

    1980-01-01

    Drawing a method for detecting and measuring a predetermined specifically-bindable immunochemical substance in a liquid sample in a cuvette, comprising the steps of: (A) providing, in an immunoassay technique for the liquid sample in said cuvette, a component comprising a suspension of particles which may be agglutinated or insolubilized in relationship to the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance in the sample; and (B) determining the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance by measuring the electromagnetic radiation transmission properties of the sample using a calibrated radiation-measuring apparatus, said apparatus comprising: (1) a suitable electromagnetic radiation source capable of providing radiation at wavelengths equal to or less than the mean diameter of said particles; (2) means for concentrating and collimating radiation from the electromagnetic radiation source to form a beam; (3) means for filtering the beam to (I) eliminate radiation having wavelengths greater than the means diameter of the particles and (II) transmit radiation, which radiation has a range, whereby the upper wavelength is equal to or below the mean diameter of the particles, and the range is of at least about 100nm; (4) means for (I) positioning a sample-containing cuvette and for (II) allowing the filtered beam incident on the cuvette to be transmitted through the cuvette and sample, and for (III) receiving a portion of the filtered beam transmitted through the sample at two or more predetermined angles with respect to the beam; and (5) means for detecting and measuring the portion of the beam transmitted at a predetermined angle

  8. Measurements of radioactive and xenobiotic substances in the biosphere in the Netherlands 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this annual report the results and conclusions are given of measurements of radioactive and xenobiotic substances in the biosphere of the Netherlands. The measurements are coordinated by the Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances (CCRX)

  9. Environments with elevated radiation levels from natural radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Some areas in the world have elevated levels of radioactive substances in the environment forming elevated radiation areas (ERAs) where public potential annual effective doses can exceed even the dose limit of radiation workers. Such radioactive substances are either terrestrial natural radioactivity added naturally in the soil or natural and/or man-made radioactivity from human activities added into the environment. If radioactivity is added naturally, elevated natural radiation areas (ENRAs) are formed. Based on the classification criteria introduced by the author, such regions are divided into static and dynamic areas. They are also classified in accordance with their level of potential effective dose to the public. Some main ENRAs are classified. Highlights are presented of the results of activity studies carried out in selected areas. The concepts discussed can also be applied to areas formed by human activities. The author suggests some guidelines for future studies, regulatory control and decision making, bearing in mind the need for harmonization of policies for regulatory control and remedial actions at sites to protect the public from environmental chronic exposures. (author)

  10. Collection of ministerial circulars on the transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    This publication by the CNEN reproduces the full texts of Ministerial Circulars on the transport by road, rail, air and sea of radioactive substances, made in implementation of Act No. 1860 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy of 1962, as amended by Decree No. 1704 of 1965, laying down that regulatory standards should be elaborated for such transport in accordance with the Euratom basic radiation protection standards and the IAEA Regulations on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. These Circulars are set out in chronological order with reference to the national and international provisions under which they were made. (NEA) [fr

  11. Countermeasure technology for environmental pollution due to radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the progress of challenges by Maeda Corporation toward the countermeasures for the environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances that covers the whole areas of Naraha Town in Fukushima Prefecture. It also introduces in full detail the environmental pollution countermeasure technologies against radioactive substances challenged by the said company. These technologies are as follows; (1) porous block kneaded with zeolite, (2) Aqua-filter System (technique to automatically and continuously purify construction work water to the level of tap water), (3) super vacuum press (dehydration unit to realize the dehydration, volume reduction and solidification, and insolubilization at the same time), (4) mist blender (technique to manufacture bentonite-mixed soil), (5) wet-type classification washing technique for contaminated soil, (6) soil sorting technique (continuous discrimination technique to sort soil depending on radiation level), and (7) speedy construction technique for dam body using CSG (cemented sand and gravel). (A.O.)

  12. Working rules for medical application of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloebel, B.

    1982-01-01

    After incorporation of radioactive substances radiation exposure is detectable only in case of iodine 125 and iodine 131. Organizational measures should improve the protection of personnel. According to the experience gained decontamination successes are possible between 1 and 99%, however they evade forecasting. With iodine 131 it is necessary to make for accelerated discharge resp. prevent further penetration from the extrathydroidal space into the thyroid gland. (DG) [de

  13. The safety of consumer goods containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the arguments used in the formulation of proposals which have been incorporated into a consultative document published by the National Radiological Protection Board (Criteria Relating to the Approval of Consumer Goods Containing Radioactive Substances: A Consultative Document, HMSO, London). The proposals are summarized. They were based on the classification of these consumer goods into different categories, and details are given of the suggested dose limits for these categories. Comments on the proposals are invited. (U.K.)

  14. Method for removal of decay heat of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesky, H.; Wunderer, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this process, the decay heat from radioactive substances is removed by means of a liquid carried in the coolant loop. The liquid is partially evaporated by the decay heat. The steam is used to drive the liquid through the loop. When a static pressure level equivalent to the pressure drop in the loop is exceeded, the steam is separated from the liquid, condensed, and the condensate is reunited with the return flow of liquid for partial evaporation. (orig.) [de

  15. HMIP Monitoring Programme radioactive substances report for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The programme of environmental monitoring of radioactive substances in England and Wales during 1990, was completed satisfactorily under the auspices of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution. The programme concentrates on monitoring activity levels in environmental materials which might result in radiation exposure of the public from non-food pathways. The programme acts as a check on site operator's returns and provides independent data on the environmental impact of authorised disposals of radioactive wastes and on radiation doses to critical groups of the public. This report presents the data from this continuing monitoring programme. The monitoring was carried out at installations controlled by British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Nuclear Electric the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Amersham International PLC, the Ministry of Defence, at two non-nuclear sites which use tritium, the works of Capper Pass Ltd who carry out lead smelting and at several landfill sites where controlled buried of low-level radioactive wastes is carried out. (Author)

  16. A guide for controlling consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Consumer products are considered regardless of the purpose for which the radionuclide is added. For example, the purpose may be to make use of the ionising radiation emitted by the substance in the product itself (e.g. radioluminescent devices antistatic devices and ionisation chamber smoke detectors), or to make use of some other property of the material where the presence of radiation in the final product is merely adventitious (e.g. thorium gas mantles, ceramics with uranium glazes, and products containing radioactive tracers added to facilitate manufacturing and inspection processes). The Guide does not cover some products containing natural radioactive substances which have not been intentionally added, such as building materials. The Guide does not cover medicinal products and pharmaceuticals, nuclear powered cardiac pacemakers, or electronic equipment, such as television receivers, that emit X-rays. Unlike the 1970 Guide, this Guide does not consider those products, such as EXIT signs, containing gaseous tritium light sources, that would not be supplied directly to members of the public. The Guide is concerned mainly with the exposure arising from consumer products of those persons who are not subject to any regulatory controls for purposes of radiation protection in normal circumstances. Members of the public come under this heading, but not workers involved in the manufacture of consumer products. These workers will normally be subject to separate control. Radiological protection concepts and policy for the control of radioactive consumer products and licensing and post-licensing surveillance are developed

  17. Determination of environmental radioactivity, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shinji; Nakaoka, Akira; Fukushima, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1984-01-01

    According to the fundamental design proposed for the purpose of dose assessment of the general public around a nuclear facility corresponding to the guideline issued by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, 5 mrem/yr, the authors developed a rapid and simple determination method of radioactivity in food and related environmental samples by pretreating with a modified microwave dehydration apparatus followed by radiation counting. Equation to estimate heating condition by the apparatus was derived, and estimation by the equation was in good agreement with experimental data. It took less than 4.5 hours to dehydrate by the proposed method. This value was much smaller in comparison with the value of more than 10 hours by a conventional hot-air drying method, and radiation counting was able to be started in the same day of sampling and dehydration procedure. It was cralified that lower limits of detection for each radionuclide by the proposed method by using a Ge(Li) detector of 20 % relative efficiency was lower than half level of needed detection limits to determine and evaluate the 5 mrem/yr level. Radionuclide levels in food samples such as vegetables and crustaceans was determined by the proposed method and it was found that they were below the lower detection limit of the method except natural radionuclide 40 K and fallout originated 137 Cs. (author)

  18. Determination of the potential radiation exposure of the population close to the Asse II mine caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation using the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM); Ermittlung der potenziellen Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung in der Umgebung der Schachtanlage Asse II infolge Ableitung radioaktiver Stoffe mit den abwettern im bestimmungsgemaessen Betrieb mittels des ''atmospaerischen Radionuklid-Transport-Modells'' ARTM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, D.; Wittwer, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    Between 1967 and 1978 125.787 packages filled with low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste were emplaced in the mining plant Asse II. Volatile radioactive substances like H-3, C-14 and Rn-222 are released from the emplaced waste. These substances reach the ventilated parts of the mine and are released with the discharge air. The potential radiation exposure of the population caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation is determined by the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM). As result the maximal deductions of volatile radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation of the Asse II mine lead to radiation exposure of the population, which is considerably lower than the permissible values of application rate.

  19. SI 1985 No. 1048 - The Radioactive Substances (Luminous Articles) Exemption Order 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Order, which came into force on 17 September 1985, is concerned with exemptions and exclusions under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 in respect of radioactive luminous instruments and indicators. (NEA) [fr

  20. Management of sites potentially polluted by radioactive substances - Methodological guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This document is the update of the 'methodological guidelines for the management of industrial areas potentially contaminated by radioactive substances', published in 2001 by IRSN. Revisions intended to bring coherence between management of areas polluted by radioactive substances and the general policy applied to polluted sites described in a document published in February 2007 by the French Ministry in charge of Environment. Requirements introduced both by the law relative to waste management of June 28, 2006 and the ministerial order of 17 November 2008 were introduced. The involvement of all stakeholders during the process was stressed. The updating, mainly lead to introduce a clear distinction between polluted areas where uses are established and those without use or at redevelopment stage. When the uses are established, an 'Interpretation of the condition of environment' is conducted. Alternatively, the remediation process follows a 'management plan'. The revision also led to the disappearance of the 'doubt removal' phase which has been incorporated as an entire part in the site characterisation. Among other significant changes, it may be noted the evolution of the 'risk assessment' tools from simplified risk assessment and detailed risk assessment to a single tool allowing the quantitative assessment of exposure (EQER). Finally, the guidelines highlight stakeholder involvement in identifying the different participants and in reminding the benefits of a consultative approach. Whatever the remediation process: interpretation of the condition of environment or management plan; site characterisation is required as soon as a pollution is suspected. It includes literature reviews and field investigations primarily to confirm or deny the presence of pollution and, where appropriate, to determine its location, nature and level. The effort accorded to site characterisation must be proportionate to identified issues. The first step consists in comparing the

  1. Radiation environmental impact assessment of radioactive substances of an airport transit storage construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baozeng; Xia Zitong; Zou Zhaozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive substances belong to dangerous goods transport aviation. Radioactive substances impoundments construction purpose is to ensure that the radioactive material during transport to transport and the public to achieve full or isolation, the effects of radiation on the human body, property and the environment caused by the control to an acceptable level. According to the relevant national standards and norms, for radiation protection evaluation of project construction of an airport radioactive impoundments, feasibility of the construction project radiation environment. (authors)

  2. Sample taking device for toxic and/or radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterwalder, L.; Zeh, H.; Schaarschmidt, U.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for taking samples of toxic and/or radioactive liquid substances by introducing such substances into sample vessels includes a holder for holding such a vessel, at least one needle head filling system composed of upwardly pointing hollow needles for introducing a sample of one such substance into such a vessel at a filling position, and inlet and outlet conduits for pneumatically conveying vessels to or from the holder at a transfer position. The holder is composed of a turntable having a sleeve for accommodating such vessel and is mounted to undergo rotary movement to convey a sample vessel held in the sleeve between the filling and transfer positions. The apparatus further includes a stand supporting the filling system below the holder and a lifting device connected for imparting a translational movement to the holder to bring a vessel in the holder to operative association with the filling system. The lifting device is arranged so that the translational movement which it produces is independent of the rotary movement of the turntable

  3. The draft Radioactive Substances (Natural Gas) Exemption Order (Northern Ireland) 2002. Consultation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Natural gas, and products made from it such as liquefied petroleum gas, may contain small amounts of naturally occurring radioactive substances. The use, accumulation and disposal of radioactive substances by organisations is regulated by the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (RSA 93) and in Northern Ireland the regulatory authority is the Chief Radiochemical Inspector in the Environment and Heritage Service, which is part of the Department of the Environment (the Department). RSA 93 ensures the control of radioactive wastes by requiring registration of use of radioactive substances and authorisation of disposal of radioactive waste. It sets out the levels at which certain naturally occurring radioelements eg. uranium in gases, liquids and solids, and radon in gases, should be regarded as radioactive

  4. Handling of radioactive substances containing ionization smoke detectors found in debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.; Lorenz, F.

    1992-01-01

    In many commercial buildings, ionization smoke detectors are installed which contain radioactive substances such as Ra-226 or Am-241 and are subject to regularoty control. The obligations of plant owners having installed such devices are laid down in Annex III of the Radiation Protection Ordinance of June 30, 1989. In the event of a fire, the public trade inspection offices are the competent authorities for examining the radioactivity level of the debris to be managed after a fire. The radioactivity level is determined in accordance with Annex IV of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, defining the MPA data for every nuclide. If the specific activity measured per gramme of debris is in excess of the 10 -4 -fold maximum permissible activity, waste management requires a permit according to section 3 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig.) [de

  5. Code of practice for the design of laboratories using radioactive substances for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Code has been prepared to supplement the radioactive substances acts and regulations implemented in Australia. It is intended as a guide to safe practices but is not legislation. Areas covered include siting, layout, surface finishes, laboratory furniture and fittings, ventilation, containment and release of airborne effluent and storage of radioactive substances

  6. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health for... involves exposure to ionizing radiations in excess of 0.5 rem per year. (b) Definitions. As used in this...

  7. Radioactive Substances Act 1960. Keeping and use of radioactive materials; list of registrations in England and Wales issued under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    Through the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 (RSA 60), Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (Radioactive Substances) (HMIP) exercises control, on behalf of the Secretary of State for the Environment, over the keeping and use of radioactive material and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive waste in England. HMIP also provides technical advice to the Secretary of State for Wales in connection with the enforcement of RSA 60 in Wales. Registrations under RSA 60 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials in England and Wales are issued respectively by the Secretaries of State for the Environment and Wales, following careful assessment of the radiological consequences for members of the public. Registrations impose strict limits and conditions and premises and apparatus are subject to scrutiny by HMIP Inspectors to ensure compliance. A list contains names and addresses of those registered in England and Wales for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile apparatus

  8. Vessel used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Glover, J.S.; Shephard, B.P.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns the vessels used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels. These vessels prove to be particularly useful in analyses of the kind where a radioactive element or compound is separated into two phases and the radioactivity of one phase is determined. Such a vessel used in the counting of radiation includes an organic plastic substance tube appreciably cylindrical in shape whose upper end is open whilst the lower end is closed and integral with it, and an anti-radiation shield in metal or in metal reinforced plastic located at the lower end of the tube and extending along the wall of the tube up to a given height. The vessel contains a reaction area of 1 to 10 ml for holding fluid reagents [fr

  9. Ministerial Decree of 15 June 1966 determining the activity of radioactive substances for purposes of classification of commercial operations under Section 32 of the Decree of the President of the Republic No. 185 of 13 February 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This Decree was made to determine the quantity of radioactivity which constitutes the threshold for classifying commercial operations into a less or more hazardous category, namely A and B categories respectively. The IAEA criteria in this field were used as a basis for this classification. (NEA) [fr

  10. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey. Book 5, Laboratory Analysis. Chapter A5, Methods for Determination of Radioactive Substances in Water and Fluvial Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, L. L.; And Others

    Analytical methods for determining important components of fission and natural radioactivity found in water are reported. The discussion of each method includes conditions for application of the method, a summary of the method, interferences, required apparatus, procedures, calculations and estimation of precision. Isotopes considered are…

  11. Road surface washing system for decontaminating radioactive substances. Experiment of radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Mitsuru; Endo, Mai; Kakizaki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 resulted in the explosion of the TEPCO Fukushima 1st Nuclear Power Plant and the global dispersion of a large quantity of radioactive substances. A high radiation dose was particularly recorded in Fukushima prefecture several weeks after the accident, although the level is presently sufficiently low. However, considering that the adverse effects of low but extended exposure to radiation are yet to be negated, there is the urgent need for further decontamination. In our study, we focused on the efficient decontamination of radioactive substances in residential areas, for which we propose a high-pressure water jet system for washing road surfaces. The system differs from conventional systems of its type that were initially designed for use in the immediate environment of the nuclear reactors of the TEPCO Fukushima 1st Nuclear Power Plant. The proposed system consists of multiple washing, transporter, and server robots. The washing robots decontaminate the road surface using high-pressure water jets and are transported between washed and unwashed areas by the transporter robots. The server robots supply the water used for washing and absorb the polluted water together with ground dust. In this paper, we describe the concept of the system and present the results of decontamination experiments. Particular attention is given to the washing robot and its mechanism and control method. The results of the integration of the washing robot in an experimental system confirmed the feasibility of the proposed system. (author)

  12. [The main directions of improving the system of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a modification of the basic directions of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products, whose implementation will significantly improve the efficiency of its operation at the regional level. Selected areas are designed to improve accounting and control system for the submission of the enterprises established by the reporting forms, the quality of the information contained in them, as well as structures of information and process for collecting, analyzing and data processing concerning radioactive substances and waste products.

  13. Determination of radioactivity in meat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, G.M.; Atta, M.A.; Shafiq, M.; Zafar, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of radionuclides in edibles can create harmful effects in the human body. It is, therefore, essential that the radioactivity must be searched in the food stuff specially in those items which are available near the nuclear installations. The radioactivity in the meat samples obtained from the surroundings of PINSTECH (Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology), PINSTECH Complex has been determined using high resolution Ge(Li) gamma ray spectrometer and a low level beta counting system. The results show that the measured values of the radioactivity are below the maximum permissible levels. (author)

  14. Radioactive substances in foodstuffs and drinking water in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, K.; Vesterbacka, P.; Solatie, D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of radioactive substances in the environment and foodstuffs are continuously monitored in Finland. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes the annual report of Surveillance of Environmental Radiation which shows the activity levels of artificial radionuclides in Finland. Based on the results the radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated. Natural radioactive elements will be included in the surveillance program in future years. The aim of the foodstuffs monitoring program is to obtain information from the intake of radionuclides through ingestion. The radioactivity in foodstuffs is monitored by collecting foodstuffs on market, drinking water and daily meals offered at hospitals over one week. The sampling sites are located in southern, central and northern Finland, representing the main population centres and areal differences in the consumption of foodstuffs. One of these sampling sites is located in the highest {sup 137}Cs deposition area in Finland originating from the Chernobyl accident. The foodstuff samples on market are, for example, wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and fish. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are analysed from mixed diet samples and {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs samples on market. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in daily meals are low because the agricultural products used as raw material are almost free of artificial radionuclides. The small variation in the results is caused by the differences in the types of meals that were prepared on the sampling dates and in the areal origins of raw materials. {sup 137}Cs concentration is remarkably higher in such food which contains a lot of natural products like wild berries, freshwater fish, wild mushrooms and game. As an example, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the solid food in 2012 ranged from 0.06 - 1.0 Bq/kg, and in the drinks from 0.27 - 0.40 Bq/l, respectively. The radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated based on an analysis of

  15. Artificial neural network models' application for radioactive substances' migration forecasting in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Khil'ko, O.S.; Kundas, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The work is indicated to the use of artificial neural network (ANN) models in program complex SPS for radioactive substances' migration forecasting in soil. For the problem solution two ANN models are used. One of them forecasts radioactive substances' migration, another carries out forecasting of physical and chemical soil properties. Program complex SPS allows to achieve a low error of forecasting (no more than 5 %) and high training speed. (authors)

  16. Approaches to assign security levels for radioactive substances and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.V.; Petrovskij, N.P.; Pinchuk, G.N.; Telkov, S.N.; Kuzin, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    The article contains analyzed provisions on categorization of radioactive substances and radiation sources according to the extent of their potential danger. Above provisions are used in the IAEA documents and in Russian regulatory documents for differentiation of regulatory requirements to physical security. It is demonstrated that with the account of possible threats of violators, rules of physical protection of radiation sources and radioactive substances should be amended as regards the approaches to assign their categories and security levels [ru

  17. S.I. No 249 of 1972, Factories Ionising Radiations (Unsealed Radioactive Substances) Regulations, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-12-01

    The Regulations which entered into force on 1 December 1972 apply to factories in which a process involving the use of unsealed radioactive substances is carried on and where the total activity of the unsealed radioactive substances exceeds specified levels, or where there are objects contaminated in excess of certain levels. The Schedules specify the maximum radiation doses and the maximum permissible levels of contamination and provide for a classification of radionuclides [fr

  18. Express control of migration processes of radioactive substances during drilling works in 'Ukryttya' object local zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravdivyj, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Technical proposals are prepared to create a procedure for operative control of drilling works. Such a procedure will permit detecting the displacement of radioactively contaminated ground along borehole bore and correcting the drilling work procedure, which would prevent radioactive substance spreading, in boreholes of 'Ukryttya' object local zone and those of Exclusion Zone

  19. Abstract of the law relating to the nuclear industry and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This summary of the law relating to Atomic Energy and Radioactive substances as at March 1980 is divided into sections headed: (1) The common law. (2) Legislation. (3) Regulations under the Factories Act 1961. (4) Regulations, rules etc. affecting the transport of radioactive materials. (5) The Euratom treaty. (U.K.)

  20. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances; Guide methodologique: gestion des sites industriels potentiellement contamines par des substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  1. Study of boletus edulis mushrooms in south- western Bulgaria for the presence of natural and technogenic radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direkov, Lubomir; Gaberov, Vladimir; Vakova, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Boletus includes in its composition natural and technogenic radioactive elements such as potassium - 40, carbon - 14, rubidium - 87 uranium - 238, thorium - 232, radium - 226, as well as anthropogenic radioactive substances: iodine - 131, cesium - 137, strontium - 90. Therefore, these fungi can be used as bio-indicators for the presence of radioactive substances in the wild species, the identification of areas with a higher content in the soils of natural radioactive substances, examination areas around uranium mines, and also in case of transboundary transport of anthropogenic radioactive substances as a result of accidents in nuclear power plants - Chernobyl - 1986 Fukushima - 2011 Zaporozhian NPP - 2014 and others.

  2. Hazardous and radioactive substances in Danish marine waters. Status and temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlloef, I; Andersen, Jesper H

    2009-07-15

    This book fulfils the Danish reporting obligations in relation to the OSPAR Trend Assessment on Dangerous Substances, and describes the degree of contamination from hazardous and radioactive substances and their temporal trends, as well as the effects of some of these hazardous substances, in the Danish marine environment. The assessment is based on existing information, primarily data collected via national and regional Danish monitoring activities until 2004. (author)

  3. Hazardous and radioactive substances in Danish marine waters. Status and temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlloef, I.; Andersen, Jesper H.

    2009-07-01

    This book fulfils the Danish reporting obligations in relation to the OSPAR Trend Assessment on Dangerous Substances, and describes the degree of contamination from hazardous and radioactive substances and their temporal trends, as well as the effects of some of these hazardous substances, in the Danish marine environment. The assessment is based on existing information, primarily data collected via national and regional Danish monitoring activities until 2004. (author)

  4. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This Summary is an updated version of a previous revision of the Summary of the United Kingdom's legislation on atomic energy and reviews the main texts in that field. Reference is made to the regulations on atomic energy, nuclear installations, radioactive substances, transport of such substances, radiation protection etc. It is intended to be a signpost to the relevant law, but does not cover any aspect in detail. The Summary also refers to international agreements in the nuclear field: conventions and regulations on the transport of radioactive substances and nuclear material, nuclear third party liability, radiation protection and environmental protection. (NEA) [fr

  5. Increasing for effectiveness of inspection of the use of radioactive substances well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesty Rimadianny

    2015-01-01

    One of the utilization of nuclear power is the use of radioactive substances for well logging. To ensure the achievement of radiation safety and security in the use of radioactive substances for well logging activities BAPETEN carries out inspections in accordance with the mandate as sepulated in the Government Regulation No. 29 of 2008 on the Licensing Resource Utilization Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Materials. Besides referring to the implementation of Government Regulation inspection also refers to BAPETEN Chairman Regulation No. 5 of 2009 on Radiation Safety in the Use of Radioactive material for well logging. In 2014, of 18 facilities inspected the most significant findings include the availability of equipment safety and security of radioactive substances, as well as the availability and suitability of documents and records of safety and security of radioactive substances for well logging activities. Based on these findings BAPETEN needs to make efforts to increase the effectiveness of inspections on the use of radioactive substances for well logging. Increasing the effectiveness of these inspections include a commitment for the frequency of well logging inspection, the number of qualified of inspectors in accordance with the established procedures and optimizing the law enforcement process which includes the application of administrative sanctions in the form of a written warning, license suspension, revocation until reporting to law enforcement. Besides, BAPETEN need to improve the effectiveness of outreach programs and legal guidance as a precaution in the long run. (author)

  6. Guideline for the assessment of radioactive substances in drinking water in the frame of the implementation of the drinking water regulation. Recommendation by BMUB, BfS, UBA and the responsible state authorities and DVGW and BDFW; Leitfaden zur Untersuchung und Bewertung von radioaktiven Stoffen im Trinkwasser bei der Umsetzung der Trinkwasserverordnung. Empfehlung von BMUB, BMG, BfS, UBA und den zustaendigen Landesbehoerden sowie DVGW und BDEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The guidelines on the assessment of radioactive substances in drinking water cover the following issues: terms, symbols and units concerning radioactivity, radioactivity in the drinking water and radiation exposure, requirements for drinking water with respect to radioactive substances, fundamentals of the assessment concept according to the drinking water regulation, practical application of the assessment concept, analytical determination of radioactivity related parameters.

  7. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1982-04-01

    The law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances in the United Kingdom is summarized under the following headings: the Common Law; legislation (Atomic Energy Act 1946; Radioactive Substances Acts 1948 and 1960; Electricity (Amendment) Act 1961; Nuclear Installations Act 1965 and 1969 (and subordinate legislation); Secretary of State for Trade and Industry Order 1970; Radiological Protection Act 1970 (as amended); Air Navigation (Restriction of Flying)(Atomic Energy Establishments) Regulations 1981; Nuclear Safeguards and Electricity (Finance) Act 1978; legislation relating to the UK Atomic Energy Authority); Regulations under the Factories Act 1961; Regulations relating to educational establishments; Regulations and Orders relating to food and medicines; Regulations, etc., affecting the transport of radioactive materials; Regulations under the Social Security Act 1975; control of import and export; the Euratom Treaty; important non-statutory Codes of Practice, etc.; international conventions, etc., relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances, in which the United Kingdom is interested; foreign legislation. (U.K.)

  8. Radioactive preparations. Determination of radiochemical purity by thin-layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The standard sets the data which must be attached to every sample, and the equipment, chemicals and auxiliary substances used in the determination of radiochemical purity of substances by chromatography. Described are preparation of the sample, the procedure of sample deposition, the development, drying and detection of the radioactive preparation. The qualitative and quantitative assessment of the radiochromatogram is described as are the calculation of radiochemical purity and the determination of the reproducibility of measurement of radiochemical purity of radioactive preparations. (E.S.)

  9. Determination of radioactivity in Cisadane River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarigan, C.; Lubis, E.

    1993-01-01

    Determination of radioactivity in Cisadane river. The determination of radioactivity in water and sediment samples from Cisadane river in the period of March 1989 through March 1990 has been carried out. The aim of the study is to get some information on the radionuclides species and its quantities in water and sediment samples. Sampling was done at randon from 12 stations of 5 km apart. Result of the determination showed that the average total α activity in water was 18.10 ± 13.26 mBq/l and in sediment 34.96 ± 9.99 Bq/kg. Total β activities in water was 129.95 ± 148.14 mBq/l and in sediment 275.94 ± 41.63 Bq/kg. Activities of K-40 and Ra-226 in water was 6.39 ± 2.16 Bq/l and 7.34 ± 1.61 Bq/l and in sediment 6.58 ± 1.80 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and 84.87 ± 16.55 Bq/kg for K-40. Compared to environmental quality standard data for water group A total α and β activities showed good quality river water. Compared to data from UNSCEAR, for similar sample the radioactivity level in Cisadane river was normal. This result gave an indication that total α and β radioactivities in the water and sediment are due to natural radionuclides. (authors). 6 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  10. Radiation consequences of combatant radioactive substances tests on the Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strilchuk, Yu.G.; Osintsev, A.Yu.; Kuzin, D.E.; Bryantseva, N.V.; Bozhko, V.V.; Tonevitskaya, O.V.; Panitskaya, D.S.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Georgievskij, V.; Murley, R.; Wells, D.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear explosions were not the only type of tests carried out on the STS territory. In 1953 - 1957 the STS territory was the area of testing of combatant radioactive substances (CRS). Combatant radioactive substances were liquid or powder-like combatment radioactive mixtures manufactured either from the wastes of radiochemical industry or by neutron irradiation of specally selected substances in nuclear reactor. Their specific activity ranged from tenths of Curie to several Curie per liter. CRS tests were made on testing grounds ''4'' and ''4A'' situated near northern outpost beyond the Opytnoye Pole (Experimental field). Dispersion of CRS was achieved by blasting of individual shells, bombardment of the area by mortar shells, bombardment from aircraft bombers or dispersion of CRS from airplanes. Investigations carried out in the past years on the territory of the testing grounds discovered fragments of metal products used in the CRS tests and over 30 areas of local radioactive contamination. 90 Sr was the main radioactive pollutant, whose specific activity in upper soil is as high as 5*10 8 Bq/kg; other radionuclides are presented by isotopes: 239+240 Pu, 152 Eu, 154 Eu, 137 Cs, 241 Am, 60 Co. The areas of radioactively-contaminated soil range from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of square meters with some of them expanding to distances of several kilometers. Concentration of radionuclides in soil and vegetation may be compared with that of radioactive waste

  11. ELECTRONIC ANALOG COMPUTER FOR DETERMINING RADIOACTIVE DISINTEGRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H.P.

    1959-07-14

    A computer is presented for determining growth and decay curves for elements in a radioactive disintegration series wherein one unstable element decays to form a second unstable element or isotope, which in turn forms a third element, etc. The growth and decay curves of radioactive elements are simulated by the charge and discharge curves of a resistance-capacitance network. Several such networks having readily adjustable values are connected in series with an amplifier between each successive pair. The time constant of each of the various networks is set proportional to the half-life of a corresponding element in the series represented and the charge and discharge curves of each of the networks simulates the element growth and decay curve.

  12. Licence template for mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, A.; Schumann, J.; Huhn, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Technical Committee ''Radiation Protection'' (Fachausschuss ''Strahlenschutz'') and the Laender Committee ''X-ray ordinance'' (Laenderausschuss ''Roentgenverordnung'') have appointed a working group for the formulation of licence templates for the nationwide use of X-ray equipment or handling of radioactive substances. To date, the following licence templates have been adopted: - Mobile operation of X-ray equipment under technical radiography to the coarse structural analysis in material testing; - Mobile operation of a handheld X-ray fluorescence system; - Mobile operation of a flash X-ray system; - Operation of an X-ray system for teleradiology The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is scheduled for publication. The licence template ''Practices in external facilities and installations'' is currently being revised. The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is used as an example to demonstrate the legal framework and the results of the working group.

  13. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, O [Central State Veterinary Institute, Prague, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1986-07-01

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation.

  14. Criteria of acceptability relating to the approval of consumer goods containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paynter, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The criteria are described which the Board intends to use when considering goods containing radioactive substances for approval under the regulations that the Government intends to make with respect to such goods. Some products are deemed unacceptable in principle because there would appear to be no justification for the use of radioactive substances in them. Examples of such products are given. Other products may be approved for supply to the public depending on the doses likely to be received by individuals, principally those who use the products. A lower dose is considered acceptable from products that do not contribute to safety than from products that do. In the interim, before the regulations are made, the criteria will be used as the basis of the Board's advice to suppliers and manufacturers of goods containing radioactive substances. (Author)

  15. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, O.

    1986-01-01

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation

  16. A kinematic model to estimate effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.

    2013-05-01

    The great earthquake occurred in the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. Facility system to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following giant tsunami. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure became a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplifying the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a sophisticated model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that ICRP method is fine, it is rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional tank model in hydrology. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of the present method is to estimate the energy radiated in the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of β decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this model are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no operational parameters or coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to ICRP. Figure shows the time-varying effective dose with ingestion duration, and we can confirm the validity of our model. The time-varying effective dose with

  17. Access device for transferring toxic or radioactive substances between a flanged flask and a containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnett, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns the transfer of toxic or radioactive substances between a containment and a flask in which such substances are transported. When toxic or radioactive substances are being transferred, it is important to ensure that such substances cannot excape into the surrounding atmosphere and, preferably, the appliance utilized has to be capable of making a misuse impossible, whether accidental or calculated. The flask to which this invention applies is of the type comprising lugs, near its open ends, which act in combination with a groove made around an access opening to hold and maintain the flask in position against the wall of the containment, so that its open end is aligned with an access opening provided in the containment wall [fr

  18. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1983-01-01

    This summary is an updated version of a previous revision of the summary of the United Kingdom's legislation on atomic energy and reviews the main texts in that field. Reference is made to the regulations on atomic energy, nuclear installations, radioactive substances, transport of such substances, radiation protection etc. The Energy Act 1983 amends the third party liability provisions of the nuclear installations Act 1965 in particular by raising the limits of compensation for nuclear damage. (NEA) [fr

  19. The Medicines (Radioactive Substances) Order 1978 (S.I. no.1004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order extends the application of specified provisions of the Medicines Act 1968 to certain articles and substances that are, contain or generate radioactive substances. These provisions include section 60 of that Act which enables regulations to be made prohibiting the sale, supply or administration of medicinal products specified in the regulations except by practitioners holding a certificate issued for the purposes of section 60. The Order also modifies the definition of 'administer' for the purposes of the Order [fr

  20. Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average age of first use was 12.6 ± 5.9 years. The prevalence of lifetime and current use of any substance was 88.0% and 64.3% respectively. Prior arrest, being sexually active and family drug use significantly (p<0.05) predicted lifetime use of any substance while being raised in a monogamous family was protective.

  1. Releases of radioactive substances from Swedish nuclear power plants (RAKU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Bergstroem, C. [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Releases of radioactivity to air and water from Swedish nuclear power plants have been studied and compared with those from foreign reactors. Averaged over the years from commissioning of the reactors to the last year data are available, the release of radioactive noble gas from the Swedish BWRs has been about the same as from comparable foreign reactors. The oldest Swedish BWRs, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 (O1 and O2) and Ringhals 1 (R1), have simple off-gas systems with only one delay volume. All BWRs in US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland are equipped with more sophisticated off-gas systems. It can be expected that O1, O2 and R1 therefore will have the highest release of noble gas activity at an international comparison if they do not modernize their off-gas system. BWRs in US, Germany and Japan are today equipped with recombiners and with one exception also charcoal columns. Japanese BWRs report zero releases to air. Releases of radioactivity to water after commissioning was about the same for most of the studied reactors. Some of the newest German plants have had low annual releases already at commissioning. Improvements of the treatment systems at old German, Swiss and US reactors have significantly lowered the releases. For most of the Swedish plants the annual releases to water have remained at the initial level. Forsmark 3 has succeeded in decreasing the release of radionuclides to water by a factor of almost one hundred compared to other Swedish reactors. Also O3 has managed to decrease the liquid effluents. Japanese plants have zero release of radioactivity excluding tritium to water. The release of tritium is about the same for all reactors of the same type in the world. 35 refs, 31 figs, 24 tabs.

  2. Study on hazardous substances contained in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Ryoichiro; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary that the technical criteria is established concerning waste package for disposal of the TRU waste generated in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. And it is important to consider the criteria not only in terms of radioactivity but also in terms of chemical hazard and criticality. Therefore the environmental impact of hazardous materials and possibility of criticality were investigated to decide on technical specification of radioactive waste packages. The contents and results are as following. (1) Concerning hazardous materials included in TRU waste, regulations on disposal of industrial wastes and on environmental preservation were investigated. (2) The assessment methods for environmental impact of hazardous materials included in radioactive waste in U.K, U.S.A. and France were investigated. (3) The parameters for mass transport assessment about migration of hazardous materials in waste packages around disposal facilities were compiled. And the upper limits of amounts of hazardous materials in waste packages to satisfy the environmental standard were calculated with mass transport assessment for some disposal concepts. (4) It was suggested from criticality analysis for waste packages in disposal facility that the occurrence of criticality was almost impossible under the realistic conditions. (author)

  3. Factories Act 1961, Ionizing Radiations (Unsealed Radioactive Substances) Regulations 1968, Certificate of Approval No.1 (General)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Under the Ionising Radiations (Unsealed Radioactive Substances) Regulations No. 780 of 1968, the Chief Inspector of Factories has wide powers to ensure the protection of workers. By this Certificate he approved, for the purpose of measuring radiation doses, any radiation dosemeter, based on the phenomenon of radiation-induced thermoluminescence, supplied by an approved laboratory. (NEA) [fr

  4. Radioactive Substances and Irradiating Apparatus Regulations 1962-1979 (South Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These regulations are a consolidation of regulations made under the Health Act 1935-1978, which cover such topics as licensing, registration and record-keeping procedures, prevention of injury by radiation and methods of storage, labelling, transport and packaging of radioactive substances. (NEA) [fr

  5. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  6. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1981-04-01

    A summary is given of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances revised as at 31 March 1981 under the following headings: (1) The common law. (2) The legislation. (3) Regulations under the factories act 1961. (4) Regulations relating to educational establishments. (5) Regulations and orders relating to food and medicines. (6) Regulations, rules, etc. affecting the transport of radioactive materials. (7) Regulations under the social security act 1975. (8) Control of import and export. (9) The Euratom treaty. (10) Important nonstatutory codes of practice, etc.. (11) International conventions, regulations, etc. relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances, in which the United Kingdom is interested. (12) Foreign legislation. (U.K.)

  7. A method for purifying air containing radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the extraction of radioactive isotopes from air. It refers to a method for withdrawing the radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon from air, said method of the type comprising filtrating the air contaminated by the radon daughter products in a filter wetted with water in order to trap said substances in water. It is characterized in that it comprises the steps of causing the water contaminated by the radon daughter products to flow through a filtrating substance containing a non hydrosoluble granular substrate, the outer surface of which has been dried then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning the thus filtrated water so that it wets again the air filter and entraps further radon daughter products. This can be applied to the purification of the air in uranium mines [fr

  8. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of the Enforcement Regulation for the Law on Aviation. Terms are explained, such as exclusive loading and containers. Spontaneously ignitable liquid radioactive materials and the radioactive substances required to be contained in special vessels and others particularly operated during the transport, are excluded from the radioactive materials permissible for transport. The radioactive substances required to be transported as radioactive loadings don't include empty vessels used to contain radioactive materials and other things contaminated by such materials, when they conform to the prescriptions. The technical standards on radioactive loadings are defined, such as maximum radiation dose rate of 0.5 millirem per hour on the surface of L type loadings, 200 millirem per hour for A, and 1000 millirem per hour at the distance of 1 m for BM and BU types, respectively. Confirmation of the safeness of radioactive loadings may be made through the written documents prepared by the competent persons acknowledged by the Minister of Transport. The requisite of fissile loadings is that such loadings shall not reach critical state during the transport in the specified cases. Radioactive loadings or the containers with such loadings shall be loaded so that the safeness of such loadings is not injured by movement, overturn and fall during the transport. The maximum radiation dose rate of the containers with radioactive loadings shall not be more than 200 millirem per hour on the surface. The written documents describing the handling method and other matters for attention and the measures to be taken on accidents shall be carried with for the transport of radioactive loadings. (Okada, K.)

  9. HMIP monitoring programme: radioactive substances report for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Discharges of radioactive wastes to the environment can only be made under authorisation from government bodies. The main potential sources of environmental contamination in England are nuclear sites (power stations, fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants), some industrial premises such as metal smelters, and landfill sites. As well as the environmental monitoring programmes undertaken by the operators of such sites various government bodies also undertake monitoring. In January 1988 Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) initiated a programme to monitor exposure of the public from non-food pathways such as could occur from occupation of beaches, river banks etc. Radiation levels and radiochemical and gamma spectra of samples collected at specified locations near nuclear sites and industrial premises have been monitored every quarter since then. The results for 1990 are presented and discussed. (UK)

  10. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances as at March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1979-01-01

    This summary is intended to be a 'signpost' to the relevant law in the United Kingdom, but does not cover any aspect in detail. It falls under the following headings: common law; legislation (Atomic Energy Act 1946 and subordinate legislation; Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and subordinate legislation; Radioactive Substances Act 1960; Electricity (Amendment) Act 1961; Nuclear Installations Acts 1965 and 1969 and subordinate legislation; the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry Order 1970; Radiological Protection Act 1970 as amended by the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974; Air Navigation (Restriction of Flying)(Atomic Energy Establishments) Regulations 1976; Nuclear Safeguards and Electricity (Finance) Act 1978; legislation relating to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority); regulations under the Factories Act 1961; regulations relating to educational establishments; regulations and orders relating to food and medicines; regulations, rules etc. affecting the transport of radioactive materials; regulations under the Social Security Act 1975; control of import and export; the Euratom Treaty; important non-statutory codes of practice etc.; international conventions, regulations etc. relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances, in which the United Kingdom is interested; foreign legislation. (U.K.)

  11. Proposals for the Radioactive Substances (Basic Safety Standards) (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 and the Radioactive Substances (Basic Safety Standards) (England and Wales) Direction 2000. Consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains proposals for changes to the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (RSA 93) and proposals for a Direction to be given to the Environment Agency in order to implement aspects of the European Directive 96/29/Euratom concerned with the control of radioactive waste. The Directive lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation. With the Government pledged to making government more accessible and responsive, an important feature of this approach is effective consultation with all interested organisations. This leads to more realistic and robust proposals, which is particularly important when dealing with proposed legislation. In March this year, the Government published a consultation paper 'The Radioactive Substances Act 1993: Implementing the Revised Basic Safety Standards Directive Euratom 96/29.' This sought comments on the basic principles for change - including the setting of levels of radioactivity below which radioactive material should be considered outside the framework of regulatory control. This document forms the second stage of the consultation process with the aim of gathering views on the proposed legal instruments to implement the Directive. This document: explains the background to the proposed regulations (paragraphs 8-13); summarises the results of the consultation on principles (paragraphs 14-24); describes the proposed changes (paragraphs 25-36); includes draft Regulations (paragraphs 27-29); includes a draft Direction to the Environment Agency (paragraphs 30-36); describes the next steps (paragraphs 37-39); includes a draft Regulatory Impact Assessment (paragraphs 40-41). In general, the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have assumed responsibility for environmental issues and hence management of radioactive waste policies and legislation affecting their respective countries. However, this

  12. Modelling of Transport of Radioactive Substances in the Primary Circuit of Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    coordinated research project (CRP) was proposed to determine the accuracy of existing computer codes and to identify how they could be improved through application of this body of work. Specifically, the CRP was expected to: - Build a database for selected pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants that would contain the design information suitable for their description within a computer code, as well as give the operating history of the plant, which would include the water chemistry data over several refuelling cycles; - Show the contamination of selected out-of-core surfaces such as circulating loops and steam generator channel heads versus operating history and compare the prediction of surface contamination versus time from modern radioactivity transport codes with actual plant data in a blind benchmarking exercise; - Determine how current codes, as well as new ones, could be improved and encourage the development of accurate new codes in Member States using the recommendations from the present work. This report uses as its basis the results of this CRP on 'Modelling of Transport of Radioactive Substances in the Primary Circuit of Water Cooled Reactors', which was conducted over the period 1996-2001 for PWR type reactors. The report also describes the significant progress demonstrated in this field in the period that followed.

  13. Sim and Ritchie's summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazebrook, D.; Turner, M.

    1984-12-01

    The law is summarised under the headings: the Common Law; the Legislation; Regulations under the Factories Act 1961; Regulations relating to educational establishments; Regulations and Orders relating to food and medicines; Regulations, Rules, etc. affecting the transport of radioactive materials; Regulations under the Social Security Act 1975; control of import and export; the Euratom Treaty; important non-statutory Codes of Practice, etc.; international Conventions, Regulations, etc. relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances, in which the United Kingdom is interested; foreign legislation. (U.K.)

  14. Management of sites potentially polluted by radioactive substances - Methodological guidebook; Gestion des sites potentiellement pollues par des substances radioactives - Guide methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    This document is the update of the 'methodological guidelines for the management of industrial areas potentially contaminated by radioactive substances', published in 2001 by IRSN. Revisions intended to bring coherence between management of areas polluted by radioactive substances and the general policy applied to polluted sites described in a document published in Feb. 2007 by the French Ministry in charge of Environment. Requirements introduced both by the law relative to waste management of June 28, 2006 and the ministerial order of 17 November 2008 were introduced. The involvement of all stakeholders during the process was stressed. The updating mainly lead to introduce a clear distinction between polluted areas where uses are established and those without use or at redevelopment stage. When the uses are established, an 'Interpretation of the condition of environment' is conducted. Alternatively, the remediation process follows a 'management plan'. The revision also led to the disappearance of the 'doubt removal' phase which has been incorporated as an entire part in the site characterisation. Among other significant changes, it may be noted the evolution of the 'risk assessment' tools from simplified risk assessment and detailed risk assessment to a single tool allowing the quantitative assessment of exposure (EQER). Finally, the guidelines highlight stakeholder involvement in identifying the different participants and in reminding the benefits of a consultative approach. Whatever the remediation process: interpretation of the condition of environment or management plan; site characterisation is required as soon as a pollution is suspected. It includes literature reviews and field investigations primarily to confirm or deny the presence of pollution and, where appropriate, to determine its location, nature and level. The effort accorded to site characterisation must be proportionate to identified issues. The

  15. Determination of beta and gamma radioactivity on the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhardi; Mulyono; Sutanto WW; Rosidi

    2013-01-01

    Radioactivity in coal, botton ash and fly ash. This determination was carried out to know each the radioactivity of β gross, γ gross on the coal, botton ash and fly ash, which accommodation of environment data the present in PLTU Paiton Probolinggo. Samples taken preparation and analysis based on the procedures of environmental radioactivity analysis. The radioactivity on the PLTU Paiton Probolinggo detected by beta gross Spectrometer with Geiger Muller (GM) and gamma Spectrometer with Ge(Li) detector. The result indicates that radioactivity concentration of beta and gamma gross are (95,57-308,26) Bq/kg and (1,374 - 31,677) Bq/kg respectively. (author)

  16. Method and apparatus for the purification of a liquid contaminated with radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, H.

    1976-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for the purification of a liquid contaminated with radioactive substances is described, wherein the liquid is infed to an evaporator in or with which there is connected a column having a multiplicity of superposed plates or floors. The vapor generated in the evaporator is guided through a washing or scrubbing liquid uniformly distributed at the floors and flowing in crosswise counterflow with regard to the vapor. The washing liquid at the floors is deflected a number of times in such a manner that the washing liquid itself together with the droplets entrained by the vapor are uniformly admixed and the washing liquid subjected to a constant intake of the radioactive substance

  17. Inconsistency... or why differentiate, where prevention is concerned, between radioactive substances and carcinogenic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquet, R.; Vinit, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracers, low-activity unsealed radioactive sources, and certain chemical products belong to the list of substances and agents known to promote cancers in humans. The dangers of radiotracers and carcinogenic chemicals being very similar, or even identical, it is inadmissible that preventive measures have not been equally developed and are not viewed in the same way in our country. It should be noted that the International Labour Bureau has long since included radioactive products in the list of carcinogenic substances and agents and treated preventive measures as a whole by proceeding in this way it would be easier to account for the possible combined effects of ionising radiations and chemical molecules. After a review of some facts about cancer the present situation is examined with regard to statutory measures applied on the one hand to radioelements and on the other to chemicals recognised as carcinogenic by international organisations. Proposals are made to remedy this illogical situation [fr

  18. Criteria relating to the approval of consumer goods containing radioactive substances: a consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board currently provides manufacturers and suppliers of consumer goods containing radioactive substances with advice on the acceptability of their products. Examples of such goods available to the public include radioluminous devices such as clocks, watches and compasses, products containing gaseous tritium light sources, ionisation chamber smoke detectors and thorium gas mantles. In the present document, detailed proposals are put forward for criteria which the Board may use when considering applications for the approval of goods containing radioactive substances to ensure that they are safe. The proposals relate to the radiation doses to consumers and others who may be exposed as a consequence of their activities, and also consider the benefits to consumers. They are concerned with doses arising during normal use, through accidents and misuse, and as a consequence of uncontrolled disposal. (U.K.)

  19. Determination of environmental radioactivity for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakoaka, A.; Fukushima, M.; Takagi, S.

    1980-01-01

    A method was devised to determine detection limits for radioactivity in environmental samples. The method is based on the 5 mrem/yr whole-body dose objective established by the Japan Atomic Enerty Commission and is valid for assessing the internal dose from radionuclides in the environment around a nuclear facility. Eleven samples and 15 radionuclides were considered. Internal dose was assumed to be one-half of the total dose (5 mrem/yr) and was assessed using the critical pathway method. Needed detection limits (NDLs) were established to confirm the dose of 5 mrem/yr when there was more than one radionuclide per sample. The NDLs for γ-emitters were 10 -5 pCi/l. for air; 10 -3 pCi/l. for seawater; 10 -1 pCi/l. for drinking water; 10 0 pCi/kg for vegetables and fish; 10 0 pCi/l. for milk; and 10 1 pCi/kg for molluscs, crustaceans, seaweeds, soil and submarine sediments. The NDLs for β-emitters were 1-1/100 of those for γ-emitters. (author)

  20. An interpretation of schedule 1 of the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.; Wakerley, M.W.

    2000-09-01

    Schedule 1 of the UK's Radioactive Substances Act 1993 was originally Schedule 3 of the 1960 Act of the same name. It is possible that different methods are currently being employed to interpret how Schedule 1 should be used. This report provides an interpretation and guidance on this and related issues. It is primarily for technical specialists already familiar with the workings of the Act. This report covers the period 1999/2000

  1. Method to decontaminate radioactive water in the presence of impurity substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H; Hepp, H; Kluger, W; Geisel, R

    1978-08-24

    The method ensures the removal of radioactive substances from hard-to-decontaminate water. Before decontamination proper, ozone or chlorine is added to the water for demasking. The daughter products (oxidized radionuclides) of ozone are gaseous while the decay products of the chlorine remain in the water in the form of salts. In both cases, complex or chelate formation during the subsequent decontamination process is avoided.

  2. Method to decontaminate radioactive water in the presence of impurity substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, H.; Hepp, H.; Kluger, W.; Geisel, R.

    1978-01-01

    The method ensures the removal of radioactive substances from hard-to-decontaminate water. Before decontamination proper, ozone or chlorine is added to the water for demasking. The daughter products (oxidized radionuclides) of ozone are gaseous while the decay products of the chlorine remain in the water in the form of salts. In both cases, complex or chelate formation during the subsequent decontamination process is avoided. (DG) [de

  3. Nuclear power plant providing a function of suppressing the deposition of radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Kawakami, T.; Izumiya, M.; Minato, A.; Ohsumi, K.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant having a cooling system and radioactive coolant in the cooling system, the cooling system is described including ferrous structural material in contact with the radioactive coolant, wherein the ferrous structural material has a preliminary oxide film formed thereon, by oxidation of the bare surface portion thereof, by contacting bare surfaces of the structural material with flowing water containing an oxidizing agent and no metallic ions. The preliminary oxide film is formed at those portions of the ferrous structural material to be in contact with the radioactive coolant. The preliminary oxide film is formed prior to the structural material contacting the radioactive coolant. The preliminary oxide film consists essentially of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and having a thickness of at least 300 A, whereby later formation of new oxide film while the structural material is in contact with the radioactive coolant is suppressed to thereby suppress deposition of the radioactive substances on the ferrous structural material

  4. Environmental safety of the disposal system for radioactive substance-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the full-scale enforcement of 'The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution' in 2012, the collective efforts of entire Japan for dealing with radioactive pollutants began. The most important item for dealing with radioactive pollution is to control radioactive substances that polluted the global environment and establish a contaminated waste treatment system for risk reduction. On the incineration system and landfill disposal system of radioactive waste, this paper arranges the scientific information up to now, and discusses the safety of the treatment / disposal systems of contaminated waste. As for 'The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution,' this paper discusses the points of the Act and basic policy, roadmap for the installation of interim storage facilities, and enforcement regulations (Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment). About the safety of waste treatment system, it discusses the safety level of technical standards at waste treatment facilities, safety of incineration facilities, and safety of landfill disposal sites. (O.A.)

  5. National plan for achieving the objectives of the OSPAR strategy with regard to radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This report describes the Swedish plans for implementation of the OSPAR strategy with regard to radioactive substances. Revised release regulations for nuclear facilities are the primary tool in the work for achieving the objectives of the OSPAR strategy. The limitation of releases of radioactive substances shall be based on optimisation of radiation protection (ALARA) and the use of best available technique (BAT). Technical improvements to reduce discharges from the nuclear facilities include changes of daily routines in the waste management. Plans for the future include the introduction of new purification techniques and modernisation of waste facilities. The implementation of the new regulations, and in particular the introduction of BAT in terms of reference and target values for nuclear power reactors indicates the foreseen reductions of releases for the forthcoming five years. After that time, new reference and target values will be established. The regulations stipulate that monitoring of releases of radioactive substances shall be reported to the authorities. These reports will fulfil the demand for following-up of the progress of implementing the strategy. In particular, in yearly reports the progress towards reaching the target values will be monitored

  6. Determination of Tc-99 in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera S, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tc-99 is a fission product and one of the most important radionuclides from the view point of safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste because of its long half-life (2.1 x 10 5 years) and high mobility in soil-water systems, if this is released into the environment in significant quantities can concentrate on plants and animals. Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 292 KeV, so their quantification imposes destructive methods to be analyzed by liquid scintillation. Therefore the quantification of Tc-99 in ion exchange resins requires of the mineralization of these and separation of Tc-99 of other radioisotopes present in the resin. Therefore the object of this thesis is to develop a quantification method of Tc-99 content in spent exchange resins. So in order to track the behavior of technetium during digestion exchange resins and radiochemical separation, given its high volatility, in this work the 99m Tc is used. To determine the degree of mineralization of the resins, an analysis was performed by chromatography. Subsequently the method used to determine the percentage of 99m Tc aerosolized during mineralization of resin is described. After the method for the radiochemical separation of 99m Tc is presented by liquid-liquid extraction using crown ether as extractant; for this testing was performed by varying the molarity of the extractant, the ratio of solvent extractant, type of digestion of the resin and the presence of Sr-85, in order to study the behavior of 99m Tc in the presence of this radioisotope. Finally, a track beta spectra of a sample of 99m Tc eluted from a generator 99 Mo/ 99m Tc function of time was performed. (Author)

  7. Remediation of sites with mixed contamination of radioactive and other hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the management of the legacies of past practices and accidents. In response to this, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation. Mixed radioactive and hazardous substances contamination poses a particular challenge because of the combination of types of hazards and potential exposures. While radionuclides and toxic (heavy) metals pose similar and mostly compatible challenges, organic contaminants often require different approaches that may not be compatible with the former. Additional complexity is introduced into the problem by a different and sometimes conflicting regulatory framework for radiological and non-radiological contamination, including the prescribed waste management routes. In consideration of the added complexities of remediating (mixed) contamination, the IAEA has determined that this subject sufficiently warrants the development of a specialized report for assisting Member States. Topics discussed are types of sites, hazards and contaminant behaviour; regulatory implications; implications for worker health and safety; implications for sampling and analysis; elements of the remediation process; technology evaluation and selection; monitored non-intervention; blocking of pathways; removal of the source term; ex-situ treatment followed by case studies and a glossary

  8. Determination of the radioactive concentration of 137Cs in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The recently accepted standard method to determine the radioactive concentration of 137 Cs in water is based on the selective retention of cesium ions on ammonium-phosphorous-molybdate followed by the dissolution of the sorbent and the selective precipitation of cesium-hexa-chloro-platinate. The radioactive concentration is determined by the measurement of β disintegration rate of the preparate. (V.N.)

  9. Study of casks shielded with heavy metal to transport highly radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchesi, R.F.; Hara, D.H.S.; Martinez, L.G.; Mucsi, C.S.; Rossi, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, Brazil relies on casks produced abroad for transportation in its territory of substances that are sources of high radioactivity, especially the Mo-99. The product of the radioactive decay of the Mo-99 is the Tc-99m, which is used in nuclear medicine for administration to humans in the form of injectable radioactive drugs for the image diagnosis of numerous pathologies. This paper aims to study the existing casks in order to propose materials for the construction of the core part as shielding against gamma radiation. To this purpose, the existing literature on the subject was studied, as well as evaluation of existing and available casks. The study was focused on the core of which is made of heavy metals, especially depleted uranium for shielding the emitted radiation. (author)

  10. The Application and Regulation of Non-Medical radioactive Substances in Taiwan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chihchien; Chou, Keiden; Wang, Songfeng

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Atomic Energy Law of Taiwan and regulations regarding radiation protection, an operating system has been established for the approval and regulation of import (production), installation, licensing, safety inspection, record keeping, storage, transfer, transportation and abandonment of nonmedical radioactive materials and equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation. In order to ensure that all equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation can meet the respective standard of radiation protection in accordance with the ALARA principle, nonmedical equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation is divided into six categories depending on its inherent shielding ability, operation limit, characteristics of the radiation and the required degree of surveillance for achieving the purpose of radiation protection. The six categories are: 1. Protective equipment, 2. Immobile closed equipment, 3. Automatic operating equipment, 4. Mobile equipment, 5. Unsealed radioactive substances, 6. Consumer products and other radioactive sources with different properties. Each category has its specific requirements in radiation protection. (author)

  11. Analysis gives the penal treatment in Cuba to the tied infractions to the use and conservation gives radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Gonzalez, F.; Perez Velazquez, R.S.; Fornet, R.O.; Reyes Fajardo, E.

    1998-01-01

    The work refers the realized analysis to the Law 62 the Cuban penal code that with establishing to the treatment of the infractions referred standard's to the uses and conservation the radioactive substances and other ionizing radiations sources

  12. Best Available Technique (BAT) as an Instrument for the Limitation of Radioactive Substances from Nuclear Power Reactors in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.; Sundell-Bergman, S.; Sandwall, J.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, the concept of ALARA has been the basis for limitation and optimisation of releases of radioactive substances from nuclear power reactors in order to protect human health. In recent years, it has been discussed whether the ALARA principle can be applied also to protect the environment. For the protection of the environment, in particular for non-nuclear pollutants, the precautionary principle and the concept of Best Available Technique (BAT) have been applied. New Swedish regulations concerning the protection of human health and the environment from radioactive discharges from certain nuclear installations entered into force January 1st, 2002. The prime purpose of the regulations is to limit the radioactive releases. This limitation shall be based on the optimisation of radiation protection and shall be achieved by using BAT. In order to show compliance with the regulation and BAT, the concepts of reference values and target values have been introduced for nuclear power reactors. The reference value should be the release that is representative for optimum use and full functioning of systems of importance to the occurrence and limitation of radioactive releases from nuclear power reactors. The target value should show the level to which radioactive releases from nuclear power reactors can be reduced during a certain given period of time. Reference and target values have been determined for each nuclear power reactor in Sweden. Each year, the reactor licensees shall report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) the measures that have been adopted or that are planned to be adopted to limit radioactive releases with the aim of achieving the target values. The first report has been submitted to the SSI in 2003. (Author) 8 refs

  13. Experiences from the exercise ''MERLIN'' for the detection of radioactive substances with the participation of special-purpose vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesbach, M.

    2009-01-01

    Experiences of an exercise with hazardous goods, in particular with radioactive substances (measurements and taking environmental samples) are described. Several special-purpose vehicles with equipment and specially trained crews were used together with radiation protection experts according to the concept of Hesse. It has been the greatest exercise in Hesse with regard to hazardous goods and in particular with regard to ''incidents with radioactive substances''. (orig.)

  14. An Act to regulate the keeping and use of radioactive substances, irradiating apparatus and certain electronic products, and for matters incidental thereto (No. 440 of 1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Radiation Safety Act 1975 which applies to radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus is a framework Act governing activities involving their possession and applications including their disposal. It makes provision for the duties and powers of the authorities responsible for administering the Act (the Radiological Council), licensing requirements and exemptions therefrom, registration of such substances and apparatus, inspection procedures and liability under the Act. The Radioactive Substances Act 1954, the Radioactive Substances Act Amendment Acts 1960 and 1964 are repealed. (NEA) [fr

  15. Method of determining paper-deposited materials, eg. lead, by their reaction with radioactive krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Pruzinec, J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention claims a method of determining substances on a paper carrier based on the substance reaction with 85 Kr gas and the measurement of radioactivity of the kryptonate formed. Lead is shown as an example. Different amounts of lead acetate were deposited on Whatman 2 chromatographic paper as was an unknown sample of Pb salt. The paper was exposed to a 2.5 mCi 85 Kr atmosphere for 48 hours. The activity of the individual spots was then measured, a calibration curve established and the amount of lead in the analyzed sample read-out. (Ha)

  16. New method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, Nathan; Fries, J.E.; Richards, C.S.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12 in a sample solution of serum in which a radioactive tracer of vitamin B12 and the vitamin B12 of the serum compete with respect to an intrinsic factor of limited linking capacity. The free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free vitamin B12 of the serum are separated from the intrinsic factor and from the radioactive vitamin B12 and from the serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, before the radioactivity is measured against standard values. The method consists in separating the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12 of the intrinsic factor and portions of radioactive and serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, by adding an adequate quantity of bentonite to adsorb the free radioactive vitamin B12 and free serum vitamin B12 so that the intrinsic factor surface floating solution in association with the linked radioactive vitamin B12 and the linked serum vitamin B12 may be physically isolated from the solid bentonite that has adsorbed the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12 [fr

  17. Age-dependent dose factors and dose limits of annual radioactivity uptake with unsealed radioactive substances by occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.; Nosske, D; Elsasser, U; Roedler, H.D.; Henrichs, K.

    1986-01-01

    The dose factors have been calculated on the basis of the ICRP models for dosimetric and metabolistic assessment, and are laid open in accordance with Annex XI ( to sec. 45 sub-section (2)) of the amended version of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The contribution in hand explains the scientific fundamentals and results of the calculations of dose factors relating to inhalation and ingestion of unsealed radioactive substances by adult reference man, and age-dependent factors calculated for children and adolescents. Further, annual limits of uptake by occupationally exposed persons, as calculated on the basis of primary dose limits pursunant to the draft amendment presented by the Federal Interior Minister, are compared with relevant data given by the ICRP and EC institutions. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Method for the radioactive determination of the foliates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the radioactive determination of the foliates, in which a determination is made of the uptake on a protein fraction of the milk taking up the foliates by competition between the foliate(s) to be determined and a folic acid by-product labelled with a radioactive isotope. The characteristics of this method is that it consists in using tyramide of iodinated folic acid 125 [fr

  19. Method of treating the waste liquid of a washing containing a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaguchi, Yusuke; Tsuyuki, Takashi; Kaneko, Masato; Sato, Yasuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To separate waste liquid resulting from washing and which contains a radioactive substance and surface active agent into high purity water and a solid waste substance containing a small quantity of surface active agent. Structure: To waste liquid from a waste liquid tank is added a pH adjusting agent for adjusting the pH to 5.5, and the resultant liquid is sent to an agglomeration reaction tank, in which an inorganic agglomerating agent is added to the waste liquid to cause a major proportion of the radioactive substance and surface active agent to form flocks produced through agglomeration. Then, the waste liquid is sent from the agglomeration reaction tank to a froth separation tank, to which air is supplied through a perforated plate to cause frothing. The over-flowing liquid is de-frothed, and then the insoluble matter is separated as sludge, followed by hydroextraction and drying for solidification. The treated liquid extracted from a froth separation tank is sent to an agglomerating agent recovery tank for separation of the agglomeration agent, and then the residual surface active agent is removed by adsorption in an active carbon adsorption tower, followed by concentration by evaporation in an evaporating can. The concentrated liquid is extracted and then solidified with cement or asphalt. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Determination of 59Ni in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisera, O.; Sebesta, F.

    2010-01-01

    Composite material PAN-DMG, containing chelating agent dimethylglyoxime (DMG) immobilized in porous matrix of binding polymer polyacrylonitrile (PAN), was used for nickel separation and concentration. Method for preparation of 59 Ni source for low energy photon spectrometry was developed using homogeneous precipitation of nickel with DMG. The proposed method was tested with two types of real radioactive waste (boric acid concentrate from nuclear power plant (NPP) evaporator and spent ion exchanger from NPP). (author)

  1. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1983-04-01

    Intended as a signpost to the relevant law no aspect is covered in detail but a full summary is given. For further details reference has to be made to Acts or regulations themselves. The summary covers the Common Law, the laws in force, regulations under the Factories Act 1961, regulations and orders relating to food and medicines, those concerned with the transport of radioactive materials, regulations under the Social Security Act 1975, Control of Import and Export, the Euratom treaty, important non-statutory codes of practice etc., international conventions, regulations etc. relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances in which the UK is interested and finally, foreign legislation. The details have been revised as at 31 March 1983. (U.K.)

  2. Models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the Safety Commission, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calculations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the Safety Commission.

  3. Conducting the personal subsidiary plot at the territory, contaminated with radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, A.N.; Kulazhenko, V.G.; Kovalev, S.D.; Milyuta, B.I.; Basalaeva, Z.N.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident large amount of radioactive substances fell at agricultural areas and its production became the source of additional irradiation of population. One of the task is to get food with the content of radionuclides not exceeding the fixed norms. The rules of working hygiene which provide safe living of population at the territories with different level of contamination are described. Recommendations for processing the fruit and market gardens are given, suitable from the point of view of accumulation of radionuclides vegetables and fruits, kinds and sorts cultures are presented. The rules of keeping and feeding the animals, bees and fur-bearing animals are developed. The rules for primary processing of products of plant-growing and stock-breeding, which permit to decrease radioactive contamination 2-10 and more times are presented. Methods of using the products of forest - material and fuel wood, meet of wild animals, mushrooms and berries - are proposed. 5 tabs

  4. Code of Practice for the safe transport of radioactive substances 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Federal Code revises an earlier Code on the same subject issued in 1982 and was formulated under the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978. The purpose of the Code is to establish uniform safety standards, applicable throughout the Commonwealth of Australia, to provide for the protection of persons and the environment, against any dangers associated with the transport of radioactive substances. The Code uses as a basis the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. This new edition takes into account the 1985 Edition of the Regulations incorporating the 1988 Supplement and provides, furthermore, that radiation protection standards will also be subject to recommendations of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council [fr

  5. Development of Radioactive Substance Contamination Diffusion Preventive Equipment for a Hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Do Sik; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Kim, Ki Ha; Lee, Eun Pyo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ryu, Woo Seok

    2009-01-01

    The hot cell of irradiated materials examination facility (IMEF), which has been operating since 1996, is generally contaminated by the radioactive nuclides of irradiated nuclear fuels and structural steels like Cs-137, Co-60, Co-134 and Ru-106. Especially Cs-137 is a main contaminated radioactive isotope which is easily moved here and there due to air flow in the hot cell, water-soluble, extremely toxic, and has a half-life of 30.23 years. To repair or fix the abnormal function of test apparatus installed in the hot cell, the maintenance door, so called a rear door and located at an intervention area, is opened to enter the hot cell inside. In a moment of opening the maintenance door, dirty air diffusion from the hot cell to an intervention area could be occurred in spite of increasing the rpm of exhaust fan to maintain much low under pressure, but an adjacent area to a maintenance door, i.e. intervention area, is very severely contaminated due to the unpredictable air flow. In this paper, the development of the radioactive substance contamination diffusion preventive equipment for a hot cell is studied to prevent dirty and toxic gaseous radioactive nuclides diffusion from a hot cell and installed at an intervention area of IMEF

  6. Determination of Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: Determination of antinutrients and toxic substances in leafy vegetables is an imperative facet in nutritional studies as it establishes the baseline concentrations index for phytotoxins in the vegetables. Concentrations of cyanide, nitrate, soluble and total oxalates were quantitatively determined in the common ...

  7. Workshop meeting on State accounting and control system for radioactive substances and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseev, V.F.

    2012-01-01

    On 2-6 July 2012, the fifth All-Russian workshop meeting of State Accounting and Control System for Radiation Substances (RS) and Radioactive Wastes (RAW) was conducted. The objective of the workshop was to discuss development of the State Accounting and Control System for RS and RAW in the Russian Federation, current changes to legal acts and regulations that pertain to management of RS and RAW, as well as other issues related to organisation of RS and RAW management activities and promotion of international cooperation [ru

  8. Commentary on guidelines for radiation measurement and treatment of substances including naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Naoyuki; Ishiguro, Hideharu

    2007-01-01

    Study group on safety regulation on research reactors in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) reported the guidelines of 'Guidelines on radiation measurement and treatment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)' on 6 February 2006. RANDEC made the website contents 'Study on use and safety of the substances including uranium or thorium', based on the contract with MEXT to make theirs contents. This paper describes the outline of the website in MEXT homepage, background and contents of NORM guidelines in order to understand easily and visually the NORM guidelines, adding in some flowcharts and figures. (author)

  9. Determination of a radioactive waste classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.; King, W.C.

    1978-03-01

    Several classification systems for radioactive wastes are reviewed and a system is developed that provides guidance on disposition of the waste. The system has three classes: high-level waste (HLW), which requires complete isolation from the biosphere for extended time periods; low-level waste (LLW), which requires containment for shorter periods; and innocuous waste (essentially nonradioactive), which may be disposed of by conventional means. The LLW/innocuous waste interface was not defined in this study. Reasonably conservative analytical scenarios were used to calculate that HLW/LLW interface level which would ensure compliance with the radiological exposure guidelines of 0.5 rem/y maximum exposure for a few isolated individuals and 0.005 rem/y for large population groups. The recommended HLW/LLW interface level for /sup 239/Pu or mixed transuranic waste is 1.0 ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 3/ of waste. Levels for other radionuclides are based upon a risk equivalent to this level. A cost-benefit analysis in accordance with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) guidance indicates that further reduction of this HLW/LLL interface level would entail marginal costs greater than $10/sup 8/ per man-rem of dose avoided. The environmental effects considered were limited to those involving human exposure to radioactivity.

  10. Determination of a radioactive waste classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; King, W.C.

    1978-03-01

    Several classification systems for radioactive wastes are reviewed and a system is developed that provides guidance on disposition of the waste. The system has three classes: high-level waste (HLW), which requires complete isolation from the biosphere for extended time periods; low-level waste (LLW), which requires containment for shorter periods; and innocuous waste (essentially nonradioactive), which may be disposed of by conventional means. The LLW/innocuous waste interface was not defined in this study. Reasonably conservative analytical scenarios were used to calculate that HLW/LLW interface level which would ensure compliance with the radiological exposure guidelines of 0.5 rem/y maximum exposure for a few isolated individuals and 0.005 rem/y for large population groups. The recommended HLW/LLW interface level for 239 Pu or mixed transuranic waste is 1.0 μCi/cm 3 of waste. Levels for other radionuclides are based upon a risk equivalent to this level. A cost-benefit analysis in accordance with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) guidance indicates that further reduction of this HLW/LLL interface level would entail marginal costs greater than $10 8 per man-rem of dose avoided. The environmental effects considered were limited to those involving human exposure to radioactivity

  11. Labelled radioactive adenosinphosphates for the determination of toxic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahbaz, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Normal house-flies had been fed with carrier free radiophosphate (phosphorus). Many phosphorous containing substances in the tissue of the housefly are labelled with radiophosphorus by this procedure. Radiophosphorus is also found in the nucleotides of the housefly after applying radioactive phosphate. Suitable methods for processing and separation had been selected and worked out to isolate 32 P-adenosin-triphosphate 32 P-adenosin-diphosphate, 32 P-adenosin-monophosphate and 32 P-phosphate. Working at low temperature prevents chemical changes of the nucleotides. Extraction and thin layer chromatorgraphy turned out to be effective separation procedures for preparing samples for radioactivity measurement of the nucleotides. Autoradiographic techniques, scanning and liquid scitillation counting had been used for radioactivity measurements of the radioactive zones at the chromatograms. The results of these measurements provide information concerning the normal composition of adenosin-phosphates in the tissues of the housefly. If the animals are exposed to toxic chemicals, to insecticides, the composition of the phosphate containing compounds is changing. The concentration of adenosin-triphosphate is decreasing and the concentration of phosphate is increasing. This can be very easily shown by scanning the chromatograms of the extracts of the muscles of houseflies after feeding the animals with radioactive phosphate. Using this method, it is possible to show the toxic action of insecticides upon the metabolism of adenosin-phosphates. The decrease of the radioactivity at the zone of the adenosin-triphosphate and the increase of the radioactivity at the phosphate zone corresponds to the toxic action of foreign chemicals like insecticides. By using this tracer technique, it may be possible to investigate the toxic action of several toxic chemicals, if they are applied at the same time, thus investigating synergetic actions of environmental poisons. (Author)

  12. Regulatory requirements for the use of consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.; Paynter, R.A.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Sztanyik, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    In almost 100 years since the discovery of radioactivity, the properties of radioactive materials have been exploited in products such as clocks and watches incorporating luminous paint which are freely available to members of the public. Over time, regulatory authorities have felt it necessary to apply some degree of control to the supply and use of such products in order to protect public health. In many areas of radiation protection, national authorities take note of international recommendations when developing national standards, but the existing detailed guidance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for consumer products is incomplete and out of date. Recently, a thorough revision of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) has occurred, which has prompted a review and revision of the related guidance published by the IAEA. A draft Guide on Regulatory Requirements for the Use of Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Substances has now been completed and is currently under review within the IAEA's system for development of documents in its Safety Series of publications. (author)

  13. Determination of microscopic interactions between actinides and humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Large amount of plutonium has been introduced into the environment as a result of nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear power-plant accidents. Contaminated areas, which need a particular survey, have become a very interesting place to study and understand the plutonium behaviour in the environment. Until few years ago, it was admitted that plutonium introduced into subsurface environment is relatively immobile, owing to its low solubility in ground water and strong sorption onto rocks. However, studies of contaminated areas show that humic substances, which are ubiquitous in environment, can alter the speciation of metal ion, e.g. plutonium, and thus their migration. These humic substances are major components of the natural organic matter in soil and water as well as in geological organic deposits such as lake sediments, peats and brown coals. They are complex heterogeneous mixtures of polydisperse supra-molecules formed by biochemical and chemical reactions during the decay and transformation of plant and microbial remains. The knowledge of the impact of humic substances on the plutonium migration is required to assess their transport in natural systems. However, due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of humic substances, there are a lot of difficulties in the description of microscopic interactions. The aim of this PhD thesis is to evaluate as precisely as possible interactions between actinides and humic substances. This work is divided in two parts: on the one hand humic substances will be separated to identify each component, on the other hand the speciation of actinides with characterized humic substances will be studied. In the first part of this study, new methods are developed to study the speciation of actinides with humic substances using two kinds of mass spectrometers: an ICP-MS and a high resolution mass spectrometer using various ionization devices (ESI, APCI, DART, APPI) in order to determine all active molecules for the complexation. In the

  14. Deposition of high-level radioactive waste products in bore-holes with buffer substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, A.; Pusch, R.

    1977-05-01

    The present investigation comprised a compilation of available literature data concerning the possible use of clayey masses as buffer substances in bore-holes (in rock) with canisters containing radioactive waste products. The aim was to find a suitable composition of the buffer mass and to recommend a suitable storing technique. The criteria concerning the function of the buffer substance were: Sufficient mechanical supporting power, suitable mechanical properties, prevention of free circulation of ground water, ion-adsorption ability, sufficiently good heat conduction properties. These criteria suggest that a buffer substance containing Na-montmorillonite would be suitable. Literature studies and own experience show that montmorillonite is permanently stable at 100 degrees C temperature and 5 MPa pressure when pH is within the range of 6.5-10 while quartz is stable at pH <9. The authors conclude that the suggested principle of storing the canisters in sealed bore-holes filled with a 10 percent bentonite/90 percent quartz (silt, sand) mass is suitable provided that the tunnel system, from which the holes are bored, is sealed with a dense buffer mass consisting of quartz (silt, sand) and 20-50 percent bentonite powder. (author)

  15. The Belgian approach and status on the radiological surveillance of radioactive substances in metal scrap and non-radioactive waste and the financing of orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Preter, Peter De; Michiels, Jan; Pepin, Stephane; Schrauben, Manfred; Wertelaers, An

    2007-01-01

    Numerous facilities in the non-nuclear sector in Belgium (e.g. in the non-radioactive waste processing and management sector and in the metal recycling sector) have been equipped with measuring ports for detecting radioactive substances. These measuring ports prevent radioactive sources or radioactive contamination from ending up in the material fluxes treated by the sectors concerned. They thus play an important part in the protection of the workers and the people living in the neighbourhood of the facilities, as well as in the protection of the population and the environment in general. In 2006, Belgium's federal nuclear control agency (FANC/AFCN) drew up guidelines for the operators of non-nuclear facilities with a measuring port for detecting radioactive substances. These guidelines describe the steps to be followed by the operators when the port's alarm goes off. Following the publication of the European guideline 2003/122/EURATOM of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, a procedure has been drawn up by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, to identify the responsible to cover the costs relating to the further management of detected sealed sources and if not found to declare the sealed source as an orphan source. In this latter case and from mid-2006 the insolvency fund managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS covers the cost of radioactive waste management. At the request of the Belgian government, a financing proposal for the management of unsealed orphan sources as radioactive waste was also established by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS. This proposal applies the same approach as for sealed sources and thus the financing of unsealed orphan sources will also be covered by the insolvency fund. (authors)

  16. Small WEEE: determining recyclables and hazardous substances in plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakakis, Emmanouil; Janz, Alexander; Bilitewski, Bernd; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-01-30

    An examination regarding the determination of recyclables and hazardous substances in small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) found in the residual household waste stream of the city of Dresden, Germany, is described. Firstly, attitudes towards the disposal of small WEEE in the latter are assessed, and product types and categories which mostly contribute to its composition are identified. Physical parameters which could be used as mechanical sorting criteria are measured, and the material composition of the small WEEE found is determined. The hazardous substances' "base" charge in the residual waste is established by means of atomic absorption spectrometry and ionic chromatography, as a first step in estimating the contribution of small WEEE to its pollutant load. Consequently, the content of small WEEE plastics in key heavy metals and halogens is determined. Key conclusions are drawn concerning the future strategic development and practical implementation of the 2002/96/EC Directive, in relation to small WEEE management and recycling.

  17. Small WEEE: Determining recyclables and hazardous substances in plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrakakis, Emmanouil; Janz, Alexander; Bilitewski, Bernd; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    An examination regarding the determination of recyclables and hazardous substances in small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) found in the residual household waste stream of the city of Dresden, Germany, is described. Firstly, attitudes towards the disposal of small WEEE in the latter are assessed, and product types and categories which mostly contribute to its composition are identified. Physical parameters which could be used as mechanical sorting criteria are measured, and the material composition of the small WEEE found is determined. The hazardous substances' 'base' charge in the residual waste is established by means of atomic absorption spectrometry and ionic chromatography, as a first step in estimating the contribution of small WEEE to its pollutant load. Consequently, the content of small WEEE plastics in key heavy metals and halogens is determined. Key conclusions are drawn concerning the future strategic development and practical implementation of the 2002/96/EC Directive, in relation to small WEEE management and recycling

  18. Financial consequences of illicit movements of metallic substances contaminated by radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.-P.

    1999-01-01

    It is increasingly frequent for States to have to deal with illicit movements of metallic substances contaminated by radioactivity. Steps taken in the areas of safety and health protection necessarily have financial implications . Except in cases of special urgency, a financial evaluation is vital before such decisions are taken. Specific actions must be initiated. Aside from action by the industries directly involved in self-regulation procedures, checks must be imposed in cases of fraudulent trafficking which has no connection with fair commercial activity. Customs administrations may take specific steps to restore order to legitimate markets. International organizations have a special role to play in disseminating information and promoting international cooperation. The paper outlines the financial impact of fraudulent trafficking, and methods of ensuring that those responsible for such activities bear the financial costs incurred. It underlines the roles that can be played by those involved in the traffic in contaminated products. (author)

  19. Radiation protection of the public in respect of consumer goods containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The use of consumer goods containing radioactive substances makes a contribution to the total exposure of man to ionizing radiation. This contribution is explicitly recognized in Section II of the Basic Safety Standards established pursuant to Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation, first published in 1959 and most recently revised 15 July 1980. Nevertheless, the Standards are of a general nature and need to be expanded on to be of practical application in this field. National authorities must have additional information in order to attain in full the objectives stated in them. This guide has been prepared with these considerations in mind. The guide is not a set of regulations but is better described as a code of practice, drawn up by specialists and approved by the scientific experts in the field of radiological protection and public health appointed under Article 31 of the Euratom Treaty

  20. An experimental interactive risk communication on the effect of radioactive substance on health through food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiyama, Yoko; Kito, Yayoi; Kudo, Haruyo

    2011-01-01

    Risk communication, an interactive process of exchange of information and opinion on risk among stakeholders is the important element in Risk Analysis. However, we haven't effective model yet. We have tried experimental Interactive risk communication on the effect of radioactive substance on health through food related the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The model is consist of some process for making scientific information and discussion among consumer groups on the information; making and providing first step scientific information by scientists and communicator for consumers, first step group discussions on the information by consumers, making second step scientific information based critical questions in the first step group discussions, and second step group discussions on the second step information by consumers. We had organized 8 discussion groups, 50 subjects in Tokyo and Kyoto. (author)

  1. Authorization procedure for containers and modalities of transport of radioactive substances within the EC Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaducci, S.

    1977-02-01

    In all EC Member States, the transport of radioactive substances, the activity of which is higher than a specific level, is subject to regulatory requirements. Most of these requirements demand an administrative authorization before starting transport. In Belgium, authorization may take the form of a general, particular or special authorization, and in Luxembourg of a general or particular authorization. The latter applies in France and Italy but in these countries specific provisions also exist depending on the means of transport used. The latter specific provisions also exist in Germany and in the Netherlands. On the contrary in the United Kingdom, no administrative authorization is needed for such transport, except for special consignments. Finally, it is to be noted that neither in Denmark nor in Ireland have regulatory requirements been laid down with respect to such authorization procedure

  2. Determination of 129I in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, B.; Dulanska, S.; Matel, L.; Remenec, B.; Gardonova, V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and optimize the conditions for the distillation of iodine and its use for determination of 129 I on liquid scintillation spectrometer (LSC). An appropriate distillation apparatus for distillation of iodine was proposed by testing distillation apparatus. A method of cleaning of 129 I from present interferents , e.g. 14 C, 137 Cs, was tested on proposed simple distillation apparatus. High-purity fraction needed for the determination of 129 I was achieved by distillation on liquid scintillation spectrometer TRI CARB 2900TR from Perkin Elmer Company. Optimal energy window (0 - 80) keV was chosen to measure 129 I on liquid scintillation spectrometer. Ultima Gold TM AB was chosen as more appropriate scintillator by testing of two scintillation solutions. Optimized method for determining the 129 I was applied to real samples coming from Bohunice NPP. The combination of precipitation method and method of 129 I purification by distillation is easy and less time consuming separation method for the determination of 129 I compared to conventional methods of separation of 129 I, e.g. by liquid extraction. Measuring method on the LSC spectrometer represents a measurement with a higher detection efficiency (95%) as compared to measurement of low-energy X-ray radiation 129 I (29.6 keV) with X-ray detector Si (Li) 12155 SL with detection efficiency only (1-2)%.

  3. Determination of radioactive strontium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahek, Zeljko; Rozmaric Macefat, Martina

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures of isolating strontium and yttrium from seawater that enable the determination of 89,90 Sr. In one procedure, strontium is directly isolated from seawater on the column filled with Sr resin by binding of strontium to the resin from 3 M HNO 3 in a seawater, and successive elution with HNO 3 . In others, strontium is precipitated from seawater with (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , followed by isolation on a Sr column or an anion exchange column. It is shown that strontium precipitation is optimal with concentration of 0.3 M (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 at pH = 11. In these conditions, 100% Y, 78% Sr, 80% Ca and 50% Mg are precipitated. Strontium is bound on to Sr column from 5 to 8 M HNO 3 , separated from other elements by elution with 3 M HNO 3 and 0.05 M HNO 3 . Strontium and yttrium are bound on to anion exchange column from alcoholic solutions of nitric acid. The optimum mixture of alcohols for sample binding is a mixture of ethanol and methanol with the volume ratio 1:3. Strontium and yttrium are separated from Mg, Ca, K, and other elements by elution with 0.25 M HNO 3 in the mixture of ethanol and methanol. After the separation, yttrium and strontium are eluted from the column with water or methanol. In the procedure of direct isolation from 1 l of the sample, the average recovery of 50% was obtained. In the remaining two procedures, the strontium recovery was about 60% for the Sr column and 65% for anion exchange column. Recovery of yttrium is about 70% for the anion exchange column. It turned out that the procedure with the Sr resin (direct isolation and isolation after precipitation) is simpler and faster in the phase of the isolation on the column in comparison with the procedure with the anion exchanger. The procedure with the anion exchanger, however, enables the simultaneous isolation of yttrium and strontium and rapid determination of 89,90 Sr. These procedures were tested by determination of 89,90 Sr on liquid scintillation counter and Cherenkov

  4. Proposed new regulations for the limitation of releases of radioactive substances from nuclear power stations with light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    In this publication the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection presents a proposed version of new regulations concerning the way in which the release of radioactive substances from nuclear power stations is to be limited. The regulations come into force on 1st January 1976. (Auth.)

  5. Ministerial Order appointing the Customs Offices through which radioactive substances or devices containing such substances subject to licensing must be imported

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Under the royal Order of 28 February 1963 regulating protection of the population and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation, this Order by the Minister of Public Health and the Family designates the Customs Offices through which radioactive substances and devices containing them may be imported. It lists for each type of transport (land, sea etc) the authorised points of access into Belgium. (NEA) [fr

  6. Activity determination of the Am-241 radioactive lightning rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, Jose C.; Minematsu, Denise; Potiens Jr, Ademar J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radioactive lightning rods had been manufactured in Brazil up to 1989, when the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) lifted the license for manufacture, commerce and installation of these devices. Since this date, the radioactive lightning rods have been replaced for conventional protection systems against electric discharges and have been sent to the institutes subordinated to the CNEN, amongst them the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The radioactive lightning rods are constituted in its majority for a central metallic rod where the plates are mounted. Am-241 radioactive sources are fixed in these plates. The treatment of these devices is made in a glove box, where mechanically the sources are separate of the plates and connecting rods, placed in a metallic package and stored for posterior characterization, final packaging, intermediate storage and final disposal. In accordance with manufacturers information had been installed in Brazil, approximately 75,000 units with activities varying between 25 and 92 MBq. Preliminary studies were carried out in some of the 16,000 lightning rods received by the Laboratorio de Rejeitos Radioativos (LRR) of the IPEN-CNEN/SP, and demonstrated that the variation of the values of activity is very bigger. The implantation of a methodology for the radioisotope characterization of the Am-241 removed sources of the radioactive lightning rods is important because the isotope inventory is necessary for the certification of the processes considered for packaging and storage, besides being indispensable data for the final disposal. It is convenient mentioning that one is not about the determination of activity of a radioactive source with geometry and defined characteristics, but the implantation of a measure protocol for groups of sources that will be used in the routine tasks of the LRR. The current work presents the methodology developed for the radioisotope characterization of the Am

  7. Applicability of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) to releases of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund, provided a $1.6 billion fund (financed by a tax on petrochemical feedstocks and crude oil and by general revenues) for the cleanup of releases of hazardous substances, including source, special nuclear or byproduct material, and other radioactive substances, from mostly inactive facilities. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized to require private responsible parties to clean up releases of hazardous substances, or EPA, at its option, may undertake the cleanup with monies from the Fund and recover the monies through civil actions brought against responsible parties. CERCLA imposes criminal penalties for noncompliance with its reporting requirements. This paper will overview the key provisions of CERCLA which apply to the cleanup of radioactive materials

  8. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat Moustafa E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative analysis of cosmetic samples showed that lead is the most toxic element found in eyebrow paint samples.

  9. Control of trafficking of radioactive sources/substances on European Community eastern border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovjagina, Irina; Graveris, Visvaldis

    2008-01-01

    . Conclusions: Applied qualitative containment and surveillance procedures on transported goods in general strengthen system for control of radioactive sources and substances within European Community Member States, and shall have systematically approach. Hence we may conclude that the total amount of orphaned sources decreases accordingly. (author)

  10. The gas-filled counting tube of the PTB - a device for the activity determination of radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, E.W.

    1993-08-01

    A measuring device for the activity determination of gaseous radioactive materials (H-3, Kr-85, C-14 O 2 ) has been set up as a PTB primary standard. Samples measured in it or their initial substances are the basis for activity standards. The gaseous samples are introduced directly into the vacuum device. The amount of gas filled can be determined by measuring pressure, volume and temperature. After the gas has been mixed with a counting gas (methane, argon/methane or propane), the count-rates are measured and the activity of the gas calculated. The activity of solid or liquid radioactive substances can also be determined with the device described, if they can be converted into a suitable gas. For this purpose there are additional devices (e.g. for producing hydrogen from water or C-14 O 2 from carbonate). The first models of these devices have been developed and are described. (orig.) [de

  11. Method to determine the radioactivity of radioactive waste packages. Basic procedure of the method used to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document describes the procedures adopted in order to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants in Japan. The standards applied have been approved by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberations by the Subcommittee on the Radioactivity Verification Method for Waste Packages, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee, and the Standards Committee. The method for determining the radioactivity of the low-level radioactive waste packages was based on procedures approved by the Nuclear Safety Commission in 1992. The scaling factor method and other methods of determining radioactivity were then developed on the basis of various investigations conducted, drawing on extensive accumulated knowledge. Moreover, the international standards applied as common guidelines for the scaling factor method were developed by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear Energy, Subcommittee SC 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology. Since the application of accumulated knowledge to future radioactive waste disposal is considered to be rational and justified, such body of knowledge has been documented in a standardized form. The background to this standardization effort, the reasoning behind the determination method as applied to the measurement of radioactivity, as well as other related information, are given in the Annexes hereto. This document includes the following Annexes. Annex 1: (reference) Recorded items related to the determination of the scaling factor. Annex 2 (reference): Principles applied to the determining the radioactivity of waste packages. (author)

  12. Simulation of the dispersion of radioactive substances, for the case of Chernobyl as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmesheimer, M.; Hass, H.; Jakobs, H.J.; Geiss, H.; Laube, M.

    1989-01-01

    On April 25, 1989, an accident with the so far most serious consequences occurred in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl. As a result during the period April 25 to May 6, 1986, about 4% of the core inventory of radionuclides was released. The large scale atmospheric circulation dispersed the emitted radioactive material during and after this period over the complete northern hemisphere whereby the European area was affected in particular. The distribution and deposition of the radioactive air admixtures in the European region provides an interesting possibility to test the EURAD model. The transport and deposition of the radioactive material can then, within the frame of the model, be treated as a dispersal problem with consideration of the deposition processes. Simulating the reactor accident provides the possibility to test the role of emission heights of point sources. The calculations accomplished so far indicate among others that a determination as exact as possible of the meteorologic fields is decisive. Improvements appear to be possible with a nudging version of MM4, with which presently first simulation tests for the Chernobyl case are conducted. (orig./KW) [de

  13. Objectives for remediation of areas polluted by radioactive substances in France - 59300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazala, Charlotte; Gay, Didier; Chabanis, Olivier; Guillevic, Jerome; Palut Laurent, Odile; Dandrieux, Geraldine; Thomassin, Alain; Chapalain, Estelle; Roy, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the 90's, the French administration has developed several tools in order to inventory potentially polluted sites and to identify those requiring an immediate action. Concerns and needs have gradually moved on and a methodology for the management of selected areas was established. A general framework was then published by the Ministry of Ecology in 2007. The Ministry of Ecology jointly with the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) asked the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) to establish guidelines for the management of radioactive polluted areas. Requirements were: i) to fit with the published general framework while highlighting specificities of radioactive pollutants management; ii) to take benefit of radioactive polluted areas remediation; iii) to precise remediation objectives and iv) to develop stakeholders involvement issues. Within this general framework, two situations were identified: i) the polluted area is already used for domestic, public or industrial purposes; ii) the polluted area is an industrial site under dismantling or a polluted wasteland where a redevelopment project is under consideration. Management of a polluted site with ongoing use is based on the pollution level determination

  14. Safety in transports of civil radioactive substances on the French territory. Lessons learned by the IRSN from the analysis of significant events declared in 2012 and 2013. Safety of transports of civil radioactive substances in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    After a presentation of some general elements regarding transports of radioactive substances in France, this report proposes a synthetic overview of the main lessons learned by the IRSN from the analysis of transport-related events in 2012 and 2013. Then, the body of this report presents the context of transports of radioactive substances: legal framework, main safety elements, nature and flows of these transports in France, transports per activity sector. It proposes a global analysis of significant events, with a comparison with previous years. The four main significant events are described. Some transverse issues are finally addressed: return on experience on crisis management in relationship with transport events, IRSN study on the behaviour of packagings during long duration fire

  15. Determination of radioactivity in petroleum products and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrichi, Hajer

    2009-01-01

    At this end engineering study, we determined the activities of gamma- emitting radionuclides belonging to the families of 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40K in the petroleum products and wastes of the refinery S.T.I.R. The activities of radionuclides which exceed that of crude oil prove that it's a technologically enhanced natural radioactivity since several chemical products were injected during the refining process. (Author)

  16. Radioactive substances in wild mushrooms and other bioindicators. Inventory, Lower Saxony. As of April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohleder, K.

    1991-04-01

    The studies performed on wild mushrooms and other indicators were continued in 1990. Lower Saxony forestry authorities and food monitoring athorities co-operated in sampling. 153 wild mushroom samples and 14 samples of other bioindicators were examined in 1990. Activity values were corrected for decay and related to May 1986. The curves of Cesium-134 as a measure for contimination caused by the reactor accident, and of the sum of Cesium-137 and Cesium-134 run in parallel which means that the previous Cesium-137 contamination load does not affect the course of the curve. The maximum was found for chestnut boletus in 1987 and for cep in 1989. When comparing the means of the other mushroom with those of 1989, a slight rise was found for same-species mushrooms which grow in symbiosis with trees e.g. honey mushroom. No statement can be made on the other same-species mushrooms because of their low sample numbers. In 1990, some forestry authorities also sent samples of grass, beech leaves and spruce needles to be tested for radioactive substances. The means of 1989 and 1990 are compared. (orig./Uhe) [de

  17. Various possible ways to express the toxicity of radioactive substances in relation with the involved practical problems; Diverses expressions possibles de la toxicite des substances radioactives en fonction des problemes pratiques poses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Vacca, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Radioelements have at the same time physico-chemical and radioactive properties. It is then possible to establish two types of toxicological classifications: one in function of the weight of the radioelement, another in function of its activity. More often, the maximum permissible amounts (MPA) in the human body and the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) in air and water are expressed in microcuries by millilitre ({mu}c/ml), less frequently in micrograms by millilitre ({mu}g/ml). The comparison of these tables of MPA and MPC shows important differences in the classification of radioactive substances by order of decreasing toxicity. Plutonium and radium, being among the most toxic products when the activity is considered are far from being the most dangerous when the weight is considered. On the other hand, {sup 131}I and {sup 56}Mn, for instance appear to be among the most hazardous substances in this eventuality. This twofold consideration corresponds to two aspects of the problems of the toxicity of radioisotopes. The classification by activity is almost exclusively utilised because the toxicological measurements are based on the radioactive properties of the radioisotopes. In general, only these measurements allow to detect the very small amounts of substance usually involved. On the other hand, the toxicity related to internal contamination by radioisotopes depends mostly from their metabolism which is exclusively a function of their physico-chemical properties. Therefore the classification by weight gives the best representation of the hazards encountered when radioactive substances are inhaled or ingested. As a result, the relative toxicity of radioisotopes cannot be based on the classification by activity only. The present division of radioisotopes into different classes: very hazardous, moderately hazardous, slightly hazardous must be revised. (author) [French] Les radioelements presentent a la fois des proprietes physico-chimiques banales et des

  18. Structural models of public risk perception of radioactive substances in food. An analysis of the data from internet survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kito, Yayoi; Niiyama, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    In risk communication of food contamination by radioactive substances derived from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, it is required that experts, government and the public exchange information and opinions and establish a mutual understanding. To meet these requirements, it is necessary to investigate public risk perception and the structure of perception. We conducted a series of internet surveys in 2011-2012, two times in Kanto- and Kansai-area on men and women aged from 30 to 49 who have children, and once in all parts of Japan on women aged from 20 to 59. From the data analysis, we identified the feature of risk perception of radioactive substances and buying behavior, and moreover, we analyzed the relationship among the perceived risks and other factors using Structural Equation Modeling. (author)

  19. The efficacy of surface active substances to decontaminate radioactive pollution of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine the efficacy of native surface-active substances in the decontamination of pig pollution with 90 Sr, 131 J, 144 Ce and 137 Cs. The appraisal was performed on the basis of indices of final activity. It was found that an Ixi solution was the most efficient against 137 Cs, E powder and Kokosal against 144 Ce and 90 Sr respectively, and also E powder against 137 J. The most universal proved to be enzymatic powders E and R, and then the detergens Ixi, Bis, FF and Kokosal. (author)

  20. UK guidance for assessing the impact of radioactive substances on wildlife inhabiting Natura 2000 sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, P.; Copplestone, D.; Zinger, I.; Allot, R.; Williams, C.

    2004-01-01

    The UK has a duty to comply with the EU Birds and Habitats Directives when planning and undertaking all of its regulatory and operational activities. These European Directives were introduced into UK legislation by the Conservation (Natural Habitats) Regulations 1994, as amended by the Conservation (Natural Habitats) (England) Regulations 2000. Under these Regulations, the Environment Agency has obligations in England and Wales to review all existing environmental licences to ensure that no Agency authorised activity results in an adverse effect, either directly or indirectly, on the integrity of identified European Sites. In this context European Sites consist of classified or Special Protection Areas (SPA) created under the Wild Birds Directive and candidate or designated Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) under the Habitats Directive. These sites are collectively referred to as Natura 2000 sites. Working in partnership with English Nature and the Countryside Council for Wales, who select Natura 2000 sites, the Agency has put in place a staged approach to the assessment of the impact of ionising radiation on the environment. - Stage 1: Identifying whether the Habitats Regulations are applicable. - Stage 2: Identifying whether authorisations to discharge radioactive substances present a potential risk of significant effect on wildlife and habitats. - Stage 3: Identifying issues to consider when carrying out a more detailed assessment of the potential impact of radioactive discharges for sites identified as presenting a potential risk. - Stage 4: Grant or deny authorisation for regulated discharge purposes, following Stage 3 Assessment. The developed methodology, described in R and D Publication 128 and presented at the IAEA Darwin Symposium in 2003, was used in screening authorisations (Stage 2), and is now needed by practitioners to carry out detailed impact assessments under Stage 3. The current paper will describe how the methodology was used to apply the

  1. Regulations under the Radioactive Substances Act of 1958, No. 115, 1961

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    These very detailed regulations lay down the licensing system for the use of radioactive materials. They provide for monitoring and control of radiation and radiation contamination, storage, labelling and transport of radioactive materials and also for the disposal of radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  2. Determination of natural Radioactivity in Groundwater in Tanke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the radioactivity in groundwater from Tanke-Ilorin, Nigeria, has been carried out. Ten water samples were analyzed by ϒ-ray spectroscopy to determine the 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations. The activity concentration values range from 0.81 ± 0.08 to 7.4 ± 2.2 Bq/l for 226Ra and from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 5.6 ± 2.6 Bq/l for ...

  3. Natural and artificial radioactivity determination of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Roselli, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Several medicinal plants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha ( 238 U, 210 Po) and gamma ( 214 Pb-Bi, 210 Pb, 40 K and 137 Cs) spectrometry. 238 U ranged between dry -1 ; 210 Po between dry -1 ; 214 Pb- 214 Bi between dry -1 ; 210 Pb between dry -1 ; 40 K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kg dry -1 ; 137 Cs between dry -1 . The percentage of 210 Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210 Po extraction resulted 20.7 ± 7.5.

  4. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  5. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unrestrained exposure to street life often makes the street child vulnerable to psychoactive substances. In other settings, the social relationships of the substance user with those around him or her and family norms of parenting have been docu-mented to modulate use. However, there is a dearth of literature on ...

  6. Determination of radioactive scales in oil industry using naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, naturally occurring radioactive materials (Radium isotopes) present in produced water and radiation measurements have been used to study the formation of scales, evaluate their age, determination of geological formations and between wells interactions. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed monthly for 5 months from 11 oil wells in three Syrian oil fields. Analysis includes radium isotopes and anions and cations concentrations in addition to radiation measurements at the well heads. The highest mean values of radium 226, Radium 228 and Radium 224 concentration in produced were 41 Bq/1, 57.1 Bq/1 and 1.1 Bq/1, respectively. The values obtained for Radium 226, Radium 228 and the activity ratio were statistically evaluated and the results were presented using the box plot method. The mean value of the activity ration of Radium 226 and Radium 228 was used to determine the age of scales accumulated inside tubulars. (author)

  7. Radioactive methionine: determination, and distribution of radioactivity in the sulfur, methyl and 4-carbon moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanelli, J.; Mudd, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method is described for isolation and determination of [ 14 C]methionine in the non-protein fraction of tissues extensively labeled with 14 C. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated by isolation of non-protein [ 14 C]methionine (as the carboxymethylsulfonium salt) of proven radiopurity from the plant Lemna which had been grown for a number of generations on (U- 14 C]sucrose and contained a 2000-fold excess of 14 C in undefined non-protein compounds. An advantage is that the isolated methioninecarboxymethlysulfonium salt is readily degraded to permit separate determination of radioactivity in the 4-carbon, methyl and sulfur moieties of methionine. During this work, a facile labilization of 3 H attached to the (carboxy)methylene carbon of methioninecarboxymethylsulfonium salt was observed. This labilization is ascribed to formation of a sulfur ylid. (Auth.)

  8. Parameter determination in a groundwater field polluted by radioactive pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidauruk, P.; Barokah A; Syafalni; Wibagiyo

    1998-01-01

    The determination of source location and the corresponding parameters in a contaminated groundwater is very important. To be able to predict the distribution of radioactive contaminant in a contaminated field, the knowledge about the source location and the corresponding parameters is a necessity. The model developed in this paper is based on the fact that the relation between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is linear. The contaminant transport parameters as well as the a straight line. In other words, the parameters and the source location are determined in a such way that the linear correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is optimized. The developed model is tested with a synthetic data with a satisfactory results. The synthetic data is generated such that can represent the real field. The synthetic data are generated because the real field data is not available. (authors)

  9. Partial sequence determination of metabolically labeled radioactive proteins and peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The author has used the sequence analysis of radioactive proteins and peptides to approach several problems during the past few years. They, in collaboration with others, have mapped precisely several adenovirus proteins with respect to the nucleotide sequence of the adenovirus genome; identified hitherto missed proteins encoded by bacteriophage MS2 and by simian virus 40; analyzed the aminoterminal maturation of several virus proteins; determined the cleavage sites for processing of the poliovirus polyprotein; and analyzed the mechanism of frameshifting by excess normal tRNAs during cell-free protein synthesis. This chapter is designed to aid those without prior experience at protein sequence determinations. It is based primarily on the experience gained in the studies cited above, which made use of the Beckman 890 series automated protein sequencers

  10. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress, peer relationships and frequency of family meals.7,8,9,10 Amongst ... students with the fewest peer interaction problems.12 Furthermore, the ..... substance use among street children in a local government area of Nigeria: Drug and.

  11. Smuggling of radioactive substances. Swedish capacity to detect and analyze; Smuggling av radioaktivt material. Sveriges foermaaga till detektion och analys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringbom, A.; Spjuth, L. [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    This report is the result of a survey of the existing Swedish national capability to detect an attempt to smuggle nuclear material or other radioactive substances. The capacity to perform a more thorough analysis of a seized sample has also been investigated. The study shows that Sweden today has a small capacity to disclose a smuggling attempt of such materials. The limited detection capacity that exists is not sensitive enough for this purpose, and is not used in an optimal way. Furthermore, relevant education of the custom officers is needed. Today, a national capability for an initial analysis of seized material exists, but action plans describing the handling of the material should be resolved. The high number of seizures of radioactive material in countries having a better detection capability indicates that illicit trafficking of radioactive materials is still a problem. In Sweden, we so far do not have many reported incidents of illicit trafficking - partly due to our limited capacity to detect radioactive material - however, we do not know how many incidents that really have occurred. Fixed installations for detection at the border controls are the most efficient way to improve our capacity for detecting nuclear material. An initial pilot study is suggested to be able to estimate the need. Increased education of the custom officers, establishment of formal routines for handling and analysis of seized materials, and to formalise the contacts with international analysis laboratories are also identified as important factors to be improved.

  12. International recommendations[General radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, Bo [Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection (Sweden)

    1986-07-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  13. Use of a radioactive substance, the depleted uranium, for the fabrication of enamels and usual things and jewels decoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This open letter to the ministers and State Secretaries of the public health, the environment and the consumers protection, deals with a complaint against X, lodged by the CRII-RAD. This complaint concerns the use of depleted uranium for the fabrication of enamels and the decoration of usual things and jewels. This utilization constitutes a breach of the decree 66-450, which forbids since 1966 the addition of radioactive substances in food, cosmetic and domestic products. The letter takes into account the hazards for the workers and the consumers, the uranium powder origin and discusses the guaranties forecast under the legislation eye. (A.L.B.)

  14. Determination of quality standard of cemented radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan, B.

    1997-01-01

    The standard determination of cemented low activity radioactive waste has been carried out. This study was intended to find the quality of immobilized product as a guaranty to the public and the environmental safety. As preliminary study, there parameters type have been studied i.e, the density, compressive strength and the leaching rate. By adopted the formulations of advanced country and field data, it can be concluded that the cementation waste should have the density, p, between 1.70 and 2.50 g.cm - 3, the compressive strength, S, between 20 and 50 N.mm - 2, the leaching rates R n between 1.70 x 10 - 2 and 2.50 x 10 - 3 g.cm - 2.day - 1 and after 150 days leaching time the leaching rate R n - 3 g.cm - 2.day - 1. This study is expected to be used to propose the Indonesian National Standard (INS) (author)

  15. Measurements of radioactive and xenobiotic substances in the biological environment in the Netherlands 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A brief survey of the results of detailed radioactivity measurements performed in the Netherlands during the period immediately after the Chernobylsk accident, and the risk analyses made on the basis of these results, are presented. The increase of the airborne radioactivity and the activity concentrations in surface water during the first week of May 1986 is demonstrated graphically. The radiation dose in 1986 due to artificial radioactivity has been calculated to be about 60 μSv for adults, 70 μSv for ten-year-old children and 110 μSv for one-year-old children. 54 figs.; 32 tabs

  16. Determination of hepatic blood flow through radioactive colloidal gold in congestive heart foilure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaleo Netto, M.; Carvalho, N.; Carvalho Filho, E.T.; Forti, N.A.; Giannini, S.D.; Diament, J.; Decourt, L.V.; Chiaverini, R.

    1974-01-01

    Hepatic blood flow as derermined by radioactive colloidal gold and its correlation with total blood valume are studied in 13 patients with predominantly right-side congestive heart failure. During the phase of cardiac compensation, the following events occur: 1) significant decrease of the half-life of the clearance of radioactive colloidal gold and of the total blood volume; 2) increase of the clearance constant of the radioactive substance and of hepatic blood flow; 3) significantion correlation between the clearance constant and the total blood volume [pt

  17. Determination of technetium-99 in environmental and radioactive waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencova, M.; Peter Tkac, P.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium is known for its high mobility in a soil-water system in non-reducing aerobic condition and also high bio-availability for plants, because the most stable form of technetium in natural surface environment is pertechnetate which is highly soluble. The chemical form of technetium changes with environmental conditions. Concentration of technetium in the environment is very low, therefore many separation steps are needed for technetium determination. It has been developed a method for the routine determination of technetium-99 from environmental matrices and radioactive wastes using technetium-99m as an internal yield monitor. Technetium-99 is extracted from the soil samples with nitric acid. Many contaminants are co-precipitated with ferric hydroxide and technetium in the supernatant is pre-concentrated and further purified using anion exchange chromatography. Final separation of technetium was achieved by extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from sulphuric acid or pure water. The chemical yield is determined through the measurement of technetium-99m by scintillation counting system and the technetium-99 activity is measured using proportional counter after decay of the technetium-99m activity. Typical recoveries for this method are in the order 50-60 % (authors)

  18. Radioactive Substances Act 1993. Explanatory document and draft authorisation prepared by the Environment Agency to Assist public consultation on application by Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard Plymouth Devon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environment Agency (the Agency) is the independent public body responsible for regulating the use of radioactive substances and accumulation and disposal of radioactive wastes in order to ensure protection of people and the environment. Anyone who is proposing activities involving the use of radioactive substances or disposal of radioactive waste must apply for permission from the Agency. In 1993, the Government decided to locate all nuclear submarine refit work at Devonport. This will lead to increased amounts of radioactive waste arisings at Devonport and a decreased amount of waste arisings at Rosyth, where refit work was also previously carried out. In May 2000 Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited (DML) applied to the Agency for a variation to its authorisations under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 to dispose of gaseous, liquid, and solid radioactive wastes from its site at Devonport in Plymouth. Once the application was received, the Agency made the information publicly available and held a well attended public meeting in Plymouth to highlight the issues. Since then the Agency has required DML to provide additional information in support of its application. Six rounds of questions were asked and responded to, and these responses have also been made publicly available. The application and responses from the company have been made publicly available. The Agency is now consulting widely on this information to assist its decision making. This Explanatory Document and the accompanying draft authorisation has been prepared by the Agency to assist the consultation process. They are intended to help members of the public and other consultees to understand the application and the Agency's considerations so far. The consultation is being carried out to enable the public and other consultees to draw the Agency's attention to any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its decisions on this application. The Agency has not made any decisions on the DML

  19. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Groundwater in Tanke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A study of the radioactivity in groundwater from Tanke-Ilorin, Nigeria, has been carried out. Ten water ... et al., 1995) and soil/water samples obtained around production .... radioactive elements 238U and 232Th. The activity of naturally ...

  20. Determination of Substances Content of Soil Surface Using Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elin Nuraini; Elisabeth; Sunardi

    2002-01-01

    Determination of substances content of soil surface using neutron activation analysis has been performed. The aim of this research is to determine whether there are any dangerous, hazardous and toxic substances that released from The Research and Development Center for Advanced Technology (RDCAT) as a government institution has possibility in releasing that substances to the environment by surface water, sewage or rain water that give any dangerous the environmental. The fast neutron activation analysis was used to analyze the type and concentration of substances qualitative and quantitatively. The quantitative analysis was performed using relative method. Samples were counted using NaI(TI) detector. The result showed that there are several substances such as Mn-55, Fe-56, P-31, Al-27. Zn,65 and Mg-24. And there are found any hazardous, dangerous and toxic substances in the samples that causing any danger to human and environment. (author)

  1. Release procedures and disposal of radioactive residual substances at the Medical University Hanover (MHH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, F.; Behrendt, R.; Harke, H.

    2005-01-01

    The disposal of all radioactive residual packages of the MHH is regulated by the German radiation protection ordinance from 26 th July 2001; shown in appendix III, table 1, column 5: unrestricted release of solid materials and liquids. All radioactive waste packages are collected and handled by the central MHH department for radiation protection. They are sorted for type, nuclide and specific radioactivity. A few packages can directly be released as conventional waste after performing incoming measurements showing very low activity concentrations. Longer living radionuclides with specific activities above the release limits have to be delivered to the national waste disposal. For direct measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclides we use two in-situ-measuring units (ISOCS, Canberra) and a special release unit with 9 plastic scintillators in a fixed geometry (FR-9 PVT, MED Medizintechnik). Fluid beta-emitting radionuclides are measured by taking a fraction and using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Solid beta-emitting radionuclides activity are calculated. (orig.)

  2. Safety in the management of radioactive substances; Seguridad en el manejo de sustancias radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balter, Henia [Centro de Investigaciones Nucleares, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rey, Ana; Leon, Alba; Jelen, Miguel [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Quimica

    1994-12-31

    A brief explanation of radiation protection,external irradiation,internal contamination,risk factors, active laboratory design,localization,ventilation,working surfaces,area distribution,classification of active laboratory.Radiopharmacy laboratory,shielding, area monitoring,personal dosimetry,rules for management of open sources,maximum admitted limits for radionuclides currently used in radiopharmacy.Decontamination of active areas and materials,surfaces,equipment s.Decontamination of hands.Waste disposal.Radioactive materials transportation.Reception of radioactive materials.Bibliography.

  3. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  4. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, James C; Towler, George; Thorne, Michael C; Norris, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source–pathway–receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  5. Determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substance among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis, Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O.Raji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance related disorder. Riding commercial motorcycle entails lot of risk, compounded by abuse of drugs, the scenario can only be worse. This study aimed to assess the determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substances among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis. Methods The study was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in Sokoto metropolis, among Commercial motorcyclist, 253 respondents were recruited using multi stage sampling technique. Data was obtained using interviewer administered structured questionnaire containing 47‐item structured questions. Data was analysed using IBM statistical software package version 21, 5% was set as level of significance Result Majority of respondent believed that use of alcohol 214 (84.6, cannabis 147 (58.1 and codeine 171 (67.6 can lead to mental problems. Thirty percent of the respondents reported ever use of psychoactive substances. Most of the respondents (49.3% initiated use of Psychoactive substances between 16‐20 years of age. Respondents who had some formal education had less odds of ever using psychoactive substances (p=0.001, OR= 0.337. Respondents who had ever encouraged fellow commercial motorcyclist to use psychoactive substances had 22 times odds of ever having used psychoactive substances (p=0.000 Conclusion Substance abuse is prevalent among commercial motorcyclist. Despite good knowledge of psychoactive substances and the consequences associated with it, the use was still relatively high. The main predictor of ever use of psychoactive substances was willingness to be friends with someone who use psychoactive substance. There is need for continuous counselling and education of commercial motorcyclist, by road safety workers, on the dangers associated

  6. Device for measuring the two-dimensional distribution of a radioactive substance on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A device is described by which, using a one-dimensional measuring proportional counter tube depending on position, one can measure the two-dimensionally distributed radioactivity of a surface and can plot this to scale two-dimensionally, after computer processing, or can show it two-dimensionally on a monitor. (orig.) [de

  7. Oxidizing purification of liquid radioactive waste from organic substances and radionuclides by K permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Dzhuzha, O.V.; Khan, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    The basic opportunity of the oxidizing purification of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) with the use of a water solution of potassium permanganate for the preliminary preparation of LRW at a stage prior to the evaporating devices of the Chernobyl NPP is shown

  8. Radioecological aspects of the discharge of radioactive substances with waste water and exhaust air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachner, D.; Becker, A.; Biesold, H.

    1976-01-01

    Radioecological aspects concerning radioactive effluents via air and water are under discussion. The essential patterns are defined and two food-chains (green vegetables-man, fish-man) will be taken here as an example for a look at the main parameters. Under typical emission conditions the environmental impacts for various pathways are given. (orig.) [de

  9. The 'new' Radiation Protection Ordinance - marking the difference between application of 'radioactive substances in medical research' (Section 41 StrlschV) and 'radioactive substances or ionizing radiation in medicine and dental medicine' (Section 42 StrlschV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedern, P.

    1983-01-01

    The main differences in the provisions are to be found under the following aspects: - Observation of dose limits; - Necessity of physical radiation protection surveillance; - Obligation to apply for approval in individual cases; - Selection of test persons/patients; - Scope of conditions governing approval; - Obligation to inform about hazards. The unambiguous definition of procedures and purposes allowed in the field of medical research, and of those in the field of medical therapy (including dental medicine) is of crucial importance, due to its significance with regard to radiation protection, civil law and penal law. Marking the limits between these two fields subject to supervision is a precondition allowing the proper application of relevant laws in the field of use and handling of radioactive substances or ionizing radiation for medical purposes. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Application of radioactive substances in research in nuclear medicine: current trends and radiation exposure to the study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkov, V.; Schwarz, E.R.; Bauer, B.; Nosske, D.; Erzberger, A.; Brix, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: Analysis of the application of radioactive substances in research in the field of nuclear medicine in human beings and of the resulting radiation exposure to study subjects. Methods: Assessment of applications for approval submitted in accordance with Paragraph 41 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, evaluated by the Federal office for Radiation Protection together with the Federal Institute for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Products, within the period from 1997 to 1999. Results: The focus of the studies on the diagnostic application of radioactive substances in medicine evaluated has, since 1998, shifted from oncological to neurological and psychological aspects, while, at the same time, the number of PET studies increased constantly The proportion of healthy study subjects included in the diagnostic studies increased from 7 to 22%. The number of therapeutic applications of radioactive substances has, since 1997, undergone a three-fold increase, and in the process of this, the focus of attention lay within the area of radioimmuno-therapy and endovascular brachytherapy. The effective dose was, among up to 49% of the investigated healthy study subjects higher than 5 mSv, and among up to 6% of these subjects was at levels of over 20 mSv. Up to 22% of the patients received, within the scope of diagnostic studies, an effective dose of between 20 and 50 mSv. An exceeding of the 50 mSv limit occurred among up to 3% of the patients. Conclusions: In spite of the increasing numbers of PET applications, conventional nuclear medicine has maintained its importance in the field of medical research. Further developments in the areas of radiochemistry and molecular biology led to an increase in the importance of radio-immuno therapy. The evaluation of new radiopharmaceuticals and the extension of basic biomedical research, resulted in an increase in the proportion of healthy study subjects included in the studies. The radiation exposure among subjects resulting directly from

  11. A comparative study of changes in immunological reactivity during prolonged introduction of radioactive and chemical substances into the organism with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Nevstrueva, M.A.; Kalnitskij, S.A.; Livshits, R.E.; Merkushev, G.N.; Pilshchik, E.M.; Ponomareva, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted into the factors of non-specific protection and specific immunity, allergic and autoallergic reactivities during prolonged exposure of experimental animals to 6 different radioactive and 7 harmful chemical substances. Qualitative and quantitative peculiarities were found in the changes in immunological reactivity during the exposure of the organism to radionuclides and stable chemical compounds. Impairment of immunity plays an essential role in the course and the outcome of effects induced by chronic action of the substances examined. (author)

  12. Determination of radioactivity levels from some Egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EL Sattar, M.; Morsy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Our world is radioactive and has been, since it was created. Over 60 radionuclides (radioactive elements) can be found in nature. Radon is naturally occurring radioactive gas, that is produced by the radioactive decay of radium. Breathing high concentration of radon can cause lung cancer. A set of experiments were carried out using Cr-39 as solid state nuclear track detectors with the optimum etching conditions, 6.25 N Na OH at 70 o C for 8 hours. The radon-222 activity in this survey was found to be in the range of 0.303 kBq/m 3 to 5.04 KBq/m 3 for different building materials in Egypt

  13. Determining absorbed dose of Ramsar people from natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaieli; Abdolreza

    1999-01-01

    Radiation exposure versus natural resources of environment is in external form. Especially, in some regions of the world radionuclides assembling in soils caused background of high radioactivity. Ramsar is one of these regions. The main purpose is to estimate gamma radiation exposure inside and outside of residential buildings in Ramsar and the suburbs and to present exposure map of Ramsar; also estimating internal exposure of radon gas and obtaining effective dose of Ramsar population. There for, SAPOS 90M gamma monitor and RSS-112 and Na I(Tl) scintillator were used. To determine the concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K in soil and building materials gamma spectrometer and Germanium detector were used. In addition to exposure rate of different sections of Ramsar and its suburbs, 200 residential houses with high exposure rate and more than 600 ones with normal exposure rate were determined. The results of measurement were respectively 11μRh -1 to 3 μRh -1 in indoor region and 11μRh -1 to 2μR -1 in indoor regions. Annual gamma exposure was 5.99+-18.01 mSv. Maximum of annual gamma exposure rate of this region is 131 mSv. The estimated radon dose, through previous measurement is approximated to 14.67+-39.14 mSv annually. normal exposure is respectively 8μRh -1 to 17μRh -1 in outdoor regions and 10μRh -1 to 130μRh -1 in indoor regions. Annual exposure rate of gamma radiation is 0.68+-0.01 mSv and estimated radon gas from indoor and outdoor exposure for effective dose is 2.34+ 0 .02 mSv

  14. Natural radiation, radioactive waste and chemical risk determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, T.; Mustonen, R.; Edhwall, H.; Hansen, H.; Soerensen, A.; Stranden, E.

    1990-01-01

    Doses from natural radiation to the population in the Nordic countries are summarized, and man-made modifications of the natural radiation environment are discussed. An account is given for the radiological concequences of energy concervation by reduced ventilation. Risks from possible future releases of radioactivity from final depositories of spent nuclear fuel are compared to the risks from present natural radioactivity in the environment. The possibilities for comparison between chemical and radiological risks are discussed. 104 refs., 36 figs., 47 tabs

  15. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  16. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  17. A general advection-diffusion model for radioactive substance dispersion released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buske, D.

    2011-01-01

    The present contribution focuses on the question of radioactive material dispersion after discharge from a nuclear power plant in the context of micro-meteorology, i.e. an atmospheric dispersion model. The advection-diffusion equation with Fickian closure for the turbulence is solved for the atmospheric boundary layer where the eddy diffusivity coefficients and the wind profile are assumed to be space dependent. The model is solved in closed form using integral transform and spectral theory. Convergence of the solution is discussed in terms of a convergence criterion using a new interpretation of the Cardinal Theorem of Interpolation theory and Parseval's theorem. The solution is compared to other methods and model adequacy is analyzed. Model validation is performed against experimental data from a controlled release of radioactive material at the Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, 1985). (author)

  18. Comparison between different regulations for transport of radioactive materials; Comparaison de differents reglements de transports des substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallier, Lucien

    1961-11-20

    This comparison is based on the study of several regulations and conventions: French regulations for transports (by rail, road, river, sea, air, and mail), international regulations applicable in France for transports (by rail, road, air, sea, and mail), the general regulation for transport of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the convention on civil responsibility of the European Agency for Nuclear Energy. The author notices that IAEA regulation will probably prevail. He outlines the objectives and the necessity of regulations, identifies the risk factors (nature of radio-elements, physical condition of the material, type of packaging), discusses additional safety measures, outlines that risks must not be overestimated, and the importance of labelling, and then discusses the comparison of the different considered regulations. He addresses the determination of the risk associated with a transport, the issue of responsibility. The content of regulations is presented in several tables.

  19. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turki, Faten

    2010-01-01

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  20. Assessment of people exposure to contamination with radioactive substances removed to the atmosphere from nuclear objects of Swierk Centre, Poland, in the period of 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipiak, B.; Nowicki, K.

    1995-01-01

    The exposure of particular persons, living in the near surroundings of Nuclear Centre - Swierk near Warsaw, Poland, to radioactive substances removed to the atmosphere during the period 1987-1992 has been assessed. The effective dose equivalent for statistically critical groups of persons has been estimated. The results have been compared with maximum permitted dose limits. 17 refs, 12 tabs

  1. The Medicines (Administration of Radioactive Substances) Regulations 1978 (S.I. no.1006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These regulations prohibit the administration of radioactive medicinal products except by doctors or dentists holding a certificate issued by the Health Ministers for such purpose. They also lay down the procedure for the grant of such certificates and provide for the appointment of a Committee to advise the authorities on these matters. The Regulations were made in pursuance of Council Directive 76/579/Euratom which lays down the revised standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. (NEA) [fr

  2. Determination of viscosity in recirculating fluidized bed using radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, G.G. da.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracer for measuring viscosity is proposed. The methodology relates the terminal velocity of a radioactive sphere in interior of fluid with the viscosity, which can be a fluidized bed or total flow of solids. The arrangement is composed by two γ detectors placed externally and along the bed. Both detectors are coupled by amplifier to electronic clock. The drop time of sphere between two detectors is measured. The bed viscosity two detectors is measured. The bed viscosity is calculated from mathematical correlations of terminal velocity of the sphere. (M.C.K.)

  3. Investigation of the use of thermometric titrimetry for the determination of acidic substances in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, O E; Coelho, J A; Chagas, A P; Aleixo, L M

    1984-03-01

    The use of thermometric titrimetry in the determination of acidic substances in red wine is described. The titration curve obtained in the thermometric titration of red wine with strong base presents two inflections. The stoichiometry corresponding to the first inflection presents good agreement with the so-called "total acidity" of wine, and is proposed for its determination. The second inflection is related to the content of phenolic substances in red wine.

  4. Sensitive non-radioactive determination of aminotransferase stereospecificity for C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomrit, Juntratip; Summpunn, Pijug; Meevootisom, Vithaya; Wiyakrutta, Suthep

    2011-02-25

    A sensitive non-radioactive method for determination of the stereospecificity of the C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzymes (pyridoxal phosphate, PLP; and pyridoxamine phosphate, PMP) of aminotransferases has been developed. Aminotransferase of unknown stereospecificity in its PLP form was incubated in (2)H(2)O with a substrate amino acid resulted in PMP labeled with deuterium at C-4' in the pro-S or pro-R configuration according to the stereospecificity of the aminotransferase tested. The [4'-(2)H]PMP was isolated from the enzyme protein and divided into two portions. The first portion was incubated in aqueous buffer with apo-aspartate aminotransferase (a reference si-face specific enzyme), and the other was incubated with apo-branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (a reference re-face specific enzyme) in the presence of a substrate 2-oxo acid. The (2)H at C-4' is retained with the PLP if the aminotransferase in question transfers C-4' hydrogen on the opposite face of the coenzyme compared with the reference aminotransferase, but the (2)H is removed if the test and reference aminotransferases catalyze hydrogen transfer on the same face. PLP formed in the final reactions was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the presence or absence of (2)H. The method was highly sensitive that for the aminotransferase with ca. 50 kDa subunit molecular weight, only 2mg of the enzyme was sufficient for the whole test. With this method, the use of radioactive substances could be avoided without compromising the sensitivity of the assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Laser fluorescence determination of radioactive waste cotton fabric in the exploration of uranium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangong

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the dosage test the operational needs of the laser fluorescence determination of trace radioactive waste cotton fabric uranium research and exploration, to determine the sample ashing time, measured dosage of acidity and digestion and other technical parameters, gives the laser fluorescence determination of radioactive abandoned cotton fabric of trace uranium method. Method of high sensitivity, strong anti-interference, the detection limit of 0.025μg/g(Burning down dregs), relative standard deviation was 3.96%, the mean recovery 93.3%-103% for masks, gloves and other radioactive waste to the determination of trace uranium. (authors)

  6. Generic models for use in assessing the impact of discharges of radioactive substances to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The concern of society in general for the quality of the environment and the realization that all human activities have some environmental effect has led to the development of a procedure for environmental impact analysis. This procedure is a predictive one, which forecasts probable environmental effects before some action, such as the construction and operation of a nuclear power station, is decided upon. The method of prediction is by the application of models that describe the environmental processes in mathematical terms in order to produce a quantitative result which can be used in the decision making process. This report describes such a procedure for application to radioactive discharges and is addressed to the national regulatory bodies and technical and administrative personnel responsible for performing environmental impact analyses. The report is also intended to support the recently published IAEA Safety Guide on Regulatory Control of Radioactive Discharges to the Environment. It expands on and supersedes previous advice published in IAEA Safety Series No. 57 on Generic Models and Parameters for Assessing the Environmental Transfer of Radionuclides from Routine Releases. This Safety Report was developed through a series of consultants meetings and three Advisory Group Meetings

  7. A radioactive tracer dilution method to determine the mass of molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cao; Jarrell, Josh; Hardtmayer, D.E.; White, Susan; Herminghuysen, Kevin; Kauffman, Andrew; Sanders, Jeff; Li, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    A new technique for molten salt mass determination, termed radioactive tracer dilution, that uses 22 Na as a tracer was validated at bench scale. It has been a challenging problem to determine the mass of molten salt in irregularly shaped containers, where a highly radioactive, high-temperature molten salt was used to process nuclear spent/used fuel during electrochemical recycling (pyro-processing) or for coolant/fuel salt from molten salt reactors. A radioactive source with known activity is dissolved into the salt. After a complete mixture, a small amount of the salt is sampled and measured in terms of its mass and radioactivity. By finding the ratio of the mass to radioactivity, the unknown salt mass in the original container can be precisely determined. (author)

  8. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.

    2001-02-01

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients

  9. Methods and apparatus for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The spatial distribution of a radioactive material is determined by locating the positions of and energy losses resulting from Compton interactions which occur in a detector as a result of gamma photons emitted by the radioactive material, which may, for example, have been administered to a patient for medical diagnostic investigation. (auth)

  10. Determination of detailed standards for transportation of radioactive materials by ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The notification is defined under the regulations concerning marine transport and storage of dangerous things. Radioactive materials include hereunder uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238, 239 and 241, their compounds and those materials which contain one or more than two of such materials. Materials whose quantities or quantities of components are less than 15 grams, and natural or depleted uranium are excluded. Permissible surface concentrations are 1/100,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioactive materials emitting alpha rays, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioactive materials not emitting alpha rays. Radioactive materials to be transported as L loads shall be not dispersing solid substances or those tightly enclosed in capsules, one of whose exterior sides at least is more than 0.5 centi-meter, having other several specified features. Other kinds of liquid and gas L loads are stipulated. Limits of radioactivity of L and A loads are provided for with tables attached. Transport conditions of A, BM and BU loads are fixed with bylaws. Leakages of BM and BU loads are also prescribed. Radioactive loads shall be marked by particular signals. Measures shall be taken to control exposures, which involve measurement of doses and exposure doses on board and appointment of exposure controllers. (Okada, K.)

  11. Determination of detailed standards for transportation of radioactive materials by ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of the ''Regulations on the transport and storage of dangerous things by ships''. The terms used hereinafter are according to those used in the Regulations. Radioactive materials, etc., include uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, plutonium 241, the compounds of such materials and the substances containing one or two and more of such materials, excluding such materials of not more than 15 grams. The permissible surface density of radioactive materials is 1/100,000 of one microcurie per cm 2 for the radioactive materials emitting alpha-ray and 1/10,000 of one microcurie per cm 2 for the radioactive materials not emitting alpha-ray. For the radioactive materials which can be transported as L type cargo, their quantity of radioactivity is defined in their solid, liquid and gaseous forms. The limit of quantity of such cargo is described in detail in the lists attached. Transporting conditions of A, BM and BU type cargos are specified respectively in the particular sections. (Okada, K.)

  12. Bed load determination in Parana river by radioactive tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, P.E.; Enokihara, C.T.; Rocca, H.C.C.; Bittencourt, A.V.L.

    1988-10-01

    Radioactive tracing technique with marked sand was employed to evaluate the bottom sediment drag of Parana river, near the future site for the ''Ilha Grande'' Dam in Guaira City (State of Parana). 198 Au radioisotope was employed and measurements had been performed for a period of fifteen days. A bed load rate of 952,3 t/day was obtained for a laminar layer of 0,33 m mean thickness and 1.65 m/day mean velocity. (author) [pt

  13. Does man end up as a final disposal site for radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1986-01-01

    The fire in the Russian reactor that spread sparks of fear and panic into millions of homes also is a challenge: We have to cope with the reality of life after the Chernobyl disaster, and what we first need is sound and proper information. What is to be learnt from the disaster. From the embarassing quarrel between our Government and Land governments about dose limits. Will politicians draw consequences. How good and efficient are current food quality controls. What do the consumers' associations say. What will anti-nuclear power groups do. The book in hand critically reviews the events and activities that followed the Chernobyl accident. It denounces the scandalous behaviour of authorities who created confusion rather than confidence, and the behaviour of those people who are playing a foul game with the people's fear. The author presents information in order to make the complex mechanisms of radioactivity and its effects comprehensible to the general public. He also discusses the problem of 'legally' irradiated food imported from other countries. (orig.) [de

  14. Specific determination of clinical and toxicological important substances in biological samples by LC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitulovic, G.

    2001-02-01

    This thesis of this dissertation is the specific determination of clinical and toxicological important substances in biological samples by LC-MS. Nicotine was determined in serum after application of nicotine plaster and nicotine nasal spray with HPLC-ESI-MS. Cotinine was determined direct in urine with HPLC-ESI-MS. Short time anesthetics were determined in blood and cytostatics were determined in liquor with HPLC-ESI-MS. (botek)

  15. Determination of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, I.; Haabrekke, H.

    1986-09-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a coarse-meshed all-over picture of the radioactive ground deposition on Norway's land area was obtained by radiometric scanning from car. The measurements were carried out by the Geological Survey of Norway in the period 5 May - 6 June, 1986. High-concentration areas in the central part of the country were in addition surveyed by aerial scanning. By combining the scanning results with in situ background measurements, it was possible to calculate the distribution of some dominant radionuclides on the ground. The measured data are presented on contamination maps

  16. Determination of radioactivity in Chinese phosphate rock and fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingjian; Zhu Yongyi; Yang Juncheng

    1993-01-01

    The presented paper reported the radioactivity of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in Chinese phosphate rocks by gamma spectrographic analysis during 1985-1990. The results showed that the decay chain of U-238-Ra-226 was the main source of radionuclides in phosphate rocks. The radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer differed from the forms of phosphate fertilizer. U-238 was the most important radionuclide in phosphoric compound fertilizer. The transfer rate of radionuclides was also estimated. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  17. Consideration of epigenetic responses at organisms chronically exposed to low levels of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombeau, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work integrates within the general framework of the European program COMET (7. Framework Programme EURATOM) and aims to assess the epigenetic responses, and particularly DNA methylation, during chronic exposure to low levels of radioactive materials within two particularly representative contexts of radioecological issues (i.e. uranium mining area and Fukushima post-accidental context). During a first experiment, zebra fish (Danio rerio) were exposed in laboratory controlled conditions to environmentally relevant concentrations of depleted uranium: 2 and 20 μg L"-"1. This experiment allowed an impact on the genomic DNA methylation to be demonstrated, mainly in exposed males, which increased with the duration and level of exposure. In a second experiment, we observed an impact on DNA methylation patterns in the progeny of exposed parents, as well as a perturbation of transcriptomics (i.e. epigenetic processes, DNA damage signaling and repair pathways, embryogenesis) and histological damage in larvae skeletal muscle from exposed parents. The methods developed were applied to the second context focusing on the study of biological effects induced by radionuclides emitted following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The analyses performed on the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) revealed a positive correlation between the total dose of radiation absorbed by these frogs (correlated to "1"3"7Cs accumulation), hyper-methylation of genomic DNA as well as increasing damage to mitochondrial DNA. This work highlighted the sensitivity of epigenetic responses in different biological models exposed to low levels of radionuclides. Additionally, these epigenetic modifications are stable over the time and involved in the transfer of the parental toxicity of depleted uranium. As such, the epigenetic marks could be used to further characterize adaptation mechanisms and potential trans-generational effects induced by radionuclides. (author)

  18. Determination of detailed regulations concerning transportation of radioactive materials by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of the ''Regulations concerning transportation of radioactive materials by vehicles''. The terms used hereinafter are according to those used in the Regulations. Radioactive materials include uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, plutonium 241, the compounds of such materials and the substances containing one or two and more of such materials, excluding the radioactive materials with not more than 15 grams of such uranium and plutonium. The permissible surface density is 1/100,000 microcurie per cm 2 for radioactive materials emitting alpha-ray and 1/10,000 microcurie per cm 2 for such materials which does not emit alpha-ray. For the radioactive materials which can be transported as L type loads, their kinds and quantities are specified in the forms of solid, liquid and gas, respectively. Transporting conditions including the quantity and leakage in A, BM and BU type loads are provided for, respectively, in the lists attached and in the particular sections. (Okada, K.)

  19. Modelling migration in the marine environment of radioactive substances from Fukushima Daiichi with the use of computer code POMRad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, A.L.; Nossov, A.V.; Kisselev, V.P. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 52, B. Tulskaya, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Fukushima accident proved once more the necessity of computer codes for modelling of radioactive substances migration in the marine environment. Radionuclides were discharged (and leaked) into the sea with contaminated waters and fell-out from the atmosphere. Unfortunately assessments of the radioactivity sources differ significantly. The uncertainty is significant as for contamination that took place in months following the disaster as for leakages that took place in 2013. According to most researches, in the spring of 2011 the most important sources of radioactive pollution of the sea were direct inflows of contaminated water. In the long-term, due to contamination of river basins, the inflow of radioactivity with river waters may become the most significant source. Strontium, iodine and cesium tend to migrate in seas in dissolved state due to small values of K{sub d} (distribution factor water - suspended sediments). However distribution factor of Cs in fresh water is high. Thus it can be assumed that most of cesium entering the sea with a river flow will be sorbed on suspended particles. Sedimentation of the particles can lead to development of contaminated areas of bottom sediments. Thus modelling migration and transformation of radionuclides in water bodies is an important radioecological problem. The three-dimensional dynamic computer code POMRad is a tool for solution of the problem. It can be used to implement full cycle of modelling: - hydrological modelling - computation of fields of currents (and other important hydrological characteristics); - sediment transport modelling (cohesive, non-cohesive and 'hot particles' if necessary); - radioactivity transport modelling (taking into account decay, sorption, desorption, etc). The article is aimed to give a brief description of the computer code and examples of its use for modelling of migration in the sea of radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP). The base of POMRad is the

  20. Determination of difficult to measure actinides in radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, V.; Galanda, D.; Dulanska, S.; Remenec, B.; Kuruc, J.

    2014-01-01

    In decommissioning of a nuclear facilities and radioactive waste treatment the activity of various radionuclides need to be measured for the waste characterization. Radiochemical separation of 241 Am, 237 Np and isotopes of plutonium was tested on model solution of evaporator concentrate sample for isolation of each of them for alpha-spectrometry analysis. This paper describes use of the molecular recognition technology product AnaLig(R)Pu-01 gel from IBC Advanced technologies, Inc. to effectively and selectively pre-concentrate, separate and recover difficult-to-measure actinides from model solution of evaporator concentrate samples which belong to the most difficult matrices to analyse. The method is suitable for analysing highly contaminated samples of radioactive waste in a relatively short time. For counting the alpha activity of 241 Am, 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 237 Np ORTEC 576A alpha-spectrometer equipped with ULTRA TM ion implanted silicon detectors (600 mm 2 active area) was used. The spectra were processed by using the Alpha-vision TM 32-bit emulation software from the EG and G ORTEC company. (authors)

  1. Instantaneous axial velocity of a radioactive tracer determined with radioactive particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraguio, Maria Sol; Cassanello, Miryan C., E-mail: miryan@di.fcen.uba.a [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Programa de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Fuentes Alternativas de Materias Primas y Energia (PINMATE); Cardona, Maria Angelica; Hojman, Daniel, E-mail: cardona@tandar.cnea.gov.a [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Somacal, Hector [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Dept. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) is a technique that has been successfully used to get features of the liquid and/or the solid motion in multiphase contactors. It is one of the rare techniques able to provide experimental data in dense and strongly turbulent multiphase media. Validation of the technique has always been based on comparing the estimated mean velocity to an imposed mean velocity although the extracted features are frequently related to the instantaneous velocities. The present work pursues the analysis, through calibration experiments, of the ability of RPT to get the actual tracer instantaneous velocities. With this purpose, the motion of a radioactive tracer attached to a moving rod driven by a pneumatic system is reconstructed from the combined response of an array of 10 NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. Simultaneously, the tracer motion is registered through an encoder able to establish the axial tracer coordinate with high precision and high time resolution. The tracer is a gold particle, activated by neutron bombardment. The rod is moved at different velocities and it travels upwards and downwards close to the column centre. A mini-pilot scale bubble column is used as the test facility. The model liquid is tap water in batch mode and the gas is air, flowing at different gas velocities, spanning the homogeneous and the heterogeneous flow regimes. Time series of the entirety response of all the detectors, while the rod is moving at different imposed velocities within the two phase emulsion, are measured with a sampling period of 0.03 s during about 2 minutes. The instantaneous tracer positions and velocities reconstructed from RPT and the one obtained from the encoder response are compared under different operating conditions and for different tracer velocities. (author)

  2. Unified instrumentation for determining fissile and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, V.L.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Drozdov, V.Yu.; Morozov, O.S.; Novikov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The instrumentation is aimed to equip various facilities: nuclear facilities (including radioactive plant and nuclear material storages), border check stations at the customs, transport junctions, administrative buildings and other facilities. The monitor under design are based on the gamma-spectrometric method of radiation monitoring which consists in recording and analyzing characteristics of X-ray and gamma-sources power spectra within the range of 40-3000 keV at the background level whose value is measured and taken into account during the signal analysis. The designed universal set of instrumentation based on common technical solutions and metrological support plus its small dimensions allows to install it actually in any check point without any significant changes in the room lay-out to facilitate its maintenance [ru

  3. Determination of natural radioactivity in beach sediments collected from Kovalam, Chennai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, A.; Jananee, B.; Thangam, V.; Chandrasekaran, A.

    2018-01-01

    Long lived radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium, potassium and their decay products such as radium and radon are examples of naturally occurring radioactive materials abbreviated as NORM. All living things are exposed to ionizing radiation from NORM contributing to about 90% of human radiation exposure. The interaction of ionizing radiation with human body leads to several biological damages like leukemia, cancer etc due to damage and modification of cells and tissues in the body. Hence, the present work is carried out to determine the natural radioactivity of beach sediments along Kovalam Beach, Chennai. Associated parameters are also calculated

  4. Removal of high-level radioactive substances contained with water from the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Stations. Some technical problems in waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu; Mimura, Hitoshi; Sato, Nobuaki; Kirishima, Akira; Hattori, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese government and plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. announced to process the highly radioactive water amounting to about 250,000 cubic meters by the end of fiscal year 2011. Radiation-contaminated water will be moved to the waste facility to remove oil and radioactive cesium using zeolite. The process using Prussian Blue is expected for the effectiveness. Other radioactive substances will be removed through precipitation using special chemicals and radioactivity in the water will be reduced to 10 -6 of its original level. The water will be then be returned to the reactors and used to cool them after going through a desalination process. The facility can process about 1,200 tons of contaminated water a day. TEPCO will store radioactive materials and other waste from the cleansing process at the Fukushima plant. They need to decide how the waste will finally be disposed of and to figure out what to do with the highly radioactive waste produced in the above process. Kurion Inc., Areva SA, and some domestic firms provide equipment and technology, but all the Japanese facilities and institutions should join to settle the problems. (S. Ohno)

  5. Requirements for a long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a final storage facility for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, M.; Hippler, J.; Herzog, C.

    2007-01-01

    Within the scope of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie, BMWi), a safety certification concept for a future permanent final storage for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste (HAW disposal facility) in rock salt formations is being prepared. For a reference concept, compliance with safety requirements in regard to operational safety as well as radiological and non-radiological protection objectives related to long-term safety, including ground water protection, will be evaluated. This paper deals with the requirements for a long-term safety certification for the purpose of protecting ground water from chemotoxic substances. In particular, longterm safety certifications for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations and for the dumping of hazardous waste in underground storage facilities in rock salt formations are first discussed, followed by an evaluation as to whether these methods can be applied to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances. The authors find it advisable to apply the long-term safety certification for underground storage facilities to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations. In conclusion, a corresponding certification concept is introduced. (orig.)

  6. Study of casks shielded with heavy metal to transport highly radioactive substances; Estudo de embalados com blindagem em metal pesado para transporte de substancias altamente radioativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchesi, R.F.; Hara, D.H.S.; Martinez, L.G.; Mucsi, C.S.; Rossi, J.L., E-mail: rflguimaraes@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, Brazil relies on casks produced abroad for transportation in its territory of substances that are sources of high radioactivity, especially the Mo-99. The product of the radioactive decay of the Mo-99 is the Tc-99m, which is used in nuclear medicine for administration to humans in the form of injectable radioactive drugs for the image diagnosis of numerous pathologies. This paper aims to study the existing casks in order to propose materials for the construction of the core part as shielding against gamma radiation. To this purpose, the existing literature on the subject was studied, as well as evaluation of existing and available casks. The study was focused on the core of which is made of heavy metals, especially depleted uranium for shielding the emitted radiation. (author)

  7. A study on environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances and its countermeasure techniques. Part 2. Present situation of radioactive pollution and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Atsuo; Kakuma, Takayuki; Narita, Yasunori; Yoshino, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In present research, in order to clarify the actual condition of contamination, the radioactive concentration of the soil and the plant in Koriyama city was measured. It turned out that the radioactive concentration of soil or plants were heavily polluted by caesium-134 and 137, and iodine-131 was already disappeared by its lifetime. Especially, cesium-134 + 137 was ranged 3400 Bq/kg at the surface of soil in garden, however, it was remarkably decreased in the deeper point at 10 cm and ranged 23 Bq/kg, and we cannot detect the cesium at 15 cm. It is necessary for people in Fukushima to decontaminate for reducing radioactivity level. And it turned out that the evergreen plants have been polluted at high radioactive concentration and decontamination by cutting down the plant was decreased by 14% average. Most of radioactive material is removed by removing soils. (author)

  8. The role of Europol in the field of combating the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper contains a short general presentation of Europol and of its links to the various agencies dealing with combating the illicit trafficking of radioactive substances, inside and outside the European Union. The main difficulties we have to face in this mission are from various origins. The collection of intelligence, from both law-enforcement and scientific sides, seems to be the most efficient way to detect smuggling networks. The necessary co-operation between these two communities is a challenge for both parties, but its beginnings are encouraging. However, multiple constraints still remain that hamper the process. Europol commits itself to bridging the gap between police or intelligence agencies and the nuclear scientific community, and plans to increase its involvement in the near future, by organizing training sessions for law-enforcement personnel in co-operation with our partners. Europol is also busy with producing threat assessments and possible scenarios of terrorist attacks, which also show that, in a general manner, the collection of intelligence on the criminal groups or individuals, modus operandi, or smuggling routes is a much more efficient way of prevention than the on-site physical protection, even if this latter method is indispensable. But, if despite preventive actions, a terrorist attack using mass destruction weapons actually occurs, its effects would be lessened by an appropriate reaction of the concerned authorities. That is why our organization is also involved in a process of awareness of our member states, as only a few of them have set up a response capability in this domain. (author)

  9. The role of Europol in the field of combating the illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper contains a short general presentation of Europol and of its links to the various agencies dealing with combating the illicit trafficking of radioactive substances, inside and outside the European Union. The main difficulties we have to face in this mission are from various origins. The collection of intelligence, from both law-enforcement and scientific sides, seems to be the most efficient way to detect smuggling networks. The necessary co-operation between these two communities is a challenge for both parties, but its beginnings are encouraging. However, multiple constraints still remain that hamper the process. Europol commits itself to bridging the gap between police or intelligence agencies and the nuclear scientific community, and plans to increase its involvement in the near future, by organizing training sessions for law enforcement personnel in co-operation with our partners. Europol is also busy with producing threat assessments and possible scenarios of terrorist attacks, which also show that, in a general manner, the collection of intelligence on the criminal groups or individuals, modus operandi, or smuggling routes is a much more efficient way of prevention than the on-site physical protection, even if this latter method is indispensable. But, if despite preventive actions, a terrorist attack using mass destruction weapons actually occurs, its effects would be lessened by an appropriate reaction of the concerned authorities. That is why our organization is also involved in a process of awareness of our Member States, as only a few of them have set up a response capability in this domain. (author)

  10. Determination of geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics in Bilecik Marble, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerel Kandemir, Suheyla; Ozbay, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    Natural stones are one of the oldest known building materials. There are more than 400 natural stone in Turkey. Recently, the demand for the natural stone types in markets has been increasing rapidly. For this reason, the geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics of natural stone are very important. Bilecik province is located at the northwest part of Turkey and it is surrounded by Sakarya, Bursa, Eskisehir and Kutahya city. Bilecik is one of the important marble industry regions of Turkey. Thus, the geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics of Bilecik marble are very important. In this study, Bilecik marble was collected to determine the geochemistry and natural radioactivity. Then, analyses of geochemical and natural radioactivity in the marble samples are interpreted. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This study is supported by Bilecik Seyh Edebali University scientific project (Project Number =2011-02-BIL.03-04).

  11. Determinants of psychoactive substances use among Woldia University students in Northeastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adere, Ashete; Yimer, Nigus Bililign; Kumsa, Henok; Liben, Misgan Legesse

    2017-09-05

    Psychoactive substance use has become a major public health problem among students in Ethiopian universities. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the magnitude and determinants of psychoactive substances use (khat chewing, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking) among undergraduate students of Woldia University, Ethiopia. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed on Woldia University students in April 2015. 730 students were included in the study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. EpiData version 3.02 was used to enter data. Then, data were exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol drinking, khat chewing and cigarette smoking among the study students were 33.1, 13 and 7.9%, respectively. Likewise, the current prevalence of alcohol drinking, khat chewing and cigarette smoking was 27.9, 10.4 and 6.4%, respectively. More than half of the surveyed students (59.1%) were introduced to psychoactive substance use by peer pressure. About 66% of the study participants believed that psychoactive substances are important for relaxation, and 19% to relief from stress. Students who were Muslims [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.74, 95% CI (1.57, 8.91)], Oromo ethnic group [AOR 2.63, 95% CI (1.19, 5.81)], ever drunk alcohol [AOR 6.32, 95% CI (2.96, 13.48)] and ever smoked cigarette [AOR: 9.16, 95% CI (4.33, 19.38)] were positively associated with khat chewing. Furthermore, pocket money and ever khat chewing were associated with alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. This study showed that psychoactive substances use is somewhat prevalent among students in Woldia University. Hence, support of religious institutions in providing education aimed at preventing substance use, establishing and strengthening peer educators in the university are important interventions to tackle psychoactive substances use.

  12. Determining the Knowledge Level of Pre-Service Teachers' on Radioactivity and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, N. Remziye

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the basic knowledge levels of teacher candidates' from different branches regarding the subjects of radiation and radioactivity. 42 variables were determined in relation to the specified titles. In the preparation stage of determining the variables, all the related programs were examined, and attention was paid to include…

  13. Bio indicator organisms available to use for determination of radioactive elements in Turkey's seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbas, F.; Guener, H.

    2006-01-01

    In determination of radioactive concentration and monitoring alive and lifeless environmental samples possess a significant place. Thus, intense study is carried out related to natural and artificial radionuclides sediment. Bio indicator living organisms inhabiting in sea ecosystems; are being evaluated in researches such as determinations of environmental pollution, natural and artificial radioactive elements. Turkey's seas are rich related to diversification of various types. In determining and monitoring radioactivity concentration widespread implementation of some sorts appeal attention and on the other hand inadequate usage of many types is observed. In the present study, providing information about the bio indicator organisms keep living in seas and plays important role in food supply chain and increasing the numbers of the types of organisms used are aimed

  14. Determination of 90Sr, 129I and gross beta radioactivity concentration in some teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan Sahin; Mahmut Dogru

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 90 Sr (540 keVβ - ), 129 I (150 keVβ - ) and the gross beta radioactivity concentrations were determined for the samples of tea as the most leading consumed hot drink in the markets (processed and packaged for sale) in our country. Furthermore, the obtained data were statistically analyzed. For determination of 129 I (150 keVβ - ), 90 Sr (540 keVβ - ) and gross radioactivity concentrations in tea samples, a sensor system consisting of scintillation detector with BP4 probe sensitive to beta radiation and a radiation meter (ST7) configurable for windows at desired power was used. (author)

  15. Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two staple foods (maize and mung beans) which were cultivated in Minjingu village, where there is phosphate deposit in Tanzania, were collected directly from the farms. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th and 40K were determined in the maize and mung beans samples using γ ray spectrometry employing HPGe ...

  16. A methodology for determining environmental threshold quantities for substances covered by CEPA's Environmental Emergency Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketcheson, K.; Shrives, J.

    2005-01-01

    Sections 199 and 200 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) 1999 oblige persons who own or manage specified toxic and hazardous substances to develop and implement environmental emergency plans. This paper discussed the methodology for determining how a chemical is assessed for recommending an environmental emergency plan. For Section 199, once substances are declared toxic, each chemical is assessed to determine whether it requires a plan or not. For Section 200, any chemical can be added under the E2 regulations, as long as it can be ascertained that the substance is toxic according to the following criteria: it has an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity; it constitutes a danger to the environment on which human life depends; and/or it constitutes a danger in Canada to human life or health. An overview of the risk evaluation framework was provided, including details of the pre-assessment filter. Summaries of trigger criteria were presented, as well as environmental hazard ratings and details of persistence of organic chemicals in the environment and bioaccumulation. Aquatic toxicity and ingestion toxicity details were also provided. Human hazard ratings included carcinogenicity, inhalation toxicity, dermal toxicity, rabbit and rat toxicity and corrosion and skin irritation ratings. Issues concerning vapour cloud explosions were examined. A reactivity table was presented with hazard descriptions. European Union Threshold quantities were examined, as well as a list of comparisons of selected substances of CEPA with the European Union. It was concluded that the Environmental Emergency Branch (EEB) has created environmental thresholds by first examining how other countries have protected the environment. Substance thresholds for the United States have focused on protecting humans, while Europe has established threshold quantities that work for their countries. The EEB has selected classification tables

  17. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10......%. The active or activable fibronectin was compared to the immunoreactive fibronectin in plasma from patients with various bacterial diseases. Similar concentrations were detected by the two assays suggesting that all the circulating fibronectin was functionally active. The assay was also applied to determine...

  18. Determination of the radioactive concentration of 137Cs in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    According to the latest Hungarian standard valid from January 1987 the activity concentration of 137 Cs in soil is determined based on the measurement of beta disintegration rate following the radiochemical separation of cesium ion. Soil samples are destructed with strong acid. Dissolved cesium is retained selectively by ammonium-molybdo-phosphate in a batch process. The inorganic ion-exchanger is dissoled with concentrated sodium-hydroxide, and, finally, cesium ion is precipitated with hexa-chloro-platinate. In the course of beta detection self-absoprtion of the precipitate must be corrected. (V.N.)

  19. DETERMINING PARAMETERS OF THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION OF A SUBSTANCE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SELF-REFERENCED REFLECTION THZ SPECTROSCOPY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining dielectric function of liquid solutions and thereby concentrations of substances in aqueous solution or the volatile/non-volatile nature of the liquid by self-referenced reflection THz spectroscopy. Having the aqueous solution in any container with a window al....... The invention is particularly useful for determining alcohol (ethanol) content in aqueous solution containing other substances and particles....

  20. Identification and determination of natural radioactive impurities in rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, M.J.; Cen, Y.H.; Tang, T.Y.; Chang, J.X.

    1988-01-01

    227 Ac, 228 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb can be present at rare earth chlorides. A radiochemical procedure is presented for the identification and determination of natural radioactive impurities in rare earth chlorides. The determination limits for these radionuclides were 1.5x10 -4 to 3x10 -1 Bq/g. The relative standard deviations for determining 10 -2 Bq/g radionuclides were usually less than +-7%. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. The issue of safety in the transports of radioactive materials; Le probleme de la securite dans les transports de substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallier, Lucien

    1961-11-20

    This report addresses and discusses the various hazards associated with transports of radioactive materials, their prevention, intervention measures, and precautions to be taken by rescuers, notably how these issues are addressed in regulations. For each of these issues, this report proposes guidelines, good practices, or procedures to handle the situation. The author first addresses hazards related to a transport of radioactive products: multiplicity of hazards, different hazards due to radioactivity, hazards due to transport modes, scale of dangerous doses. The second part addresses precautionary measures: for road transports, for air transports, for maritime transports, control procedures. The third part addresses the intervention in case of accident: case of a road accident with an unhurt or not vehicle crew, role of the first official rescuers, other kinds of accidents. The fourth part briefly addresses the case of transport of fissile materials. The fifth part discusses the implications of safety measures. Appendices indicate standards, and give guidelines for the construction of a storage building for radioactive products, for the control and storage of parcels containing radioactive products, and for the establishment of instructions for the first aid personnel.

  2. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-01-01

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ( 3 H, 3 He, 239 Pu, 241 Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO 2 and UO 2 systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of 1 H NMR detection of H 2 O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96

  3. Determination of annual limit of intake for long-lived radioactive dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, S.H.; Horvath, F.J.

    1989-08-01

    A method for the determination of the annual limit on intake (ALI) for long-lived radioactive dust that is associated with every step in the uranium production process is proposed. It is based on methodology indicated in ICRP 26. A sample calculation for the ALI of fresh yellowcake is provided to assist in explaining this method

  4. Determination of activation level energy of nuclear isomers by calibration of microspectra of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, A.; Pavlicsek, I.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear isomers with unknown activation level were irradiated by calibrated radioactive sources. The integral cross sections were calculated for different energies of the sources. The activation energy was given by values coinciding with each other within the limits of error. The method made the determination of the unknown level of 1180+-10 keV of 195 Pt nucleus possible. (author)

  5. Method for the determination of clay and mica concentrations in subsurface sandstone formations through radioactive logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for radioactivity well logging in a subsurface sandstone formation penetrated by a borehole. The invention relates particularly to clay and mica contents, which are determined from the natural gamma-ray activities. The natural sources of gamma radiation in the formation, are the trace elements thorium, uranium and potassium. (U.K.)

  6. Rapid determination of radioactive general β in the rain and snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuqing; Jiao Shufeng

    1992-01-01

    Deposit filtration has been successfully applied to the determination of radioactive general β in the rain and snow. This method is more direct and rapid than evaporation, and more efficient. The method has been widely used in the emergency monitoring of nuclear pollution

  7. An improved analytical method for iodine-129 determination in low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Wang, TsingHai; Jian, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Han; Wang, Chu-Fang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences; Tsai, Tsuey-Lin [Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China). Chemical Analysis Div.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, an alkaline-digestion pretreatment and a subsequent ICP-MS measurement were conducted for iodine-129 (I-129) determination in low-level radioactive waste. A TMAH + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Triton X-100 mixed alkaline digestion was the most effective mixture for I-129 determination. Using this alkaline reagent, a high level of I-129 recovery (101 ± 6%) was achieved for the analysis of the I-129-spiked standard reference materials NIST 2709 and 2711. Importantly, the I-129 concentrations determined for ten real samples provided by the Lan-Yu radioactive waste temporary storage site were found to be below the detection limit (0.011 mg/kg). This value was only approximately 30-70% of the values determined using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. This means that using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor severely overestimates the I-129 concentration in these low-level radioactive wastes. We therefore suggest that a detailed re-inspection of the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor should be performed to appropriately categorize these low-level radioactive wastes.

  8. The determination of cesium and rubidium in highly radioactive waste liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Songsheng

    1991-01-01

    Cesium and rubidium in high-level waste liquid were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with the instrument modified for analyzing radioactive samples. The results show that the method is effective and safe. The error of the method is less than +- 3%, and it has been used in the production of cesium

  9. Determination of favorable conditions of detonation in liquid and solid substance mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubeau, Raymond; Carles, Maurice; Cochet Muchy, Bernard; Ducouret, Andre

    1976-03-01

    Theoretical methods or testing techniques may be employed to provide for possible detonations of chemical substances capable of interreactions. The theoretical methods are based upon the determination of the specific energy of possible mixtures and the system geometry. But the testing techniques are the only ones to insure whether a given mixture may detonate, deflagrate or to be inert. Different possible examples are given [fr

  10. The use of fast and thermal neutron detectors based on oxide scintillators in inspection systems for prevention of illegal transportation of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhikov, V. D.; Grinyov, B. V.; Piven, L. A.; Pochet, T.; Onyshchenko, G. M.; Lysetska, O. K.; Nagornaya, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present results of our studies aimed at practical application of an efficient method for detection of fast and thermal neutrons, which uses the process of inelastic scattering on atom nuclei present in inorganic scintillators. Due to energy transformation in inelastic scattering, the main fraction of gamma-radiation energy falls into the low-energy range (below 0.3 MeV). Detection in this range ensures efficiency that reaches up to 70% (as compared with 1% using conventional LiI(E)-techniques) and depends on the effective atomic number of the scintillator. The most evident practical application field for this method is inspection systems for prevention of illegal transportation of radioactive substances. Especially promising is the creation of a small-sized neutron detector for portable radioactive materials detection systems using the 'scintillator-avalanche photodiode' technology

  11. Compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Endrulat, H.J.; Haubelt, R.; Westpfahl, U.

    1976-04-01

    The present compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the FRG is a continuation of a report series on aerosol filter and iodine filter samples from the exhaust air control systems of the nuclear power plants Gundremmingen, Obrigheim, Wuergassen, Stade, Lingen and Biblis A. The reports have been issued by the Federal public health office since 1972. This report is supplemented by annual release values on radioactive noble gases, on short- and long-lived aerosols, and on gaseous 131 I, supplied by the individual nuclear power plants as in previous years on uniform questionnaires. Data on the release of tritium are also available from some nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  12. Simultaneous determination of radioactive halogen isotopes and 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabai, E.; Vajda, N.; Gaca, P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simplified method for simultaneous determination of radiologically important halogen isotopes and 99 Tc from different types of samples like environmental, biological and waste samples. Due to their long half-lives (longer than 10 5 years) they play important role in the nuclear cycle, especially in environmental monitoring and protection. For a rapid response in the evaluation of 129 I, 36 Cl and 99 Tc contamination levels of these samples it is advantageous to combine the existing individual methods. According to the present procedure, iodine, chlorine and technetium are separated selectively from the same sample aliquot followed by the β spectrometry of the purified fractions. Increased sensitivities can be achieved by neutron activation (NA) especially in the case of 129 I. Our work intends to solve the problem by combining the well-known hot acidic distillation method for iodine separation with the organic extraction process characteristic for technetium separation. The major objective of the work was to separate the disturbing halides from iodine. For this purpose a selective oxidant was applied. For the sample destruction and fractionated distillation an air flow-through installation was used with hot concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids. The trap for iodine contained 3 M NaOH solution. After iodine separation the trap was exchanged for a new one containing the same solution for trapping chlorine or bromine with an addition of 0.01 M KMnO 4 solution as an oxidative agent. As expected, the main part of technetium was contained in the acidic residue after distillation. Tc purification was performed by organic extraction with TBP and TEVA column. (author)

  13. Simple determination of 99Tc in radioactive waste using Tc extraction disk and imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameo, Y.; Katayama, A.; Hoshi, A.; Haraga, T.; Nakashima, M.

    2010-01-01

    A simple method was developed for determination of 99 Tc in low-level radioactive waste: Technetium-99 retained by a solid phase extraction disk was directly measured with imaging plates system. It was found that more than 97% of Tc were retained by the disk from a solution of pH 2 to 12, whereas depth profile of Tc in the disk, which greatly influences the counting efficiency, depended on solution pH. The present method was successfully applied to actual radioactive liquid waste samples arising from nuclear research facilities.

  14. Determination of the dispersion coefficient, in rivers through radioactive and fluorescent tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Rosso, T.C. de.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine experimentally the dispersion coefficient in natural streams through the aplication of radioactive and fluorescent tracers. The technique used to obtain the experimental data was the simmultaneous injection of the radioactive tracer Bromim - 82 and the fluorescent ones, Amidorodamine G. extra and Uranine. A comparison among these different tracers is shown as well as the performance of Uranine in a poluented stream in the presence of suspended sediments. The site chosen for the experiments was the Piabanha River, between Pedro do Rio and Areal, located at Rio de Janeiro state, in a nearly 20 Km strech. (Author) [pt

  15. Determination of Isotopes Types and Activities in Radioactive Waste of Kosovo A Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    , B Cena; , K Dollani; , G Hodolli

    2013-01-01

    The second nnportant event after the 1nventory of rad10act1ve waste 1n Kosovo, their location and the number of radioactive sources, is the determination of the type of radioisotope and their activities. This activity was conducted entirely in difŞcult terrain and was taken due to the absence in most cases of resource certiŞcates or any other document with the necessary information that will enable the identiŞcation of radioactive sources and their activity. In this way the activity was under...

  16. Impacts and issues of the radioactive substances due to the nuclear disaster. Cases of municipalities and elementary schools in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Takehiko; Itaya, Sohei

    2012-01-01

    While all stakeholders make efforts by all means for mitigating impacts induced by radioactive substances after the accident, we would have to have a long way to restore the situation. Particularly, it would be difficult to promote meaningful communication about various risks. For making clear of current situation and issues to be resolved, we conducted a questionnaire survey for local governments and elementary schools in Fukushima prefecture. While local governments' officials and schools' teachers are willing to promote communication with public, they have substantial difficulties to do so. One reason is insufficient volume of information dissemination from national and prefectural governments. It would be important to increase manpower to promote better communication. (author)

  17. Determination of 35S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-01-01

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to [ 35 S]methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of 35 S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of [ 35 S]methionine. The use of [ 35 S]methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of 35 S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed

  18. Determination of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-11-15

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to (/sup 35/S)methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of (/sup 35/S)methionine. The use of (/sup 35/S)methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of /sup 35/S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed.

  19. DETERMINATION OF RELATED IMPURITIES IN THE ANILOCAINE SUBSTANCE BY HPLC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Sabirzyanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anilocaine is a local anesthetic from the group of substituted amides, synthesized in the Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy. Anilocaine shows high surface anesthetic, infiltration and conduction anesthesia and shows the high efficiency in the various fields of medical practice. The quality of produced medicines depends on the quality of pharmaceutical substances. The purity is one of the most important parameters of the quality of pharmaceutical substances. The aim of this work was the development and validation of methods for identification of specific impurities in the substance of anilocaine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and methods. Studies were performed on liquid chromatography LC-20 Prominence (Shimadzu, Japan equipped with a diode-array detector (SPD-M20A. Chromatographic column was Zorbax SB-C18 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm. Validation assessment of the developed method conducted in accordance with the requirements of FP XIII and international requirementsICH (International Conference on Harmonization. Results and discussion. An experiment on the selection of the conditions of chromatographically showed that optimal separation of anilocaine and possible impurities (identified and unidentified by the method of reversed-phase HPLC is observed in isocratic mode, using an eluent based on phosphate buffer pH 3 and acetonitrile. The flow rate of mobile phase is 1 ml/min; wavelength detection is 210 nm. Time check chromatogram is 20 minutes. Conclusion. The method for the quantitative determination of impurities in the substance of anilocaine by high-performance liquid chromatography was developed as the result of the research. The validation procedure of the analytical methods established its specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. This method is included in the project monograph on substance of anilocaine.

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE HABITS OF ASTHMATIC PATIENTS ABOUT USING SUBSTANCE CONTAINING PERFUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan GOCGELDI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air pollution, perfume, aerosol substances, odors of paint and detergent are the most important non-specific irritants stimulating the asthmatic attack. The odors of these substances exist for long time and form the serious risk for the asthmatic patients. This study was planned to determine the frequency of using perfume and substance containing perfume and the sensitivities to the substances among the asthmatic patients using inhaling steroid and b2-mimetic ant asthmatic drugs. Methods: This is a descriptive study and conducted among patients who applied to the Allergic Diseases outpatient service of Gulhane Military Medical Academia in October-December 2004. 83 asthmatic patients who accepted to participate to the study filled out a questionnaire that including patients habits relating perfume, cleaners with perfume, perfume for living room, toilets and bathrooms, and having dyspnea or not when exposed any kind of perfumes and using any b2-mimetik or not. Results: 73.5% (n=61 of participants were male, and 26.5 % (n=22 were women. Their ages were from 18 to 57 years. 79.5% (n=66 of participants expressed that they were sensitive to the odors mentioned and experienced the respiratory problems when they were at the surroundings by odour and 26.5% (n=22 of participants sometimes used the B2-mimetic antiasthmatic drugs for this reason. On the other hand; It was found that 68.7% (n=57 of participants regularly used the perfume for themselves everyday, 85.5% (n=71 of participants washed their clothings by using cleaners and/or softeners with perfume, 44.6% (n=37 of participants used the perfume for their rooms frequently, 62.7% (n=52 of participants used substance with perfume in their toilets and bathrooms. Conclusion: We conclude that the asthmatic patients have not sufficient knowledge about non-spesific irritants stimulating the asthmatic attack, and don’t behave sensitive. It’s important to plan properly the medical

  1. Accident with radioactive substances in laboratory. An exercise during the education of persons in radiation protection, who are working with open radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolze, B.

    2003-01-01

    In spite of carefulness it is possible,that contamination occur by handling unscaled radioactive sources or in case of an accident. It is demonstrated in an exercise managing an accident with unscaled radioactive sources. The persons, who are educated in radiation protection for handling unsealed radioactive sources, must have knowledge of theoretical regulations of the radiation protection law and of the limits in radiation protection. Also they have to know the handling to reduce possible contamination. They have to be able to calculate the dose of skin contamination. In my lecture I give some information on regulations of accidents with radioactive sources in Germany and a scenario of an accident and I explain, what is to do to manage this event. A person opened an ampoule. The activity splashed and contaminated the person's hand, arm and face. Also in the room there was a contamination. The desk and the floor were contaminated. There were 50 MBq P-32 as NaH 2 P''32O 3 in water solution, I give a report on practices in our courses, which the participants have to do. The radiological experts have to decontaminate the skin and they have to calculate the skin-dose and to give the information to the authorities. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Stb 342 - Decree of 4 June 1987 amending the Decree on the transport of fissionable materials, ores and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 1969 transport Decree governs all modes of transport of fissile and radioactive materials as well as ores in and to and from the Netherlands. The 1987 Decree amends it, in particular, for modernization purposes. (NEA) [fr

  3. A portable Si/CdTe Compton camera and its applications to the visualization of radioactive substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shin' ichiro, E-mail: takeda@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Harayama, Atsushi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ichinohe, Yuto [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Odaka, Hirokazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Genba, Kei; Matsuura, Daisuke; Ikebuchi, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, 1200 Higashi-Tanaka, Komaki, Aichi 485-8561 (Japan); Tomonaka, Tetsuya [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, 2-1-1 Shinhama, Arai-cho, Takasago, Hyogo 676-8686 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray imagers with the potential for visualizing the distribution of radioactive materials are required in the fields of astrophysics, medicine, nuclear applications, and homeland security. Based on the technology of the Si/CdTe Compton camera, we have manufactured the first commercial Compton camera for practical use. Through field tests in Fukushima, we demonstrated that the camera is capable of hot spot detection and the evaluation of radioactive decontamination.

  4. A portable Si/CdTe Compton camera and its applications to the visualization of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Harayama, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Yuto; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Genba, Kei; Matsuura, Daisuke; Ikebuchi, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Tomonaka, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray imagers with the potential for visualizing the distribution of radioactive materials are required in the fields of astrophysics, medicine, nuclear applications, and homeland security. Based on the technology of the Si/CdTe Compton camera, we have manufactured the first commercial Compton camera for practical use. Through field tests in Fukushima, we demonstrated that the camera is capable of hot spot detection and the evaluation of radioactive decontamination

  5. Determination of the gaseous emission of toxic substances in the Curva de Rodas sanitary landfill in Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Renteria, Francisco Fernando; Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of the investigation conducted at the sanitary landfill Curva de Rodas, aimed to determine the emission and migration of toxic substances are presented. Traces of benzene, toluene, hexane, vinyl chloride and xylene were found. Concentrations of these substances were, however, below threshold limits at the landfill and below detectable limits in the air of populated areas adjacent to the sanitary landfill

  6. Determination of sink intensity of side shoots by the use of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.D.; Forche, E.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of side shoots in the source-sink system of tomato plants was demonstrated by following the translocation of 32 P and 14 C applied to different leaves. The results showed that the side shoots were important sinks for photosynthetic products until the growing fruits of adjoining inflorescences became predominant attraction centres. (orig.) [de

  7. Advance in radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J. A.; Farrera V, R.

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  8. Rapid in situ gamma spectrometric determination of fallout radioactivity in the environment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zombori, Peter

    1995-01-01

    The main aim of the present CRP is to identify the existing analytical methods and develop new ones, if possible, which provide rapid, reliable, and detailed information on the radioactive contamination of the environment after a major nuclear accident. Gamma spectrometry has long been regarded as one of the most applicable radioanalytical techniques but its use for environmental studies requires some further considerations. There are two possible approaches to measure environmental radioactivity: (a) taking samples of the different environmental media and measuring them in a laboratory or (b) taking the spectrometer to the place of interest and making in situ measurements. In the former case sampling is a crucial factor hindering the rapid analysis while the latter case is not always reliable due to the problems and uncertainties of the measurement interpretation. The application of in situ gamma spectrometry for the determination of environmental radioactivity has become increasingly attractive since the advent of the high resolution semiconductor gamma detectors, especially, more recently, portable high purity Ge diodes (HpGe). The applicability of this technique was very well proved after the Chernobyl reactor accident when in situ spectrometry played an important role in the rapid evaluation of the fall-out situation. Our measurements provided information on the amount and composition of the radioactive contamination of the ground surface already in the first hours. These measurements enabled us to predict the time variation of the environmental radioactivity after the stabilization of the situation. The portability of the system was an important factor in performing a rapid and efficient survey in different parts of the country. A serious disadvantage of this method is, however, that it requires some knowledge about the radionuclide distribution in the soil, which is normally determined by tedious and time consuming sample analysis of the different soil

  9. Stability-indicating UPLC method for determining related substances and degradants in dronedarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pydimarry, Surya Prakash Rao; Cholleti, Vijay Kumar; Vangala, Ranga Reddy

    2014-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible method was developed on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection for the quantitative determination of dronedarone hydrochloride (DRO) in drug substance and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is applicable for the quantification of related substances and assays of drug substances. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Acquity UPLC BEH C8 100 mm, 2.1 mm and 1.7 µm columns, using gradient elution within a short run time of 10.0 min. The eluted compounds were monitored at 288 nm, the flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the column oven temperature was maintained at 40°C. The resolution of DRO and 11 impurities (potentials and by-products) was greater than 2.0 for all pairs of components. The high correlation coefficient value (>0.9995) indicates the clear correlations between the concentrations of investigated compound and their peak areas within the test ranges. The repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed by the relative standard deviation, were less than 2.5%. The accuracy and validity of the method were further ascertained by performing recovery studies via a spike method. The accuracy of the method, expressed as relative error, was satisfactory. No interference was observed from concomitant substances normally added to the tablets. DRO was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. DRO was found to degrade significantly in acid and base stress conditions and to remain stable in thermal, photolytic degradation, oxidative and hydrolytic conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from primary peak and its impurities, proving that the method is stability indicating. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines with respect to specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, precision, solution stability and robustness

  10. Limitations on the concentration of radioactive elements substances (natural or enhanced by human activity) in building materials - a proposal for draft Israeli regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Hareuveny, R.; Margaliot, M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural radioactive elements 40 K 228 U and 232 Th and their decay product such as 226 Ra and its short lived daughters occur in building materials in relatively high concentrations. 40 K and part of the above mentioned radionuclides cause external exposure while the inhalation of 222 Ra and its short lived progeny lead to internal exposure of the respiratory tract to alpha particles. In recent years there is a growing tendency to use new construction materials with naturally or technologically enhanced levels of radioactivity (e.g. phosphogypsum, fly ash, exotic minerals etc). This trend causes a growing health concern.The result of this concern is legislation activity and publication of guidance notes by national authorities and international professional organizations related to the radiological implications of these novel technologies. The Ministry of the Environment in Israel is authorized by Israeli legislation to control the exposure of the public to ionising radiation. The ministry asked in 1996 a professional group in the Radiation Protection Division in the Soreq NRC (the authors of this presentation) to study the radiological implications of the use of building materials with naturally or technologically enhanced concentrations of radioactive substances, and to submit draft regulations setting primary limits on excess exposure of the public to ionizing radiation from building materials, and derived limits related to concentrations of specific radionuclides in these materials.The draft regulations will be presented and the way of their derivation will be reviewed (authors)

  11. Laser photodetachment of radioactive ions: towards the determination of the electronegativity of astatine

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, Sebastian; Welander, Jakob Emanuel; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Fedosseev, Valentine; Fiotakis, Spyridon; Forstner, Oliver; Heinke, Reinhard Matthias; Johnston, Karl; Kron, Tobias; Koester, Ulli; Liu, Yuan; Marsh, Bruce; Ringvall Moberg, Annie; Rossel, Ralf Erik; Seiffert, Christoph; Studer, Dominik; Wendt, Klaus; Hanstorp, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Negatively charged ions are mainly stabilized through the electron correlation effect. A measure of the stability of a negative ion is the electron affinity, which the energy gain by attaching an electron to a neutral atom. This fundamental quantity is, due to the almost general lack of bound excited states, the only atomic property that can be determined with high accuracy for negative ions. We will present the results of the first laser photodetachment studies of radioactive negative ions at CERN-ISOLDE. The photodetachment threshold for the radiogenic iodine isotope 128I was measured successfully, demonstrating the performance of the upgraded GANDALPH experimental beam line. The first detection of photo-detached astatine atoms marks a milestone towards the determination of the EA of this radioactive element.

  12. α-amylase assay and action pattern determination using radioactive substrate, HPLC, and a radioactive flow detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsili, R.T.; Ostapenko, H.

    1987-01-01

    A new assay system is presented for the analysis of α-amylase. The disappearance of 14 C-labeled starch substrate and the appearance of its radioactive degradation products were monitored by HPLC and a radioactive flow detector/integrator. The hydrolysis of radioactive substrate was proportional to enzyme concentration when two commercially available α-amylase preparations of Bacillus subtilis origin were studied. The method demonstrated an average recovery of 101.7 +/- 6.5% when modified food starch was spiked with amylase and analyzed. In addition, the method was shown to be useful for predicting detailed action patterns of various types of amylases

  13. Determination of protein content in grains by radioactive thermal neutron capture prompt gamma rays analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive thermal neutron capture prompt gamma rays technique can be used to determinate the nitrogen content in grains without chemical destruction, with good precision and relative rapidity. This determination is based on the detection of prompt gamma rays emitted by the 14 N(n,γ) 15 N reaction product. The samples has been irradiated the tanGencial tube of the IEA-R1 research reator and a pair spectrometer has been used for the detection of the prompt gamma rays. The nitrogen content is determinated in several samples of soybean, commonbean, peas and rice, and the results is compared with typical nitrogen content for each grain. (Autor) [pt

  14. Complexo-potentiometric determination of mercury (II) in chlormerodrin and mercuric chloride labelled with radioactive mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duek, E.E.

    1976-09-01

    A method is described for determining the amount of mercury (II) in radioactively labelled chlormerodrin and mercuric chloride. By measuring the absolute activity in an ionization chamber, the specific activity is therefore immediately obtained. The determination of Hg (II) is based on a complexometric titration. Because of method characteristics and speed convenience, the end point is observed by means of a pH-meter. A comparison is made with a determination performed by detecting the end point with color-change indicators. The error is estimated, and the results are statistically interpreted. (author) [es

  15. Rapid separation and determination of 107Pd in radioactive waste produced during NPP A-1 decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Andris; Miroslav Prazsky; Ferdinand Sebesta

    2015-01-01

    Procedure for 107 Pd determination in radioactive wastes coming from decommissioning of NPP A-1 is proposed and verified. 107 Pd was separated and purified by Pd precipitation with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and/or ferric hydroxide precipitation. 107 Pd yield was determined gravimetrically by weighing the Pd(DMG) 2 precipitate. 107 Pd counting was performed using liquid scintillation counter (LSC-TDCR) and scintillation cocktail Hionic Fluor. In all analyzed samples the determined activities of 107 Pd were lower than MDA. Nevertheless such analyses permit the decision concerning the storage of solidified wastes in the Mochovce regional repository. (author)

  16. A calculation strategy for the determination of the temperature distribution in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, K.; Biurrun, E.

    1989-01-01

    In the past many calculation tools have been developed for the determination of instationary temperature distributions in radioactive waste repositories (single source model/large scale model/unit cell model using analytical or numerical methods; overall model using analytical or numerical methods). This paper discusses how, in practice, all these calculation tools have to be associated sensibly in a special calculation strategy making use of their actual advantages

  17. Determination of radioactive emission origins based on analyses of isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devell, L.

    1987-01-01

    The nature of radioactivity emissions can be determined through gamma spectroscopy of air samples with good precision, which means that the type of source of the emission may be found, e.g. nuclear weapons test, of nuclear power plant accident. Combined with information on wind trajectories it is normally possible to recognize time and area for the emission. In this preliminary study, the knowledge of and preparedness for such measurements are described. (L.E.)

  18. Current state of the technology measures of accident from contamination by the radioactive substance. 2. Overall management of radioactive material contaminated waste in the off-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the disposal standards of the Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake that Occurred on March 11, 2011, which was promulgated on August 30, 2011 as a framework for the management of radioactively contaminated waste and removed soil. It stipulated that the byproducts of water/sewage treatment, major ash, and fly ash up to the radiation of 8,000 Bq/kg can be reclaimed in land. However, fly ash has a limit in landfill conditions, due to very high leaching rate of radioactive cesium. Later, incineration ash with between 8,000 Bq/kg and 100,000 Bq/kg became possible to be buried at disposal sites corresponding to leachate-controlled type. The specified waste with 100,000 Bq/kg or above is reclaimed in land with specified method at a site provided with outer peripheral partition facilities and cut off from the public water and groundwater. In Fukushima Prefecture, the specified waste with 100,000 Bq/kg or above is to be stored in provisional storage facilities, and later sent to final disposal sites outside the prefecture after the volume has been reduced. The decontaminated waste composed of vegetation is covered totally with a breathable waterproof sheet, and stored at a provisional yard. According to the characteristics of each provisional storage yard, there are needs for patrol and management. (A.O.)

  19. Key radionuclides and parameters that determine performance of geologic repositories for high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhong Ahn; Atsuyuki Suzuki

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results of a mathematical analysis for performance of the engineered barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories. The main body of the mathematical model developed in this study is mass transport of actinides in a bentonite region. In an analysis of actinide transport, radioactive decay chain and effects of low solubilities must be taken into account. In many previous models for mass transport in engineered barriers including radioactive decay chain, however, boundary conditions at the interface between the waste form and the bentonite region cannot be determined flexibly. In some models, solubility-limited boundary condition is assumed for all the members in a chain. In order to investigate what are key radionuclides and parameters that control performance of engineered barriers of a geologic repository, we must evaluate mass transport with the source boundary condition determined by a detailed analysis on mass transfer at the boundary. In this study, we developed a mathematical model, which can determine whether the inner boundary condition is solubility-limited or congruent release, based on a mathematical analysis for mass transfer at the glass dissolution location, and how long the solubility-limited boundary condition applies. Based on the mathematical model, we point out radionuclides and parameters that have primary influences on the performance of a repository, and investigate a reasonable strategy for coupling geologic disposal and partitioning of those key radionuclides from the standpoint of reducing hazard of geologic disposal. (authors). 4 tabs., 2 figs., 8 refs

  20. Determination of 90Sr in low-level radioactive wastes using extraction chromatography and LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temba, Eliane S.C.; Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Mingote, Raquel M.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of 90 Sr in low-level radioactive wastes is presented in this work. It is a part of a methodology developed for the sequential radiochemical separation of radionuclides in low-level radioactive wastes. These radionuclides comprises the actinides and 55 Fe, 63 Ni and 90 Sr, classified as difficult-to-measure (DTM) radionuclides in the radioactive waste characterization, because they cannot be measured by direct measurements, like gamma spectrometry. A variety of methods have been reported in the literature, based on precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange. In this work, the separation was carried out using precipitation and extraction chromatography using the Sr Resin (Eichrom). This resin is strontium-selective, the extractant is a crown ether-derivative immobilized on an inert polymeric support. The 90 Sr eluted from column was measured by LSC. The counting was carried out within 5 hours of the start of yttrium ingrowth to minimize interferences from 90 Y. The counting efficiency was calculated by using a 90 Sr standard solution purified by the specific resin. The chemical yield of the procedure was determined gravimetrically by the addition of a stable Sr carrier. Optimum conditions for the pretreatment, separation and LSC setting were determined using simulated samples. This procedure showed to be rapid and achieved a good chemical recovery, with an average of 84 %, and a detection limit of 0.6 Bq L -1 . (author)

  1. Determining the level of gross alpha and beta radioactivity of water from Marilao river using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, J.; Magtaka, J.; Balisi, R.; Castaneda, Soledad; De Vero, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level of gross alpha- and beta- radioactivity present in the Marilao River. Liquid Scintillation Counter was used to detect samples radioactivity. Water samples were taken along the different spots of Marilao River. The results showed that the radioactivity are below the Philippine National Standard for Drinking Water (PNSDW) which is 0.1 Bq/L for gross alpha activity and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta activity set by the Dept. of Health. Hence water samples from Marilao River, is safe in terms of the level of radioactivity levels.(author)

  2. Attack in a subway by an explosive containing radioactive substance. Specificities of the taking charge and assistance organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curet, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of explosives with radioactive material in them during an attack in the subway obliges several specificities in the help organisation, in the taking charge of victims and in the environmental management for the broadest meaning. That is the purpose of this article. (N.C.)

  3. Stb No. 404 - Decree of 12 July 1983 amending the fissionable materials, ores and radioactive substances (Transport) Decree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    For the Netherlands, international carriage by air of radioactive materials is governed by the regulations of the internationl Air Transport Association (IATA) which are partly based on the IAEA's recommendations in this respect. These were revised in 1973, and the present Decree amends the Transport Decree of 1969 to align it with the 1973 revision followed by IATA. (NEA) [fr

  4. Determination of Heavy Metals and Radioactive Elements in Alluvial Soil using Atomic Absorption and Gamma Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, S.S.; Walley EI Dine, N.; Soliman, S.I.; Moussa, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes some methods dealing with measurements of some heavy and radioactive elements (U, Th and K) in Egyptian cultivated soil samples. Samples were collected from Toshka area. Also, soil and plant samples were collected from Kalube and EI - Gabal EI - Asfar to compare the obtained results from both region. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS),Neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Natural radioactivity techniques were followed. FAAS and INAA techniques agreed fairly well for the compared elements Co,Zn and Fe which determined by the two techniques. Also for K which was determined by FAAS and natural radioactivity. It was found that the concentration range in soil samples for Co, Fe, K and Zn lies between 4.18 and 29.2 μg/g, 3.0 and 3.8 mg/g, 3.49 and 13.28 mg/g and 120 and 663 μg/g respectively while in plant samples the concentration of Co was from 3.02 to 4.02 μg/g, Fe from 1.18 to 1.35 mg/g and Zn from 29.63 to 73.02 μg/g

  5. Determination of 40K radioactivity in the soil using energy dispersive X ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiwei; Song Fuxiang; Zeng Liping; Lu Hongning

    2012-01-01

    The 40 K radioactive of' the pressed powder sample was determined by Epsilon 5 high-energy polarized energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. The correlation coefficient of the standard curve method was 0.9910, the precision was 2.98% and the relative deviation of the measurement standard samples was up to 6.40%, which showed that the precision and accuracy of the method were also good. Simultaneous measurement of seven soil samples using this method and γ-spectrometer were carried, the results of two analytical methods were compared using a paired t-test by SPSS program, which showed that there was no significant difference in the two sets of data, P>0.05. It indicated that EDXRF could be a potential simple method for analyzing 40 K radioactive in soil samples. (authors)

  6. Determination of natural radioactivity levels in sediments: Caravelas river, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, R.F.; Trindade Filho, O.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Peixoto, J.G. P., E-mail: rfcarmo@bolsista.ird.gov.br, E-mail: octavio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: delgado@ird.gov.br, E-mail: guilherm@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Evangelista, H., E-mail: evangelista.uerj@gmail.com [Lab. de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais (LARAMG/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Due to intensive human activity in the region and disorderly occupation, the Caravelas River estuary has not yet evaluated the contribution of natural radioactivity. In order to determine the natural radioactivity levels in sediments, the activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, were calculated using a gamma spectrometry system for measuring the concentration of radiation in samples. Results for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K ranged from (18.03 to 191.51), (28.57 to 118.25) and (134.06 to 186.80) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, within of detection limits. The estimated uncertainty levels were less than 10% (k = 1). (author)

  7. Determination of natural radioactivity levels in sediments: Caravelas river, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, R.F.; Trindade Filho, O.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Peixoto, J.G. P.; Evangelista, H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to intensive human activity in the region and disorderly occupation, the Caravelas River estuary has not yet evaluated the contribution of natural radioactivity. In order to determine the natural radioactivity levels in sediments, the activities of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K, were calculated using a gamma spectrometry system for measuring the concentration of radiation in samples. Results for "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K ranged from (18.03 to 191.51), (28.57 to 118.25) and (134.06 to 186.80) Bq.kg"-"1, respectively, within of detection limits. The estimated uncertainty levels were less than 10% (k = 1). (author)

  8. Seepage determinations through auxiliary dike in Chingaza reservoir using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, L.; Obando, E.; Jimenez, G.; Torrez, E.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope techniques used in hydrology and developed during the last ten years in Colombia are usually tracer techniques based on the use of nuclides either introduced or naturally present in water. A problem of current content importance in hydraulics structures is seepage and the problems connected with it, such as impermeability of dams docks and their foundations. Many approaches are used to investigate these questions, but the simplest and most successful is the radiometric method. Radiometric observation of the flow of water through the earth dock involves introducing at a fixed point in the flow of water a radioactive solution and then following its movement downstream of the dock, and finding the place where it goes using appropriate detectors arranged at fixed control points. This paper describes the mean of choosing the injection points, the techniques for introducing radioactive solution and the conditions that must be borne in mind when selecting the radioisotope and determining its optimum activity. (author)

  9. A model for absorption determination of radioactive materials: application in the radio dosimetry and nutrition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de.

    1991-01-01

    A three-parameter model of the sigmoidal relationship is proposed to explain the food passage by intestinal tube. These parameters are: U = intestinal non-absorbed radioactivity; d parameter related to intestinal food dispersion; and t 50 = time to maximal appearance of material from the intestinal lumen. In order to illustrate the applications of this model and its validity, the absorption of 65 Zn from casein semi-purified diet was evaluated in rats. There was a good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental data when the sigmoidal component was added to the conventional multicompartimental equations. With this kind of model the time to maximal appearance (hours), the true absorption level, the fecal concentration and the intestinal dispersion of the ingested radioactivity material may be determined. (author)

  10. Scintillation detector with anticoincidence shield for determination of the radioactive concentration of standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Radoszewski, T.

    1982-01-01

    The construction and parameters of the prototype liquid scintillation detector for disintegration rate determination of standard solutions is described. The detector is equipped with a liquid scintillation anticoincidence shield with a volume of 40 l. The instrument is placed in the building of the Radioisotope Production and Distribution Centre in the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk. The results of instrument background reduction are described. The counting efficiency of several beta-emitters 3 H, 63 Ni, 14 C and 90 Sr + 90 Y is given, as well as the examples of a disintegration rate determination of low radioactivity concentration of standard solutions. (author)

  11. Using of natural radioactivity for determination of phosphorus content in phosphate rocks, apatites and superphosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magas, S; Kasprzak, K S; Gorski, Z [Politechnika Poznanska (Poland). Inst. Chemii Podstawowej

    1980-01-01

    A quick radiometric method of determination of phosphorus content in natural phosphate rocks, apatites and phosphorus fertilizers, obtained from them has been developed on the basis of uranium and the products of its radioactive decay contained in these materials. The uranium content in these materials amounts to 0.01/0.02%, and is for a given deposit proportional to the phosphorus content. The method is well fitted for laboratory quick determination of phosphorus content in raw-materials and products in factories producing phosphorus fertilizers and makes possible the automation of process and proportioning of sulphuric acid in production of superphosphates.

  12. Substances of abuse - demand for their determinations in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van der Bijl

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Drug abuse is as relevant today as ever. Management of such cases on a primary health care level may be challenging, particularly when laboratory facilities are unavailable. Furthermore, substance abuse and its sequelae place a significant burden on the already overstretched primary health care resources in the country, as well as on other ser- vices and society in general. Objectives. The current study surveyed the trends in demand for laboratory determination of amphetamines, opiates, methaqualone, cannabis, cocaine and ethanol for the period 1991 - 2002, in the Western Cape. The survey was conducted by extracting the relevant data from the records of the Pharmacology/Toxicology Laboratory of the University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital. This facility processes the largest number of specimens by a single laboratory in the Western Cape. Results. From the data obtained a seasonal pattern emerged for all substances except ethanol, with a trough appearing in early winter. Demand for ethanol analysis was fairly constant throughout the year, with a peak in the last quarter. Ethanol level was the most frequently requested analysis between 1991 and 1997. This concurs with its status as the main substance of abuse in South Africa and the rest of the world. There was an increased demand for analysis of ampheta- mines, opiates, methaqualone, cannabis and cocaine between 1991 and 2002. Generally dominating, next to ethanol, were requests for cannabis and methaqualone analysis. Interesting to note was the increase in demand for opiate analysis, following the trend observed in certain other regions of the world. Conclusion. The analysis trends observed in this study demon- strate global patterns of drug abuse emerging in the Western Cape. The medical and social effects of drug abuse impose a grave responsibility on policymakers to ensure that adequate funding is available for analytical laboratories. Only in such a way can

  13. Contents of management plans for incidents and accidents involving the transport of radioactive substances. Guide no. 17, Version of 22/12/2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This guide presents the essential topics to be developed in a management plan for incidents and accidents involving the transport of radioactive substances for civil use. It does not aim to be exhaustive and could be added to by each party involved in the transport, who can make the necessary adaptations and additions, taking account of the particularities of its shipments and its organisation, as well as those of the company or group to which it belongs. The radioactive substances transport incident and accident management plan is a document comprising a descriptive part and an operational part. It presents the overall response of the party involved in the transport operation to an incident or accident situation concerning one of its shipments and the steps it intends to make in order to support the authorities in charge of this situation, in the best possible conditions. This response is designed to cover the cases of incidents or accidents whether or not they lead to a radiological emergency situation. The guide exclusively concerns: - road transport; - rail transport; - the 'road' and 'rail' parts of multimodal transport operations. The case of an incident or an accident occurring during a particular stop such as a transit site, in a transhipment area (port, airport, railway station, etc.), or in a transport infrastructure, is also covered by the radioactive substances transport incident and accident management plan, which then supports the entities in charge of managing this situation (operator of the transhipment area or the transport infrastructure and - as applicable - their supervisory authorities). The level of risk associated with transport incidents and accidents varies widely, according to the nature and quantities of the materials being carried, the number of shipments made and the package model used. The incident and accident management plan must therefore be tailored to the specific nature of the shipments by the party concerned. The radioactive

  14. Present status of ambient dose equivalent rate and radioactive substance concentration measurements in working environment. (3) Measuring instruments for ionizing radiation in working environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Shohei

    2006-01-01

    In order to measure the airborne radioactive substance concentration in working environments, some kinds of sampler such as dust sampler and iodine sampler, measuring instruments (alpha and beta spectrometer, and liquid scintillation counter), monitor (dust-, iodine- and gas-monitor), survey meter for measuring gamma ray dose rate are stated. The measurement method of α, β and γ-ray nuclides and ambient dose-equivalent at 10 mm was explained. Some examples of the list of dust sampler, filter, tritium sampler, dust monitor, iodine monitor, gas monitor, and survey meter on the market are shown. There are so many kinds of measuring instruments for ionizing radiation in working environment that the best instrument for measurement should be selected. The environment conditions such as sample form, temperature and humidity have to be considered in order to evaluate the measurement values. (S.Y.)

  15. Structure determination of butylone as a new psychoactive substance using chiroptical and vibrational spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spálovská, Dita; Králík, František; Kohout, Michal; Jurásek, Bronislav; Habartová, Lucie; Kuchař, Martin; Setnička, Vladimír

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there has been a worldwide substantial increase in the consumption of new psychoactive substances (NPS), compounds that mimic the structure of illicit drugs, such as amphetamines or ecstasy. The producers try to avoid the law by a slight modification of illicit structures, thereby developing dozens of temporarily legal NPS every year. The current trends in the detection and monitoring of such substances demand a fast and reliable analysis. Molecular spectroscopy represents a highly effective tool for the identification of NPS and chiroptical methods can provide further information on their 3D structure, which is the key for the determination of their biological activity. We present the first systematic study of NPS, specifically butylone, combining chiroptical and vibrational spectroscopies with ab initio calculations. According to density functional theory calculations, 6 stable lowest energy conformers of butylone were found and their molecular structure was described. For each conformer, the relative abundance based on the Boltzmann distribution was estimated, their population weighted spectra predicted and compared to the experimental results. Very good agreement between the experimental and the simulated spectra was achieved, which allowed not only the assignment of the absolute configuration, but also a precise description of the molecular structure. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Simultaneous determination of four common nonprotein nitrogen substances in urine by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhua; Huang, Dongqun; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Shiru; Feng, Shun

    2013-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was proposed to simultaneously determine four common nonprotein nitrogen substances, including creatine (Cr), creatinine (Cn), uric acid (Ua) and pseudouridine (Pu) in urine. After proteins being removed by acetone precipitation method, freeze drying and redissolving, the urine samples were analyzed by HPLC. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters RP18 Column (150 mm x 4.60 mm, 3.5 microm) in gradient elution mode using 10.0 mmol/L KH2PO4 solution (pH 4.78) and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The samples were detected at 220 nm. Rapid separation was achieved within 7 min. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities of four common nonprotein nitrogen substances were obtained in the range of 0.1-250 mg/L. The detection limits were 9.31 (Cr), 26.19 (Cn), 4.70 (Ua), an 6.30 (Pu) microg/L and the recoveries were in the range of 81%-111% with the relative standar deviations of 0.23%-2.78% (n = 3). The results demonstrate that this method is simple, rapid and accurate with good reproducibility, and can provide early diagnosis and preliminary judgment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with renal damage.

  17. Absorption and translocation of lead by plants: a contribution to the application of the method of radioactive indicators in the investigation of the change of substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hevesy, G

    1923-01-01

    The assimilation of lead from lead nitrate solutions by Vicia Faba has been investigated. A radioactive isotope of lead was mixed with the lead nitrate, and the amount of lead taken up was determined after ignition from the radioactive intensity of the ash of the various parts. This method makes possible the determination of exceedingly small amounts of assimilated lead. Whereas 0-3% of the lead is taken up by the root from 200 cc. of a 10/sup -1/ N lead nitrate solution in the course of 24 hours, 60% of the lead content of a 10/sup -1/ N lead nitrate solution in the course of 24 hours, 60% of the lead content of a 10/sup -6/ N solution is taken up in the same time. The leaves show a lead content of only a few hundredths or thousandths of 1% of the amount of lead present in the solution. The assimilated (radioactive) lead can be displaced by introduction of the plant containing lead into another lead solution, whereby inactive lead atoms now take the place of the radioactive ones. From this it follows that the lead is not combined with carbon within the plant, but that it exists in the form of a dissociable salt which is soluble with difficulty. Even after 24 hours, a 10/sup -1/ N solution of a lead salt produces toxic effects on the plant, while more dilute solutions do not. Lead belongs to the least poisonous of the heavy metals. 9 references.

  18. Possibility of using radioactivity control measurements for determining contamination paths in nutritional vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, A.

    1966-01-01

    The object of the report is to study the possibility of using results of radioactivity controls for determining the paths followed by contamination in nutritional vectors; these are necessary for calculating protection norms. Radioactive contamination of a nutritional vector is expressed in terms of parameters which suggest that a certain number of criteria may be used for choosing the results which are to be exploited. An actual example of a 'vertical' study based on results of measurements made purely for control purposes shows the difficulties which may be encountered. A list of the results obtained by the control networks set up in the Community Countries, either for the atmosphere, for milk, or for other foodstuffs, shows that these networks are not at the present organised in such a way as to make such a study possible. It appears desirable that a large part of the work carried out by the control Services be oriented in such a way as to yield the complementary information required for experimental studies of radioactive contamination transfers. (author) [fr

  19. Determination of the probability for radioactive materials on properties in Monticello, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1991-02-01

    In 1978, under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) to manage the maintenance and surveillance of numerous DOE-owned, radioactively contaminated facilities that have been declared surplus and to conduct a program leading to the ultimate disposition of those facilities. The primary responsibility of SFMP is to protect public health and the environment from potentially harmful radioactive contamination contained within or derived from DOE-owned facilities. Management of SFMP is directed by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Washington, DC. Prior to mill site remediation, Monticello properties surrounding the site and designated privately owned are being assessed for inclusion in the SFMP. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was directed by DOE in July 1988 to assess the radiological condition of privately owned properties in Monticello that have been identified as possibly containing Monticello mill-related materials. Properties containing Monticello mill-related materials and with associated radiation levels that exceed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE standards are eligible for cleanup under SFMP. The objective of this study was to determine the probability that a property which contained Monticello mill-related residual radioactive material in excess of the guidelines would not be assessed under the current protocol. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Determination of the probability for radioactive materials on properties in Monticello, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.; Halford, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The former uranium mill site at Monticello, Utah, is a surplus facility subject to clean-up under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). Surrounding properties contaminated with mill site material are also subject to cleanup, and are referred to as Monticello Vicinity Properties (MVP). The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Grand Junction, Colorado (GJ), was directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in July 1988 to assess the radiological condition of properties in Monticello, Utah. Since the Monticello activities are on the National Priority List, extra measures to identify potentially contaminated properties were undertaken. Thus, the likelihood that a random property could contain radioactive materials became a concern to the DOE. The objective of this study was to determine the probability that a vicinity property not addressed under the MVP project could contain Monticello mill-related residual radioactive material in excess of the DOE guidelines. Results suggest approximately 20% of the properties in the Monticello area contain Monticello mill-related residual radioactive material in excess of the DOE guidelines. This suggested that further designation measures be taken prior to the close of the designation phase. A public relations effort that included a property-owner mailing effort, public posting, and newspaper advertisement was one measure taken to ensure that most properties were assessed. As a consequence of this study, DOE directed that radiological screening surveys be conducted on the entirety of the Monticello area

  1. Methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels at decommissioned nuclear facilities/sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.C.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hoenes, G.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The ultimate disposition of decommissioned nuclear facilities and their surrrounding sites depends upon the degree and type of residual contamination. Examination of existing guidelines and regulations has led to the conclusion that there is a need for a general method to derive residual radioactive contamination levels that are acceptable for public use of any decommissioned nuclear facility or site. This paper describes a methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels based on the concept of limiting the annual dose to members of the public. It is not the purpose of this paper to recommend or even propose dose limits for the exposure of the public to residual radioactive contamination left at decommissioned nuclear facilities or sites. Unrestricted release of facilities and/or land is based on the premise that the potential annual dose to any member of the public using this property from all possible exposure pathways will not exceed appropriate limits as may be defined by Federal regulatory agencies. For decommissioned land areas, consideration should be given to people living directly on previously contaminated areas, growing crops, grazing food animals and using well water. Mixtures of radionuclides in the residual contamination representative of fuel reprocessing plants, light water reactors and their respective sites are presented. These mixtures are then used to demonstrate the methodology. Example acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels, based on an assumed maximum annual dose of one millirem, are calculated for several selected times following shutdown of a facility. It is concluded that the methodology presented in this paper results in defensible acceptable residual contamination levels that are directly relatable to risk assessment with the proviso that an acceptable limit to the maximum annual dose will be established. (author)

  2. Measuring arrangement for simultaneous and continuous determination of the total and radioactive amounts of reactive matters in flowing inert gases. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figge, K.; Martinen, H.; Schulz, W.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the metabolism behaviour of radiocarbon-labelled substances, a special apparatus has been designed which enables a fully automatic as well as continuous and simultaneous determination of the total and the 14 C-labelled carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the respiratory air of small animals. The CO 2 which is exhaled by the experimental animals is absorbed quantitatively in a novel absorber-scintillator cocktail. The quantity of combined total CO 2 is then determined by measuring the specific conductivity whereas the amount of radioactive CO 2 is assessed via scintillation measurement. The measuring accuracy achieved is around 10 N cm 3 or about 5 nCi, whereas the CO 2 recovery is above 98%. In addition to the recording in a linear recorder, the data are transferred to punching tapes and can be evaluated in an EDP unit. (orig.) [de

  3. X-ray spectrometric determination of glass content of melts incorporating radioactive waste: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.V.

    1978-09-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was evaluated for the determination of glass content and homogeneity of glass incorporating high-level radioactive waste. Accuracy and precision were determined for analyses of Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , CaO, TiO 2 , MnO, Fe 2 O 3 , and NiO in specimens of known composition. These specimens were prepared by fusing powdered glass with nonradioactive synthetic waste. Matrix effects of sodium on these analyses were specifically evaluated. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was shown to be applicable to the proposed determinations by comparing the known glass contents of 14 glass waste compositions with those calculated from experimentally determined concentrations of SiO or TiO 2

  4. Transport mechanisms of radioactive substances in the Arctic Ocean. Modelling and experimental studies in the Kara and Barents Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, H.; Karcher, M.; Bahe, C.; Backhaus, J.; Harms, I.

    1999-03-01

    In 1992, it became known to the public that the former Soviet Union had dumped large amounts of radioactive waste in the Arctic Ocean since about 1959. The waste was dumped into the Kara and Barents Seas in liquid and solid form, sealed in barrels or containers, as reactor parts but also as complete ship reactors including spent fuel. Wrecks of nuclear submarines were dumped near the coast of Novaya Semlya, in depths less than 50 m. The dumping took place in strong contradiction to international rules and conventions. After some confusion and overestimation of the total radioactive inventory, the amount of the waste and the dump site locations are well known, meanwhile. International pressure and the more open information policy of Russia helped to improve the situation. Various international fora primarily within the IAEA and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) investigated the potential consequences from these dumping practices. This report is the German contribution to these international assessments. The dumped objects in the Kara Sea encompass 17 nuclear ship reactors, seven of them still carrying spent fuel. Four dump sites are located in small and shallow fjords at the east coast of Novaya Semlya, and in the Novaya Semlya Trough, in max. depth of 420 m. The total radioactive inventory was, at the time of dumping, 37 PBq. During the project numerous samples from seawater and sediment were analysed on artificial radionuclides in Arctic waters. This included samples from the Kara Sea but also samples around the Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets sunk in the Norwegian Sea at a depth of about 1700 m in 1989. Numerical hydrodynamic models in local, regional and global scale were used to predict the potential dispersion of released radionuclides from the dumped wastes and reactors in the Kara Sea. (orig.) [de

  5. Use of natural radioactive tracers for the determination of vertical exchanges in the planetary boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druilhet, A.; Guedalia, D.; Fontan, J.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for determining the vertical exchange coefficients in the planetary boundary layer using the natural radioactive tracers radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn), and ThB( 212 Pb) are presented here. Thoron (T/sub 1/2/ = 54 sec) was used for the surface layer. The main results are given for two applications: vertical exchange studies above a flat country and inside a vegetable canopy. Owing to its lifetime, radon can be used for the nocturnal stabilities that have an important concentration increase near the ground. For the planetary layer (0 to 2000m), ThB(T/sub 1/2/ = 10.6 hr) was mainly used

  6. Determination of diffusion parameters using radioactive tracers, aiming at a project of a submarine sewage outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.L. dos.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive tracers technology is applied to pollutant dispersion studies in water bodies, for the project of submarine sewage outfall. The models proposed by Hansen/Harremoes and Okubo, respectively, for the prediction of physical dilution rates and determination of turbulent diffusion laws, are discussed. The methodology for field work as well as data processing is described. The results from field investigations carried out in Brazilian litoral waters for submarine release of sewage in Santos - Sao Vicente, Guaruja and Maceio, are presented and commented. (Author) [pt

  7. The application of radioactive tracers for determination of bed-load transport in alluvial rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes have been applied for determining the transport rate of bed load in an alluvial river on the basis of: centroid velocity of the tracer particles, size and material-transporting width of mobile layer. These parameters were found by detailed measurements in the field. Computed values were produced on the basis of Engelund and Fredsoee's model on sediment transport and on the propagation of bed forms. When comparing measured and computed values, the difference was about 25%. Finally, the applicability of tracer methods for solving practical problem is discussed. (author)

  8. Studies of the analytical chemistry on filter paper. XVI. Paper chromatography of radioactive substance. Radiochemical studies on ''Bikini ashes''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S

    1956-01-01

    Radioactivity from ''Bikini ashes'' and /sup 235/U fission is divided into 3 major groups by ion-exchange methods and then subdivided by paper chromatography. In the first group, TeO/sub 4/--, SO/sub 4/--, PO/sub 4//sup 3/-, and I-, as well as two /sup 106/Ru spots, are resolved in filter paper by iso-AmOH. /sup 137/Cs and /sup 144/Ce from the second and /sup 90/Y and /sup 90/Sr from the third group are separated also. It is shown that the presence of carrier or foreign elements alters the chromatographic behavior of the tracers.

  9. Migration case studies and the implications of humic substances for the radiological performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, N.D.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K.H.; Schmeide, K.; Benes, P.

    2005-01-01

    Using the information obtained during the experimental and modelling tasks a series of migration case studies have been performed. These are not full performance assessment studies, but are merely intended to demonstrate the likely impact of humic substances upon the migration of radionuclides in the environment. Three separate sites have been investigated: (i) a shallow waste repository site at Dukovany in the Czech Republic; (ii) the formerly proposed, but now withdrawn, waste repository site at Gorleben in Germany; (iii) a large rock pile, consisting of tailings from a uranium mine, Schlema Alberode, near Dresden, Germany. To provide the maximum information, a variety of 'release scenarios' have been defined: continuous leakage in the Dukovany case study; a short pulsed release at Gorleben, and steady leaching in the case of the rock pile. The effects of the magnitudes of the chemical rate constants have been studied along with the effects of the initial distribution between exchangeable and non-exchangeable. Further, modelling during the HUPA project has shown that in certain lab column experiments the sorption of humic and humic-radionuclide complexes onto mineral surfaces could have an impact upon migration. Therefore, the likely impact of these processes on the field scale was investigated. In each of the three cases, humics are predicted to have a significant impact upon migration. However, whereas for the repository cases, it is the presence of the non-exchangeable fraction that results in migration, and the exchangeable fraction plays no significant part in transport, for the rock pile, the model predicts that the humic should promote migration even with the exchangeable interaction alone. Humic sorption may affect the degree of migration, but even in the case of maximum impact, the net effect of humic substances is still to enhance migration significantly. In fact, the initial distribution of radionuclide upon entry to the far-field is much more

  10. A Study to Determine Clearance Levels of Radioactive Wastes in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukakaa, Zaphania O. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Il [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Due to lack of a radioactive waste disposal facility in Kenya, radioactive wastes are stored in a bonded warehouse until such a time when their activity is low and they meet the criterion for clearance. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established activity concentrations of radionuclides to act as a universal guideline or standard for clearance in member countries. Radioactive wastes whose activity would yield a trivial risk to the people and environment, i.e. with an annual dose below 10 µSv are usually cleared from regulatory control with no further regulatory control mechanisms being taken. The Radiation Protection Board currently depends on the IAEA's generic clearance level activity concentrations for purposes of clearing the radiation wastes within its inventory. This study aims to determine activity concentrations of radionuclides in the Kenyan inventory that correspond to the clearance level dose of 10 µSv/a as set by the IAEA. The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) computer code, an important tool developed in 1989 to aid in evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination, will aid in modeling these clearance level values using a pathways analysis method and available site-specific data from Kenya. Afterwards, the obtained clearance level values will be compared with the IAEA's generic clearance level values of the corresponding radionuclides. The results modeled using the RESRAD code are conservative. For most of the radionuclides in the Kenyan inventory, the values do correspond with the IAEA standard generic clearance level values, albeit with minor differences. For most of the radionuclides, the difference is within the acceptable uncertainty limit. For these low probability events the effective dose resulting from them should not exceed 1 mSv per year. Thus, consideration was given to doses to the skin and an equivalent dose to the skin of 50 mSv per year was duly used in estimating the clearance level activities. The

  11. Determination of the Radon Concentration and Radioactivity Level in Karaca Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the radon gas concentration in the Karaca cave which is open to tourism has been determined and the negative effects of radon gas on people were discussed. Karaca cave (Gumushane) is visited by many tourists every year. The measurements of radon gas concentration which affects the health of human beings negatively and even causes the lung cancer when it reaches high points have been done for the summer and winter season. LR-115 passive radon detector was used to determine radon concentrations in the cave both winter and summer season. The average radon concentration in the Karaca cave were determined as 823 Bq/m 3 and 1023 Bq/m 3 for the summer and winter season, respectively. Moreover, to find out the natural radioactivity in the cave, the gamma spectroscopic analysis of soil, stone and stalagmite samples were carried out and their relations with the radon gas in the cave atmosphere was analyzed

  12. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in the North East Beach Sands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamora, T.H.; Razafindramiandra, H.A.; Raoelina Andraimbololona; Ravelomanantsoa, S.D.; Ralaivelo, M.A.L.; Rasolonirina, M.; Zafimanjato, J. L. R.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration and exploitation of radioactive ores (ilmenite, zircon and monazite) are considered as the main source of exposure to ionizing radiation of the population living in the coast of Analanjorofo Region (Fenerive-Est Districts, Rural municipality Ampasimbe Manantsatrana). Radioactivity measurements have been performed in this region. The distribution of natural radionuclide gamma-emitters ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) and their respective annual effective dose rates have been determined for sand(s), water and air. The samples have been collected along and around the coast of the region. The radiation emitted from the natural radionuclide containing in the environmental samples has been determined by gamma spectrometry system and Radon meter (SARAD). Exposure dose rates at 1 m above the ground have been measured along the coast and in the villages around the exploitation sites. Dose rate measurements have been performed by Dosimeter Graetz X5DE, equipped of Geiger Muller Counter. Results have been compared with the reference values provided by IAEA (BSS 115) and UNSCEAR 2000.

  13. Scaling factors for the activity determination of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2007-01-01

    Specific information of the total activity and activity concentration of the radionuclides contained is required for conditioning, transporting and final disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the complexity associated to alpha and beta measurements for these emitters it is worldwide used, particularly in the case of heterogeneous radioactive waste, the Scaling Factor Method. As in other cases, inputs of the results of the analysis of waste samples taking from waste streams are necessary. The Scaling Factor Method is based on the determination of averaged correlations between the activity concentrations of Difficult to Measure (DTM) nuclides (i.e. alpha and beta emitters) and the activity concentration of easy to measure nuclides (i.e. strong gamma emitters) called Key Nuclides (KN). In the application of this method two phases may be identified: in the first one the degree of correlation between averaged activities of DTM and a given KN is verified, and specific Scaling Factors are derived for every DTM radionuclide. In the second stage the total activity and the activity concentration of the selected KN is determined in each waste item and, by applying the SFs obtained previously, the activities of DTM nuclides are calculated. It is concluded that this method is appropriate and cost-effective and it is stressed that it is only applicable while the Nuclear Power Reactor is in operation. (author)

  14. Development of treatment method for stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic substances and transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Dzhuzha, O.V.; Khan, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the study into the laws that govern the process of treating by oxidation the stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic compounds and transuranium elements with the use of hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and subsequent ultra-filtration. The optimum oxidisation regime has been defined on the basis of this study to ensure that the initial dichromate oxidability of LRW's stillage residues decreases from 6,000-9,500 to 500-1,000 mg O/I, whereas the TUE activity associated with the key isotopes is reduced by 74-87 % for 238,239,240 Pu, by 94-95 % for 241 Am, and by 90-95 % for 244 Cm. The concentration of uranium decreases by 94-99 %. It is proposed to implement this method at the Chernobyl NPP site.

  15. Third ordinance amending the ordinance on the approval of drugs treated with ionising radiation or drugs containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Amendments: 1) Section 2, sub-section (2), no. 1 - Cr-51, Fe-59, Ga-67, In-111, J-123, J-125, J-13, Co-57, Co-58, P-32, Se-75, Th-201, Xe-127, Xe-133; 2) Section 3, sub-section (2), no. 2 - Mo-99, Hg-195m, Rb-81, Su-113, Tc-99m, Au-195m, Kr-81m, In-113m; 3) Section 3a: The prohibitory provisions of section 7, sub-section (1) of the Medical Preparation Act do not apply to radioactive medical preparations which are drugs within the purview of section 2, sub-section (2), no. 4, item (a) of said act. (HP) [de

  16. Levels of surface contamination with radioactive materials at workplaces of nuclear research centre at Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Nemcova, I.; Kasikova, M.; Popper, J.; Chysky, J.

    1983-01-01

    A hygiene supervision unit at workplaces of the nuclear Research Institute in Rez monitored on a long-term basis surface contamination with radioactive substances. Surface contamination was found at workplaces with open sources. Of the 4343 monitored places action levels were only exceeded in 13 cases. The obtained data were used for typifying workplaces with the highest level of surface contamination, to determine in certain instances the mechanism of the escape of radioactive substances from insulating facilities and to determine the rate of the spread of the radioactive substance into adjacent non-active workplaces. (author)

  17. Methodology for the determination of underground water velocity, direction and flow, by using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    A basic route determining velocity and direction of ground water flow by using radioactive tracers is presented. Emphasis has been given to hydrology and nuclear energy concepts, to the construction of some specific equipment, to the calibration of radiation detectors and to the practical applications in borehole. 82 Br and 51 Cr have been chosen as tracers for the Darcy's velocity and direction determinations, respectively. From the obtained value of Darcy's velocity, the laminar flow was confirmed according to the admitted hypothesis. Comparisons of the Darcy's velocity values and flow direction have been made with values obtained using pumping tests and survey of the equipotential curves, where it can be concluded that they are of the same largeness and then, from a practical view, approximate. (Author) [pt

  18. A case study on determining air monitoring requirements in a radioactive materials handling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Bechtold, W.E.; Hoover, M.D.; Ghanbari, F.; Herring, P.S.; Jow, Hong-Nian

    1993-01-01

    A technical, defensible basis for the number and placement of air sampling instruments in a radioactive materials handling facility was developed. Historical air sampling data, process and physicochemical knowledge, qualitative smoke dispersion studies with video documentation, and quantitative trace gas dispersion studies were used to develop a strategy for number and placement of air samplers. These approaches can be used in other facilities to provide a basis for operational decisions. The requirements for retrospective sampling, personal sampling, and real-time monitoring are included. Other relevant operational decisions include selecting the numbers, placement, and appropriate sampling rates for instruments, identifying areas of stagnation or recirculation, and determining the adequacy and efficiency of any sampling transport lines. Justification is presented for using a graded approach to characterizing the workplace and determining air sampling and monitoring needs

  19. Study to build up method for determining radioactivity of H-3 in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Thu Bac; Nguyen Thi Thu Ha; Vo Thi Anh; Ha Thi Lan Anh; Cao Duc Viet; Duong Van Thang; Dinh Thi Bich Lieu

    2015-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of the hydrogen element (denoted as T or H-3). Main chemical forms of Tritium in the atmosphere are Tritium vapor (HTO) and gaseous Tritium (HT). HTO and HT were collected simultaneously by the MARC-7000 Tritium sampler. The sampler has been specifically designed for capturing Tritium most efficiently using a series of four sample bottles, a cooling system and a system of Palladium-Alumina catalytic oven. Air Tritium samples were collected at a flow rate of 30 L/h continuously for duration up to 15 days depending on atmospheric humidity. Average efficiency of H-3 collection in the atmosphere was 74.82 %. The collected samples were enriched by electrolytic method. The electrolysed samples were purified afterward by distillation with PbCl_2 for alkali precipitation. Finally the samples were mixed with Packard Ultima Gold LLT cocktail in proportion of 1:1 and measured by the TRI CARB 3170 TR/SL Liquid scintillation counting system in a total period of 1000 min. Minimum detectable activity (MDA) was about of 4 mBq/m"3. Relative error was less than 11%. 24 air samples in Hanoi for one year from 11/2013 to 10/2014 were collected and analyzed. Monthly average radioactivity of H-3 was 22.39 mBq/m"3 and its standard deviation was 4.84 mBq/m"3. This value was 5.6 times higher than MDA value and equivalent to H-3 background level in several countries. The obtained technical procedure is applicable to determine Tritium radioactivity in the atmosphere. (author)

  20. Determination of natural radioactive elements in Abo Zaabal, Egypt by means of gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, Zeinab; Abd El-Wahab, Magda; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined the radioactivity of different type samples from Abo Zaabaal Lake. ► We evaluated the natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their annual dose rates. ► We evaluated the concentrations of 226 Ra and its hazard indices. ► We assessed the absorbed dose in human. ► All results are within normal ranges. - Abstract: The natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra, are determined for 10 different natural samples (soil–plant–water) from Abo Zaabaal Lake. This lake is located very close to the Egyptian reactors. The gamma spectra analysis indicates that the photo-gamma lines represent ten radioactive nuclides 234 Th, 239 Pu, 228 Ac, 226 Ra, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 212 Bi, 214 Bi and 40 K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series 238 U and 232 Th with 40 K. The mean activity concentration of 238 U was found to be 6.57, 10.16 and 5.44 Bq kg −1 for (soil–plant–water); 8.46, 8.33 and 6.04 Bq kg −1 of 232 Th, and 136.3, 216.8 and 119.2 Bq kg −1 of 40 K respectively. The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra were obtained which help to evaluate the radiation hazard indices as radium equivalent, internal and external hazard indices. In addition, to assess the radiation risk to a biosystem, the annual effective dose rate, the absorbed dose in human and the absorbed dose outdoor are also evaluated.

  1. Determination of radionuclide migration parameters through immobilised radioactive waste; Odredjivanje migracionih parametara radionuklida kroz imobilisani radioaktivni otpad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, I; Drljaca, J; Peric, A; Kostadinovic, A [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    In this paper are presented results obtained from leakage rate determination of specific radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, Mn-54, Sr-85) in PWR NPP waste. Measurements were carried out using original IBK-Vinca method. This method permits simulation of radionuclide leakage through multiple safety barriers in engineered tranches system for radioactive waste disposal. These results will be used for future Yugoslav radioactive waste storing center. (author)

  2. Recent Trends in Analytical Methods to Determine New Psychoactive Substances in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pellegrini, Manuela; García-Algar, Oscar; Marinelli, Enrico; Zaami, Simona

    2017-01-01

    New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) belong to several chemical classes, including phenethylamines, piperazines, synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids. Development and validation of analytical methods for the determination of NPS both in traditional and alternative matrices is of crucial importance to study drug metabolism and to associate consumption to clinical outcomes and eventual intoxication symptoms. Among different biological matrices, hair is the one with the widest time window to investigate drug-related history and demonstrate past intake. The aim of this paper was to overview the trends of the rapidly evolving analytical methods for the determination of NPS in hair and the usefulness of these methods when applied to real cases. A number of rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of NPS in hair matrix has been recently published, most of them using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Hair digestion and subsequent solid phase extraction or liquid-liquid extraction were described as well as extraction in organic solvents. For most of the methods limits of quantification at picogram per milligram hair were obtained. The measured concentrations for most of the NPS in real samples were in the range of picograms of drug per milligram of hair. Interpretation of the results and lack of cut-off values for the discrimination between chronic consumption and occasional use or external contamination are still challenging. Methods for the determination of NPS in hair are continually emerging to include as many NPS as possible due to the great demand for their detection. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Radiological testing of products containing radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Knight, A.

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive substances are tested by NRPB to determine how much radioactive material is likely to be released from a product if it is misused or accidentally damaged. Such testing is briefly described with particular reference to ionisation chamber smoke detectors, liquid crystal display watches illuminated with gaseous tritium light sources and anti-static brushes containing polonium-210 in the form of ceramic microspheres. (U.K.)

  4. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Papin, Arnaud [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Padox, Jean-Marie [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Hasebrouck, Benoît [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  5. Determination of potential radiation exposure via terrestrial food chains by the release of radioactive material from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handge, P.; Meurin, G.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation exposure level caused by consumption of vegetable and animal products in the environment of nuclear power plants is determined to a large extent by the release of 90 Sr, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs. For long-lived nuclides, especially 90 Sr, transfer from the soil into vegetation makes the essential contribution to plant contamination after several years of power plant operation. The relevant transfer coefficients for the different plant species vary, depending on the soil properties, between 0.02 and 6.0 [pCi/kg fresh weigth of vegetation : pCi/kg dry weight of soil] for Sr and between 1.10 -3 and 0.2 [pCi/kg fresh weight of vegetation : pCi/kg dry weight of soil] for Cs. The sensitivity analysis shows that already a variation of the transfer coefficients for Sr from 0.5 up to 2.5 [pCi/kg fresh weight of vegetation : pCi/kg dry weight of soil] and for Cs from 3.10 -2 up to 2.10 -1 cause variations in the level of radiation exposure for individual exposure pathways by factors fo 2 to 4. Correspondingly higher values are to be expected by still larger transfer of Sr and Cs from the ground to vegetation. For transfer coefficients >- 2.5 [pCi/kg fresh weight of vegetation : pCi/kg dry weight of soil], however, removal of radioactive substances from the ground by the plants must not remain without consideration any longer. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Geochemical study of change of groundwater quality by substances in strata with high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo; Tsukimura, Katsuhiro; Seki, Yoji; Hamazaki, Satoshi; Nakajima, Terumasa; Aoki, Masahiro; Kanai, Yutaka; Kamioka, Hikari

    1998-01-01

    Weathered rock and soil contain large amount of fine amorphous which make large effect on water quality. By X-ray diffraction method, we found Kanto loam formation contained 90% amorphous. Quartz, gibbsite and feldspar were observed as crystals. Change of groundwater quality during infiltration was studied by the field experiments. Samples were collected at drainage basin in small valleys, lower a few ten to hundred meters from the top. Surface substances and water samples were collected in runoff and spring water in the area of Kaba granites, Abukuma granites, Abukuma metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks. Water temperature, redox potential, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH and alkalinity were measured in the field. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. These samples have been investigating. The results obtained showed that water in chart did not react with rock, and the water quality in granite area was different from that of metamorphic rocks, sandstone, chart and green tuff area. (S.Y.)

  7. Process and appliance for determining the nature of transported substances by measuring the radiations transmitted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wykes, J.S.; Surzyn, P.M.; Croke, G.M.; Adsley, Ian.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for determining the nature of a substance transported, comprising the collimation of the radiation of not less than two energies so that they form beams; the irradiation of the matter transported by the beams, the detection of the non-scattered radiations for the two energies at least, after passing in the transported matter, and the deduction of the nature of the transported matter according to the radiations detected. The radiations are collimated by placing a shield around the gamma source (americium 241 or cesium 137). The detector is protected by a shield so that it prevents any significant interference due to the reactions near the surface provoked by those radiations not of the lowest energy, with detection of those radiations of lesser energy. In a variation, a source of relatively higher energy radiations is placed at a distance from the source of relatively lesser energy radiations. The latter have a component taken from natural ionizing radiation and this component is withdrawn to a predetermined calibration [fr

  8. IFCC reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total carbon dioxide in blood, plasma or serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett, RW; Covington, AK; Fogh-Andersen, N; Kulpmann, WR; Lewenstam, A; Mas, AHJ; VanKessel, AL; Zijlstra, WG

    A reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total CO, in blood, plasma (the anticoagulant is usually heparin) or serum is described. The document covers the principle of the method, the materials and equipment needed and essential aspects of the procedure. The

  9. Nuclear power in space. Use of reactors and radioactive substances as power sources in satellites and space probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoestbaeck, Lars

    2008-11-01

    Today solar panels are the most common technique to supply power to satellites. Solar panels will work as long as the power demand of the satellite is limited and the satellite can be equipped with enough panels, and kept in an orbit that allows enough sunlight to hit the panels. There are various types of space missions that do not fulfil these criteria. With nuclear power these types of missions can be powered regardless of the sunlight and as early as 1961 the first satellite with a nuclear power source was placed in orbit. Out of seventy known space missions that has made use of nuclear power, ten have had some kind of failure. In no case has the failure been associated with the nuclear technology used. This report discusses to what degree satellites with nuclear power are a source for potential radioactive contamination of Swedish territory. It is not a discussion for or against nuclear power in space. Neither is it an assessment of consequences if radioactive material from a satellite would reach the earth's surface. Historically two different kinds of Nuclear Power Sources (NPS) have been used to generate electric power in space. The first is the reactor where the energy is derived from nuclear fission of 235 U and the second is the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) where electricity is generated from the heat of naturally decaying radionuclides. NPS has historically only been used in space by United States and the Soviet Union (and in one failing operation Russia). Nuclear Power Sources have been used in three types of space objects: satellites, space probes and moon/Mars vehicles. USA has launched one experimental reactor into orbit, all other use of NPS by the USA has been RTG:s. The Soviet Union, in contrast, only launched a few RTG:s but nearly forty reactors. The Soviet use of NPS is less transparent than the use in USA and some data published on Soviet systems are more or less well substantiated assessments. It is likely that also future

  10. Conceptual model to determine maximum activity of radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmosh, I.; Olkhovyk, Yu.

    2016-01-01

    For development of the management strategy for radioactive waste to be placed in near - surface disposal facilities (NSDF), it is necessary to justify long - term safety of such facilities. Use of mathematical modelling methods for long - term forecasts of radwaste radiation impact and assessment of radiation risks from radionuclides migration can help to resolve this issue. The purpose of the research was to develop the conceptual model for determining the maximum activity of radwaste to be safely disposed in the NSDF and to test it in the case of Lot 3 Vector NSDF (Chornobyl exclusion zone). This paper describes an approach to the development of such a model. The conceptual model of "9"0 Sr migration from Lot 3 through aeration zone and aquifer soils was developed. The results of modelling are shown. The proposals on further steps for the model improvement were developed

  11. Sedimentological study of a lagoon through natural radioactivity and 137Cs determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Miguel, E.G.; Perez-Moreno, J.P.; Aguado, J.L.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2003-01-01

    Profiles of artificial fallout (such as 137 Cs) and natural radioactivity radionuclides in sediment cores are useful tools to study sedimentological properties of different aquatic environments as well as to evaluate average sedimentation rates. In the Portil lagoon, a small natural reservoir located in Huelva province (southwest of Spain), and through the analysis of 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 137 Cs, 238 U and 210 Po vertical profiles in sediment cores, it is shown how the accumulative or transport character of the collection zones may be inferred. In the accumulation zone of the lagoon the influence of focusing effects has been analysed and an average sedimentation rate has been determined through 210 Pb in one sediment core. This 210 Pb-sedimentation rate is consistent with sediment dating based on the 137 Cs data. (author)

  12. Method for determination of radioactive iodine isotopes in environmental objects and biologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubynin, O.D.; Pogodin, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    The method proposed for determination of radioactive iodine isotopes content in environmental objects and biologic materials is based on the extraction of iodine with carbon tetrachloride and subsequent precipitation of bismuthyl iodine (BiOI) in perchloric medium. Sample preparation for analysis is carried out using conventional alkaline ashing methods. Quantitative iodine separation is hampered if macroquantities of Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2 - , SO 8 2 - , Cr 2 O 7 2 - and other ions are present in the solution. Iodine extraction is carried out before its precipitation. Separated iodine preparation activity is measured using scintillation (NaI) Tl gamma spectrometer. The method's sensitivity when measuring iodine-131 preparations makes up 0.07 Bq per 1 sample with the error +-25 %

  13. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  14. The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples by preferential ion exchange separation from calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hiroto; Nonaka, Nobuhiro; Honda, Tetsutaro; Kimura, Toshimasa; Higuchi, Hideo

    1979-01-01

    The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples involves a difficulty in the separation and purification of strontium from large amounts of calcium. The principal technique employed in this study is based on a cation exchange separation after preferential chelation of calcium over strontium by EDTA. The alkaline earth fraction separated from samples is dissolved in 1.2 M HCl and an equivalent amount of EDTA is added. The solution is passed through a Dowex 50W-X8 ion exchange column at a flow rate of 20 ml/min after the pH has been adjusted to 5.1. A fraction of calcium retained on the resin is eluted out with 1.8 l of 2 w/v% EDTA solution at pH 5.1. Then the strontium is eluted with 450 ml of 2 M HCl. The strontium carbonate is precipitated, and the chemical yield is determined. After standing for 14 days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of 90 Sr - 90 Y, the activity of 89 Sr + 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured. Then the activity of 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured by milking the 90 Y. The proposed procedure has been applied to sea water, soil and various ash samples of vegetables, seaweeds and daily foods. The results obtained are in good agreement with those by a classical fuming nitric acid precipitation method. The detection limits are 0.1 pCi/l for 10 l of sea water, 10 pCi/kg for 100 g of soil and 1 pCi/kg-fresh for 20 g ash samples, respectively. (author)

  15. Determination of Dose from the Disposal of Radioactive Waste Related with TENORM using Residual Radioactivity (RESRAD) Monte Carlo Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Kassim, Hassan Abu; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2008-01-01

    The working procedures in the RESRAD for specific evaluations of environmental pollutants are briefly mentioned. The risk of human health associated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) who are working in the Malaysian oil and gas industry are analyzed. The sources of NORM and Technologically Enhanced NORM (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry are described. Some measurements for the external and internal effective dose equivalent on the workers will be described. These data are entered into the RESRAD software program and the output reports are taken. Long-term effects of TENORM to the industrial workers are also discussed with graphical illustrations. These results are compared with previous research work within the same field to validate and verify

  16. Determination of hazardous substances in food basket eggs in Tehran, Iran: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Salar-Amoli, Jamileh; Ali-Esfahani, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Extensive distribution of hazardous substances in food chain and the deleterious effect of their residues on public health are a great concern of the society. Chicken eggs, as one of the most popular food commodities, in different parts of Tehran (Iran) were analyzed for two groups of hazardous substances including some organochlorine pesticides (OC) such as aldrin, lindane, dieldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, heptachlor and endusulfan) and heavy metals namely mercury (Hg), arsenic (As...

  17. Indoor and outdoor poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Korea determined by passive air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Kim, Kyeong-Soo; Park, Jong-Eun

    2012-01-01

    Despite concerns to their increasing contribution to ecological and human exposure, the atmospheric levels of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been determined mainly in Europe and North America. This study presents the indoor and outdoor air concentrations of volatile PFASs [fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols/sulfonamide ethyl acetate (FOSAs/FOSEs/FOSEA)] for the first time in Korean cities. In contrast to the good agreement observed for indoor FTOHs levels in Korea and Europea/North America, FOSAs/FOSEs levels were 10–100-fold lower in Korean indoor air, representing a cultural difference of indoor source. Korean outdoor air contained higher PFAS levels than indoor air, and additionally showed different PFAS composition profile from indoor air. Thus, indoor air would not likely be a main contributor to atmospheric PFAS contamination in Korea, in contrast to western countries. Inhalation exposure of volatile PFASs was estimated to be a minor contributor to PFOA and PFOS exposure in Korea. - Highlights: ► Volatile PFASs were measured in indoor and outdoor airs of Korea, for the first time. ► Cultural difference in indoor source was observed for Korea v.s. western countries. ► Furthermore, PFASs concentrations were higher in indoor air than outdoor air. ► Indoor air was not a major contributor to atmospheric PFASs contamination in Korea. ► Release from industrial activities was considered a possible source. - Korean outdoor air showed not only different PFAS composition profile but higher PFAS levels than indoor airs, indicating indoor air would not be a main source to Korean atmospheric PFASs.

  18. A model for determination of screening level for radioactive elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ana Claudia

    2007-01-01

    At the present, decision about clean-up of Brazilian sites contaminated with radioactive isotopes is addressed on a case-by-case basis, since there is no general guidance or recommendation to support actions in early phases of the problem identification. For chemicals, CETESB - the governmental organization responsible for preventing and controlling environmental pollution in Sao Paulo State - established background values, prevention and intervention, as the first step to implement a remediation actions based on human health risk assessment. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the establishment of target values for radioactive soil contamination, as far as possible consistent and compatible with the approach adopted by CETESB for sites contaminated with chemicals. The following steps have been addressed in this study: conceptual scenario and model development; codification of the equations in an electronic spreadsheet; selection of proper range and statistical distribution of the input values; derivation of the intervention levels for selected radionuclides using Monte Carlo methods. The mathematical model developed was mainly based on the equations used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for soil screening purposes. Intervention and prevention values are presented for adult and 10 years old child, for each 3 exposure scenarios: agricultural, residential and industrial; the following radionuclides were considered: 3 H, 14 C, 32 P, 35 S, 45 Ca, 51 Cr, 90 Sr, 125 I, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U, 239 Pu and 241 Am. Quality reference values were determined for 40 K, 137 Cs, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, Th-nat e U-nat. Results obtained in this study showed a good agreement with those reported by NCRP, considering that the equations and the input data used in both models are not the same ones.(author)

  19. Licence template for mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials; Mustergenehmigung zur ortsveraenderlichen Verwendung und Lagerung radioaktiver Stoffe im Rahmen der zerstoerungsfreien Materialpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, A. [Niedersaechsisches Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Energie und Klimaschutz (Germany); Schumann, J. [Landesamt fuer Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit, Berlin (Germany); Huhn, W.

    2016-07-01

    The Technical Committee ''Radiation Protection'' (Fachausschuss ''Strahlenschutz'') and the Laender Committee ''X-ray ordinance'' (Laenderausschuss ''Roentgenverordnung'') have appointed a working group for the formulation of licence templates for the nationwide use of X-ray equipment or handling of radioactive substances. To date, the following licence templates have been adopted: - Mobile operation of X-ray equipment under technical radiography to the coarse structural analysis in material testing; - Mobile operation of a handheld X-ray fluorescence system; - Mobile operation of a flash X-ray system; - Operation of an X-ray system for teleradiology The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is scheduled for publication. The licence template ''Practices in external facilities and installations'' is currently being revised. The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is used as an example to demonstrate the legal framework and the results of the working group.

  20. Safety of transport of radioactive substances for civil use on the French territory. Lessons learned by the IRSN from the analysis of significant events reported in 2012 and 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this report proposes an overview of significant aspects and events related to the transport of radioactive substances in France, and a comment on lessons learned by the IRSN. The second and main part first presents some aspects of this specific transport: regulatory framework, main safety issues, nature and flow of these transports, transports of radioactive substances per sector. The second part proposes an analysis of significant events: elements related to the reporting of an event, assessment of events and analysis of main trends noticed in 2012 and 2013 with respect to previous years, analysis of the main types of events which occurred in 2013 and 2013 with respect with those which occurred during the previous years. The next chapter describes significant events: damage of a parcel during its handling, a non conformal content, loss of a parcel on a public road, derailment of a car in Le Bourget. Some transverse topics are finally addressed: return on experience of crisis management in relationship with events in radioactive substance transport, IRSN study on the behaviour of packaging during long duration fires

  1. Determination of the radioactive material and plutonium holdup in ducts and piping in the 325 Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggard, D.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Tomeraasen, P.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the measurements performed to determine the radionuclide content and mass of Pu in exposed ducts, filters, and piping in the 325 Building at the Hanford Site. This information is needed to characterize facility radiation levels, to verify compliance with criticality safety specifications, and to allow more accurate nuclear material control using nondestructive assay. Gamma assay was used to determine the gamma-emitting isotopes in ducts, filters, and piping. Passive neutron counting was used to estimate the Pu content. A high-purity Ge detector and a neutron slab detector containing 5 3 He proportional counters were used. Almost all the gamma activity is from 137 Cs and 60 Co. Estimated Pu mass gram equivalents in the basement ductwork and filters are 31 g; the radioactive liquid waste system (RLWS) line has 12 g; the laboratory vacuum system has 2 g equiv. Pu; the retention process sewer has 3 g. Total Pu mass holdup for basement areas range from 48 to 27 g. Estimated Pu mass gram equivalents for all laboratories range from 385 to 581 g. Individual laboratory estimates are tabulated. Total estimated Pu gram equivalent holdup and material in process for the facility is 410 g. In summary, results indicate that no significant Pu levels, from a criticality safety perspective, reside in the ductwork, laboratory vacuum system lines, RLWS pipes, or any one laboratory in the 325 Building

  2. Determination of nitric acid in highly radioactive solutions by the method of coulometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, V.S.; Kuperman, A.Ya.; Smirnov, Yu.A.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure, a cell, and an electronic block have been developed for a long-distance determination of nitric acid in highly radioactive industrial solutions by coulometric titration under hot chamber conditions. A solution of a mixture of ammonium and potassium oxalates was used for the background and anoide electrolytes. This solution prevents the hydrolysis of the metal ions and appreciably decreases the rate of accumulation of the acid in the anode chamber of the cell. Titration with 0.1-0.5 A currents is carried out with internal generation of hydroxyl ions. The cell was prepared from a radiation-resistant and transparent material, poly(methyl methacrylate). The anode and cathode chambers were separated by a cellophane membrane, reinforced by a porous glass filter. By using the electronic coulometric block working together with a pH-meter (EV-74 or I-130) and with an automatic titration block (BAT-15), the titration can be carried out automatically, and the determination results can be obtained in a digital form

  3. Determination of low levels of α-radioactivity in aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustin, V.K.; Leonov, V.V.; Sokolikov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    The method has been proposed for determining total alpha radioactivity of water samples based on the use of solid scintillator with preliminary concentrating alpha emitters on lanthanum hydrooxide. The relationship between sensitivity of the method, concentration of co-precipitator, and salt content of the solution has been studied. Optimum conditions of the analysis have been chosen: Csub(La)=10-70 mg/l, thickness of the K-9 scintillator 20 mg/cm 2 , thickness of an additional K-9 layer 20 mg/cm 3 . Minimum specific alpha-activity being measured is less than 1x10 -12 Ci/l when FEU-49B (photomultiplier) is used, the sample volume is 1 l, total thickness of the K-9 light-composition layer is 40 mg/cm 2 , total time of analysis is 1.5 hour, recorded effectiveness value being 0.80, and relative error of measurement 20%. The possibility is shown of an effective use of the method for controlling the total specific activity of alpha amitters of unknown compositions in sewage of radiochemical plants within the range of 10 -6 -10 -12 Ci/l. The method can be used for determining radon in natural water by short-lived products of its decomposition

  4. Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo Py Junior, D. de.

    1978-01-01

    The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

  5. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  6. Determination of pharmacokinetic processes in body organs on the basis of the box model and, by analogy, of laws of radioactive disintegration of naturally occurring and artificially activated isotope families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauser, P.

    1992-01-01

    The research work described is based on the simple law of degradation and disintegration for pharmaceutical substances. The transport, storage and, possibly, accumulation of beneficial and harmful pharmaceuticals in the organs of the human body are analysed using the box model. The studies are not restricted to asymptotic conditions occurring after continuous treatment with a particular drug but also investigate into the so-called stabilisation phase immediately after the beginning of medication, which is described mathematically. This phase is shown to be subject to a set of rules that are much more complex than those responsible for asymptotic substance levels. The analytical procedures used here are described on the basis of typical cases drawn from medical practice. The laws derived from these observations can, by analogy, also be applied to the radioactive disintegration of isotope families. They also permit formulas to be determined for the activity of multiple-link chain members. The report proceeds by discussing cases, where the baseline substance is the result of nuclear chain reacting. The last issue to be treated within the scope of this study is the radioactive disintegration and simultaneous activation of isotope families. (orig./MG) [de

  7. 16 July 1985: Royal Order amending the Royal Order of 24 April 1964 on approval of a certain type of apparatus containing radioactive substances, made in implementation of Section 3.1.d/2 of the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 enacting General Regulations for Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The amendments made by this Order mainly concern additional information to be supplied in the context of the approval procedure for certain types of devices containing radioactive substances which are in current use. (NEA) [fr

  8. 40 CFR 720.25 - Determining whether a chemical substance is on the Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development, end-use application, toxicity testing, etc.). The person must also indicate whether any pilot.... (iii)(A) A brief description of the research and development activities conducted to date related to the substance, including the year in which the person first started to conduct research or development...

  9. Substance Use: Determinants and Opportunities for Prevention in the Family and School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence, teenagers try a range of risk behaviors including smoking, drinking, and the use of soft drugs. Because substance use contributes to an unhealthy lifestyle of teenagers on the short term and can lead to serious health problems on the longer term, prevention in this target group is important. This chapter provides an overview of…

  10. The use of a radioactive tracer for the determination of distillation end point in a coke oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, N.; Capannesi, G.; Ciavola, C.; Sedda, F.

    1995-01-01

    A novel high precision detection method for the determination of the distillation end point of the coking process (usually in the 950 deg C range) has been developed. The system is based on the use of a metallic capsule that melts at a fixed temperature and releases a radioactive gas tracer ( 133 Xe) in the stream of the distillation gas. A series of tests on a pilot oven confirmed the feasibility of the method on industrial scale. Application of the radioactive tracer method to the staging and monitoring in the coking process appears to be possible. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. The Role of Perceived Peer Prejudice and Teacher Discrimination on Adolescent Substance Use: A Social Determinants Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respress, Brandon N.; Small, Eusebius; Francis, Shelley A.; Cordova, David

    2013-01-01

    Although Black adolescents have reported a lower prevalence of substance use relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Black youth are disproportionately affected by adverse social outcomes. Social scientists have highlighted that using a framework that includes perceived peer prejudice and teacher discrimination as social determinants of adolescent risk behaviors is essential to fully understanding substance use behaviors in adolescents. However, this area of research remains underdeveloped. This study examined whether and to what extent perceived peer prejudice and teacher discrimination affect binge drinking and marijuana use by Black (n = 514) and non-Hispanic White (n = 2,818) adolescents using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 2, Public Use dataset. Findings suggest that peer prejudice increased the risk of substance use in non-Hispanic White youth only, whereas experiences of teacher discrimination increased the risk of substance use in both Black and non-Hispanic White youth. The study’s limitations are noted, and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24215222

  12. Procedure and device for the radiometric determination of the quantity, quality and foreign substances in moved bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krone, C.; Jentsch, G.; Berger, J.

    1987-01-01

    This invention has to do with a procedure and device for the simultaneous radiometric determination of quantity, quality and foreign substances in moved bulk materials in particular lignite at one measuring point. The section of the bulk material discharge is transmitted by nuclides for soft and hard gamma radiation in pairs. The pulse rates are registered in pairs by means of detectors and evaluated in real-time operation

  13. Experiences from the exercise ''MERLIN'' for the detection of radioactive substances with the participation of special-purpose vehicles; Erfahrungen aus der Uebung ''MERLIN'' zur Detektion radioaktiver Stoffe unter Beteiligung verschiedenen Einsatzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesbach, M. [Hessisches Ministerium des Innern und fuer Sport, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Experiences of an exercise with hazardous goods, in particular with radioactive substances (measurements and taking environmental samples) are described. Several special-purpose vehicles with equipment and specially trained crews were used together with radiation protection experts according to the concept of Hesse. It has been the greatest exercise in Hesse with regard to hazardous goods and in particular with regard to ''incidents with radioactive substances''. (orig.)

  14. Imaging plant leaves to determine changes in radioactive contamination status in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Tanihata, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Todo, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant leaves often reflects environmental contamination. The authors analyzed images of plant leaves to investigate the regional radioactivity ecology resulting from the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan. The present study is not an evaluation of the macro radiation dose per weight, which has been performed previously, but rather an image analysis of the radioactive dose per leaf, allowing the capture of various gradual changes in radioactive contamination as a function of elapsed time. In addition, the leaf analysis method has potential applications in the decontamination of food plants or other materials.

  15. Determination of the resident time distribution (RTD) in copper concentrate drying plants using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz V, Francisco J.; Duran P, Oscar U.; Hernandez A, Fernando A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a study on the drying process of copper concentrate, on two fluidized bed dryers at Fundicion Caletones, Division El Teniente, Codelco-Chile. The problem was investigated by experimental determination of the resident Time Distribution (RTD) for the material to be dry and by an analysis of the influence of the grain size in the drying process. The stimulus-response technique was used in the experiments, where the stimulation was a pulse of an adequate radioactive tracer injected at the dryer's input. Under these conditions, the response obtained at the dryer's outputs, i.e., the concentration variation curve as a function of time, represents directly the RTD of the system between the injection and measuring points. The tracer used was the same material to be dried, and it was irradiated with neutrons in the nuclear reactor at La Reina Nuclear Centre, thus producing a solid gamma radiation emitter tracer of identical behaviour as the material under study. The approximate activity of each sample was equivalent to 8 mCi of Cu-64 at the time of the injection and the measurement of the tracer was made on-line using NaI(Tl) gamma radiation detectors. The results obtained showed average times less than the estimated and would indicate a fast drying using minimum volume in the dryer. The drying of the fine particles was three times faster than the coarse ones. (author)

  16. Determination of moisture content and natural radioactivity in soils using gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hady, E E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Qater University (Qatar); El-Sayed, A M.A.; Alaa, H B [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The gamma-ray transmission method has been used to study the soil-water properties in the laboratory as well as in the field. The present measurements were performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy system based on a 5 x 5 cm Nal (T 1) scintillation detector and combined sources ({sup 137} Cs and {sup 241} Am). The two sources are placed in a suitable lead collimator to obtain a pin beam of 1 mm diameter. Suitable samples of clay and sandy soils obtained from the local field were prepared to determine the water content and the soil bulk densities by the combined method for different moisture stages. From the results obtained, it is clear that the soil density at both stages (saturated and after drainage) remains the same. this is because the soil particles do not rearrange during the wetting and drying process. The full results will be presented in the text. Natural radioactivity of the investigated samples was also studied using gamma-ray spectrometer having HPGe detector. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of natural gamma radiations revealed the presence of {sup 40} K, {sup 214} Bi, {sup 208} TI and {sup 228} Ac in meaningful concentrations. 3 figs.

  17. Determination of 129I in low level radioactive waste by two different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, Zs.; Szucs, Z.; Svingor, E.; Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Futo, I.; Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.; Kabai, E.

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of wastes intended for disposal in any radwaste repository represents one of the major goals of every country dealing with nuclear facilities. In most disposal facilities the long lived α- and β-emitting radionuclides have the most restrictive inventory limits, because they do not decay appreciably in the lifetime of the facility. One of the most restrictive radionuclides is 129 I, a fission product with long half- life, high mobility and biological hazard for the human body. The purpose of this paper is to present and to compare the 129 I results obtained by two different Institutes, using different measurement methods on a wide variety of low level radioactive waste streams generated at the Paks NPP. The Institute of Nuclear Technique of the Technical and Economical University of Budapest analyzed 129 I in a sequential scheme that included preconcentration, neutron activation, post-irradiation chemistry and counting of the shorter-lived 130 I activation product, while the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences used radiochemical separation followed by low-energy direct gamma-ray spectrometry. The results show a good correlation and prove the availability of both measurement methods.(author)

  18. A new hazard index for the determination of risk potentials of disposed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of a discussion of advantages and limitations of hazard calculations of nuclear waste, a new hazard index is presented. The model deals with environmental processes that determine radiation exposure to man after failure of a geologic repository and release of radionuclides into the biosphere. Included in the model are isotopic composition of the waste, probability for transport of nuclides to man, cycling in the biosphere, radiotoxicity to man and changes of the risk potential which are due to radioactive build-up and decay processes after the waste nuclides enter the biosphere. Nuclide-specific data necessary for the use of the new index are compiled. Calculations for wastes from different nuclear power reactor types and fuel cycle options indicate that 237 Np and 241 Am are the waste constituents with the most demanding requirements in regard to the long-term isolation potential of a repository. Isolation times required for the wastes analyzed are of the order of 10 7 years. Hazard analyses of nuclear wastes with negligible heat generation from various sources show that secondary wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication have long-term risk potentials which are about two orders of magnitude higher than those from other wastes. They should be disposed of together with high-level wastes. (author)

  19. Determination of 93Zr in medium and low level radioactive wastes from Brazilian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of long-lived radionuclides produced in the nuclear power plants can be regarded as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM), hence chemical separation is necessary before the nuclear measurement of them. The zirconium isotope 93 Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235 U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92 Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half-life, 93 Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Two different methodologies based on extractive resins and LSC and ICP-MS techniques that enables the 93 Zr determination in medium (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes samples from Brazilian nuclear power plants has been developed in our laboratory. Analyzing real samples 65% and 75% chemical yields for 93 Zr recovery were achieved for ICP-MS and LSC techniques, respectively. The detection limits were 0.045 μg.L -1 for ICP-MS and 0.05 Bq.L -1 for LSC techniques. (author)

  20. Determination of radioactive materials in granite used as ornamental rocks; Determinacao de materiais radioativos em granitos utilizados como rochas ornamentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Humberto Terrazas; Barbosa, Joao Batista Santos; Murta, Clecio Campi; Rocha, Francisco de Assis [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)). E-mail: salasht@urano.cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio Arias; Mendes, Julio Cesar [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia

    2000-07-01

    For environment quality control, either in a global or regional perspective, the determination of the radioactivity present in the minerals of rocks must be included. This control is carried out through specific analysis, applied to all geological materials used in civil architecture design and other applications (e.g. artistic). To date, the radioactivity of rocks has not been specifically studied, from which an adequate and comprehensive systematics is applied, in order to determine the radioactive minerals and their corresponding alterations. In Brazil, the industry of ornamental rocks is continually increasing at high rates, with a growing variety of rocks being commercialized locally as well as abroad. To a certain extent, the technical characterization of these rocks, through standard procedures defined by standardization institutions, is already available worldwide. However, among the petrographic properties specified for these rocks, minor or accessory minerals (less than 1%) are not adequately determined and detected. Among these components are radioactive minerals and, occasionally, carriers of precious metals, rare earths and other economically important minerals. (author)

  1. Capillary electrophoretic determination of selected phenolic compounds in humic substances of well waters and fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ying; Chang, Yan-Zin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Jian-Lian

    2010-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) from well waters, fertilizers, and synthetic phenolic polymers were characterized by elemental and UV-VIS spectroscopic analyses. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with UV absorption detection was used to analyze the lignin-derived phenolic distribution in the degradation residues after alkaline CuO oxidation of HS samples. Eleven phenols with p-acetyl, vanillyl and syringyl substituents were selected to optimize the CZE parameters. For well waters and fertilizers, the content of phenolic fragments was in agreement with the findings of the elemental and spectroscopic measurements. Additionally, parameters derived from the vanillic acid/vanilline, syringyl acid/syringaldehyde, p-hydroxyl/vanillyl and syringyl/vanillyl ratios matched analogous studies on dissolved organic matter from natural waters and on humic acids from terrestrial substances. The amount of phenolic monomer bonded within two synthetic HS polymers was found to be 25.9% protocatechuic acid and 71.3% gallic acid.

  2. Determination of natural radioactivity of groundwater and surface of Brumadinho and Nova Lima, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia Santana de

    2013-01-01

    The municipalities of Brumadinho and Nova Lima are located in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte city. They are of ecological interest since they belong to an Environmental Protection Area, which is located on a very important deposit of iron ore. In addition of mineral wealth, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium and significant potential underground water with hydrogeological characteristics very particular and complex, as the Quartzite Aquifer, which belongs to a geological formation called the 'Moeda Formation'. In the present work radiometric measurements were performed for 44 water samples. The samples were collected in four geographical points, three of them situated in Brumadinho (surface water) and one point situated in Nova Lima municipality (underground water). The period of sampling extended for a thirteen months period. Some of these locations was used as an alternative sampling point. Uranium and thorium concentrations of the samples were determined using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. The content of gross alpha and gross beta activity, and the concentration of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra e 210 Pb were determinate by using Spectrometer Liquid Scintillation. In this case was necessary to calibrate the spectrometer using 241 Am e 90 Sr/ 90 Y standards. The resultants values were compared with those recommended by the World Health Organization, Ministry of Health and the National Council of the Environment. The maximum level of water natural radioactivity found was 0,275 ± 0,052 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha radiation, 0,130 ± 0,046 Bq.L -1 for 226 Ra and 0,096 ± 0,005 Bq.L-1 for 228 Ra. The levels of gross beta activity and 210 Pb were below the detection limit. The maximum concentrations of uranium and thorium found were 0,068 μg.L -1 and 0.027 μg.L -1 respectively. (author)

  3. Determination of Tc-99 in radioactive wastes; Determinacion de Tc-99 en desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera S, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Tc-99 is a fission product and one of the most important radionuclides from the view point of safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste because of its long half-life (2.1 x 10{sup 5} years) and high mobility in soil-water systems, if this is released into the environment in significant quantities can concentrate on plants and animals. Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 292 KeV, so their quantification imposes destructive methods to be analyzed by liquid scintillation. Therefore the quantification of Tc-99 in ion exchange resins requires of the mineralization of these and separation of Tc-99 of other radioisotopes present in the resin. Therefore the object of this thesis is to develop a quantification method of Tc-99 content in spent exchange resins. So in order to track the behavior of technetium during digestion exchange resins and radiochemical separation, given its high volatility, in this work the {sup 99m}Tc is used. To determine the degree of mineralization of the resins, an analysis was performed by chromatography. Subsequently the method used to determine the percentage of {sup 99m}Tc aerosolized during mineralization of resin is described. After the method for the radiochemical separation of {sup 99m}Tc is presented by liquid-liquid extraction using crown ether as extractant; for this testing was performed by varying the molarity of the extractant, the ratio of solvent extractant, type of digestion of the resin and the presence of Sr-85, in order to study the behavior of {sup 99m}Tc in the presence of this radioisotope. Finally, a track beta spectra of a sample of {sup 99m}Tc eluted from a generator {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc function of time was performed. (Author)

  4. Possibilities for action in the case of radioactive pollution, problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutaf, V.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes basic threats with the use of radioactive substances typical for Republic of Moldova. The main tasks of the network of observation and laboratory control in the case of radioactive pollution are listed. Prospects of development of radiological protection units in the country are determined.

  5. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  6. Determinants of nonmedical use, abuse or dependence on prescription drugs, and use of substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Vishal; Raisch, Dennis W; Moffett, Maurice L; Khan, Nasreen

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found a negative association between health insurance and nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), and abuse or dependence on prescription drugs (ADPD); and mixed associations between health insurance and use of substance abuse treatment (SAT). However, effect of health insurance in the specific subgroups of population is largely unknown. To estimate the relationship between health insurance and (1) NMUPD, (2) ADPD, and (3) use of SAT services among 12-64 years old, noninstitutionalized individuals and to see if these relationships are different in different subgroups of population. This study used cross-sectional survey data from 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In 2007, self-reported prevalence of NMUPD was approximately 10% (N=15,509,703). In multivariate analysis, NMUPD was negatively associated with health insurance, age, race other than non-Hispanic White, education, marital status, and income ($40,000-$74,999). Past year use of tobacco and alcohol were positively associated with NMUPD. Among those with private health insurance, Hispanics and individuals with family income less than $20,000 and $40,000-$74,999 were more likely prone to NMUPD than others. High school graduates with public health insurance were less likely prone to NMUPD. Approximately, 13% of nonmedical users reported ADPD (N=2,011,229). Health insurance and age were negatively associated with ADPD. However, people who were unmarried, reported fair/poor health, and used tobacco were more likely to report ADPD. Lastly, the use of substance abuse treatment programs was approximately 73% and 76% between NMUPD and ADPD population, respectively. Health insurance was not associated with use of substance abuse treatment. Individuals with high school education were 2.6 times more likely to use substance abuse treatment than the college graduates. Additionally, no significant interaction effects

  7. Determination of polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) substance descriptors for established and alternative flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Angelika; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2013-02-05

    Polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) can predict partition coefficients for a multitude of environmental and biological phases with high accuracy. In this work, the pp-LFER substance descriptors of 40 established and alternative flame retardants (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexabromocyclododecane, bromobenzenes, trialkyl phosphates) were determined experimentally. In total, 251 data for gas-chromatographic (GC) retention times and liquid/liquid partition coefficients (K) were measured and used to calibrate the pp-LFER substance descriptors. Substance descriptors were validated through a comparison between predicted and experimental log K for the systems octanol/water (K(ow)), water/air (K(wa)), organic carbon/water (K(oc)) and liposome/water (K(lipw)), revealing a high reliability of pp-LFER predictions based on our descriptors. For instance, the difference between predicted and experimental log K(ow) was <0.3 log units for 17 out of 21 compounds for which experimental values were available. Moreover, we found an indication that the H-bond acceptor value (B) depends on the solvent for some compounds. Thus, for predicting environmentally relevant partition coefficients it is important to determine B values using measurements in aqueous systems. The pp-LFER descriptors calibrated in this study can be used to predict partition coefficients for which experimental data are unavailable, and the predicted values can serve as references for further experimental measurements.

  8. Determination of the fission barrier height in fission of heavy radioactive beams induced by the (d,p)-transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    A theoretical framework is described, allowing to determine the fission barrier height using the observed cross sections of fission induced by the (d,p)-transfer with accuracy, which is not achievable in another type of low-energy fission of neutron-deficient nuclei, the $\\beta$-delayed fission. The primary goal is to directly determine the fission barrier height of proton-rich fissile nuclei, preferably using the radio-active beams of isotopes of odd elements, and thus confirm or exclude the low values of fission barrier heights, typically extracted using statistical calculations in the compound nucleus reactions at higher excitation energies. Calculated fission cross sections in transfer reactions of the radioactive beams show sufficient sensitivity to fission barrier height. In the probable case that fission rates will be high enough, mass asymmetry of fission fragments can be determined. Results will be relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for production of super-heavy nuclei. Transfer induced fission of...

  9. DETERMINATION OF SATURATION VAPOR PRESSURE OF LOW VOLATILE SUBSTANCES THROUGH THE STUDY OF EVAPORATION RATE BY THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Ralys

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study.Research of vapor pressure of low volatile substances is a complicated problem due to both direct experimental implementation complexity and, most significantly, the issues faced correctness of the analysis and processing of experimental data. That is why it is usually required engaging the reference substances (with vapor pressures well studied. The latter drastically reduces the effectiveness of the experimental methods used and narrows their applicability. The paper deals with an approach to the evaporation process description (sublimation of low volatile substances based on molecular kinetic description in view of diffusive and convection processes. The proposed approach relies on experimental thermogravimetricfindingsina wide range of temperatures, flow rates ofthe purge gas and time. Method. A new approach is based on the calculation of the vapor pressure and uses the data about the speed of evaporation by thermogravimetric analysis depending on the temperature, the flow rate of the purge gas, and the evaporation time. The basis for calculation is the diffusion-kinetic description of the process of evaporation (mass loss of the substance from the exposed surface. The method is applicable to determine the thermodynamic characteristics for both the evaporation (the equilibrium liquid - vapor and sublimation (the equilibrium solid - vapor. We proposed the appropriate method of the experiment and analysis of its data in order to find the saturated vapor pressure of individual substances of low volatility. Main Results. The method has been tested on substances with insufficiently reliable and complete study of the thermodynamic characteristics but, despite this, are often used (because of the other data limitations as reference ones. The vaporization process (liquid-vapor has been studied for di-n-butyl phthalate C16H22O4 at 323,15–443,15 К, and sublimation for benzoic acid C7H6O2at 303,15–183,15 К. Both processes have

  10. Disposal of radioactive wastes. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skitt, J.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)

  11. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of 210 Po for alphas and 90 Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90 follow the

  12. Determination of natural radioactivity in irrigation water of drilled wells in northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-02-01

    The levels of natural radiation in bedrock groundwater extracted from drilled wells in selected farms in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia were addressed. The investigated waters form a source of irrigation for vegetables, agricultural crops, wheat, and alfalfa to feed livestock consumed by the general public. Information about water radioactivity in this area is not available yet. Therefore, this study strives to contribute to the quality assessment of the groundwater of these wells that are drilled into the non-renewable Saq sandstone aquifer. Hence, gross alpha and beta activities as well as the concentrations of (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (234)U, (238)U, and U(total) were measured, compared to national and international limits and contrasted with data quoted from the literature. Correlations between the activities of the analyzed radionuclides were discussed. The concentrations of gross alpha and beta activities as well as (228)Ra were identified by liquid scintillation counting whereas alpha spectrometry was used to determine (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U after separation from the matrix by extraction chromatography. The mean activity concentrations of gross α and β were 3.15 ± 0.26 Bq L(-1) and 5.39 ± 0.44 Bq L(-1), respectively. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) showed mean concentrations of 3.16 ± 0.17 Bq L(-1) and 1.12 ± 0.07 Bq L(-1), respectively, whereas lower levels of uranium isotopes ((234)U and (238)U) were obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioactive waste: institutional determinants of management and disposal policy in three European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, Frans.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this thesis has been to write a detailed historical account of the policy and practice of radioactive waste management in Britain, Sweden and West Germany, and to draw out implications for theory and public policy. By comparing the evolution of the policy process in three countries it has been possible to develop a better understanding of the particular operational, regulatory and political factors determining policy in each case. The main conclusions are three-fold. First, the presence or absence of commitments to the reprocessing of spent fuel for a wide range of strategic, industrial and legal reasons have been critical to the success in finding an acceptable radwaste management and disposal policy (or strategy). Politically it is not possible to make a clear distinction between radwaste management and policy for the rest of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Second, because of this complex but intimate relationship to reprocessing policy, the dynamism and consistency of radwaste policies are highly dependent on the industrial and political contexts of the drive to reprocessing. Traditionally a view on reprocessing has been virtually synonymous with a faith or scepticism in the future of nuclear power. Third, the policy process, and indeed its goals was rather unique to national circumstances (the legal and institutional framework, industrial and political structures). This demonstrates one of the principle arguments of the thesis which is that the innovation process for radwaste management and disposal technologies cannot be seen merely as a technical process, but has to be seen as a process of political and institutional negotiations. (author)

  14. Implementation in laboratories of Latin America of procedures of harmonized essay for the determination of the radioactive contamination of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Iglicki, F.A.; Aguirre G, J.; Melo F, A.C. de; Tomicic M, I.J.; Loria M, L.G.; Diodati, J.M.; Vasquez B, L.R.; Alarcon S, F.A.; Civil, M.; Naut M, B.C.; Odino M, M.R.; Flores M, Y.R.; Rossbach, M.

    2006-01-01

    In Latin America, nowadays, it is not had harmonized essay procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods. Equally, the great diversity of institutions that in each country are devoted to carry out this control and the difference in the level that its possess the same ones in quality matter, its impose the necessity to implant a Quality Management System on the base of harmonized technical criteria that its help to obtain reliable analytical results. With this end, it was proposed and it was approved the ARCAL LXXIX regional project: 'Harmonization of the technical and specific requirements of quality for the control of the radioactive contamination of foods'. In this work the aspects more significant of the design and content of the Manual of technical procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods, elaborated in the marks of the one referred project are presented. The same one includes eight procedures for the previous treatment of the samples, the spectrometric determination of gamma emitters radionuclides, the determination of the alpha activity indexes and total beta, of 131 I, 89,90 Sr, 226 Ra, 238, 239 Pu and 3 H, using different methodologies validated in the region. The actions carried out to implement this Manual are also exposed. (Author)

  15. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  16. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of radioactive tracers in chemical reactions. the displacement of zinc-nickel complexes with quantitative determination of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzilli, B.; Saiki, M.

    1983-01-01

    The present paper presents a method for the determination of small quantities of nickel radioactive tracers. An analytical application of the displacement reaction between nickel and zinc ethylenediaminetetraacetate labeled with zinc-65 is pursued. This method is based on the extraction of radioactive zinc displaced by nickel from the zinc chelate into a dithizone-carbon tetrachloride solution and the subsequent measurement of the activity of an aliquot of the extract. The method is very sensitive and nickel can be measured in concentrations as small as 0.1 μg/ml or even less, depending on the specific activity of the radioreagent used. The precision and the accuracy of the method are determined. The problem of interferences is also investigated and an attempt is made in order to eliminate them by using masking agents or by means of a previous separation between nickel and other interfering metals. (Author) [pt

  18. An optimisation technology for more precise determination of a source for modelling radioactive releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubenkov, A.V.; Borodin, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with refining meteorological parameters and source term characteristics required for models of atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radioactivity in the area adjacent to facilities affected by a nuclear accident. The proposed methodology involves the minimisation of an objective function that is the sum of weighted norms of deviations between measured and model values. The measured values are spatially interpolated and the weights determined by the type of measurement and the precision of interpolation. Consideration is given to a technique of initial approximation based on calculating regression functions for the parameters to be refined using measured radioactivity. Coefficients for these functions are calculated by analysis of a multitude of simulated situations. Also discussed is a heuristic method, using multiple random perturbations on the data, for assessing the validity of the solution. Based on these calculations confidence intervals are determined for the refined model parameters. (author)

  19. Radioactive waste: show time? - 16309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, Hans; Verhoef, Ewoud

    2009-01-01

    Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. For the situation in the Netherlands, it is obvious that a period of long term storage is needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. An organisation such as COVRA - the radioactive waste organisation in the Netherlands - can only function when it has good, open and transparent relationship with the public and particularly with the local population. If we tell people that we safely store radioactive waste for 100 years, they often ask: 'That long?' How can we explain the long-term aspect of radioactive waste management in a way people can relate to? In this paper, an overview is given of the activities of COVRA on the communication of radioactive waste management. (authors)

  20. Determination of naturally occurring radioactive materials and heavy metals in soil sample at industrial site area Gebeng, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Dzulkhairi Zulkifly

    2012-01-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the natural occurring radioactivity and heavy metal at an industrial site area Gebeng, Pahang. Sampling has been done in four different stations. This study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactivity ( 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra) and heavy metal in soil sample. Natural radioactivities were determined using Gamma Spectrometry System, the heavy metal determination was done using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result for analysis radioactivity concentration showed that Uranium-238 were in the range of 28.18 ± 4.78 Bq/ kg - 39.63 ± 4.79 Bq/ kg, while the concentration for Thorium-232 were in the range of 45.66 ± 5.49 Bq/ kg - 72.43 ± 9.47 Bq/ kg and for the Radium-226, the concentration were in the range of 8.93 ± 1.15 Bq/ kg - 14.29 ± 2.61 Bq/ kg. The concentration of Potassium-40 were in the range of 51.06 ± 12.18 Bq/ kg - 426.28 ± 137.70 Bq/ kg. 8 heavy metals have been found from the four different stations which are Al, Fe, V, Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb. Fe show the highest concentration among the other heavy metal while Pb show the lowest concentration. From this study, the specific activities of natural radionuclide in almost all stations were below the world limit average for soil, which is 35 Bq/ kg for Uranium-238 and Radium-226, while Thorium-232 and Potassium-40 were above the world limit average which are 30 Bq/ kg and 400 Bq/ kg. (author)

  1. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Walch, Stephan G.; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentration...

  2. Sampling procedure, receipt and conservation of water samples to determine environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Navarro, E.; Payeras, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present document informs about essential goals, processes and contents that the subgroups Sampling and Samples Preparation and Conservation believe they should be part of the procedure to obtain a correct sampling, receipt, conservation and preparation of samples of continental, marine and waste water before qualifying its radioactive content.

  3. Extraction-spectrophotometric method for silicon determination in high-purity substances. 1. Silicon determination in tellurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaburova, V P; Yudelevich, I G [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1989-01-01

    The extraction-spectrophotometric method for silicon determination in tellurium based on extraction isolation of the base by tributyl phosphate from hydrochloride solutions and with addition of HNO/sub 3/ and spectrophotometric silicon determination using malachite green is developed. The method permits to determine 2x10/sup -1/-3x10/sup -4/ % Si.

  4. Royal Order of 27 July 1966 relating to the reciprocal recognition of licences for the import, transport, transit, and distribution of radioactive substances between the countries of the Benelux Economic Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This Royal Order made taking into account the 1958 Act on protection of the population against the hazards of ionizing radiations, the 1963 Royal Order embodying the general regulations on protection of the population and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations and the 1966 recommendation of the Committee of Ministers of the Benelux Economic Union lays down that, notwithstanding Section 38 and 57 of the 1963 Royal Order, licences for the import, transport and transit of radioactive substances or devices containing them which are issued by the competent authorities of the Netherlands or Luxembourg are valid in Belgium. Also, a Belgia distributor of such substances or devices containing them must ensure that a consignee residing in either of these countries holds the licences required by his national law. (NEA) [fr

  5. Activity determination of the Am-241 sources from radioactive lightning rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minematsu, Denise; Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Ferreira, Robson de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    The authorization for manufacture commerce and installation of radioactive lightning rods, in Brazil, was lifted in 1989 by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN (Resolution no 4/89). Since this date, these devices have been replaced and have been sent to the Institutes subordinated to the CNEN, amongst them the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN-CNEN/SP. Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory - RWML of the IPEN - CNEN/SP had received, approximately, 16,000 units up to the end of 2008. The radioactive lightning rod is constituted in its majority, for a central metallic rod, where two or three metallic plates are mounted. In these plates, on average, six Am-241 sources are fixed. The process used for the radioactive lightning rods treatment is the dismantling of the device and the withdrawal of the sources from the metallic plates. The activity values of the lightning rods sources, supplied by the manufacturers, vary from two to three orders of magnitude and therefore it is necessary to characterize these sources. This paper describes the methodology used to measure the actual activity of each Am-241 sources extracted from the radioactive lightning rods. The first step was to sample tens of Am-241 sources and carry out the activity measurements for further use in the system calibration. The equipment used in this first stage was a gamma spectrometer, previously calibrated with an Am-241 standard source, in agreement with the same arrangement and same geometry in the measures of the sources. Results show that there are sources with similar activity values of those supplied by the manufacturers, but there are also sources with no activity - or also activity very low compared with the expected value -, as well as sources contend other radionuclides. (author)

  6. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  7. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  8. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  9. Determination of natural radioactivity in public water supplies of Sao Paulo State. V.1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Joselene de

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of natural occurring radionuclides of the 238 U and 232 Th series in drinking water supplies of Sao Paulo State. A sampling program was carried out, in order to perform this survey, starting in 1994 and covering 54% of the 574 existing counties. The locations studied correspond to the public water systems operated routinely by SABESP - Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo, which is the state company responsible for collecting, treating and supplying water. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by gross alpha and beta counting, respectively, of a Ba(Ra)SO 4 precipitate in a low-background gasflow proportional counter. The 228 Rn concentrations were determined by liquid scintillation method. Concentrations up to 235 mBq/L and 131 mBq/L were observed for 226 Rn and 228 Ra, respectively, whereas 222 Rn concentrations reached 315 Bq/L. Of the 452 water samples analyzed, a total of 3 presented activity concentrations for 226 Ra above the limit of 0.1 Bq/L adopted by the Brazilian regulation for the gross-alpha activity in drinking water. These results, however, are below 1/50 of the annual limit of intake recommended for 226 Ra by 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear', if an ingestion rate of 2L/d per person is considered. For the gross-beta activity, all the measured samples presented 228 Ra activity concentrations below 1 Bq/L. It is concluded that the consumption of such waters will not imply in any additional health risk to the population. In order to evaluate the radioactive doses due to the ingestion of these waters, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out using dose conversion factors suggested by ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). Doses up to 0.3 mSv/y, 0.6 mSv/y and 3.2 mSv/y were estimated for the critical organs, for the ingestion of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 222 Rn, respectively; while the corresponding committed effective

  10. Determination of natural radioactivity and the concentration of elements in soil and plants at Krau Wildlife Reserve, Temerloh, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz Hadzori

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the natural radioactivity and the concentration of elements in soil and plants at Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang. Soil and plant samples collected were air dried and heated in the oven at temperature of 100 degree Celsius. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometer (ICP-MS) was used to determine the natural radioactivity and elemental contents of each sample. Results showed that the concentration of U-238 and Th-232 varied from each sampling site. The concentration of Th-232 is higher than of U-238. For soil and plants samples, the natural radioactivity for both radionuclides were below 72 Bq/ kg. 15 elements present in both soil and plant samples, among other are Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ca, Zn, Co, Cd and As. The concentration of each elements differs for every sampling site. The elements with higher concentration are Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Mn. This study showed that monocotyledon taking up more Mg than dicotyledons whereas dicotyledon plants taking up more Al. (author)

  11. Proposal of the concept of selection of accidents that release large amounts of radioactive substances in the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masato; Honda, Yuki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Position, construction and equipment of testing and research reactor to be subjected to the use standards for rules Article 53 (prevention of expansion of the accident to release a large amount of radioactive material) generation the frequency is a lower accident than design basis accident, when what is likely to release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation from the facility has occurred, and take the necessary measures in order to prevent the spread of the accident. There is provided a lower accident than frequency design basis accidents, for those that may release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation. (author)

  12. Determination of the isomeric fraction in a postaccelerated radioactive ion beam using the coupled decay-chain equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, A; Dijulio, D D; Cederkall, J; Van de Walle, J

    2010-01-01

    A method based on the coupled decay-chain equations for extracting the isotopic and the isomeric composition of a postaccelerated radioactive ion beam is presented and demonstrated on a data set from a Coulomb excitation experiment. This is the first attempt of analyzing the content of a postaccelerated radioactive ion beam using this technique. The beam composition is required for an absolute normalization of the measurement. The strength of the method, as compared to present online-based methods, lies in the determination of the isomeric fraction of a partially isomeric beam using all data accumulated during the experiment. We discuss the limitations and sensitivity of the method with respect to the gamma-ray detection efficiency and the accumulated flux. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simple and rapid determination methods for low-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear research facilities. Guidelines for determination of radioactive waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameo, Yutaka; Shimada, Asako; Ishimori, Ken-ichiro; Haraga, Tomoko; Katayama, Atsushi; Nakashima, Mikio; Hoshi, Akiko

    2009-10-01

    Analytical methods were developed for simple and rapid determination of U, Th, and several nuclides, which are selected as important nuclides for safety assessment of disposal of wastes generated from research facilities at Nuclear Science Research Institute and Oarai Research and Development Center. The present analytical methods were assumed to apply to solidified products made from miscellaneous wastes by plasma melting in the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities. In order to establish a system to analyze the important nuclides in the solidified products at low cost and routinely, we have advanced the development of a high-efficiency non-destructive measurement technique for γ-ray emitting nuclides, simple and rapid methods for pretreatment of solidified product samples and subsequent radiochemical separations, and rapid determination methods for long-lived nuclides. In the present paper, we summarized the methods developed as guidelines for determination of radionuclides in the low-level solidified products. (author)

  14. The Optimum Condition For Determination Of Radioactivity Of Pest Insects Labelled with P-32 By Using Liquid scintillation Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarianto, S.; Susilo, Budi; Sutrisno, Singgih

    2002-01-01

    Tracer technique is needed in the control programe of pest insects especially for determining of its direction and dispersal. Radioisotopes of P-32 is frecuently used for labeling of pest insects. Liquid Scintillation Counter can be used effectively for measuring radioactivity of pest insects labelled by P-32. Optilnization of liquid compositions that consist of solvents. primary scintillation PPO and secondary scintillation POPOP were determined by examination of their compositions. Based on the research result obtained, composition of scintillator which had the highest efficiency. consists of P-Xylene solvent. primary scintillation PPO (5 g/l ) and secondary scintillation POPOP (0.5 g/l)

  15. Radioactive or natural tracer techniques for leak determining of dam abutment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiansheng; Du Guoping; Zheng Zheng; Sun Jing

    1995-01-01

    Infiltration and localization of preferential infiltration zones at the dam abutment are measured using radioactive tracer tests of flow in boreholes, meanwhile interconnection between boreholes and the observing water points is analysed. The theory and practice of radioactive tracer synthetic detective method are described to give methods and calculation formulae used under the condition of stable flow in single well to measure permeability coefficient and hydrostatic heads. Major single hole techniques including measurement for seepage line, velocity, rate of seepage flow and relationship of recharge of groundwater in aquifers are introduced briefly. The possibilities offered by natural tracers are analysed, including electric-conduct, ph-value and temperature of water as well as stable isotopes (D, 18 O) and tritium. Furthermore, the sensibilities of this theory and methods were confirmed by detecting seepage flow field of Xinanjiang Dam

  16. Use of radioactive and neutron-activatable tracers to determine effective hydrogeologic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Jester, W.A.; Jarrett, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The migration of nuclides in a geologic medium is controlled by the hydrogeologic parameters of the medium such as the dispersion coefficient, pore water velocity, retardation factor, degradation rate, mass transfer coefficient, water content, and fraction of dead-end pores. The breakthrough curve (BTC), which is the graphical relationship between the tracer concentration and the elapsed time since introduction, is an integrated picture of the hydrogeologic parameters that produced the BTC. Both radioactive and neutron-activatable tracers have been used to generate BTCs. The BTC of a 92 Br radioactive tracer generated under saturated conditions in a nonhomogeneous (fractured) soil column is shown. From BTCs, the effective hydrogeologic parameters can be identified if appropriate techniques are applied

  17. High-sensitivity determination of radioactive cesium in Japanese foodstuffs. 3 years after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumi Shozugawa; Mayumi Hori; Motoyuki Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in 96 foodstuffs in supermarkets with high sensitivity over 3 years after Fukushima accident. Milk, yoghurt, rice, tea, salmon, cereal, blueberry, miso, and apples had a trace of 134 Cs and 137 Cs from 10 -3 to 100 Bq/kg, however, some mushrooms that were bought in the outer Fukushima prefecture were contaminated by radioactive cesium over the regulatory limit (100 Bq/kg). In view of the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs radioactivity ratio, we can conclude that 137 Cs detected in remote areas 300 km or more from Fukushima Nuclear power plant contained activity from Pre-Fukushima events such as Chernobyl accident (1986) and atmospheric nuclear explosions (from 1945). (author)

  18. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between Netherlands. This seems attributable to the source, which is purified surface water in this area. Short-chain PFASs and especially perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected most frequently, whereas long-chain PFASs (C > 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ.

  19. Integrated approaches for determination of environmental and human risks of persistent toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, L.; Cupr, P.; Dusek, L.; Hilscherova, K.; Holoubek, I.; Klanova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Substances that are persistent and bioaccumulative often posses toxic characteristics and cause adverse human health or environmental effects. Basic objective of the long-term research project INCHEMBIOL undertaken by the Centre RECETOX are the complex studies of interactions among chemical compounds present in environmental compartments and their biological effects and studies of the fate of mainly persistent chemical compounds in the environment, their effects on the environment and living organisms including human. Destiny in this concept consists of a summary of transport (from their input in the environment, transport within the environmental compartment, where they are discharged, transport among compartments and long-range transport in the environment) and transformation processes (abiotic and biotic transformations). It also includes study of distribution equilibriums, properties conditioning their environmental behaviour, study of the transformation processes and their products. This complex approach is a part of long-term research activities of the centre RECETOX. In the contribution methods used and results obtained in exploration of the causality among chemical (presence of chemical compounds in the environment) and biological (mechanisms of effects on the living organisms) are described.

  20. Methods for determining the release of radioactive material into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farges, L.; Daw, H.T.

    1976-01-01

    The current policy on the discharge of radioactive effluents calls for the containment of radioactive wastes in most instances. The resulting doses to individuals and populations have been shown by many surveys to be very small (UNSCEAR Report, 1972). Nevertheless, small amounts of radioactive releases are made to the environment during normal operation of nuclear facilities. Whenever discharge of radioactive effluents to the environment is permitted, careful consideration is made of all the relevant factors which might lead to exposure of man. However, with the expansion of nuclear power programmes, more sophistication is required in setting discharge limits to the environment, taking into consideration future sources as well as present sources. The IAEA's recommendations conform to the dose limitation system set out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The system implies that the individual dose limits should never be exceeded. Furthermore, the ICRP guidelines require that doses be kept as low as reasonably possible, taking social and economic considerations into account. This second objective, usually called optimization, implies the use of differential cost-benefit analysis. At present, decisions are still made by other procedures, for example, by applying safety factors to release limits derived only from the dose limits. However, the ICRP system of dose limitation, including optimization, appears to be a more rational approach to the establishment of release limits. Thus, it is necessary to provide basic material on concepts which are intended for use and decision making by national authorities, and the Agency plans to publish a series of complementary documents on the application of these concepts to various specific cases. (author)

  1. A Model for determination of screening levels for radioactive elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ana C.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: At the present, decision about clean-up of Brazilian sites contaminated with radioactive isotopes is addressed on a case-by-case basis, since there is no general guidance or recommendation to support actions in early phases of the problem identification. For chemicals, CETESB - the governmental organization responsible for preventing and controlling environmental pollution in Sao Paulo State - established quality reference values for prevention and intervention, as the first step to implement a remediation policy based on human health risk assessment. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology for the establishment of target values for radioactive soil contamination, as far as possible consistent and compatible with the approach adopted by CETESB for sites contaminated with chemicals. The following steps have been addressed in this study: conceptual scenario and model development; codification of the equations in an electronic spreadsheet; selection of proper input values; derivation of the intervention levels for selected radionuclides using Monte Carlo methods. The mathematical model developed was mainly based on the equations used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements for soil screening purposes. Results are presented for selected natural and man-made radioactive isotopes. (author)

  2. Determination of 25-OCH3-PPD and the related substances by UPLC-MS/MS and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Lu, Jingjing; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Sainan; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-06-01

    20(R)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β,12β,20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD) is a promising antitumor compound belonging to triterpenoid saponins isolated from radix notoginseng. A systematic research on the related impurities in raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD has not been conducted. In this study, three impurities obtained by HPLC-ELSD and characterized by (13)C NMR and MS were observed in the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Cytotoxic activities of the related substances were also evaluated, of which impurity B with 25-OCH3-PPD showed synergistic inhibitory activity against BGC-823 with IC50 values of 8.33μM. Furthermore, a rapid and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of the principal component and three related substances in the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Multiple reaction monitoring scan mode was used for the quantification of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD and its three related substances. The four constituents were separated within 11min on a BEH C18 column (100 mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) using a mobile phase comprising methanol and 0.03% formic acid water (82:18, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method displayed acceptable levels of linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied for the establishment of a rational quality control standard for the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of a liquid chromatographic method for determination of related substances in a candidate certified reference material of captopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the validation of a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method (RP-HPLC with diode array detection (DAD for determination of related substances (impurities from organic synthesis and degradation products of captopril according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia IV. The aim of this study was to guarantee the method accuracy for quantification of related substances, an essential requisite to determine, using the mass balance approach, the captopril content in the first Brazilian certified reference material (CRM of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, developed by Inmetro. The captopril instability in solution is discussed and the captopril content determined by mass balance is compared to the results from titration and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC.Este artigo descreve a validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em fase reversa (CLAE-RP com detector de fotodiodos (DAD para determinação de substâncias relacionadas (impurezas orgânicas de síntese e produtos de degradação de captopril segundo Farmacopéia Brasileira IV ed. Este estudo teve como objetivo garantir que o método é capaz de quantificar com exatidão o teor de substâncias relacionadas, um requisito essencial para que o teor de captopril seja determinado por balanço de massa no primeiro material de referência certificado (MRC de fármacos brasileiro, o qual foi desenvolvido pelo Inmetro. A instabilidade do captopril em solução é discutida em detalhes e o teor de captopril determinado por balanço de massa é comparado com aqueles obtidos por titulação e por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC.

  4. Experimental determination of the shipboard fire environment for simulated radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.

    1997-03-01

    A series of eight fire tests with simulated radioactive material shipping containers aboard the test ship Mayo Lykes, a break-bulk freighter, is described. The tests simulate three basic types of fires: engine room fires, cargo fires and open pool fires. Detailed results from the tests include temperatures, heat fluxes and air flows measured during the fires. The first examination of the results indicates that shipboard fires are not significantly different from fires encountered in land transport. 13 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  6. Determination of specific alpha-radioactivity of flora samples from semipalatinsk test site (STS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blekhman, A.M.; Dujsenbaev, A.; Orazova, A.O.

    1999-01-01

    For further rehabilitation of soil earlier contaminated with radioactive fallout, the method of radionuclide absorption by plants is vital. The last updating of electronic system of the facility meant to analyze impulse shape /2/ helped to enlarge dynamical range of registration and reduction of identification threshold for alpha particles up to 50 keV. We have developed methods for STS flora samples preparation and performed first measurements of their specific alpha activity. Measurement results are in table 1. Measurement results analysis shows that STS flora samples can accumulate considerable concentrations of alpha active nuclides

  7. Determination of radioactive levels in phosphate-containing fertilizers, copper and gold ores by direct gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Constantin, F.; Dusoiu, M.; Pascovici, G.; Macovei, M.

    1993-01-01

    Two particular aspects of the role played by the natural radiation background in Romanian industry: phosphates-containing fertilizer processing, and copper and gold mining, are presented. U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226 values (Bq/Kg) for various imported phosphorites, superphosphates, concentrated Cu and Au Romanian ores, are reported. A simple and efficient radioactivity determination procedure based on a large volume NaI (Tl) detector coupled to a Romanian-designed portable multichannel analyzer is described. Potential radiological impacts on specialized workers are discussed. (Author)

  8. A mathematical model to determine incorporated quantities of radioactivity from the measured photometric values of tritium-autoradiographs in neuroanatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennissen, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The mathematical/empirical model developed in this paper helps to determine the incorporated radioactivity from the measured photometric values and the exposure time T. Possible errors of autoradiography due to the exposure time or the preparation are taken into consideration by the empirical model. It is shown that the error of appr. 400% appearing in the sole comparison of the measured photometric values can be corrected. The model is valid for neuroanatomy as optical nerves, i.e. neuroanatomical material, were used to develop it. Its application also to the other sections of the central nervous system seems to be justified due to the reduction of errors thus achieved. (orig.) [de

  9. Ministerial Order of 24 April 1964 on the approval of types of devices containing radioactive substances, made in implementation of Section 3.1 d/2 of the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 embodying the General Regulations for the Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This Order lays down that approval of devices containing radioactive substances and referred to in the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 embodying the General Regulations on Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations will only be granted if the total quantity of radioisotopes contained therein does not exceed certain values laid down by the 1963 Royal Order, and the radioactive substances are adequately shielded. It also lays down the procedure to be complied with for obtaining such approval and the conditions the applicant must meet to obtain the certificate of approval, which is valid for six years and may be renewed. The Ministry of Employment and Labour, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, and the Ministry of Public Health and the Family are the competent authorities in respect of applications for a certificate of approval. Finally, suspension or withdrawal of the certificate or confiscation of the radioactive substances or devices do not give rise to compensation. (NEA) [fr

  10. Determining ''Best Practicable Environmental Options'' for final waste disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses some ideas on what the Best Practical Environmental Option (BPEO) process should include. A BPEO study to help develop a radioactive waste management strategy should not only look at post-closure safety of a facility. In the UK there was a 1986 Study of BPEOs for management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. This study tried to answer important questions such as (1) What are the practical options, (2) Which wastes should go to shallow burial, (3) Which wastes should go to sea disposal, (4) How does storage compare with disposal and (5) What are the cost and environmental trade-offs. The presentation discusses what was done to answer the questions. The BPEO Study resulted in major improved effort to characterise waste, much greater quantitative understanding of where and when the real costs, and environmental and radiological impacts arise. All options would be useful within a national strategy. But there was clearly a need for resolution of political acceptance problems, integration of policy with other hazardous waste management, and stronger legal framework

  11. Colorimetric determination of Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in radioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Baumann, E.W.; Bibler, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio in the glass is a measure of the redox properties of the glass melt. It is necessary to measure this ratio to ensure that the melt redox properties are suitable for the glass melter. A colorimetric method for measuring the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio in highly radioactive glasses was developed and tested remotely in a shielded cell. The tests were performed on glasses similar in composition and radioactivity to those that will be produced in the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. The first step of the method is dissolution of finely crushed glass with a hydrofluoric/sulfuric acid mixture with ammonium vanadate added to preserve the Fe 2+ content of the glass during the dissolution. Boric acid is then added to complex fluoride and to destroy iron-fluoride complexes. After adjusting the solution to pH 5, FerroZine TM (trademark of the Hach Company, Loveland, CO) reagent is added to form a magenta-colored complex with Fe 2+ . The absorbance at 562 nm is measured by using a fiber optic-coupled photodiode array spectrophotometer. Ascorbic acid is then used to reduce all the iron in solution to Fe 2+ and the absorbance is again measured. The difference in absorbance measurements corresponds to the Fe 3+ in the sample and the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio can be calculated

  12. Separation for the determination of 59/63Ni in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Heon; Choi, Kwang Soon; Jee, Kwang Young; Kim, Won Ho; Jung, Kie Chul

    2005-01-01

    A study on the separation of 99 Tc, 94 Nb, 55 Fe, 90 Sr and 59/63 Ni in various radioactive wastes discharged from nuclear power plants has been performed for a use in their quantification which is indispensable for the evaluation of the radionuclide inventory. Ni was recovered along with Ca, Mg, Al, Cr, Ti, Mn, Ce, Na, K. and Cu through the sequential separation procedure of Re (as a surrogate of 99 Tc), Nb, Fe and Sr by anion exchange and Sr-SPec extraction chromatography. In this research, chemical separation of Ni from the co-existing elements was investigated by cation exchange and Ni-Spec extraction chromatography. Precipitation behaviour of Ni and the co-existing elements with dimethylglyoxime(DMG) was investigated in ammonium citrate/ethanol-H 2 O and tartaric acid/acetone-H 2 O in order to purify separated Ni fractions and to prepare 59/63 Ni source for the radioactivity measurement using a gas proportional counter. Recovery of Ni separated through ion exchange chromatographic separation procedure was 93.1% with relative standard deviation of 0.9%. In addition, recovery of Ni with DMG in the tartaric acid/acetone-H 2 O was 85.6% with relative standard deviation of 1.9%

  13. A straightforward method to determine flavouring substances in food by GC-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Sanchez, P.; Sisseren, van M.; Marco, De S.; Jekel, A.A.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A straightforward GC–MS method was developed to determine the occurrence of fourteen flavouring compounds in food. It was successfully validated for four generic types of food (liquids, semi-solids, dry solids and fatty solids) in terms of limit of quantification, linearity, selectivity, matrix

  14. Determining composition of a substance by the use of both reflected and transmitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, S.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for the determination of the content of sulfur in hydrocarbon fuels comprising a primary and a secondary source of γ- or x-rays arranged on opposite sides of a test zone and a detector connected to a recording device for detecting and recording backscattered and transmitted rays emitted by the radiation sources is described

  15. An Act to Control and Regulate the Possession, Sale, Transport and Use of Radioactive Substances and the Possession and Use of Certain Apparatus capable of producing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    This Act covers all activities involving radioactive materials and radiation sources. It sets up a Radiological Advisory Council to advise the Minister responsible for health in Queensland on administration of the Act, regulations made thereunder and on preventing and minimising dangers arising from radioactive materials and radiation sources. It lays down the Council's composition and rules of procedure. The Act also provides for the licensing, control and registration of such materials and sources, including sanctions in case of non-compliance with its provisions. (NEA) [fr

  16. Extraction-spectrophotometric method for silicon determination in high-purity substances. 2. Silicon determination in cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudelevich, I G; Shaburova, V P; Shamrina, L V [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1989-01-01

    Cadmium extraction by tributyl phosphate and trialkylbenzylammonium chloride (TABAC) depending on acid (HCl, HI), extracting agent concentration, volume of aqueous and organic phases, number of extraction steps is investigated. On the basis of the obtained results the spectrophotometric method for silicon determination in cadmium and CdCl/sub 2/ using malachite green with preliminary extraction of the base by the TABAC from HCl solutions. The method detection limit is 3.9x10/sup -4/ % Si with respect to initial cadmium sample of 100 mg and 7.8x10/sup -5/ % with respect to 0.5 g of CdCl/sub 2/. The relative standard deviation is S/sub r/-0.07-0.13.

  17. DETERMINATION OF SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PECTIN SUBSTANCES FROM THE SOLVENT CAKE OF TAGETES PATULA L. INFLORESCENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Chervonnaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Big molecular weight conditions are responsible for some properties, which are absent in low molecular compounds. Therefore, its determination allows revealing of some physical and technological properties of biopolymers and prediction of the possibility of their practical application. The aim of this work was to determine an average molarweight, to study the superficial properties at the border of “solution-air” phases, and to establish an isoelectric spot of water solutions of pectin substances (PS, isolated from a solvent cake of Tagetes patula inflorescences. Materials and methods. Polysaccharide complexes were isolated from the solvent cake of Tagetes patula inflorescences of Carmen species which was left after a raw material extraction with ethanol 40% with the method of Kochetkov and M. Sinnera. The time of water and PS solutions flow out was measured by the use of a capillary Ostwald viscosimeter; different types of viscosity were calculated. The density of solutions was determined by using a picnometric method, however due to the closeness of density of the analyzed solutions and water, they were not considered in the calculation of the relative viscosity. Series of solutions with 0.01 to 0.5% concentrations were prepared from 1% PS water solutions to determine a surface activity. Monometric liquid tension variations were set in Rehbinder’s apparatus in the moment of an air bubble appearance on the surface of PS solution. Isoelectric spot (IES of PS was determined in acetate buffer solution with pH within 3.2 to 6.2 by using the viscometer method. Results and discussion. Fractioning of the obtained polysaccharide complexes showed that efficiency of the pectin substances amounted to 2.2%. Calculation shows that an average molar weight of PS amounted to 45272 g/mol. About the degree of interaction between macromolecules of polymer and solvent, structural properties of macromolecule, the degree of its branching can be judged by the

  18. Determination and evaluation of the radiation dose to the population due to incorporation of natural radioactivity. Ermittlung und Bewertung der Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung, die durch Inkorporation natuerlicher radioaktiver Stoffe verursacht wird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloebel, B; Berlich, J; Keller, K D; Bauer, U; Andres, C; Zaeh, I; Malter, G; Fehrenz, K; Lehnen, H; Fehringer, F

    1989-03-01

    Of all natural radioactivity the uranium-radium and thorium decay chain each contribute essentially to the internal radiation exposure of human populations. The objective of the investigations carried out during the past years was on the one hand to determine the contents of the radionuclides {sup 3}H/uranium, radium, lead, polonium and thorium in the human body and furthermore to determine the relevant ingestion pathways as regards type and activity of the natural radioactive substances incorporated in foodstuffs and drinking water. For this purpose both human organ samples and environmental samples including foodstuffs and drinking water, essentially from the Saarland, but also from other regions of the FRG, were taken and analyzed. The methods used, as far as deviating from standard methods, are described. The measuring results are given and discussed. A concluding evaluation assigns the natural internal radiation exposure within the other risks of everyday life. The concentrations determined and the ingestion of the essential natural radionuclides are presented in tables. The radiation dose is estimated from the respective tissue concentration. (orig./HP).

  19. Determination of morphine, codeine and 6-monoacetylmorphine in saliva of substance-abuse patients using HPLC/MS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva represents an alternative specimen for substances abuse determination in toxicology. Hence, the aim of this study was to optimize a method for saliva specimen preparation for heroin metabolites, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-mam, and codeine determination by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS, and to apply this method on saliva samples taken from the patients. Methods. Saliva specimen was prepared using liqiud/liquid extraction of morphine, codeine and 6- mam by mixture of chloroform and isopropanol (9 : 1; v/v. Extracts were analysed by HPLC/MS technique: separation column Waters Spherisorb® 5 μm, ODS2, 4.6 × 100 mm; mobile phase: ammonium acetate : acetonitile (80 : 20; v/v, mobile phase flow rate 0.3 mL/min; mass detection range: 100-400 m/z. Regression and correlation analyses were performed with the probalility level of 0.05. Concentrations of morphine, codeine and 6-mam were determined in saliva samples of the patients with “opiates” in urine identified by the test strips. Results. Calibration for each analysed substance was done in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mg/L and the coefficient of correlation was R2 > 0.99. We obtained following calibration curves: y = 385531x + 14584; y = 398036x + 31542; and y = 524162x - 27105, for morphine, codeine and 6-mam, respectively. Recovery for morphine and codeine determination was 99%, while for 6- mam it was 94%. Limits of detection and quantification of a proposed method were 0.01 mg/L and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. Concentration of morphine in the saliva of the heroin users ranged between 0.54 and 5.82 mg/L, concentration of codeine between 0.05 and 5.33, and 6-mam between 0.01 and 0.68 mg/L. A statistically significant correlation between codeine and 6-mam concentrations was obtained. Conclusion. A proposed HPLC/MS method for morphine, codeine and 6-mam determination in saliva is accurate, simple, cheap and suitable for routine analysis and

  20. Determination of 89Sr and 90Sr in highly radioactive water from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojanowski, R.; Radecki, Z.; Duniec, S.

    1994-01-01

    The main criterion in assaying strontium radionuclides is to obtain radiochemically pure strontium sources for beta-particle counting. Nuclear power plant waters contain both 89 Sr and 90 Sr accompanied by many beta-particle and gamma-ray emitting fission and neutron-activation products. The latter activities can sometimes exceed those of strontium by a factor of 10 7 . Efficient purification procedures must be used to remove these products, preferably at an initial stage of analysis to reduce the radiation risk to personnel. A method has been developed in which a water sample is passed through a prefilter installed on top of an ion-exchange column filled with Dowex-50 resin in H + form. This prefilter is impregnated with ferrocyanides and manganese dioxide and retains most of the interfering radionuclides while the underlying cation-exchanger takes up strontium ions. A few additional purification steps result in a strontium salt that is free from other radioactivity. (orig.)

  1. Radioactively labelled substances for in vivo and in vitro tests from the time of their production up to their use in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccato, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    Most important production steps and control tests applied to radionuclides and radioactive labelled compounds used in nuclear medicine are described. Radiopharmaceutical products are subdivided in products for therapy and for in vivo and in vitro diagnostics tests. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Determination and Interpretation of Characteristic Limits for Radioactivity Measurements: Decision Threshhold, Detection Limit and Limits of the Confidence Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, the environment programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at developing a set of procedures for analytical measurements of radionuclides in food and the environment. Reliable, comparable and fit for purpose results are essential for any analytical measurement. Guidelines and national and international standards for laboratory practices to fulfil quality assurance requirements are extremely important when performing such measurements. The guidelines and standards should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer. ISO 11929:2010 is the international standard on the determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval) for measuring ionizing radiation. For nuclear analytical laboratories involved in the measurement of radioactivity in food and the environment, robust determination of the characteristic limits of radioanalytical techniques is essential with regard to national and international regulations on permitted levels of radioactivity. However, characteristic limits defined in ISO 11929:2010 are complex, and the correct application of the standard in laboratories requires a full understanding of various concepts. This publication provides additional information to Member States in the understanding of the terminology, definitions and concepts in ISO 11929:2010, thus facilitating its implementation in Member State laboratories.

  3. Determination of true optical absorption and scattering coefficient of wooden cell wall substance by time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Ryunosuke; Inagaki, Tetsuya; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2016-02-22

    The true absorption coefficient (μa) and reduced scattering coefficient (μ´s) of the cell wall substance in Douglas fir were determined using time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy. Samples were saturated with hexane, toluene or quinolone to minimize the multiple reflections of light on the boundary between pore-cell wall substance in wood. μ´s exhibited its minimum value when the wood was saturated with toluene because the refractive index of toluene is close to that of the wood cell wall substance. The optical parameters of the wood cell wall substance calculated were μa = 0.030 mm(-1) and μ´s= 18.4 mm(-1). Monte Carlo simulations using these values were in good agreement with the measured time-resolved transmittance profiles.

  4. Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of valsartan and substances from the group of statins in binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mariusz; Apola, Anna; Maślanka, Anna; Kwiecień, Anna; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2017-12-20

    Applicability of derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of valsartan in the presence of a substance from the group of statins was checked. The obtained results indicate that the proposed method may be effective by using appropriate derivatives: for valsartan and fluvastatin - D1, D2 and D3, for valsartan and pravastatin - D1 and D3, for valsartan and atorvastatin - D2 and D3. The method was characterized by high sensitivity and accuracy. Linearity was maintained in the following ranges: 9.28-32.48 mg mL-1 for valsartan, 8.16-28.56 mg mL-1 f or fluvastatin, 14.40-39.90 mg mL-1 for atorvastatin and 9.60-48.00 mg mL-1 for pravastatin. Determination coefficients were in the range of 0.989-0.999 depending on the analyte and the order of derivative. The precision of the method was high with RSD from 0.1 to 2.5 % and recovery of individual components was within the range of 100 ± 5 %. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of valsartan combined with fluvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin in laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical preparations.

  5. Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of valsartan and substances from the group of statins in binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolarczyk Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of valsartan in the presence of a substance from the group of statins was checked. The obtained results indicate that the proposed method may be effective by using appropriate derivatives: for valsartan and fluvastatin - D1, D2 and D3, for valsartan and pravastatin - D1 and D3, for valsartan and atorvastatin - D2 and D3. The method was characterized by high sensitivity and accuracy. Linearity was maintained in the following ranges: 9.28-32.48 mg mL-1 for valsartan, 8.16-28.56 mg mL-1 f or fluvastatin, 14.40-39.90 mg mL-1 for atorvastatin and 9.60-48.00 mg mL-1 for pravastatin. Determination coefficients were in the range of 0.989-0.999 depending on the analyte and the order of derivative. The precision of the method was high with RSD from 0.1 to 2.5 % and recovery of individual components was within the range of 100 ± 5 %. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of valsartan combined with fluvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin in laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical preparations.

  6. Rapid method for the radioactive strontium determination in natural samples; Brza metoda za odredjivanje radioaktivnog stroncija u prirodnim uzorcima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahek, Z; Kosutic, K; Lulic, S [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    Radioactive strontium isotopes belong to the group of isotopes that are very dangerous for human health. Therefore radioactive strontium is regularly determined in natural samples. When determining strontium isotopes in natural samples, it is necessary to isolate strontium from the sample because strontium isotopes are pure {beta}-emitters. As natural samples contain much more calcium and sodium than strontium it is necessary to isolate a small quantity of strontium from large sample with simultaneous separation of calcium and other interfering elements. For this purposes an elegant method based on ion exchange chromatography has been developed. Namely, examinations with model system have shown that strontium may be separated from calcium on the column filled with anion exchanger and the mixture of the methanol and nitric acid as eluent. It was also shown that yttrium does not separate from strontium but elutes almost simultaneously with it. Yttrium may be separated from strontium on the column filled with cation exchanger DOWEX 50X8 and nitric acid as eluent. According to the above examinations, the procedure of isolation of strontium and yttrium from natural sample has been created (on assumption that {sup 90}Sr and {sup 90}Y in secular equilibrium in sample). Strontium and yttrium have been isolated from natural sample (standard IAEA A-7) on the column filled with the exchanger AMBERLITE CG-400 and the mixture of methanol and nitric acid as eluent. Strontium and yttrium have been separated on the column with cation exchanger. {sup 90}Sr has been determined through {sup 90}Y by counting the solid yttrium oxalate immediately upon isolation and separation from strontium. {sup 90}Sr has also been determined by counting {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in secular equilibrium after 15 days. The obtained results of determination of {sup 90}Sr through {sup 90}Y and through secular equilibrium {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y correspond to the declared values of standard. (author). 2 figs., 1

  7. Using Geographic Information Systems to Determine Site Suitability for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charles A; Matthews, Kennith; Pulsipher, Allan; Wang, Wei-Hsung

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable product of using radioactive material in education and research activities, medical applications, energy generation, and weapons production. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) makes up a majority of the radioactive waste produced in the United States. In 2010, over two million cubic feet of LLW were shipped to disposal sites. Despite efforts from several states and compacts as well as from private industry, the options for proper disposal of LLW remain limited. New methods for quickly identifying potential storage locations could alleviate current challenges and eventually provide additional sites and allow for adequate regional disposal of LLW. Furthermore, these methods need to be designed so that they are easily communicated to the public. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based method was developed to determine suitability of potential LLW disposal (or storage) sites. Criteria and other parameters of suitability were based on the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) requirements as well as supporting literature and reports. The resultant method was used to assess areas suitable for further evaluation as prospective disposal sites in Louisiana. Criteria were derived from the 10 minimum requirements in 10 CFR Part 61.50, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 0902, and studies at existing disposal sites. A suitability formula was developed permitting the use of weighting factors and normalization of all criteria. Data were compiled into GIS data sets and analyzed on a cell grid of approximately 14,000 cells (covering 181,300 square kilometers) using the suitability formula. Requirements were analyzed for each cell using multiple criteria/sub-criteria as well as surrogates for unavailable datasets. Additional criteria were also added when appropriate. The method designed in this project proved to be sufficient for initial screening tests in determining the most suitable areas for prospective disposal (or storage

  8. Immunological methods for gentamicin determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugers Dagneauz, P.G.L.C.; Olthuis, F.M.F.G.

    1979-01-01

    For immunoassay, an antibody against the substance to the determined, the pure substance itself, and a labelled form or derivative of the substance are required. The principles and problems of the preparation of antibodies are discussed, some methods for the preparation of derivatives labelled with radioactive tracers or enzymes are reviewed, and homologous enzyme-immunological determination of gentamicin is discussed in detail. A comparison is mae of three radio-immunological determination methods, and the most suitable radio-immunological method is compared with two microbiological techniques. The results are found to be comparable. (Auth.)

  9. Determination of radioactive trace elements in ashes and fly-ashes from Brazilian coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, L.F.; de Castro Arezzo, B.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work was to apply a epithermal neutron activation technique to determine the uranium and thorium content in coal ashes and fly ashes from Brazilian coal-fired thermoelectric plants and to evaluate the contribution of these elements and their descendents to the environmental radioactivity. Brazil has adopted as short term policy the use of alcohol and coal as alternative sources of energy. With regard to coal, large deposits of this mineral are found in southern states but the serious problem of its utilization is the risk of environmental contamination which can reach dangerous levels because the industrial plants burn several million tons per year. Uranium and thorium contents, determined experimentally, are extrapolated for annual coal consumption and their amounts and the activity of the radium isotopes descendents released to the atmosphere are calculated. The significance of these values and problems in environmental pollution are discussed

  10. Classification of radioactive waste and determination of waste specifications as well as conditions of acceptance for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1983-04-01

    The determination of waste specification and conditions of acceptance must follow a certain scheme, the basics of which will be presented. First the types of waste and the ultimate storage facilities will be characterized. The various categories of waste will be listed in a universally valid system, and the preliminary conditioning options will be determined. Based on the results of safety analysis taking into account the whole system - geological circumstances, ultimate store mines, types and forms of waste - specifications for the various ultimate store products are to be derived following iterative methods. Suggestions though not of a binding nature and probably subject to eventual revisions in part will be presented. To ensure the safety goals, i.e. the exclusion of radioactivity from the human biosphere, appropriate quality control is required concerning the production and the acceptance at the ultimate store. The guiding principles to be heeded will be discussed in brief. (orig./HP) [de

  11. The use of natural radioactive Isotopes in the determination of pollution sources of AL-Kabir AL-Shimali river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shwiekani, R.; Mamish, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present research, variations of concentration levels of some natural radioactive isotopes (226 Ra, 210 Po,210 Pb, U and Th isotopes) and some trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in water and sediments of AL-Kabir AL-Shimali river during the period of 2009-2010 have been studied. The samples were collected along the river from the asphalt factory to the end of the mouth of the river in the Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that concentrations of natural radioactive isotopes have been increased slightly in water and sediments of the river after the asphalt factory and after the factories area, while the concentrations of Rn in the river's water were low along the river except the waters of October 16, Lake Dam that reached a value of 341 mBq/l. These high concentrations in water and sediments of the AL-Kabir AL-Shimali River were due to discharges from the asphalt factory and other factories known to contain natural radioactive isotopes, indicating the possibility of using these isotopes in the determination of pollution sources of AL-Kabir AL-Shimali River. However, the measured concentrations are relatively low compared to the values reported in the world due to river water flow that dilute concentrations of these elements. On the other hand, measurements of trace elements (Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd) showed low concentrations in the waters of the river, with some increases in the concentrations in river sediments after the asphalt factory and the factories area , indicating the contribution of the factories outlets in this increase. The results were compared with the results of previous studies conducted on the Euphrates and the Orontes, where the comparison showed lower values in the AL-Kabir AL-Shimali river environment. (author)

  12. A new procedure to determine Radium 226 in foodstuff especially at high natural radioactive area of Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, T.

    1993-01-01

    Micro-co precipitate of barium-radium sulfate with the thickness of 3.98 μ/Cm Ba 2 is prepared to be counted by electrochemically etched polycarbonate detectors. By the use of the standard micro-co precipitating, sample-detector distance was determined and the calibration curve of track density vs. 226 R a radioactivity was drawn. The food samples were ashed and 226 R a was co-precipitated with Barium carrier. After radioactivity equilibrium between 226 R a and its daughter products, the polycarbonate detectors were exposed for a certain period of time from filters having micro-co precipitates of Ba(Ra)SO-4. The track density is proportional to the 226 R a radioactivity as calibrated. About 80 samples of vegetables, tea leaves, oranges, milk, and eggs from high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar were collected and co precipitated. The results were compared with those obtained from emanation method for the named samples showing up to 52% consistency in the measurements, Also comparison was made between the average 226 R a in samples of high natural radiation areas of Ramsar with the background levels. The results indicated that the amount of 226 R a in oranges, vegetables and eggs are 1.9, 3.3 and 6 times higher than that of background respectively. The advantages of this method are as follows: measuring time in the other methods for one sample is high; but, in this method many samples can be measured simultaneously for long time. As the low thickness of precipitate the self-absorption of alpha particle in micro-co precipitate reduces very much in comparison with the old method. The particles in micro-co precipitates are uniform to cause the increase of track density. In new method as the long time of exposure the background counts are reduced, and finally it is simple and inexpensive

  13. The use of natural radioactive isotopes in the determination of pollution sources of Al-Kabir Al-Shimali river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALmasri, M.; Shweikani, R.; Mamish, S.; Al-Haleem, M.A.; Al-Shamali, K.; Jerby, B.

    2010-10-01

    In the present research, variations of concentration levels of some natural radioactive isotopes ( 226 Ra, 210 Po, 210 Pb, U and Th isotopes) and some trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in water and sediments of Al-Kabir Al-Shimali river during the period of 2009-2010 have been studied. The samples were collected along the river from the asphalt factory to the end of the mouth of the river in the Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that concentrations of natural radioactive isotopes have been increased slightly in water and sediments of the river after the asphalt factory and after the factories area, while the concentrations of Rn in the river's water were low along the river except the waters of October 16, Lake Dam that reached a value of 341mBq/l. These high concentrations in water and sediments of the Al-Kabir Al-Shimali River were due to discharges from the asphalt factory and other factories known to contain natural radioactive isotopes, indicating the possibility of using these isotopes in the determination of pollution sources of Al-Kabir Al-Shimali River. However, the measured concentrations are relatively low compared to the values reported in the world due to river water flow that dilute concentrations of these elements. On the other hand, measurements of trace elements (Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd) showed low concentrations in the waters of the river, with some increases in the concentrations in river sediments after the asphalt factory and the factories area , indicating the contribution of the factories outlets in this increase. The results were compared with the results of previous studies conducted on the Euphrates and the Orontes, where the comparison showed lower values in the Al-Kabir Al-Shimali river environment.(author)

  14. Radioactive kryptonates in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''radioactive Kryptonates'' is used for substances into which atoms or ions of the radioactive nuclide 85 Kr are incorporated. The basis of the use of radioactive Kryptonates in analytical chemistry is that during a chemical reaction the crystalline lattice of the kryptonated carrier is destroyed, the carrier consumed, and the radioactive krypton released (radio-release method). Analysis can be made with a calibration curve or by comparison with a standard. Radio-release methods with the aid of radioactive Kryptonates as analytical reagents are very useful for the analysis of environmental samples, e.g. for the determination of air pollutants (ozone, sulphur dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, mercury); and water pollutants (oxygen, dichromate, vanadium, hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide). (author)

  15. Limitation of releases of radioactive effluents for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, P.; Buehling, A.

    1981-01-01

    Empirical values relating to the effluents of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are now available. These values cover a period of several years of operation. The measured emissions of radioactive substances are often very much below the maximum permissible values, based on the dose limits for the environment stipulated in the legal regulations. Extensive technical and administrative measures contribute to the reduction of radioactive effluents. Furthermore, additional possibilities for improvement are mentioned which may lead to a further reduction of radioactive effluents. These are derived from investigations into the release of radioactive substances in nuclear power plants. The licensing procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany in fixing discharge limits is outlined. Proposals are made concerning licence values which may be determined for the radioactive effluents in modern standardized nuclear power plants with light-water reactors. The resulting radiation exposures are quoted for a typical nuclear power plant site. (author)

  16. Results of interagency effort to determine carbon-14 source term in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Meyer, G.L.; Neiheisel, J.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary estimate of the risks from the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes by EPA in 1984-1985 indicated that Carbon-14 caused virtually all of the risk and that these risks were relatively high. Therefore, an informal interagency group, which included the US Department of Energy, US Geological Survey, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and US Environmental Protection Agency, formed in 1985 to obtain up-to-date information on the activity and chemical form of Carbon-14 in the different types of LLW and how Carbon-14 behaves after disposal. The EPA acted as a focal point for collating the information collected by all of the Agencies and will publish a report in Fall 1986 on the results of the Carbon-14 data collection effort. Of particular importance, the study showed that Carbon-14 activity in LLW was overestimated approximately 2000%. This paper summarizes results of the Carbon-14 data collection effort. 40 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  17. Determination of safe radioactive releases to the atmosphere from the nuclear power site, Dynefontein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, J.K.; Van As, D.

    1976-01-01

    South Africa's first nuclear power station, Koeberg A, is to be built by Escom at Dynefontein, 28 km north of Cape Town, and the experience gained at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba, has been used by the AEB as basis for the pre-operational investigation. The capacity of the environment to accept airborne radioactive effluent safely depends on various local factors such as dispersion conditions, the ecology, the habits of the local population and the accumulation, through critical pathways, of pertinent radionuclides. Long-term average dilution factors at varying distances from a 100m stack have been calculated by ESCOM from mesometeorological data collected by the CSIR. On the basis of available data, permissible release rates are derived for radioisotopes of the noble gases (critical pathway:external cloud exposure), 131 I, 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 125 Sb and 114 Ce and tritium. Although final confirmation of these values can only be obtained after operation, such a pre-operational survey may serve as an example to conventional industry [af

  18. Radioactive wastes repository in Temascalapa, State of Mexico, public opinion. Determination of health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Tinoco, E.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear waste usually concerns public about the impact on public health and the environment. In Mexico, such interest exists, particularly in the Temascalapa Municipality, Mexico where a low level waste repository recognized by the IAEA, has been functioning since 1972. Maquixco repository is located at 42 Kilometers northeast of Mexico City. Although the environmental radiological monitoring records have demonstrated negligible impact on the environment, in 1998 an unusual public polemic on radioactive health effects appeared among Temascalapa residents. This paper presents a research performed during 1998 with the participation of the National Nuclear Research Institute of Mexico and the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The research design allowed the involvement of local authorities, as a way of stimulate public participation. The research was performed in nine locations of the Temascalapa Municipality, it was focused on public polemics, associated to Maquixco repository as well as trying to identify demographic factors that exert influence on public attitudes. There are also presented the results of personal dosimetry analysis performed on a four hundred residents sample of this Municipality. (Author)

  19. Determination of stable and radioactive isotopes in rain water in Sahel in 1975 and 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudet, J.; Abi, B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of desertification in Africa incites to materialize the circuit of the water vapour between its main source, the Gulf of Guinea, and its precipitation site. Some rainwater samples have been collected in Ouagadougou in 1975 and 1976 during the rainy season. The dosage of the stable isotopes D and O 18 and radioactive isotope T shows that in 1975, a year with a general rain deficit, the rain was formed in a continental air mass. On the contrary, in 1976, a year with excess rain, the rain was formed in a maritime air mass. A study of the wind flows at 600, 900, 1500 and 2100 m shows that in 1975 the monsoon penetration is limited to the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea facing Cameroons, while in 1976 it entered the African Continent through the whole Gulf Coast, from Senegal to Cameroons. In 1976, the monsoon went up in latitude 3 0 to 5 0 more to the north than in 1975 [fr

  20. Determination of potassium concentration in salt water for residual beta radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, Ll.

    2004-01-01

    High interferences may arise in the determination of potassium concentration in salt water. Several analytical methods were studied to determine which method provided the most accurate measurements of potassium concentration. This study is relevant for radiation protection because the exact amount of potassium in water samples must be known for determinations of residual beta activity concentration. The fitting algorithm of the calibration curve and estimation of uncertainty in potassium determinations were also studied. The reproducibility of the proposed analytical method was tested by internal and external validation. Furthermore, the residual beta activity concentration of several Spanish seawater and brackish river water samples was determined using the proposed method

  1. On-line radioactivity detector for HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last ten years the technique of high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC) has become extensively employed for the separation and quantitation of various biological, organic, and inorganic substances. The use of HPLC for the separation of various metabolic compounds has become routine. The major problem of analyzing the metabolism process is that the quantitation is accomplished by the use of radioactive substrates. Until recently the only method to quantitate these radioactive compounds eluting from the HPLC was by collecting fractions at preset times, removing aliquots and quantitating in a liquid scintillation counter. Once the radioactivity present in each fraction was determined, the results were plotted on a graph and the area of each of the radioactive peaks was determined. This entire process required from 3-20 hours. The introduction of the flow through radioactivity detector enable the investigator to directly quantitate the radioactive peaks as they elute from the HPLC in real time and at about one-tenth the original cost of the previous methods. The detection limits of this technique are dependent on the residence time of the sample in the flow cell and the type of flow cell used for the analysis. Using a 2.5 ml liquid flow cell, (mixing with liquid scintillation solution), base line resolution can be obtained for peaks 1.5 minutes apart, and a sensitivity of 70 dpm for tritium and 30 dpm for carbon-14 can be achieved

  2. Act No. 68 of 17 March 1975 amending Act No. 93 of 20 February 1958 and successive amendments thereto, on compulsory insurance of physicians against disease or injury caused by X-rays and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act amends Sections 8, 11 and 12 of Act No. 93 of 20th February 1958, previously amended by Act No. 47 of 30th January 1968. The amendments concern the setting of indemnities for medical staff, based on the compulsory insurance for occupational accidents and diseases, in case of death or injury caused by X-rays or radioactive substances. It is provided that a physician who, during the course of his duties, shows signs of radiation-induced injury or disease, must momentarily suspend work, such period being assimilated to a normal working period when the relevant injury or disease does not enable him to pursue that specific activity. Furthermore, his authorities must assign him to duties which are, hierarchically and administratively similar to his previous ones, except in case of permanent invalidity. This Act came into force the day it was published. (N.E.A.)

  3. Quantitative determination of sediment movement at the landward spoil ground in the Yangtze Estuary with radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhangsu

    1993-01-01

    A radioactive tracer experiment was carried out at the landward spoil ground of the North Passage in the Yangtze Estuary in June of 1991. The scandium-46 was selected as the tracer, the total activity released is 17.95 x 10 10 Bq(4.85 Ci), the amount of the scandium-46 glass is 495 g. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the sediment movement direction, path, velocity and transport rate. The experiment provides the direct evidence for using the landward spoil ground in the future. The experiment results show the sediment movement was governed by the ebb tide current during the period of middle and neap tides when the radioactive tracer was injected both on the flood and ebb tides, and the sediment moved from the injection points to the middle of the North Passage near the navigation buoy No. 269. The direction of the sediment movement is 110 degree, the particle velocity is 758 m/d, and the sediment transport rate per unit width is 47.8 m 3 /md

  4. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  5. An approach in determining the baseline data on the natural background radioactivity of Batanes province, its implications to national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Rolando Y.

    2005-01-01

    Since the dropping of the first atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 1945, the world has lived under the shadow of nuclear threat. This was heightened by the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 and magnified by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack of the World Trade Center in the USA. While the threat is global, nuclear security is a national responsibility. The Philippine government is presently formulating the Philippine Nuclear Security Plan (PNSP) to address nuclear security and terrorism. It is in this light that this research study was undertaken whose product can be used as input in the PNSP, particularly in the emergency preparedness and response strategy of the plan. The purpose of the study is to pilot a baseline study on the natural background radioactivity of Batan Island, Batanes province, and develop a scheme for replicating the Batan baseline study in other selected sites in the Philippines. Establishing a baseline data on the natural background radioactivity of the country is a proactive stand of trying to be prepared for any untoward nuclear event that can pose harm of the nation, people and environment. The baseline data will provide an important point of reference in assessing increases of radiation caused by serious nuclear and/or radiological incident, either accidentally or intentionally that may occur within and outside the national territory. A modified ground gamma ray spectrometric survey technique with the use of a portable gamma ray spectrometer and global positioning system was used in determining the distribution and abundance of the naturally occurring radioelements potassium (K), uranium (U), thorium (Th) and total natural radiation (TNR) of Batan Island. Prior to the field survey, a thorough calibration of the portable gamma ray instrument was instituted that converted the measured gamma-ray count data into ground concentrations of K, U and Th. This allowed the systematic measurement of 73 sampling/data stations for

  6. Determination of Erosion/Corrosion Rates in Hanford Tank Farms Radioactive Waste Transfer System Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Girardot, C. L.; Wilson, E. R.; Page, J. A.; Engeman, J. K.; Gunter, J. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Baide, D. G.; Cooke, G. A.; Larson, J. D.; Castleberry, J. L.; Boomer, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-eight double-shell underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, WA are interconnected by the Waste Transfer System network of buried steel encased pipelines and pipe jumpers in below-grade pits. The pipeline material is stainless steel or carbon steel in 51 mm to 152 mm (2 in. to 6 in.) sizes. The pipelines carry slurries ranging up to 20 volume percent solids and supernatants with less than one volume percent solids at velocities necessary to prevent settling. The pipelines, installed between 1976 and 2011, were originally intended to last until the 2028 completion of the double-shell tank storage mission. The mission has been subsequently extended. In 2010 the Tank Operating Contractor began a systematic evaluation of the Waste Transfer System pipeline conditions applying guidelines from API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 (2007), Fitness-For-Service. Between 2010 and 2014 Fitness-for-Service examinations of the Waste Transfer System pipeline materials, sizes, and components were completed. In parallel, waste throughput histories were prepared allowing side-by-side pipeline wall thinning rate comparisons between carbon and stainless steel, slurries and supernatants and throughput volumes. The work showed that for transfer volumes up to 6.1E+05 m"3 (161 million gallons), the highest throughput of any pipeline segment examined, there has been no detectable wall thinning in either stainless or carbon steel pipeline material regardless of waste fluid characteristics or throughput. The paper describes the field and laboratory evaluation methods used for the Fitness-for-Service examinations, the results of the examinations, and the data reduction methodologies used to support Hanford Waste Transfer System pipeline wall thinning conclusions.

  7. Determination of Erosion/Corrosion Rates in Hanford Tank Farms Radioactive Waste Transfer System Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Girardot, C. L.; Wilson, E. R.; Page, J. A.; Engeman, J. K.; Gunter, J. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Baide, D. G.; Cooke, G. A.; Larson, J. D.; Castleberry, J. L.; Boomer, K. D.

    2015-11-05

    The twenty-eight double-shell underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site near Richland, WA are interconnected by the Waste Transfer System network of buried steel encased pipelines and pipe jumpers in below-grade pits. The pipeline material is stainless steel or carbon steel in 51 mm to 152 mm (2 in. to 6 in.) sizes. The pipelines carry slurries ranging up to 20 volume percent solids and supernatants with less than one volume percent solids at velocities necessary to prevent settling. The pipelines, installed between 1976 and 2011, were originally intended to last until the 2028 completion of the double-shell tank storage mission. The mission has been subsequently extended. In 2010 the Tank Operating Contractor began a systematic evaluation of the Waste Transfer System pipeline conditions applying guidelines from API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 (2007), Fitness-For-Service. Between 2010 and 2014 Fitness-for-Service examinations of the Waste Transfer System pipeline materials, sizes, and components were completed. In parallel, waste throughput histories were prepared allowing side-by-side pipeline wall thinning rate comparisons between carbon and stainless steel, slurries and supernatants and throughput volumes. The work showed that for transfer volumes up to 6.1E+05 m3 (161 million gallons), the highest throughput of any pipeline segment examined, there has been no detectable wall thinning in either stainless or carbon steel pipeline material regardless of waste fluid characteristics or throughput. The paper describes the field and laboratory evaluation methods used for the Fitness-for-Service examinations, the results of the examinations, and the data reduction methodologies used to support Hanford Waste Transfer System pipeline wall thinning conclusions.

  8. Radioactivity levels in surface water of lakes around Izmir / Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyurum, S.; Turkozu, D. A.; Aslani, M. A. A.; Aytas, S.; Eral, M.; Kaygun, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity presents in surface continental waters is mainly due to the presence of radioactive elements in the earth's crust, other artificial radionuclides have appeared due to such human activities as nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons testing and manufacture and use of radioactive sources It is well known that natural radionuclides can be effective as tracers for the different processes controlling the distribution of elements among dissolved and particulate phases in aquatic systems. The detection of high radionuclide concentrations was proposed as a public health problem in several areas and consequently studies into the risks of radionuclides were started in the 2000s. Especially, these radioactive substances in groundwater are an unwanted and involuntary risk factor from natural sources, not artificial sources. These radioactive substances include uranium, radon found in uranium series, and other radioactive substances such as radium and gross alpha. Uranium present in rock, soil, and natural materials, and is found in small quantities in air, water, and food that people always contact. In this project, lake water samples were collected from three lakes around Izmir-Turkey. In surface lake water samples, pH, mV and conductivity values were measured and alkaline content was determined titrimetrically. The uranium concentrations in the lake water samples were measured using uranium analyzer. The radioactivity concentrations related to gross radium isotopes, gross-? and gross-? activities in the surface lake water were determined. The correlation among some parameters for water samples and concentrations of uranium, activity concentration of gross radium isotopes, gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity are also discussed

  9. Determination of spins and radioactive widths of tellurium nuclear levels with capturre gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, F.G.

    1973-01-01

    Spins and levels widths of the tellurium, mainly 128 Te and 130 Te, were determinated by gamma spectroscopy. Measurements of inelastic and elastic scattering, angular distribution and scattering temperature dependence, were still made. Energy levels of this isotopes, were also determinated [pt

  10. Determination of strontium in drinking water and consequences of radioactive elements present in drinking water for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, M.B.; Stojanovic, M.D.; Pantelic, G.K.; Vuletic, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the analysis of strontium and uranium content in drinking water has been done, indirectly, according to the scale which originates from drinking water in water-supply system of the city of Belgrade. Gamaspectrometric analysis showed the presence of free natural radionuclide in low activities. The activity of 90Sr in scale which is 0.72±0.11 Bq/kg was determined by radiochemical. Because of the small quantities of fur in the house heater this activity can be considered as irrelevant, but the accumulation of scale can have intensified influence. In this paper, the analysis of effects of the radioactive isotopes presence (first of all 238U and 235U) in drinking water on human health has been done

  11. Determination of Np, Pu and Am in high level radioactive waste with extraction-liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dazhu; Zhu Yongjun; Jiao Rongzhou

    1994-01-01

    A new method for the determination of transuranium elements, Np, Pu and Am with extraction-liquid scintillation counting has been studied systematically. Procedures for the separation of Pu and Am by HDEHP-TRPO extraction and for the separation of Np by TTA-TiOA extraction have been developed, by which the recovery of Np, Pu and Am is 97%, 99% and 99%, respectively, and the decontamination factors for the major fission products ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs etc.) are 10 4 -10 6 . Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique has been introduced to liquid scintillation counting, by which the counting efficiency of α-activity is >99% and the rejection of β-counts is >99.95%. This new method, combining extraction and pulse shape discrimination with liquid scintillation technique, has been successfully applied to the assay of Np, Pu and Am in high level radioactive waste. (author) 7 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Comparison of four methods for determining aluminum in highly radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, T.J.

    1976-06-01

    Four methods for the accurate determination of aluminum in highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions were developed and the results were compared to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. The solutions of interest contain aluminum in concentrations of 0.5 to 3.5 M and the hydroxide (OH - ) concentrations were greater than 1.0 M. The normal atomic absorption determination was highly inaccurate for these samples so citrate was used as a complexant to improve the results. A fluoride titration was carried out in an ethanol-water matrix using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. A thermometric titration proved successful in determining both the OH - and aluminum concentrations of the samples. Finally, a titrimetric method using a pH electrode to determine OH - d aluminum was checked and compared with the other methods. Samples were analyzed using all four methods and the agreement of the results was very good. For all four methods the accuracy was around 100 percent and the precision varied from approximately +-2 percent for the fluoride electrode determination to approximately +-10 percent for the atomic absorption determination. On the basis of the work performed, conclusions were drawn about the strengths and weaknesses of each method and whether or not the method was suitable for routine use in analytical laboratories

  13. Determination of the germanium detector efficiency for measurements of the radionuclide activity contained in a radioactive waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.; Ballester, S.; Hoyler, F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the features in the characterization of a drum containing radioactive wastes is to verify the activity of radionuclides contained in the drum. An H.P. Ge detector can be used for this measurement. However, it is necessary to perform an efficiency calibration for all geometries involved. In the framework of a joint project between the Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain) and the Fachbereich Angewandte Naturwissenschaften und Technik (Fachhochschule Aachen, Abteilung Julich, Germany), different configurations for a drum containing radioactive sources have been implemented in the laboratory. A cylindrical drum of 850 mm height, a diameter equal to 560 mm and 3 mm of steel thickness has been used in the experimental measurements. The drum contains a clay ceramic matrix whose chemical composition is 55% SiO 2 , 40% of Al 2 O 3 and 5% of TiO 2 . Several vertical PVC tubes having a diameter of 30 mm are inserted in the drum at different distances from the central axis. In the experiment, a pack of point sources with 133 Ba, 60 Co and 137 Cs is introduced into each one of the tubes. A ring-shape distributed source is generated by rotating the drum around its axis during the measurement. The detector efficiency is determined experimentally for these configurations. On the other hand, a Monte Carlo model, using the M.C.N.P. code, has been developed to simulate the drum, the clay matrix and the PVC tubes. The effect of the drum spinning has been reproduced simulating a ring source with different diameters. The model also includes detailed detector geometry. Using this Monte Carlo model, the detector efficiency is calculated for each configuration implemented in the laboratory. Comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurements should permit the validation of the M.C.N.P. model. Consequently it will be possible to obtain efficiency curves without experimental measurements. Therefore, these

  14. Study on radioactive material management plan and environmental analysis of water (I) study of radioactive substance in water management and analyse to eat of the US environmental protection agency (environmental protection agency)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jae; Min, Hye Lim; Han, Seong Gyu; Lim, Hyun Jong; Jo, Han Byeol; Noh, Young Hoon; Lee, Ho Sun [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, Graduate School of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Min Suk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The interest of the people in the radioactive contamination of the water has increased significantly and the study about analysis and management of radioactive materials are being actively conducted. And monitoring spots have been expanded to the range of public water as well as drinking water by publishing the rule of drinking water quality standards and examination in the Environmental Enforcement Ordinance No. 553 of Korea. In this study, US EPA was investigated as the foreign advanced cases and the way that is appropriate for the Korea was sought by analyzing investigate radionuclide, interval and management. As a result, in the selection part of investigate radionuclide, geological survey, status of nuclear power plants and the presence of the use of artificial radionuclides of the Korea should be investigated and additionally after the selection of a few radionuclides, the systems should be extended to cover all possible radionuclides by considering radioactive pollution levels in humans may be exposed due to the annual drinking water. In the part of the investigate interval, the concept(MCL, DL) should be set up for preventing concentration detection of above MCL and it needs to the maintenance and management. For example, when the concentration is more than MCL, it should be investigated on a quarterly and when the concentration is lower than MCL, it should be investigated to each different interval and management. And the US EPA divided the management area and make the road map for managing drinking water. The each classified area has been organized to match the state budget and labor force and the individual data have been managed effectively by HPGe, the NaI, TLD and so on.

  15. Quantitative determination of solid-state forms of a pharmaceutical development compound in drug substance and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Tao, Wenle; Morrison, Henry; Chiu, Rick; Jona, Janan; Fang, Jan; Cauchon, Nina

    2008-10-01

    Common analytical techniques including Raman, NIR, and XRD were evaluated for quantitative determination of three solid-state forms (amorphous, Form B and Form C) of a development compound. Raman spectroscopy was selected as the primary analytical technique with sufficient sensitivity to monitor and quantify the neat drug substance alone and in the drug product. A reliable multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method based on the second derivative Raman measurements of the three pure physical forms was developed and validated with 3.5% root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for Form B, which was selected as the preferred form for further development. A partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was also used for the multivariate calibration of both the NIR and Raman measurements. The long-term stability of Form B as a neat active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and in a tablet formulation was quantitatively monitored under various stress conditions of temperature and moisture. Moisture, temperature, excipients and compression were found to have significant effects on the phase transition behavior of Form B.

  16. Trace Level Determination of Mesityl Oxide and Diacetone Alcohol in Atazanavir Sulfate Drug Substance by a Gas Chromatography Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K V S N; Pavan Kumar, K S R; Siva Krishna, N; Madhava Reddy, P; Sreenivas, N; Kumar Sharma, Hemant; Himabindu, G; Annapurna, N

    2016-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatography method with a short run time, using a flame ionization detector, has been developed for the quantitative determination of trace level analysis of mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol in the atazanavir sulfate drug substance. The chromatographic method was achieved on a fused silica capillary column coated with 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase (Rtx-5, 30 m x 0.53 mm x 5.0 µm). The run time was 20 min employing programmed temperature with a split mode (1:5) and was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. The detection and quantitation limits obtained for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol were 5 µg/g and 10 µg/g, respectively, for both of the analytes. The method was found to be linear in the range between 10 µg/g and 150 µg/g with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999, and the average recoveries obtained in atazanavir sulfate were between 102.0% and 103.7%, respectively, for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol. The developed method was found to be robust and rugged. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this research paper.

  17. Determination of natural and artificial radioactivity in soil at North Lebanon province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Samad, O; Baydoun, R; Nsouli, B; Darwish, T

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides at 57 sampling locations along the North Province of Lebanon are reported. The samples were collected from uncultivated areas in a region not previously reported. The samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometers with High Purity Germanium detectors of 30% and 40% relative efficiency. The activity concentrations of primordial naturally occurring radionuclides of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K varied between 4-73 Bq kg(-1), 5-50 Bq kg(-1), and 57-554 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The surface activity concentrations due to the presence of these radionuclides were calculated and Kriging-geostatistical method was used to plot the obtained data on the Lebanese radioactive map. The results for (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K ranged from 0.2 kBq m(-2) to 9 kBq m(-2), from 0.2 kBq m(-2) to 3 kBq m(-2), and from 3 kBq m(-2) to 29 kBq m(-2) respectively. For the anthropogenic radionuclides, the activity concentrations of (137)Cs founded in soil ranged from 2 Bq kg(-1) to 113 Bq kg(-1), and the surface activity concentration from 0.1 kBq m(-2) to 5 kBq m(-2). The total absorbed gamma dose rates in air from natural and artificial radionuclides in these locations were calculated. The minimum value was 6 nGy h(-1) and the highest one was 135 nGy h(-1) with an average of 55 nGy h(-1) in which the natural terrestrial radiation contributes in 99% and the artificial radionuclides mainly (137)Cs contributes only in 1%. The total effective dose calculated varied in the range of 7 μSv y(-1) and 166 μSv y(-1) while the average value was 69 μSv y(-1) which is below the permissible limit 1000 μSv y(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Limitations on the concentration of radioactive substances (natural or enhanced by human activity) in building materials - a draft proposal for Israeli regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Hareuveny, R.; Margaliot, M.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radioactive elements occurring in building materials constitute a major source of exposure of the public to ionizing radiation. Of the radionuclides that contribute to this exposure, members of the 238 U and 232 nd series and 40 K are of special interest, because usually they occur in building materials in the highest concentration (relative to other radionuclides). 40 K and part of the radionuclides of the two above mentioned series cause external exposure while the inhalation of and 222 Rn Thoron ( 220 Rn) , emitted from these radionuclides, and their short lived progeny lead to internal exposure of the respiratory tract to mainly alpha particles (authors)

  19. A study on environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances and its countermeasure techniques. Part 3. Development on decontamination techniques with high pressure cleaning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yasunori; Nozaki, Atsuo; Kakuma, Takayuki; Shinohara, Naohide; Yoshino, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    A huge area of Fukushima was contaminated by the radiation released from the nuclear disaster. As a result, decontamination has become an urgent task in densely populated area and developments of an effective decontamination method are desired. So, we carried out the plan of the decontamination methods with a high pressure cleaner in present study. Surface with covered with concrete materials at horizontal plane was washed with high pressure cleaner, consequently, radioactivity was approximately 80% decreased. Further, the wash act with brushing are raised efficiency by 10%. So, the case of washing with surfactant shows no increase efficiency. (author)

  20. Limitations on the concentration of radioactive substances (natural or enhanced by human activity) in building materials - a draft proposal for Israeli regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T; Hareuveny, R; Margaliot, M [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    Natural radioactive elements occurring in building materials constitute a major source of exposure of the public to ionizing radiation. Of the radionuclides that contribute to this exposure, members of the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}nd series and {sup 40}K are of special interest, because usually they occur in building materials in the highest concentration (relative to other radionuclides). {sup 40}K and part of the radionuclides of the two above mentioned series cause external exposure while the inhalation of and {sup 222}Rn Thoron ({sup 220}Rn) , emitted from these radionuclides, and their short lived progeny lead to internal exposure of the respiratory tract to mainly alpha particles (authors).

  1. Radioactivity measurements for determining bacterial increase and sensitivity to antibiotics. [/sup 14/C tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszsagi-Nagy, E [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest; Lendvay, J [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1976-01-01

    The authors elaborated a sensitive and objective measuring method for determining the bacteria increase in biological material and the sensitivity to antibiotics. When /sup 14/C glucose is added to the medium as the single source of sugar, the respiratory carbon dioxide formed by the bacteria reflects the rate of increase. The released /sup 14/C dioxide can be measured continuously without loss to the environment and the degree of bacterial infection and the antibiotic activity, respectively, can be determined.

  2. A simultaneous determination of related substances by high performance liquid chromatography in a drug product using quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Trupti; Kadam, Nilesh; Raotole, Nilesh; Desai, Anita; Samanta, Gautam

    2016-02-05

    The combination of Abacavir, Lamivudine and Dolutegravir is an anti-retroviral formulation that displays high efficacy and superiority in comparison to other anti-retroviral combinations. Analysis of related substances in this combination drug product was very challenging due to the presence of nearly thirty peaks including the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), eleven known impurities and other pharmaceutical excipients. Objective of this study was to develop a single, selective, and robust high performance liquid chromatography method for the efficient separation of all peaks. Initially, one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach was adopted to develop the method. But, it could not resolve all the critical peaks in such complex matrix. This led to the advent of two different HPLC methods for the determination of related substances, one for Abacavir and Lamivudine and the other for Dolutegravir. But, since analysis of a single sample using two methods instead of one is time and resource consuming and thus expensive, an attempt was made to develop a single and robust method by adopting quality by design (QbD) principles. Design of Experiments (DoE) was applied as a tool to achieve the optimum conditions through Response surface methodology with three method variables, pH, temperature, and mobile phase composition. As the study progressed, it was discovered that establishment of the design space was not viable due to the completely distant pH requirements of the two responses, i.e. (i) retention time for Lamivudine carboxylic acid and (ii) resolution between Abacavir impurity B and unknown impurity. Eventually, neglecting one of these two responses each time, two distinguished design spaces have been established and verified. Edge of failures at both design spaces indicate high probability of failure. It therefore, becomes very important to identify the most robust zone or normal operating range (NOR) within the design space with low risk of failure and high

  3. Device for the continuous measurement of radio-activity of solutions of substances in a homogeneous mixture with a liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The β-activity of marked particles from the radio-chemical industry or nuclear power plants is measured in two isolated, opposed flows of homogeneous integrating mixtures. The measuring vessel for this is represented by a glass cylinder, which is separated by a glass separating wall into two parts of equal volume. The volume of the measuring vessel and therefore the volume of mixture to be measured can be increased without worsening the chromatographic separation of substances. (DG) 891 HP/DG 892 CKA [de

  4. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-07-21

    The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%). The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol), which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds.

  5. Use of radioactive indicators for the quantitative determination of non-metall inclusions in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewienska-Kosciuk, B.; Michalik, J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of determining and investigating the sources of non-metal inclusions in steel are presented together with some results of radiometric investigations. The experience of several years of research in industries as well as profound studies of world literature were used as a basis for systematic and critical discussion of the methods used. Optimum methods have been chosen for the quantitative determination of oxide inclusions and for the identification of their origin (e.g. from the refractory furnace lining, the tap-hole, the runner, the ladle or mold slag). Problems of tracers (type, quantity, condition, activity), of the labelling method suitable for the various origins of inclusions, of sampling, of chemical processing of the material sampled, as well as of radiometric measuring techniques (including possible activation) are discussed. Finally, a method for the determination of inclusions resulting from the deoxidation of steel is briefly outlined. (author)

  6. SGSreco. A method for accurate and reliable determination of the radioactive inventory in radioactive waste barrels; SGSreco. Eine Methode zur genauen und verlaesslichen Bestimmung des Aktivitaetsinventares in radioaktiven Abfallfaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6)

    2013-07-01

    The computer code SGSreco is used for the evaluation of counting rate distributions from SGS (segmented gamma scan) measurements on radioactive waste barrels. The code is based on data fitting to a physical model function; the results include position parameters, point source activities and the activity of a homogeneous activity distribution. A simulation study has shown that the point source activity can be determined with 2% accuracy. Conventional methods are based on the assumption of a homogeneous activity distribution which is wrong for about 75% of the radioactive waste barrels, the determined nuclide specific activities have significant error rates. The use of SGSreco improves the accuracy and reliability of activity determinations and reduces the conservatism of activity estimations. The latter one allows an optimal utilization of the repository capacity with respect to the maximum activities at the end of the operational phase of the repository Konrad.

  7. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a decontamination method for radioactive metal waste products derived from equipment that handles radioactive materials whose surfaces have been contaminated; in particular it concerns a decontamination method that reduces the amount of radioactive waste by decontaminating radioactive waste substances to a level of radioactivity in line with normal waste products. In order to apply chemical decontamination to metal waste products whose surfaces are divided into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste; the carbon steel waste is treated using only a primary process in which the waste is immersed in a sulfuric acid solution, while the stainless steel waste must be treated with both the primary process and then electrolytically reduces it for a specific length of time and a secondary process that uses a solution of sulfuric acid mixed with oxidizing metal salts. The method used to categorize metal waste into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste involves determining the presence, or absence, of magnetism. Voltage is applied for a fixed duration; once that has stopped, electrolytic reduction repeats the operative cycle of applying, then stopping voltage until the potential of the radioactive metal waste is retained in the active region. 1 fig. 2 tabs

  8. Determination of the radioactive inventory of a fuel assembly from a U3O8 design core using ORIGEN 2.1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Jose; Ticona, Braulio; Madariaga, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows a methodology to determine the radioactive inventory of a fuel assembly of the RP-10 design core, which was proposed in 1988, using the ORIGEN 2.1 code, which allows to determine the activity of the 52 most characteristic fission products, its growth in activity during reactor operation under the terms of the design and evolution of decay of the fission products after 4 hours after the reactor shutdown, which conservatively, a fuel element represents an average fraction of the considered power in the radioactive inventory assessment. (authors).

  9. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  10. Determination of dispersion coefficients and average flow velocities in rivers radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.A.G. de; Moreira, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the dispersion characteristics and residence time distribution in a series of adjoining stretches of a river with one single tracer injection, are presented. The method allows minimizing the amount of work and tracer expenditure in the measurement of fluvial transport over long or heterogeneous river courses. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Radioactivity determination of sealed pure beta-sources by surface dose measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seongmoon [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kanghyuk; Son, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jun Sig [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Convergence Research on Robotics, Advance Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-21

    This study aims to determine the activity of a sealed pure beta-source by measuring the surface dose rate using an extrapolation chamber. A conversion factor (cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1}), which was defined as the ratio of surface dose rate to activity, can be calculated by Monte Carlo simulations of the extrapolation chamber measurement. To validate this hypothesis the certified activities of two standard pure beta-sources of Sr/Y-90 and Si/P-32 were compared with those determined by this method. In addition, a sealed test source of Sr/Y-90 was manufactured by the HANARO reactor group of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) and used to further validate this method. The measured surface dose rates of the Sr/Y-90 and Si/P-32 standard sources were 4.615×10{sup −5} cGy s{sup −1} and 2.259×10{sup −5} cGy s{sup −1}, respectively. The calculated conversion factors of the two sources were 1.213×10{sup −8} cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1} and 1.071×10{sup −8} cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1}, respectively. Therefore, the activity of the standard Sr/Y-90 source was determined to be 3.995 kBq, which was 2.0% less than the certified value (4.077 kBq). For Si/P-32 the determined activity was 2.102 kBq, which was 6.6% larger than the certified activity (1.971 kBq). The activity of the Sr/Y-90 test source was determined to be 4.166 kBq, while the apparent activity reported by KAERI was 5.803 kBq. This large difference might be due to evaporation and diffusion of the source liquid during preparation and uncertainty in the amount of weighed aliquot of source liquid. The overall uncertainty involved in this method was determined to be 7.3%. We demonstrated that the activity of a sealed pure beta-source could be conveniently determined by complementary combination of measuring the surface dose rate and Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Determination of 228Th, 232Th, and228Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Silva, Marco A.; Ferreira, Marcelo T.

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine 232 Th, 228 Th, and 228 Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. 228 Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. 232 Th and 228 Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to 228 Th than to 232 Th. This is due to higher 228 Ra mobility, which decays to 228 Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  13. Determination of Columbia River flow times from Pasco, Washington using radioactive tracers introduced by the Hanford reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jack L.; Perkins, R.W.; Haushild, W.L.

    1966-01-01

    Radioactive tracers introduced into the Columbia River in cooling water from the Hanford reactors were used to measure flow times downstream from Pasco, Washington, as far as Astoria, Oregon. The use of two tracer methods was investigated. One method used the decay of a steady release of Na24 (15-hour half-life) to determine flow times to various downstream locations, and flow times were also determined from the time required for peak concentration of instantaneous releases of I131 (8-day half-life) to reach these locations. Flow times determined from the simultaneous use of the two methods agreed closely. The measured flow times for the 224 miles from Pasco to Vancouver, Washington, ranged from 14.6 to 3.6 days, respectively, for discharges of 108,000 and 630,000 ft3/sec at Vancouver, Washington. A graphic relation for estimating flow times at discharges other than those measured and for several locations between Pasco and Vancouver was prepared from the data of tests made at four river discharges. Some limited data are also presented on the characteristics of dispersion of I131 in the Columbia River.

  14. Fixation of radioactive elements on diethylene-glycol-succinate and its use for the determination of gross activity in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.B.; Nazmy, A.F.; Eldesoky, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    Studies are given to illustrate surface adsorption of 144 Ce, 90 Sr, 232 Th, 235 U, 239 Pu and 241 Am on diethylene-glycol-succinate, DGS. Adsorption of these elements was studied from aqueous and phosphate solutions. A procedure for the determination of gross activity in urine, based on surface adsorption on DGS is described. Groups of nine solutions, in 30 ml 1N HNO 3 , were spiked with the investigated radioactive elements (approximately 5 pCi). The pH of the solutions was adjusted to a range of 0.5 to 10 using ammonia. Each solution was passed through the column and the fixed activity was removed from the column with 50 ml of 4N HCl, followed by two washes with 10 ml of distilled water. The acid solution was evaporated to dryness for alpha- or beta-counting. The percentage fixation was determined by comparison with a standard source of the same spiked element. Adsorption was found to depend on pH, age of the tracer solution, hydrolysis state of the radioelement and the ionic strength of the solution. The adsorption phenomenon which was particularly well observed could be used as a separation stage in a method for the determination of gross activity in urine. Recoveries of about 85% were obtained. (T.G.)

  15. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurasova, O.I.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology

  16. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasova, O I [Institut Obshchej i Kommunal' noj Gigieny, Moscow (USSR)

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology.

  17. Determination of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Tunisian dwellings by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hizem, N.; Fredj, A. B.; Ghedira, L.

    2005-01-01

    The radioisotopic content of 17 samples of natural and manufactured building materials collected in Tunisia have been analysed by using gamma spectrometry. From the measured gamma ray spectra, activity concentrations are determined for 232 Th, 226 Ra, 235 U and 40 K. The total effective dose and the activity concentration index are calculated applying the dose criteria recommended by the European Union for building materials. The results of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K found in Tunisian building materials indicate that radium and thorium concentrations do not exceed 40 Bq kg -1 , but potassium concentration varies between 50 and 1215 Bq kg -1 . The total effective dose rates per person indoors are determined to be between 0.07 and 0.86 mSv y -1 . Only two materials exceed the reference level of 0.3 mSv y -1 . The activity concentration index is <1. (authors)

  18. Reducing the running-in period of Diesel engines by radioactive wear determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruch, W.

    1979-01-01

    Running-in of locomotive Diesel engines has been investigated with the aid of wear determination performed at proton-activated liners of grey cast iron by 56 Co activity measurements. It was found that after general overhaul it was possible to get full load in 2 to 3 hours by application of fine hole drilled liners instead of honed liners and by a speed-dependent running-in programme. The programme has been introduced into practice

  19. Determination of phosphorus in ortho-phorsphoric acid with high specific radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, A.A.; Bigeliene, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    An advanced photocolorimetric method of phosphorus determination (g/ml) in the preparation of orthophosphoric acid labelled by carrier-free phosphorus-32 based on the qualitative reaction, is suggested. In the reaction, ammonium molybdate produces stable dying with phosphates in the presence of bensidine, i.e. oxidation-reduction process between phosphorus-molybdenum acid and benzidine, in the result of which products of molybdenum reduction and benzidine oxidation appear

  20. Processing method for radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro

    1991-01-01

    Drainages, such as water after used for washing operators' clothes and water used for washing hands and for showers have such features that the radioactive concentration is extremely low and detergent ingredients and insoluble ingredients such as waste threads, hairs and dirts are contained. At present, waste threads are removed by a strainer. Then, after measuring the radioactivity and determining that the radioactivity is less than a predetermined concentration, they are released to circumstances. However, various organic ingredients such as detergents and dirts in the liquid wastes are released as they are and it is not preferred in respect of environmental protection. Then, in the present invention, activated carbon is filled in a container orderly so that the diameter of the particles of the activated carbon is increased in the upper layer and decreased in the lower layer, and radioactive liquid wastes are passed through the container. With such a constitution. Both of soluble substances and insoluble substances can be removed efficiently without causing cloggings. (T.M.)