Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Sebastiao E.M. de; Padua Guarini, Antonio de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Joao A. de; Valgas, Helio M.; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
1994-12-31
This work describes the results of the set frequency response tests performed in the generator number 2, 6.9 kV, 25 MVA, of Camargos hydroelectric power plant, CEMIG, and the parameters relatives to determined structures of model. This tests are unpublished in Brazil. (author) 7 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.
Yahfdhou, Ahmed; Youm, Issakha
2016-01-01
The mathematical modeling of solar cells is essential for any optimization operation of the efficiency or the diagnostics of the photovoltaic generator. The photovoltaic module is generally represented by an equivalent circuit whose parameters are experimentally calculated by using the characteristic current-tension, I-V. The precise determination of these parameters stays a challenge for the researchers, what led to a big diversification in the models and the digital methods dedicated to their characterizations. In the present paper; we are interested in the parametric characterization of a model in both following cases: with single and two diodes, in order to plan the behavior of the photovoltaic generator under real functioning conditions. We developed an identification method of the parameters using Newton Raphson's method by using the software Matlab/Simulink. This method is a fast technique which allows the identification of several parameters and can be used in real time applications. The results of th...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steffen Dietzel
Full Text Available Determination of blood flow velocity and related hemodynamic parameters is an important aspect of physiological studies which in many settings requires fluorescent labeling. Here we show that Third Harmonic Generation (THG microscopy is a suitable tool for label-free intravital investigations of the microcirculation in widely-used physiological model systems. THG microscopy is a non-fluorescent multi-photon scanning technique combining the advantages of label-free imaging with restriction of signal generation to a focal spot. Blood flow was visualized and its velocity was measured in adult mouse cremaster muscle vessels, non-invasively in mouse ear vessels and in Xenopus tadpoles. In arterioles, THG line scanning allowed determination of the flow pulse velocity curve and hence the heart rate. By relocating the scan line we obtained velocity profiles through vessel diameters, allowing shear rate calculations. The cell free layer containing the glycocalyx was also visualized. Comparison of the current microscopic resolution with theoretical, diffraction limited resolution let us conclude that an about sixty-fold THG signal intensity increase may be possible with future improved optics, optimized for 1200-1300 nm excitation. THG microscopy is compatible with simultaneous two-photon excited fluorescence detection. It thus also provides the opportunity to determine important hemodynamic parameters in parallel to common fluorescent observations without additional label.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIUZhenqing; LIUXiao; TADe＇an
2003-01-01
The study on the inverse problems in the ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) has a wide application field in various industries. An error function based inversion algorithm is introduced to determine the parameters of three-layered plates from the measured velocity of multi-mode Lamb waves. A mixed-spectral estimation is proposed to combine FFT with AR model for exact determination of the ultrasonic phase velocity. Experiments are performed using two conventional angle probes as transmitter and receiver on the same surface of three-layered laminates. Inverse analyses of one parameter (thickness) and two parameters (longitudinal and transverse wave velocities in a layer, or thickness of two layers) of three-layered laminates are made. The experimental results show that the inverse approach is in good agreement with the actual value.
Generating three-parameter sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filinyuk M. A.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Generating sensors provide the possibility of getting remote information and its easy conversion into digital form. Typically, these are one-parameter sensors formed by combination of a primary transmitter (PT and a sine wave generator. Two-parameter sensors are not widely used as their implementation causes a problem with ambiguity output when measuring the PT. Nevertheless, the problem of creating miniature, thrifty multi-parameter RF sensors for different branches of science and industry remains relevant. Considering ways of designing RF sensors, we study the possibility of constructing a three-parameter microwave radio frequency range sensor, which is based on a two-stage three-parameter generalized immitance convertor (GIC. Resistive, inductive and capacitive PT are used as sensing elements. A mathematical model of the sensor, which describes the relation of the sensor parameters to the parameters of GIC and PT was developed. The basic parameters of the sensor, its transfer function and sensitivity were studied. It is shown that the maximum value of the power generated signal will be observed at a frequency of 175 MHz, and the frequency ranges depending on the parameters of the PT will be different. Research results and adequacy of the mathematical model were verified by the experiment. Error of the calculated dependences of the lasing frequency on PT parameters change, compared with the experimental data does not exceed 2 %. The relative sensitivity of the sensor based on two-stage GIC showed that for the resistive channel it is about 1.88, for the capacitive channel –1,54 and for the inductive channel –11,5. Thus, it becomes possible to increase the sensor sensitivity compared with the sensitivity of the PT almost 1,2—2 times, and by using the two stage GIC a multifunctional sensor is provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batlles, F.J.; Bosch, J.L. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Tovar-Pescador, J. [Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. Ingenieria Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Ortega, R. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Miralles, I. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Granada, 28071 Granada (Spain)
2008-02-15
Incoming shortwave solar radiation is an important parameter in environmental applications. A detailed spatial and temporal analysis of global solar radiation on the earth surface is needed in many applications, ranging from solar energy uses to the study of agricultural, forest and biological processes. At local scales, the topography is the most important factor in the distribution of solar radiation on the surface. The variability of the elevation, the surface orientation and the obstructions due to elevations are a source of great local differences in insolation and, consequently, in other variables as ground temperature. For this reason, several models based on GIS techniques have been recently developed, integrating topography to obtain the solar radiation on the surface. In this work, global radiation is analyzed with the Solar Analyst, a model implemented on ArcView, that computes the topographic parameters: altitude, latitude, slope and orientation (azimuth) and shadow effects. Solar Analyst uses as input parameters the diffuse fraction and the transmittance. These parameters are not usually available in radiometric networks in mountainous areas. In this work, a method to obtain both parameters from global radiation is proposed. Global radiation data obtained in two networks of radiometric stations is used: one located in Sierra Magina Natural Park (Spain) with 11 stations and another one located on the surroundings of Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain) with 14 stations. Daily solar irradiation is calculated from a digital terrain model (DTM), the daily diffuse fraction, K, and daily atmospheric transmittivity, {tau}. Results provided by the model have been compared with measured values. An overestimation for high elevations is observed, whereas low altitudes present underestimation. The best performance was also reported during summer months, and the worst results were obtained during winter. Finally, a yearly global solar irradiation map has been
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.I. Milykh
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The theoretical bases of calculation of electromagnetic quantities and time-phase relationship are presented for the turbo-generators. This is done by numerical calculations of the magnetic field in the software environment package FEMM (Finite Element Method Magnetics. A program which controls calculations and organizes the issuance of the results to a text file is created on the algorithmic language Lua. The program is universal in terms of a turbo-generator models, as well as steady-state modes of their work with a minimum of input data. The exciting current of the rotor and the phase currents of three-phase stator winding in accordance with their initial phase are given for the calculation of the magnetic field. The key function for the analysis of electromagnetic parameters is the calculated angular function of the magnetic flux phase stator winding. The expansion in the harmonic series is carried out and amplitude and initial phase are received for this function. Next, the phase EMF and voltage, phase shifts between all values, active power, electromagnetic torque, the magnetic flux in the gap and other parameters are determined. The presented Lua script is a prototype for a similar calculation software of electric machines of other types.
Yeşiller, Semira Unal; Yalçın, Serife
2013-04-03
A laser induced breakdown spectrometry hyphenated with on-line continuous flow hydride generation sample introduction system, HG-LIBS, has been used for the determination of arsenic, antimony, lead and germanium in aqueous environments. Optimum chemical and instrumental parameters governing chemical hydride generation, laser plasma formation and detection were investigated for each element under argon and nitrogen atmosphere. Arsenic, antimony and germanium have presented strong enhancement in signal strength under argon atmosphere while lead has shown no sensitivity to ambient gas type. Detection limits of 1.1 mg L(-1), 1.0 mg L(-1), 1.3 mg L(-1) and 0.2 mg L(-1) were obtained for As, Sb, Pb and Ge, respectively. Up to 77 times enhancement in detection limit of Pb were obtained, compared to the result obtained from the direct analysis of liquids by LIBS. Applicability of the technique to real water samples was tested through spiking experiments and recoveries higher than 80% were obtained. Results demonstrate that, HG-LIBS approach is suitable for quantitative analysis of toxic elements and sufficiently fast for real time continuous monitoring in aqueous environments.
Three Generation Neutrino Oscillation Parameters after SNO
Bandyopadhyay, A; Goswami, S; Kar, K; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Choubey, Sandhya; Goswami, Srubabati; Kar, Kamales
2002-01-01
We examine the solar neutrino problem in the context of the realistic three neutrino mixing scenario including the SNO charged current rate. The two independent mass squared differences $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\\Delta m^2_{31} \\approx \\Delta m^2_{32}$ are taken to be in the solar and atmospheric range respectively. We incorporate the constraints on $\\Delta$m$^2_{31}$ as obtained by the SuperKamiokande atmospheric neutrino data and determine the allowed values of $\\Delta m^2_{21}$, $\\theta_{12}$ and $\\theta_{13}$ from a combined analysis of solar and CHOOZ data. Our aim is to probe the changes in the values of the mass and mixing parameters with the inclusion of the SNO data as well as the changes in the two-generation parameter region obtained from the solar neutrino analysis with the inclusion of the third generation. We find that the inclusion of the SNO CC rate in the combined solar + CHOOZ analysis puts a more restrictive bound on $\\theta_{13}$. Since the allowed values of $\\theta_{13}$ are constrained to v...
Moody Music Generator: Characterising Control Parameters Using Crowdsourcing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scirea, Marco; Togelius, Julian; Nelson, Mark
2015-01-01
We characterise the expressive effects of a music generator capable of varying its moods through two control parameters. The two control parameters were constructed on the basis of existing work on valence and arousal in music, and intended to provide control over those two mood factors....... In this paper we conduct a listener study to determine how people actually perceive the various moods the generator can produce. Rather than directly attempting to validate that our two control param- eters represent arousal and valence, instead we conduct an open-ended study to crowd-source labels...... of generated music over the Internet, and to describe the moods with free-text labels. We find that the arousal parameter does roughly map to perceived arousal, but that the nominal “valence” parameter has strong interaction with the arousal parameter, and produces different effects in different parts...
Determining Mechanical Parameters for Spin in Tennis Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendtsen, Kaare; Rasmussen, Kasper; Hansen, Martin B.;
2015-01-01
The ability to generate spin is a key element for any tennis player. However, the mechanical parameters of tennis strings which contribute to producing spin are poorly understood. This study attempted to determine some of these parameters through a spin test and a tensile test. Nine different...
Determination of kinetic parameters for biomass combustion.
Álvarez, A; Pizarro, C; García, R; Bueno, J L; Lavín, A G
2016-09-01
The aim of this work is to provide a wide database of kinetic data for the most common biomass by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Due to the characteristic parameters of DTG curves, a two-stage reaction model is proposed and the kinetic parameters obtained from model-based methods with energy activation values for first and second stages in the range 1.75·10(4)-1.55·10(5)J/mol and 1.62·10(4)-2.37·10(5)J/mol, respectively. However, it has been found that Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose model-free methods are not suitable to determine the kinetic parameters of biomass combustion since the assumptions of these two methods were not accomplished in the full range of the combustion process.
Determination of generator losses and efficiency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klasnić Ilija
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of deriving by calculation the local and total losses of the generator as well as efficiency determination of the revitalised hydro-generator unit A4 in HPP 'Djerdap 1'. In order to determine the generator losses and generator efficiency, measurements are performed during the acceptance tests of revitalised aggregate A4 in HPP 'Djerdap 1'.
Alternative parameter determination methods for a PMSG
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Malz, Elena; Llano, Enrique Muller
2014-01-01
One of the fundamental requirements for testing and analysing a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) is to obtain its electrical and mechanical parameters. This paper describes the test set up and the procedure for obtaining them. Stator resistance and flux linkage measurements follow IEEE...... standards. In the other hand a new approach for an alternative stator inductance and inertia measurement is analysed. More precisely, the former is obtained through laboratory work based on the locked rotor test, and the latter through a CAD software based on a 3D model. In order to assess and validate...
TDR method for determine IC's parameters
Timoshenkov, V.; Rodionov, D.; Khlybov, A.
2016-12-01
Frequency domain simulation is a widely used approach for determine integrated circuits parameters. This approach can be found in most of software tools used in IC industry. Time domain simulation approach shows intensive usage last years due to some advantages. In particular it applicable for analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary systems where frequency domain is inapplicable. Resolution of time domain systems allow see heterogeneities on distance 1mm, determine it parameters and properties. Authors used approach based on detecting reflected signals from heterogeneities - time domain reflectometry (TDR). Field effect transistor technology scaling up to 30-60nm gate length and 10nm gate dielectric, heterojunction bi-polar transistors with 10-30nm base width allows fabricate digital IC's with 20GHz clock frequency and RF-IC's with tens GHz bandwidth. Such devices and operation speed suppose transit signal by use microwave lines. There are local heterogeneities can be found inside of the signal path due to connections between different parts of signal lines (stripe line-RF-connector pin, stripe line - IC package pin). These heterogeneities distort signals that cause bandwidth decrease for RF-devices. Time domain research methods of transmission and reflected signals give the opportunities to determine heterogeneities, it properties, parameters and built up equivalent circuits. Experimental results are provided and show possibility for inductance and capacitance measurement up to 25GHz. Measurements contains result of signal path research on IC and printed circuit board (PCB) used for 12GHz RF chips. Also dielectric constant versus frequency was measured up to 35GHz.
Determining the Tsallis parameter via maximum entropy
Conroy, J. M.; Miller, H. G.
2015-05-01
The nonextensive entropic measure proposed by Tsallis [C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988), 10.1007/BF01016429] introduces a parameter, q , which is not defined but rather must be determined. The value of q is typically determined from a piece of data and then fixed over the range of interest. On the other hand, from a phenomenological viewpoint, there are instances in which q cannot be treated as a constant. We present two distinct approaches for determining q depending on the form of the equations of constraint for the particular system. In the first case the equations of constraint for the operator O ̂ can be written as Tr (FqO ̂)=C , where C may be an explicit function of the distribution function F . We show that in this case one can solve an equivalent maxent problem which yields q as a function of the corresponding Lagrange multiplier. As an illustration the exact solution of the static generalized Fokker-Planck equation (GFPE) is obtained from maxent with the Tsallis enropy. As in the case where C is a constant, if q is treated as a variable within the maxent framework the entropic measure is maximized trivially for all values of q . Therefore q must be determined from existing data. In the second case an additional equation of constraint exists which cannot be brought into the above form. In this case the additional equation of constraint may be used to determine the fixed value of q .
A Determination of Electroweak Parameters at HERA
Aktas, A; Anthonis, T; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brisson, V; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; De Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Erdmann, W; Essenov, S; Falkewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Franke, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, E; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Göttlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Goyon, C; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Herrera-Corral, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Hreus, T; Hussain, S; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Lastoviicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mladenov, D M; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Papadopoulou, T D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Prideaux, P; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Schilling, F P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas, A; Trevino; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Vujicic, B; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Wigmore, C; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zhu, Y C; Zimmermann, J; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F
2006-01-01
Using the deep inelastic e^+p and e^-p charged and neutral current scattering cross sections previously published, a combined electroweak and QCD analysis is performed to determine electroweak parameters accounting for their correlation with parton distributions. The data used have been collected by the H1 experiment in 1994-2000 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 117.2 pb^{-1}. A measurement is obtained of the W propagator mass in charged current ep scattering. The weak mixing angle sin^2 theta_W is determined in the on-mass-shell renormalisation scheme. A first measurement at HERA is made of the light quark weak couplings to the Z^0 boson and a possible contribution of right-handed isospin components to the weak couplings is investigated.
Determining Stand Parameters from Uas-Based Point Clouds
Yilmaz, V.; Serifoglu, C.; Gungor, O.
2016-06-01
In Turkey, forest management plans are produced by terrestrial surveying techniques for 10 or 20 year periods, which can be considered quite long to maintain the sustainability of forests. For a successful forest management plan, it is necessary to collect accurate information about the stand parameters and store them in dynamic and robust databases. The position, number, height and closure of trees are among the most important stand parameters required for a forest management plan. Determining the position of each single tree is challenging in such an area consisting of too many interlocking trees. Hence, in this study, an object-based tree detection methodology has been developed in MATLAB programming language to determine the position of each tree top in a highly closed area. The developed algorithm uses the Canopy Height Model (CHM), which is computed from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated by using the point cloud extracted from the images taken from a UAS (Unmanned Aerial System). The heights of trees have been determined by using the CHM. The closure of the trees has been determined with the written MATLAB script. The results show that the developed tree detection methodology detected more than 70% of the trees successfully. It can also be concluded that the stand parameters may be determined by using the UAS-based point clouds depending on the characteristics of the study area. In addition, determination of the stand parameters by using point clouds reduces the time needed to produce forest management plans.
Intermolecular potential parameters and combining rules determined from viscosity data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastien, Lucas A.J.; Price, Phillip N.; Brown, Nancy J.
2010-05-07
The Law of Corresponding States has been demonstrated for a number of pure substances and binary mixtures, and provides evidence that the transport properties viscosity and diffusion can be determined from a molecular shape function, often taken to be a Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential, that requires two scaling parameters: a well depth {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and a collision diameter {sigma}{sub ij}, both of which depend on the interacting species i and j. We obtain estimates for {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and {sigma}{sub ij} of interacting species by finding the values that provide the best fit to viscosity data for binary mixtures, and compare these to calculated parameters using several 'combining rules' that have been suggested for determining parameter values for binary collisions from parameter values that describe collisions of like molecules. Different combining rules give different values for {sigma}{sub ij} and {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and for some mixtures the differences between these values and the best-fit parameter values are rather large. There is a curve in ({var_epsilon}{sub ij}, {sigma}{sub ij}) space such that parameter values on the curve generate a calculated viscosity in good agreement with measurements for a pure gas or a binary mixture. The various combining rules produce couples of parameters {var_epsilon}{sub ij}, {sigma}{sub ij} that lie close to the curve and therefore generate predicted mixture viscosities in satisfactory agreement with experiment. Although the combining rules were found to underpredict the viscosity in most of the cases, Kong's rule was found to work better than the others, but none of the combining rules consistently yields parameter values near the best-fit values, suggesting that improved rules could be developed.
Changes in parameters of hydroelectric generators at modernization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinsky, Grigori B. [Electrosila, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: ftf@elsila.spb.ru
2000-07-01
This paper discusses the changes in parameters of hydroelectric generators at modernization. The lines of approaches in different regions and periods of time have varied depending on economic circumstances arisen and on changes of the property form as well. Therefore, all the attempts undertaken earlier to work out a general concept for realization of the inevitable modernization of the main power equipment of hydraulic electric stations did not give any positive result. Even unified norms on determining the stock service life of such equipment were failed to elaborate. The reasons underlie in the variety of parameters, design versions, manufacturing methods, as well as in the diversity of service conditions, operation duties, culture and quality of repairs, etc. The development of a unified satisfactory algorithm covering all mentioned and other important conditions seems to be impossible. Consequently, the way of expert judgement based upon generalization and analyzing the previous operational experience and enriched with the data of objective control remains to be dominant. From this report discussion it should be evidently drawn a summary conclusion: the present-day potentialities of electric engineering on up-rating the power of generators at modernization, considering the general progress in technologies as well as advances in the sphere of materials, exceed the real needs of potential customers. Practically any demands of such a kind may be covered without extra charges for civil engineering work, hoisting equipment and erection sites.
Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging
Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.
1996-01-01
Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.
Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging
Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.
1996-01-01
Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.
determination of some haematological parameters in malaria
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
2015-06-01
Jun 1, 2015 ... 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Health Technology, Jahun, ... that malaria parasites may have effect on some haematological parameters. ... study is to assess the effects of malaria parasites on some haematological parameters in Sokoto ..... Children in Rural Muea, Cameroom.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨庆惠
2012-01-01
应用氢化物发生—原子荧光分析技术进行粮食中无机砷测定的研究,通过优化酸度、硼氢化钾、载气流量、灯电流以及原子化器高度等分析条件,结果表明,砷浓度在0～30 ng/ml内呈线性关系,相关系数为0.999 9,相对标准偏差为1.6％,检出限为0.054 μg/L,用此方法测定粮食中无机砷,回收率为96.5％～103.5％.该方法简便、快速、灵敏,在实际样品测定中获得到了满意的结果,便于推广应用.%Hydride generation- atomic fluorescence spectrometry was adopted for determine the inorganic arsenic in grain. The experimental parameters such as Ph, KHB4 concentration, flow rate, lamp current and the height of atomizer were optimized. There is linear relation when the arsenic concentration was between 0~30 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0. 999 9. The relative standard deviation was 1. 6%, and the detection limit was 0. 054μg/L. The recovery rate reached to 96. 5%~103. 5%. This method is simple,rapid and sensitive, and got satisfactory results in practicle,it is worth for generalize.
Modeling and Parameter Estimation of a Small Wind Generation System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Ramírez Gómez
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The modeling and parameter estimation of a small wind generation system is presented in this paper. The system consists of a wind turbine, a permanent magnet synchronous generator, a three phase rectifier, and a direct current load. In order to estimate the parameters wind speed data are registered in a weather station located in the Fraternidad Campus at ITM. Wind speed data were applied to a reference model programed with PSIM software. From that simulation, variables were registered to estimate the parameters. The wind generation system model together with the estimated parameters is an excellent representation of the detailed model, but the estimated model offers a higher flexibility than the programed model in PSIM software.
Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms
Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan
2016-01-01
In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.
Determination of Induction Machine Parameters by Simulation
Dr. E.A. Anazia; Engr. Samson Ugochukwu; Dr. J. C. Onuegbu; Engr. Onyedikachi S.N
2016-01-01
A 38.1 Watt fractional horse power induction laboratory test motor model was created using MotorSolve 5.2; an electrical machine design application. Initial machine parameters such as voltage, speed, and main dimensions were selected and fed into the application and simulations ran. The simulated results were presented and analyzed. Unlike other induction machine parameter identification process, this method is simple, flexible and accurate since it does not involve rigorous mathe...
Study of parameters of a facility generating compressive plasma flows
Leyvi, A. Ya
2017-05-01
The prosperity of plasma technologies stimulates making of a facility generating compressive plasma flows at the South Ural State University. The facility is a compact-geometry magnetoplasma compressor with the following parameters: stored energy up to 15 kJ, voltage of a bank from 3 to 5 kV; nitrogen, air, and other gases can serve as its operating gas. The investigation of parameters of the facility showed the following parameters of compressive plasma flows: impulse duration of up to 120 μs, discharge current of 50-120 kA, speed of plasma flow of 15-30 km/s. By contrast to the available facilities, the parameters of the developed facility can be adjusted in a wide range of voltage from 2 kV to 10 kV, its design permits generating CPF in horizontal and vertical positions.
Determination and analysis of synchronous motor's parameters
Mesņajevs, Aleksandrs; Zviedris, Andrejs
2009-01-01
In this work the parameters of synchronous machines are analyzed- direct-axis reaction Xad and quadrature-axis reaction Xaq. Methods of calculation in view of magnetic system's and its element's saturation are presented. It is shown that definition of these reactances, using as a basis a two-reaction method, is not correct and connected with work demanding chart analyzing calculations. The new approach to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of synchronous machine's operating modes which is based on consecutive use of the magnetic field's theory is offered, without it with two-reaction parameters Xad and Xaq. This approach is realized by means of a magnetic field's modeling using numerical methods with help of modern computers.
Astrometric Determination of VSOP-2 Orbital Parameters
Fomalont, E.; Moellenbrock, G.; Claussen, M.
2009-08-01
VSOP-2 phase referencing, needed to image faint sources and to determine accurate positions, will require an orbit accuracy of about 2 cm at 23 GHz. This accuracy, however, may not be obtainable by direct orbital measurements. We propose an observation scheme, similar to that used at the VLBA, to be included during a phase referencing observation of about one orbit in order to determine a more accurate orbit determination. We show the effects of orbit errors, explain the suggested observations and reduction methods, and discuss the potential problems that might impede the use of this technique.
Determination of JWL Parameters for Non-Ideal Explosive
Hamashima, H.; Kato, Y.; Itoh, S.
2004-07-01
JWL equation of state is widely used in numerical simulation of detonation phenomena. JWL parameters are determined by cylinder test. Detonation characteristics of non-ideal explosive depend strongly on confinement, and JWL parameters determined by cylinder test do not represent the state of detonation products in many applications. We developed a method to determine JWL parameters from the underwater explosion test. JWL parameters were determined through a method of characteristics applied to the configuration of the underwater shock waves of cylindrical explosives. The numerical results obtained using JWL parameters determined by the underwater explosion test and those obtained using JWL parameters determined by cylinder test were compared with experimental results for typical non-ideal explosive; emulsion explosive. Good agreement was confirmed between the results obtained using JWL parameters determined by the underwater explosion test and experimental results.
Determination of the Creep Parameters of Linear Viscoelastic Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alibay Iskakbayev
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Creep process of linear viscoelastic materials is described by the integral equation of Boltzmann-Volterra in which creep kernel is approximated by Rabotnov’s fractional exponential function. The creep equation contains four unknown parameters: α, singularity parameter; β, fading parameter; λ, rheological parameter; and ε0, conditionally instantaneous strain. Two-stage determination method of creep parameters is offered. At the first stage, taking into account weak singularity properties of Abel’s function at the initial moment of loading, parameters ε0 and α are determined. At the second stage, using already known parameters ε0 and α, parameters β and λ are determined. Analytical expressions for calculating these parameters are obtained. An accuracy evaluation of the offered method with using experimentally determined creep strains of material Nylon 6 and asphalt concrete showed its high accuracy.
Determination of some electrical parameters for composite inorganic membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benavente, J.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Cabeza, A. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain)
1994-12-31
Composite inorganic membranes were obtained by deposition of an inorganic precipitate layer (uranyl phosphonate: UO{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) or UPP) on a commercial porous alumina membrane (Anopore{trademark}, 0.2 {mu}m pore size). Salt diffusion and membrane potential for the whole membrane were measured for NaCl and other electrolytes containing the precipitate generating ions, and for concentration ranging between 10{sup -4}M and 210{sup -2}M. Dielectric parameters (resistance and capacitance) were obtained from impedance spectroscopy measurements, and the equivalent circuits associated to the membrane/electrolyte systems were also determined. From the experimental results, other parameters such as cation transport numbers and ionic permeabilities were obtained. Concentration dependence of all these parameters was also considered. Measurements were carried out with the composite inorganic membrane and the alumina porous support. A comparison of the results found for both membranes gives information about the value of all these parameters in the layer formed by the inorganic UPP precipitate.
New method for determination of critical parameters
Ruge, C.; Dunkelmann, S.; Wagner, F.
1992-10-01
Our method uses topological properties of the large clusters in the single-cluster algorithm of Wolff for Monte Carlo simulations of spin systems. We have applied this method to the d=3 Ising model with film geometry near the special transition. As a test for the method we determined the bulk critical temperature and the critical indices in fair agreement with the results obtained by other methods. The new results refer to the critical surface coupling J1c/J=1.5004(20) and the surface exponents, where φ=0.461(15) and βmi=0.237(5).
Probabilistic Constraint Programming for Parameters Optimisation of Generative Models
Zanin, Massimiliano; Sousa, Pedro A C; Cruz, Jorge
2015-01-01
Complex networks theory has commonly been used for modelling and understanding the interactions taking place between the elements composing complex systems. More recently, the use of generative models has gained momentum, as they allow identifying which forces and mechanisms are responsible for the appearance of given structural properties. In spite of this interest, several problems remain open, one of the most important being the design of robust mechanisms for finding the optimal parameters of a generative model, given a set of real networks. In this contribution, we address this problem by means of Probabilistic Constraint Programming. By using as an example the reconstruction of networks representing brain dynamics, we show how this approach is superior to other solutions, in that it allows a better characterisation of the parameters space, while requiring a significantly lower computational cost.
Determination of complex microcalorimeter parameters with impedance measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]. E-mail: tsaab@phys.ufl.edu; Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lindeman, M.A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sadleir, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2006-04-15
The proper understanding and modeling of a microcalorimeter's response requires accurate knowledge of a handful of parameters, such as C, G, {alpha}. While a few of these parameters are directly determined from the IV characteristics, some others, notoriously the heat capacity (C) and {alpha}, appear in degenerate combinations in most measurable quantities. The consideration of a complex microcalorimeter leads to an added ambiguity in the determination of the parameters. In general, the dependence of the microcalorimeter's complex impedance on these various parameters varies with frequency. This dependence allows us to determine individual parameters by fitting the prediction of the microcalorimeter model to impedance data. In this paper we describe efforts at characterizing the Goddard X-ray microcalorimeters. With the parameters determined by this method, we compare the pulse shape and noise spectra predictions to data taken with the same devices.
Moody Music Generator: Characterising Control Parameters Using Crowdsourcing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scirea, Marco; Togelius, Julian; Nelson, Mark
2015-01-01
. In this paper we conduct a listener study to determine how people actually perceive the various moods the generator can produce. Rather than directly attempting to validate that our two control param- eters represent arousal and valence, instead we conduct an open-ended study to crowd-source labels...
Moody Music Generator: Characterising Control Parameters Using Crowdsourcing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scirea, Marco; Togelius, Julian; Nelson, Mark
2015-01-01
. In this paper we conduct a listener study to determine how people actually perceive the various moods the generator can produce. Rather than directly attempting to validate that our two control param- eters represent arousal and valence, instead we conduct an open-ended study to crowd-source labels...
Determination of cosmological parameters: An introduction for non-specialists
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Palash B Pal
2000-01-01
I start by defining the cosmological parameters 0, and . Then I show how the age of the universe depends on them, followed by the evolution of the scale parameter of the universe for various values of the density parameters. Then I define strategies for measuring them, and show the results for the recent determination of these parameters from measurements on supernovas of type 1a. Implications for particle physics is briefly discussed at the end.
Determination of the key parameters affecting historic communications satellite trends
Namkoong, D.
1984-01-01
Data representing 13 series of commercial communications satellites procured between 1968 and 1982 were analyzed to determine the factors that have contributed to the general reduction over time of the per circuit cost of communications satellites. The model by which the data were analyzed was derived from a general telecommunications application and modified to be more directly applicable for communications satellites. In this model satellite mass, bandwidth-years, and technological change were the variable parameters. A linear, least squares, multiple regression routine was used to obtain the measure of significance of the model. Correlation was measured by coefficient of determination (R super 2) and t-statistic. The results showed that no correlation could be established with satellite mass. Bandwidth-year however, did show a significant correlation. Technological change in the bandwidth-year case was a significant factor in the model. This analysis and the conclusions derived are based on mature technologies, i.e., satellite designs that are evolutions of earlier designs rather than the first of a new generation. The findings, therefore, are appropriate to future satellites only if they are a continuation of design evolution.
ADVANTG An Automated Variance Reduction Parameter Generator, Rev. 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mosher, Scott W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevill, Aaron M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ibrahim, Ahmad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Daily, Charles R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Jeffrey O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Grove, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-08-01
The primary objective of ADVANTG is to reduce both the user effort and the computational time required to obtain accurate and precise tally estimates across a broad range of challenging transport applications. ADVANTG has been applied to simulations of real-world radiation shielding, detection, and neutron activation problems. Examples of shielding applications include material damage and dose rate analyses of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor (Risner and Blakeman 2013) and the ITER Tokamak (Ibrahim et al. 2011). ADVANTG has been applied to a suite of radiation detection, safeguards, and special nuclear material movement detection test problems (Shaver et al. 2011). ADVANTG has also been used in the prediction of activation rates within light water reactor facilities (Pantelias and Mosher 2013). In these projects, ADVANTG was demonstrated to significantly increase the tally figure of merit (FOM) relative to an analog MCNP simulation. The ADVANTG-generated parameters were also shown to be more effective than manually generated geometry splitting parameters.
Determination of SATI Instrument Filter Parameters by Processing Interference Images
Atanassov, Atanas Marinov
2010-01-01
This paper presents a method for determination of interference filter parameters such as the effective refraction index and the maximal transmittance wavelength on the basis of image processing of a spectrogram produced by Spectrometer Airglow Temperature Imager instrument by means of data processing. The method employs the radial sections for determination of points from the crests and valleys in the spectrograms. These points are involved in the least square method for determination of the centres and radii of the crests and valleys. The use of the image radial sections allows to determine the maximal number of crests and valleys in the spectrogram. The application of the least square fitting leads to determination of the image centers and radii of the crests and valleys with precision higher than one pixel. The nocturnal course of the filter parameters produced by this method is presented and compared with that of the known ones. The values of the filter parameters thus obtained are closer to the laborator...
Method and Apparatus for Determining Operational Parameters of Thermoelectric Modules
Zybała, Rafał; Schmidt, Maksymilian; Kaszyca, Kamil; Ciupiński, Łukasz; Kruszewski, Mirosław J.; Pietrzak, Katarzyna
2016-10-01
The main aim of this work was to construct and test an apparatus for characterization of high temperature thermoelectric modules to be used in thermoelectric generator (TEGs) applications. The idea of this apparatus is based on very precise measurements of heat fluxes passing through the thermoelectric (TE) module, at both its hot and cold sides. The electrical properties of the module, under different temperature and load conditions, were used to estimate efficiency of energy conversion based on electrical and thermal energy conservation analysis. The temperature of the cold side, T c, was stabilized by a precise circulating thermostat (≤0.1°C) in a temperature range from 5°C to 90°C. The amount of heat absorbed by a coolant flowing through the heat sink was measured by the calibrated and certified heat flow meter with an accuracy better than 1%. The temperature of the hot side, T h, was forced to assumed temperature ( T max = 450°C) by an electric heater with known power ( P h = 0-600 W) with ample thermal insulation. The electrical power was used in calculations. The TE module, heaters and cooling plate were placed in an adiabatic vacuum chamber. The load characteristics of the module were evaluated using an electronically controlled current source as a load. The apparatus may be used to determine the essential parameters of TE modules (open circuit voltage, U oc, short circuit current, I sc, internal electrical resistance, R int, thermal resistance, R th, power density, and efficiency, η, as a function of T c and T h ). Several commercially available TE modules based on Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 alloys were tested. The measurements confirmed that the constructed apparatus was highly accurate, stable and yielded reproducible results; therefore, it is a reliable tool for the development of thermoelectric generators.
Determination of Rheological Parameters of Polyvinylchloride at Different Temperatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chepurnenko A.S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes the method of determining the relaxation constants of the material included in the nonlinear equation of Maxwell-Gurevich. We performed the processing of relaxation curves of recycled polyvinylchloride (PVC at different temperatures and investigated the effect of temperature on the value of the relaxation parameters. For each parameter, we have chosen empirical formula describing its dependence on temperature.
Measurement Error Effects of Beam Parameters Determined by Beam Profiles
Jang, Ji-Ho; Jeon, Dong-O
2015-01-01
A conventional method to determine beam parameters is using the profile measurements and converting them into the values of twiss parameters and beam emittance at a specified position. The beam information can be used to improve transverse beam matching between two different beam lines or accelerating structures. This work is related with the measurement error effects of the beam parameters and the optimal number of profile monitors in a section between MEBT (medium energy beam transport) and QWR (quarter wave resonator) of RAON linear accelerator.
3D Motion Parameters Determination Based on Binocular Sequence Images
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Exactly capturing three dimensional (3D) motion information of an object is an essential and important task in computer vision, and is also one of the most difficult problems. In this paper, a binocular vision system and a method for determining 3D motion parameters of an object from binocular sequence images are introduced. The main steps include camera calibration, the matching of motion and stereo images, 3D feature point correspondences and resolving the motion parameters. Finally, the experimental results of acquiring the motion parameters of the objects with uniform velocity and acceleration in the straight line based on the real binocular sequence images by the mentioned method are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nader Frikha
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The determination of reaction kinetics is of major importance, as for industrial reactors optimization as for environmental reasons or energy limitations. Although calorimetry is often used for the determination of thermodynamic parameters alone, the question that arises is: how can we apply the Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the determination of kinetic parameters. The objective of this study consists to proposing an original methodology for the simultaneous determination of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, using a laboratory scale Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC. The method is applied to the dichromate-catalysed hydrogen peroxide decomposition. Approach: The methodology is based on operating of experiments carried out with a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The interest of this approach proposed is that it requires very small quantities of reactants (about a few grams to be implemented. The difficulty lies in the fact that, using such microcalorimeters, the reactants temperature cannot directly be measured and a particular calibration procedure has thus to be developed, to determine the media temperature in an indirect way. The proposed methodology for determination of kinetics parameters is based on resolution of the coupled heat and mass balances. Results: A complete kinetic law is proposed. The Arrhenius parameters are determined as frequency factor k0 = 1.39×109 s−1 and activation energy E = 54.9 kJ mol−1. The measured enthalpy of reaction is ΔrH=−94 kJ mol−1. Conclusion: The comparison of the results obtained by such an original methodology with those obtained using a conventional laboratory scale reactor calorimetry, for the kinetics determination of, shows that this new approach is very relevant.
Determining important parameters related to cyanobacterial alkaloid toxin exposure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Love, A H
2005-09-16
Science-based decision making required robust and high-fidelity mechanistic data about the system dynamics and impacts of system changes. Alkaloid cyanotoxins have the characteristics to warrant consideration for their potential threat. Since insufficient information is available to construct a systems model for the alkaloid cyanotoxins, saxitoxins, anatoxins, and anatoxin-a(S), an accurate assessments of these toxins as a potential threat for use for intentional contamination is not possible. Alkaloid cyanotoxin research that contributed to such a model has numerous areas of overlap for natural and intentional health effects issues that generates dual improvements to the state of the science. The use of sensitivity analyses of systems models can identify parameters that, when determined, result in the greatest impact to the overall system and may help to direct the most efficient use of research funding. This type of modeling-assisted experimentation may allow rapid progress for overall system understanding compared to observational or disciplinary research agendas. Assessment and management of risk from intentional contamination can be performed with greater confidence when mechanisms are known and the relationships between different components are validated. This level of understanding allows high-fidelity assessments that do not hamper legitimate possession of these toxins for research purposes, while preventing intentional contamination that would affect public health. It also allows for appropriate response to an intentional contamination event, even if the specific contamination had not been previous considered. Development of science-based decision making tools will only improve our ability to address the new requirements addressing potential threats to our nation.
Determination of the atrazine migration parameters in Vertisol
Raymundo-Raymundo, E.; Hernandez-Vargas, J.; Nikol'Skii, Yu. N.; Guber, A. K.; Gavi-Reyes, F.; Prado-Pano, B. L.; Figueroa-Sandoval, B.; Mendosa-Hernandez, J. R.
2010-05-01
The parameters of the atrazine migration in columns with undisturbed Vertisol sampled from an irrigated plot in Guanajuato, Mexico were determined. A model of the convection-dispersion transport of the chemical compounds accounting for the decomposition and equilibrium adsorption, which is widely applied for assessing the risk of contamination of natural waters with pesticides, was used. The model parameters were obtained by solving the inverse problem of the transport equation on the basis of laboratory experiments on the transport of the 18O isotope and atrazine in soil columns with an undisturbed structure at three filtration velocities. The model adequately described the experimental data at the individual selection of the parameters for each output curve. Physically unsubstantiated parameters of the atrazine adsorption and degradation were obtained when the parameter of the hydrodynamic dispersion was determined from the data on the 18O migration. The simulation also showed that the use of parameters obtained at water content close to saturation in the calculations for an unsaturated soil resulted in the overestimation of the leaching rate and the maximum concentration of atrazine in the output curve compared to the experimental data.
Test stand for determining parameters of microbolometer camera
Krupiński, Michał; Bareła, Jarosław; Kastek, Mariusz; Chmielewski, Krzysztof
2016-10-01
In order to objectively compare the two infrared cameras ones must to measure and compare their parameters on a laboratory. One of the basic parameters for the evaluation of the designed camera is NEDT (noise equivalent delta temperature). In order to examine the NEDT ,parameters such as sensitivity and pixels noise must be measured. To do so, ones should register the output signal from the camera in response to the radiation of black bodies at two different temperatures. The article presents an application and measuring stand for determining the parameters of microbolometers camera. In addition to determination of parameters of a cameras the measuring stand allow to determine defective pixel map, the non uniformity correction (NUC) coefficients: 1-point and 2-point. Additionally, developed test stand serves as a test system to read the raw data from microbolometer detector. Captured image can be corrected with calculated non-uniformity correction coefficients. In a next step the image is processed and visualized on a monitor. Developed test stand allows for an initial assessment of the quality of designed readout circuit. It also allows for efficient testing and comparison of the number of sensors or readout circuits.
Automatic Determination of the Conic Coronal Mass Ejection Model Parameters
Pulkkinen, A.; Oates, T.; Taktakishvili, A.
2009-01-01
Characterization of the three-dimensional structure of solar transients using incomplete plane of sky data is a difficult problem whose solutions have potential for societal benefit in terms of space weather applications. In this paper transients are characterized in three dimensions by means of conic coronal mass ejection (CME) approximation. A novel method for the automatic determination of cone model parameters from observed halo CMEs is introduced. The method uses both standard image processing techniques to extract the CME mass from white-light coronagraph images and a novel inversion routine providing the final cone parameters. A bootstrap technique is used to provide model parameter distributions. When combined with heliospheric modeling, the cone model parameter distributions will provide direct means for ensemble predictions of transient propagation in the heliosphere. An initial validation of the automatic method is carried by comparison to manually determined cone model parameters. It is shown using 14 halo CME events that there is reasonable agreement, especially between the heliocentric locations of the cones derived with the two methods. It is argued that both the heliocentric locations and the opening half-angles of the automatically determined cones may be more realistic than those obtained from the manual analysis
Frontal sinus parameters in computed tomography and sex determination.
Akhlaghi, Mitra; Bakhtavar, Khadijeh; Moarefdoost, Jhale; Kamali, Artin; Rafeifar, Shahram
2016-03-01
The frontal sinus is a sturdy part of the skull that is likely to be retrieved for forensic investigations. We evaluated frontal sinus parameters in paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) images for sex determination. The study was conducted on 200 normal paranasal sinus CT images of 100 men and 100 women of Persian origin. We categorized the studied population into three age groups of 20-34, 35-49 and ⩾ 50 years. The number of partial septa in the right frontal sinus and the maximum height and width were significantly different between the two sexes. The highest precision for sex determination was for the maximum height of the left frontal sinus (61.3%). In the 20-34 years age-group, height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly different between the two sexes and the height of the left sinus had the highest precision (60.8%). In the 35-49 years age-group, right anterior-posterior diameter had a sex determination precision of 52.3%. No frontal sinus parameter reached a statistically significant level for sex determination in the ⩾ 50 years age-group. The number of septa and scallopings were not useful in sex determination. Frontal sinus parameters did not have a high precision in sex determination among Persian adults.
FAMA: An automatic code for stellar parameter and abundance determination
Magrini, Laura; Friel, Eileen; Spina, Lorenzo; Jacobson, Heather; Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan; Donati, Paolo; Baglioni, Roberto; Maiorca, Enrico; Bragaglia, Angela; Sordo, Rosanna; Vallenari, Antonella
2013-01-01
The large amount of spectra obtained during the epoch of extensive spectroscopic surveys of Galactic stars needs the development of automatic procedures to derive their atmospheric parameters and individual element abundances. Starting from the widely-used code MOOG by C. Sneden, we have developed a new procedure to determine atmospheric parameters and abundances in a fully automatic way. The code FAMA (Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis) is presented describing its approach to derive atmospheric stellar parameters and element abundances. The code, freely distributed, is written in Perl and can be used on different platforms. The aim of FAMA is to render the computation of the atmospheric parameters and abundances of a large number of stars using measurements of equivalent widths as automatic and as independent of any subjective approach as possible. It is based on the simultaneous search for three equilibria: excitation equilibrium, ionization balance, and the relationship between \\fei\\ and the reduced equivalent ...
Determining material parameters using phase-field simulations and experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jin; Poulsen, Stefan O.; Gibbs, John W.
2017-01-01
A method to determine material parameters by comparing the evolution of experimentally determined 3D microstructures to simulated 3D microstructures is proposed. The temporal evolution of a dendritic solid-liquid mixture is acquired in situ using x-ray tomography. Using a time step from these dat...... variation of the best-fit parameters and the fidelity of the fitting. We find a liquid diffusion coefficient that is different from that measured using directional solidification....... as an initial condition in a phase-field simulation, the computed structure is compared to that measured experimentally at a later time. An optimization technique is used to find the material parameters that yield the best match of the simulated microstructure to the measured microstructure in a global manner...
QCD-inspired determination of NJL model parameters
Springer, Paul; Rechenberger, Stefan; Rennecke, Fabian
2016-01-01
The QCD phase diagram at finite temperature and density has attracted considerable interest over many decades now, not least because of its relevance for a better understanding of heavy-ion collision experiments. Models provide some insight into the QCD phase structure but usually rely on various parameters. Based on renormalization group arguments, we discuss how the parameters of QCD low-energy models can be determined from the fundamental theory of the strong interaction. We particularly focus on a determination of the temperature dependence of these parameters in this work and comment on the effect of a finite quark chemical potential. We present first results and argue that our findings can be used to improve the predictive power of future model calculations.
Determination of Interfacial Parameters of Copolyamide Membrane Material by HPLC
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张秀真; 高素莲; 陈均
2003-01-01
The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method is employed with copolyamide-170 (PA-170) membrane material as packing to determine the retention volume (V'R) and equilibrium distribution coefficient (K'A) of both inorganic solutes and organic solutes. Based on the experimental data, the interfacial parameters of the packing material are obtained.
Automatic determination of recrystallization parameters based on EBSD mapping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Guilin; Juul Jensen, Dorte
2008-01-01
A new automatic algorithm for determining the recrystallization parameters V-V, S-V and based on EBSD mapping is presented in this paper. The algorithm is validated on aluminium deformed to high strains. The algorithm is also compared with other methods using the exact same sets of samples...
Determination of Parameters of PV Concentrating System With Heliostat
Vardanyan, R.; Norsoyan, A.; Dallakyan, V.
2010-10-01
The structure of PV concentrating system with heliostat is analyzed. The mathematical model of system consisting of PV concentrating module and heliostat is developed. With the use of developed mathematical model the optimal parameters of the system are determined. The results of this work can be used during the design of PV concentrating systems with heliostats.
The use of crosshead displacement in determining fracture parameters
Walters, C.L.; Voormeeren, L.O.; Janssen, M.
2013-01-01
In determining the fracture toughness of a test specimen, standards currently require either locally-measured load-line displacements or clip gage displacements. In order to measure these parameters, secondary sensors generally need to be installed and calibrated, which often comes at a higher cost.
Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999
Caravaglios, F; Roudeau, Patrick; Stocchi, A
2000-01-01
Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKMunitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints fromthe measurements of |epsilon_K|, V_ub/V_cb, Delta m_d and from the limit onDelta m_s, available by end 1999.
Determination of steam wetness in the steam-generating equipment of nuclear power plants
Gorburov, V. I.; Gorburov, D. V.; Kuz'min, A. V.
2012-05-01
Calculation and experimental methods for determining steam wetness in horizontal steam generators for nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors, namely, the classic salt technique and calculations based on operating parameters are discussed considered and compared.
Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air
Tarasenko, V. F.
2011-05-01
Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.
Determining optimal parameters in magnetic spacecraft stabilization via attitude feedback
Bruni, Renato; Celani, Fabio
2016-10-01
The attitude control of a spacecraft using magnetorquers can be achieved by a feedback control law which has four design parameters. However, the practical determination of appropriate values for these parameters is a critical open issue. We propose here an innovative systematic approach for finding these values: they should be those that minimize the convergence time to the desired attitude. This a particularly diffcult optimization problem, for several reasons: 1) such time cannot be expressed in analytical form as a function of parameters and initial conditions; 2) design parameters may range over very wide intervals; 3) convergence time depends also on the initial conditions of the spacecraft, which are not known in advance. To overcome these diffculties, we present a solution approach based on derivative-free optimization. These algorithms do not need to write analytically the objective function: they only need to compute it in a number of points. We also propose a fast probing technique to identify which regions of the search space have to be explored densely. Finally, we formulate a min-max model to find robust parameters, namely design parameters that minimize convergence time under the worst initial conditions. Results are very promising.
Neutrino-nucleus interactions and the determination of oscillation parameters
Benhar, Omar; Mariani, Camillo; Meloni, Davide
2015-01-01
We review the status and prospects of theoretical studies of neutrino-nucleus interactions, and discuss the influence of the treatment of nuclear effects on the determination of oscillation parameters. The models developed to describe the variety of reaction mechanisms contributing to the nuclear cross sections are analysed, with emphasis placed on their capability to reproduce the available electron scattering data.The impact of the uncertainties associated with the description of nuclear dynamics on the the oscillation parameters is illustrated through examples, and possible avenues towards a better understanding of the signals detected by long baseline experiments are outlined.
Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters
Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.
1987-08-31
A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.
Determination of the Michel Parameter η from the muon spectrum
Korolko, I.; Argus Collaboration
1995-03-01
Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II at DESY, we have studied lepton energy spectra in τ decays. We present a "pseudo-rest-frame" technique in which the second τ in the event, decaying into a heavy hadronic system, is used as reference. This method allows for the first measurement of the Michel Parameter η in τ decays. We also determine the Michel Parameter ρ in τ → eυ¯υ decays with a precision comparable to the present world average. The measured values of the parameters ϱ = 0.735 ± 0.036 ± 0.020 and η = 0.03 ± 0.18 ± 0.12 are in good agreement with standard V-A coupling at the τ-ν-W vertex.
Mueller Matrix Parameters for Radio Telescopes and their Observational Determination
Heiles, C; Nolan, M L; Lorimer, D; Bhat, R; Ghosh, T K; Lewis, M; O'Neil, K; Salter, C; Stanimirovic, S; Heiles, Carl; Perillat, Phil; Nolan, Michael; Lorimer, Duncan; Bhat, Ramesh; Ghosh, Tapasi; Lewis, Murray; Neil, Karen O'; Salter, Chris; Stanimirovic, Snezana
2001-01-01
Modern digital crosscorrelators permit the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters. However, the results must be calibrated to correct for the polarization transfer function of the receiving system. The transfer function for any device can be expressed by its Mueller matrix. We express the matrix elements in terms of fundamental system parameters that describe the voltage transfer functions (known as the Jones matrix) of the various system devices in physical terms and thus provide a means for comparing with engineering calculations and investigating the effects of design changes. We describe how to determine these parameters with astronomical observations. We illustrate the method by applying it to some of the receivers at the Arecibo Observatory.
Sato, Yukinori; Miyawaki, Osato
2016-01-01
The hydration parameter h was obtained from the viscosity B-coefficients and the partial molar volume of solute, V2, for various sugars and urea in aqueous solutions. The parameter h showed a good correlation with the parameter α, determined from the activity coefficient of water, representing the solute-solvent interaction. The parameter h also showed a good correlation with the number of equatorial-OH groups (e-OH) for sugars, suggesting that the sugar molecules with the higher e-OH fit more to the water-structure. From the temperature dependence of the parameter h (dh/dT), the negative dh/dT for sugars suggested their water-structure making activity while the positive dh/dT for urea corresponded to its structure breaking effect. From the Arrhenius plot, the activation energy for h, Ea, was determined to be as low as 10 kJ/mol for disaccharides suggesting the stable hydration structure. The Ea increased with a decrease in molecular weight for sugars.
Experimental Determination Of Soft Wheat Flour Thermal Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Božiková Monika
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This article focuses on temperature relations of selected thermophysical parameters for soft wheat flour. The main aim of experiment was to determine the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat of soft wheat flour in Slovakia marked as Špeciál 00 Extra. Measurements were performed in laboratory settings. Thermal parameters were measured using the thermal analyser Isomet 2104 with two types of probes - a linear probe and plane probe. Measurement by the linear probe is based on a hot wire method, and measurement by the plane probe is based on a simplified plane source method. Both methods are described in the text. Two types of measurement method were used because of the non-homogenous structure of measured material. All thermophysical parameters were measured during the temperature stabilisation in the temperature interval 5-24 °C. Obtained graphical relations had linear increasing progresses with high values of determination coefficients in all cases. Measurement results showed that measurement method has no significant influence on thermophysical parameters values.
The determination of intrinsic trapping parameters of a thermoluminescence peak of BeO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakurai, Takao [Ashikaga Inst. of Technology, Tochigi (Japan). Div. of General Education; Gartia, R.K. [Manipur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics
1996-10-14
It has been shown that a thermoluminescence (TL) peak of BeO cannot be fitted with a numerically generated glow peak involving only three trapping parameters, namely trap depth, frequency factor and order of kinetics. The peak can be fitted with a TL peak numerically generated by the exact solutions of the basic differential equations. This enables one to determine the five important intrinsic trapping parameters: trap depth, frequency factor, retrapping probability, recombination probability and the concentration of a disconnected trap, an impossible feat under the kinetics formalism. (author).
Determining avalanche modelling input parameters using terrestrial laser scanning technology
2013-01-01
International audience; In dynamic avalanche modelling, data about the volumes and areas of the snow released, mobilized and deposited are key input parameters, as well as the fracture height. The fracture height can sometimes be measured in the field, but it is often difficult to access the starting zone due to difficult or dangerous terrain and avalanche hazards. More complex is determining the areas and volumes of snow involved in an avalanche. Such calculations require high-resolution spa...
On the ambiguity of determination of interfering resonances parameters
Malyshev, V M
2015-01-01
The general form of solutions for parameters of interfering Breit-Wigner resonances is found. The number of solutions is determined by the properties of roots of corresponding characteristic equation and does not exceed $2^{N-1}$, where $N$ is the number of resonances. For resonances of more complicated form, provided that their amplitudes satisfy certain conditions, for any $N\\ge2$ multiple solutions also exist.
Wavelet approach to the determination of gravity tide parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
柳林涛; 许摩泽; 孙和平; 郝兴华
2000-01-01
A new approach is proposed for the determination of gravity tide parameters. Three pairs of compactly supported wavelet filters are introduced in the approach. They can efficiently extract the objective tides from the gravity observation series. The new approach guarantees a direct and precise analysis on the tidal gravity records of any sampling length. The new approach is applied to the harmonic analysis on Wuhan superconducting gravimeter records. The results clearly show the resonant effects of the Earth Nearly Diurnal Free Wobble (NDFW).
Spectral Determination of Source Parameters in The Marmara Region
Koseoglu, A.; Meral Ozel, N.; Barıs, S.
2014-12-01
Ever since the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake, in which the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) was not able to correctly reflect the magnitude size in its preliminary report because of the saturation effect, a rapid and accurate determination of the earthquake becomes a very important issue. Therefore, in the framework of this study an automatic determination of the moment magnitude was performed by using the displacement spectra of selected earthquakes in Marmara Region. For this purpose 39 three component broadband stations from KOERI seismic network which recorded 174 earthquakes with magnitudes 2.5≤M≤5.0 in between 2006-2009 were used. Due to the importance of quality factor in determination of the moment magnitude with spectral analysis method, the quality factor was calculated for the whole region in the beginning. Source spectrum which was obtained by converting the velocity records to displacement spectra and moment magnitudes of earthquakes were determined by fitting this spectrum to classical Brune model. For this aim, an automatic procedure was utilized which based on minimizing the differences between observed and synthetic source spectra identified by the S-waves. Besides of moment magnitude and location parameters, some source parameters such as seismic moment, spectral level, corner frequency and stress drop were also calculated. Application of the method proves that determine the seismic moment from the source spectra is applicable not only for earthquakes with small magnitude but also moderate earthquakes as well.
Dynamics of 'abc' and 'qd' constant parameters induction generator model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fajardo-R, L.A.; Medina, A.; Iov, F.
2009-01-01
In this paper, parametric sensibility effects on dynamics of the induction generator in the presence of local perturbations are investigated. The study is conducted in a 3x2 MW wind park dealing with abc, qd0 and qd reduced order, induction generator model respectively, and with fluxes as state v...
Determining Gabor-filter parameters for texture segmentation
Dunn, Dennis F.; Higgins, William E.; Wakeley, Joseph
1992-11-01
The ability to segment a textured image into separate regions (texture segmentation) continues to be a challenging problem in computer vision. Many texture-segmentation schemes are based on a filter-bank model, where the filters (henceforth referred to as Gabor Filters) are derived from Gabor elementary functions. The goal of these methods is to transform texture differences into detectable filter-output discontinuities at texture boundaries. Then, one can segment the image into differently textured regions. Distinct discontinuities occur, however, only if the parameters defining the Gabor filters are suitably chosen. Some previous analysis has shown how to design appropriate filters for discriminating simple textures. Designing filters for more general textures, though, has largely been done ad hoc. We have devised a new, more effective, more rigorously based method for determining Gabor-filter parameters. The method is based on an exhaustive, but efficient, search of Gabor-filter parameter space and on a detection-theory formulation of a Gabor filter''s output. We provide qualitative arguments and experimental results indicating that our new method is more effective than other methods in producing suitable filter parameters. We demonstrate that our model also gives good filter designs for a variety of texture types.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubois, D.P.; Yereniuk, V.A. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)
2003-07-01
Some instabilities have been observed at several dyke locations at the Seven Sisters Generating Station, Manitoba since construction in the late 1940s. The foundations of the dykes are fissured plastic clays. Slope stabilizing methods have been proposed by a number of researchers since the late 1970s for estimating strength parameters for fissured plastic clays. This paper reports on four methods which were used for estimating Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters for stability analyses involving nine dyke locations where instability has been reported in the past. Correlation is established between the calculated safety factors and observed performance in an effort to determine the most appropriate method for this site. It was determined that the most appropriate method was that proposed by P.J. Rivard and Y.Lu in the late 1970s. 16 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.
Precise determination of Moessbauer lineshape parameters including interference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mullen, J.G.; Djedid, A.; Bullard, B.; Schupp, G.; Cowan, D.; Cao, Y.; Crow, M.L.; Yelon, W.
1987-01-01
Using 100 Ci /sup 183/Ta and 5 Ci /sup 182/Ta sources, with LiF and NaCl crystal monochromating filters, we have measured the lineshape parameters for the 46.5 keV and 99.1 keV Moessbauer effect (ME) transitions of /sup 183/W and the 100.1 keV transition of /sup 182/W. Using an analytic representation of the convolution integral and utilizing asymptotic analyses of the lineshape, we find, for both transmission and microfoil internal conversion (MICE) experiments, accurate values of all ME parameters including width, position, cross section, and interference. This new approach allows deconvolution of source and absorber spectra and gives a simple analytic expression for both as well as their Fourier transforms. The line widths for the 46.5, 99.1, and 100.1 keV transitions are 3.10(10), 0.369(18), and 0.195(12) cm/s, respectively. The interference parameters are -0.00257(9), -0.0093(12), and -0.0107(12) in the same respective order. The agreement between transmission and MICE measurements for the above lineshape parameters is within the experimental errors. We believe these measurements are the first having sufficient precision to allow a quantitative comparison with dispersion theory and they indicate interference parameters 10 to 20% smaller than predicted. Our measured line widths are less than earlier reported values. This is because our analysis of the true lineshape and the study of line asymptotics permits a quantitative determination of the isomer lifetimes rather than the usual lower bound found in earlier ME experiments. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
DETERMIN LARGE PRIME NUMBERS TO COMPUTE RSA SYSTEM PARAMETERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioan Mang
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Cryptography, the secret writing, is probably same old as writing itself and has applications in data security insurance. There are cryptosystems where the encipher algorithm can be public. These are public key algorithms. Research on public key algorithms has been concerned with security aspects. The results of this research have induced sufficient confidence to apply public key cryptography a larger scale. The most used and checked public key-based cryptosystem was find by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman, so called RSA system. This paper shows the RSA algorithm. We have realised a program that is able to determine prime numbers with over 100 digits and compute RSA system parameters.
Performance based parameters as generators in digital architecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann
2009-01-01
because of the high energy use buildings have. It calls for a rethinking of our approach to architecture and for an implementation architectural and technical demands from the beginning of the design process. The term generating in relation to this article is focused on algorithms and parametric...... descriptions, but can also encompass a more analogue process....
Determining Parameters for Images Amplification by Pulses Interpolation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morera-Delfín Leandro
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a method for image samples interpolation based on a physical scanning model. It uses the theory to take digital image samples and to perform an implementation of such mechanism through software. This allows us to get the appropriate parameters for the images amplification using a truncated sampler arrangement. The shown process copies the physical model of image acquisition in order to incorporate the required samples for the amplification. This process is useful in the reconstruction of details in low resolution images and for images compression. The proposed method studies the conservation of high frequency in the high resolution plane for the generation of the amplification kernel. A new way of direct application of the physical model for scanning images in analytic mode is presented.
Cai, Lanlan; Li, Peng; Luo, Qi; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie
2017-03-01
As no single thermoelectric material has presented a high figure-of-merit (ZT) over a very wide temperature range, segmented thermoelectric generators (STEGs), where the p- and n-legs are formed of different thermoelectric material segments joined in series, have been developed to improve the performance of thermoelectric generators. A crucial but difficult problem in a STEG design is to determine the optimal values of the geometrical parameters, like the relative lengths of each segment and the cross-sectional area ratio of the n- and p-legs. Herein, a multi-parameter and nonlinear optimization method, based on the Improved Powell Algorithm in conjunction with the discrete numerical model, was implemented to solve the STEG's geometrical optimization problem. The multi-parameter optimal results were validated by comparison with the optimal outcomes obtained from the single-parameter optimization method. Finally, the effect of the hot- and cold-junction temperatures on the geometry optimization was investigated. Results show that the optimal geometry parameters for maximizing the specific output power of a STEG are different from those for maximizing the conversion efficiency. Data also suggest that the optimal geometry parameters and the interfacial temperatures of the adjacent segments optimized for maximum specific output power or conversion efficiency vary with changing hot- and cold-junction temperatures. Through the geometry optimization, the CoSb3/Bi2Te3-based STEG can obtain a maximum specific output power up to 1725.3 W/kg and a maximum efficiency of 13.4% when operating at a hot-junction temperature of 823 K and a cold-junction temperature of 298 K.
Determining extreme parameter correlation in ground water models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hill, Mary Cole; Østerby, Ole
2003-01-01
In ground water flow system models with hydraulic-head observations but without significant imposed or observed flows, extreme parameter correlation generally exists. As a result, hydraulic conductivity and recharge parameters cannot be uniquely estimated. In complicated problems, such correlation...... correlation coefficients, but it required sensitivities that were one to two significant digits less accurate than those that required using parameter correlation coefficients; and (3) both the SVD and parameter correlation coefficients identified extremely correlated parameters better when the parameters...
Atmospheric and Fundamental Parameters of Stars in Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library
Heap, Sally
2010-01-01
Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R approximately 1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. We are presently working to determine the atmospheric and fundamental parameters of the stars from the NGSL spectra themselves via full-spectrum fitting of model spectra to the observed (extinction-corrected) spectrum over the full wavelength range, 0.2-1.0 micron. We use two grids of model spectra for this purpose: the very low-resolution spectral grid from Castelli-Kurucz (2004), and the grid from MARCS (2008). Both the observed spectrum and the MARCS spectra are first degraded in resolution to match the very low resolution of the Castelli-Kurucz models, so that our fitting technique is the same for both model grids. We will present our preliminary results with a comparison with those from the Sloan/Segue Stellar Parameter Pipeline, ELODIE, and MILES, etc.
A novel criterion for determination of material model parameters
Andrade-Campos, A.; de-Carvalho, R.; Valente, R. A. F.
2011-05-01
Parameter identification problems have emerged due to the increasing demanding of precision in the numerical results obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM) software. High result precision can only be obtained with confident input data and robust numerical techniques. The determination of parameters should always be performed confronting numerical and experimental results leading to the minimum difference between them. However, the success of this task is dependent of the specification of the cost/objective function, defined as the difference between the experimental and the numerical results. Recently, various objective functions have been formulated to assess the errors between the experimental and computed data (Lin et al., 2002; Cao and Lin, 2008; among others). The objective functions should be able to efficiently lead the optimisation process. An ideal objective function should have the following properties: (i) all the experimental data points on the curve and all experimental curves should have equal opportunity to be optimised; and (ii) different units and/or the number of curves in each sub-objective should not affect the overall performance of the fitting. These two criteria should be achieved without manually choosing the weighting factors. However, for some non-analytical specific problems, this is very difficult in practice. Null values of experimental or numerical values also turns the task difficult. In this work, a novel objective function for constitutive model parameter identification is presented. It is a generalization of the work of Cao and Lin and it is suitable for all kinds of constitutive models and mechanical tests, including cyclic tests and Baushinger tests with null values.
Quantitative Determination of Lineshape Parameters from Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy
Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.
2016-06-01
Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) has stood as the gold standard in molecular ion spectroscopy for 30 years. Whether in a traditional uni-directional experiment or more complicated cavity-enhanced layouts with additional layers of modulation, VMS remains the preferred ion detection scheme and is responsible for the detection and transition frequency determination of around 50 molecules. Despite its success, VMS still has a great deal of untapped potential. There have only been two other published studies of VMS lineshapes and both struggle with the highly correlated parameters: linewidth, intensity, and velocity modulation amplitude, i.e. the maximum Doppler shift during a period of the discharge. Due to this difficulty, both Gao and Civis made concessions to achieve a good fit. Careful analysis of the contour of the transition profile allows us to properly disentangle those parameters in order to probe the environment of the positive column. We can extract the precise values for the translational temperature of the ion, the relative transition intensity, the ion mobility, and the electric field strength just from the lineshape of a single transition. A firm understanding of the lineshape will facilitate chemical and physical investigations of positive columns and allow for a better understanding of more complicated detection schemes. H. Gao et al., Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 1463 (2001) S. Civis, Chem. Phys. 186, 63 (1994)
Determination of bioanalytical parameters for the standardization of Abroma augusta
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dinesh K Patel; S P Dhanabal
2013-01-01
Objective:To set the analytical parameters for simultaneous determination of different phytochemicals present in theAbroma augusta(A. augusta).Methods:Different phytochemical test including total phenol and total flavonoid content were carried out in the present investigation.Further, a rapid and simple high-performance thin-layer chromatographic(HPTLC) method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis.Moreover antimicrobial study was also performed in the present investigation to know the presence of biological contamination. Results:Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of glycoside, alkaloid, carbohydrate and steroid in theA. augusta.Total phenol and total flavonoid content were found to be0.29% and0.50% w/w respectively.All tested microorganism in theA. augusta extract were found to be under the limit.Chloroform: methanol: acetic acid:H2O(170:25:25:4) was used as a solvent system for the qualitative and quantitative analysis throughHPTLCMethod.HPTLC analysis revealed1.87% w/w of linoleic acid in theA. augusta extract.Conclusions:Results showed that the selected parameters in the present investigation would set the new standards for the qualitative and quantitative analysis ofA. augusta.
Systematic Effects in Earth Orientation Parameters Determined by VLBI
Schuh, H.; Heinkelmann, R.
2015-12-01
Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the only technique that directly connects on the observation level the realizations of ITRS and ICRS in terms of their orientation. Many applications in spacecraft navigation, fundamental astronomy, astrometry and geosciences depend on the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) determined by VLBI. Currently, under the IAG/IAU Joint Working Group on the Theory of Earth Rotation, activities are supported to advance the theory of Earth rotation. Some components of Earth Rotation, such as the free modes like the Free Core Nutation (FCN) are not predictable but rely entirely on the observation through VLBI. In our presentation we investigate the EOP when alternating various VLBI analysis options such as correction models, a priori parameters, and other choices with the aim to detect and quantify possible systematic effects. Our approach is purely empirical: we alternate certain analysis options and assess the differences with respect to the reference solution that adheres to the IERS Conventions (2010) and applies the standard parameterization. For demonstration we analyze the regular International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) sessions IVS-R1 and IVS-R4.The IAG flagship component GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System) aims to provide the EOP with an accuracy of 1 mm on the Earth surface (about 30 microarcseconds). This accuracy target will be applied as a limit to interpret the significance of the differences obtained in our comparisons.
Complementarity Between Hyperkamiokande and DUNE in Determining Neutrino Oscillation Parameters
Fukasawa, Shinya; Yasuda, Osamu
2016-01-01
In this work we investigate the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy, the octant of the mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ and the CP phase $\\delta_{CP}$ in the future long baseline experiments T2HK and DUNE as well as in the atmospheric neutrino observation at Hyperkamiokande (HK). These three experiments have the excellent facility to discover the above mentioned neutrino oscillation parameters in terms of both statistics and matter effect. In our analysis we find that the sensitivity is enhanced greatly if we combine these three experiments. Our results show that the hierarchy sensitivity of both T2HK and HK are limited due to the presence of parameter degeneracy. But this degeneracy is removed when T2HK and HK are added together. With T2HK+HK (DUNE), the neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined at least at $ 5 \\sigma$ (8\\,$\\sigma$) C.L. for any value of true $\\delta_{CP}$. With T2HK+HK+DUNE the significance of the mass hierarchy increases to almost 15 $\\sigma$ for the unfavorable value of $\\delta_{CP}$. Fo...
DETERMINATION OF CREEP PARAMETERS FROM INDENTATION CREEP EXPERIMENTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
岳珠峰; 万建松; 吕震宙
2003-01-01
The possibilities of determining creep parameters for a simple Norton law material are explored from indentation creep testing. Using creep finite element analysis the creep indentation test technique is analyzed in terms of indentation rates at constant loads. Emphasis is placed on the relationships between the steady creep behavior of indentation systems and the creep property of the indented materials. The role of indenter geometry, size effects and macroscopic constraints is explicitly considered on indentation creep experiments. The influence of macroscopic constraints from the material systems becomes important when the size of the indenter is of the same order of magnitude as the size of the testing material. Two methods have been presented to assess the creep property of the indented material from the indentation experimental results on the single-phase-material and two-phase-material systems. The results contribute to a better mechanical understanding and extending the application of indentation creep testing.
Scintillating bolometers: a key for determining WIMP parameters
Cerdeno, D G; Fornasa, M; Garcia, E; Ginestra, C; Marcos, C; Martinez, M; Ortigoza, Y; Peiro, M; Puimedon, J; Sarsa, M L
2014-01-01
In the last decade direct detection Dark Matter (DM) experiments have increased enormously their sensitivity and ton-scale setups have been proposed, especially using germanium and xenon targets with double readout and background discrimination capabilities. In light of this situation, we study the prospects for determining the parameters of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) DM (mass, spin-dependent (SD) and spin-independent (SI) cross section off nucleons) by combining the results of such experiments in the case of a hypothetical detection. In general, the degeneracy between the SD and SI components of the scattering cross section can only be removed using targets with different sensitivities to these components. Scintillating bolometers, with particle discrimination capability, very good energy resolution and threshold and a wide choice of target materials, are an excellent tool for a multitarget complementary DM search. We investigate how the simultaneous use of scintillating targets with differen...
Use of a probing pulsed magnetic field for determining plasma parameters
Rousskikh, A. G.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Yushkov, G. Yu.
2016-11-01
A novel, simple, and readily usable method is proposed for measuring the electrical conductivity and temperature of a plasma. The method is based on the interaction of the test plasma with a pulsed magnetic field. The electric signals induced by the magnetic field in the circuits of two probes (miniature solenoids), one immersed in the test plasma and the other placed outside the plasma, provide data for estimating the plasma parameters. The method was verified experimentally by determining the parameters of the plasma flows generated in the cathode spots high-current pulsed vacuum arcs that were used to form cylindrical shells of bismuth Z-pinch plasma.
Determination of fundamental asteroseismic parameters using the Hilbert transform
Kiefer, René; Herzberg, Wiebke; Roth, Markus
2015-01-01
Context. Solar-like oscillations exhibit a regular pattern of frequencies. This pattern is dominated by the small and large frequency separations between modes. The accurate determination of these parameters is of great interest, because they give information about e.g. the evolutionary state and the mass of a star. Aims. We want to develop a robust method to determine the large and small frequency separations for time series with low signal-tonoise ratio. For this purpose, we analyse a time series of the Sun from the GOLF instrument aboard SOHO and a time series of the star KIC 5184732 from the NASA Kepler satellite by employing a combination of Fourier and Hilbert transform. Methods. We use the analytic signal of filtered stellar oscillation time series to compute the signal envelope. Spectral analysis of the signal envelope then reveals frequency differences of dominant modes in the periodogram of the stellar time series. Results. With the described method the large frequency separation $\\Delta\
Bechtle, P.; Desch, K.; Wienemann, P.
2006-01-01
framework, the SPheno spectrum calculator (included in the distribution). (SPheno may be replaced by any SUSY code which makes predictions for observables and communicates via the SLHA.) Nature of problem: Provided supersymmetry is realized in Nature, a wealth of data will become available at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). One of the most important tasks will be to extract the SUSY Lagrangian parameters from the measured observables. The large number of SUSY parameters and complicated correlations induced by loop corrections make the parameter determination difficult. Starting a global SUSY parameter fit initialized with tree-level estimates turned out to be an insufficient approach because the MINUIT fitting algorithm is likely to get stuck in local minima. Solution method: To overcome the encountered problems without using a priori knowledge, two strategies have been implemented in Fittino. The first one performs the fit in several steps (sub-sector fit method). It starts fitting certain sub-sets of parameters to certain sub-sets of observables and thereby slowly improves the parameter values. Finally the values are good enough to start a global SUSY parameter fit. The second approach uses simulated annealing to improve the tree-level estimates of the parameters to an extend where MINUIT succeeds to perform a global SUSY parameter fit. Restrictions: The current version of Fittino (version 1.1.1) assumes that there is no CP violation in the SUSY sector, no mixing between generations and no mixing within the first two generations. Running time: Depending on the complexity of the problem, the running time varies from a few minutes to several weeks.
GNSS TECHNOLOGY DETERMINATION OF FLYING MACHINE GUIDANCE PARAMETERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeriy Konin
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 An algorithm of calculating the guidance parameters for GNSS aircraft landing technology was considered. The simulation and evaluation of calculation parameters error were performed as well
Determination of Neutrino mixing parameters after SNO oscillation evidence
Aliani, P; Picariello, M; Ferrari, R; Torrente-Lujan, E
2003-01-01
An updated analysis of all available neutrino oscillation evidence in Solar experiments (SK day and night spectra, global rates from Homestake, SAGE and GALLEX) including the latest SNO CC and NC data is presented. Assuming that the shape of the SNO CC energy spectrum is undistorted and using the information provided by SNO we obtain, for the fraction of electron neutrinos remaining in the solar beam at energies $\\gsim 5$ MeV: $\\phi_{CC}/\\phi_{NC}=0.34^{+0.05}_{-0.04},$ which is nominally $\\sim 30\\sigma$ away from the standard value. The fraction of oscillating neutrinos which into active ones is computed to be: $ (\\Phi_{NC}-\\Phi_{CC})/(\\Phi_{SSM}-\\Phi_{CC})=0.92^{+0.39}_{-0.20} $ nearly $5\\sigma$ deviations from the pure sterile oscillation case. The data is still compatible with an important fraction of sterile component in the solar beam (up to 20% of the total). In the framework of two active neutrino oscillations we determine individual neutrino mixing parameters and their errors in the region of no spec...
High-order harmonic generation from Rydberg states at fixed Keldysh parameter
Bleda, E A; Altun, Z; Topcu, T
2013-01-01
Because the commonly adopted viewpoint that the Keldysh parameter $\\gamma $ determines the dynamical regime in strong field physics has long been demonstrated to be misleading, one can ask what happens as relevant physical parameters, such as laser intensity and frequency, are varied while $\\gamma$ is kept fixed. We present results from our one- and fully three-dimensional quantum simulations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from various bound states of hydrogen with $n$ up to 40, where the laser intensities and the frequencies are scaled from those for $n=1$ in order to maintain a fixed Keldysh parameter $\\gamma$$< 1$ for all $n$. We find that as we increase $n$ while keeping $\\gamma $ fixed, the position of the cut-off scales in well defined manner. Moreover, a secondary plateau forms with a new cut-off, splitting the HHG plateau into two regions. First of these sub-plateaus is composed of lower harmonics, and has a higher yield than the second one. The latter extends up to the semiclassical $I_p+...
Multi-parameter Optimization of a Thermoelectric Power Generator and Its Working Conditions
Zhang, T.
2016-09-01
The global optimal working conditions and optimal couple design for thermoelectric (TE) generators with realistic thermal coupling between the heat reservoirs and the TE couple were studied in the current work. The heat fluxes enforced by the heat reservoirs at the hot and the cold junctions of the TE couple were used in combination with parameter normalization to obtain a single cubic algebraic equation relating the temperature differences between the TE couple junctions and between the heat reservoirs, through the electric load resistance ratio, the reservoir thermal conductance ratio, the reservoir thermal conductance to the TE couple thermal conductance ratio, the Thomson to Seebeck coefficient ratio, and the figure of merit (Z) of the material based on the linear TE transport equations and their solutions. A broad reservoir thermal conductance ranging between 0.01 W/K and 100 W/K and TE element length ranging from 10-7 m to 10-3 m were explored to find the global optimal systems. The global optimal parameters related to the working conditions, i.e., reservoir thermal conductance ratio and electric load resistance ratio, and the optimal design parameter related to the TE couple were determined for a given TE material. These results demonstrated that the internal and external electric resistance, the thermal resistance between the reservoirs, the thermal resistance between the reservoir and the TE couple, and the optimal thermoelement length have to be well coordinated to obtain optimal power production.
The significance of biometric parameters in determining anterior teeth width
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Strajnić Ljiljana
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. An important element of prosthetic treatment of edentulous patients is selecting the size of anterior artificial teeth that will restore the natural harmony of one’s dentolabial structure as well as the whole face. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the inner canthal distance (ICD and interalar width (IAW on one side and the width of both central incisors (CIW, the width of central and lateral incisors (CLIW, the width of anterior teeth (ATW, the width between the canine cusps (CCW, which may be useful in clinical practice. Methods. A total of 89 subjects comprising 23 male and 66 female were studied. Their age ranged from 19 to 34 years with the mean of 25 years. Only the subjects with the preserved natural dentition were included in the sample. All facial and intraoral tooth measurements were made with a Boley Gauge (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn NY, USA having a resolution of 0.1mm. Results. A moderate correlation was established between the interalar width and combined width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.439, r = 0.374. A low correlation was established between the inner canthal distance and the width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.335, r = 0.303. The differences between the two genders were highly significant for all the parameters (p < 0.01. The measured facial distances and width of anterior teeth were higher in men than in women. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the examined interalar width and inner canthal distance cannot be considered reliable guidelines in the selection of artificial upper anterior teeth. However, they may be used as a useful additional factor combined with other methods for objective tooth selection. The final decision should be made while working on dentures fitting models with the patient’s consent.
BOD determination parameters; BOD. Da cinque giorni a cinque ore
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scarano, E.; Bottari, E.; Mantarro, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Pellegrini, G. E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Lab. di Micologia, Rome (Italy)
2001-06-01
An important parameter of those according the law, with regards waste waters and representing a required analytical determination according the national rules on the check of the good working of a depurator is the biological oxygen demand (BOD). The currently applied method is affected by several limitations. It has low accuracy and precision, is strongly depending on the sampling, is time wasting and its application and performance can present different and hard difficulties of execution. However, the result of the analysis cannot be obtained before of five days. By taking into account all these complications, an alternative method is here proposed. The proposed procedure is less manipulative, is more precise and is able to furnish the result within about 5 hours from the start of the chemical analysis. The proposed method was applied successful to sample of a cesspool water depurator and the good results will be shown in the text. [Italian] Uno dei parametri che deve essere valutato per legge nelle acque di scarico e che costituisce una irrinunciabile determinazione analitica per il controllo del buon funzionamento di un depuratore e' la richiesta biologica di ossigeno (BOD, biological oxygen demand). Il metodo generalmente adoperato risulta limitato da una scarsa accuratezza e precisione, e' fortemente dipendente dalle modalita' di prelievo dei campioni, e' laborioso e certamente e' estremamente lungo. Il risultato si puo' conoscere non prima di cinque giorni. Tenendo presente tutte queste limitazioni, viene proposto un metodo alternativo che, essendo meno manipolativo, con una precisione migliore riesce a dare una risposta nel giro di circa 5 ore dall'inizio dell'analisi. Il metodo e' stato applicato con successo alle acque di un depuratore di acque cloacali e se ne riportano i risultati.
Back-analysis for Determining the Rheological Parameter of Rock
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Wenhuan; Zhu Dayong
1994-01-01
In this paper,a new method of back analysis for determmning the parameters of rheological surrounding rock is proposed. This method is based on the elasticviscoelastic correspondence principle, and the theological parameters are back analyzed from the measured displacemenrs during construction of the tunnel.A numerical exampie proves that the proposed method is applicanle to engineering practice.
Flight Vehicle Attitude Determination Using the Modified Rodrigues Parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jizheng; Yuan Jianping; Fang Qun
2008-01-01
There are two attitude estimation algorithms based on the different representations of attitude errors when modified Rodrigues parameters are applied to attitude estimation. The first is multiplicative error attitude estimator (MEAE), whose attitude error is expressed by the modified Rodrigues parameters representing the rotation from the estimated to the true attitude. The second is subtractive error attitude estimator (SEAE), whose attitude error is expressed by the arithmetic difference between the true and the estimated attitudes. It is proved that the two algorithms are equivalent in the case of small attitude errors. It is possible to describe rotation without encountering singularity by switching between the modified Rodrigues parameters and their shadow parameters. The attitude parameter switching does not bring disturbance to MEAE, but it does to SEAE. This article introduces a modification to eliminate the disturbance on SEAE,and simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the presented algorithm.
Tempel, Elmo; Kipper, Rain; Tenjes, Peeter
2012-01-01
Is it realistic to recover the 3D structure of galaxies from their images? To answer this question, we generate a sample of idealised model galaxies consisting of a disc-like component and a spheroidal component (bulge) with varying luminosities, inclination angles and structural parameters, and component density following the Einasto distribution. We simulate these galaxies as if observed in the SDSS project through ugriz filters, thus gaining a set of images of galaxies with known intrinsic properties. We remodel the galaxies with a 3D galaxy modelling procedure and compare the restored parameters to the initial ones in order to determine the uncertainties of the models. Down to the r-band limiting magnitude 18, errors of the restored integral luminosities and colour indices remain within 0.05 mag and errors of the luminosities of individual components within 0.2 mag. Accuracy of the restored bulge-to-disc ratios (B/D) is within 40% in most cases, and becomes even worse for galaxies with low B/D due to diff...
Determining dynamical parameters of the Milky Way Galaxy based on high-accuracy radio astrometry
Honma, Mareki; Nagayama, Takumi; Sakai, Nobuyuki
2015-08-01
In this paper we evaluate how the dynamical structure of the Galaxy can be constrained by high-accuracy VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) astrometry such as VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). We generate simulated samples of maser sources which follow the gas motion caused by a spiral or bar potential, with their distribution similar to those currently observed with VERA and VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array). We apply the Markov chain Monte Carlo analyses to the simulated sample sources to determine the dynamical parameter of the models. We show that one can successfully determine the initial model parameters if astrometric results are obtained for a few hundred sources with currently achieved astrometric accuracy. If astrometric data are available from 500 sources, the expected accuracy of R0 and Θ0 is ˜ 1% or higher, and parameters related to the spiral structure can be constrained by an error of 10% or with higher accuracy. We also show that the parameter determination accuracy is basically independent of the locations of resonances such as corotation and/or inner/outer Lindblad resonances. We also discuss the possibility of model selection based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and demonstrate that BIC can be used to discriminate different dynamical models of the Galaxy.
Oh, Suk Yung; Bae, Young Chan
2010-07-15
The method presented in this paper was developed to predict liquid-liquid equilibria in ternary liquid mixtures by using a combination of a thermodynamic model and molecular dynamics simulations. In general, common classical thermodynamic models have many parameters which are determined by fitting a model with experimental data. This proposed method, however, provides a simple procedure for calculating liquid-liquid equilibria utilizing binary interaction parameters and molecular size parameters determined from molecular dynamics simulations. This method was applied to mixtures containing water, hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorides, ketones, acids, and other organic liquids over various temperature ranges. The predicted results agree well with the experimental data without the use of adjustable parameters.
Translating landfill methane generation parameters among first-order decay models.
Krause, Max J; Chickering, Giles W; Townsend, Timothy G
2016-11-01
Landfill gas (LFG) generation is predicted by a first-order decay (FOD) equation that incorporates two parameters: a methane generation potential (L0) and a methane generation rate (k). Because non-hazardous waste landfills may accept many types of waste streams, multiphase models have been developed in an attempt to more accurately predict methane generation from heterogeneous waste streams. The ability of a single-phase FOD model to predict methane generation using weighted-average methane generation parameters and tonnages translated from multiphase models was assessed in two exercises. In the first exercise, waste composition from four Danish landfills represented by low-biodegradable waste streams was modeled in the Afvalzorg Multiphase Model and methane generation was compared to the single-phase Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model and LandGEM. In the second exercise, waste composition represented by IPCC waste components was modeled in the multiphase IPCC and compared to single-phase LandGEM and Australia's Solid Waste Calculator (SWC). In both cases, weight-averaging of methane generation parameters from waste composition data in single-phase models was effective in predicting cumulative methane generation from -7% to +6% of the multiphase models. The results underscore the understanding that multiphase models will not necessarily improve LFG generation prediction because the uncertainty of the method rests largely within the input parameters. A unique method of calculating the methane generation rate constant by mass of anaerobically degradable carbon was presented (kc) and compared to existing methods, providing a better fit in 3 of 8 scenarios. Generally, single phase models with weighted-average inputs can accurately predict methane generation from multiple waste streams with varied characteristics; weighted averages should therefore be used instead of regional default values when comparing models. Translating multiphase first
Influence of design and mode parameters on pump performance curve of heat generating aggregate
Barykin, O.; Kovalyov, S.; Ovcharenko, M.; Papchenko, A.
2017-08-01
Classification of multi-functional heat generating aggregates according to the function is considered in this article. Analysis of operating process mathematical model was implemented and methods for its refinement were proposed. Results of physical investigation of heat generating aggregate design and mode parameters influence on its power and head were presented.
Determination of solubility parameters for poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates).
Terada, M; Marchessault, R H
1999-01-01
The three dimensional solubility parameters defined by Hansen are based on dispersion forces between structural units, interaction between polar groups and hydrogen bonding. For polar polymers such as poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), P(3HA), this approach was used to obtain the three coordinates of a solubility parameter in terms of: a dispersion part, a polar part and a hydrogen bonding part. Thirty-eight different solvents for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, which are mentioned in the literature are examined by this method and the theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental reports. Another overall comparison between PHA polymers provides their Hansen and Hildebrand parameters for side chain lengths up to C13. In this series a linear progression in calculated solubility parameters with side chain length was found. An Appendix provides information and data on calculation of the solubility parameters. While the solubility information is limited and only covers homopolymers, it should help to highlight some of the contradictions regarding PHB solubility. This semi-empirical approach is only valid for amorphous polymers hence crystallinity effects, which are important with PHB, as well as molecular weight effects still require analysis.
Correlation of Steam Generator Mixing Parameters for Severe Accident Hot-Leg Natural Circulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Yehong; Guentay, Salih [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI, CH-5232 (Switzerland)
2008-07-01
Steam generator inlet plenum mixing phenomenon with hot-leg counter-current natural circulation during a PWR station blackout severe accident is one of the important processes governing which component will fail first as a result of thermal challenge from the circulating gas with high temperature and pressure. Since steam generator tube failure represents bypass release of fission product from the reactor to environment, study of inlet plenum mixing parameters is important to risk analysis. Probability distribution functions of individual mixing parameter should be obtained from experiments or calculated by analysis. In order to perform sensitivity studies of the synergetic effects of all mixing parameters on the severe accident-induced steam generator tube failure, the distribution and correlation of these mixing parameters must be known to remove undue conservatism in thermal-hydraulic calculations. This paper discusses physical laws governing three mixing parameters in a steady state and setups the correlation among these mixing parameters. The correlation is then applied to obtain the distribution of one of the mixing parameters that has not been given in the previous CFD analysis. Using the distributions and considering the inter-dependence of the three mixing parameters, three sensitivity cases enveloping the mixing parameter uncertainties are recommended for the plant analysis. (authors)
Determining Frequentist Confidence Limits Using a Directed Parameter Space Search
Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Schneider, Jeff
2014-10-01
We consider the problem of inferring constraints on a high-dimensional parameter space with a computationally expensive likelihood function. We propose a machine learning algorithm that maps out the Frequentist confidence limit on parameter space by intelligently targeting likelihood evaluations so as to quickly and accurately characterize the likelihood surface in both low- and high-likelihood regions. We compare our algorithm to Bayesian credible limits derived by the well-tested Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm using both multi-modal toy likelihood functions and the seven yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmic microwave background likelihood function. We find that our algorithm correctly identifies the location, general size, and general shape of high-likelihood regions in parameter space while being more robust against multi-modality than MCMC.
Hierarchical parameter estimation of DFIG and drive train system in a wind turbine generator
Pan, Xueping; Ju, Ping; Wu, Feng; Jin, Yuqing
2017-09-01
A new hierarchical parameter estimation method for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and drive train system in a wind turbine generator (WTG) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the parameters of the DFIG and the drive train are estimated locally under different types of disturbances. Secondly, a coordination estimation method is further applied to identify the parameters of the DFIG and the drive train simultaneously with the purpose of attaining the global optimal estimation results. The main benefit of the proposed scheme is the improved estimation accuracy. Estimation results confirm the applicability of the proposed estimation technique.
Determination of a synchronous generator characteristics via Finite Element Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kolondzovski Zlatko
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper a determination of characteristics of a small salient pole synchronous generator (SG is presented. Machine characteristics are determined via Finite Element Analysis (FEA and for that purpose is used the software package FEMM Version 3.3. After performing their calculation and analysis, one can conclude that most of the characteristics presented in this paper can be obtained only by using the Finite Element Method (FEM.
A New Approach to Calculate Parameters of Induction Generator with Double Windings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chang-hong; YAO Ruo-ping
2005-01-01
The accuracy prediction for the performance of an induction generator depends much on the parameters of the equivalent circuit. This paper presented a new way for calculating these parameters of induction generator with double windings. The method is based on 2D time-dependent magnetic field coupled with electric circuit. An application example of a 12-phase self-excited induction generator (SEIG) was provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach. Some of the calculated results show good coincidence with the experiment values.
Determining Land-Surface Parameters from the ERS Wind Scatterometer
Woodhouse, I.H.; Hoekman, D.H.
2000-01-01
The ERS-1 wind scatterometer (WSC) has a resolution cell of about 50 km but provides a high repetition rate (less than four days) and makes measurements at multiple incidence angles. In order to retrieve quantitative geophysical parameters over land surfaces using this instrument, a method is presen
SDSS-II: Determination of shape and color parameter coefficients for SALT-II fit model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dojcsak, L.; Marriner, J.; /Fermilab
2010-08-01
In this study we look at the SALT-II model of Type IA supernova analysis, which determines the distance moduli based on the known absolute standard candle magnitude of the Type IA supernovae. We take a look at the determination of the shape and color parameter coefficients, {alpha} and {beta} respectively, in the SALT-II model with the intrinsic error that is determined from the data. Using the SNANA software package provided for the analysis of Type IA supernovae, we use a standard Monte Carlo simulation to generate data with known parameters to use as a tool for analyzing the trends in the model based on certain assumptions about the intrinsic error. In order to find the best standard candle model, we try to minimize the residuals on the Hubble diagram by calculating the correct shape and color parameter coefficients. We can estimate the magnitude of the intrinsic errors required to obtain results with {chi}{sup 2}/degree of freedom = 1. We can use the simulation to estimate the amount of color smearing as indicated by the data for our model. We find that the color smearing model works as a general estimate of the color smearing, and that we are able to use the RMS distribution in the variables as one method of estimating the correct intrinsic errors needed by the data to obtain the correct results for {alpha} and {beta}. We then apply the resultant intrinsic error matrix to the real data and show our results.
Plasmonic metagratings for simultaneous determination of Stokes parameters
Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I
2016-01-01
Measuring light's state of polarization is an inherently difficult problem, since the phase information between orthogonal polarization states is typically lost in the detection process. In this work, we bring to the fore the equivalence between normalized Stokes parameters and diffraction contrasts in appropriately designed phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces and introduce a concept of all-polarization birefringent metagratings. The metagrating, which consists of three interweaved metasurfaces, allows one to easily analyze an arbitrary state of light polarization by conducting simultaneous (i.e., parallel) measurements of the correspondent diffraction intensities that reveal immediately the Stokes parameters of the polarization state under examination. Based on plasmonic metasurfaces operating in reflection at the wavelength of 800 nm, we design and realize phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces and the correspondent metagrating, while experimental characterization of the fabricated components convinc...
On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Saptarshi Mandal
2013-09-01
Following the generalized definition of exclusion statistics to infinite-dimensional Hilbert space [Murthy and Shankar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3629 (1994)] for a single-component anyonic system, we derive a simple relation between second mixed virial coefficient and the mutual exclusion statistics parameters using high-temperature expansion method for multicomponent anyonic system. The above result is derived without working in a specific model and is valid in any spatial dimensions.
Determination of SDI parameters for single crystal AGS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aage, Helle Karina
1999-01-01
The responses for 1 and 4 AGS detectectors were compared. It was found that 1 detector reacts approximately as 25% of four detectors. Altitude and angle variations follow the same tendensies whether 1 or 4 detectors are used. Kerma rates equations were compared and discussed. Parameters for calcu...... for calculation of SDI air kerma rate (1 m) were calculated for HMS, KNO3 and 137Cs....
Determination of combustion parameters using engine crankshaft speed
Taglialatela, F.; Lavorgna, M.; Mancaruso, E.; Vaglieco, B. M.
2013-07-01
Electronic engine controls based on real time diagnosis of combustion process can significantly help in complying with the stricter and stricter regulations on pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The most important parameter for the evaluation of combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the in-cylinder pressure, but its direct measurement is very expensive and involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder. Previous researches demonstrated the direct relationship existing between in-cylinder pressure and engine crankshaft speed and several authors tried to reconstruct the pressure cycle on the basis of the engine speed signal. In this paper we propose the use of a Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network to model the relationship between the engine crankshaft speed and some parameters derived from the in-cylinder pressure cycle. This allows to have a non-intrusive estimation of cylinder pressure and a real time evaluation of combustion quality. The structure of the model and the training procedure is outlined in the paper. A possible combustion controller using the information extracted from the crankshaft speed information is also proposed. The application of the neural network model is demonstrated on a single-cylinder spark ignition engine tested in a wide range of speeds and loads. Results confirm that a good estimation of some combustion pressure parameters can be obtained by means of a suitable processing of crankshaft speed signal.
Character and temperamental determinants of prosodic parameters of natural speech
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silnitskaya, Anna S.
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find relationships between personality and temperamental traits (estimated with the help of the Adult Personality Traits Questionnaire by Manolova, Leonhard and the Russian version of the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ by Rusalov V. & Trofimova I. (2007 on the one hand, and parameters of intonation (mean ΔF0, tone span, speech rate, duration of speech and mean duration of syllables interval on the other hand. The parameters of intonation were measured on sample recordings produced by 30 male and female participants. 60 recordings of natural monologues on proposed topics were obtained in situations of the presence and absence of a conversation partner. Demostrativity (as a personality trait according to Leonhard’s typology was found to significantly affect mean ΔF0, tone span and speech rate in the presence of an interlocutor. Social Tempo (as a dimension of temperament according to Rusalov’s model affects the speech rate. In the absence of an interlocutor, only an interaction effect of Demonstrativity and Communication Activity on the same group of vocal parameters was obtained. The presence of an interlocutor proved to be a special condition for the most explicit appearance of Demonstrativity. Temperamental indices that describe the Communication realm seem to moderate the appearance of Demonstrativity in different conditions. Most explicitly, the key feature of people with strong Demonstrativity is a high speech rate.
A robust approach for the determination of Gurson model parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sepe
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Among the most promising models introduced in recent years, with which it is possible to obtain very useful results for a better understanding of the physical phenomena involved in the macroscopic mechanism of crack propagation, the one proposed by Gurson and Tvergaard links the propagation of a crack to the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids, which is likely to connect the micromechanical characteristics of the component under examination to crack initiation and propagation up to a macroscopic scale. It must be pointed out that, even if the statistical character of some of the many physical parameters involved in the said model has been put in evidence, no serious attempt has been made insofar to link the corresponding statistic to the experimental and macroscopic results, as for example crack initiation time, material toughness, residual strength of the cracked component (R-Curve, and so on. In this work, such an analysis was carried out in a twofold way: the former concerned the study of the influence exerted by each of the physical parameters on the material toughness, and the latter concerned the use of the Stochastic Design Improvement (SDI technique to perform a “robust” numerical calibration of the model evaluating the nominal values of the physical and correction parameters, which fit a particular experimental result even in the presence of their “natural” variability.
Determination of MSSM Parameters from LHC and ILCObservables in a Global Fit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bechtle, Philip; /SLAC; Desch, Klaus; /Freiburg U.; Porod, Werner; /Valencia U., IFIC /Zurich U.; Wienemann, Peter; /Freiburg U.
2005-12-02
We present the results of a realistic global fit of the Lagrangian parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model assuming universality for the first and second generation and real parameters. No assumptions on the SUSY breaking mechanism are made. The fit is performed using the precision of future mass measurements of superpartners at the LHC and mass and polarized topological cross-section measurements at the ILC. Higher order radiative corrections are accounted for wherever possible to date. Results are obtained for a modified SPS1a MSSM benchmark scenario but they were checked not to depend critically on this assumption. Exploiting a simulated annealing algorithm, a stable result is obtained without any a priori assumptions on the values of the fit parameters. Most of the Lagrangian parameters can be extracted at the percent level or better if theoretical uncertainties are neglected. Neither LHC nor ILC measurements alone will be sufficient to obtain a stable result. The effects of theoretical uncertainties arising from unknown higher-order corrections and parametric uncertainties are examined qualitatively. They appear to be relevant and the result motivates further precision calculations. The obtained parameters at the electroweak scale are used for a fit of the parameters at high energy scales within the bottom-up approach. In this way regularities at these scales are explored and the underlying model can be determined with hardly any theoretical bias. Fits of high-scale parameters to combined LHC+ILC measurements within the mSUGRA framework reveal that even tiny distortions in the low-energy mass spectrum already lead to unacceptable {chi}{sup 2} values. This does not hold for ''LHC only'' inputs.
Identification of Synchronous Generator Electric Parameters Connected to the Distribution Grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frolov M. Yu.
2017-04-01
Full Text Available According to modern trends, the power grids with distributed generation will have an open system architecture. It means that active consumers, owners of distributed power units, including mobile units, must have free access to the grid, like when using internet, so it is necessary to have plug and play technologies. Thanks to them, the system will be able to identify the unit type and the unit parameters. Therefore, the main aim of research, described in the paper, was to develop and research a new method of electric parameters identification of synchronous generator. The main feature of the proposed method is that parameter identification is performed while the generator to the grid, so it fits in the technological process of operation of the machine and does not influence on the connection time of the machine. For the implementation of the method, it is not necessary to create dangerous operation modes for the machine or to have additional expensive equipment and it can be used for salient pole machines and round rotor machines. The parameter identification accuracy can be achieved by more accurate account of electromechanical transient process, and making of overdetermined system with many more numbers of equations. Parameter identification will be made with each generator connection to the grid. Comparing data obtained from each connection, the middle values can be find by numerical method, and thus, each subsequent identification will accurate the machine parameters.
Determining the local origin of hydroxyl radical generation during phacoemulsification.
Aust, Steven D; Terry, Scott; Hebdon, Thomas; Gunderson, Broc; Terry, Michael; Dimalanta, Ramon
2011-06-01
To determine the local origin of hydroxyl radicals during phacoemulsification using an ultrasonic phacoemulsification device that includes longitudinal and torsional modalities. Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Experiments were conducted using the Infiniti Vision System and Ozil handpiece. Hydroxyl radical concentrations during longitudinal and torsional phacoemulsification were quantitated as malondialdehyde (MDA) determined spectrophotometrically using the deoxyribose assay. The difference between the total concentration found in the aspirated solution at steady-state concentrations and the pre-aspirate levels deductively determined the concentration of MDA formed along the interior of the sonicating tip. The time to reach 50% of steady state as a function of reaction vessel volume was determined. The mean maximum for torsional ultrasound at 100% amplitude was 7.70 nM ± 0.38 (SD), 91.1% of which was generated outside the tip. During longitudinal ultrasound at 100% power, MDA concentration in the aspirated solution was 29.5 ± 0.3 nM, 71.6% of which was generated outside the tip. The time (seconds) to reach 50% of maximum for longitudinal ultrasound using 5 mL, 10 mL, and 20 mL reaction vessels was 12.6 ± 1.5, 21.0 ± 1.5, and 25.3 ± 3.4, respectively. Although a significantly greater proportion of the hydroxyl radicals generated during ultrasound modality were formed outside the phaco tip (91.1% torsional; 71.6% longitudinal), torsional ultrasound generated only about one-fourth the amount of MDA as longitudinal ultrasound in total and about one-third that generated outside the tip (7.02 nM versus 21.1 nM). No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Additional disclosures are found in the footnotes. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Experimental studies of parameters affecting the heat generation in friction stir welding process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mijajlović Miroslav M.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Heat generation is a complex process of transformation of a specific type of energy into heat. During friction stir welding, one part of mechanical energy delivered to the welding tool is consumed in the welding process, another is used for deformational processes etc., and the rest of the energy is transformed into heat. The analytical procedure for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding is very complex because it includes a significant number of variables and parameters, and many of them cannot be fully mathematically explained. Because of that, the analytical model for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding defines variables and parameters that dominantly affect heat generation. These parameters are numerous and some of them, e. g. loads, friction coefficient, torque, temperature, are estimated experimentally. Due to the complex geometry of the friction stir welding process and requirements of the measuring equipment, adequate measuring configurations and specific constructional solutions that provide adequate measuring positions are necessary. This paper gives an overview of the process of heat generation during friction stir welding, the most influencing parameters on heat generation, constructional solutions for the measuring equipment needed for these experimental researches and examples of measured values.
Direct Determination of Hubble Parameter Using Type IIn Supernovae
Blinnikov, Sergei; Baklanov, Petr; Dolgov, Alexander
2012-01-01
We introduce a novel approach, a Dense Shell Method (DSM), for measuring distances for cosmology. It is based on original Baade idea to relate absolute difference of photospheric radii with photospheric velocity. We demonstrate that this idea works: the new method does not rely on the Cosmic Distance Ladder and gives satisfactory results for the most luminous Type IIn Supernovae. This allows one to make them good primary distance indicators for cosmology. Fixing correction factors for illustration, we obtain with this method the median distance of 68^{+19}_{-15} (68%CL) Mpc to SN 2006gy and median Hubble parameter 79^{+23}_{-17} (68%CL) km/s/Mpc.
The determination of space parameters of the heliostatic collector field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dušan Kudelas
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The assurance of perpetual perpendicular insolation of solar collector absorber surface may increase the insolation energy byca 42-45 %.. A consequence of theincrease in the energy production may be the reduction of the solar collectors’ surface area. For the large scale solar collector field conception is advantageous to build collector sections with several collectors in one heliostat. For the conception of the solar collector field with heliostat collectors is important to make a regular identification of space parameters of all parts of the solar system field. The placement of the heliostats is a basic condition for the optimal insolation conditions of heliostat solar collectors’ field.
Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)
1998-06-01
This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs
Determining $H_0$ with Bayesian hyper-parameters
Cardona, Wilmar; Pettorino, Valeria
2016-01-01
We re-analyse recent Cepheid data to estimate the Hubble parameter $H_0$ by using Bayesian hyper-parameters (HPs). We consider the two data sets from Riess et al 2011 and 2016 (labelled R11 and R16, with R11 containing less than half the data of R16) and include the available anchor distances (megamaser system NGC4258, detached eclipsing binary distances to LMC and M31, and MW Cepheids with parallaxes), use a weak metallicity prior and no period cut for Cepheids. We find that part of the R11 data is down-weighted by the HPs but that R16 is mostly consistent with expectations for a Gaussian distribution, meaning that there is no need to down-weight the R16 data set. For R16, we find a value of $H_0 = 73.75 \\pm 2.11 \\, \\mathrm{km} \\, \\mathrm{s}^{-1} \\, \\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ if we use HPs for all data points, which is about 2.6 $\\sigma$ larger than the Planck 2015 value of $H_0 = 67.81 \\pm 0.92 \\,\\mathrm{km}\\, \\mathrm{s}^{-1} \\, \\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ and about 3.1 $\\sigma$ larger than the updated Planck 2016 value $66...
Determination of reliability parameters of radioelectronic devices determined by thermal modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Nikitchuk
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The reliability is important (and sometimes crucial functional characteristic for RED. So it is necessary to analyze the impact on them of destabilizing external factors - mechanical, temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation. Structural-design elements RED. SCM are the main objects for which you first need to determine the temperature of the ЕЕS and performance reliability. Determination of the temperature of the EES cells and microassemblies. The basic mathematical models are presented to determine the temperatures of the electronic structure elements of cells and microassemblies. Indicators of HEE reliability as a function of their temperature. The value of the operational failure rate of most groups RED calculated by mathematical models. These indicators include: basic failure rate, the rate regime, the coefficients that take into account changes in operational failure rate depending on various factors. Software definition of reliability parameters. The software product allows you to switch from "manual" calculation reliability REDs to a fully automated modeling components. The program is applicable for calculating the reliability and to find a more "sustainable" elements to increase the probability of failure-free operation. Conclusions. Primary tasks performed in the work are listed
The determination of the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of virtual camera based on OpenGL
Li, Suqi; Zhang, Guangjun; Wei, Zhenzhong
2006-11-01
OpenGL is the international standard of 3D image. The 3D image generation by OpenGL is similar to the shoot by camera. This paper focuses on the application of OpenGL to computer vision, the OpenGL 3D image is regarded as virtual camera image. Firstly, the imaging mechanism of OpenGL has been analyzed in view of perspective projection transformation of computer vision camera. Then, the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of camera and function parameters in OpenGL has been analysed, the transformation formulas have been deduced. Thereout the computer vision simulation has been realized. According to the comparison between the actual CCD camera images and virtual camera images(the parameters of actual camera are the same as virtual camera's) and the experiment results of stereo vision 3D reconstruction simulation, the effectiveness of the method with which the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of virtual camera based on OpenGL are determined has been verified.
Determination of nuclear tracks parameters on sequentially etched PADC detectors
Horwacik, Tomasz; Bilski, Pawel; Koerner, Christine; Facius, Rainer; Berger, Thomas; Nowak, Tomasz; Reitz, Guenther; Olko, Pawel
Polyallyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detectors find many applications in radiation protection. One of them is the cosmic radiation dosimetry, where PADC detectors measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles (from protons to heavy ions), supplementing TLD detectors in the role of passive dosemeter. Calibration exposures to ions of known LET are required to establish a relation between parameters of track observed on the detector and LET of particle creating this track. PADC TASTRAK nuclear track detectors were exposed to 12 C and 56 Fe ions of LET in H2 O between 10 and 544 keV/µm. The exposures took place at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan in the frame of the HIMAC research project "Space Radiation Dosimetry-Ground Based Verification of the MATROSHKA Facility" (20P-240). Detectors were etched in water solution of NaOH with three different temperatures and for various etching times to observe the appearance of etched tracks, the evolution of their parameters and the stability of the etching process. The applied etching times (and the solution's concentrations and temperatures) were: 48, 72, 96, 120 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 50 O C), 20, 40, 60, 80 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 60 O C) and 8, 12, 16, 20 hours (7N NaOH, 70 O C). The analysis of the detectors involved planimetric (2D) measurements of tracks' entrance ellipses and mechanical measurements of bulk layer thickness. Further track parameters, like angle of incidence, track length and etch rate ratio were then calculated. For certain tracks, results of planimetric measurements and calculations were also compared with results of optical track profile (3D) measurements, where not only the track's entrance ellipse but also the location of the track's tip could be directly measured. All these measurements have been performed with the 2D/3D measurement system at DLR. The collected data allow to create sets of V(LET in H2 O) calibration curves suitable for short, intermediate and
Verifying asteroseismically determined parameters of Kepler stars using Hipparcos parallaxes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aguirre, Victor Silva; Chaplin, W.J.; Bedding, T.R.;
2012-01-01
Accurately determining the properties of stars is of prime importance for characterizing stellar populations in our Galaxy. The field of asteroseismology has been thought to be particularly successful in such an endeavor for stars in different evolutionary stages. However, to fully exploit its po...
Parameters determination and bolting control of gateway floor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GOU Pan-feng; XlN Ya-jun
2011-01-01
Gateway floor heave control is the key to guarantee mine safe and efficient production.Through analysis of floor instability characteristics and bolting control,gateway floor strata show second level stress under abutment pressure,which causes plastic flow failure in floor strata; gateway floor instability shows mainly shear-break slippage of “triangle sliding body”.Mechanics of floor bolting is mainly a function of connection and combination.Main area of bolting control lies in two gateway floor angles.The paper analyzes mechanics principle of gateway floor instability,constructs stability mechanics model of gateway floor bolting,obtains gateway floor stability criterion of different bolting angles and optimum formula of bolting parameters,carries out the engineering example,and guides better field application.It provides theoretical base for bolting gateway floor instability control.
Determining H0 with Bayesian hyper-parameters
Cardona, Wilmar; Kunz, Martin; Pettorino, Valeria
2017-03-01
We re-analyse recent Cepheid data to estimate the Hubble parameter H0 by using Bayesian hyper-parameters (HPs). We consider the two data sets from Riess et al. 2011 and 2016 (labelled R11 and R16, with R11 containing less than half the data of R16) and include the available anchor distances (megamaser system NGC4258, detached eclipsing binary distances to LMC and M31, and MW Cepheids with parallaxes), use a weak metallicity prior and no period cut for Cepheids. We find that part of the R11 data is down-weighted by the HPs but that R16 is mostly consistent with expectations for a Gaussian distribution, meaning that there is no need to down-weight the R16 data set. For R16, we find a value of H0 = 73.75 ± 2.11 km s-1 Mpc-1 if we use HPs for all data points (including Cepheid stars, supernovae type Ia, and the available anchor distances), which is about 2.6 σ larger than the Planck 2015 value of H0 = 67.81 ± 0.92 km s-1 Mpc-1 and about 3.1 σ larger than the updated Planck 2016 value 66.93 ± 0.62 km s-1 Mpc-1. If we perfom a standard χ2 analysis as in R16, we find H0 = 73.46 ± 1.40 (stat) km s-1 Mpc-1. We test the effect of different assumptions, and find that the choice of anchor distances affects the final value significantly. If we exclude the Milky Way from the anchors, then the value of H0 decreases. We find however no evident reason to exclude the MW data. The HP method used here avoids subjective rejection criteria for outliers and offers a way to test datasets for unknown systematics.
Analysis of Effect of Heat Pipe Parameters in Minimising the Entropy Generation Rate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakesh Hari
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Heat transfer and fluid flow in the heat pipe system result in thermodynamic irreversibility generating entropy. The minimum entropy generation principle can be used for optimum design of flat heat pipe. The objective of the present work is to minimise the total entropy generation rate as the objective function with different parameters of the flat heat pipe subjected to some constraints. These constraints constitute the limitations on the heat transport capacity of the heat pipe. This physical nonlinear programming problem with nonlinear constraints is solved using LINGO 15.0 software, which enables finding optimum values for the independent design variables for which entropy generation is minimum. The effect of heat load, length, and sink temperature on design variables and corresponding entropy generation is studied. The second law analysis using minimum entropy generation principle is found to be effective in designing performance enhanced heat pipe.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galvez-Carrillo, Manuel; Kinnaert, Michel [Dept. of Control Engineering and System Analysis, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, CP 165/55, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2011-05-15
A fault detection and isolation (FDI) system for monitoring rotor current sensors in a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) for wind turbine applications is presented. The FDI system is designed so that the effect of parameter variations (resistances and inductances) is minimized. The residual generation is based on the generalized observer scheme (GOS) including parameter estimation. A decision system made of a combination of vector CUSUM (Cumulative sum) algorithms is used to process the residual vector and to achieve detection and isolation of incipient (small magnitude) faults. The approach is validated using signals obtained from a simulated vector-controlled DFIG. (author)
Determination of welding spark parameters for cyclone efficiency calculation (rus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kitain M.B.
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Importance of the current work is explained by the problem of air purification in the field of breath of the worker and prevention of the fire and the explosion. To solve this problem the authors offer to use Reverse-flow cyclone as precleaner with spark extinguishing option. In case if the dust includes sparks it is very important to insure that the particles with the sparks will be totally collected in the cyclone, so the collection efficiency for such particles will be 100% in the cyclone. For the estimation of the efficiency of gas purification from the dust particles in the cyclones dust particles features should be determinate, that can be done with the satisfactory accuracy only by physical modeling results. The amount of physical experiments was made by the authors. The methods of determination of the geometric diameter and hydraulic size of the particle consisting sparks were offered. The experimental researches showed that the accuracy of using the geometric diameter of such particle is not enough, because the hydrodynamic characteristics of the particles (such as weight, effective diameter, the way of interaction with the environment can be change in the case of moving. At the same time< hydraulic size, determined in the second part of the experiment, consider all these factors and can be used for the estimation of the cyclone efficiency based on the model of turbulent diffusion with the limited velocity.
Internal photoemission in molecular junctions: parameters for interfacial barrier determinations.
Fereiro, Jerry A; Kondratenko, Mykola; Bergren, Adam Johan; McCreery, Richard L
2015-01-28
The photocurrent spectra for large-area molecular junctions are reported, where partially transparent copper top contacts permit illumination by UV-vis light. The effect of variation of the molecular structure and thickness are discussed. Internal photoemission (IPE), a process involving optical excitation of hot carriers in the contacts followed by transport across internal system barriers, is dominant when the molecular component does not absorb light. The IPE spectrum contains information regarding energy level alignment within a complete, working molecular junction, with the photocurrent sign indicating transport through either the occupied or unoccupied molecular orbitals. At photon energies where the molecular layer absorbs, a secondary phenomenon is operative in addition to IPE. In order to distinguish IPE from this secondary mechanism, we show the effect of the source intensity as well as the thickness of the molecular layer on the observed photocurrent. Our results clearly show that the IPE mechanism can be differentiated from the secondary mechanism by the effects of variation of experimental parameters. We conclude that IPE can provide valuable information regarding interfacial energetics in intact, working molecular junctions, including clear discrimination of charge transport mediated by electrons through unoccupied system orbitals from that mediated by hole transport through occupied system orbitals.
Determination and adjustment of drying parameters of Tunisian ceramic bodies
Mahmoudi, Salah; Bennour, Ali; Srasra, Ezzeddine; Zargouni, Fouad
2016-12-01
This work deals with the mineralogical, physico-chemical and geotechnical analyses of representative Aptian clays in the north-east of Tunisia. X-ray diffraction reveals a predominance of illite (50-60 wt%) associated with kaolinite and interstratified illite/smectite. The accessory minerals detected in raw materials are quartz, calcite and Na-feldspar. The average amounts of silica, alumina and alkalis are 52, 20 and 3.5 wt%, respectively. The contents of lime and iron vary between 4 and 8 wt %. The plasticity test shows medium values of plasticity index (16-28 wt%). The linear drying shrinkage is weak (less than 0.99 wt%) which makes these clays suitable for fast drying. The firing shrinkage and expansion are limited. A lower firing and drying temperature allow significant energy savings. Currently, these clays are used in the industry for manufacturing earthenware tiles. For the optimum exploitation of the clay materials and improvement of production conditions, a mathematical formulationis established for the drying parameters. These models predict drying shrinkage (d), bending strength after drying (b) and residual moisture (r) from initial moisture (m) and pressing pressure (p).
Determining tumor blood flow parameters from dynamic image measurements
Libertini, Jessica M.
2008-11-01
Many recent cancer treatments focus on preventing angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor promotes the growth of large and efficient capillary beds for the increased nourishment required to support the tumor's rapid growth[l]. To measure the efficacy of these treatments in a timely fashion, there is an interest in using data from dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced medical imaging, such as MRI and CT, to measure blood flow parameters such as perfusion, permeability-surface-area product, and the relative volumes of the plasma and extracellular-extravascular space. Starting with a two compartment model presented by the radiology community[2], this work challenges the application of a simplification to this problem, which was originally developed to model capillary reuptake[3]. While the primary result of this work is the demonstration of the inaccuracy of this simplification, the remainder of the paper is dedicated to presenting alternative methods for calculating the perfusion and plasma volume coefficients. These methods are applied to model data sets based on real patient data, and preliminary results are presented.
Determining tumor blood flow parameters from dynamic image measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Libertini, Jessica M [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02906 (United States)], E-mail: Jessica_Libertini@brown.edu
2008-11-01
Many recent cancer treatments focus on preventing angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor promotes the growth of large and efficient capillary beds for the increased nourishment required to support the tumor's rapid growth. To measure the efficacy of these treatments in a timely fashion, there is an interest in using data from dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced medical imaging, such as MRI and CT, to measure blood flow parameters such as perfusion, permeability-surface-area product, and the relative volumes of the plasma and extracellular-extravascular space. Starting with a two compartment model presented by the radiology community, this work challenges the application of a simplification to this problem, which was originally developed to model capillary reuptake. While the primary result of this work is the demonstration of the inaccuracy of this simplification, the remainder of the paper is dedicated to presenting alternative methods for calculating the perfusion and plasma volume coefficients. These methods are applied to model data sets based on real patient data, and preliminary results are presented.
Method for experimental determination of flutter speed by parameter identification
Nissim, E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.
1989-01-01
A method for flight flutter testing is proposed which enables one to determine the flutter dynamic pressure from flights flown far below the flutter dynamic pressure. The method is based on the identification of the coefficients of the equations of motion at low dynamic pressures, followed by the solution of these equations to compute the flutter dynamic pressure. The initial results of simulated data reported in the present work indicate that the method can accurately predict the flutter dynamic pressure, as described. If no insurmountable difficulties arise in the implementation of this method, it may significantly improve the procedures for flight flutter testing.
Precise determination of refractometric parameters for anesthetic agent vapors.
Allison, J M; Birch, K P; Crowder, J G
1994-05-01
The absolute refractive indices of the anesthetic agent vapors isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, halothane, and desflurane are determined to a typical uncertainty of 1 part in 10(7) over the respective temperature and pressure ranges of 15-40 °C and 5-45% of their saturated vapor pressures at wavelengths of 632.99, 594.10, and 543.52 nm. The specific refraction, second virial coefficients, and dispersion constants are also derived for each agent, from which an equation for the calculation of agent refractivity is established that is in agreement with the measured data to within 2 × 10(-8).
Determination of the Critical Parameters for Remote Microscope Control
Hahn, R. C.; Herbach, B. A.; Johnston, J. C.; Bethea, M.
1991-01-01
As part of a program to determine the capabilities of Telescience as applied to Microgravity Materials Science the need for a remotely controlled microscope was recognized. For this purpose we equipped a microscope with an X-Y-Z positioning device and motors on the zoom and focus controls. Computer control of these devices allowed remote operation. A standard TV camera was mounted to the computer controlled video board which could compress the image in resolution and grey scale. The operator control console was programmed to display three still video pictures as well as provide command access. A standard data transfer network was used to transmit the video data files and the command interaction was via a high speed phone modem. This system, with the microscope in the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at LeRC and the control at RPI, was used to determine the accuracy of setting, time required to achieve setting and the operator ease factor. It was found that the focus setting could be established well within the resolution limit of the TV system and that each motion took about 50 seconds and approximately 12 minutes was required to reach ?best? focus. These times could be reduced significantly with operator experience. The operators were provided with ancillary equipment which provided assistance in making the necessary decisions and they reported satisfaction with the control.
Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters
Wiberg, P.L.; Sherwood, C.R.
2008-01-01
Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the 'effective' forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics
DeSmitt, Holly J; Domire, Zachary J
2016-12-01
Biomechanical models are sensitive to the choice of model parameters. Therefore, determination of accurate subject specific model parameters is important. One approach to generate these parameters is to optimize the values such that the model output will match experimentally measured strength curves. This approach is attractive as it is inexpensive and should provide an excellent match to experimentally measured strength. However, given the problem of muscle redundancy, it is not clear that this approach generates accurate individual muscle forces. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate this approach using simulated data to enable a direct comparison. It is hypothesized that the optimization approach will be able to recreate accurate muscle model parameters when information from measurable parameters is given. A model of isometric knee extension was developed to simulate a strength curve across a range of knee angles. In order to realistically recreate experimentally measured strength, random noise was added to the modeled strength. Parameters were solved for using a genetic search algorithm. When noise was added to the measurements the strength curve was reasonably recreated. However, the individual muscle model parameters and force curves were far less accurate. Based upon this examination, it is clear that very different sets of model parameters can recreate similar strength curves. Therefore, experimental variation in strength measurements has a significant influence on the results. Given the difficulty in accurately recreating individual muscle parameters, it may be more appropriate to perform simulations with lumped actuators representing similar muscles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrison, J.L.
1992-12-01
The objective of this research is to develop a simple, yet accurate, lumped parameter mathematical model for an explosively driven magnetohydrodynamic generator that can predict the pulse power variables of voltage and current from startup through regenerative operation. The inputs to the model will be the plasma properties entering the generator as predicted by the explosive shock model of Reference [1]. The strategy used was to simplify electromagnetic and thermodynamic three dimensional effects into a zero dimensional model. The model will provide a convenient tool for researchers to optimize designs to be used in pulse power applications. The model is validated using experimental data of Reference [1]. An overview of the operation of the explosively driven generator is first presented. Then a simplified electrical circuit model that describes basic performance of the device is developed. Then a lumped parameter model that incorporates the coupled electromagnetic and thermodynamic effects that govern generator performance is described and developed. The model is based on fundamental physical principles and parameters that were either obtained directly from design data or estimated from experimental data. The model was used to obtain parameter sensitivities and predict beyond the limits observed in the experiments to the levels desired by the potential Department of Defense sponsors. The model identifies process limitations that provide direction for future research.
Borcuch, M.; Musiał, M.; Gumuła, S.; Wojciechowski, K. T.
2016-09-01
The paper presents results of preliminary studies of thermoelectric generator (TEG) dedicated for waste heat harvesting from flue gases. Investigation includes numerical analysis for estimating power losses due to pressure drop in the installation with the TEG and experimental tests for obtaining electrical parameters and operation conditions, such as casing temperatures and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet. Proposed prototype has been equipped with the pin fins for increase the heat transfer. Results indicates that power losses are negligible in comparison with generated electrical power. The heat exchanger's interior demands to be modified to enhance the efficiency by increasing temperatures on the external surfaces of the hot-side heat exchanger (HHX). Further research will focus on numerical analysis of the influence of geometry modifications on the thermal and flow parameters of the TEG resulting in the increase of generated power and efficiency.
Determination of Stress-Rupture Parameters for Four Heat-Resisting Alloys
Lidman, William G.
1947-01-01
Stress-rupture data for four heat-resisting alloys are analyzed according to equations of the theory of rate processes. A method for determining the four parameters of structure and composition is demonstrated and the four parameters are determined for each of the alloys: forged S816, cast S816, cast S590, and cast Vitallium. It is concluded that parameters can be determined for an alloy provided sufficient reliable experimental data are available.
Determination of shear parameters of concrete filled head-straight masonry brick walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Amiraslanzadeh
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of present study was determination of shear parameters of reinforced and unreinforced masonry brick walls assembled with Head-straight texture order. Experimental tests carried out on triplets in order to define shear parameters of brick mortar interface, and diagonal compression test in order to define shear strength of masonry panels. According to various interpretations on evaluation of shear strength using diagonal compression test, comparison between mentioned values and those obtained by laboratory tests on shear triplets are presented. The results showed that, although the generated internal columns have not been tied together on top and bottom sides, they contributed to a significant improvement on shear resistance of the masonry panels. Referring to the interpretations on test outcomes, it was perceived that the formula which was obtained by adopting the Turnašek- Cacovic criterion is the most suitable and reliable one. It was concluded that filling the voids of Head-straight texture masonry walls using steel fiber concrete, significantly increase these walls shear parameters.
Determination of the criticality parameters in heterogeneous Slab by the LTS{sub N} method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, Volnei [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Derivi, Alexandre Guimaraes [Universidade Regional Integrada (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)
2001-07-01
The goal of this work consists in the use of the LTS{sub N} method in criticality problems. This method consists basically in the application of the Laplace Transform to a system of ordinary differential equations generated by the SN approach, resulting in a system of symbolic algebraic equations dependent on the complex parameters. After solving the algebraic system by means of the Schurr and diagonalization methods, the angular fluxes are obtained performing the inverse Laplace transform, which is carried out using the Heaviside formula. This methodology is used in determination of K{sub eff}, critical thickness and the atomic density for a heterogeneous planar slab. This procedure leads the solution of eigenvalue problem to the solution of a transcendental equation. Numerical results are reported. (author)
Griesbaum, Luisa; Marx, Sabrina; Höfle, Bernhard
2017-07-01
In recent years, the number of people affected by flooding caused by extreme weather events has increased considerably. In order to provide support in disaster recovery or to develop mitigation plans, accurate flood information is necessary. Particularly pluvial urban floods, characterized by high temporal and spatial variations, are not well documented. This study proposes a new, low-cost approach to determining local flood elevation and inundation depth of buildings based on user-generated flood images. It first applies close-range digital photogrammetry to generate a geo-referenced 3-D point cloud. Second, based on estimated camera orientation parameters, the flood level captured in a single flood image is mapped to the previously derived point cloud. The local flood elevation and the building inundation depth can then be derived automatically from the point cloud. The proposed method is carried out once for each of 66 different flood images showing the same building façade. An overall accuracy of 0.05 m with an uncertainty of ±0.13 m for the derived flood elevation within the area of interest as well as an accuracy of 0.13 m ± 0.10 m for the determined building inundation depth is achieved. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide reliable flood information on a local scale using user-generated flood images as input. The approach can thus allow inundation depth maps to be derived even in complex urban environments with relatively high accuracies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, Annette; Strezov, Vladimir; Evans, Tim
2010-09-15
The sustainability parameters of electricity generation have been assessed by the application of eight key indicators. Photovoltaics, wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass, natural gas, coal and nuclear power have been assessed according to their price, greenhouse gas emissions, efficiency, land use, water use, availability, limitations and social impacts on a per kilowatt hour basis. The relevance of this information to the Australian context is discussed. Also included are the results of a survey on Australian opinions regarding electricity generation, which found that Australian prefer solar electricity above any other method, however coal, biomass and nuclear power have low acceptance.
Creating and Exploring Huge Parameter Spaces: Interactive Evolution as a Tool for Sound Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlstedt, Palle
2001-01-01
of huge synthesis parameter spaces, and presents a possibility for the sound artist to create new sound engines customized for this kind of creation and exploration – sound engines too complex to control in any other way. Different sound engines are presented, together with a discussion of compositional......In this paper, a program is presented that applies interactive evolution to sound generation, i.e., preferred individuals are repeatedly selected from a population of genetically bred sound objects, created with various synthesis and pattern generation algorithms. This simplifies aural exploration...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2015-01-01
to generate optimized cellular scanning strategies and processing parameters, with an objective of reducing thermal asymmetries and mechanical deformations. The optimized scanning strategies are used for selective laser melting of the standard samples, and experimental and numerical results are compared....... gradients that occur during the process. While process monitoring and control of selective laser melting is an active area of research, establishing the reliability and robustness of the process still remains a challenge.In this paper, a methodology for generating reliable, optimized scanning paths...
Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Scheerlinck, Nico; Nicolaï, Bart M.
2009-01-01
When modelling the behaviour of horticultural products, demonstrating large sources of biological variation, we often run into the issue of non-Gaussian distributed model parameters. This work presents an algorithm to reproduce such correlated non-Gaussian model parameters for use with Monte Carlo simulations. The algorithm works around the problem of non-Gaussian distributions by transforming the observed non-Gaussian probability distributions using a proposed SKN-distribution function before applying the covariance decomposition algorithm to generate Gaussian random co-varying parameter sets. The proposed SKN-distribution function is based on the standard Gaussian distribution function and can exhibit different degrees of both skewness and kurtosis. This technique is demonstrated using a case study on modelling the ripening of tomato fruit evaluating the propagation of biological variation with time.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molenat, N.; Astruc, A.; Holeman, M.; Pinel, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bioinorganique et Environnement, Dept. de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 64 - Pau (France); Maury, G. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Dept. de Chimie Organique Fine
1999-11-01
Analytical parameters of hydride generation, trapping, gas chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry detection in a quartz cell furnace (HG/GC/QFAAS) device have been optimized in order to develop an efficient and sensitive method for arsenic compounds speciation. Good performances were obtained with absolute detection limits in the range of 0.1 - 0.5 ng for arsenite, arsenate, mono-methyl-arsonic acid (MMAA), dimethyl-arsinic acid (DMAA) and trimethyl-arsine oxide (TMAO). A pH selective reduction for inorganic arsenic speciation was successfully reported. Application to the accurate determination of arsenic compounds in different environmental samples was performed. (authors)
Determining the Errors in Output Kinematic Parameters of Planar Mechanisms with a Complex Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trzaska W.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The study is focused on determining the errors in output kinematic parameters (position, velocity, acceleration, jerk of entire links or their selected points in complex planar mechanisms. The number of DOFs of the kinematic system is assumed to be equal to the number of drives and the rigid links are assumed to be connected by ideal, clearance-free geometric constraints. Input data include basic parameters of the mechanism with the involved errors as well as kinematic parameters of driving links and the involved errors. Output errors in kinematic parameters are determined basing on the linear theory of errors.
Determination of best-fit potential parameters for a reactive force field using a genetic algorithm.
Pahari, Poonam; Chaturvedi, Shashank
2012-03-01
The ReaxFF interatomic potential, used for organic materials, involves more than 600 adjustable parameters, the best-fit values of which must be determined for different materials. A new method of determining the set of best-fit parameters for specific molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen is presented, based on a parameter reduction technique followed by genetic algorithm (GA) minimization. This work has two novel features. The first is the use of a parameter reduction technique to determine which subset of parameters plays a significant role for the species of interest; this is necessary to reduce the optimization space to manageable levels. The second is the application of the GA technique to a complex potential (ReaxFF) with a very large number of adjustable parameters, which implies a large parameter space for optimization. In this work, GA has been used to optimize the parameter set to determine best-fit parameters that can reproduce molecular properties to within a given accuracy. As a test problem, the use of the algorithm has been demonstrated for nitromethane and its decomposition products.
Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking
Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.
2012-06-01
Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.
Parameter Sensitivity of High–Order Equivalent Circuit Models Of Turbine Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Niewierowicz–Swiecicka
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This work shows the results of a parametric sensitivity analysis applied to a state–space representation of high–order two–axis equivalent circuits (ECs of a turbo generator (150 MVA, 120 MW, 13.8 kV y 50 Hz. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate each parameter impact on the transient response of the analyzed two–axis models –d–axis ECs with one to five damper branches and q–axis ECs from one to four damper branches–. The parametric sensitivity concept is formulated in a general context and the sensibility function is established from the generator response to a short circuit condition. Results ponder the importance played by each parameter in the model behavior. The algorithms were design within MATLAB® environment. The study gives way to conclusions on electromagnetic aspects of solid rotor synchronous generators that have not been previously studied. The methodology presented here can be applied to any other physical system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kowser Md. A.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper a technique has been developed to determine constant parameters of copper as a power-law hardening material by tensile test approach. A work-hardening process is used to describe the increase of the stress level necessary to continue plastic deformation. A computer program is used to show the variation of the stress-strain relation for different values of stress hardening exponent, n and power-law hardening constant, α . Due to its close tolerances, excellent corrosion resistance and high material strength, in this analysis copper (Cu has been selected as the material. As a power-law hardening material, Cu has been used to compute stress hardening exponent, n and power-law hardening constant, α from tensile test experiment without heat treatment and after heat treatment. A wealth of information about mechanical behavior of a material can be determined by conducting a simple tensile test in which a cylindrical specimen of a uniform cross-section is pulled until it ruptures or fractures into separate pieces. The original cross sectional area and gauge length are measured prior to conducting the test and the applied load and gauge deformation are continuously measured throughout the test. Based on the initial geometry of the sample, the engineering stress-strain behavior (stress-strain curve can be easily generated from which numerous mechanical properties, such as the yield strength and elastic modulus, can be determined. A universal testing machine is utilized to apply the load in a continuously increasing (ramp manner according to ASTM specifications. Finally, theoretical results are compared with these obtained from experiments where the nature of curves is found similar to each other. It is observed that there is a significant change of the value of n obtained with and without heat treatment it means the value of n should be determined for the heat treated condition of copper material for their applications in engineering
Determination of the Parameter Sets for the Best Performance of IPS-driven ENLIL Model
Yun, Jongyeon; Choi, Kyu-Cheol; Yi, Jonghyuk; Kim, Jaehun; Odstrcil, Dusan
2016-12-01
Interplanetary scintillation-driven (IPS-driven) ENLIL model was jointly developed by University of California, San Diego (UCSD) and National Aeronaucics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC). The model has been in operation by Korean Space Weather Cetner (KSWC) since 2014. IPS-driven ENLIL model has a variety of ambient solar wind parameters and the results of the model depend on the combination of these parameters. We have conducted researches to determine the best combination of parameters to improve the performance of the IPS-driven ENLIL model. The model results with input of 1,440 combinations of parameters are compared with the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observation data. In this way, the top 10 parameter sets showing best performance were determined. Finally, the characteristics of the parameter sets were analyzed and application of the results to IPS-driven ENLIL model was discussed.
Kumar, Bipin; Das, Apurba; Alagirusamy, R
2012-09-01
Understanding the stress relaxation behavior of the compression bandage could be very useful in determining the behavior of the interface pressure exerted by the bandage on a limb during the course of the compression treatment. There has been no comprehensive study in the literature to investigate the pressure profile (interface pressure with time) generated by a compression bandage when applied at different levels of strain. The present study attempts to describe the pressure profile, with the use of a quasi-linear viscoelastic model, generated by a compression bandage during compression therapy. The quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory proposed by Fung (Fung, 1972, "Stress Strain History Relations of Soft Tissues in Simple Elongation," Biomechanics: Its Foundations and Objectives, Y. C. Fung, N. Perrone, and M. Anliker, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 181-207). was used to model the nonlinear time- and history-dependent relaxation behavior of the bandage using the ramp strain approach. The regression analysis was done to find the correlation between the pressure profile and the relaxation behavior of the bandage. The parameters of the QLV model, describing the relaxation behavior of the bandage, were used to determine the pressure profile generated by the bandage at different levels of strain. The relaxation behaviors of the bandage at different levels of strain were well described by the QLV model parameters. A high correlation coefficient (nearly 0.98) shows a good correlation of the pressure profile with the stress relaxation behavior of the bandage.The prediction of the pressure profile using the QLV model parameters were in agreement with the experimental data. The pressure profile generated by a compression bandage could be predicted using the QLV model describing the nonlinear relaxation behavior of the bandage. This new application of the QLV theory helps in evaluating the bandage performance during compression therapy as scientific wound
Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin
2015-09-01
ARL-TR-7467 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin ...EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin by Yolin Huang Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for...State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yolin Huang 5d
Generational Differences as a Determinant of Women's Perspectives on Commitment
Stark, Marcella D.; Kirk, Amy Manning; Bruhn, Rick
2012-01-01
Differences between 116 graduate and undergraduate women, representing 4 generations (i.e., Baby Boomers, Transitionals, Generation Xers, and Millennials), were studied to categorize earliest awareness and definitions of commitment in relationships. More than 63% of participants in each generation viewed relationship commitment in terms of…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2015-01-01
Selective laser melting is yet to become a standardized industrial manufacturing technique. The process continues to suffer from defects such as distortions, residual stresses, localized deformations and warpage caused primarily due to the localized heating, rapid cooling and high temperature...... gradients that occur during the process. While process monitoring and control of selective laser melting is an active area of research, establishing the reliability and robustness of the process still remains a challenge.In this paper, a methodology for generating reliable, optimized scanning paths...... and process parameters for selective laser melting of a standard sample is introduced. The processing of the sample is simulated by sequentially coupling a calibrated 3D pseudo-analytical thermal model with a 3D finite element mechanical model.The optimized processing parameters are subjected to a Monte Carlo...
Three Baryon Interaction Generated by Determinant Interaction of Quarks
Ohnishi, Akira; Morita, Kenji
2016-01-01
We discuss the three-baryon interaction generated by the determinant interaction of quarks, known as the Kobayashi-Maskawa-'t Hooft (KMT) interaction. The expectation value of the KMT interaction operator is calculated in fully-antisymmetrized quark-cluster model wave functions for one-, two- and three-octet baryon states. The three-baryon potential from the KMT interaction is found to be repulsive for $NN\\Lambda$ and $N\\Lambda\\Lambda$ systems, while it is zero for the $NNN$ system. The strength and range of the three-baryon potential are found to be comparable to those for the $NNN$ three-body potential obtained in lattice QCD simulations. The contribution to the $\\Lambda$ single particle potential in nuclear matter is found to be 0.28 MeV and 0.73 MeV in neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter at normal nuclear density, respectively. These repulsive forces are not enough to solve the hyperon puzzle, but may be measured in high-precision hyperisotope experiments.
Methods of Generating Key Sequences Based on Parameters of Handwritten Passwords and Signatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel Lozhnikov
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The modern encryption methods are reliable if strong keys (passwords are used, but the human factor issue cannot be solved by cryptographic methods. The best variant is binding all authenticators (passwords, encryption keys, and others to the identities. When a user is authenticated by biometrical characteristics, the problem of protecting a biometrical template stored on a remote server becomes a concern. The paper proposes several methods of generating keys (passwords by means of the fuzzy extractors method based on signature parameters without storing templates in an open way.
A ZeroDimensional Model of a 2nd Generation Planar SOFC Using Calibrated Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brian Elmegaard
2006-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a zero-dimensional mathematical model of a planar 2nd generation coflow SOFC developed for simulation of power systems. The model accounts for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen as well as the methane reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction. An important part of the paper is the electrochemical sub-model, where experimental data was used to calibrate specific parameters. The SOFC model was implemented in the DNA simulation software which is designed for energy system simulation. The result is an accurate and flexible tool suitable for simulation of many different SOFC-based power systems.
Genetic algorithms for determining the parameters of cellular automata in urban simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
This paper demonstrates that cellular automata (CA) can be a useful tool for analyzing the process of many geographical phenomena. There are many studies on using CA to simulate the evolution of cites. Urban dynamics is determined by many spatial variables. The contribution of each spatial variable to the simulation is quantified by its parameter or weight. Calibration procedures are usually required for obtaining a suitable set of parameters so that the realistic urban forms can be simulated. Each parameter has a unique role in controlling urban morphology in the simulation. In this paper, these parameters for urban simulation are determined by using empirical data. Genetic algorithms are used to search for the optimal combination of these parameters. There are spatial variations for urban dynamics in a large region. Distinct sets of parameters can be used to represent the unique features of urban dynamics for various subregions. A further experiment is to evaluate each set of parameters based on the theories of compact cities. It is considered that the better set of parameters can be identified according to the utility function in terms of compact development. This set of parameters can be cloned to other regions to improve overall urban morphology. The original parameters can be also modified to produce more compact urban forms for planning purposes. This approach can provide a useful exploratory tool for testing various planning scenarios for urban development.
Determination of design parameter for three-product heavy-medium cyclone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xiu-mei; GUO De
2011-01-01
Analyzed the selected raw coal nature and forecasted the number quality of its separated product. Considering each product's density, volume, and suspending liquid assignment, combining the separating mechanism of the cyclone and the relative formulas obtained from scientific experimentation and practice, the strucmre parameter was determined by calculation.This provides a more scientific reasonable method for determining the structure parameter of the unpressurized feeding three-product heavy-medium cyclone.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢恒堃; 乐波; 孙翔; 宋建成
2003-01-01
Objective To investigate the characteristic parameters employed to describe the aging extent of stator insulation of large generator and study the aging laws. Methods Multi-stress aging tests of model generator stator bar specimens were performed and PD measurements were conducted using digital PD detector with frequency range from 40*!kHz to 400*!kHz at different aging stage. Results From the test results of model specimens it was found that the skewness of phase resolved PD distribution might be taken as the characterization parameters for aging extent assessment of generator insulation. Furthermore, the measurement results of actual generator stator bars showed that the method based on statistical parameters of PD distributions are prospective for aging extent assessment and residual lifetime estimation of large generator insulation. Conclusion Statistical parameters of phase resolved PD distribution was proposed for aging extent assessment of large generator insulation.
Wilches-Bernal, Felipe
Power systems around the world are experiencing a continued increase in wind generation as part of their energy mix. Because of its power electronics interface, wind energy conversion systems interact differently with the grid than conventional generation. These facts are changing the traditional dynamics that regulate power system behavior and call for a re-examination of traditional problems encountered in power systems like frequency response, inter-area oscillations and parameter identification. To address this need, realistic models for wind generation are necessary. The dissertation implements such models in a MATLAB-based flexible environment suited for power system research. The dissertation continues with an analysis of the frequency response of a test power system dependent mainly on a mode referred to as the frequency regulation mode. Using this test system it is shown that its frequency regulation capability is reduced with wind penetration levels of 25% and above. A controller for wind generation to restore the frequency response of the system is then presented. The proposed controller requires the WTG to operate in a deloaded mode, a condition that is obtained through pitching the wind turbine blades. Time simulations at wind penetration levels of 25% and 50% are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Next, the dissertation evaluates how the inter-area oscillation of a two-machine power system is affected by wind integration. The assessment is performed based on the positioning of the WTG, the level of wind penetration, and the loading condition of the system. It is determined that integrating wind reduces the damping of the inter-area mode of the system when performed in an area that imports power. For this worst-case scenario, the dissertation proposes two controllers for wind generation to improve the damping of the inter-area mode. The first controller uses frequency as feedback signal for the active power control
Determining Rheological Parameters of Generalized Yield-Power-Law Fluid Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stryczek Stanislaw
2004-09-01
Full Text Available The principles of determining rheological parameters of drilling muds described by a generalized yield-power-law are presented in the paper. Functions between tangent stresses and shear rate are given. The conditions of laboratory measurements of rheological parameters of generalized yield-power-law fluids are described and necessary mathematical relations for rheological model parameters given. With the block diagrams, the methodics of numerical solution of these relations has been presented. Rheological parameters of an exemplary drilling mud have been calculated with the use of this numerical program.
Determination of partial solubility parameters of five benzodiazepines in individual solvents.
Verheyen, S; Augustijns, P; Kinget, R; Van den Mooter, G
2001-10-09
Three and four component partial solubility parameters for diazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, prazepam and temazepam were determined using the extended and expanded Hansen regression models. A comparison was made also with solubility parameters calculated by the group contribution method proposed by Van Krevelen. Although a limited number of solvents was used, the results from the present study indicate that the partial solubility parameters obtained from the experimental regression models clearly reflect the structural differences in these five structurally related molecules. High R(2)-values were observed in the regression models (0.932 parameter did not improve the R(2)- and F-values in any of the regression models used.
Determination of contact parameters for discrete element method simulations of granular systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Both linear-spring-dashpot (LSD) and non-linear Hertzian-spring-dnshpot (HSD) contact models are commonly used for the calculation of contact forces in Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of granular systems.Despite the popularity of these models, determination of suitable values for the contact parameters of the simulated particles such as stiffness, damping coefficient, coefficient of restitution, and simulation time step,is not altogether obvious.In this work the relationships between these contact parameters for a model system where a particle impacts on a flat base are examined.Recommendations are made concerning the determination of these contact parameters for use in DEM simulations.
Problems of reliability in earthquake parameters determination from historicaI records
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Monachesi
1996-06-01
Full Text Available Earthquake parameters determination from macroseismic data is a procedure, the reliability of whose results can be impaired by many problems related to quality, number and distribution of data. Such problems are common with ancient, sketchily documented events, but can affect even comparatively recent earthquakes. This paper presents some cases of Central Italy earthquakes, the determination of whose epicentral parameters involved problems of reliability. Not all problems can ever be completely solved. It is therefore necessary to devise ways for putting on record the uncertainty of the resulting parameters, so that future users can be aware of them.
A new method to determine the partial solubility parameters of polymers from intrinsic viscosity.
Bustamante, Pilar; Navarro-Lupión, Javier; Escalera, Begoña
2005-02-01
A modification of the extended Hansen method, formerly used to determine the partial solubility parameters of drugs and non-polymeric excipients is tested with a polymer for the first time. The proposed method relates the logarithm of the intrinsic viscosities of the polymer in a series of solvents and solvent mixtures with the Hansen (three parameter model) and Karger (four parameter model) partial solubility parameters. The viscosity of diluted solutions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was determined in pure solvents and binary mixtures of varying polarity. The intrinsic viscosity was obtained from the common intercept of the Huggins and Kraemer relationships. The intrinsic viscosity tends to increase with increasing the solubility parameter of the medium. The results show that hydrogen bonding and polarity of the polymer largely determine polymer-solvent interactions. The models proposed provided reasonable partial and total solubility parameters for the polymer and enable one to quantitatively characterize, for the first time, the Lewis acid-base ability of a polymer thus, providing a more realistic picture of hydrogen bonding for solvent selection/compatibility and to predict drug-polymer interactions. Combination of the dispersion and polar parameters into a single non-specific solubility parameter was also tested. The results extend earlier findings and suggest that the models are quite versatile and may be applied to drugs, non-polymeric and polymeric excipients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Dong
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a quadrotor test bed is developed. The technical approach for this test bed is firstly proposed by utilizing a commercial quadrotor, a Vicon motion capture system and a ground station. Then, the mathematical model of the quadrotor is formulated considering aerodynamic effects, and the parameter identification approaches for this model are provided accordingly. Based on the developed model and identified parameters, a simulation environment that is consistent with the real system is developed. Subsequently, a flight control strategy and a trajectory generation method, both of which are conceptually and computationally lightweight, are developed and tested in the simulation environment. The developed algorithms are then directly transplanted to the real system, and the experimental results show that their responses in the real-time flights match well with those from the simulations. This indicates that the control algorithms developed for the quadrotor can be preliminarily verified and refined though simulations, and then directly implemented to the real system, which could significantly reduce the experimental risks and costs. Meanwhile, real-time experiments show that the developed flight controller can efficiently stabilize the quadrotor when external disturbances exist, and the trajectory generation approach can provide safe guidance for the quadrotor to fly smoothly through cluttered environments with obstacle rings. All of these features are valuable for real applications, thus demonstrating the feasibility of further development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Dong
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a quadrotor test bed is developed. The technical approach for this test bed is firstly proposed by utilizing a commercial quadrotor, a Vicon motion capture system and a ground station. Then, the mathematical model of the quadrotor is formulated considering aerodynamic effects, and the parameter identification approaches for this model are provided accordingly. Based on the developed model and identified parameters, a simulation environment that is consistent with the real system is developed. Subsequently, a flight control strategy and a trajectory generation method, both of which are conceptually and computationally lightweight, are developed and tested in the simulation environment. The developed algorithms are then directly transplanted to the real system, and the experimental results show that their responses in the real-time flights match well with those from the simulations. This indicates that the control algorithms developed for the quadrotor can be preliminarily verified and refined though simulations, and then directly implemented to the real system, which could significantly reduce the experimental risks and costs. Meanwhile, real-time experiments show that the developed flight controller can efficiently stabilize the quadrotor when external disturbances exist, and the trajectory generation approach can provide safe guidance for the quadrotor to fly smoothly through cluttered environments with obstacle rings. All of these features are valuable for real applications, thus demonstrating the feasibility of further development.
Schoening, Michael J.; Poghossian, Arshak; Schultze, J. Walter; Lueth, Hans
2002-02-01
Sensor systems for multi-parameter detection in fluidics usually combine different sensors, which are designed to detect either a physical or (bio-)chemical parameter. Therefore, such systems include a more complicated fabrication technology and measuring set-up. In this work, an ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor), which is well known as a (bio-)chemical sensor, is utilized as transducer for the detection of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters. A multifunctional hybrid module for the determination of two (bio-)chemical parameters (pH, penicillin concentration) and three physical parameters (temperature, flow velocity and flow direction) using only two sensor structures, an ion generator and a reference electrode, is realized and its performance has been investigated. Here, a multifunctionality of the sensor system is achieved by means of different sensor arrangements and/or different operation modes. A Ta2O5-gate ISFET was used as transducer for all sensors. A novel time-of-flight type ISFET-based flow-velocity (flow rate) and flow-direction sensor using in-situ electrochemical generation of chemical tracers is presented. Due to the fast response of the ISFET (usually in the millisecond range), an ISFET-based flow sensor is suitable for the measurement of the flow velocity in a wide range. With regard to practical applications, pH measurements with this ISFET were performed in rain droplets.
Jing, Xufeng; Xia, Rui; Wang, Weimin; Tian, Ying; Hong, Zhi
2016-05-01
We propose analytical expressions to determine the effective constitutive parameters of a planar bianisotropic metamaterial from scattering parameters in the terahertz region. In our retrieval method, the transmission and reflection coefficients in only one wave propagation direction are applied. Considering the nonsymmetry of planar metamaterials in the wave propagation direction, the effective refractive index and the impedance should be obtained by a modified S parameters retrieval process. The effective parameters of the permittivity, permeability, and magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of planar bianisotropic metamaterials can be retrieved by derived equations. Specifically, the constitutive parameters for different planar metamaterials, among which two are isotropic and the other two are bianisotropic metamaterials, are determined. The intrinsic differences between the normal planar metamaterials and the bianisotropic metamaterials are evidently illustrated. The phenomenon including electric coupling to magnetic resonance and only electric response in the transmission spectrum is confirmed by retrieval effective permittivity and permeability.
[Determination of Virtual Surgery Mass Point Spring Model Parameters Based on Genetic Algorithms].
Chen, Ying; Hu, Xuyi; Zhu, Qiguang
2015-12-01
Mass point-spring model is one of the commonly used models in virtual surgery. However, its model parameters have no clear physical meaning, and it is hard to set the parameter conveniently. We, therefore, proposed a method based on genetic algorithm to determine the mass-spring model parameters. Computer-aided tomography (CAT) data were used to determine the mass value of the particle, and stiffness and damping coefficient were obtained by genetic algorithm. We used the difference between the reference deformation and virtual deformation as the fitness function to get the approximate optimal solution of the model parameters. Experimental results showed that this method could obtain an approximate optimal solution of spring parameters with lower cost, and could accurately reproduce the effect of the actual deformation model as well.
Determination of Experimental Fuel Rod Parameters using 3D Modelling of PCMI with MPS Defect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casagranda, Albert [Idaho National Laboratory; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting [Idaho National Laboratory; Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory; Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Laboratory
2016-05-01
An in-reactor experiment is being designed in order to validate the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) behavior of the BISON fuel performance code. The experimental parameters for the test rod being placed in the Halden Research Reactor are being determined using BISON simulations. The 3D model includes a missing pellet surface (MPS) defect to generate large local cladding deformations, which should be measureable after typical burnup times. The BISON fuel performance code is being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is built on the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework. BISON supports both 2D and 3D finite elements and solves the fully coupled equations for solid mechanics, heat conduction and species diffusion. A number of fuel performance effects are included using models for swelling, densification, creep, relocation and fission gas production & release. In addition, the mechanical and thermal contact between the fuel and cladding is explicitly modelled using a master-slave based contact algorithm. In order to accurately predict PCMI effects, the BISON code includes the relevant physics involved and provides a scalable and robust solution procedure. The depth of the proposed MPS defect is being varied in the BISON model to establish an optimum value for the experiment. The experiment will be interrupted approximately every 6 months to measure cladding radial deformation and provide data to validate BISON. The complete rodlet (~20 discrete pellets) is being simulated using a 180° half symmetry 3D model with MPS defects at two axial locations. In addition, annular pellets will be used at the top and bottom of the pellet stack to allow thermocouples within the rod to measure the fuel centerline temperature. Simulation results will be presented to illustrate the expected PCMI behavior and support the chosen experimental design parameters.
Screening study of SFC critical method parameters for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds.
Dispas, Amandine; Lebrun, Pierre; Sacré, Pierre-Yves; Hubert, Philippe
2016-06-05
Nowadays, supercritical fluid chromatography is commonly presented as a promising alternative technique in the field of separation sciences. Nevertheless the selection of chromatographic conditions and sample preparation of pharmaceutical compounds remain a challenge and peak distortion was previously highlighted. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the impact of different critical method parameters (CMPs), i.e. stationary phase, mobile phase composition and injection solvent nature. The experiments were performed considering two groups of antimalarial molecules: one group with neutral/apolar compounds and the other one with salt form of polar compounds. In this context, another objective was to propose a suitable sample solvent for quantitative analysis. The interest of new generation stationary phase to obtain good peak shape and the interest to tune the mobile phase composition were demonstrated. During this study, design of experiments and desirability function approach enabled to highlight optimal chromatographic conditions in order to maximise peak capacity and to get acceptable value of symmetry factor. Regarding sample injection solvent composition, some counterintuitive results were observed: solvents closer to the mobile phase polarity (i.e heptane or 2-propanol/heptane mixture) did not provide best results in terms of peak symmetry. In addition, acetonitrile and short aliphatic alcohols offered an interesting alternative as injection solvent: toxicity of solvents used is clearly reduced and better quantitative performances could be expected while keeping high peak capacity and symmetric sharp peaks. Finally, the quantitative performances were evaluated by the method validation for the quantitative determination of quinine sulfate in a pharmaceutical formulation. These better understandings on critical method parameters led SFC to be an even more promising technique in the field of the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds.
Nakayama, Masaki; Katano, Hiroaki; Sato, Haruki
2014-05-01
A precise determination of the critical temperature and density for technically important fluids would be possible on the basis of the digital image for the visual observation of the phase boundary in the vicinity of the critical point since the sensitivity and resolution are higher than those of naked eyes. In addition, the digital image can avoid the personal uncertainty of an observer. A strong density gradient occurs in a sample cell at the critical point due to gravity. It was carefully assessed to determine the critical density, where the density profile in the sample cell can be observed from the luminance profile of a digital image. The density-gradient profile becomes symmetric at the critical point. One of the best fluids, whose thermodynamic properties have been measured with the highest reliability among technically important fluids, would be carbon dioxide. In order to confirm the reliability of the proposed method, the critical temperature and density of carbon dioxide were determined using the digital image. The critical temperature and density values of carbon dioxide are ( and ( kg m, respectively. The critical temperature and density values agree with the existing best values within estimated uncertainties. The reliability of the method was confirmed. The critical pressure, 7.3795 MPa, corresponding to the determined critical temperature of 304.143 K is also proposed. A new set of parameters for the vapor-pressure equation is also provided.
Auto Code Generation for Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System
MolinaFraticelli, Jose Carlos
2012-01-01
This paper details the work done to auto generate C code from a Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System (ADCS) to be used in target platforms. NASA Marshall Engineers have developed an ADCS Simulink simulation to be used as a component for the flight software of a satellite. This generated code can be used for carrying out Hardware in the loop testing of components for a satellite in a convenient manner with easily tunable parameters. Due to the nature of the embedded hardware components such as microcontrollers, this simulation code cannot be used directly, as it is, on the target platform and must first be converted into C code; this process is known as auto code generation. In order to generate C code from this simulation; it must be modified to follow specific standards set in place by the auto code generation process. Some of these modifications include changing certain simulation models into their atomic representations which can bring new complications into the simulation. The execution order of these models can change based on these modifications. Great care must be taken in order to maintain a working simulation that can also be used for auto code generation. After modifying the ADCS simulation for the auto code generation process, it is shown that the difference between the output data of the former and that of the latter is between acceptable bounds. Thus, it can be said that the process is a success since all the output requirements are met. Based on these results, it can be argued that this generated C code can be effectively used by any desired platform as long as it follows the specific memory requirements established in the Simulink Model.
Lal, Mohit; Tiwari, Rajiv
2013-12-01
A turbo-generator system of the modern rotating machinery consists of the driver and driven shafts, which are coupled through flexible couplings and mounted on flexible bearings. Dynamic characterisation of vital machine elements of such rotating machinery is a challenging problem for reliable and accurate response predictions. In this paper, a key intention is to estimate the bearing and coupling dynamic parameters along with residual unbalances at predefined planes, and the misalignment forces and moments at the coupling based on the rundown vibration data. To tackle a practical difficulty of limited measurements and a numerical difficulty of the conventional dynamic condensation in the development of identification algorithm, a novel condensation technique has been implemented especially to overcome measurement of transverse rotational DOFs. Numerical examples are also presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The measurement noise has been added in numerically simulated responses that are used in the present algorithm to identify the parameters and it is found to be robust. Modelling errors of few physical parameters are also considered and estimates are found to be very good.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jing-sheng; LI Kai; YAO Lei-hua
2005-01-01
This paper developed an improved combinatorial method called the best chromosome clone plus younger generation chromosome prepotency genetic algorithm (BCC-YGCP-GA) to evaluate aquifer parameters. This method is based on a decimal simple genetic algorithm (SGA). A synthetic example for unsteady-state flow in a two-dimensional, inhomogeneous, confined aquifer containing three hydraulically distinct zones, is used to develop data to test the model. The simulation utilizes SGA and BCC-YGCP-GA coupled to the finite element method to identify the mean zonal hydraulic conductivities, and storage coefficients of the three-compartment model. For this geometrically simple model, used as a prototype of more complex systems, the SGA does not reach convergence within 100 generations. Conversely, the convergence rate of the BCC-YGCD-GA model is very fast. The objective function value calculated by BCC-YGCD-GA is reduced to 1/1 000th of the starting value within 100 generations,and the hydraulic conductivity and storage of three zones are within a few percent of the "true" values of the ideal model, highlighting the power of the method for aquifer parameterization.
Jordan, Timothy R; Monteiro, Axel
2003-02-01
Anagrams are used widely in psychological research. However, generating a range of strings with the same letter content is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for humans, and current computer-based anagram generators do not provide the controls necessary for psychological research. In this article, we present a computational algorithm that overcomes these problems. Specifically, the algorithm processes automatically each word in a user-defined source vocabulary and outputs, for each word, all possible anagrams that exist as words (or as nonwords, if required) as defined by the same source vocabulary. Moreover, we show how the output of the algorithm can be filtered to produce anagrams within specific user-defined orthographic parameters. For example, the anagrams produced can be filtered to produce words that share, with each other or with other words in the source vocabulary, letters in only certain positions. Finally, we provide free access to the complete Windows-based program and source code containing these facilities for anagram generation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Savel' ev, S., E-mail: S.Saveliev@lboro.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Zagoskin, A.M. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Omelyanchouk, A.N. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)
2010-10-05
Imagine that you have several sets of two coupled qubits, but you do not know the parameters of their Hamitonians. How to determine these without resorting to the usual spectroscopy approach to the problem? Based on numerical modeling, we show that all the parameters of a system of two coupled qubits can be determined by applying to it an external classical noise and analyzing the Fourier spectrum of the elements of the system's density matrix. In particular, the interlevel spacings as well as the strength and sign of the qubit-qubit coupling can be determined this way.
Parameter estimation and determinability analysis applied to Drosophila gap gene circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaeger Johannes
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical modeling of real-life processes often requires the estimation of unknown parameters. Once the parameters are found by means of optimization, it is important to assess the quality of the parameter estimates, especially if parameter values are used to draw biological conclusions from the model. Results In this paper we describe how the quality of parameter estimates can be analyzed. We apply our methodology to assess parameter determinability for gene circuit models of the gap gene network in early Drosophila embryos. Conclusion Our analysis shows that none of the parameters of the considered model can be determined individually with reasonable accuracy due to correlations between parameters. Therefore, the model cannot be used as a tool to infer quantitative regulatory weights. On the other hand, our results show that it is still possible to draw reliable qualitative conclusions on the regulatory topology of the gene network. Moreover, it improves previous analyses of the same model by allowing us to identify those interactions for which qualitative conclusions are reliable, and those for which they are ambiguous.
Determination of kinetic parameters for monitoring source driven subcritical transmutation devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, Maarten
2014-03-15
ADS are considered as an option for the irradiation facility in partitioning and transmutation concepts for highly radioactive waste from spent nuclear fuel. Due to the hard neutron energy spectrum and the subcriticality of the reactor ADS provide a good compromise between transmutation performance and safety aspects. For the safe operation, but also for the overall optimization of the facility, the determination of the subcriticality level is essential. To investigate experimental methods in Pulsed Neutron Source (PNS) experiments for the determination of the subcriticality level the ADS experiment YALINA-Thermal is thoroughly analyzed in this work. The experiment has been performed from 2005-2010 in Minsk, Belarus. Most of the related experimental methods rely on point kinetic equations. This approach introduces two main approximations. Firstly, the point kinetic equation cannot describe the transition of the neutron distribution from the source operation to the source shutdown. After shutdown, the neutron population would redistribute to establish the fundamental decay mode. This violates the point kinetic assumption of neutron flux spectra constant in time. Secondly, to calculate kinetic parameters like the neutron mean generation time and the effective delayed neutron fraction the neutron flux distribution of the effective multiplication factor equation is typically used, which is equivalent to an artificial critical steady-state reactor. However, it is the time-dependence of the decay of the neutron populations including their redistribution in space and energy, which affects the analyzed kinetic parameters. Consequently, this work aims for the accurate simulation of these phenomena with particular emphasis on the quality of the effective neutron cross sections. In this work new microscopic master libraries based on the JEFF 3.1, JEFF 3.1.1 and ENDF/B VII.0 evaluations are developed with a general purpose 350 energy groups structure for the deterministic
Landau parameters for energy density functionals generated by local finite-range pseudopotentials
Idini, Andrea; Dobaczewski, Jacek
2016-01-01
In Landau theory of Fermi liquids, the particle-hole interaction near the Fermi energy in different spin-isospin channels is probed in terms of an expansion over the Legendre polynomials. This provides a useful and efficient way to constrain properties of nuclear energy density functionals in symmetric nuclear matter and finite nuclei. In this study, we present general expressions for Landau parameters corresponding to a two-body central local regularized pseudopotential. We also show results obtained for two recently adjusted NLO and N$^2$LO parametrizations. Such pseudopotentials will be used to determine mean-field and beyond-mean-field properties of paired nuclei across the entire nuclear chart.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ümit Divrikli
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field generated from the 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation (EF on erythrocyte rheological parameters and erythrocyte zinc levels. Material and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped as follows: 1 two control groups and 2 study groups: i Group A: EF exposed group (2.5 h/day for 30 days, the phone on stand-by, and ii Group B: EF exposed group (2.5 min/day for 30 days, the phone ringing in silent mode. At the end of the experimental period erythrocyte rheological parameters such as erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer. Erythrocyte zinc level, which affects hemorheological parameters, was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Erythrocyte deformability was decreased in both study groups but the decrease in group A was not statistically significant. Exposure to EF did not have any significant effect on erythrocyte aggregation. On the other hand, erythrocyte zinc level was significantly reduced in both study groups. Conclusion: Exposure to EF may have decreased tissue oxygenation due to reduced erythrocyte deformability. Decrease in erythrocyte zinc level may have caused the impairment in erythrocyte deformability.
Sievers, Sibylle; Nass, Paul; Serrano-Guisan, Santiago; Pasquale, Massimo; Schumacher, Hans Werner
2013-01-01
We investigate an inductive probe head suitable for non-invasive characterization of the magnetostatic and dynamic parameters of magnetic thin films and multilayers on the wafer scale. The probe is based on a planar waveguide with rearward high frequency connectors that can be brought in close contact to the wafer surface. Inductive characterization of the magnetic material is carried out by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance. Analysis of the field dispersion of the resonance allows the determination of key material parameters such as the saturation magnetization MS or the effective damping parameter Meff. Three waveguide designs are tested. The broadband frequency response is characterized and the suitability for inductive determination of MS and Meff is compared. Integration of such probes in a wafer prober could in the future allow wafer scale in-line testing of magnetostatic and dynamic key material parameters of magnetic thin films and multilayers.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Arentoft, Torben
2010-01-01
-solar planetary systems. Given the quantity of the available and expected data, it is important to develop efficient and reliable techniques for analyzing them, including the determination of stellar parameters from the observed frequencies. Here we present the SEEK package developed for the analysis...... of stellar radius and mass for a sample of well-observed stars. We conclude that the SEEK package fixes stellar parameters with accuracy and precision....
Determination of Structural Parameters of Thin-Film Photocatalytic Materials by BDS
Korte, Dorota; Franko, Mladen
2015-09-01
A method for determination of structural parameters of some thin-film photocatalytic materials is presented. The analysis was based on the material's thermal parameter dependences on its surface structure or porosity and was thus performed by the use of beam deflection spectroscopy (BDS) supported by theoretical analysis made in the framework of complex geometrical optics. The results obtained by BDS were than compared with those received on the basis of AFM and SEM measurements and found to be in good agreement.
Determining Reliability Parameters for a Closed-Cycle Small Combined Heat and Power Plant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vysokomorny Vladimir S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper provides numerical values of the reliability parameters for independent power sources within the ambient temperature and output power range corresponding to the operation under the climatic conditions of Eastern Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation. We have determined the optimal values of the parameters necessary for the reliable operation of small CHP plants (combined heat and power plants providing electricity for isolated facilities.
Analytical method for determining breakdown slip of an induction motor based on of five parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petrović Nenad
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes an explicite formula for determining the critical slip value of an induction squirel cage motor based upon five parameters. Three of these parameters - rated slip, rated and breakdown torque are known by catalogue data. Two missing parameters are the arbitrary slip between the rated and critical slip value and the corresponding torque value. These two parameters are to be experimentaly obtained. The breakdown torque value given by catalogue data is usually less accurate than the rated torque value. The proposed formula gives the possibility of analysing the error distribution of the critical slip value obtained from catalogue and measured data in comparison with the values obtained from the mechanical characteristic based on the physical parameters of an induction motor.
Determining MSSM parameters via chargino production at the LC: a one-loop analysis
Bharucha, Aoife
2012-01-01
Very precise measurements of masses and cross sections are expected to be achievable with a future linear collider. With such an accuracy one must incorporate loop corrections in order to make meaningful predictions for the underlying new physics parameters. For the electroweakino sector, this involves fitting one-loop predictions to expected measurements of the cross section and forward-backward asymmetry for chargino pair production and of the accessible chargino and neutralino masses. We consider two scenarios with characteristic features, chosen taking recent LHC SUSY and Higgs searches into account. Our analysis allows the accurate determination of the desired parameters and, additionally, access to stop sector parameters that enter via loop corrections.
Completely automated determination of two-dimensional photoelastic parameters using load stepping
Ekman, Matthew J.; Nurse, Andrew D.
1998-06-01
The new approach to phase-stepping photoelasticity known as `load stepping' is used to determine automatically the isochromatic parameter (alpha) and the isoclinic angle (theta) . There is no need for the user to calibrate the results other than to convert the isochromatic parameter into a principal stress difference using the material fringe constant. Four phase-stepped images are collected using a circular polariscope for each of three load steps, which differ by small equal increments. A ramped phase map for the isochromatic parameter is produced in the range -(pi) reflection photoelasticity we demonstrate how determination of the isoclinic angle in the range -(pi) /2<(theta)
Shah, Rhythm R.; Davis, Todd P.; Glover, Amanda L.; Nikles, David E.; Brazel, Christopher S.
2015-08-01
Heating of nanoparticles (NPs) using an AC magnetic field depends on several factors, and optimization of these parameters can improve the efficiency of heat generation for effective cancer therapy while administering a low NP treatment dose. This study investigated magnetic field strength and frequency, NP size, NP concentration, and solution viscosity as important parameters that impact the heating efficiency of iron oxide NPs with magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) crystal structures. Heating efficiencies were determined for each experimental setting, with specific absorption rates (SARs) ranging from 3.7 to 325.9 W/g Fe. Magnetic heating was conducted on iron oxide NPs synthesized in our laboratories (with average core sizes of 8, 11, 13, and 18 nm), as well as commercially-available iron oxides (with average core sizes of 8, 9, and 16 nm). The experimental magnetic coil system made it possible to isolate the effect of magnetic field parameters and independently study the effect on heat generation. The highest SAR values were found for the 18 nm synthesized particles and the maghemite nanopowder. Magnetic field strengths were applied in the range of 15.1-47.7 kA/m, with field frequencies ranging from 123 to 430 kHz. The best heating was observed for the highest field strengths and frequencies tested, with results following trends predicted by the Rosensweig equation. An increase in solution viscosity led to lower heating rates in nanoparticle solutions, which can have significant implications for the application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia in vivo.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shah, Rhythm R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Davis, Todd P.; Glover, Amanda L.; Nikles, David E. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Brazel, Christopher S., E-mail: cbrazel@eng.ua.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)
2015-08-01
Heating of nanoparticles (NPs) using an AC magnetic field depends on several factors, and optimization of these parameters can improve the efficiency of heat generation for effective cancer therapy while administering a low NP treatment dose. This study investigated magnetic field strength and frequency, NP size, NP concentration, and solution viscosity as important parameters that impact the heating efficiency of iron oxide NPs with magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) crystal structures. Heating efficiencies were determined for each experimental setting, with specific absorption rates (SARs) ranging from 3.7 to 325.9 W/g Fe. Magnetic heating was conducted on iron oxide NPs synthesized in our laboratories (with average core sizes of 8, 11, 13, and 18 nm), as well as commercially-available iron oxides (with average core sizes of 8, 9, and 16 nm). The experimental magnetic coil system made it possible to isolate the effect of magnetic field parameters and independently study the effect on heat generation. The highest SAR values were found for the 18 nm synthesized particles and the maghemite nanopowder. Magnetic field strengths were applied in the range of 15.1–47.7 kA/m, with field frequencies ranging from 123 to 430 kHz. The best heating was observed for the highest field strengths and frequencies tested, with results following trends predicted by the Rosensweig equation. An increase in solution viscosity led to lower heating rates in nanoparticle solutions, which can have significant implications for the application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia in vivo. - Highlights: • Heating was tested in seven iron oxide nanoparticles for different magnetic fields. • Confirms an optimal nanoparticle size for heating that agrees with the literature. • Verifies Rosenweig's equation to predict the effect of field frequency on heating. • Reports reduced heating in high viscosity environments.
Shah, Rhythm R; Davis, Todd P; Glover, Amanda L; Nikles, David E; Brazel, Christopher S
2015-08-01
Heating of nanoparticles (NPs) using an AC magnetic field depends on several factors, and optimization of these parameters can improve the efficiency of heat generation for effective cancer therapy while administering a low NP treatment dose. This study investigated magnetic field strength and frequency, NP size, NP concentration, and solution viscosity as important parameters that impact the heating efficiency of iron oxide NPs with magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) crystal structures. Heating efficiencies were determined for each experimental setting, with specific absorption rates (SARs) ranging from 3.7 to 325.9 W/g Fe. Magnetic heating was conducted on iron oxide NPs synthesized in our laboratories (with average core sizes of 8, 11, 13, and 18 nm), as well as commercially-available iron oxides (with average core sizes of 8, 9, and 16 nm). The experimental magnetic coil system made it possible to isolate the effect of magnetic field parameters and independently study the effect on heat generation. The highest SAR values were found for the 18 nm synthesized particles and the maghemite nanopowder. Magnetic field strengths were applied in the range of 15.1 to 47.7 kA/m, with field frequencies ranging from 123 to 430 kHz. The best heating was observed for the highest field strengths and frequencies tested, with results following trends predicted by the Rosensweig equation. An increase in solution viscosity led to lower heating rates in nanoparticle solutions, which can have significant implications for the application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia in vivo.
Imaging parameters on third harmonic transmit phasing for tissue harmonic generation.
Shen, Che-Chou; Wang, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Chih-Kuang
2008-06-01
In third harmonic (3f0) transmit phasing, transmit waveforms comprising fundamental (f0) signal and 3f0 signal are used to generate both frequency-sum and frequency-difference components for manipulation of tissue harmonic amplitude. Nevertheless, the acoustic propagation of 3f0 transmit signal suffers from more severe attenuation and phase aberration than the f0 signal and hence degrades the performance of 3f0 transmit phasing. Besides, 3f0 transmit parameters such as aperture size and signal bandwidth are also influential in 3f0 transmit phasing. In this study, extensive simulations were performed to investigate the effects of these imaging parameters. Results indicate that the harmonic enhancement and suppression in 3f0 transmit phasing are compromised when the magnitude of frequency-difference component decreases in the presence of tissue attenuation and phase aberration. To compensate for the reduced frequency-difference component, a higher 3f0 transmit amplitude can be used. When the transmit parameters are concerned, a smaller 3f0 transmit aperture can provide more axially uniform harmonic enhancement and more effective suppression of harmonic amplitude. In addition, the spectral leakage signal also interferes with tissue harmonics and degrades the efficacy of 3f0 transmit phasing. Our results suggest that, in the method of 3f0 transmit phasing, the transmit amplitude, phase and aperture size of 3f0 signal should remain adjustable for optimization of clinical performance. Besides, multipulse sequences such as pulse inversion are also favorable for leakage removal in 3f0 transmit phasing.
Vitale, Salvatore
2016-01-01
The two binary black-hole (BBH) coalescences detected by LIGO, GW150914 and GW151226, were relatively nearby sources, with a redshift of ~0.1. As the sensitivity of Advanced LIGO and Virgo increases in the next few years, they will eventually detect heavy BBHs up to redshifts of ~1. However, these are still relatively small distances compared with the size of the Universe, or with those encountered in most areas of astrophysics. In order to study BBH during the epoch of reionization, or black holes born from population III stars, more sensitive instruments are needed. Third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer are already in an advanced R&D stage. These detectors will be roughly a factor of 10 more sensitive than the current generation, and be able to detect BBH mergers beyond a redshift of 20. In this paper we quantify the precision with which these new facilities will be able to estimate the parameters of stellar-mass, heavy, and intermediate-mas...
Clement, R.; Reglero, V.; Garcia, M.; Fabregat, J.; Bravo, A.; Suso, J.
1993-01-01
A new uvby and H-beta monitoring program of low mass eclipsing binaries is currently being carried out in the framework of a 5-yr observational program which also involves radial velocity determinations. The scope of this work is to provide very accurate absolute astrophysical parameters: mass, radius, and effective temperatures, for main-sequence late-type stars. One of the main goals is to improve the mass-luminosity relation in the low and intermediate mass range. A second objective is to perform accurate tests of the most recent grids of evolutionary models. This program is complementary to that currently being implemented by the Copenhagen group. In this contribution we present the photometric preliminary results obtained for three of the systems included in our long-term survey: BH Vir, ZZ UMa, and CR Cas for which primary eclipses have been observed. Particular attention is paid to the determination of reddening, distances, and radiative properties. A more detailed study will be carried out when the light curves and radial velocity measurements are completed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zong-Liang; ZHAO Fang; LI Shao-Hua; ZHAO Mei-Shan; CHEN Chang-Yong
2008-01-01
This paper is concerned with the determination of a unique scaling parameter in complex scaling analysis and with accurate calculation of dynamics resonances. In the preceding paper we have presented a theoretical analysis and provided a formalism for dynamical resonance calculations. In this paper we present accurate numerical results for two non-trivial dynamical processes, namely, models of diatomie molecular predissoeiation and of barrier potential scattering for resonances. The results presented in this paper confirm our theoretical analysis, remove a theoretical ambiguity on determination of the complex scaling parameter, and provide an improved understanding for dynamical resonance calculations in rigged Hilbert space.
The application of virtual prototyping methods to determine the dynamic parameters of mobile robot
Kurc, Krzysztof; Szybicki, Dariusz; Burghardt, Andrzej; Muszyńska, Magdalena
2016-04-01
The paper presents methods used to determine the parameters necessary to build a mathematical model of an underwater robot with a crawler drive. The parameters present in the dynamics equation will be determined by means of advanced mechatronic design tools, including: CAD/CAE software andMES modules. The virtual prototyping process is described as well as the various possible uses (design adaptability) depending on the optional accessories added to the vehicle. A mathematical model is presented to show the kinematics and dynamics of the underwater crawler robot, essential for the design stage.
Somatostatin modulates generation of inspiratory rhythms and determines asphyxia survival.
Ramírez-Jarquín, Josué O; Lara-Hernández, Sergio; López-Guerrero, Juan J; Aguileta, Miguel A; Rivera-Angulo, Ana J; Sampieri, Alicia; Vaca, Luis; Ordaz, Benito; Peña-Ortega, Fernando
2012-04-01
Breathing and the activity of its generator (the pre-Bötzinger complex; pre-BötC) are highly regulated functions. Among neuromodulators of breathing, somatostatin (SST) is unique: it is synthesized by a subset of glutamatergic pre-BötC neurons, but acts as an inhibitory neuromodulator. Moreover, SST regulates breathing both in normoxic and in hypoxic conditions. Although it has been implicated in the neuromodulation of breathing, neither the locus of SST modulation, nor the receptor subtypes involved have been identified. In this study, we aimed to fill in these blanks by characterizing the SST-induced regulation of inspiratory rhythm generation in vitro and in vivo. We found that both endogenous and exogenous SST depress all preBötC-generated rhythms. While SST abolishes sighs, it also decreases the frequency and increases the regularity of eupnea and gasping. Pharmacological experiments showed that SST modulates inspiratory rhythm generation by activating SST receptor type-2, whose mRNA is abundantly expressed in the pre-Bötzinger complex. In vivo, blockade of SST receptor type-2 reduces gasping amplitude and consequently, it precludes auto-resuscitation after asphyxia. Based on our findings, we suggest that SST functions as an inhibitory neuromodulator released by excitatory respiratory neurons when they become overactivated in order to stabilize breathing rhythmicity in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
EVALUATION OF ERRORS IN PARAMETERS DETERMINATION FOR THE EARTH HIGHLY ANOMALOUS GRAVITY FIELD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. P. Staroseltsev
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper presents research results and the simulation of errors caused by determining the Earth gravity field parameters for regions with high segmentation of gravity field. The Kalman filtering estimation of determining errors is shown. Method. Simulation model for the realization of inertial geodetic method for determining the Earth gravity field parameters is proposed. The model is based on high-precision inertial navigation system (INS at the free gyro and high-accuracy satellite system. The possibility of finding the conformity between the determined and stochastic approaches in gravity potential modeling is shown with the example of a point-mass model. Main Results. Computer simulation shows that for determining the Earth gravity field parameters gyro error model can be reduced to two significant indexes, one for each gyro. It is also shown that for regions with high segmentation of gravity field point-mass model can be used. This model is a superposition of attractive and repulsive masses - the so-called gravitational dipole. Practical Relevance. The reduction of gyro error model can reduce the dimension of the Kalman filter used in the integrated system, which decreases the computation time and increases the visibility of the state vector. Finding the conformity between the determined and stochastic approaches allows the application of determined and statistical terminology. Also it helps to create a simulation model for regions with high segmentation of gravity field.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Firstly, using the damage model for rock based on Lemaitre hypothesis about strain equivalence, a new technique for measuring strength of rock micro-cells by adopting the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was developed, and a statistical damage evolution equation was established based on the property that strength of micro-cells is consistent with normal distribution function, through discussing the characteristics of random distributions for strength of micro-cells, then a statistical damage constitutive model that can simulate the full process of rock strain softening under specific confining pressure was set up. Secondly, a new method to determine the model parameters which can be applied to the situations under different confining pressures was proposed, by deeply studying the relations between the model parameters and characteristic parameters of the full stress-strain curve under different confining pressures. Therefore, a unified statistical damage constitutive model for rock softening which can reflect the effect of different confining pressures was set up. This model makes the physical property of model parameters explicit, contains only conventional mechanical parameters, and leads its application more convenient. Finally, the rationality of this model and its parameters-determining method were identified via comparative analyses between theoretical and experimental curves.
Determining Relative Importance and Effective Settings for Genetic Algorithm Control Parameters.
Mills, K L; Filliben, J J; Haines, A L
2015-01-01
Setting the control parameters of a genetic algorithm to obtain good results is a long-standing problem. We define an experiment design and analysis method to determine relative importance and effective settings for control parameters of any evolutionary algorithm, and we apply this method to a classic binary-encoded genetic algorithm (GA). Subsequently, as reported elsewhere, we applied the GA, with the control parameter settings determined here, to steer a population of cloud-computing simulators toward behaviors that reveal degraded performance and system collapse. GA-steered simulators could serve as a design tool, empowering system engineers to identify and mitigate low-probability, costly failure scenarios. In the existing GA literature, we uncovered conflicting opinions and evidence regarding key GA control parameters and effective settings to adopt. Consequently, we designed and executed an experiment to determine relative importance and effective settings for seven GA control parameters, when applied across a set of numerical optimization problems drawn from the literature. This paper describes our experiment design, analysis, and results. We found that crossover most significantly influenced GA success, followed by mutation rate and population size and then by rerandomization point and elite selection. Selection method and the precision used within the chromosome to represent numerical values had least influence. Our findings are robust over 60 numerical optimization problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shhirov V. N.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents a study of parameters and modes of operation of machines for soil cultivation. In determining the parameters and modes of operation of machinery for tillage we have applied the theory of similarity and dimensions of physical quantities. We have obtained the regularities of disclosing the relationship of the parameters from the medium to the energy characteristics of the process. As the initial data we used test protocols of machines for soil cultivation (Central - Black Earth, Kubanskaya, Sibirskaya, of North - Caucasion MIS, RosNIITiM : KPI - 3.8, AРC - 3.9, AKV - 4, AKM - 6 - V, AMP - 4 APC - 4 A, AРC - 10 APR - 4.4, APU - 6.5 APSH - 6 , CNC - 6.0, CSТ - 3.8, APC - 4. We defined the formula оf dimension parameters and modes of operation of machines for soil cultivation and properties of soil (traction resistance, depth, width, speed, hardness of the soil, acceleration. Based on dimension theory we have received similarity criteria. Based on the correlation analysis and the least squares method we determined the nature of addiction and the coefficients for it. We have also received a graph for determining the operating modes and parameters of machines for soil cultivation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KEVIN ROBERTS
2013-11-01
A key element tied to using a code like MAAP4 is an uncertainty analysis. The purpose of this paper is to present a MAAP4 based analysis to examine the sensitivity of a key parameter, in this case hydrogen production, to a set of model parameters that are related to a Level 2 PRA analysis. The Level 2 analysis examines those sequences that result in core melting and subsequent reactor pressure vessel failure and its impact on the containment. This paper identifies individual contributors and MAAP4 model parameters that statistically influence hydrogen production. Hydrogen generation was chosen because of its direct relationship to oxidation. With greater oxidation, more heat is added to the core region and relocation (core slump should occur faster. This, in theory, would lead to shorter failure times and subsequent “hotter” debris pool on the containment floor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Díaz
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Gas chromatography used to calculate the specific retention volume of several hydrocarbons in different chromatographic liquid phases (Squalane, Carbowax-400, Carbowax-1500, Carbowax-4000, Amine-220, Dinonyl phthalate, Tributyl phosphate and Trixylenyl phosphate. Some thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy of sorption and Flory-Huggins parameters relating the interaction between liquid phases and solutes, were also calculated from the determined retention volumes. Liquid phase solubility parameters of Squalane, Carbowax-400, Carbowax-1500 and Carbowax-4000 at 80 ºC as well as the polar and apolar components were calculated too. A new model was proposed to correlate polar contribution to the solubility parameter of a liquid phase with the specific retention volume of a solute in this liquid phase.
Godinez, Humberto C; Fierro, Alexandre O; Guimond, Stephen R; Kao, Jim
2011-01-01
In this work we present the assimilation of dual-Doppler radar observations for rapidly intensifying hurricane Guillermo (1997) using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to determine key model parameters. A unique aspect of Guillermo was that during the period of radar observations strong convective bursts, attributable to wind shear, formed primarily within the eastern semicircle of the eyewall. To reproduce this observed structure within a hurricane model, background wind shear of some magnitude must be specified; as well as turbulence and surface parameters appropriately specified so that the impact of the shear on the simulated hurricane vortex can be realized. To first illustrate the complex nonlinear interactions induced by changes in these parameters, an ensemble of 120 simulations have been conducted in which individual members were formulated by sampling the parameters within a certain range via a Latin hypercube approach. Next, data from the 120 simulations and two distinct derived fields of observati...
Determination of modeling parameters for power IGBTs under pulsed power conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Gordon, Jim A [U. OF MISSOURI; Kovaleski, Scott D [U. OF MISSOURI
2010-01-01
While the power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGRT) is used in many applications, it is not well characterized under pulsed power conditions. This makes the IGBT difficult to model for solid state pulsed power applications. The Oziemkiewicz implementation of the Hefner model is utilized to simulate IGBTs in some circuit simulation software packages. However, the seventeen parameters necessary for the Oziemkiewicz implementation must be known for the conditions under which the device will be operating. Using both experimental and simulated data with a least squares curve fitting technique, the parameters necessary to model a given IGBT can be determined. This paper presents two sets of these seventeen parameters that correspond to two different models of power IGBTs. Specifically, these parameters correspond to voltages up to 3.5 kV, currents up to 750 A, and pulse widths up to 10 {micro}s. Additionally, comparisons of the experimental and simulated data will be presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Almagrbi Abdualnaser Muftah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for kinetic parameter estimation which is based on standard optimization methods. The parameter estimation procedure is applied to the example of modelling of non-catalytic transesterification reaction, based on laboratory experiments performed under elevated pressure. The kinetic model employed in this study consists of three consecutive and parallel reversible reactions of the second order, with six kinetic constants. The influence of the mass transfer effects was considered as well. The best results were obtained by Genetic Algorithm method. The application of this method resulted in kinetic parameters with improved accuracy in predicting concentrations of important reaction intermediates, i.e. diglycerides and monoglycerides. Activation energies of kinetic parameters obtained by the Genetic Algorithm method are in very good agreement with theoretical values determined by molecular orbital calculations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-45019
Determination of the QCD Λ Parameter and the Accuracy of Perturbation Theory at High Energies.
Dalla Brida, Mattia; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer
2016-10-28
We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α_{MS[over ¯]}(m_{Z}) or, equivalently, the QCD Λ parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α_{s}(μ) in some scheme s and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ, the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme that allows us to nonperturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α_{s}=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a 3% error in the Λ parameter, while data around α_{s}≈0.2 are clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.
Paladini, C; Aringer, B; Hron, J; Reegen, P; Davis, C J; Lebzelter, T
2011-01-01
Giant stars, and especially C-rich giants, contribute significantly to the chemical enrichment of galaxies. The determination of precise parameters for these stars is a necessary prerequisite for a proper implementation of this evolutionary phase in the models of galaxies. Infrared interferometry opened new horizons in the study of the stellar parameters of giant stars, and provided new important constraints for the atmospheric and evolutionary models.We aim to determine which stellar parameters can be constrained by using infrared interferometry and spectroscopy, in the case of C-stars what is the precision which can be achieved and what are the limitations. For this purpose we obtained new infrared spectra and combined them with unpublished interferometric measurements for five mildly variable carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars. The observations were compared with a large grid of hydrostatic model atmospheres and with new isochrones which include the predictions of the thermally pulsing phase. For th...
Zutz, H; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P; Klammer, J
2012-09-01
Active electronic dosemeters using counting techniques are used for radioprotection purposes in pulsed radiation fields in X-ray diagnostics or therapy. The disadvantage of the limited maximum measurable dose rate becomes significant in these radiation fields and leads to some negative effects. In this study, a set of relevant parameters for a dosemeter is described, which can be used to decide whether it is applicable in a given radiation field or not. The determination of these relevant parameters-maximum measurable dose rate in the radiation pulse, dead time of the dosemeter, indication per counting event and measurement cycle time-is specified. The results of the first measurements on the determination of these parameters for an electronic personal dosemeter of the type Thermo Fisher Scientific EPD Mk2 are shown.
Determination of flow-rate characteristics and parameters of piezo pilot valves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takosoglu Jakub
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Pneumatic directional valves are used in most industrial pneumatic systems. Most of them are two-stage valves controlled by a pilot valve. Pilot valves are often chosen randomly. Experimental studies in order to determine the flow-rate characteristics and parameters of pilot valves were not conducted. The paper presents experimental research of two piezo pilot valves.
Vermeulen, J.
2007-01-01
In this study, bioremediation parameters were determined and quantified for different clayey dredged sediments. The research described in this thesis increased the insight into the individual processes of physical ripening, biochemical ripening – including PAH and TPH degradation – that result from
Tillaart, van den S.P.M.; Booij, M.J.; Krol, M.S
2013-01-01
Uncertainties in discharge determination may have serious consequences for hydrological modelling and resulting discharge predictions used for flood forecasting, climate change impact assessment and reservoir operation. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of discharge errors on parameter
METHOD FOR DETERMINING OF ELECTROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF METALS APPLIED IN MOTOR CAR CONSTRUCTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbaschova, M.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents substantiation of the non-contact method for determining the electrical parameters of metals used in motor car construction. The method is based on compensation of elec-tromagnetic fields of two inductors in the internal area with two sheet samples. Analytical relations for calculations of main electromagnetic characteristics of the system under consideration is obtained.
Vermeulen, J.
2007-01-01
In this study, bioremediation parameters were determined and quantified for different clayey dredged sediments. The research described in this thesis increased the insight into the individual processes of physical ripening, biochemical ripening – including PAH and TPH degradation – that result from
Schlesinger, Katharine J; Lee, Young Sun; Masseron, Thomas; Yanny, Brian; Rockosi, Constance M; Gaudi, B Scott; Beers, Timothy C
2010-01-01
Using numerical modeling and a grid of synthetic spectra, we examine the effects that unresolved binaries have on the determination of various stellar atmospheric parameters for SEGUE targets measured using the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). To model undetected binaries that may be in the SEGUE sample, we use a variety of mass distributions for the primary and secondary stars in conjunction with empirically determined relationships for orbital parameters to determine the fraction of G-K dwarf stars, as defined by SDSS color cuts, that will be blended with a secondary companion. We focus on the G-K dwarf sample in SEGUE as it records the history of chemical enrichment in our galaxy. To determine the effect of the secondary on the spectroscopic parameters, we synthesize a grid of model spectra from 3275 to 7850 K (~0.1 to 1.0 \\msun) and [Fe/H]=-0.5 to -2.5 from MARCS model atmospheres using TurboSpectrum. We analyze both "infinite" signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) models and degraded versions, at median S/...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To determine the operating fields of the tolerances of hydraulic systems parameters for various conditions of work and phases of flight given mathematical relationships and the results obtained in Mathcad in analytical form for the board computer system.
Determination of a suitable parameter field for the active fluid jet polishing process
Maurer, Roland; Biskup, Heiko; Trum, Christian; Rascher, Rolf; Wünsche, Christine
2013-09-01
In 2012 a well-known company in the field of high precision optics assigned the University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf to determine a suitable parameter field for the active fluid jet polishing (AFJP) process in order to reach a surface accuracy of at least lambda / 5. The active fluid jet polishing is a relatively new and an affordable sub-aperture polishing process. For a fast and precise identification of the parameter field a considered design of experiment is necessary. The available control variables were the rotational speed of the nozzle, the distance between the test object and the jet, the feed rate, the material of the pin inside the nozzle and the material of the test object itself. In order to reach a significant data density on the one hand and to minimize the number of test runs on the other hand a meander shaped tool path was chosen. At each blank nine paths had been driven whereby at each path another parameter combination was picked. Thus with only one test object nine parameter settings may be evaluated. For the automatized analysis of the tracks a software tool was developed. The software evaluates ten sections which orthogonally intersect the nine tracks on the test-lens. The significant measurement parameters per section are the width and the height of each path as well as the surface roughness within the polished tracks. With the aid of these parameters and further statistical evaluations a suitable parameter field for the goal to find a constant and predictable removal spot was determined. Furthermore up to now over 60 test runs have been successfully finished with nine parameter combinations in each case. As a consequence a test evaluation by hand would be very time-consuming and the software facilitates it dramatically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meliopoulos, Sakis [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Cokkinides, George [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fardanesh, Bruce [New York Power Authority, NY (United States); Hedrington, Clinton [U.S. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands)
2013-12-31
This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Medan Nicolae
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Industrial cleaning is a classic application of water jets technology. In the late 1950s, when reliable high pressure pumps were built, the usage of water jets spread widely in the field of pipes and sewerage cleaning. In our particular case, water jets using pressure between 100 and 200 bars are being used. The operational behaviour of these systems is dependent on the process parameters, which can vary, causing variations in the impact force. The experiment consists in the research method used in the study of the impact forces that occur in the sewerage cleaning head system. To determine the influence process parameters have on impact forces, the full factorial method was used. In order to measure the impact forces between the water jet and a flat and rigid surface, a stand was designed and built for generating pressure water jets, as well as a device to measure the impact forces.
Shen, Jiajian; Tryggestad, Erik; Younkin, James E; Keole, Sameer R; Furutani, Keith M; Kang, Yixiu; Herman, Michael G; Bues, Martin
2017-08-04
To accurately model the beam delivery time (BDT) for a synchrotron-based proton spot scanning system using experimentally determined beam parameters. A model to simulate the proton spot delivery sequences was constructed, and BDT was calculated by summing times for layer switch, spot switch, and spot delivery. Test plans were designed to isolate and quantify the relevant beam parameters in the operation cycle of the proton beam therapy delivery system. These parameters included the layer switch time, magnet preparation and verification time, average beam scanning speeds in x- and y-directions, proton spill rate, and maximum charge and maximum extraction time for each spill. The experimentally determined parameters, as well as the nominal values initially provided by the vendor, served as inputs to the model to predict BDTs for 602 clinical proton beam deliveries. The calculated BDTs (TBDT ) were compared with the BDTs recorded in the treatment delivery log files (TLog ): ∆t = TLog -TBDT . The experimentally determined average layer switch time for all 97 energies was 1.91 s (ranging from 1.9 to 2.0 s for beam energies from 71.3 to 228.8 MeV), average magnet preparation and verification time was 1.93 ms, the average scanning speeds were 5.9 m/s in x-direction and 19.3 m/s in y-direction, the proton spill rate was 8.7 MU/s, and the maximum proton charge available for one acceleration is 2.0 ± 0.4 nC. Some of the measured parameters differed from the nominal values provided by the vendor. The calculated BDTs using experimentally determined parameters matched the recorded BDTs of 602 beam deliveries (∆t = -0.49 ± 1.44 s), which were significantly more accurate than BDTs calculated using nominal timing parameters (∆t = -7.48 ± 6.97 s). An accurate model for BDT prediction was achieved by using the experimentally determined proton beam therapy delivery parameters, which may be useful in modeling the interplay effect and patient throughput. The model may provide
Generative probabilistic models extend the scope of inferential structure determination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsson, Simon; Boomsma, Wouter; Frellsen, Jes
2011-01-01
rigorous approach was developed which treats structure determination as a problem of Bayesian inference. In this case, the forcefields are brought in as a prior distribution in the form of a Boltzmann factor. Due to high computational cost, the approach has been only sparsely applied in practice. Here, we...
Donne, S. E.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.; Nicolau, M.; O'Neill, M.
2014-12-01
Ocean waves, driven by atmospheric processes, generate faint continuous Earth vibrations known as microseisms (Bromirski, 1999). Under certain conditions, ocean waves travelling in opposite directions may interact with one another producing a partial or full standing wave. This wave-wave interaction produces a pressure profile, unattenuated with depth, which exerts a pressure change at the seafloor, resulting in secondary microseisms in the 0.1-0.33 Hz band. There are clear correlations between microseism amplitude and storm and ocean wave intensity. We aim to determine ocean wave heights in the Northeast Atlantic offshore Ireland at individual buoy locations, using terrestrially recorded microseism signals. Two evolutionary approaches are used: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Grammatical Evolution (GE). These systems learn to interpret particular input patterns and corresponding outputs and expose the often complex underlying relationship between them. They learn by example and are therefore entirely data driven so data selection is extremely important for the success of the methods. An analysis and comparison of the performance of these methods for a five month period in 2013 will be presented showing that ocean wave characteristics may be reconstructed using microseism amplitudes, adopting a purely data driven approach. There are periods during the year when the estimations made from both the GE and ANN are delayed in time by 10 to 20 hours when compared to the target buoy measurements. These delays hold important information about the totality of the conditions needed for microseism generation, an analysis of which will be presented.
The Research of Simplification Of 1.9 TDI Diesel Engine Heat Release Parameters Determination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justas Žaglinskis
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The investigation of modified methodology of Audi 1.9 TDI 1Z diesel engine heat release parameters’ determination is represented in the article. In this research the AVL BOOST BURN and IMPULS software was used to treat data and to simulate engine work process. The reverse task of indicated pressure determination from heat release data was solved here. T. Bulaty and W. Glanzman methodology was modified for purpose to simplify the determination of heat release parameters. The maximal cylinder pressure, which requires additional expensive equipment, was changed into the objective indicator – exhaust gas temperature. This modification allowed to simplify the experimental engine tests and also gave simulation results in an error range up to 2% of main engine operating parameters. The study results are assessed as an important point for the simplification of engine test under field conditions.
Xu, Xiao Bing; Zhan, Tony Liang Tong; Chen, Yun Min; Guo, Qi Gang
2015-02-01
The methods to determine the parameters of a one-dimensional compression model for landfilled municipal solid waste were investigated. In order to test the methods for parameter determination, long-term laboratory compression experiments were carried out under different surcharge loads (i.e. 100, 200 and 400 kPa). Based on the measured compression strain and the reported creep index, the modified primary compression indexes, pre-consolidation pressure and ultimate biodegradation-induced secondary compression strain were determined using the proposed methods. It was found that the simulated compression could not capture the measured secondary compression behavior when using a constant value of biodegradation-induced compression rate coefficient. The variation of the rate coefficient with the change of decomposition rate should be considered during modeling. Accordingly, the biodegradation-induced secondary compression strain in the compression model should be expressed in an incremental form in order to consider the variation of the rate coefficient.
Maheshwari, Arpit; Dumitrescu, Mihaela Aneta; Destro, Matteo; Santarelli, Massimo
2016-03-01
Battery models are riddled with incongruous values of parameters considered for validation. In this work, thermally coupled electrochemical model of the pouch is developed and discharge tests on a LiFePO4 pouch cell at different discharge rates are used to optimize the LiFePO4 battery model by determining parameters for which there is no consensus in literature. A discussion on parameter determination, selection and comparison with literature values has been made. The electrochemical model is a P2D model, while the thermal model considers heat transfer in 3D. It is seen that even with no phase change considered for LiFePO4 electrode, the model is able to simulate the discharge curves over a wide range of discharge rates with a single set of parameters provided a dependency of the radius of the LiFePO4 electrode on discharge rate. The approach of using a current dependent radius is shown to be equivalent to using a current dependent diffusion coefficient. Both these modelling approaches are a representation of the particle size distribution in the electrode. Additionally, the model has been thermally validated, which increases the confidence level in the selection of values of parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jardim, P.L.G., E-mail: pedro.lovato@ufrgs.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Microeletrônica, Instituto de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CEP. 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Horowitz, F. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Microeletrônica, Instituto de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CEP. 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Felde, N.; Schröder, S.; Coriand, L.; Duparré, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, D 07745 Jena (Germany)
2016-05-01
The Wenzel roughness parameter of isotropic Gaussian surfaces is analytically described in terms of the Power Spectral Density function without the smooth surface approximation. This Wenzel roughness parameter — Power Spectral Density link was examined for distinct roughnesses of Aluminum-oxide thin films. The Power Spectral Density functions of the surfaces were determined in a wide spatial frequency range by combining different scan areas of Atomic Force Microscopy measurements. The calculated results presented a good agreement with the Wenzel roughness parameter values obtained directly from the topography measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. Finally, wetting behavior was ascertained through determination of water contact angles, including superhydrophobic behavior. This approach, together with an empirical procedure based on a structural parameter, can predict the wetting properties of a surface by taking all its relevant roughness components into account. - Highlights: • Wenzel roughness parameter and Power Spectral Density are theoretically linked. • The formula is tested for Alumina surfaces with distinct roughnesses. • The formula agrees with the experimental data from Atomic Force Microscopy. • The proper contribution of topography in surface wetting can be ascertained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Danmei; LIU Zhanhui; ZHANG Hengliang; YANG Changzhu; DONG Chuan
2007-01-01
Aiming at a 300 MW turbo-generator model,the sensitivity of natural torsional frequencies and modes of torsional vibration (TV) to the rotational inertia and stiffness of the turbo-generator were analyzed.Calculation results show that the variation of the rotational inertia or stiffness either of the rotor system as a whole (namely shafting) or only locally may both remarkably influence the TV characteristics of the rotor.The influence of localized variation is still notable although it is not as great as that of the rotor as a whole.The segments on the shafting,which contribute more to a certain mode of vibration,have a greater influence on the pertaining order of TV.Compared with the modal shape,a larger slope can be observed at these sections of the rotor for the particular mode.Thus,frequencies can be modulated by modifying the local construction of the rotor to make the natural TV frequency of a certain order avoid some specific value,herewith arriving at the objective of tuning.Therefore,it is very important,in the course of modeling for the purpose of studying the TV of the shafting of a turbo-set,to accurately determine the structural parameters of parts that have a relatively sensitive effect on the TV behavior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliana Zottis
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The drawing process of steel bars is usually used to check better dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties to the material. In the other hand, the major concern found in manufacturing axes through this process is the appearance of distortion of shape. Such distortions are directly linked to the accumulation of residual stresses generated during the processes. As a result, this paper aims to study the influence of process parameters such as shape of puller, speed and lubrication used in wire drawing analyzing the accumulation of residual stress after the process. The stress analysis was performed by FEM being used two simulation software: Simufact.formingGP and DeformTM. Through these analyzes, it was found that the shape of how the bar is pulled causes a reduction of up to 100 MPa in residual stresses in the center of the bar, which represents an important factor in the study of the possible causes of the distortion. As well as factors speed and homogeneity of lubrication significantly altered the profile of residual stresses in the bar.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, D.S. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, J.C.R.; Rosenblat, J. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1994-12-31
The paper presents a new formulation that makes feasible a composition of long run production marginal costs with the long run transmission marginal costs, including the costs related to the interconnection EHV networks and that related to the voltage levels below. The goal top be attained is to have available a more adequate parameter in order to compare production cost related to a plant, that will be connected to a certain voltage level network, to the cost related supplying the sam,e amount of energy from the bulk power system which will be represented by the marginal costs up to the voltage level under consideration. This procedure brings to light the Transmission Avoided Costs concepts, that are stressed throughout the text. The proposed methodology is now being used, in the brazilian Power Sector, as a rule of thumb in order to guide planning decisions about the schedule of new plants that have installed capacity below 30 MW. For plants with higher capacity, the transmission avoided costs are evaluated for each specific case, simulating the system behavior without the quoted hydroelectric plant. This paper focuses, an an application example, the case of the Canoas Hydroelectric Project, recently included in the Generation Expansion Reference Plan after a detailed analysis supported by the methodology described here. (author) 7 refs., 3 tabs.
Determination of hydraulic fracture parameters using a non-stationary fluid injection
Valov, A. V.; Golovin, S. V.
2016-06-01
In this paper, one provides a theoretical justification of the possibility of hydraulic fracture parameters determination by using a non-stationary fluid injection. It is assumed that the fluid is pumped into the fractured well with the time-periodic flow rate. It is shown that there is a phase shift between waves of fluid pressure and velocity. For the modelling purposes, the length and width of the fracture are assumed to be fixed. In the case of infinite fracture, one constructs an exact solution that ensures analytical determination of the phase shift in terms of the physical parameters of the problem. In the numerical calculation, the phase shift between pressure and velocity waves is found for a finite fracture. It is shown that the value of the phase shift depends on the physical parameters and on the fracture geometry. This makes it possible to determine parameters of hydraulic fracture, in particular its length, by the experimental measurement of the time shift and comparison with the numerical solution.
Determination of the Michel parameters ξ and ξδ in leptonic τ decays
Schmidtler, M.
1995-03-01
Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II the Michel parameter ξ and ξδ are determined. The integrated luminosity of the ARGUS experiment around √ s = 10 GeV is 445 pb -1. This corresponds to approximatly 415 000 produced τ-pairs. From this data sample, 3262 events are selected with e + → τ +τ - → ( l ±υυ¯ )( π ±π +π -υ . The semihadronic decay is used as an analyser of the τ-spin and allows — owing to the spin-correlation — to determine the Michel parameters ξ and ξδ in the decay τ ± → l ±υυ¯ . Simultanously to the determination of the Michel parameters, a measurement of the τ-neutrino helicity h ν τ in the decay τ∓ → π∓π+π-ν is provided. Thus, preliminary results of the Michel parameters ϱ, ξ, ξ δ, and the τ-neutrino helicity h ν τ will be presented. In addition a preliminary combined ARGUS result on ϱ, ξ, ξ δ, and h ν τ will be given using this work and previous measurements.
Spectrophotometric determination of turbid optical parameters without using an integrating sphere.
Liang, Xiaohui; Li, Meihua; Lu, Jun Q; Huang, Chuanwei; Feng, Yuanming; Sa, Yu; Ding, Junhua; Hu, Xin-Hua
2016-03-10
Spectrophotometric quantification of turbidity by multiple optical parameters has wide-ranging applications in material analysis and life sciences. A robust system design needs to combine hardware for precise measurement of light signals with software to accurately model measurement configuration and rapidly solve a sequence of challenging inverse problems. We have developed and validated a design approach and performed system validation based on radiative transfer theory for determination of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor without using an integrating sphere. Accurate and rapid determination of parameters and spectra is achieved for microsphere suspension samples by combining photodiode-based measurement of four signals with the Monte Carlo simulation and perturbation-based inverse calculations. The three parameters of microsphere suspension samples have been determined from the measured signals as functions of wavelength from 400 to 800 nm and agree with calculated results based on the Mie theory. It has been shown that the inverse problems in the cases of microsphere suspension samples are well posed with convex cost functions to yield unique solutions, and it takes about 1 min to obtain the three parameters per wavelength.
Blümel, Marcus; Hooper, Scott L; Guschlbauerc, Christoph; White, William E; Büschges, Ansgar
2012-11-01
Characterizing muscle requires measuring such properties as force-length, force-activation, and force-velocity curves. These characterizations require large numbers of data points because both what type of function (e.g., linear, exponential, hyperbolic) best represents each property, and the values of the parameters in the relevant equations, need to be determined. Only a few properties are therefore generally measured in experiments on any one muscle, and complete characterizations are obtained by averaging data across a large number of muscles. Such averaging approaches can work well for muscles that are similar across individuals. However, considerable evidence indicates that large inter-individual variation exists, at least for some muscles. This variation poses difficulties for across-animal averaging approaches. Methods to fully describe all muscle's characteristics in experiments on individual muscles would therefore be useful. Prior work in stick insect extensor muscle has identified what functions describe each of this muscle's properties and shown that these equations apply across animals. Characterizing these muscles on an individual-by-individual basis therefore requires determining only the values of the parameters in these equations, not equation form. We present here techniques that allow determining all these parameter values in experiments on single muscles. This technique will allow us to compare parameter variation across individuals and to model muscles individually. Similar experiments can likely be performed on single muscles in other systems. This approach may thus provide a widely applicable method for characterizing and modeling muscles from single experiments.
Experimental determination of chosen document elements parameters from raster graphics sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiří Rybička
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Visual appearance of documents and their formal quality is considered to be as important as the content quality. Formal and typographical quality of documents can be evaluated by an automated system that processes raster images of documents. A document is described by a formal model that treats a page as an object and also as a set of elements, whereas page elements include text and graphic object. All elements are described by their parameters depending on elements’ type. For future evaluation, mainly text objects are important. This paper describes the experimental determination of chosen document elements parameters from raster images. Techniques for image processing are used, where an image is represented as a matrix of dots and parameter values are extracted. Algorithms for parameter extraction from raster images were designed and were aimed mainly at typographical parameters like indentation, alignment, font size or spacing. Algorithms were tested on a set of 100 images of paragraphs or pages and provide very good results. Extracted parameters can be directly used for typographical quality evaluation.
Determination of crack morphology parameters from service failures for leak-rate analyses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilkowski, G.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
In leak-rate analyses described in the literature, the crack morphology parameters are typically not well agreed upon by different investigators. This paper presents results on a review of crack morphology parameters determined from examination of service induced cracks. Service induced cracks were found to have a much more tortuous flow path than laboratory induced cracks due to crack branching associated with the service induced cracks. Several new parameters such as local and global surface roughnesses, as well as local and global number of turns were identified. The effect of each of these parameters are dependent on the crack-opening displacement. Additionally, the crack path is typically assumed to be straight through the pipe thickness, but the service data show that the flow path can be longer due to the crack following a fusion line, and/or the number of turns, where the number of turns in the past were included as a pressure drop term due to the turns, but not the longer flow path length. These parameters were statistically evaluated for fatigue cracks in air, corrosion-fatigue, IGSCC, and thermal fatigue cracks. A refined version of the SQUIRT leak-rate code was developed to account for these variables. Sample calculations are provided in this paper that show how the crack size can vary for a given leak rate and the statistical variation of the crack morphology parameters.
Wang, Jun; Yang, Xuzhao; Wu, Jinchao; Song, Hao; Zou, Wenyuan
2015-12-01
Inverse gas chromatographic (IGC) technology was used to determine the solubility parameters of three asymmetrical dicationic ionic liquids ([ PyC5Pi] [ NTf2]2, [MpC5Pi] [NTf2]2 and [PyC6Pi] [NTf2]2) at 343.15-363.15 K. Five alkanes were applied as test probes including octane (n-C8) , decane (n-C10), dodecane (n-C12), tetradecane (n-C14), hexadecane (n-C16). Some thermodynamic parameters were obtained by IGC data analysis, such as the specific retention volumes of the solvents (V0(g)), the molar enthalpies of sorption (ΔHs(1)), the partial molar enthalpies of mixing at infinite dilution (ΔH∞91)), the molar enthalpies of vaporization (ΔH)v)), the activity coefficients at infinite dilution (Ω∞(1)), and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ∞(12)) between ionic liquids and probes. The solubility parameters (δ2) of the three dicationic ionic liquids at room temperature (298.15 K) were 28.52-32.66 (J x cm(-3)) ½. The solubility parameters (δ2) of cationic structure with 4-methyl morpholine are bigger than those of the cationic structure with pyridine. The bigger the solubility parameter (δ2) is, the more the carbon numbers of linking group of the ionic liquids are. The results are of great importance to the study of the solution behavior and the applications of ionic liquid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ece Ayli
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The runner design is the most challenging part of the turbine design process. Several parameters determine the performance and cavitation characteristics of the runner: the metal angle (flow beta angle, the alpha angle, the blade beta angle, the runner inlet and outlet diameters, and the blade height. All of these geometrical parameters need to be optimized to ensure that the head, flow rate and power requirements of the system are met. A hydraulic designer has to allocate time to optimize these parameters and should be experienced in carrying out the iterative design process. In this article, the turbine runner parameters that affect the performance and cavitation characteristics of designed turbines are examined in detail. Furthermore, turbines are custom designed according to the properties of hydroelectric power plants; this makes the design process even more challenging, as the rotational speed, runner geometry, system head and flow rate vary for each turbine. The effects of the design parameters are examined for four different turbine runners specifically designed and used in actual power plants in order to obtain general results and generalizations applicable to turbine design aided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The flow behavior, flow angles, head losses, pressure distribution, and cavitation characteristics are computed, analyzed, and compared. To assist hydraulic designers, the general influences of these parameters on the performance of turbines are summarized and empirical formulations are derived for runner performance characterization.
Determination of Scaling Parameter and Dynamical Resonances in Complex-Rotated Hamiltonian Ⅰ: Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Heng-Mei; ZHAO Fang; YUAN Hong-Chun; ZHAO Mei-Shan
2008-01-01
In this paper we present a theoretical analysis on the determination of the scaling parameter in the complex-rotated Hamiltonian, which has served as a basis for successful applications of the rigged Hilbert space theory for resonances. Based on the complex energy eigenvalue, E(θ) = En(θ) - iF(θ)/2, as a function of the scaling parameter The condition dER(θR)/ dθ = 0 is merely a consequence of the Virial theorem and θⅠ = θR is not a necessary condition for a resonance state. We also provide a harmonic approximation formalism for resonances in scattering over a potential barrier.
Barber, Michael N.
1980-03-01
An algorithm for determining the sequence of variational parameters in a variational approximation to a real-space renormalization group is developed. Using this procedure, the Kadanoff one-hypercube approximation for the two-dimensional Ising model is investigated in some detail. We conclude that the apparent success of this method is somewhat fortuitous; a consistent and completely optimized treatment yielding considerably poorer estimates of the specific heat exponents. In addition, the variational parameter is found to be non-analytic at the fixed point. The nature of singularity agrees with the predictions of van Saarloos, van Leeuwen, and Pruisken.
Determination of irradiation parameters for laser-induced periodic surface structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eichstaedt, J., E-mail: j.eichstadt@utwente.nl [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, P.O. Box 217, Enschede, 7500 AE (Netherlands); Roemer, G.R.B.E. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, P.O. Box 217, Enschede, 7500 AE (Netherlands); Huis in ' t Veld, A.J. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, P.O. Box 217, Enschede, 7500 AE (Netherlands); TNO Technical Sciences, Mechatronics, Mechanics and Materials, De Rondom 1, Eindhoven, 5600 HE (Netherlands)
2013-01-01
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present an approach for the determination of irradiation parameters for laser-induced periodic surface structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is based on accumulated fluence and consists of two steps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (1) Determination of fluence domain boundaries and (2) approximation of irradiation parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is required to apply LIPSS for surface functionalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide experimental evidence that the accumulated fluence has a decisive role in the spatial emergence of LIPSS. - Abstract: The spatial emergence of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on single-crystalline silicon, upon irradiation with linearly polarized picosecond laser pulses (wavelength {lambda} = 1030 nm, pulse duration {tau} = 6.7 ps, pulse repetition frequency f{sub p} = 1 kHz) was studied theoretically and experimentally, under lateral displacement conditions. An experimental approach is presented for the determination of irradiation parameters of extended surface areas homogenously covered with LIPSS. The approach is based on accumulated fluence and consists of two steps, first the empirical determination of accumulated fluence domain boundaries and second the approximation of irradiation parameters. Such an approach is required for the application of LIPSS in the field of surface functionalization. The approach was successfully applied for structuring extended surface areas, which were homogenously covered with LIPSS. The areas, obtained by different irradiation parameter combinations, satisfying accumulated fluence boundary conditions, show the same type of LIPSS. This observation provides evidence, that the accumulated fluence has a decisive role in the spatial emergence of LIPSS. In the future, further experiments are required to verify the validity and boundaries of the approximations applied.
Determination of Eros Physical Parameters for Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Orbit Phase Navigation
Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. J.; Georgini, J.; Owen, W. M.; Williams, B. G.; Yeomans, D. K.
1995-01-01
Navigation of the orbit phase of the Near Earth steroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission will re,quire determination of certain physical parameters describing the size, shape, gravity field, attitude and inertial properties of Eros. Prior to launch, little was known about Eros except for its orbit which could be determined with high precision from ground based telescope observations. Radar bounce and light curve data provided a rough estimate of Eros shape and a fairly good estimate of the pole, prime meridian and spin rate. However, the determination of the NEAR spacecraft orbit requires a high precision model of Eros's physical parameters and the ground based data provides only marginal a priori information. Eros is the principal source of perturbations of the spacecraft's trajectory and the principal source of data for determining the orbit. The initial orbit determination strategy is therefore concerned with developing a precise model of Eros. The original plan for Eros orbital operations was to execute a series of rendezvous burns beginning on December 20,1998 and insert into a close Eros orbit in January 1999. As a result of an unplanned termination of the rendezvous burn on December 20, 1998, the NEAR spacecraft continued on its high velocity approach trajectory and passed within 3900 km of Eros on December 23, 1998. The planned rendezvous burn was delayed until January 3, 1999 which resulted in the spacecraft being placed on a trajectory that slowly returns to Eros with a subsequent delay of close Eros orbital operations until February 2001. The flyby of Eros provided a brief glimpse and allowed for a crude estimate of the pole, prime meridian and mass of Eros. More importantly for navigation, orbit determination software was executed in the landmark tracking mode to determine the spacecraft orbit and a preliminary shape and landmark data base has been obtained. The flyby also provided an opportunity to test orbit determination operational procedures that will be
Boisson, F.; Bekaert, V.; Brasse, D.
2016-03-01
Nowadays, Single Photon imaging has become an essential part of molecular imaging and nuclear medicine. Whether to establish a diagnosis or in the therapeutic monitoring, this modality presents performance that continues to improve. For over 50 years, several collimators have been proposed. Mainly governed by collimation parameters, the resolution-sensitivity trade-off is the factor determining the collimator the most suitable for an intended study. One alternative to the common approaches is the rotating slat collimator (RSC). In the present study, we are aiming at developing a preclinical system equipped with a RSC dedicated to mice and rats imaging, which requires both high sensitivity and spatial resolution. We investigated the resolution-sensitivity trade-offs obtained by varying different collimation parameters: (i) the slats height (H), and (ii) the gap between two consecutive slats (g), considering different intrinsic spatial resolutions. One system matrix was generated for each set of collimation parameters (H,g). Spatial resolutions, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and sensitivity obtained for all the set of collimation parameters (H,g) were measured in the 2D projections reconstructed with ML-EM. According to our results, 20 mm high slats and a 1 mm gap were chosen as a good RSC candidate for a preclinical detection module. This collimator will ensure a sensitivity greater than 0.2% and a system spatial resolution below 1 mm, considering an intrinsic spatial resolution below 0.8 mm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nathaniel S. Tarkaa
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The accurate estimation of the traffic parameters, especially traffic intensity that the network must support is a key criterion in the development of an effective Next Generation Network (NGN model. In this paper, starting from data collection involving users of telecommunication services in Benue State, Nigeria, the call rate, data transaction rate, call holding times/data transaction time and traffic intensity have been estimated at the 23 local government headquarters of the State. The existing network in Benue State is GSM based and the services provided are Voice, SMS and Internet. A marketing research was first conducted to determine the level of services usage by the amount of money spent by the high, middle and low income earners. Then using the prevailing tariff rates, the amount of data transferred in bits for the three classes of services were determined. The traffic model used is based on a probabilistic model of events initiated by calls and transactions of NGN services. The model is used to estimate the symmetrical and asymmetrical traffic intensities separately at each of the 23 headquarters representing the network nodes. Generally, the results of the study show that a developing country is characterized by a prevalence of voice and SMS services, and limited Internet services; large number of low income earners; and low rates of call/data transactions and traffic intensities. The study demonstrates a method to estimate traffic parameters at different network nodes starting from subscriber field studies. The use of the method will facilitate the preparation of both business and technical plans for effective and efficient planning and dimensioning of NGN networks in a developing economy.
Determining stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of FGK stars with iSpec
Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Jofré, P
2014-01-01
Context. An increasing number of high-resolution stellar spectra is available today thanks to many past and ongoing extensive spectroscopic surveys. Consequently, the scientific community needs automatic procedures to derive atmospheric parameters and individual element abundances. Aims. Based on the widely known SPECTRUM code by R. O. Gray, we developed an integrated spectroscopic software framework suitable for the determination of atmospheric parameters (i.e., effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity) and individual chemical abundances. The code, named iSpec and freely distributed, is written mainly in Python and can be used on different platforms. Methods. iSpec can derive atmospheric parameters by using the synthetic spectral fitting technique and the equivalent width method. We validated the performance of both approaches by developing two different pipelines and analyzing the Gaia FGK benchmark stars spectral library. The analysis was complemented with several tests designed to assess other ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mohammad Mehdi Faghih; Zeynab Khosravinia; Mohsen Ebrahimi Moghaddam
2014-04-01
Colour constancy is defined as the ability to estimate the actual colours of objects in an acquired image disregarding the colour of scene illuminant. Despite large variety of existing methods, no colour constancy algorithm can be considered as universal. Among the methods, the gray framework is one of the best-known and most used approaches. This framework has some parameters that should be set with appropriate values to achieve the best performance for each image. In this article, we propose a neural network-based algorithm that aims to automatically determine the best value of gray framework parameters for each image. It is a multi-level approach that estimates the optimal values for the gray framework parameters based on relevant features extracted from the input image. Experimental results on two popular colour constancy datasets show an acceptable improvement over state-of-the-art methods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LiZhong; ShuWenli; 等
1996-01-01
The parameter identification model of large scale chromatography separation process is proposed.The phase equilibrium constants and lumped mass transfer coefficients of sugar and reducing sugar adsorption on D1,D2 and D3 resins as well as the axial dispersion coefficients of the fluid through packed columns are determined by means of the pulse-response experiment technique with an inert substance as a tracer and the chromatography measuring technique.The elution curve calculated from these parameters is good agreement with the experimental elution curve.The sensitivity analysis of these parameters is carried out ,and the result shows that the elution curves of chromatography separation are more sensitive to the variations of the phase equilibrium relationship than to the variation of the axial dispersion as well as the lumped mass transfer coefficients.
Bayo, A; Barrado, D; Allard, F
2014-01-01
One of the very first steps astronomers working in stellar physics perform to advance in their studies, is to determine the most common/relevant physical parameters of the objects of study (effective temperature, bolometric luminosity, surface gravity, etc.). Different methodologies exist depending on the nature of the data, intrinsic properties of the objects, etc. One common approach is to compare the observational data with theoretical models passed through some simulator that will leave in the synthetic data the same imprint than the observational data carries, and see what set of parameters reproduce the observations best. Even in this case, depending on the kind of data the astronomer has, the methodology changes slightly. After parameters are published, the community tend to quote, praise and criticize them, sometimes paying little attention on whether the possible discrepancies come from the theoretical models, the data themselves or just the methodology used in the analysis. In this work we perform t...
Grain Nucleation Parameters for Aluminum Alloys: Experimental Determination and Model Validation
Ahmadein, M.; Pustal, B.; Berger, R.; Subašić, E.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.
2009-03-01
A statistical grain nucleation model was implemented as a part of a multiphase flow and solidification simulation code for metallic alloys. Three characteristic parameters control the solution accuracy of the nucleation model: the total grain density, the mean undercooling, and the standard deviation of the undercooling. These parameters were obtained experimentally for grain-refined (GR) A356, GR AlCu4, and unrefined (UR) AlCu4 aluminum alloys. An apparatus was constructed and equipped with a cooling system to provide different cooling rates throughout the cast sample. The local grain density related to each cooling rate and undercooling was determined. The model parameters were obtained via statistical tools and were used to perform a simulation for the solidification of the cast sample. Calculated results were compared to experimental results, and the model exhibited good agreement with the experiments.
A Bayesian and Physics-Based Ground Motion Parameters Map Generation System
Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Quiroz, A.; Sandoval, H.; Perez-Yanez, C.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macias, M. A.; Alcántara, L.
2014-12-01
We present the Ground Motion Parameters Map Generation (GMPMG) system developed by the Institute of Engineering at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The system delivers estimates of information associated with the social impact of earthquakes, engineering ground motion parameters (gmp), and macroseismic intensity maps. The gmp calculated are peak ground acceleration and velocity (pga and pgv) and response spectral acceleration (SA). The GMPMG relies on real-time data received from strong ground motion stations belonging to UNAM's networks throughout Mexico. Data are gathered via satellite and internet service providers, and managed with the data acquisition software Earthworm. The system is self-contained and can perform all calculations required for estimating gmp and intensity maps due to earthquakes, automatically or manually. An initial data processing, by baseline correcting and removing records containing glitches or low signal-to-noise ratio, is performed. The system then assigns a hypocentral location using first arrivals and a simplified 3D model, followed by a moment tensor inversion, which is performed using a pre-calculated Receiver Green's Tensors (RGT) database for a realistic 3D model of Mexico. A backup system to compute epicentral location and magnitude is in place. A Bayesian Kriging is employed to combine recorded values with grids of computed gmp. The latter are obtained by using appropriate ground motion prediction equations (for pgv, pga and SA with T=0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 s ) and numerical simulations performed in real time, using the aforementioned RGT database (for SA with T=2, 2.5 and 3 s). Estimated intensity maps are then computed using SA(T=2S) to Modified Mercalli Intensity correlations derived for central Mexico. The maps are made available to the institutions in charge of the disaster prevention systems. In order to analyze the accuracy of the maps, we compare them against observations not considered in the
Determination of meteor parameters based on the trajectory length and duration
Pupyrev, Yury; Gritsevich, Maria; Esko, Lyytinen
We describe a new method to determine parameters of meteoroids based on the observed deceleration rate in the atmosphere. The input parameters in the problem are time and length of a visible path of a meteor detected in different points along its atmospheric trajectory. By introducing physically based parameterization and integrating equations of motion the following dependency may be obtained between the meteor height above planetary surface and its velocity (see, e.g. Gritsevich, 2009): $ y=ln 2alpha+beta-ln(operatorname{/line Ei}(beta)-operatorname{/line Ei}(beta v(2)).) Here alpha =frac12 c_{mathrm d}frac{rho_0h_0S_{mathrm e}}{M_{mathrm e}singamma},qquad beta =frac12(1-mu)frac{c_{mathrm h}V(2__{mathrm) e}}{c_{mathrm d}H(*}) $ are ballistic coefficient and mass loss parameter. These are the key parameters which have to be identified and can be further resolved to determine other important quantities, such as meteoroid mass and ablation coefficient. While in ``direct'' method for solving the equations of motion the number of input parameters reaches 8 (and thus significantly exceeds the number of physical equations), in this case all variables are grouped together in definition of these two parameters. The above mentioned equation was previously successfully used to fit the observational data. In this study we develop a novel algorithm where the length along trajectory may be used as input parameter. To demonstrate the method, we analyze data recorded with two or more monitoring stations of fireball network operating in Finland (Lyytinen and Gritsevich, 2013). Acknowledgements: This work is conducted under the partial support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research projects Nos. 14-08-00204 and 13-07-00276 and the Academy of Finland. We thank Pekka Kokko, Jarmo Moilanen and the whole Finnish Fireball Working Group for their thorough help with data collection. textit{References}: Gritsevich (2009): Determination of parameters of meteor bodies based on
Equation-free analysis of agent-based models and systematic parameter determination
Thomas, Spencer A.; Lloyd, David J. B.; Skeldon, Anne C.
2016-12-01
Agent based models (ABM)s are increasingly used in social science, economics, mathematics, biology and computer science to describe time dependent systems in circumstances where a description in terms of equations is difficult. Yet few tools are currently available for the systematic analysis of ABM behaviour. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis is a well-established tool for the study of deterministic systems. Recently, equation-free (EF) methods have been developed to extend numerical continuation techniques to systems where the dynamics are described at a microscopic scale and continuation of a macroscopic property of the system is considered. To date, the practical use of EF methods has been limited by; (1) the over-head of application-specific implementation; (2) the laborious configuration of problem-specific parameters; and (3) large ensemble sizes (potentially) leading to computationally restrictive run-times. In this paper we address these issues with our tool for the EF continuation of stochastic systems, which includes algorithms to systematically configuration problem specific parameters and enhance robustness to noise. Our tool is generic and can be applied to any 'black-box' simulator and determines the essential EF parameters prior to EF analysis. Robustness is significantly improved using our convergence-constraint with a corrector-repeat (C3R) method. This algorithm automatically detects outliers based on the dynamics of the underlying system enabling both an order of magnitude reduction in ensemble size and continuation of systems at much higher levels of noise than classical approaches. We demonstrate our method with application to several ABM models, revealing parameter dependence, bifurcation and stability analysis of these complex systems giving a deep understanding of the dynamical behaviour of the models in a way that is not otherwise easily obtainable. In each case we demonstrate our systematic parameter determination stage for
Use of multilevel modeling for determining optimal parameters of heat supply systems
Stennikov, V. A.; Barakhtenko, E. A.; Sokolov, D. V.
2017-07-01
The problem of finding optimal parameters of a heat-supply system (HSS) is in ensuring the required throughput capacity of a heat network by determining pipeline diameters and characteristics and location of pumping stations. Effective methods for solving this problem, i.e., the method of stepwise optimization based on the concept of dynamic programming and the method of multicircuit optimization, were proposed in the context of the hydraulic circuit theory developed at Melentiev Energy Systems Institute (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences). These methods enable us to determine optimal parameters of various types of piping systems due to flexible adaptability of the calculation procedure to intricate nonlinear mathematical models describing features of used equipment items and methods of their construction and operation. The new and most significant results achieved in developing methodological support and software for finding optimal parameters of complex heat supply systems are presented: a new procedure for solving the problem based on multilevel decomposition of a heat network model that makes it possible to proceed from the initial problem to a set of interrelated, less cumbersome subproblems with reduced dimensionality; a new algorithm implementing the method of multicircuit optimization and focused on the calculation of a hierarchical model of a heat supply system; the SOSNA software system for determining optimum parameters of intricate heat-supply systems and implementing the developed methodological foundation. The proposed procedure and algorithm enable us to solve engineering problems of finding the optimal parameters of multicircuit heat supply systems having large (real) dimensionality, and are applied in solving urgent problems related to the optimal development and reconstruction of these systems. The developed methodological foundation and software can be used for designing heat supply systems in the Central and the Admiralty regions in
Kim, Woohan; Hahm, In-Kyeong; Kim, Won-Young; Lee, Jung Mo
2010-10-01
We demonstrate that GA-MHYPO determines accurate hypocentral parameters for local earthquakes under ill conditions, such as limited number of stations (phase data), large azimuthal gap, and noisy data. The genetic algorithm (GA) in GA-MHYPO searches for the optimal 1-D velocity structure which provides the minimum traveltime differences between observed (true) and calculated P and S arrivals within prescribed ranges. GA-MHYPO is able to determine hypocentral parameters more accurately in many circumstances than conventional methods which rely on an a priori (and possibly incorrect) 1-D velocity model. In our synthetic tests, the accuracy of hypocentral parameters obtained by GA-MHYPO given ill conditions is improved by more than a factor of 20 for error-free data, and by a factor of five for data with errors, compared to that obtained by conventional methods such as HYPOINVERSE. In the case of error-free data, GA-MHYPO yields less than 0.1 km errors in focal depths and hypocenters without strong dependence on azimuthal coverage up to 45°. Errors are less than 1 km for data with errors of a 0.1-s standard deviation. To test the performance using real data, a well-recorded earthquake in the New Madrid seismic zone and earthquakes recorded under ill conditions in the High Himalaya are relocated by GA-MHYPO. The hypocentral parameters determined by GA-MHYPO under both good and ill conditions show similar computational results, which suggest that GA-MHYPO is robust and yields more reliable hypocentral parameters than standard methods under ill conditions for natural earthquakes.
Palanivelu, Sakthivel; Narasimha Rao, K. V.; Ramarathnam, Krishna Kumar
2015-12-01
In order to address various noise generation mechanisms and noise propagation phenomena of a tyre, it is necessary to study the tyre dynamic behaviour in terms of modal parameters. This paper enumerates a novel method of finding the modal parameters of a rolling tyre using an Explicit Finite Element Analysis and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA). ABAQUS Explicit, a commercial Finite Element (FE) software code has been used to simulate the experiment, a tyre rolling over a semi-circular straight and inclined cleat. The acceleration responses obtained from these simulations are used as input to the OMA. LMS test lab has been used for carrying out the Operational Modal Analysis. The modal results are compared with the published results of Kindt [22] and validated. Also, the modal results obtained from OMA are compared with FE modal results of stationary unloaded tyre, stationary loaded tyre and Steady State Transport rolling tyre.
Determination of Hapke's Equation Parameters Using Multi-angular Bidirectional Reflectance Spectra.
Cord, A.; Pinet, P.; Daydou, Y.; Chevrel, S.
Hapke's equation of radiative transfer provides a basic rigorous description of pho- tometric behavior of a powdered mineral mixture in terms of physically meaningful parameters characterizing multiple scattering, phase function, opposition effect, and roughness. However values of parameters involved in Hapke's equation are only par- tially known for typical planetary materials, and their complex determination hampers the quantification of materials abundance present in a multispectral scenes, when ap- plying a non linear spectral mixture. The objective of this investigation is to present a reliable method, based on a genetic algorithm, allowing to solve simultaneously all the parameters involved in Hapke's equation. This can be achieved with multi-angular hyperspectral images and do not require any a priori knowledge of the target under study. Using a spectral imaging facility, operational at the Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France and dedicated to the measurement along the 0.40 - 1.05 mm domain of the multi-angular and multispectral properties of macroscopic surfaces (200 x 200 mm) with a submillimeter spatial resolution, this new method is applied on three powdered soils with four grain sizes sorting. The first results are compared with the literature and their analysis determines the success and limitations of such an approach. A by-product of this application is the derivation of Hapke parameters that may be used in future reflectance data interpretations and acquisition (e.g. AMIE / SMART-1, Lunar A, Selene optical instruments).
One-loop effects on MSSM parameter determination via chargino production at the LC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bharucha, Aoife [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kalinowski, Jan [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-11-15
At a future linear collider very precise measurements, typically with errors of <1%, are expected to be achievable. Such an accuracy gives sensitivity to the quantum corrections, which therefore must be incorporated in theoretical calculations in order to determine the underlying new physics parameters from prospective linear collider measurements. In the context of the chargino-neutralino sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, this involves fitting one-loop predictions to prospective measurements of the cross sections, forward-backward asymmetries and of the accessible chargino and neutralino masses. Taking recent results from LHC SUSY and Higgs searches into account we consider three benchmark scenarios, each with characteristic features. Our analysis shows how an accurate determination of the desired parameters is possible, providing in addition access to the stop masses and mixing angle.
One-loop effects on MSSM parameter determination via chargino production at the LC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bharucha, Aoife [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kalinowski, Jan [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-11-15
At a future linear collider very precise measurements, typically with errors of <1%, are expected to be achievable. Such an accuracy gives sensitivity to the quantum corrections, which therefore must be incorporated in theoretical calculations in order to determine the underlying new physics parameters from prospective linear collider measurements. In the context of the chargino-neutralino sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, this involves fitting one-loop predictions to prospective measurements of the cross sections, forward-backward asymmetries and of the accessible chargino and neutralino masses. Taking recent results from LHC SUSY and Higgs searches into account we consider three benchmark scenarios, each with characteristic features. Our analysis shows how an accurate determination of the desired parameters is possible, providing in addition access to the stop masses and mixing angle.
The in vitro effect of drugs on biochemical parameters determined by a SMAC system.
Vinet, B; Letellier, G
1977-02-01
1. We have studied the in vitro effect of 39 drugs on 17 biochemical parameters determined by a SMAC System. Only two drugs were found to interfere: ascorbic and theophyline. 2. The ascorbic acid lowers the glucose and the bilirubine values; it increases the creatinine and the uric acid concentration. At concentration smaller than 5 mg/dl of this drug, these effects are negligible. 3. We have found a new drug interference: theophylline inhibits the alkaline phosphatase and LDH activities. This effect is not negligible on alkaline phosphatase for therapeutic levels of this drug; the action on LDH can be ignored at normal therapeutic range. 4. For a given drug, we have found different interference with biochemical parameters determined with various commercial lyophlised control sera or a liquid pool of sera. This indicates that the type of sera used in drug interference studies must be described.
First determination of CP violation parameters from K sup 0 -anti K sup 0 decay asymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adler, R.; Backenstoss, G.; Eckart, B.; Felder, C.; Pagels, B.; Polivka, G.; Rickenbach, R.; Santoni, C.; Tauscher, L.; Troester, D.A. (Univ. Basel (Switzerland)); Alhalel, T.; Ealet, A.; Fassnacht, P.; Geralis, T.; Montanet, F.; Pelucchi, F. (CCPM, IN2P3/CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France) Univ. d' Aix-Marseille 2, 13 - Marseille (France)); Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Rozaki, E.; Sakeliou, L.; Sarigiannis, K. (Univ. Athens (Greece)); Aslanides, E. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) CCPM, IN2P3/CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France) Univ. d' Aix-Marseille 2, 13 - Marseille (France)); Bee, C.P.; Gamet, R. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) Univ. Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Bennet, J.; Cawley, E.; Dodgson, M.; Fry, J.R.; Gabathuler, E.; Harrison, P.F.; Hayman, P.J.; Maley, P.; Sacks, L.; Sanders, P.; Vlachos, S. (Univ. Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Bienlein, J.K.; Fetscher, W.; Gerber, H.J.; Gumplinger, P.; Ruf, T.; Schaefer, M.; Weber, P.; Witzig, C. (ETH-IMP, Zurich (Switzerland)); Bloch, P.; Fidecaro,; CPLEAR Collaboration
1992-07-23
We report the first determination of CP violation parameters from particle-antiparticle asymmetry in the decay of neutral kaons into two charged pions. Observation of such an asymmetry is direct proof of CP violation. A fit to the asymmetry enabled a determination of the parameter {eta}{sub +-} to be made, yielding the result vertical stroke{eta}{sub +-}vertical stroke=(2.32{+-}0.14(stat.){+-}0.03(syst.))x10{sup -3} and {phi}{sub +-}=42.3deg{+-}4.4deg(stat.){+-}0.4deg(syst.), with an additional uncertainty of {+-}1.0deg due to the error on the present published value of {Delta}m, the K{sub L}{sup 0}-K{sub S}{sup 0} mass difference. The magnitudes of both statistical and systematic errors will be significantly reduced in the future. (orig.).
Determination of Concrete Fracture Parameters from a Three-Point Bending Test
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张君; 刘骞
2003-01-01
The mechanical behavior within the processing zone of concrete material can be well described by the crack bridging performance. The material properties related to the crack bridging are cracking strength, tensile strength, and the stress-crack width relationship. In general, the cracking strength is lower than the tensile strength of concrete. Crack propagation is governed by the cracking strength. This paper presents a method to determine the above material parameters from a three-point bending test. In the experiment, a pre-notched beam is used. Corresponding values of load, crack mouth opening displacement, and load point displacement are simultaneously recorded. From experimentally determined load-crack mouth opening displacement curves, the above-mentioned crack bridging parameters are deduced by a numerical procedure. The method can be used to evaluate the influence of coarse aggregate and cementitious matrix strength on the stress-crack width relationship, tensile strength, and fracture energy of concrete.
Determination of the kinetic parameters of Be O using isothermal decay method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azorin N, J.; Torijano C, E. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin V, C.; Rivera M, T., E-mail: azorin@xanum.uam.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)
2015-10-15
Full text: Most of the existing methods for obtaining the frequency factors make use of the trap depth (activation energy) making some assumptions about the order of the kinetics. This causes inconsistencies in the reported values of trapping parameters due that the values of the activation energy obtained by different methods differ appreciably among them. Then, it is necessary to use a method independent of the trap depth making use of the isothermal luminescence decay method. The trapping parameters associated with the prominent glow peak of Be O (280 degrees C) are reported using isothermal luminescence decay method. As a check, the trap parameters are also calculated by glow curve shape (Chen s) method after isolating the prominent glow peak by thermal cleaning technique. Our results show a very good agreement between the trapping parameters calculated by the two methods. Isothermal luminescence decay method was used for determining the trapping parameters of Be O. Results obtained applying this method are in good agreement with those obtained using other methods, except in the value of the frequency factor. (Author)
Bustos, Cesar; Sandeen, Ben; Chennakesavalu, Shriram; Littenberg, Tyson; Farr, Ben; Kalogera, Vassiliki
2016-01-01
Gravitational Waves (GWs) were predicted by Einstein's Theory of General Relativity as ripples in space-time that propagate outward from a source. Strong GW sources consist of compact binary systems such as Binary Neutron Stars (BNS) or Binary Black Holes (BBHs) that experience orbital shrinkage (inspiral) and eventual merger. Indirect evidence for the existence of GWs has been obtained through radio pulsar studies in BNS systems. A study of BBHs and other compact objects has limitations in the electromagnetic spectrum, therefore direct detections of GWs will open a new window into their nature. The effort targeting direct GWs detection is anchored on the development of a detector known as Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observation). Although detecting GW sources represents an anticipated breakthrough in physics, making GW astrophysics a reality critically relies on our ability to determine and measure the physical parameters associated with GW sources. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations on high-performance computing clusters for parameter estimation on high dimensional spaces (GW sources - 15 parameters). The quality of GW parameter estimation greatly depends on having the best possible knowledge of the expected waveform. Unfortunately, BBH GW production is very complex and our best waveforms are not valid across the full parameter space. With large-scale simulations we examine quantitatively the limitations of these waveforms in terms of extracting the astrophysical properties of BBH GW sources. We find that current waveforms are inadequate for BBH of unequal masses and demonstrate that improved waveforms are critically needed.
Verma, Kuldeep; Hanasoge, Shravan; Bhattacharya, Jishnu; Antia, H. M.; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy
2016-10-01
The advent of space-based observatories such as Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) and Kepler has enabled the testing of our understanding of stellar evolution on thousands of stars. Evolutionary models typically require five input parameters, the mass, initial helium abundance, initial metallicity, mixing length (assumed to be constant over time), and the age to which the star must be evolved. Some of these parameters are also very useful in characterizing the associated planets and in studying Galactic archaeology. How to obtain these parameters from observations rapidly and accurately, specifically in the context of surveys of thousands of stars, is an outstanding question, one that has eluded straightforward resolution. For a given star, we typically measure the effective temperature and surface metallicity spectroscopically and low-degree oscillation frequencies through space observatories. Here we demonstrate that statistical learning, using artificial neural networks, is successful in determining the evolutionary parameters based on spectroscopic and seismic measurements. Our trained networks show robustness over a broad range of parameter space, and critically, are entirely computationally inexpensive and fully automated. We analyse the observations of a few stars using this method and the results compare well to inferences obtained using other techniques. This method is both computationally cheap and inferentially accurate, paving the way for analysing the vast quantities of stellar observations from past, current, and future missions.
STUDY ON ADAPTIVE PARAMETER DETERMINATION OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN URBAN MANAGEMENT CASES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Y. Fu
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The fine management for cities is the important way to realize the smart city. The data mining which uses spatial clustering analysis for urban management cases can be used in the evaluation of urban public facilities deployment, and support the policy decisions, and also provides technical support for the fine management of the city. Aiming at the problem that DBSCAN algorithm which is based on the density-clustering can not realize parameter adaptive determination, this paper proposed the optimizing method of parameter adaptive determination based on the spatial analysis. Firstly, making analysis of the function Ripley's K for the data set to realize adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts, which means setting the maximum aggregation scale as the range of data clustering. Calculating every point object’s highest frequency K value in the range of Eps which uses K-D tree and setting it as the value of clustering density to realize the adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts. Then, the R language was used to optimize the above process to accomplish the precise clustering of typical urban management cases. The experimental results based on the typical case of urban management in XiCheng district of Beijing shows that: The new DBSCAN clustering algorithm this paper presents takes full account of the data’s spatial and statistical characteristic which has obvious clustering feature, and has a better applicability and high quality. The results of the study are not only helpful for the formulation of urban management policies and the allocation of urban management supervisors in XiCheng District of Beijing, but also to other cities and related fields.
Determination of the quadratic slope parameter in eta-->3pi(0) decay.
Tippens, W B; Prakhov, S; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Berger, E; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Efendiev, A; Grosnick, D; Holstein, B R; Huber, G M; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D; Koulbardis, A; Kozlenko, N; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G J; Lopatin, I; Manley, D M; Marusić, A; Manweiler, R; McDonald, S; Nefkens, B M; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Phaisangittisakul, N; Price, J W; Pulver, M; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M E; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M
2001-11-05
We have determined the quadratic slope parameter alpha for eta-->3pi(0) to be alpha = -0.031(4) from a 99% pure sample of 10(6)eta-->3pi(0) decays produced in the reaction pi(-)p-->n(eta) close to the eta threshold using the Crystal Ball detector at the AGS. The result is four times more precise than the present world data and disagrees with current chiral perturbation theory calculations by about four standard deviations.
Sadygov, Z; Akhmedov, G; Akhmedov, F; Mukhtarov, R; Sadygov, A; Titov, A; Zhezher, V
2014-01-01
Miller formula modified to take into account voltage drop on serial resistor of an avalanche photodiode is considered. It is proven by experimental data that modified Miller formula can describe operation of both regular and micropixel avalanche photodiodes with good enough precision. It is shown that operation parameters of the devices can be determined using a linear extrapolation of the voltage-current curve for both regular avalanche photodiode and the one operating in Geiger mode.
Experimental determination of solubility parameters of oils as a function of pressure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Duong, Diep; Andersen, Simon Ivar
2005-01-01
In this work, the solubility parameter of dead and live crude oils was measured at 303.15 K and up to 300 bar, using the internal pressure approach. An indirect technique was chosen, using thermal expansivities (determined from microcalorimetric measurements) and isothermal compressibilities...... (calculated from density measurements). This method was tested on seven pure compounds, and the deviation with literature data is oils, and a deviation of
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU She-yu; MA Nian-jie; LIU Shao-wei
2005-01-01
Based on a great number of measured data, the author put forward zonal compressive and tensile deformation mechanism of soft rock around roadway. By using self-supporting capacity of compressive zone and controlling rock deformation of tensile zone, the long bolt or short bolt group supporting form was given for different size of rock compressive zone and tensile zone. Finally, studied on the determining method of rational support parameters of bolting and shotcreting with wire mesh in different support technology.
Determination of the Quadratic Slope Parameter in η-->3π0 Decay
Tippens, W. B.; Prakhov, S.; Allgower, C. E.; Bekrenev, V.; Berger, E.; Briscoe, W. J.; Clajus, M.; Comfort, J. R.; Craig, K.; Efendiev, A.; Grosnick, D.; Holstein, B. R.; Huber, G. M.; Isenhower, D.; Knecht, N.; Koetke, D.; Koulbardis, A.; Kozlenko, N.; Kruglov, S.; Lolos, G. J.; Lopatin, I.; Manley, D. M.; Marušić, A.; Manweiler, R.; McDonald, S.; Nefkens, B. M.; Olmsted, J.; Papandreou, Z.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Price, J. W.; Pulver, M.; Ramirez, A. F.; Sadler, M. E.; Shafi, A.; Spinka, H.; Stanislaus, S.; Starostin, A.; Staudenmaier, H. M.
2001-11-01
We have determined the quadratic slope parameter α for η-->3π0 to be α = -0.031(4) from a 99% pure sample of 106η-->3π0 decays produced in the reaction π-p-->nη close to the η threshold using the Crystal Ball detector at the AGS. The result is four times more precise than the present world data and disagrees with current chiral perturbation theory calculations by about four standard deviations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, J.L.
2005-10-28
The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.
Sadygov, Z.; Abdullaev, Kh.; Akhmedov, G.; Akhmedov, F.; Mukhtarov, R.; Sadygov, A.; Titov, A.; Zhezher, V.
2014-01-01
Miller formula modified to take into account voltage drop on serial resistor of an avalanche photodiode is considered. It is proven by experimental data that modified Miller formula can describe operation of both regular and micropixel avalanche photodiodes with good enough precision. It is shown that operation parameters of the devices can be determined using a linear extrapolation of the voltage-current curve for both regular avalanche photodiode and the one operating in Geiger mode.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Shagun [DAV University, Physics Department, Jalandhar (India); Singh, Pradeep [Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Murthal (India); Kharab, Rajesh [Kurukshetra University, Department of Physics, Kurukshetra (India)
2016-02-15
The energy-independent touching spheres schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter for Coulomb excitation experiments are modified through the inclusion of an energy-dependent term. The touching spheres+3fm scheme after modification emerges out to be the best one while touching spheres+4fm scheme is found to be better in its unmodified form. (orig.)
Blümel, Marcus; Hooper, Scott L.; Guschlbauer, Christoph; White, William E.; Büschges, Ansgar
2012-01-01
Characterizing muscle requires measuring such properties as force–length, force–activation, and force–velocity curves. These characterizations require large numbers of data points because both what type of function (e.g., linear, exponential, hyperbolic) best represents each property, and the values of the parameters in the relevant equations, need to be determined. Only a few properties are therefore generally measured in experiments on any one muscle, and complete characterizations are obta...
Determination of Some Biochemical Parameters in the Seminal Plasma of German Shepherd Dogs
GÜNAY, Ülgen
2003-01-01
In this study, we aimed to determine the levels of some biochemical parameters in the seminal plasma of German Shepherd dogs. Seven German Shepherd dogs were used as materials. A total of 35 ejaculates, five from each dog, were collected. The seminal plasma of each ejaculate was separated by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 10 min. Biochemical analyses of the seminal plasma were performed. In conclusion, the average concentrations of total protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and pot...
Study on Adaptive Parameter Determination of Cluster Analysis in Urban Management Cases
Fu, J. Y.; Jing, C. F.; Du, M. Y.; Fu, Y. L.; Dai, P. P.
2017-09-01
The fine management for cities is the important way to realize the smart city. The data mining which uses spatial clustering analysis for urban management cases can be used in the evaluation of urban public facilities deployment, and support the policy decisions, and also provides technical support for the fine management of the city. Aiming at the problem that DBSCAN algorithm which is based on the density-clustering can not realize parameter adaptive determination, this paper proposed the optimizing method of parameter adaptive determination based on the spatial analysis. Firstly, making analysis of the function Ripley's K for the data set to realize adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts, which means setting the maximum aggregation scale as the range of data clustering. Calculating every point object's highest frequency K value in the range of Eps which uses K-D tree and setting it as the value of clustering density to realize the adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts. Then, the R language was used to optimize the above process to accomplish the precise clustering of typical urban management cases. The experimental results based on the typical case of urban management in XiCheng district of Beijing shows that: The new DBSCAN clustering algorithm this paper presents takes full account of the data's spatial and statistical characteristic which has obvious clustering feature, and has a better applicability and high quality. The results of the study are not only helpful for the formulation of urban management policies and the allocation of urban management supervisors in XiCheng District of Beijing, but also to other cities and related fields.
Fadeev, Viktor V.; Maslov, D. V.; Litvinov, P. N.; Burikov, S. A.
2002-05-01
There is a set of discussed questions in the study of primary processes of the photosynthesis. Solution of these problems stimulates development of new methods for determination of the photo synthetic unit photo physical parameters in-vivo. In the report possibilities of non- linear fluorimetry method in this problem are investigated. The first step requires creation of low-parametrical model of the photosynthesizing organisms fluorescence response formation. The corresponding inverse rpobe4lm can be solved for this model.
On parameters determination of multi-port equivalent scheme for multi-winding traction transformers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sobczyk Tadeusz J.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to present a new equivalent scheme of multi-windings traction transformers, based on multiport purely inductive circuit. The mathematical background of this equivalent scheme is described. The determination of the different scheme elements is made through a finite-elements calculation of both main and leakage inductances, for the case of a four-winding transformer. A procedure is defined, which allows to estimate the values of these elements from some measurements on the transformer at no-load and short-circuit operations. A specific strategy of short-circuit tests is described, allowing to determine all parameters in a rather simple way.
Parameter-free determination of actual temperature at chemical freeze-out in nuclear interactions
Panagiotou, A. D.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Tzoulis, J.
1995-07-01
We propose a method to determine the actual temperature at chemical freeze-out in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, using the experimental μq/T and μs/T values, obtained from strange particle ratios. We employ the Hadron Gas formalism, assuming only local thermal equilibration, to relate the quarkchemical potential and temperature. This relation constrains the allowed values of μq/T, μs/T and T, enabling the determination of the actual temperature. Comparison of the inverse slope parameter of the mT-distributions with the actual temperature determines the transverse flow velocity of the fireball matter. Knowledge of these quantities is essential in determining the EoS of nuclear matter and in evaluating interactions with regard to a possible phase transition to QGP.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyyid Ahmed Medjahed
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Support vector machine (SVM is a popular classification technique with many diverse applications. Parameter determination and feature selection significantly influences the classification accuracy rate and the SVM model quality. This paper proposes two novel approaches based on: Microcanonical Annealing (MA-SVM and Threshold Accepting (TA-SVM to determine the optimal value parameter and the relevant features subset, without reducing SVM classification accuracy. In order to evaluate the performance of MA-SVM and TA-SVM, several public datasets are employed to compute the classification accuracy rate. The proposed approaches were tested in the context of medical diagnosis. Also, we tested the approaches on DNA microarray datasets used for cancer diagnosis. The results obtained by the MA-SVM and TA-SVM algorithms are shown to be superior and have given a good performance in the DNA microarray data sets which are characterized by the large number of features. Therefore, the MA-SVM and TA-SVM approaches are well suited for parameter determination and feature selection in SVM.
Determination of the Michel parameters and the τ neutrino helicity in τ decay
Alexander, J. P.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B. E.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Cho, H. A.; Coffman, D. M.; Crowcroft, D. S.; Dickson, M.; Drell, P. S.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Elia, R.; Foland, A. D.; Gaidarev, P.; Galik, R. S.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hopman, P. I.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kim, P. C.; Kreinick, D. L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Ludwig, G. S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N. B.; Ng, C. R.; Nordberg, E.; Ogg, M.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Valant-Spaight, B.; Ward, C.; Athanas, M.; Avery, P.; Jones, C. D.; Lohner, M.; Prescott, C.; Yelton, J.; Zheng, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Briere, R. A.; Gao, Y. S.; Kim, D. Y.-J.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Browder, T. E.; Li, F.; Li, Y.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Ernst, J.; Gladding, G. E.; Gollin, G. D.; Hans, R. M.; Johnson, E.; Karliner, I.; Marsh, M. A.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J. J.; Edwards, K. W.; Bellerive, A.; Janicek, R.; Macfarlane, D. B.; McLean, K. W.; Patel, P. M.; Sadoff, A. J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Darling, C.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Lee, S. J.; O'neill, J. J.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Riehle, T.; Savinov, V.; Smith, A.; Alam, M. S.; Athar, S. B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A. H.; Severini, H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F.; Anastassov, A.; Blinov, S.; Duboscq, J. E.; Fisher, K. D.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K. K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Spencer, M. B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M. M.; Nemati, B.; Richichi, S. J.; Ross, W. R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J. W.; Menon, N.; Miller, D. H.; Shibata, E. I.; Shipsey, I. P.; Yurko, M.; Gibbons, L.; Glenn, S.; Johnson, S. D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Jessop, C. P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M. L.; Ugolini, D.; Wang, R.; Zhou, X.; Coan, T. E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Artuso, M.; Efimov, A.; Frasconi, F.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G. C.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Xing, X.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S. E.; Jain, V.; Marka, S.; Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I. C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Greene, R.; Perera, L. P.; Zhou, G. J.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Chan, S.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J. S.; O'grady, C.; Schmidtler, M.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Würthwein, F.; Asner, D. M.; Bliss, D. W.; Brower, W. S.; Masek, G.; Paar, H. P.; Prell, S.; Sharma, V.; Gronberg, J.; Hill, T. S.; Kutschke, R.; Lange, D. J.; Menary, S.; Morrison, R. J.; Nelson, H. N.; Nelson, T. K.; Qiao, C.; Richman, J. D.; Roberts, D.; Ryd, A.; Witherell, M. S.; Balest, R.; Behrens, B. H.; Cho, K.; Ford, W. T.; Park, H.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.
1997-11-01
Using the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring operated at s=10.6 GeV, we have determined the Michel parameters ρ, ξ, and δ in τ-/+-->l-/+νν¯ decay as well as the τ neutrino helicity parameter hντ in τ-/+-->π-/+π0ν decay. From a data sample of 3.02×106 produced τ pairs we analyzed events of the topologies e+e--->τ+τ--->(l+/-νν¯)(π-/+π0ν) and e+e--->τ+τ--->(π+/-π0ν¯)(π-/+π0ν). We obtain ρ=0.747ρ=0.747+/-0.010+/-0.006, ξ=1.007+/-0.040+/-0.015, ξδ=0.745+/-0.026+/-0.009, and hντ=-0.995+/-0.010+/-0.003, where we have used the previously determined sign of hντ [ARGUS Collaboration, H. Albrecht et al., Z. Phys. C 58, 61 (1993); Phys. Lett. B 349, 576 (1995)]. We also present the Michel parameters as determined from the electron and muon samples separately. All results are in agreement with the standard model V-A interaction.
Yang, Li; Sun, Rui; Hase, William L
2011-11-08
In a previous study (J. Chem. Phys.2008, 129, 094701) it was shown that for a large molecule, with a total energy much greater than its barrier for decomposition and whose vibrational modes are harmonic oscillators, the expressions for the classical Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) (i.e., RRK) and classical transition-state theory (TST) rate constants become equivalent. Using this relationship, a molecule's unimolecular rate constants versus temperature may be determined from chemical dynamics simulations of microcanonical ensembles for the molecule at different total energies. The simulation identifies the molecule's unimolecular pathways and their Arrhenius parameters. In the work presented here, this approach is used to study the thermal decomposition of CH3-NH-CH═CH-CH3, an important constituent in the polymer of cross-linked epoxy resins. Direct dynamics simulations, at the MP2/6-31+G* level of theory, were used to investigate the decomposition of microcanonical ensembles for this molecule. The Arrhenius A and Ea parameters determined from the direct dynamics simulation are in very good agreement with the TST Arrhenius parameters for the MP2/6-31+G* potential energy surface. The simulation method applied here may be particularly useful for large molecules with a multitude of decomposition pathways and whose transition states may be difficult to determine and have structures that are not readily obvious.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yunpeng; ZHAO Changyi; WANG Zhaoyun; WANG Hongjun; ZOU Yanrong; LIU Jinzhong; ZHAO Wenzhi; LIU Dehan; LU Jialan
2008-01-01
This paper probes the determination of the main gas-generation phase of marine organic mattes using the kinetic method. The main gas-generation phase of marine organic matters was determined by coupling the gas generation yields and rates in geological history computed by the acquired kinetic parameters of typical marine organic matters (reservoir oil, residual bitumen, low-maturity kerogen and residual kerogen) in both China and abroad and maturity by the EasyRo(%) method. Here, the main gas-generation phase was determined as Ro%=1.4%-2.4% for type Ⅰ kerogen, Ro%=1.5-3.0% for low-maturity type Ⅱ kerogen, Ro%=1.4-2.8% for residual kerogen,Ro%=1.5-3.2% for residual bitumen and Ro%=1.6-3.2% for reservoir oil cracking. The influences on the main gas-generation phase from the openness of the simulated system and the "dead line" of natural gas generation are also discussed. The results indicate that the openness of simulation system has a definite influence on computing the main gas-generation phase. The main gas-generation phase of type Ⅱ kerogen is Ro%=1.4-3.1% in an open system, which is earlier than that in a closed system.According to our results, the "dead line" of natural gas generation is determined as Ro=3.5% for type Ⅰ kerogen, Ro=4.4-4.5% for type Ⅱ kerogen and Ro=4.6% for marine oil. Preliminary applications are presented taking the southwestern Tarim Basin as an example.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gasparjans Aleksandrs
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A method of technical diagnostics of ship diesel engine – generator installation – is proposed. Spectral-power diagnostic parameters of the synchronous generator voltage and currents are used. The electric machine in this case is the multipurpose sensor of diagnostic parameters. A judgment on the quality of the operational processes in diesel engine cylinders and its technical condition is possible on the basis of these parameters. This method is applicable to piston compressor installations with electric drive. On the basis of such parameters as rotating torque, angular speed and angular acceleration it is possible to estimate the quality of the operating process in the cylinders of a diesel engine, the condition of its cylinder-piston group and the crank gear mechanism. The investigation was realized on the basis of a diesel-generator with linear load. The generator operation was considered for the case of constant RL load. Together with the above mentioned, the condition of bearings of synchronous machines, uniformity of the air gap, windings of the electric machine were estimated during the experiments as well. The frequency spectrum of the stator current of the generator was researched and analyzed. In this case the synchronous machine is becoming a rather exact multipurpose diagnostic sensor. The signal of non-uniformity in the operation process of diesel engine cylinders and its technical condition is the increasing of the amplitudes of typical frequencies.
Determination of HCME 3-D parameters using a full ice-cream cone model
Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Harim
2016-05-01
It is very essential to determine three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for space weather forecast. Several cone models (e.g., an elliptical cone model, an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model) have been examined to estimate these parameters. In this study, we investigate which cone type is close to a halo CME morphology using 26 CMEs: halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From cone shape parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone type CMEs are much closer to observations than shallow ice-cream cone type CMEs. Thus we develop a new cone model in which a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3-D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (a geometrical triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model) based on multi-spacecraft data. We are developing a general ice-cream cone model whose front shape is a free parameter determined by observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akhter Gulraiz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In order to determine the groundwater resources and potentials of the Khanewal District of Pakistan, a geophysical method in combination with pumping test data were used. An analytical relationship between the aquifer parameters interpreted from surface geoelectrical method and pumping test was established in order to estimate aquifer parameters from surface measurements where no pumping tests exist. For the said purpose, 48 geoelectric investigations were carried out using Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding (VES. Seven of the soundings were conducted where pumping tests had been carried out at borehole sites. The vertical electrical sounding stations were interpreted, and resistivities and thickness parameters were calculated. The values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity were calculated using the Dar Zarrouk parameter. Transmissivity values obtained from pumping test data and the VES method range between 954 – 4263 m2/day and 200 – 5600 m2/day respectively. Hydraulic conductivity values determined from pumping test data and geoelectrical technique range between 15.9 – 60.9 m/day and 29.76 - 72.3 m/day respectively. The low values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity indicate clay or shale while high values are due to the presence of sand or gravel. A comparison of the transmissivity values obtained from pumping test data and surface geoelectrical method shows a positive correlation (R2 =0.90. Similarly, the regression between hydraulic conductivity determined from the pumping test data and the geoelectrical method is also positively correlated (R2 =0.96. The results provide a quick and useful estimation of aquifer properties and potentials.
Akhter, Gulraiz; Hasan, M.
2016-01-01
In order to determine the groundwater resources and potentials of the Khanewal District of Pakistan, a geophysical method in combination with pumping test data were used. An analytical relationship between the aquifer parameters interpreted from surface geoelectrical method and pumping test was established in order to estimate aquifer parameters from surface measurements where no pumping tests exist. For the said purpose, 48 geoelectric investigations were carried out using Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding (VES). Seven of the soundings were conducted where pumping tests had been carried out at borehole sites. The vertical electrical sounding stations were interpreted, and resistivities and thickness parameters were calculated. The values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity were calculated using the Dar Zarrouk parameter. Transmissivity values obtained from pumping test data and the VES method range between 954 - 4263 m2/day and 200 - 5600 m2/day respectively. Hydraulic conductivity values determined from pumping test data and geoelectrical technique range between 15.9 - 60.9 m/day and 29.76 - 72.3 m/day respectively. The low values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity indicate clay or shale while high values are due to the presence of sand or gravel. A comparison of the transmissivity values obtained from pumping test data and surface geoelectrical method shows a positive correlation (R2 =0.90). Similarly, the regression between hydraulic conductivity determined from the pumping test data and the geoelectrical method is also positively correlated (R2 =0.96). The results provide a quick and useful estimation of aquifer properties and potentials.
Determination of parameters for successful spray coating of silicon microneedle arrays.
McGrath, Marie G; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Oliveira, Jorge C; Moore, Anne C; Crean, Abina M
2011-08-30
Coated microneedle patches have demonstrated potential for effective, minimally invasive, drug and vaccine delivery. To facilitate cost-effective, industrial-scale production of coated microneedle patches, a continuous coating method which utilises conventional pharmaceutical processes is an attractive prospect. Here, the potential of spray-coating silicon microneedle patches using a conventional film-coating process was evaluated and the key process parameters which impact on coating coalescence and weight were identified by employing a fractional factorial design to coat flat silicon patches. Processing parameters analysed included concentration of coating material, liquid input rate, duration of spraying, atomisation air pressure, gun-to-surface distance and air cap setting. Two film-coating materials were investigated; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). HPMC readily formed a film-coat on silicon when suitable spray coating parameter settings were determined. CMC films required the inclusion of a surfactant (1%, w/w Tween 80) to facilitate coalescence of the sprayed droplets on the silicon surface. Spray coating parameters identified by experimental design, successfully coated 280μm silicon microneedle arrays, producing an intact film-coat, which follows the contours of the microneedle array without occlusion of the microneedle shape. This study demonstrates a novel method of coating microneedle arrays with biocompatible polymers using a conventional film-coating process. It is the first study to indicate the thickness and roughness of coatings applied to microneedle arrays. The study also highlights the importance of identifying suitable processing parameters when film coating substrates of micron dimensions. The ability of a fractional factorial design to identify these critical parameters is also demonstrated. The polymer coatings applied in this study can potentially be drug loaded for intradermal drug and vaccine delivery
Hanna, C. P.; Tyson, J. F.; Offley, S. G.
1992-08-01
The development of a method for the direct determination of trace arsenic quantities in nickel alloy digests, by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, is described. An optimization study of the manifold and chemical parameters produced system performance, in terms of tolerance of the nickel matrix and sensitivity, such that matrix removal and pre-reduction of As(V) to As (III) prior to arsine generation were eliminated. Full recovery of the As(V) signal from a solution containing 5 ng ml -1 in the presence of 60 μg ml -1 nickel was obtained. Validation of the method was achieved by analyzing a British Chemical Standard (BCS) Certified Reference Material (CRM) #346 IN nickel alloy containing arsenic at a concentration of 50 μg g -1. Following dissolution in nitric and hydrofluoric acids by a microwave assisted procedure, the only subsequent preparation required was dilution by the appropriate factor. Up to 60 injections h -1 may be made, with a detection limit of 0.5 ng ml -1 arsenic (250 pg absolute) as As(V) in a 500 μl sample. The peak height characteristic concentration is 0.46 ng ml -1, with a relative standard deviation of 3.5% for a 10 ng ml -1 As(V) standard ( n = 6).
Study on determining the photometric parameters for a white LED using a light meter
Marcu, Alina E.; Dobre, Robert A.; Vlǎdescu, Marian
2016-12-01
The paper presents the experiments performed in order to determine the most suitable measuring mode which could be used to notably increase the accuracy of the photometric parameters determination for a white LED using a light meter with multiple measurement modes for various classic light sources like tungsten (incandescent), fluorescent, mercury and sodium based. Light meters are used for measuring the illuminance, which is a photometric parameter and its determination is based on the properties of human sight sense. Knowing how the sensitivity of the eye varies with the wavelength, the spectral response of the sensor and the spectral composition of the radiation emitted by a certain light source, a correction curve can be applied over the sensed values and obtain an accurate measurement. Nowadays many light meters can contain multiple calibration curves for typical light sources, but not for LEDs, especially for white ones. Since multiple measurements can be done using each correction curve, the authors conducted experiments to determine how to combine the aforementioned results to obtain a good estimate for the illuminance of white LEDs.
Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Manaka, M.; Finsterle, S.; Ito, K.
2012-12-01
One of the key issues in the hydrogeologic characterization of sedimentary formations is the uncertainties of fluid pressure anomalies which could be caused by chemical osmosis. Chemical osmosis is the migration of water through a semi-permeable membrane driven by the difference of chemical potentials between waters to compensate for the difference in water potentials, leading to an increase in the pressure gradient. Accordingly, if geologic media can act as semi-permeable membranes, and if salinity is not uniform in the formation, localized fluid pressures may be generated by chemical osmosis. In order to identify the possibility of chemical osmosis in formations, it is essential to evaluate the membrane properties of representative rock types. However, for the examination of the magnitude and the duration time of osmotically induced pressures, the parameters relevant to the migration of water and dissolved substances, such as the hydraulic and diffusion parameters, are also necessary since they control the spatial variation of salinity and the dissipation of osmotically induced pressures. In order to obtain the chemico-osmotic, hydraulic and diffusion parameters from a rock sample, this study developed a laboratory experimental system capable of performing chemical osmosis and permeability experiments under the confining pressure simulating in-situ effective stress conditions. The permeability and chemical-osmosis experiments are performed in sequence on a rock sample, and the progress of each experiment is monitored by measuring fluid pressures and salt concentrations in reservoirs contacting the ends of the disc-shaped rock sample. Analytical solutions for the permeability and chemical osmosis experiments were also derived for parameter determination. The semi-analytical solution for the chemical osmosis experiment involves five unknown parameters, i.e., the reflection coefficient, intrinsic permeability, specific storage and effective diffusion coefficient of
Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briefi, S., E-mail: stefan.briefi@physik.uni-augsburg.de [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [Linac4 Ion Source Team, CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fantz, U. [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-02-15
Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T{sub e} ≈ 1.2 eV, n{sub e} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, and n{sub H}/n{sub H{sub 2}} ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients.
Costantino, Anthony J; Hyatt, Christopher J; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela C; Beaumont, Jacques; Roth, Bradley J; Pertsov, Arkady M
2017-07-01
We describe a method to accurately measure the light scattering model parameters from forward-directed flux (FDF) measurements carried out with a fiber-optic probe (optrode). Improved determination of light scattering parameters will, in turn, permit better modeling and interpretation of optical mapping in the heart using voltage-sensitive dyes. Using our optrode-based system, we carried out high spatial resolution measurements of FDF in intact and homogenized cardiac tissue, as well as in intralipid-based tissue phantoms. The samples were illuminated with a broad collimated beam at 660 and 532 nm. Measurements were performed with a plunge fiber-optic probe (NA=0.22) at a spatial resolution of up to 10 μm. In the vicinity of the illuminated surface, the FDF consistently manifested a fast decaying exponent with a space constant comparable with the decay rate of ballistic photons. Using a Monte Carlo model, we obtained a simple empirical formula linking the rate of the fast exponent to the scattering coefficient, the anisotropy parameter g, and the numerical aperture of the probe. The estimates of scattering coefficient based on this formula were validated in tissue phantoms. Potential applications of optical fiber-based FDF measurements for the evaluation of optical parameters in turbid media are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero-Gonzalez, J. [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Peralta-Videa, J.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Rodriguez, E. [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Ramirez, S.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, J.L. [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)]. E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu
2005-04-15
The temperature dependence of the Cr(VI) bioadsorption and its possible reduction to Cr(III) by Agave lechuguilla biomass were studied. The experimental data obtained in batch experiments at different temperatures were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich model. The average model parameters calculated from Freundlich's isotherms (adsorption capacity K{sub F} = 4 . 10{sup -2} mol . g{sup -1} and an average adsorption intensity value n = 13.07) showed that A. lechuguilla can be considered as an effective biomaterial for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. Thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup .}, {delta}H{sup .}, and {delta}S{sup .}) for Cr(VI) adsorption determined in the temperature range from (283 to 313) K suggest that a portion of Cr(VI) may be bound to functional groups on the surface of the adsorbent and then reduced to Cr(III). Additionally, the parameters of the Dubinin-Radushkevick equation indicated that the sorption of chromium species onto lechuguilla biomass mainly proceeds through binding surface functional groups.
Parsons, Tom
2008-01-01
Paleoearthquake observations often lack enough events at a given site to directly define a probability density function (PDF) for earthquake recurrence. Sites with fewer than 10-15 intervals do not provide enough information to reliably determine the shape of the PDF using standard maximum-likelihood techniques [e.g., Ellsworth et al., 1999]. In this paper I present a method that attempts to fit wide ranges of distribution parameters to short paleoseismic series. From repeated Monte Carlo draws, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate most likely recurrence PDF parameters, and a ranked distribution of parameters is returned that can be used to assess uncertainties in hazard calculations. In tests on short synthetic earthquake series, the method gives results that cluster around the mean of the input distribution, whereas maximum likelihood methods return the sample means [e.g., NIST/SEMATECH, 2006]. For short series (fewer than 10 intervals), sample means tend to reflect the median of an asymmetric recurrence distribution, possibly leading to an overestimate of the hazard should they be used in probability calculations. Therefore a Monte Carlo approach may be useful for assessing recurrence from limited paleoearthquake records. Further, the degree of functional dependence among parameters like mean recurrence interval and coefficient of variation can be established. The method is described for use with time-independent and time-dependent PDF?s, and results from 19 paleoseismic sequences on strike-slip faults throughout the state of California are given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tripathy, P.P.; Kumar, Subodh [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)
2008-11-15
In the present work, a methodology for the determination of temperature dependent drying parameters namely drying constant and lag factor from the experimental drying kinetic curves of food product is proposed. A laboratory scale mixed-mode solar dryer consisting of an inclined flat plate solar collector connected in series to a drying chamber glazed at the top was used to perform natural convection drying experiments with potato cylinders of length 0.05 m and diameter 0.01 m and slices of diameter 0.05 m and thickness 0.01 m. The thin-layer drying equation describing the drying behavior of food products is derived from Fick's law of diffusion. The present analysis reveals that both drying constant and lag factor increase with sample temperature, as expected. Linear and exponential correlations for these parameters are proposed to represent their variation as a function of sample temperature. Results of statistical error analysis indicate that the proposed linear correlation can better represent the experimental drying kinetic curves for both cylinders and slices. Comparison of experimental dimensionless moisture contents with those calculated with variable (temperature dependent) and constant values of drying parameters demonstrates that the predicted results from variable parameters can better simulate the experiments. (author)
Image parameters for maturity determination of a composted material containing sewage sludge
Kujawa, S.; Nowakowski, K.; Tomczak, R. J.; Boniecki, P.; Dach, J.
2013-07-01
Composting is one of the best methods for management of sewage sludge. In a reasonably conducted composting process it is important to early identify the moment in which a material reaches the young compost stage. The objective of this study was to determine parameters contained in images of composted material's samples that can be used for evaluation of the degree of compost maturity. The study focused on two types of compost: containing sewage sludge with corn straw and sewage sludge with rapeseed straw. The photographing of the samples was carried out on a prepared stand for the image acquisition using VIS, UV-A and mixed (VIS + UV-A) light. In the case of UV-A light, three values of the exposure time were assumed. The values of 46 parameters were estimated for each of the images extracted from the photographs of the composted material's samples. Exemplary averaged values of selected parameters obtained from the images of the composted material in the following sampling days were presented. All of the parameters obtained from the composted material's images are the basis for preparation of training, validation and test data sets necessary in development of neural models for classification of the young compost stage.
The determination of the operation parameters at the axial hydraulic turbine
Simedru, A. I.
2016-08-01
In the operating point of the monitoring moment there are assumed from process the monitoring measured parameters: the active and reactive power, upstream and downstream water levels (after the intake trash rake and at the outlet of the turbine draft tube), wicket gate and runner opening blades, the differential pressure in the spiral chamber and the hydrounit speed. So, there was established the characteristic curves obtained on analytic basis and similitude and compared with the curves measured experimentally on the hydraulic machines from the power plant. The cavitational coefficient of the machine and the cavitational coefficient of the equipment are in function of the system parameters between them especially the suction head, the runner and wicket gates blades angles of opening. The solution proposed is a method of determining the operating turbine parameters and of the cavitation, by reducing the error caused by the similitude phenomenon, using an accurate estimation of the turbine operating parameters according to the universal diagram of the turbine. The numerical obtained values permit the necessary correlation through a complex function which is able to reduce or eliminate the unwished effects of the cavitation phenomena on the hydraulic turbines of the Iron Gates power plant.
Deformation Parameters Determination From The GPS Permanent and Epoch Observations In Poland.
Pfeil, M.; Jarosinski, M.
The paper presents preliminary results of deformation parameters calculation from GPS observations for Poland. From geological point of view, the study area covers complex structural junction comprises of the Precambrian East European craton, heav- ily tectonised Teisseyre-Tornquist zone, the Palaeozoic platform, and also of young thrust and fold belt of the Carpathians. Complicated tectonic evolution, together with thermal field differentiation cause rheological contrasts and mechanical heterogene- ity in the earth crust that are expected to affect recent geokinematics of this area. Locations of the GPS stations have been chosen in order to sample major tectonic units of Poland representatively. For several stations coordinates changes had been computed and on that base, deformation parameters have been determined. Quality of these parameters depends on a distance between sites, utilised for their evaluation. This paper presents examples of deformation parameters, computed for GPS perma- nent and epoch observations, chosen from CERGOP, EXTENDED SAGET and EPN campaigns and supplemented by data from the EUREF network. Obtained deforma- tion have been compared with recent stress directions for the uppermost crust, as de- termined by mean of borehole breakout analysis.
Accuracy of atmospheric parameters of FGK dwarfs determined by spectrum fitting
Ryabchikova, T; Pakhomov, Yu; Tsymbal, V; Titarenko, A; Sitnova, T; Alexeeva, S; Fossati, L; Mashonkina, L
2015-01-01
We performed extensive tests of the accuracy of atmospheric parameter determination for FGK stars based on the spectrum fitting procedure Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME). Our stellar sample consists of 13 objects, including the Sun, in the temperature range 5000--6600~K and metallicity range -1.4 -- +0.4. The analysed stars have the advantage of having parameters derived by interferometry. For each star we use spectra obtained with different spectrographs and different signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For the fitting we adopted three different sets of constraints and test how the derived parameters depend upon the spectral regions (masks) used in SME. We developed and implemented in SME a new method for estimating uncertainties in the resulting parameters based on fitting residuals, partial derivatives, and data uncertainties. For stars in the 5700--6600 K range the best agreement with the effective temperatures derived by interferometry is achieved when spectrum fitting includes the H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ lines, w...
Zhao, Yue; Wang, Yalin
2015-11-01
In this paper, a linear calibration method is proposed for a paracatadioptric camera using the images of two spheres. Two spheres are selected in space, and the two groups of their projection circles on the unit viewing sphere are made to intersect at four points. The quadrilateral consisting of four points is a rectangle, so a group of orthogonal directions can be determined in space to obtain a group of orthogonal vanishing points in the paracatadioptric image plane. Because of the relationship between orthogonal vanishing points and intrinsic camera parameters, the intrinsic parameters of a paracatadioptric camera can be linearly solved by at least five views satisfying the above conditions. First, one estimates the sphere images and their antipodal sphere images. Second, by solving the intersection of the images of two spheres and the intersection of the images of their antipodal spheres, a group of orthogonal vanishing points can be obtained in the image plane. Finally, by taking the relationship between the orthogonal vanishing points and the intrinsic camera parameters as constraint conditions, the intrinsic parameters of the paracatadioptric camera can be obtained. Simulation results and real image data demonstrate the effectiveness of our new algorithms.
Structural parameters and X-ray Debye temperature determination study on copper-ferrite-aluminates
Lakhani, V. K.; Pathak, T. K.; Vasoya, N. H.; Modi, K. B.
2011-03-01
The compositional dependence of structural parameters and X-ray Debye temperature for CuAl xFe 2- xO 4 ( x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) spinel ferrite system has been studied by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns analysis at 300 K. The XRD data have been used to determine the lattice constant, X-ray density, distribution of cations among the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of spinel lattice, oxygen positional parameter, site radii, bond angle, bond length and interionic distances. The X-ray Debye temperatures have been determined from integrated intensities of selected Bragg reflections. It is found that Al 3+-substitution has marked influence on various parameters. A deficit of Cu 2+-cations at the octahedral sites of the spinel lattice leads to the absence of co-operative active Jahn-Teller distortion and the crystal structure retains into cubic. The increasing disagreement between observed and calculated intensities and reduction in intensity of diffracted beam with increasing Al-concentration have been explained based on preferred orientation and extinction effects. The effect of oxygen deficiency on intensity ratios of planes has been discussed in brief.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Kaya
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine serum ceruloplasmin levels in cows with endometritis of varying degrees of severity and to establish whether or not there is a correlation between acute phase protein (APP levels and biochemical parameters. Material and Methods: The study was conducted with 100 Brown Swiss cows (3-8 years of age on days 28-32 postpartum. Cows were divided into endometritis (mild, moderate, and severe endometriosis and healthy groups based on ultrasonography, vaginoscopy, and cytological examination. Blood samples were collected from all cows. Levels of haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, ceruloplasmin, albumin, and some biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results: Hp, SAA, and ceruloplasmin levels were higher in cows with endometritis than in healthy cows (p=0.001, and the levels of these APPs increased as endometritis became more severe (p=0.001. Some significant correlations were found between APPs and the biochemical parameters that were analyzed. In conclusion, it was determined that ceruloplasmin levels increase significantly in the presence of endometritis and proportionate to the severity of endometritis. A significant correlation was found between ceruloplasmin levels and Hp and SAA levels. Conclusion: It was concluded that ceruloplasmin levels can be used in the diagnosis of endometritis as an alternative to Hp and SAA levels.
Determining the optimum process parameter for grinding operations using robust process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neseli, Suley Man; Asilturk, Ilhan; Celik, Levent [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkmenistan)
2012-11-15
We applied combined response surface methodology (RSM) and Taguchi methodology (TM) to determine optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness (Ra) and vibration (Vb) in external cylindrical grinding. First, an experiment was conducted in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The TM using L{sup 27} orthogonal array was applied to the design of the experiment. The three input parameters were workpiece revolution, feed rate and depth of cut; the outputs were vibrations and surface roughness. Second, to minimize wheel vibration and surface roughness, two optimized models were developed using computer aided single objective optimization. The experimental and statistical results revealed that the most significant grinding parameter for surface roughness and vibration is workpiece revolution followed by the depth of cut. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close, which indicates 2 ( 94.99 R{sup 2Ra}=and 2 92.73) R{sup 2Vb}=that the developed models can be effectively used to predict surface roughness and vibration in the grinding. The established model for determination of optimal operating conditions shows that a hybrid approach can lead to success of a robust process.
López, Iván; Borzacconi, Liliana
2010-10-01
A model based on the work of Angelidaki et al. (1993) was applied to simulate the anaerobic biodegradation of ruminal contents. In this study, two fractions of solids with different biodegradation rates were considered. A first-order kinetic was used for the easily biodegradable fraction and a kinetic expression that is function of the extracellular enzyme concentration was used for the slowly biodegradable fraction. Batch experiments were performed to obtain an accumulated methane curve that was then used to obtain the model parameters. For this determination, a methodology derived from the "multiple-shooting" method was successfully used. Monte Carlo simulations allowed a confidence range to be obtained for each parameter. Simulations of a continuous reactor were performed using the optimal set of model parameters. The final steady-states were determined as functions of the operational conditions (solids load and residence time). The simulations showed that methane flow peaked at a flow rate of 0.5-0.8 Nm(3)/d/m(reactor)(3) at a residence time of 10-20 days. Simulations allow the adequate selection of operating conditions of a continuous reactor.
Determination and Validation of Parameters for Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma Concrete Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Qing Ding
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Numerical modelling of the complex physical processes such as concrete structures subjected to high- impulsive loads relies on suitable material models appropriate for impact and explosion problems. One of the extensive used concrete material models, the RHT model, contains all essential features of concrete materials subjected to high dynamic loading. However, the application of the RHT model requires a set of material properties and model parameters without which reliable results cannot be expected. The present paper provides a detailed valuation of the RHT model and proposes a method of determining the model parameters for C40 concrete. Furthermore, the dynamic compressive and tensile strength function of the model formulation are modified to enhance the performance of the model as implemented in the hydrocode AUTODYN. The performance of the determined parameters of the modified RHT model is demonstrated by comparing to available experimental data, and further verified via simulations of physical experiments of concrete penetration by steel projectiles. The results of numerical analyses are found closely match the penetration depth and the crater size in the front surface of the concrete targets.
Determination of the QCD Λ-parameter and the accuracy of perturbation theory at high energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalla Brida, Mattia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Fritzsch, Patrick [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Korzec, Tomasz [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Ramos, Alberto [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration
2016-04-15
We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α{sub MS}(m{sub Z}) or equivalently the QCD Λ-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α{sub s}(μ) in some scheme, s, and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α{sub s}=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the Λ-parameter, while data around α{sub s}∼0.2 is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.
Determining stellar parameters of asteroseismic targets: going beyond the use of scaling relations
Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Bossini, Diego; Miglio, Andrea; Girardi, Léo; Montalbán, Josefina; Noels, Arlette; Trabucchi, Michele; Coelho, Hugo Rodrigues; Marigo, Paola
2017-01-01
Asteroseismic parameters allow us to measure the basic stellar properties of field giants observed far across the Galaxy. Most of such determinations are, up to now, based on simple scaling relations involving the large frequency separation, Δν, and the frequency of maximum power, νmax. In this work, we implement Δν and the period spacing, ΔP, computed along detailed grids of stellar evolutionary tracks, into stellar isochrones and hence in a Bayesian method of parameter estimation. Tests with synthetic data reveal that masses and ages can be determined with typical precision of 5 and 19 per cent, respectively, provided precise seismic parameters are available. Adding independent information on the stellar luminosity, these values can decrease down to 3 and 10 per cent respectively. The application of these methods to NGC 6819 giants produces a mean age in agreement with those derived from isochrone fitting, and no evidence of systematic differences between RGB and RC stars. The age dispersion of NGC 6819 stars, however, is larger than expected, with at least part of the spread ascribable to stars that underwent mass-transfer events.
Determination and evaluation of solubility parameter of satranidazole using dioxane-water system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rathi P
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Satranidazole, a potent broad spectrum antiprotozoal, is a poorly water-soluble drug and has low bioavailability on oral administration. One of the important methods to improve the solubility and bioavailability of a less water-soluble drug is by the use of cosolvents. The solubility enhancement produced by binary blends with a cosolvent (dioxane was studied against the solubility parameter of solvent blends (d1 to evaluate the solubility parameter of drug (d2 . Solubility parameter of drug (d2 was evaluated in blends of dioxane-water system. The results obtained were compared with the d2 values obtained using Molar Volume Method and Fedor′s Group Substitution Method. The binary blend water-dioxane (10:90 gave maximum solubility with an experimental d2 value of 11.34 (Cal/cm 3 0.5 that was comparable to the theoretical values of 11.34 (Cal/cm 3 0.5 determined by Molar Volume Method and 11.3928 (Cal/cm 3 0.5 when determined by Fedor′s Group Substitution Method, which is in good agreement with solubility measurement method.
System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst
Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H
2014-12-30
A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Manneela
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Exemplifying the tsunami source immediately after an earthquake is the most critical component of tsunami early warning, as not every earthquake generates a tsunami. After a major under sea earthquake, it is very important to determine whether or not it has actually triggered the deadly wave. The near real-time observations from near field networks such as strong motion and Global Positioning System (GPS allows rapid determination of fault geometry. Here we present a complete processing chain of Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS, starting from acquisition of geodetic raw data, processing, inversion and simulating the situation as it would be at warning center during any major earthquake. We determine the earthquake moment magnitude and generate the centroid moment tensor solution using a novel approach which are the key elements for tsunami early warning. Though the well established seismic monitoring network, numerical modeling and dissemination system are currently capable to provide tsunami warnings to most of the countries in and around the Indian Ocean, the study highlights the critical role of geodetic observations in determination of tsunami source for high-quality forecasting.
Manneela, Sunanda; Srinivasa Kumar, T.; Nayak, Shailesh R.
2016-06-01
Exemplifying the tsunami source immediately after an earthquake is the most critical component of tsunami early warning, as not every earthquake generates a tsunami. After a major under sea earthquake, it is very important to determine whether or not it has actually triggered the deadly wave. The near real-time observations from near field networks such as strong motion and Global Positioning System (GPS) allows rapid determination of fault geometry. Here we present a complete processing chain of Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS), starting from acquisition of geodetic raw data, processing, inversion and simulating the situation as it would be at warning center during any major earthquake. We determine the earthquake moment magnitude and generate the centroid moment tensor solution using a novel approach which are the key elements for tsunami early warning. Though the well established seismic monitoring network, numerical modeling and dissemination system are currently capable to provide tsunami warnings to most of the countries in and around the Indian Ocean, the study highlights the critical role of geodetic observations in determination of tsunami source for high-quality forecasting.
Miranda, David A; Rivera, S A López
2008-05-01
An algorithm is presented to determine the Cole-Cole parameters of electrical impedivity using only measurements of its real part. The algorithm is based on two multi-fold direct inversion methods for the Cole-Cole and Debye equations, respectively, and a genetic algorithm for the optimization of the mean square error between experimental and calculated data. The algorithm has been developed to obtain the Cole-Cole parameters from experimental data, which were used to screen cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. The proposed algorithm was compared with different numerical integrations of the Kramers-Kronig relation and the result shows that this algorithm is the best. A high immunity to noise was obtained.
Lv, Wei; Li, Xiaojiao; Feng, Enmin
2014-02-01
This study is intended to provide a parameter identification method to determine the salinity of sea ice using temperature and thickness measurements. This method is particularly effective when field data are sparse and unsatisfactory due to the difficulties associated with fieldwork, especially during the polar winter. The main idea of the method is described. The salinity profile is calculated by the temperature and thickness observations, which were measured at Nella Fjord around Zhongshan Station, Antarctica during the polar night time by the 22nd Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition. Another simulation for temperature profiles during a different measurement period is performed. Results show that better simulations of the salinity and temperature distributions are possible with the estimated parameters than with Eicken's and THESCI's methods. This method will help people to understand the salinity evolution of sea ice more thoroughly.
Numerical method to determine mechanical parameters of engineering design in rock masses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
薛廷河; 项贻强; 郭发忠
2004-01-01
This paper proposes a new continuity model for engineering in rock masses and a new schematic method for reporting the engineering of rock continuity. This method can be used to evaluate the mechanics of every kind of medium;and is a new way to determine the mechanical parameters used in engineering design in rock masses. In the numerical simulation, the experimental parameters of intact rock were combined with the structural properties of field rock. Theexperimental results for orthogonally-jointed rock are given. The results included the curves of the stress-strain relationship of some rock masses, the curve of the relationship between the dimension Δ and the uniaxial pressure-resistant strength σc of these rock masses, and pictures of the destructive procedure of some rock masses in uniaxial or triaxial tests, etc. Application of the method to engineering design in rock masses showed the potential of its application to engineering practice.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V S S PAVAN KUMAR HARI; AVANISH TRIPATHI; G NARAYANAN
2017-08-01
High-performance industrial drives widely employ induction motors with position sensorless vector control (SLVC). The state-of-the-art SLVC is first reviewed in this paper. An improved design procedure for current and flux controllers is proposed for SLVC drives when the inverter delay is significant. The speed controller design in such a drive is highly sensitive to the mechanical parameters of the induction motor. These mechanical parameters change with the load coupled. This paper proposes a method to experimentally determine the moment of inertia and mechanical time constant of the induction motor drive along with the load driven. The proposed method is based on acceleration and deceleration of the motor under constant torque, which is achieved using a sensorless vector-controlled drive itself. Experimental results from a 5-hp induction motor drive are presented.
Three-dimensional FEM model of FBGs in PANDA fibers with experimentally determined model parameters
Lindner, Markus; Hopf, Barbara; Koch, Alexander W.; Roths, Johannes
2017-04-01
A 3D-FEM model has been developed to improve the understanding of multi-parameter sensing with Bragg gratings in attached or embedded polarization maintaining fibers. The material properties of the fiber, especially Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the fiber's stress applying parts, are crucial for accurate simulations, but are usually not provided by the manufacturers. A methodology is presented to determine the unknown parameters by using experimental characterizations of the fiber and iterative FEM simulations. The resulting 3D-Model is capable of describing the change in birefringence of the free fiber when exposed to longitudinal strain. In future studies the 3D-FEM model will be employed to study the interaction of PANDA fibers with the surrounding materials in which they are embedded.
Improved determination of the atmospheric parameters of the pulsating sdB star Feige 48
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chayer P.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Given the importance of Feige 48 as an sdB pulsator, we sought to obtain the best possible estimates of its spectroscopic parameters with a grid of NLTE metal-blanketed model atmospheres constructed especially for that star. This small grid of 150 models includes 8 metallic elements whose abundances have been determined previously and reported in the literature. Our fitting procedure found the following parameters for Feige 48: Teff = 29 504 K, log g = 5.41 and log N(He/N(H = −2.90. These results are in very good agreement with previous spectroscopic estimates (which generally ignore either NLTE effects or metal blanketing, thus indicating that metal line-blanketing in NLTE – modeled for the first time here – is not a dominant factor in the atmosphere of Feige 48.
Numerical method to determine mechanical parameters of engineering design in rock masses.
Xue, Ting-He; Xiang, Yi-Qiang; Guo, Fa-Zhong
2004-07-01
This paper proposes a new continuity model for engineering in rock masses and a new schematic method for reporting the engineering of rock continuity. This method can be used to evaluate the mechanics of every kind of medium; and is a new way to determine the mechanical parameters used in engineering design in rock masses. In the numerical simulation, the experimental parameters of intact rock were combined with the structural properties of field rock. The experimental results for orthogonally-jointed rock are given. The results included the curves of the stress-strain relationship of some rock masses, the curve of the relationship between the dimension Delta and the uniaxial pressure-resistant strength sc of these rock masses, and pictures of the destructive procedure of some rock masses in uniaxial or triaxial tests, etc. Application of the method to engineering design in rock masses showed the potential of its application to engineering practice.
EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF DOUBLE VIBE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN DIESEL ENGINES WITH BIODIESEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radivoje B Pešić
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A zero-dimensional, one zone model of engine cycle for steady-state regimes of engines and a simplified procedure for indicator diagrams analysis have been developed at the Laboratory for internal combustion engines, fuels and lubricants of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Kragujevac. In addition to experimental research, thermodynamic modeling of working process of diesel engine with direct injection has been presented in this paper. The simplified procedure for indicator diagrams analysis has been applied, also. The basic problem, a selection of shape parameters of double Vibe function used for modeling the engine operation process, has been solved. The influence of biodiesel fuel and engine working regimes on the start of combustion, combustion duration and shape parameter of double Vibe was determined by a least square fit of experimental heat release curve.
Bordes, C; Fréville, V; Ruffin, E; Marote, P; Gauvrit, J Y; Briançon, S; Lantéri, P
2010-01-04
The evolution of regulation on chemical substances (i.e. REACH regulation) calls for the progressive substitution of toxic chemicals in formulations when suitable alternatives have been identified. In this context, the method of Hansen solubility parameters was applied to identify an alternative solvent less toxic than methylene chloride used in a microencapsulation process. During the process based on a multiple emulsion (W/O/W) with solvent evaporation/extraction method, the solvent has to dissolve a polymer, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), which forms a polymeric matrix encapsulating or entrapping a therapeutic protein as the solvent is extracted. Therefore the three partial solubility parameters of PCL have been determined by a group contribution method, swelling experiments and turbidimetric titration. The results obtained allowed us to find a solvent, anisole, able to solubilize PCL and to form a multiple emulsion with aqueous solutions. A feasibility test was conducted under standard operating conditions and allowed the production of PCL microspheres.
Mosley, Garrett L; Nguyen, Phuong; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T
2016-08-01
The lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) is a well-established diagnostic technology that has recently seen significant advancements due in part to the rapidly expanding fields of paper diagnostics and paper-fluidics. As LFA-based diagnostics become more complex, it becomes increasingly important to quantitatively determine important parameters during the design and evaluation process. However, current experimental methods for determining these parameters have certain limitations when applied to LFA systems. In this work, we describe our novel methods of combining paper and radioactive measurements to determine nanoprobe molarity, the number of antibodies per nanoprobe, and the forward and reverse rate constants for nanoprobe binding to immobilized target on the LFA test line. Using a model LFA system that detects for the presence of the protein transferrin (Tf), we demonstrate the application of our methods, which involve quantitative experimentation and mathematical modeling. We also compare the results of our rate constant experiments with traditional experiments to demonstrate how our methods more appropriately capture the influence of the LFA environment on the binding interaction. Our novel experimental approaches can therefore more efficiently guide the research process for LFA design, leading to more rapid advancement of the field of paper-based diagnostics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jing-chang; GAO Xi-xin; CAO Wei-liang
2005-01-01
Supercritical carbon dioxide( SC-CO2 ) is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for conventional solvents in chemical reactions due to its environmentally benign character. Recently we have reported the homogeneous hydroformylation of propylene in supercritical carbon dioxide( SC-CO2 ), which is an example of this kind of application of carbon dioxide. The determination for the critical parameters of carbon dioxide + butyraldehyde mixtures is necessary for this reaction design which is the focus of the present paper. The critical parameters of the binary systems were determined via the static visual method at a constant volume with the molar fraction of butyraldehyde ranging from 1.0%to 2. 2% and the pressure ranging from 5 to 10 MPa. The experimental results show that the critical pressure and temperature increased with increasing the molar fraction of butyraldehyde. The bubble(dew) temperatures and the bubble (dew) pressures for the binary systems were also determined experimentally. The p-T Figures at different compositions of the binary systems were described. In addition, the critical compressibility factors Zc of the binary systems at different concentrations of n-butyraldehyde were calculated. It was found that the critical compressibility factor values of the binary systems decreased with increasing the molar fraction of n-butyraldehyde in the experimental range.
Prokop, Alexander; Schön, Peter; Singer, Florian; Pulfer, Gaëtan; Naaim, Mohamed; Thibert, Emmanuel
2015-04-01
Dynamic avalanche modeling requires as input the volumes and areas of the snow released, entrained and deposited, as well as the fracture heights. Determining these parameters requires high-resolution spatial snow surface data from before and after the avalanche. In snow and avalanche research, terrestrial laser scanners are used increasingly to efficiently and accurately map snow surfaces and depths over an area of several km². In practice however, several problems may occur, which must be recognized and accounted for during post-processing and interpretation, especially under the circumstances of surveying an artificially triggered avalanche at a test site, where time pressure due to operational time constraints may also cause less than ideal circumstances and surveying setups. Thus, we combine terrestrial laser scanning with photogrammetry, total station measurements and field snow observations to document and accurately survey an artificially triggered avalanche at the Col du Lautaret test site (2058 m) in the French Alps. The ability of TLS to determine avalanche modeling input parameters efficiently and accurately is shown, and we demonstrate how, merging TLS with the other methods facilitates and improves data post-processing and interpretation. Finally, we present for this avalanche the data required for the parameterization and validation of dynamic avalanche models and discuss using newest data, how the new laser scanning device generation (e.g Riegl VZ6000) further improves such surveying campaigns.
Determination of Soil Parameters in Apple-Growing Regions by Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Yi-Wei; YANG Shi-Qi; XU Chun-Ying; LI Yu-Zhong; BAI Wei; FAN Zhong-Nan; WANG Ya-Nan; LI Qiao-Zhen
2011-01-01
Soil quality monitoring is important in precision agriculture.This study aimed to examine the possibility of assessing the soil parameters in apple-growing regions using spectroscopic methods.A total of 111 soil samples were collected from 11 typical sites of apple orchards,and the croplands surrounding them.Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR)spectra,combined with partial least square regression,were used to predict the soil parameters,including organic matter (OM) content,pH,and the contents of As,Cu,Zn,Pb,and Cr.Organic matter and pH were closely correlated with As and the heavy metals.The NIR model showed a high prediction accuracy for the determination of OM,pH,and As,with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.89,0.89,and 0.90,respectively.The predictions of these three parameters by MIR showed reduced accuracy,with r values of 0.77,0.84,and 0.92,respectively.The heavy metals could also be measured by spectroscopy due to their correlation with organic matter.Both NIR and MIR had high correlation coefficients for the determination of Cu,Zn,and Cr,with standard errors of prediction of 2.95,10.48,and 9.49 mg kg-1 for NIR and 3.69,5.84,and 6.94 mg kg-1 for MIR,respectively.Pb content behaved differently from the other parameters.Both NIR and MIR underestimated Pb content,with r values of 0.67 and 0.56 and standard errors of prediction of 3.46 and 2.99,respectively.Cu and Zn had a higher correlation with OM and pH and were better predicted than Pb and Cr.Thus,NIR spectra could accurately predict several soil parameters,metallic and nonmetallic,simultaneously,and were more feasible than MIR in analyzing soil parameters in the study area.
Methodology for Determining Optimal Exposure Parameters of a Hyperspectral Scanning Sensor
Walczykowski, P.; Siok, K.; Jenerowicz, A.
2016-06-01
The purpose of the presented research was to establish a methodology that would allow the registration of hyperspectral images with a defined spatial resolution on a horizontal plane. The results obtained within this research could then be used to establish the optimum sensor and flight parameters for collecting aerial imagery data using an UAV or other aerial system. The methodology is based on an user-selected optimal camera exposure parameters (i.e. time, gain value) and flight parameters (i.e. altitude, velocity). A push-broom hyperspectral imager- the Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR was used to conduct this research. The measurement station consisted of the following equipment: a hyperspectral camera MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR, a personal computer with HyperSpec III software, a slider system which guaranteed the stable motion of the sensor system, a white reference panel and a Siemens star, which was used to evaluate the spatial resolution. Hyperspectral images were recorded at different distances between the sensor and the target- from 5m to 100m. During the registration process of each acquired image, many exposure parameters were changed, such as: the aperture value, exposure time and speed of the camera's movement on the slider. Based on all of the registered hyperspectral images, some dependencies between chosen parameters had been developed: - the Ground Sampling Distance - GSD and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the speed of the camera and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the exposure time and the gain value, - the Density Number and the gain value. The developed methodology allowed us to determine the speed and the altitude of an unmanned aerial vehicle on which the sensor would be mounted, ensuring that the registered hyperspectral images have the required spatial resolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S Mehrabi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and asthma are common diseases with difference in prognosis and treatment. It is believed that spirometry is the best modality for differentiating the two conditions however, the data is heterogeneous. This study aims at determining the most suitable spirometric parameters in this regard. Materials & Methods: In this case control study, fifty patients (25 patients with asthma and 25 patients with COPD in pulmonology ward of Dr.Faqi’hi Hospital of Shiraz in 2008 under the base spirometry and post bronchodilator were recruited and comparison between these two groups was done. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using independent t-test, Man-Whitney, Chi-square and Fisher test. Results: Frequency of male patients and the mean age were significantly higher in the COPD group. Increase of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 after administration of bronchodilator was significantly higher in asthmatic patients with an optimal cut-off point of ≥0.165 L (15% increase yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 60%, respectively. Change of other parameters was not significantly different between the two groups. The best differentiating spirometric parameter was post-inhalation FEV1/predicted value with an optimal cut-off point of ≥64.2, with relating sensitivity and specificity of 88%. Conclusion: According to our results and in concordance to other reports, changing of spirometric parameters after inhalation of a short-acting bronchodilator is not a reliable indicator of asthma or COPD. Post-inhalation FEV1/predicted value is the best parameter in this regard however, the clinical suspicion should not be replaced by it.
Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.
2007-05-01
A single well technique to determine groundwater flow values and transport parameters is presented. Multielectrode arrays are placed at the filtered casing depth by an inflatable packer or are installed on the borehole wall behind the casing.Tracer water with a higher or lower specific electrical conductivity (salinity) which is injected between the electrodes. This tracer plume then moves into the natural groundwater flow field. The observation of this movement by geoelectric logging enables the determination of the groundwater velocity and salinity. The transport parameters "effective porosity" and "dispersion length" can also be derived. The geoelectric logging uses n borehole electrodes and two grounding electrodes. Thus, either n independent two point measurements or n*(n-1)/2 pole-to-pole measurements can be conducted to obtain a full set of geoelectric measurements. This set is used to derive all electrode combinations by applying the law of superposition and reciprocity. The tracer distribution around the borehole during and after injection depends on the hydraulic and transport parameters of the aquifer and the filter sand. The transport parameter "porosity" plus the total injected tracer volume determines the tracer distribution around the borehole. The transport parameter "dispersivity" determines the abruptness of the tracer front. The method was tested by undertaking measurements in a lab aquifer filled with sand. The results are discussed and the limitations of the method are shown. Multielectrode installations behind casing were tested in situ in the two scientific boreholes CAT-LUD-1 and CAT- LUD-1A drilled in the northern part of Germany. A multielectrode packer system was designed, built and tested in these boreholes. The results are compared with colloid observations in the borehole and hydraulic triangulation in surrounded observation wells. Here, the interpretation of these in situ measurements is mainly restricted to two point geoelectric
Determining the tube bundle streamlining critical parameters using the numerical experiment method
Kaplunov, S. M.; Val'es, N. G.; Samolysov, A. V.; Marchevskaya, O. A.
2015-08-01
The article is devoted to development and application of mathematical models describing the most dangerous mechanisms through which vibrations are excited in tube bundles and blunt cylindrically shaped structures, and to development of reliable calculation methods for describing these models, which would make it possible to obtain prompt data for designing and subsequent operation of the considered structural elements. For solving such problems, a comprehensive approach is required, which should be based on a combined use of numerical experiments on computers and experimental investigations on full-scale equipment. The authors have developed a procedure for numerically investigating the hydrodynamic forces arising during stalled streamlining and the tube bundle vibrations caused by these forces. The procedure is based on using the developed mathematical model describing fluid-elastic excitation of vibrations in a bundle of elastic tubes placed in external cross flow. The problem of studying fluid-elastic excitation is brought to stability analysis, which is carried out with the assumption about a linear behavior of destabilizing forces for undisturbed state of elastic tubes. A theoretical investigation of the developed mathematical model was carried out, from which the necessary and sufficient condition of system stability has been obtained in terms of system dimensionless parameters (mass, damping, and velocity). An algorithm for numerically determining the matrices of linear hydrodynamic coupling coefficients for particular tube bundles is developed. The validity of the algorithm and the computer programs developed on its basis are checked by comparing the results of test calculations with the bank of known experimental data. A procedure is proposed for determining the matrices of linear hydrodynamic coupling coefficients in bundles having a regular layout of their cross section and a large number of tubes through calculating these matrices for a relatively small
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Sanz-Aguilar
Full Text Available The dominant criterion to determine when an introduced species is established relies on the maintenance of a self-sustaining population in the area of introduction, i.e. on the viability of the population from a demographic perspective. There is however a paucity of demographic studies on introduced species, and establishment success is thus generally determined by expert opinion without undertaking population viability analyses (PVAs. By means of an intensive five year capture-recapture monitoring program (involving >12,000 marked individuals we studied the demography of five introduced passerine bird species in southern Spain which are established and have undergone a fast expansion over the last decades. We obtained useful estimates of demographic parameters (survival and reproduction for one colonial species (Ploceus melanocephalus, confirming the long-term viability of its local population through PVAs. However, extremely low recapture rates prevented the estimation of survival parameters and population growth rates for widely distributed species with low local densities (Estrilda troglodytes and Amandava amandava but also for highly abundant yet non-colonial species (Estrilda astrild and Euplectes afer. Therefore, determining the establishment success of introduced passerine species by demographic criteria alone may often be troublesome even when devoting much effort to field-work. Alternative quantitative methodologies such as the analysis of spatio-temporal species distributions complemented with expert opinion deserve thus their role in the assessment of establishment success of introduced species when estimates of demographic parameters are difficult to obtain, as is generally the case for non-colonial, highly mobile passerines.
Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Anadón, José D; Edelaar, Pim; Carrete, Martina; Tella, José Luis
2014-01-01
The dominant criterion to determine when an introduced species is established relies on the maintenance of a self-sustaining population in the area of introduction, i.e. on the viability of the population from a demographic perspective. There is however a paucity of demographic studies on introduced species, and establishment success is thus generally determined by expert opinion without undertaking population viability analyses (PVAs). By means of an intensive five year capture-recapture monitoring program (involving >12,000 marked individuals) we studied the demography of five introduced passerine bird species in southern Spain which are established and have undergone a fast expansion over the last decades. We obtained useful estimates of demographic parameters (survival and reproduction) for one colonial species (Ploceus melanocephalus), confirming the long-term viability of its local population through PVAs. However, extremely low recapture rates prevented the estimation of survival parameters and population growth rates for widely distributed species with low local densities (Estrilda troglodytes and Amandava amandava) but also for highly abundant yet non-colonial species (Estrilda astrild and Euplectes afer). Therefore, determining the establishment success of introduced passerine species by demographic criteria alone may often be troublesome even when devoting much effort to field-work. Alternative quantitative methodologies such as the analysis of spatio-temporal species distributions complemented with expert opinion deserve thus their role in the assessment of establishment success of introduced species when estimates of demographic parameters are difficult to obtain, as is generally the case for non-colonial, highly mobile passerines.
Determination of Euler parameters of Philippine Sea plate and the inferences
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
臧绍先; 陈起永; 宁杰远; 沈正康; 刘永刚
2002-01-01
Euler vectors of 12 plates, including Philippine Sea plate (PH), relative to a randomly fixed Pacific plate(PA) were determined by inverting the 1122 data from NUVEL-1 global plate motion model, earthquake slip vectors along Philippine Sea plate boundary, and GPS observed velocities. Euler vectors of Philippine Sea plate relative to adjacent plates are also gained. Our results are well consistent with observed data and can satisfy the geological and geophysical constraints along the Caroline(CR)-PH and PA-CR boundaries. Deformation of Philippine Sea plate is also discussed by using the plate motion Euler parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chamizo Llatas, M.
1995-07-01
In the present work we analyze the process e{sup e{yields}}bb with the data collected during 1991 and 1992 by the Z,3 detector situated in the LEP e{sup es}torage-ring (CERN). From the measurements of the cross-sections and the charge asymmetry we determine the parameters of the b quark in the framework of the Standard Model. Finally, we parametrize the possible deviations from the model an obtain upper and lower. limits for the mass of the t quark. (Author) 23 refs.
Ablikim, M; Ban, Y; Cai, X; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y B; Chu, Y P; Dai, Y S; Diao, L Y; Deng, Z Y; Dong, Q F; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gu, S D; Gu, Y T; Guo, Y N; Guo, Z J; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; Heng, Y K; Hou, J; Hu, H M; Hu, J H; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, X T; Ji, X B; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Lai, Y F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Fang Liu; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, Jian; Liu, Q; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Lou, Y C; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Olsen, S L; Ping, R G; Qi, N D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, C P; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, D Y; Wang, L; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Zheng; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Weng, Y; Wu, N; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xu, G F; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Yan, M L; Yang, H X; Yang, Y X; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Q; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Yiyun; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Z P; Zhou, L; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zhuang, X A; Zou, B S
2008-01-01
$R$ measurement data taken with the BESII detector at center-of-mass energies between 3.7 and 5.0 GeV is fitted to determine resonance parameters (mass, total width, electron width) of the high mass charmonium states, $\\psi(3770)$, $\\psi(4040)$, $\\psi(4160)$ and $\\psi(4415)$. Various effects, including the relative phases between the resonances, interferences, the energy-dependence of the full widths, and the initial state radiative correction, are examined. The results are compared to previous studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carrion, Nereida E-mail: ncarrion@strix.ciens.ucv.ve; Murillo, Miguel; Montiel, Edie; Diaz, Dorfe
2003-08-15
A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a new direct hydride generation nebulizer system for determination of hydride forming elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. This system was designed and optimized to obtain the highest sensitivity. Several experimental designs were used for these purposes. To optimize the individual parameters of the system, and to study the interaction between these parameters for both direct hydride generation nebulizers, a central composite orthogonal design with eight factors was set up. Significant behavioral differences were observed in the two direct hydride generation nebulizers studied. Finally, a 70 {mu}m gas orifice nebulizer exhibits a better detection limit than the 120 {mu}m nebulizer. Generally, for determination of selenium, this new direct hydride generation nebulizer system exhibits a linear dynamic range and detection limit (3{sigma}b) of 3 orders of magnitude and 0.2 {mu}g l{sup -1} for selenium, respectively. This new hydride generator is much simpler system that conventional hydride generation systems, which does not need to be changed to work in normal mode with the inductively coupled plasma, since this system may be used for hydride forming elements and those that do not form them. It produces a rapid response with low memory effect. It reduces the interference level of Ni, Co and Cu to 600, 500 and 5 mg l{sup -1}, respectively. The accuracy of the system was verified by the determination of selenium in several standard reference materials of ambient, food and clinical sample matrices. No statistically significant differences (95 confidence level) were obtained between our method and the reference values.
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Bao, Y.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet–Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorsher, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Farr, B. F.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M. A.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gelencser, G.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.
2013-09-01
Compact binary systems with neutron stars or black holes are one of the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. Gravitational radiation encodes rich information about source physics; thus parameter estimation and model selection are crucial analysis steps for any detection candidate events. Detailed models of the anticipated waveforms enable inference on several parameters, such as component masses, spins, sky location and distance, that are essential for new astrophysical studies of these sources. However, accurate measurements of these parameters and discrimination of models describing the underlying physics are complicated by artifacts in the data, uncertainties in the waveform models and in the calibration of the detectors. Here we report such measurements on a selection of simulated signals added either in hardware or software to the data collected by the two LIGO instruments and the Virgo detector during their most recent joint science run, including a “blind injection” where the signal was not initially revealed to the collaboration. We exemplify the ability to extract information about the source physics on signals that cover the neutron-star and black-hole binary parameter space over the component mass range 1M⊙-25M⊙ and the full range of spin parameters. The cases reported in this study provide a snapshot of the status of parameter estimation in preparation for the operation of advanced detectors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy BAJKOWSKI
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper the laboratory stand, designed to be used as a part of the Laboratory of Machine Design and Research which is part of the subject Fundamentals of Machine Design, is presented. Originally the laboratory stand was designed as an element of one of the research projects, and the adopted for didactic purposes. The students have the chance to get familiar with unique type of fluids controlled by the magnetic field and their application in the special purpose devices. The laboratory stand allows to conduct individual measurements of the torque, for different coil currents which generate the magnetic field. In the final report students provide the results with the individual analysis of the system parameters.
Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan Ali Durrani
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zborowski, C.; Renault, O; Torres, A
2017-01-01
scattering cross-section in the form of a weighted sum of individual cross-sections of the pure layers. In this study, we have experimentally investigated this by analyzing Al/Ta/AlGaN stacks on a GaN substrate. We present a refined analytical method, based on the use of a reference spectrum, for determining...... the required input parameters, i.e. the inelastic mean free path and the effective inelastic scattering cross-section. The use of a reference sample gives extra constraints which make the analysis faster to converge towards a more accurate result. Based on comparisons with TEM, the improved method provides...... results determined with a deviation typically better than 5% instead of around 10% without reference. The case of much thicker overlayers up to 66. nm is also discussed, notably in terms of accounting for elastic scattering in the analysis....
Celik, Istemi H; Demirel, Gamze; Aksoy, Hatice T; Erdeve, Omer; Tuncer, Ece; Biyikli, Zeynep; Dilmen, Ugur
2012-01-01
The Coulter LH780 hematology analyzer can evaluate mean neutrophil volume (MNV), conductivity (MNC), scatter (MNS), and distribution width (DW). We sought to investigate the value of volume, conductivity, and scatter (VCS) parameters in diagnosis and treatment efficacy of neonatal sepsis. We observed significant increases in MNV, volume distribution width (VDW), conductivity distribution width (CDW), and significant decreases in MNC and MNS in septic newborns. There were significant decreases in MNV, VDW, and CDW, whereas MNC and MNS increased at the end of the treatment. Gram-negative sepsis caused higher MNV and VDW than Gram-positive sepsis. This is the largest reported study seeking to determine cutoff levels of neutrophil VCS parameters in diagnosis of sepsis, and the first study in the evaluation of treatment efficacy and the effects of sepsis onset time and birth weight. We suggest that neutrophil VCS parameters and their DWs are useful both for early diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy in neonatal sepsis without requirement for any extra blood collection. Peripheral blood samples from 304 newborns, 206 in group I (76 proven and 130 clinical sepsis) and 98 in group II (control group), were studied on diagnosis, 3rd day, and at the end of the treatment.
Spergel, D N; Peiris, H V; Komatsu, E; Nolta, M R; Bennett, C L; Halpern, M; Hinshaw, G; Jarosik, N C; Kogut, A J; Limon, M; Meyer, S S; Page, L; Tucker, G S; Weiland, J L; Wollack, E; Wright, E L
2003-01-01
WMAP precision data enables accurate testingof cosmological models. We find that the emerging standard model of cosmology, a flat Lambda-dominated universe seeded by a nearly scale-invariant adiabatic Gaussian fluctuations, fits the WMAP data. With parameters fixed only by WMAP data, we can fit finer scale CMB measurements and measurements of large scale structure (galaxy surveys and the Lyman Alpha forest). This simple model is also consistent with a host of other astronomical measurements. We then fit the model parameters to a combination of WMAP data with other finer scale CMB experiments (ACBAR and CBI), 2dFGRS measurements and Lyman Alpha forest data to find the model's best fit cosmological parameters: h = 0.71^{+ 0.04}_{- 0.03}}, Omega_bh^2 = 0.0224+/-0.0009}, Omega_mh^2 = 0.135^{+ 0.008}_{- 0.009}}, tau = 0.17+/-0.06}, n_s(0.05 Mpc$^{-1}) = 0.93 \\pm 0.03}, and sigma_8 = 0.84+/-0.04}. WMAP's best determination of tau=0.17+/-0.04 arises directly from the TE data and not from this model fit, but they are...
Blossier, Benoit
2014-01-01
The 2-years old observation at LHC of a new boson, with a mass of 126 GeV, is a great achievement. Its interpretation as a Brout-Englert-Higgs boson is very plausible and appealing to complete the zoology of fundamental particles in the Standard Model. The interplay between theorists and experimentalists that we have witnessed has come with a huge work to determine with enough precision the parameters of the Standard Model: couplings, masses, mixing angles. Among the various tools developed by physicists, lattice QCD is particularly suitable to know those parameters in the quark sector. In this report I discuss the lattice measurement of Standard Model fundamental parameters that are closely related to Higgs boson: its main production mode is the gluon-gluon fusion, whose the magnitude is governed by the strong coupling constant, while its most favored decay channel, $H \\to b \\bar{b}$, has a coupling proportional to the $b$ quark mass. I outline the improvements brought by the lattice community: simulations w...
Determination of Mass Transfer Parameters During Deep Fat Frying of Rice Crackers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mohammad Taghi Hamed MOSAVIAN; Vahid Mohammadpour KARIZAKI
2012-01-01
The accuracy of the knowledge of mass transfer parameters (effective moisture diffusivity,mass transfer Biot number and mass transfer coefficient) in the case of frying food,is essential and important for designing,modeling and process optimization.This study is undertaken to develop an approach for determining mass transfer parameters during frying of spherical rice cracker in sunflower oil at 150,170 and 190 ℃.These parameters were evaluated from the plots of dimensionless concentration ratios against time of frying.Effective moisture diffusivity,mass transfer Biot number and mass transfer coefficient ranged between 1.24×10-8 to 2.36×10-8 m2/s,1.96 to 2.34 and 5.51×10-6 to 9.70×10-6 m/s,respectively.Effective moisture diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient were found to increase with an increasing frying temperature,whereas mass transfer Biot number decreased.An Arrhenius-type relationship was found between effective diffusivity coefficient and frying temperature.
Determination and Validation of Parameters for Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma Concrete Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Qing Ding
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Numerical modelling of the complex physical processes such as concrete structures subjected to high-impulsive loads relies on suitable material models appropriate for impact and explosion problems. One of theextensive used concrete material models, the RHT model, contains all essential features of concrete materialssubjected to high dynamic loading. However, the application of the RHT model requires a set of material propertiesand model parameters without which reliable results cannot be expected. The present paper provides adetailed valuation of the RHT model and proposes a method of determining the model parameters for C40 concrete.Furthermore, the dynamic compressive and tensile strength function of the model formulation are modified toenhance the performance of the model as implemented in the hydrocode AUTODYN. The performance of thedetermined parameters of the modified RHT model is demonstrated by comparing to available experimentaldata, and further verified via simulations of physical experiments of concrete penetration by steel projectiles.The results of numerical analyses are found closely match the penetration depth and the crater size in the frontsurface of the concrete targets.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.524-530, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.3866
Determination of new electroweak parameters at the ILC. Sensitivity to new physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beyer, M.; Schmidt, E.; Schroeder, H. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Kilian, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fach Physik]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Krstonosic, P.; Reuter, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moenig, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2006-04-15
We present a study of the sensitivity of an International Linear Collider (ILC) to electroweak parameters in the absence of a light Higgs boson. In particular, we consider those parameters that have been inaccessible at previous colliders, quartic gauge couplings. Within a generic effective-field theory context we analyze all processes that contain quasi-elastic weak-boson scattering, using complete six-fermion matrix elements in unweighted event samples, fast simulation of the ILC detector, and a multidimensional parameter fit of the set of anomalous couplings. The analysis does not rely on simplifying assumptions such as custodial symmetry or approximations such as the equivalence theorem. We supplement this by a similar new study of triple weak-boson production, which is sensitive to the same set of anomalous couplings. Including the known results on triple gauge couplings and oblique corrections, we thus quantitatively determine the indirect sensitivity of the ILC to new physics in the electroweak symmetry-breaking sector, conveniently parameterized by real or fictitious resonances in each accessible spin/isospin channel. (Orig.)
Determination of spatially dependent diffusion parameters in bovine bone using Kalman filter.
Shokry, Abdallah; Ståhle, Per; Svensson, Ingrid
2015-11-07
Although many studies have been made for homogenous constant diffusion, bone is an inhomogeneous material. It has been suggested that bone porosity decreases from the inner boundaries to the outer boundaries of the long bones. The diffusivity of substances in the bone matrix is believed to increase as the bone porosity increases. In this study, an experimental set up is used where bovine bone samples, saturated with potassium chloride (KCl), were put into distilled water and the conductivity of the water was followed. Chloride ions in the bone samples escaped out in the water through diffusion and the increase of the conductivity was measured. A one-dimensional, spatially dependent mathematical model describing the diffusion process is used. The diffusion parameters in the model are determined using a Kalman filter technique. The parameters for spatially dependent at endosteal and periosteal surfaces are found to be (12.8 ± 4.7) × 10(-11) and (5 ± 3.5) × 10(-11)m(2)/s respectively. The mathematical model function using the obtained diffusion parameters fits very well with the experimental data with mean square error varies from 0.06 × 10(-6) to 0.183 × 10(-6) (μS/m)(2).
Determination of needed parameters for measuring temperature fields in air by thermography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavelek Milan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is the parameters determination of equipment for measuring temperature fields in air using an infrared camera. This method is based on the visualization of temperature fields in an auxiliary material, which is inserted into the non-isothermal air flow. The accuracy of air temperature measurement (or of surface temperature of supplies by this method depends especially on (except for parameters of infrared camera the determination of the static and the dynamic qualities of auxiliary material. The emissivity of support material is the static quality and the dynamic quality is time constant. Support materials with a high emissivity and a low time constant are suitable for the measurement. The high value of emissivity results in a higher measurement sensitivity and the radiation temperature independence. In this article the emissivity of examined kinds of auxiliary materials (papers and textiles is determined by temperature measuring of heated samples by a calibrated thermocouple and by thermography, with the emissivity setting on the camera to 1 and with the homogeneous radiation temperature. Time constants are determined by a step change of air temperature in the surrounding of auxiliary material. The time constant depends mainly on heat transfer by the convection from the air into the auxiliary material. That is why the effect of air temperature is examined in this article (or a temperature difference towards the environmental temperature and the flow velocity on the time constant with various types of auxiliary materials. The obtained results allow to define the conditions for using the method of measurement of temperature fields in air during various heating and air conditioning applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilland, Karen L.; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Qi, Yujin; Gullberg,Grant T.
2005-07-01
The performance of the Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO)was compared to that of human observers for determining optimumparameters for the iterative OS-EM image reconstruction method for thetask of defect detection in myocardial SPECT images. The optimumparameters were those that maximized defect detectability in the SPECTimages. Low noise, parallel SPECT projection data, with and without ananterior, inferior or lateral LV wall defect, were simulated using theMonte Carlo method. Poisson noise was added to generate noisyrealizations. Data were reconstructed using OS-EM at 1&4subsets/iteration and at 1, 3, 5, 7&9 iterations. Images wereconverted to 2D short-axis slices with integer pixel values. The CHO used3 radially-symmetric, 2D channels, with varying levels of internalobserver noise. For each parameter setting, 600 defect-present and 600defect-absent image vectors were used to calculate the detectabilityindex (dA). The human observers rated the likelihood that a defect waspresent in a specified location. For each parameter setting, the AUC wasestimated from 48 defect-present and 48 defect-absent images. Thecombined human observer results showed the optimum parameter settingcould be in the range 5-36 updates ([number of subsets]/iteration enumber of iterations). The CHO results showed the optimum parametersetting to be 4-5 updates. The performance of the CHO was much moresensitive to the reconstruction parameter setting than was that of thehuman observers. The rankings of the CHO detectability values did notchange with varying levels of internal noise.
de Sousa, Kleverson C.; Domingues, Allan C.; Pereira, Pedro P. de S.; Carneiro, Sergio H.; de Morais, Marcus V. G.; Fabro, Adriano T.
2016-06-01
The experimental determination of modal parameters, i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratio, are key in characterizing the dynamic behaviour of structures. Typically, such parameters are obtained from dynamic measurements using one or a set of accelerometers, for response measurements, along with force transducers from an impact hammer or an electrodynamic actuator, i.e. a shaker. However, lightweight structures, commonly applied in the aerospace industry, can be significantly affected by the added mass from accelerometers. Therefore, non-contact measurement techniques, like Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), are a more suitable approach in determining the dynamic characteristics of such structures. In this article, the procedures and results of a modal test for a honeycomb sandwich panel for aerospace applications are presented and discussed. The main objectives of the test are the identification of natural frequencies and mode shapes in order to validate a numerical model, as well as the identification of the damping characteristics of the panel. A validated numerical model will be necessary for future detailed response analysis of the satellite, including vibroacoustic investigations to account for acoustic excitations encountered during launching. The numerical model using homogenised material properties is updated to fit the experimental results and very good agreement between experimental and numerically obtained natural frequencies and mode shapes.
Linear Determination of a Camera's Intrinsic Parameters Using Two Intersecting Circles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Chen
2014-03-01
Full Text Available An approach using two intersecting circles is proposed as a linear approach for determining a camera's intrinsic parameters. The two intersecting coplanar circles have four intersection points in the projective plane: two real points and two circular points. In the image plane, the diagonal triangle - on which the image of the four intersection points composes a complete quadrangle - is a self-polar triangle for the projection curves of the circles. The vertex of the self-polar triangle is the null space of the degenerate conic formed by the image of the four intersection points. By solving the three vertices of the self-polar triangle using the image coordinates of the two real intersection points, the degenerate conic can be obtained. The image of the two circular points is then computed from the intersection points of the degenerate conic. Using the image of the circular points from the three images of the same planar pattern with different directions, the intrinsic parameters can be linearly determined.
Linear Determination of a Camera's Intrinsic Parameters Using Two Intersecting Circles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Chen
2014-03-01
Full Text Available An approach using two intersecting circles is proposed as a linear approach for determining a camera's intrinsic parameters. The two intersecting coplanar circles have four intersection points in the projective plane: two real points and two circular points. In the image plane, the diagonal triangle - on which the image of the four intersection points composes a complete quadrangle - is a self-polar triangle for the projection curves of the circles. The vertex of the self-polar triangle is the null space of the degenerate conic formed by the image of the four intersection points. By solving the three vertices of the self-polar triangle using the image coordinates of the two real intersection points, the degenerate conic can be obtained. The image of the two circular points is then computed from the intersection points of the degenerate conic. Using the image of the circular points from the three images of the same planar pattern with different directions, the intrinsic parameters can be linearly determined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aksenova O. I.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of the development of pet food formulations in the conditions of information uncertainty which is characteristic of an actual business enterprise engaged in production of feed has been considered in the paper. The analysis of the literature [1–4] has shown that the main works are devoted to the extrusion of plastics and cereal products, with the temperature conditions equal to 130–200 ºC. This temperature range is not suitable for the production of pet food, and researches on this issue are virtually absent. This study is devoted to defining the functional and technological parameters of prescription mixture depending on the level of feed intake by unproductive animals; this knowledge will allow manufacturers to simplify the development of new formulations of balanced feed. Identification of this relationship has been carried out on the basis of modeling methods of mathematical statistics in Excel and Mathcad packages, as well as on the basis of fuzzy logic set theory in MatLAB package, as the construction of a complete mathematical model is complicated by absence of an explicit numerical form of the result received on the basis of sensory analysis. The research has revealed the dependence of feed intake level on functional and technological parameters of prescription mix for non-productive animals, in particular, the highest level of animal feed intake will be achieved at the following values of the main parameters: pH – 6.5; the moisture – 9 %; the protein concentration – 85 %; the particle size – 0.55 mm; the energy value – 267 kcal/100 g feed. The adequacy of the dependence for the input variables – the moisture feed and concentration of the protein component – is confirmed by the experimental investigations. This paper can be used to generate the optimal prescription composition for functional and technological characteristics of the samples in order to create balanced extruded feeds.
Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Bao, Y; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endröczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Farr, B F; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gelencser, G; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kurdyumov, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Langley, A; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Roux, A Le; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Lhuillier, V; Li, J; Li, T G F; Lindquist, P E; Litvine, V; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Logue, J; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow--Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Oldenberg, R G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pihlaja, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Pöld, J; Postiglione, F; Poux, C; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Roberts, M; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sankar, S; Sannibale, V; Santamaría, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S E; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thüring, A; Titsler, C; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J
2013-01-01
Compact binary systems with neutron stars or black holes are one of the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Gravitational radiation encodes rich information about source physics; thus parameter estimation and model selection are crucial analysis steps for any detection candidate events. Detailed models of the anticipated waveforms enable inference on several parameters, such as component masses, spins, sky location and distance that are essential for new astrophysical studies of these sources. However, accurate measurements of these parameters and discrimination of models describing the underlying physics are complicated by artifacts in the data, uncertainties in the waveform models and in the calibration of the detectors. Here we report such measurements on a selection of simulated signals added either in hardware or software to the data collected by the two LIGO instruments and the Virgo detector during their most recent joint science run, including a "blind injection" wher...
A new multi-wavelength model-based method for determination of enzyme kinetic parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mohammad-Hossein Sorouraddin; Kaveh Amini; Abdolhossein Naseri; Javad Vallipour; Jalal Hanaee; Mohammad-Reza Rashidi
2010-09-01
Lineweaver–Burk plot analysis is the most widely used method to determine enzyme kinetic parameters. In the spectrophotometric determination of enzyme activity using the Lineweaver–Burk plot, it is necessary to find a wavelength at which only the substrate or the product has absorbance without any spectroscopic interference of the other reaction components. Moreover, in this method, different initial concentrations of the substrate should be used to obtain the initial velocities required for Lineweaver–Burk plot analysis. In the present work, a multi-wavelength model-based method has been developed and validated to determine Michaelis–Menten constants for some enzyme reactions. In this method, a selective wavelength region and several experiments with different initial concentrations of the substrate are not required. The absorbance data of the kinetic assays are fitted by non-linear regression coupled to the numeric integration of the related differential equation. To indicate the applicability of the proposed method, the Michaelis–Menten constants for the oxidation of phenanthridine, 6-deoxypenciclovir and xanthine by molybdenum hydroxylases were determined using only a single initial concentration of the substrate, regardless of any spectral overlap.
A new multi-wavelength model-based method for determination of enzyme kinetic parameters.
Sorouraddin, Mohammad-Hossein; Amini, Kaveh; Naseri, Abdolhossein; Vallipour, Javad; Hanaee, Jalal; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza
2010-09-01
Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis is the most widely used method to determine enzyme kinetic parameters. In the spectrophotometric determination of enzyme activity using the Lineweaver-Burk plot, it is necessary to find a wavelength at which only the substrate or the product has absorbance without any spectroscopic interference of the other reaction components. Moreover, in this method, different initial concentrations of the substrate should be used to obtain the initial velocities required for Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. In the present work, a multi-wavelength model-based method has been developed and validated to determine Michaelis-Menten constants for some enzyme reactions. In this method, a selective wavelength region and several experiments with different initial concentrations of the substrate are not required. The absorbance data of the kinetic assays are fitted by non-linear regression coupled to the numeric integration of the related differential equation. To indicate the applicability of the proposed method, the Michaelis-Menten constants for the oxidation of phenanthridine, 6-deoxypenciclovir and xanthine by molybdenum hydroxylases were determined using only a single initial concentration of the substrate, regardless of any spectral overlap.
Parameters of quality of the woodworkability for determination of different usage of Eucalyptus wood
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Wood products used in the furniture industry need to have wood work machine surfaces quality optimized andpatronized. There are some classification methods to determine the wood quality, including visual inspection, determination of theadvance per tooth (fz, rugosimeter and laser or just touching. After the wood classification it is determined the usage of the differentwood qualities. The empiricism of the quality parameters in the indication of uses is not always ideal. This study determined the qualityof surfaces of Eucalyptus flat wood and defined appropriate uses for the different quality classes obtained. It had been worked machinedifferent Eucalyptus samples by planer with speed of advance of 3,6,15 and 30 m*min-1. To classify the wood, the determination of theadvance per tooth (calculated fz and measured fz and the visual qualification (ASTMD 1666-87, 1995 were used. Later the woodusage according to quality was determined. The percentage of good samples decreased as the speed advance increased: reaching92%, 69%, 0% and 0% for advance speed of 3,6,15 and 30 m*min-1 respectively. Samples prepared at the speed of 3 and 6 m*min-1 were used to fabricate furniture, cabinet frame and thresholds. About 54%of samples prepared at the speed of 15 m*min-1 were usedfor railing, lambris, structural panels and flooring. About 46% and 100% of samples prepared at the speed of 15 and 30 m*min-1,respectively, were used to fabricate dividers, trusses, fences and, or, exterior gates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. M. Horobchenko
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. During development of intelligent control systems for locomotive there is a need in the evaluation of the current train situation in the terms of traffic safety. In order to estimate the probability of the development of various emergency situations in to the traffic accidents, it is necessary to determine their complexity. The purpose of this paper is to develop the methodology for determining the complexity of emergency situations during the locomotive operation. Methodology. To achieve this purpose the statistical material of traffic safety violations was accumulated. The causes of violations are divided into groups: technical factors, human factors and external influences. Using the theory of hybrid networks it was obtained a model that gives the output complexity parameter of the emergency situation. Network type: multilayer perceptron with hybrid neurons of the first layer and the sigmoid activation function. The methods of the probability theory were used for the analysis of the results. Findings. The approach to the formalization of manufacturing situations that can only be described linguistically was developed, that allowed to use them as input data to the model for emergency situation. It was established and proved that the exponent of complexity for emergency situation during driving the train is a random quantity and obeys to the normal distribution law. It was obtained the graph of the cumulative distribution function, which identified the areas for safe operation and an increased risk of accident. Originality. It was proposed theoretical basis for determining the complexity of emergency situations in the train work and received the maximum complexity value of emergency situations that can be admitted in the operating conditions. Practical value. Constant monitoring of this value allows not only respond to the threat of danger, but also getting it in numerical form and use it as one of the input parameters for the
EQUIDISTANT TOOTH GENERATION ON NONCYLINDRICAL SURFACES FOR TWO-PARAMETER GEARING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuriy GUTSALENKO,
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The questions of design research of noncylindrical tooth surfaces for two-parameter gearing on example of bevel gears with constant normal pitch forgearing variators are been considered. Engineering is based on the special applied development of the mathematical theory of multiparametric mappings of space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Songul CINAROGLU
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Objective: Random Forest (RF is one of machine learning techniques which is used for classification and regression with generating number of trees. There is a debate in the literature about how generating different number of trees reflects classification performance of this method. For this reason the aim of this study is to observe RF performance results by generating different number of trees and changing ''k'' parameter in cross validation while classifying OECD countries according to health expenditures. Material and Methods: In this dataset k-fold cross validation was implemented and Mann Whitney U test was used whether there is a difference in RF performance results using AUC when ''k'' parameter was high (k≥13 or low (k˂13 and while generating different number of trees (50, 100, 150, 200, 250. Results: Results of this study shows that generating different number of trees in RF not makes any significant changes (p˃0.05 in performance results. It was seen that perceived health status was a variable which has more information gain for predicting health expenditures. Conclusion: It is advisable for future studies related with this subject to examine performance results of different datasets which are in different types and sizes.
Gosch, D. L.; Dontsova, K.; Chorover, J.; Ferré, T.; Taylor, S.
2010-12-01
During military operations, a small fraction of propellant mass is not consumed during firing and is deposited onto the ground surface (Jenkins et al., 2006). Soluble propellant constituents can be released from particulate residues into the environment. Propellant constituents of interest for this study are nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluine (2,6-DNT), and nitroguanidine (NQ). The goal of this work is to determine fate and transport parameters for these constituents in three soils that represent a range of geographic locations and soil properties. This supports a companion study that looks at dissolution of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ from fired and unfired solid propellant formulations and their transport in soils. The three soils selected for the study are Catlin silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, superactive Oxyaquic Argiudoll), Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult). Two of these soils, Plymouth sandy loam and Sassafras loam, were collected on military installations. Linear adsorption coefficients and transformation rates of propellant constituents were determined in batch kinetic experiments. Soils were mixed with propellant constituent solutions (2 mg L-1) at 4:1 solution/soil mass ratio and equilibrated for 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 120 hr at which time samples were centrifuged and supernatant solutions were analyzed for target compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using U.S. EPA Method 8330b for NG, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT, and Walsh (1989) method for NQ. Adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents were determined from the decrease in solution concentration of these compounds. It was determined that all studied compounds were subjected to sorption by the solid phase and degradation. Catlin soil, with finer texture and high organic matter content, influenced solution concentration of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT
Lindgren, Sara; Heiter, Ulrike
2017-08-01
Context. Reliable metallicity values for late K and M dwarfs are important for studies of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and advancement of planet formation theory in low-mass environments. Historically it has been challenging to determine the stellar parameters of low-mass stars because of their low surface temperature, which causes several molecules to form in the photospheric layers. In our work we use the fact that infrared high-resolution spectrographs have opened up a new window for investigating M dwarfs. This enables us to use similar methods as for warmer solar-like stars. Aims: Metallicity determination with high-resolution spectra is more accurate than with low-resolution spectra, but it is rather time consuming. In this paper we expand our sample analyzed with this precise method both in metallicity and effective temperature to build a calibration sample for a future revised empirical calibration. Methods: Because of the relatively few molecular lines in the J band, continuum rectification is possible for high-resolution spectra, allowing the stellar parameters to be determined with greater accuracy than with optical spectra. We obtained high-resolution spectra with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The metallicity was determined using synthetic spectral fitting of several atomic species. For M dwarfs that are cooler than 3575 K, the line strengths of FeH lines were used to determine the effective temperatures, while for warmer stars a photometric calibration was used. Results: We analyzed 16 targets with a range of effective temperature from 3350-4550 K. The resulting metallicities lie between -0.5< [M/H] < +0.4. A few targets have previously been analyzed using low-resolution spectra and we find a rather good agreement with our values. A comparison with available photometric calibrations shows varying agreement and the spread within all empirical calibrations is large. Conclusions: Including the targets from our previous
A Zero-Dimensional Model of a 2nd Generation Planar SOFC Using Calibrated Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Thomas Frank
2006-01-01
This paper presents a zero-dimensional mathematical model of a planar 2nd generation co-flow SOFC developed for simulation of power systems. The model accounts for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen as well as the methane reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction. An important part...
Influence of the external and internal parameters on the characteristics of generator PV
Zouli, Mounir; Ghoudelbourk, Sihem; Ouari, Ahmed; Dib, Djallel
2017-02-01
The growing demand for electric power and inevitable future depletion of conventional sources require major research on the alternative sources, like renewable energies. Among which, solar energy is the most largely used because of its many applications. And as Algeria comprises an exceptional solar layer thanks to its large surfaces, therefore it represents an important source of photovoltaic energy. The objective of this work is to be ensured that the energy produced by the photovoltaic plant supplies the electrical distribution network. The configuration of this system comprises a photovoltaic generator, connected to a chopper booster. For an optimal operation of the system, one must connect in cascades partial generators each one connected to a chopper booster adapted by an order MPPT by the method of Disturbance and Observation (P&O) to ensure the operation of their maximum powers whatever the climatic conditions, and also allows to raise the output voltage of these photovoltaic generators. The adaptation between the photovoltaic generator and the load was carried out with the help of converter DC/DC.
Li, Yuhui; Zhang, Shancai
2004-01-01
The high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL) is an important candidate for a fourth-generation light source. Lots of theoretical work has been performed. Recently a further 1D theory about HGHG FEL has been developed. It considers the effects of different parameters for the whole process. An initial program based on this theory has been made. In this paper, a brief comparison of the results from this 1D program and from TDA (3D code) is discussed. It also analyses the parameters for Shanghai deep ultra violate free-electron laser source (SDUV-FEL), including electron beam energy spread, seed laser power, strength of dispersion section etc.
Lukasik, B.; Goddard, K F; Sykulski, J. K.
2009-01-01
The paper outlines methods developed to obtain circuit parameters of a superconducting synchronous generator with a coreless rotor. The need for full three–dmensional (3D) finite element modeling is emphasized and appropriate techniques devised to estimate relevant equivalent characteristics. The methods described use steady-state ac models, predominantly in the rotor frame of reference; the use of transient or full rotating machine models is avoided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilija KOVACEVIC
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the problem of friction stir welding (FSW technology. The mechanism of thermo-mechanical process of the FSW method has been identified and a correlation between the weld zone and its microstructure established. Presented are the basic analytical formulations for the definition of temperature fields. Analysis of influential parameters of welding FSW technology at the zone of the weld material and mechanical properties of the realized joint was performed. Influential welding parameters were defined based on tool geometry, technological parameters of processing and the axial load of tool. Specific problems with the FSW process are related to gaps (holes left behind by a tool at the end of the process and inflexibility of welding regarding the degree of variation of material thickness. Numerical simulation of process welding FSW proceeding was carried out on the example of Aluminum Alloy (AA 2219 using the ANSYS Mechanical ADPL (Transient Thermal software package. The defined was the temperature field in the welding process at specified time intervals.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.10022
Determination of kinetic parameters for 123-I thyroid uptake in healthy Japanese
Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Kazuya
2017-09-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic parameters for iodide thyroid accumulation in Japanese today with previously reported values. We determined the thyroid uptake of 123-I at 24 hours after the oral administration in healthy male Japanese without any diet restriction. The mean value was 16.1±5.4%, which was similar or rather lower than those previously reported in Japan (1958-1972). Kinetic model analysis was conducted to obtain the clearance for thyroid uptake from the blood circulation. The thyroid uptake clearance of 123-I was 0.540±0.073 ml/min, which was almost similar to those reported previously. There is no obvious difference in the thyroid uptake for 24 hours, and kinetic parameters in healthy Japanese for these 50 years. The fraction of distributed to the thyroid gland is lower than the ICRP reference man, and such difference must be taken into consideration to estimate the radiation exposure upon Fukushima accident in Japan.
Improving stellar parameter and abundance determinations of early B-type stars
Nieva, Maria-Fernanda
2009-01-01
In the past years we have made great efforts to reduce the statistical and systematic uncertainties in stellar parameter and chemical abundance determinations of early B-type stars. Both the construction of robust model atoms for non-LTE line-formation calculations and a novel self-consistent spectral analysis methodology were decisive to achieve results of unprecedented precision. They were extensively tested and applied to high-quality spectra of stars from OB associations and the field in the solar neighbourhood, covering a broad parameter range. Initially, most lines of hydrogen, helium and carbon in the optical/near-IR spectral range were reproduced simultaneously in a consistent way for the first time, improving drastically on the accuracy of results in published work.By taking additional ionization equilibria of oxygen, neon, silicon and iron into account, uncertainties as low as ~1% in effective temperature, ~10% in surface gravity and ~20% in elemental abundances are achieved - compared to ~5-10%, ~2...
Abdel-Wahab, Magd M; Wang, Chong; Vanegas-Useche, Libardo V; Parker, Graham A
2011-06-01
The removal ability of gutter brushes for road sweeping for various debris types and different sweeping parameters is studied through experimental tests. The brushing test rig used comprises two commercial gutter brushes, a concrete test bed, and an asphalt test road with a gutter of 0.25 cm width and 10° slope. The brush-surface contact area is determined by sweeping sand on the concrete test bed. Sweeping problems are identified and discussed, and sweeping criteria for the different debris types are suggested. Also, optimum sweeping parameters are proposed for each debris type. In addition, debris removal mechanisms are discussed and analysed. The results indicate that for large heavy debris such as stones and gravel, it is not difficult to achieve large removal forces, because the steel bristles are relatively stiff. Conversely, high removal forces are not needed for particles of millimetre or micron sizes, but bristle curvature has to be appropriate to remove particles from road concavities. Finally, it is found that mud, especially dry mud on a rough surface, is the hardest debris to sweep, requiring a brush with a large tilt angle and a very large penetration to produce large removal forces.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Hae-Yong; Park, Moon-Ghu [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
In most existing evaluation methodologies, which follow a conservative approach, the most conservative initial conditions are searched for each transient scenario through tremendous assessment for wide operating windows or limiting conditions for operation (LCO) allowed by the operating guidelines. In this procedure, a user effect could be involved and a remarkable time and human resources are consumed. In the present study, we investigated a more effective statistical method for the selection of the most conservative initial condition by the use of random sampling of operating parameters affecting the initial conditions. A method for the determination of initial conditions based on random sampling of plant design parameters is proposed. This method is expected to be applied for the selection of the most conservative initial plant conditions in the safety analysis using a conservative evaluation methodology. In the method, it is suggested that the initial conditions of reactor coolant flow rate, pressurizer level, pressurizer pressure, and SG level are adjusted by controlling the pump rated flow, setpoints of PLCS, PPCS, and FWCS, respectively. The proposed technique is expected to contribute to eliminate the human factors introduced in the conventional safety analysis procedure and also to reduce the human resources invested in the safety evaluation of nuclear power plants.
Lisenko, S. A.; Firago, V. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.; Kubarko, A. I.
2016-09-01
We have developed a method for on-the-fl y retrieval of the volume concentration of blood vessels, the average diameter of the blood vessels, the blood oxygenation level, and the molar concentrations of chromophores in the bulbar conjunctiva from its diffuse reflectance spectra, measured when the radiation delivery and detection channels are spatially separated. The relationship between the diffuse reflectance spectrum of the conjunctiva and its unknown parameters is described in terms of an analytical model, constructed on the basis of a highly accurate approximation analog of the Monte Carlo method. We have studied the effect of localization of hemoglobin in erythrocytes and localization of erythrocytes in the blood vessels on the power of the retrieval of structural and morphological parameters for the conjunctiva. We developed a device for obtaining video images of the conjunctiva and contactless measurements of its diffuse reflectance spectrum. By comparing simulated diffuse reflectance spectra of the conjunctiva with the experimental measurements, we established a set of chromophores which must be taken into account in the model for reproducing the experimental data within the measurement error. We observed absorption bands for neuroglobin in the experimental spectra, and provided a theoretical basis for the possibility of determining its absolute concentrations in the conjunctiva. We have shown that our method can detect low bilirubin concentrations in blood.
QCD Coupling from a Nonperturbative Determination of the Three-Flavor Λ Parameter
Bruno, Mattia; Brida, Mattia Dalla; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Schaefer, Stefan; Simma, Hubert; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer; Alpha Collaboration
2017-09-01
We present a lattice determination of the Λ parameter in three-flavor QCD and the strong coupling at the Z pole mass. Computing the nonperturbative running of the coupling in the range from 0.2 to 70 GeV, and using experimental input values for the masses and decay constants of the pion and the kaon, we obtain ΛMS¯ (3 )=341 (12 ) MeV . The nonperturbative running up to very high energies guarantees that systematic effects associated with perturbation theory are well under control. Using the four-loop prediction for ΛMS¯ (5 )/ΛMS¯ (3 ) yields αMS¯ (5 )(mZ)=0.11852 (84 ) .
Abdelrahman, E. M.; Bayoumi, A. I.
Rigorous calculation of gravity effects of faults for the interpretation of subsurface structure from exploration gravity surveys is time-consuming and tedious. Resort to electronic computers is convenient but not always necessary. Simple hand calculations can be instructive and are often adequate and useful. This paper confirms the basic ideas of some geophysicists on the usefulness of approximating most fault structures by one semi-infinite horizontal slab, and presents two simple nomograms to determine the slab parameters from gravity very rapidly. A field example from the Mersa Matruh Basin, Western Desert of Egypt, is presented in which the thickness and depth of a fault are estimated from the nomograms and verified from drilling data.
Novel cell parameter determination of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal display
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Xia; Jing Hai; Fu Guo-Zhu
2008-01-01
In this paper a novel method is proposed to determine the cell parameters including the twist angle, optic retardation and rubbing direction of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TNLCD) by rotating the TNLCD. It is a single-wavelength method. Because using subtraction equation of transmittance as curve fitting equation, the influence of the light from environment and the absorption by polarizer, the sample of TNLCD and analyser on the transmittance is eliminated. Accurate results can also be obtained in imperfect darkness. By large numbers of experiments, we found that not only the experimental setup is quite simple and can be easily adopted to be carried out, but also the results are accurate.
QCD Coupling from a Nonperturbative Determination of the Three-Flavor Λ Parameter.
Bruno, Mattia; Brida, Mattia Dalla; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Schaefer, Stefan; Simma, Hubert; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer
2017-09-08
We present a lattice determination of the Λ parameter in three-flavor QCD and the strong coupling at the Z pole mass. Computing the nonperturbative running of the coupling in the range from 0.2 to 70 GeV, and using experimental input values for the masses and decay constants of the pion and the kaon, we obtain Λ_{MS[over ¯]}^{(3)}=341(12) MeV. The nonperturbative running up to very high energies guarantees that systematic effects associated with perturbation theory are well under control. Using the four-loop prediction for Λ_{MS[over ¯]}^{(5)}/Λ_{MS[over ¯]}^{(3)} yields α_{MS[over ¯]}^{(5)}(m_{Z})=0.11852(84).
Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nataša Mikulec
2004-10-01
Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann
2016-01-01
or if there are significant differences among the homeowners, what causes these differences and how does this affect the future motivation strategy. The key parameters for if and how the homeowner can be motivated are related to the homeowner’s position in life: age, children’s’ age, time of ownership, occupation and income......In Denmark and around Europe there is a problem of motivating homeowners to conduct energy renovation. A great energy saving potential is found in the Danish single-family houses erected 1960-79, but the potential has not been utilized for various reasons. However, studies have shown...... that the average Danish single-family house owner can be motivated by improvements in comfort, indoor environment and architecture combined with a reasonable economy. The objective of this paper is, based on the motivation survey results, to determine if all homeowners can be assumed as one homogeneous group...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Chi Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a unified approach to nonlinear dynamic inversion control algorithm with the parameters for desired dynamics determined by using an eigenvalue assignment method, which may be applied in a very straightforward and convenient way. By using this method, it is not necessary to transform the nonlinear equations into linear equations by feedback linearization before beginning control designs. The applications of this method are not limited to affine nonlinear control systems or limited to minimum phase problems if the eigenvalues of error dynamics are carefully assigned so that the desired dynamics is stable. The control design by using this method is shown to be robust to modeling uncertainties. To validate the theory, the design of a UAV control system is presented as an example. Numerical simulations show the performance of the design to be quite remarkable.
Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy for the determination of wave propagation parameters.
Pal, Barnana
2017-01-01
The reported results for ultrasonic wave attenuation constant (α) in pure water show noticeable inconsistency in magnitude. A "Propagating-Wave" model analysis of the most popular pulse-echo technique indicates that this is a consequence of the inherent wave propagation characteristics in a bounded medium. In the present work Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy (FTUS) is adopted to determine ultrasonic wave propagation parameters, the wave number (k) and attenuation constant (α) at 1MHz frequency in tri-distilled water at room temperature (25°C). Pulse-echo signals obtained under same experimental conditions regarding the exciting input signal and reflecting boundary wall of the water container for various lengths of water columns are captured. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) components of the echo signals are taken to compute k, α and r, the reflection constant at the boundary, using Oak Ridge and Oxford method. The results are compared with existing literature values.
Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Raskin, Lutgarde
2016-09-01
The energy conversion potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposed of in landfills remains largely untapped because of the slow and variable rate of biogas generation, delayed and inefficient biogas collection, leakage of biogas, and landfill practices and infrastructure that are not geared toward energy recovery. A database consisting of methane (CH4) generation data, the major constituent of biogas, from 49 laboratory experiments and field monitoring data from 57 landfills was developed. Three CH4 generation parameters, i.e., waste decay rate (k), CH4 generation potential (L0), and time until maximum CH4 generation rate (tmax), were calculated for each dataset using U.S. EPA's Landfill Gas Emission Model (LandGEM). Factors influencing the derived parameters in laboratory experiments and landfills were investigated using multi-linear regression analysis. Total weight of waste (W) was correlated with biodegradation conditions through a ranked classification scheme. k increased with increasing percentage of readily biodegradable waste (Br0 (%)) and waste temperature, and reduced with increasing W, an indicator of less favorable biodegradation conditions. The values of k obtained in the laboratory were commonly significantly higher than those in landfills and those recommended by LandGEM. The mean value of L0 was 98 and 88L CH4/kg waste for laboratory and field studies, respectively, but was significantly affected by waste composition with ranges from 10 to 300L CH4/kg. tmax increased with increasing percentage of biodegradable waste (B0) and W. The values of tmax in landfills were higher than those in laboratory experiments or those based on LandGEM's recommended parameters. Enhancing biodegradation conditions in landfill cells has a greater impact on improving k and tmax than increasing B0. Optimizing the B0 and Br0 values of landfilled waste increases L0 and reduces tmax.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Basavaraj N Kallalli
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Sex determination of unidentified human remains is very important in forensic medicine, medicolegal cases, and forensic anthropology. The mandible is the largest and hardest facial bone that commonly resists postmortem damage and forms an important source of personal identification. Additional studies have demonstrated the applicability of facial reconstruction using three-dimensional computed tomography scan (3D-CT for the purpose of individual identification. Aim: To determine the sex of human mandible using metrical parameters by CT. Materials and Methods: The study included thirty subjects (15 males and 15 females, with age group ranging between 10 and 60 years obtained from the outpatient department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital. CT scan was performed on all the subjects, and the data obtained were reconstructed for 3D viewing. After obtaining 3D-CT scan, a total of seven mandibular measurements, i.e., gonial angle (G-angle, ramus length (Ramus-L, minimum ramus breadth and gonion-gnathion length (G-G-L, bigonial breadth, bicondylar breadth (BIC-Br, and coronoid length (CO-L were measured; collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis program by Student's t-test. Results: The result of the study showed that out of seven parameters, G-angle, Ramus-L, G-G-L, BIC-Br, and CO-L showed a significant statistical difference (P < 0.05, with overall accuracy of 86% for males and 82% for females. Conclusion: Personal identification using mandible by conventional methods has already been proved but with variable efficacies. Advanced imaging modalities can aid in personal identification with much higher accuracy than conventional methods.
Determination of stress parameters for eight well-recorded earthquakes in eastern North America
Boore, D.M.; Campbell, K.W.; Atkinson, G.M.
2010-01-01
We determined the stress parameter, Δσ, for the eight earthquakes studied by Atkinson and Boore (2006), using an updated dataset and a revised point-source stochastic model that captures the effect of a finite fault. We consider four geometrical-spreading functions, ranging from 1/R at all distances to two- or three-part functions. The Δσ values are sensitive to the rate of geometrical spreading at close distances, with 1/R1.3 spreading implying much higher Δσ than models with 1/R spreading. The important difference in ground motions of most engineering concern, however, arises not from whether the geometrical spreading is 1/R1.3 or 1/R at close distances, but from whether a region of flat or increasing geometrical spreading at intermediate distances is present, as long as Δσ is constrained by data that are largely at distances of 100 km–800 km. The simple 1/R model fits the sparse data for the eight events as well as do more complex models determined from larger datasets (where the larger datasets were used in our previous ground-motion prediction equations); this suggests that uncertainty in attenuation rates is an important component of epistemic uncertainty in ground-motion modeling. For the attenuation model used by Atkinson and Boore (2006), the average value of Δσ from the point-source model ranges from 180 bars to 250 bars, depending on whether or not the stress parameter from the 1988 Saguenay earthquake is included in the average. We also find that Δσ for a given earthquake is sensitive to its moment magnitude M, with a change of 0.1 magnitude units producing a factor of 1.3 change in the derived Δσ.
Dafonte, C; Manteiga, M; Garabato, D; Alvarez, M A; Ulla, A; Prieto, C Allende
2016-01-01
Aims. We present an innovative artificial neural network (ANN) architecture, called Generative ANN (GANN), that computes the forward model, that is it learns the function that relates the unknown outputs (stellar atmospheric parameters, in this case) to the given inputs (spectra). Such a model can be integrated in a Bayesian framework to estimate the posterior distribution of the outputs. Methods. The architecture of the GANN follows the same scheme as a normal ANN, but with the inputs and outputs inverted. We train the network with the set of atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe]), obtaining the stellar spectra for such inputs. The residuals between the spectra in the grid and the estimated spectra are minimized using a validation dataset to keep solutions as general as possible. Results. The performance of both conventional ANNs and GANNs to estimate the stellar parameters as a function of the star brightness is presented and compared for different Galactic populations. GANNs provide sig...
Nanocrystal-based hybrid white light generation with tunable colour parameters
Nizamoglu, S.; Demir, H. V.
2007-09-01
We present the hybridization of CdSe/ZnS core shell nanocrystals (NCs) on InGaN/GaN based blue/near-UV LEDs to generate light widely tunable across the visible spectral range and especially within the white region of the CIE (1931) chromaticity diagram. We report on the design, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid NC-LEDs. In 26 NC-LED samples, we experimentally show the effect of the NC concentration and NC film thickness on tuning the colour properties of the generated light (tristimulus coordinates, colour rendering index and correlated temperature) and further compare layer by layer assembly and blending of NCs for integration in LEDs. With greatly tunable colour properties, these hybrid white light sources hold promise for future lighting and display applications.
切削参数智能生成技术研究%Research of Cutting Parameter Intelligence Generation Technology
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡贤金
2012-01-01
为提高先进制造装备的应用水平,在已有切削数据基础上如何自动生成更多的切削参数是一个重要但难以获得满意解决方案的课题.本文提出一种以基本切削数据库为基础综合利用多种人工智能技术,通过学习修正、记忆、实时生成对实际加工环境具有广泛适应能力的最佳切削参数的新方法.以回归分析和BP神经网络为例进行了阐述,并给出了具体实例.%It is an important issue that automatically generating more cutting parameters for improving operating level of the advanced manufacturing equipment. A new method, which is used to generate optimum cutting parameter to adapt the concret cutting environment, is presented. The principle of this method is comprehensive utilization multiple artificial intelligent technique based on the basic cutting database to select cutter and yield the cutting parameter, according to the machining status, if necessary, it can regenerate the new optimum parameter adapting the technical requirements through learning, correction and memory. It devotes regression analysis and back propagation neural networks to the subject, and gives instantiations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhifeng Zhong
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Owing to the environment, temperature, and so forth, photovoltaic power generation volume is always fluctuating and subsequently impacts power grid planning and operation seriously. Therefore, it is of great importance to make accurate prediction of the power generation of photovoltaic (PV system in advance. In order to improve the prediction accuracy, in this paper, a novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based multivariable grey theory model is proposed for short-term photovoltaic power generation volume forecasting. It is highlighted that, by integrating particle swarm optimization algorithm, the prediction accuracy of grey theory model is expected to be highly improved. In addition, large amounts of real data from two separate power stations in China are being employed for model verification. The experimental results indicate that, compared with the conventional grey model, the mean relative error in the proposed model has been reduced from 7.14% to 3.53%. The real practice demonstrates that the proposed optimization model outperforms the conventional grey model from both theoretical and practical perspectives.
Improved determination of FID signal parameters in low-field NMR.
Dabek, Juhani; Nieminen, Jaakko O; Vesanen, Panu T; Sepponen, Raimo; Ilmoniemi, Risto J
2010-07-01
In this work, novel methods are suggested for assessing signal parameters of the free induction decay (FID) in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The FID signal was recorded in a microtesla field and analysed to determine its relaxation time, amplitude, Larmor frequency and phase. The challenge was posed by the narrow line width, whose related effects were investigated through simulations, also. The developed methods give a new view on FID signal estimation in microtesla as well as lower and higher fields. It is shown that the transverse relaxation time of a sample can be accurately determined in the frequency domain by other means than the Lorentz peak half width. Also, with some realistic approximations, a simple functional form for the power spectrum Lorentz peak shape is proposed. As shown in this work, the inspection of the power spectrum instead of the absorption and dispersion Lorentzians is advantageous in the sense that the waveform is independent of the FID phase. The automatic and efficient methods presented in this work incorporate an integral exponential fit, the fit of the power spectrum Lorentz peak and two ways to determine the FID phase. When there are sufficiently many data points in the Lorentz peak, the power spectrum Lorentz peak shape fit provides a quick, simple and accurate way of determining the amplitude, relaxation time and Larmor frequency of the FID. In the measurements of this work, however, the narrow line width led to establishing a more applicable method which is based on the exponential decay of the Lorentz peak with a temporally moving power spectrum window.
Cavalier, Sophie
ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) aims at measuring the absolute luminosity for the ATLAS experiment with an incertitude down to 2-3 \\% and the total elastic cross section. The luminosity is related to the number of events, the highest the luminosity, the highest the number of events. This is, then, an important quantity for colliders like LHC (Large Hadron Collider). LHC is made of two beams circulating in two different beam pipes and colliding at four interaction points where the four physics experiments are located (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, LHCb). ALFA detectors inserted into Roman Pots (RPs), have been placed around ATLAS at 240 m distance from the collision point (IP1) after six quadrupoles magnets and two dipoles defining the ALFA beam line which is part of the LHC ring.The detectors are made of scintillating optics fibers to catch elastic protons generated at IP1. These protons are tracked through the LHC magnets beam line which needs to be optimized in terms of optics parameters. We call high β optics, ...
Forrester, S E; Yeadon, M R; King, M A; Pain, M T G
2011-03-15
Strength, or maximum joint torque, is a fundamental factor governing human movement, and is regularly assessed for clinical and rehabilitative purposes as well as for research into human performance. This study aimed to identify the most appropriate protocol for fitting a maximum voluntary torque function to experimental joint torque data. Three participants performed maximum isometric and concentric-eccentric knee extension trials on an isovelocity dynamometer and a separate experimental protocol was used to estimate maximum knee extension angular velocity. A nine parameter maximum voluntary torque function, which included angle, angular velocity and neural inhibition effects, was fitted to the experimental torque data and three aspects of this fitting protocol were investigated. Using an independent experimental estimate of maximum knee extension angular velocity gave lower variability in the high concentric velocity region of the maximum torque function compared to using dynamometer measurements alone. A weighted root mean square difference (RMSD) score function, that forced the majority (73-92%) of experimental data beneath the maximum torque function, was found to best account for the one-sided noise in experimental torques resulting from sub-maximal effort by the participants. The suggested protocol (an appropriately weighted RMSD score function and an independent estimate of maximum knee extension angular velocity) gave a weighted RMSD of between 11 and 13 Nm (4-5% of maximum isometric torque). It is recommended that this protocol be used in generating maximum voluntary joint torque functions in all torque-based modelling of dynamic human movement.
Determination of the functional state of the fruits by parameters of the electric impedance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. V. Guseva
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction. To assess the freshness of various products are often used measuring impedance module. But due to the structure of plant foods diagnostic value should have exactly a complex component of impedance. Article tasked with developing criteria for assessing the functional state of the products subject to a comprehensive component of the impedance. Research methodology. To determine the functional status of the fruit were measured module and phase of impedance at the three frequencies of 20, 100 and 500 kHz. Criteria for recognition of functional status deter-mined by the dynamics of changes in the parameters of the complex impedance due to destructive processes caused by dehydration and putrefaction processes. Data processing and analysis. On the basis of experimental data obtained at three frequencies modeled frequency and phase response and their changes during losing of freshness and appear-ance of destructive processes. Discussion and conclusions. In fresh and stale fruit modulus and phase of the impedance at low and high frequencies have characteristic differences. But this is especially evident on the phase–frequency characteristic, which can be seen that the value of the phase with the loss of freshness at low frequency decreases and increases at high more than twice during one week. Therefore, to assess the functional state of fresh and stale products we suggest use phase portraits of phase response.
A determination of two Michel parameters in purely leptonic tau decays
Albrecht, H.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, A.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Bittner, M.; Eckstein, P.; Paulini, M.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Khan, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Seeger, M.; Spengler, J.; Britton, D. I.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Hyatt, E. R. F.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Reβing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Chechelnitsky, S.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Lubimov, V.; Pakhlov, P.; Ratnikov, F.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Soloshenko, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration
1993-10-01
Using the ARGUS detector at the e +e - storage ring DORIS II, we have determined the Michel parameters ϱ and ξ of τ → μν overlineνand τ → eν overlineν decays. From a data sample with 333 events/pb around s = 10 GeV, we select 3230 events e +e - → τ +τ - → (μ ±μ overlineμ)( eǂv overlinev) and determine ϱ from the e and μ momentum spectra and ξ from the correlations between e and μ momenta. For ϱ we obtain ϱτ→e = 0.79 ± 0.08 ± 0.06 and ϱτ→ μ = 0.76 ± 0.08 in accordance with the V - A structure of the decays. The momentum correlations are only sensitive to the product ξτ→e ξτ→ μ. Setting ξτ→e = ξτ→ μ, we obtain | ξτ| = 0.90 ± 0.15 ± 0.10 also in accordance with V - A. The updated decay fractions are B(τ → ev overlinev) = (17.5 ± 0.3 ± 0.5)% and B(τ → μv overlinev) = (17.4 ± 0.3 ± 0.5)% .
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Bengang
2005-01-01
The characteristics of seismogenic structures are an important basis for delineating the potential seismic source areas and determining the annual occurrence rate of earthquakes. The potential seismic source area does not only have the intension that "this area has the possibility for destructive earthquakes to occur in the future" but also means that earthquakes of high magnitude interval have the characteristics of similar recurrence. When determining the seismic activity parameters of a statistical unit, some active tectonic blocks in the unit may have different background earthquakes. In order to better reflect the heterogeneity in space of seismic activities, it is necessary to divide the potential seismic source areas into three orders.By analyzing the recurrence characteristics of earthquakes of high magnitude interval in the potential source area and calculating the occurrence probability of earthquakes of high magnitude interval in the potential seismic source area in the time window for prediction, the average annual occurrence rate of earthquakes can be obtained by the method of probability equivalent conversion in the time window for prediction. This would be helpful for considering the recurrence characteristics of strong earthquakes in potential source areas within the framework of seismic risk analysis of China. Besides, the insufficient frequency of characteristic earthquakes of the next high magnitude interval in the potential source area and the heterogeneity of strong earthquakes on seismogenic structures are analyzed to see their application in seismic risk analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Chapelle, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DAM, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France)
2012-07-01
Several experimental devices are operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Dept. of the CEA Valduc Laboratory. One of these is the Caliban metallic core reactor. The purpose of this study is to develop and perform experiments allowing to determinate some of fundamental kinetic parameters of the reactor. The prompt neutron decay constant and particularly its value at criticality can be measured with reactor noise techniques such as Rossi-{alpha} and Feynman variance-to-mean methods. Subcritical, critical, and even supercritical experiments were performed. Fission chambers detectors were put nearby the core and measurements were analyzed with the Rossi-{alpha} technique. A new value of the prompt neutron decay constant at criticality was determined, which allows, using the Nelson number method, new evaluations of the effective delayed neutron fraction and the in core neutron lifetime. As an introduction of this paper, some motivations of this work are given in part 1. In part 2, principles of the noise measurements experiments performed at the CEA Valduc Laboratory are reminded. The Caliban reactor is described in part 3. Stochastic neutron measurements analysis techniques used in this study are then presented in part 4. Results of fission chamber experiments are summarized in part 5. Part 6 is devoted to the current work, improvement of the experimental device using He 3 neutron detectors and first results obtained with it. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are given in part 7. (authors)
Source parameters of the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake determined from long-period Rayleigh waves
Zhang, Jiajun; Lay, Thorne
1990-07-01
The source parameters of the Loma Prieta earthquake are determined using long-period Rayleigh waves recorded by USGS/ERIS, IDA/IRIS, and GEOSCOPE stations. The source mechanism is well-constrained by the Rayleigh wave radiation pattern, with a dip = 70 (±5)°, strike = 130 (±5)°, rake = 135 (±5)°, and moment = 3.4 (±0.5) × 1019 Nm (Mw = 7.0). This mechanism is generally consistent with independent body wave determinations. The most stable long-period waves, with periods from 200 to 275 s, indicate that the source process has a centroid time of about 10 s, somewhat longer than that indicated by body waves (about 5-6 s). This discrepancy cannot be uniquely attributed to source effects because of uncertainties in the propagation corrections. The importance of using surface waves with short propagation paths for analysis of moderate size earthquakes such as the Loma Prieta event is demonstrated by the unreasonably long source durations inferred from R3 arrivals.
Determination of CME 3D parameters based on a new full ice-cream cone model
Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae
2017-08-01
In space weather forecast, it is important to determine three-dimensional properties of CMEs. Using 29 limb CMEs, we examine which cone type is close to a CME three-dimensional structure. We find that most CMEs have near full ice-cream cone structure which is a symmetrical circular cone combined with a hemisphere. We develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model). In addition, we derive CME mean density (ρmean=Mtotal/Vcone) based on the full ice-cream cone structure. For several limb events, we determine CME mass by applying the Solarsoft procedure (e.g., cme_mass.pro) to SOHO/LASCO C3 images. CME volumes are estimated from the full ice-cream cone structure. From the power-law relationship between CME mean density and its height, we estimate CME mean densities at 20 solar radii (Rs). We will compare the CME densities at 20 Rs with their corresponding ICME densities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. V. Badanina
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to one of the most important and urgent tasks in mechanical engineering development - the creation of low-density and environmentally-friendly thermoinsulation from available cheap basalt fibers for products to operate at temperatures up to 700°C.One of the most effective applications of such thermo-insulation is to develop and provide highly porous coatings from short basalt fibers by liquid filtration for tubing (T to supply superheated up to 420° C steam under pressure of 35 MPa in the deep layers with severe highviscosity oil. Tubing with the short low-density basalt insulation can be used for a greater depth than the vacuum-insulated tubing, which are also called "thermo-cases", and do not fully meet business needs for long-term reliability of oil vacuum tubes, too large mass per unit length of their design and, as a consequence, the impossibility to use such pipes for deep wells.The aim of the work is to simulate a liquid filtration process of short fibers and determine technological parameters of producing thermal insulation coatings of tubing pipes from basalt fibers and mineral binder shaped as cylinders and cylindrical shells. The paper proposes a mathematical model of free filtration deposition of short fibers from liquid slurry, which describes dynamics of creating thermal insulation products and allows us to determine the rational parameters of their manufacturing process. It shows methods to improve the products quality while forming the thermal insulation by filtration through additional vacuum deposition of a filtrate chamber and the final prepressing of sediment layer, giving dimensions and shape to the final product.The paper defines a prescription hydro mass composition. It shows that to increase the compressive strength of highly fibrous rings and cylindrical shells it is necessary to use based on oxide А12O3 5-7% by weight mineral binder, which fixes basalt fibers in places of their contacts. It
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheikhzadeh Ghanbarali
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, thermo-physical and geometrical parameters affecting entropy generation of nanofluid turbulent flow such as the volume fraction, Reynolds number and diameter of the channel and micro-channel with circular cross section under constant flux are examined analytically. Water is used as a base fluid of nanofluid with nanoparticles of Ag, Cu, CuO and TiO2. The study is conducted for Reynolds numbers of 20000, 40000 and 100000, volume fractions of 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04, channel diameters of 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm and micro-channel diameters of 20, 40, 60 and 80 micrometers. Based on the results, the most of the generated entropy in channel is due to heat transfer, and also, with increasing the diameter of the channel, Bejan number increases. The contribution of entropy generation due to heat transfer in the micro-channel is very poor and the major contribution of entropy generation is due to friction. The maximum amount of entropy generation in channel belongs to nanofluids with Ag, Cu, CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively, while in the micro-channel this behavior is reversed; and the minimum entropy generation happens in nanofluids with Ag, Cu, CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. In channel and micro-channel, for all nanofluids except for the water-TiO2, with increasing volume fraction of nanoparticles, the entropy generation decreases. In channel and micro-channel, the total entropy generation increases as Reynolds number augments.
Effects of Laser Parameters on Fast Electron Generation in a Multihole Array Target
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI Yan-Ling; DUAN Tao; JIANG Gang; WU Wei-Doug; TANG Yong-Jian
2011-01-01
The effects of laser parameters on the production of fast electrons from laser-multihole array target interaction are investigated theoretically via two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The results show that the fast electron temperature is scaled by I1/2(λ)2 with I and(λ) being the laser intensity and wavelength. When the laser intensity reaches 2.14 × 10(20) W.cm-2, a typical bi-Maxwellian energy distribution is observed. The slope temperature of the low-energy component fits the linear scaling Th～I1/2 well. The high-energy component has an increased slope temperature comparable to ponderomotive potential scaling law. In addition, the electron temperature rises linearly with the pulse duration, Th～△t. The divergence angle of the fast electrons increases with laser intensity and pulse duration, but is independent of laser wavelength.
Behfard, M.; Sohankar, A.
2016-01-01
A numerical simulation is performed to investigate the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of three-row inline tube bundles as a part of a heat exchanger (Re = 1000, Pr = 4.29). To enhance heat transfer, two pairs of delta winglet-type vortex generators (VGs) installed beside the first row and between the first and second rows of the tube bundles. The diameter of the second row of the tubes is chosen smaller than those of the first and third. A comprehensive study on the effects of various geometrical parameters such as transverse and longitudinal positions of VGs, length and height of VGs and angle of attack of the delta winglets is performed to augment heat transfer. Based on this study the best values of these design parameters are determined. The results showed that the best model increases the convective heat transfer ratio and thermal performance factor about 59 and 43 %, respectively, in compare with the geometry without VG.
Determining dynamic parameters of different-scale ionospheric irregularities over northern Siberia
Afraimovich, E. L.; Lipko, Y. V. Y. V.; Vugmeister, B. O.
2000-01-01
In 1995-1996, observations were carried out at Norilsk (geomagnetic latitude and longitude 64.2 degN and 160.4 degE) to determine dynamic parameters of irregularities in the high-latitude ionosphere. The short-baseline spaced-receiver method that has been implemented at the ionospheric facility of the Norilsk Integrated Magnetic-Ionospheric Station, provides a means of simultaneously measuring parameters of small-scale irregularities (spatial scale of 3-5 km) by the Similar-Fading Method (SFM), as well as of medium-scale irregularities (time scale of 10-30 min, spatial scale of hundreds of kilometres) by the Statistical Angle-of-arrival and Doppler Method (SADM). About 20 h of the observational data for the F2-layer under quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp = 3) and about 15 h for the sporadic E-layer (Kp ~ 3) were processed. It has been found that the propagation directions and velocities of different-scale irregularities do not coincide. Small-scale irregularities of the F2-layer travel predominantly eastward or westward. The velocity of the F2-layer irregularities is about 100 m/s, and under disturbed conditions it is up to 200-250 m/s. Small-scale irregularities of the sporadic E-layer travel mostly in the northward direction. It is confirmed that the Es-layer is characterised by high velocities of the irregularities (as high as 1000 m/s). Medium-scale irregularities with periods in the range of 10-30 min travel mostly in a southward direction with velocities of 20-40 m/s.
Adachi, Kouji; Chung, Serena H.; Friedrich, Heiner; Buseck, Peter R.
2007-07-01
The morphologies of soot particles are both complex and important. They influence soot atmospheric lifetimes, global distributions, and climate impacts. Particles can have complex geometries with overlapping projecting parts and pores that are difficult to infer from the conventional techniques used to study them. We used electron tomography with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to determine three-dimensional (3D) properties such as fractal dimension (Df), radius of gyration (Rg), volume (V), surface area (As), and structural coefficient (ka) for individual soot particles from the ambient air of an Asian dust (AD) episode and from a U.S. traffic source. The respective median values of Df are 2.4 and 2.2, of Rg are 274 and 251 nm, of As/V are 9.2 and 13.7 × 107 m-1, and of ka are 0.67 and 0.71. The corresponding parameters, when calculated from 2D projections such as TEM images, are considerably less precise and commonly erroneous. Unlike other methods that have been used to derive fractal parameters, our method is applicable to particles of any Df. Using the 3D data, we estimate that mass-normalized scattering cross sections of our AD and traffic soot particles are respectively about 15 and 30 times greater than those of unaggregated spheres, which is the shape assumed in global models to estimate radiative forcing. Accurate 3D information can be used to compute more precise optical properties, which are important for estimating direct radiative forcing and improving our understanding of the climate impact of soot.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Almbauer, R. A.
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Orchard sprayers with air transported fine droplets need an exact adjustment of the airflow and the spray nozzles in order to reduce the drift of pesticides. The adjustment is made on one hand side by the manufacturer and on the other hand side by the farmer in the orchard by choosing the tractor speed, the PTO shaft rotation speed and the pump pressure. For testing two test beds have been in charge in the region of Styria since almost 2 decades. One of them is able to measure the flow field in a vertical plane representing the tree row in a distance of approx. 1.5 m from the middle of the track. The second measures the water distribution in the same vertical plane. Both are stationary so that the influence of the driving speed can hardly be assessed. High driving speeds up to 12 km/h and the increasing height of the orchards impose additional uncertainties. This was the reason for the present research project, which was intended to investigate the influence of the driving speed. A new air flow measurement test bed has been build, which is able to measure the flow field also during tractor movement in the described vertical plane up to 5 m above ground. Four different sprayers have been investigated in an orchard with and without leaves by visual method for four different speeds to determine the optimal application parameters. The same sprayers have been tested with the moveable flow field test bed. Results show a reasonable correlation between the measurements for all investigated speeds. The differences between the sprayers are evident, nevertheless a method has been found to deduce the correlation between the stationary measurement and the optimal parameters for the orchard. So the stationary flow test bed can be directly used to develop sprayers.
Determination of Parameters of Meteor Bodies from Observational Data with High Accuracy of Estimate
Gritsevich, Maria
A great volume of data has been accumulated thus far related to the photoregistration of the paths of meteor bodies in the terrestrial atmosphere. Most images have been obtained by four fireball networks, which operate in the USA, Canada, Europe, and Spain in different time periods. The approximation of the actual data using theoretical models makes it possible to achieve additional estimates, which do not directly follow from the observations. For example, the correct mathematical modeling of meteor events in the atmosphere is necessary for further estimates of the key parameters, including the extra-atmospheric mass, the ablation coefficient, and the effective enthalpy of evaporation of entering bodies. In turn, this information is needed by some applications, namely, those aimed at studying the problems of asteroid and comet security, to develop measures of planetary defense, and to determine the bodies that can reach Earth's surface. In the report, the mathematical technique to find basic dynamic parameters of the theoretical relationship between the height and the velocity of the meteor body motion that help to fit observations along the luminous part of the trajectories in the best way is suggested. The main difference from previous studies is that the given observations are approximated using the analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics. Note that, for the limited values of the mass loss parameter, analytical solution is usually replaced by the simpler expression (e.g., Stulov et al., 1995). In particular, this approximate solution was earlier used as a trial function during the implementation of the least-squares method. New model presented in the report was applied to a number of bright meteors observed by the Canadian camera network and by the US Prairie network. Results of such calculation are partly presented. During our data processing we discovered several sufficiently thermostable meteor bodies whose mass loss parameters were almost
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaanoun, I.
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The present study investigated the Kinetic parameter determination of edible argan oil (coldpressed from roasted argan kernels and cosmetic argan oil (cold-pressed from unroasted argan kernels under the Rancimat test conditions. The physicochemical parameters of edible and cosmetic argan oil immediately after preparation and after accelerated oxidation test Rancimat at different temperatures 90 °C, 100 °C, 110 °C, 120 °C, 130 °C and 140 °C were determined and compared. The natural logarithms of the kinetic rate constant (kvalue varied linearly with respect to temperature. An increasing rate of oxidation could be observed as temperature increased. On the basis of the Arrhenius equation and the activated complex theory, frequency factors A, activation energies Ea, Q10 numbers, activation enthalpies ΔH, and activation entropies ΔS for oxidative stability of the vegetable oils were calculated. The accelerated oxidation and Kinetic parameters have shown that edible argan oil can be stored much better than cosmetic oil.En presente estudio se determinaron los parámetros cinéticosde aceites de argán comestible (prensado en frío a partir de granos tostados de argán y cosmético (prensado en frío a partir de granos de argán sin tostar bajo las condiciones del método Rancimat. Se determinó y comparó los parámetros físico-químicos de aceites de argán comestible y cosmético inmediatamente después de la preparación y después de la oxidación acelerada mediante Rancimat a temperaturas de 90 °C, 100 °C, 110 °C, 120 °C, 130 °C y 140 °C Los logaritmos naturales de la constante de velocidad cinética (valor k variaron linealmente con respecto a la temperatura. Se pudo observar un valor creciente de la oxidación conel aumento de la temperatura. Se calculó para la estabilidad oxidativa de los aceites vegetalesy sobre la base de la ecuación de Arrhenius y la teoría del complejo activado, la frecuencia de los factores A, energ
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xianqing; DONG Peng; XIAO Xianming; MI Jingkui; TANG Yongchun; XIAO Zhongyao; LIU Dehan; SHEN Jiagui; YANG Yunfeng; WANG Yan
2008-01-01
In a thermal simulation experiment of gold tubes of closed-system, calculating with the KINETICS and GOR-ISOTOPE KINETICS software, kinetic parameters of gas generation and methane carbon isotopic fractionation from Triassic-Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks in the Kuqa depression of Tarim Basin are obtained. The activation energies of methane generated from Jurassic coal, Jurassic mudstone and Triassic mudstone in the Kuqa Depression are 197-268 kJ/mol, 180-260 kJ/mol and 214-289 kJ/mol, respectively, and their frequency factors are 5.265×1013s-1, 9.761×1011 s-1 and 2.270×1014 s-1. This reflects their differences of hydrocarbon generation behaviors. The kinetic parameters of methane carbon isotopic fractionation are also different in Jurassic coal, Jurassic mudstone and Triassic mudstone, whose average activation energies are 228 kJ/mol, 205 kJ/mol and 231 kJ/mol, respectively. Combined with the geological background, the origin of natural gas in the Yinan-2 gas pool is discussed, and an accumulation model of natural gas is thus established. The Yinan-2 gas is primarily derived from Jurassic coal-bearing source rocks in the Yangxia Sag. Main gas accumulation time is 5-0 Ma and the corresponding Ro is in the range from 1.25%-1.95%. The loss rate of natural gas is 25%-30%.
Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.
Abate, Alexandra; Teodoro, Luis F A; Warren, Michael S; Hendry, Martin
2008-01-01
We investigate methods to best estimate the normalisation of the mass density fluctuation power spectrum (sigma_8) using peculiar velocity data from a survey like the Six degree Field Galaxy Velocity Survey (6dFGSv). We focus on two potential problems (i) biases from nonlinear growth of structure and (ii) the large number of velocities in the survey. Simulations of LambdaCDM-like models are used to test the methods. We calculate the likelihood from a full covariance matrix of velocities averaged in grid cells. This simultaneously reduces the number of data points and smooths out nonlinearities which tend to dominate on small scales. We show how the averaging can be taken into account in the predictions in a practical way, and show the effect of the choice of cell size. We find that a cell size can be chosen that significantly reduces the nonlinearities without significantly increasing the error bars on cosmological parameters. We compare our results with those from a principal components analysis following Wa...
Parameters contributing to efficient ion generation in aerosol MALDI mass spectrometry.
McJimpsey, Erica L; Jackson, William M; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Tobias, Herbert; Bogan, Michael J; Gard, Eric E; Frank, Matthias; Steele, Paul T
2008-03-01
The Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system was developed for the real-time detection and identification of biological aerosols using laser desorption ionization. Greater differentiation of particle types is desired; consequently MALDI techniques are being investigated. The small sample size ( approximately 1 microm3), lack of substrate, and ability to simultaneously monitor both positive and negative ions provide a unique opportunity to gain new insight into the MALDI process. Several parameters known to influence MALDI molecular ion yield and formation are investigated here in the single particle phase. A comparative study of five matrices (2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapinic acid) with a single analyte (angiotensin I) is presented and reveals effects of matrix selection, matrix-to-analyte molar ratio, and aerosol particle diameter. The strongest analyte ion signal is found at a matrix-to-analyte molar ratio of 100:1. At this ratio, the matrices yielding the least and greatest analyte molecular ion formation are ferulic acid and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, respectively. Additionally, a significant positive correlation is found between aerodynamic particle diameter and analyte molecular ion yield for all matrices. SEM imaging of select aerosol particle types reveals interesting surface morphology and structure.
Applying Spectral Unmixing to Determine Surface Water Parameters in a Mining Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Veronika Kopačková
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Compared to natural waters, mine waters represent an extreme water type that is frequently heavily polluted. Although they have been traditionally monitored by in situ measurements of point samples taken at regular intervals, the emergence of a new generation of multispectral and hyperspectral (HS sensors means that image spectroscopy has the potential to become a modern method for monitoring polluted surface waters. This paper describes an approach employing linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU for analysis of hyperspectral image data to map the relative abundances of mine water components (dissolved Fe—Fediss, dissolved organic carbon—DOC, undissolved particles. The ground truth data (8 monitored ponds were used to validate the results of spectral mapping. The same approach applied to HS data was tested using the image data resampled to WorldView2 (WV2 spectral resolution. A key aspect of the image data processing was to define the proper pure image end members for the fundamental water types. The highest correlations detected between the studied water parameters and the fractional images using the HyMap and the resampled WV2 data, respectively, were: dissolved Fe (R2 = 0.74 and R2vw2 = 0.6, undissolved particles (R2 = 0.57 and R2vw2 = 0.49 and DOC (R2 = 0.42 and R2vw2 < 0.40. These fractional images were further classified to create semi-quantitative maps. In conclusion, the classification still benefited from the higher spectral resolution of the HyMap data; however the WV2 reflectance data can be suitable for mapping specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs, which significantly differ from one another from an optical point of view (e.g., mineral suspension, dissolved Fe and phytoplankton, but it seems difficult to differentiate among diverse suspension particles, especially when the waters have more complex properties (e.g., mineral particles, DOC together with tripton or other particles, etc..
Next-generation biomarkers based on 100-parameter functional super-resolution microscopy TIS.
Schubert, Walter; Gieseler, Anne; Krusche, Andreas; Serocka, Peter; Hillert, Reyk
2012-06-15
Functional super-resolution (fSR) microscopy is based on the automated toponome imaging system (TIS). fSR-TIS provides insight into the myriad of different cellular functionalities by direct imaging of large subcellular protein networks in morphologically intact cells and tissues, referred to as the toponome. By cyclical fluorescence imaging of at least 100 molecular cell components, fSR-TIS overcomes the spectral limitations of fluorescence microscopy, which is the essential condition for the detection of protein network structures in situ/in vivo. The resulting data sets precisely discriminate between cell types, subcellular structures, cell states and diseases (fSR). With up to 16 bits per protein, the power of combinatorial molecular discrimination (PCMD) is at least 2(100) per subcellular data point. It provides the dimensionality necessary to uncover thousands of distinct protein clusters including their subcellular hierarchies controlling protein network topology and function in the one cell or tissue section. Here we review the technology and findings showing that functional protein networks of the cell surface in different cancers encompass the same hierarchical and spatial coding principle, but express cancer-specific toponome codes within that scheme (referred to as TIS codes). Findings suggest that TIS codes, extracted from large-scale toponome data, have the potential to be next-generation biomarkers because of their cell type and disease specificity. This is functionally substantiated by the observation that blocking toponome-specific lead proteins results in disassembly of molecular networks and loss of function.
Effect of caffeine intake on critical power model parameters determined on a cycle ergometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcus Vinicius Machado
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine intake on critical power model parameters determined on a cycle ergometer. Eight male subjects participated in this study. A double-blind protocol consisting of the intake of pure caffeine (6 mg/kg or placebo (maltodextrin 60 min before testing was used. Subjects were submitted to four constant-load tests on a cycle ergometer. These tests were conducted randomly in the caffeine and placebo groups [checar] at intensities of 80, 90, 100 and 110% maximum power at a rate of 70 rpm until exhaustion to determine the critical power. As a criterion for stopping the test was adopted any rate fall without recovery by more than five seconds. The critical power and anaerobic work capacity were obtained by nonlinear regression and fitting of the curve to a hyperbolic power-time model. The Shapiro-Wilk test and paired Student t-test were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in critical power were observed between the caffeine and placebo groups (192.9 ± 31.3 vs 197.7 ± 29.4 W, respectively. The anaerobic work capacity was significantly higher in the caffeine group (20.1 ± 5.2 vs 16.3 ± 4.2 W, p< 0.01. A high association (r2 was observed between the caffeine and placebo conditions (0.98 ± 0.02 and 0.99 ± 0.0, respectively. We conclude that caffeine intake did not improve critical power performance but increased anaerobic work capacity by influencing performance at loads of higher intensity and shorter duration.
Fonseca, Rodney W.; Pfefferkorn, Lisa L.; Holcombe, James A.
1994-12-01
Three of the methods available for the determination of kinetic parameters for atom formation in ETAAS were compared. In the approach of mcnally and holcombe [ Anal. Chem. 59, 1015 (1987)], Arrhenius-type plots are used to extract activation energy values while an approximation of the order of release is obtained by studying the alignment of the absorption maxima at increasing analyte concentrations. In the method of rojas and olivares [ Spectrochim. Acta47B, 387 (1992)], plots are prepared for different orders of release, with the correct order yielding a longer linear region from whose slope the activation energy is calculated. The method of yan et al. [ Spectrochim. Acta48B, 605 (1993)] uses a single absorption profile for the calculations. Activation energy and the order of release are obtained from the slope and intercept, respectively, on their graph. All three methods assume linear heating rate, constant activation energies, and furnace isothermality. The methods were tested with the same experimental data sets for Cu, Au and Ni using a spatially isothermal cuvette. Since intensive mathematical treatments commonly have deleterious effects on the uncertainty of the final result, the methods were compared using both the original data and a smoothed version of it. In general, the three methods yielded comparable results for the metals studied. However, choosing the most linear plot to determine the correct order of release when using Rojas and Olivares' method was sometimes subjective, and McNally and Holcombe's method provided only estimates for the orders of release that were neither zero nor unity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN; Xiaomin; ZHU; Zhilin; XU; Jinping; YUAN; Guofu
2005-01-01
It is more and more popular to estimate the exchange of water vapor, heat and CO2fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere using the eddy covariance technique. To get believable fluxes, it is necessary to correct the observations based on the different surface conditions and to determine relevant techinical parameters. The raw 10 Hz eddy covariance data observed in the Yucheng and Changbai Mountains stations were recalculated by various averaging periods (from 1 to 720 min) respectively, and the recalculated results were compared with the results calculated by the averaging period of 30 mins. Meanwhile, the distinctions of fluxes calculated by different averaging periods were analyzed. The continuous 15 days observations over wheat fields in the Yucheng station were mainly analyzed. The results are shown that: (i) In the Yucheng station, compared with the observations by 30 min, when the averaging period changes from 10 to 60 min, the variations of the eddy-covariance estimates of fluxes were less than 2%; when the averaging period changes less than 10 min, the estimate of fluxes reduced obviously with the reduction of the averaging period (the max relative error was -12%); and when the averaging period exceeds 120 min, the eddy covariance estimates of fluxes will be increased and become unsteady (the max relative error is over 10%); (ii) the eddy covariance estimates of fluxes over wheat field in the Yucheng station suggusted that it is much better to take 10 min as an averaging period in studying diurnal change of fluxes, and take 30min for a long-term flux observation; and (iii) normalized ratio was put forward to determine the range of averaging period of eddy covariance measurements. By comparing the observations over farmlands and those over forests, it is indicated that the increase of eddy covariance estimates over tall forest was more than that over short vegetation when the averaging period increased.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Boudouda
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of an integrated starter generator system for a car flywheel based on the Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM technology. First, we discuss about the starter generator problematic following the results of our bibliography research. Secondly, we briefly remained generalities about the SRM and the determination of the laws control. In addition, we designed the converter associated to the machine using (Matlab/Simulink software in order to identify the laws control and to adapt the operating modes (motor, generator, booster, brake. Finally, simulations of the open and closed loop model were performed on the converter with the (SRM
New determination of abundances and stellar parameters for a set of weak G-band stars
Palacios, A; Masseron, T; Thévenin, F; Itam-Pasquet, J; Parthasarathy, M
2015-01-01
Weak G-band (wGb) stars are very peculiar red giants almost devoided of carbon and often mildly enriched in lithium. Despite their very puzzling abundance patterns, very few detailed spectroscopic studies existed up to a few years ago, preventing any clear understanding of the wGb phenomenon. We recently proposed the first consistent analysis of published data for 28 wGb stars and identified them as descendants of early A-type to late B-type stars, without being able to conclude on their evolutionary status or the origin of their peculiar abundance pattern. We used newly obtained high-resolution and high SNR spectra for 19 wGb stars in the southern and northern hemisphere to homogeneously derive their fundamental parameters, metallicities, as well as the spectroscopic abundances for Li, C, N, O, Na, Sr, and Ba. We also computed dedicated stellar evolution models that we used to determine the masses and to investigate the evolutionary status and chemical history of the stars in our sample. We confirm that the ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Larissa de Assunção Rodrigues
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Anthropogenic activity has a great impact on aquatic environments, causing changes in biodiversity and the environment. In an attempt to determine pollution levels, we established physicochemical parameters, a trophic state index and toxicity assays. The Piracicaba River is an important water body that receives xenobiotic waste from industry, domestic activities and agriculture. These pollutants are released directly into the river or by streams like Itapeva Stream, which discharges into the river. The goals of this work were to analyze the toxicity factor for Daphnia magna (TFD, trophic state index (TSI, pH, conductivity, temperature and dissolved oxygen in the Piracicaba River and in the Itapeva Stream from one monthly collection in the months of May, June and August 2011. In the Piracicaba River was not found toxicity, while in May, June and August the TFD was 1, 8 and 1, respectively. The TSI varied from mesotrophic to eutrophic in the river and in the stream from ultraoligotrophic to mesotrophic. The medium of conductivity for the Itapeva Stream was 479.5 µS.cm-1 and for the Piracicaba River was 219.8 µS.cm-1. The dissolved oxygen in the Piracicaba River varied from 6.89 to11.36 mg.L-1 and in the Itapeva Stream from 0.92 to 6.31 mg.L-1. Based upon the results, both hydric bodies were eutrophic, and the Itapeva Stream was classified as unsuitable for maintaining aquatic life.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Yanhui; Wu, Jun; Li, Decheng; Zheng, Junwei [The Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow (Suzhou) University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Chen, Ying [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Ju, Hua [School of Urban Rail Transportation, Soochow (Suzhou) University, Ganjiang East Road 178, Suzhou 215021 (China)
2010-06-15
The derivation and proposal of major electrochemical techniques used to determine and calculate the electrochemical kinetic parameters is basically based on the electrochemical reaction taking place at liquid/solid or liquid/liquid interface in which all the reactants and products are soluble in liquid aqueous solution or liquid mercury electrode, or are volatile gas. Such electrochemical reaction system is classical and traditional (ERS1). Recently, the electrochemical behavior of some materials used as the active electrode materials in chemical power sources has attracted much attention. In chemical power source systems, either reactant or product, or both are insoluble. This kind of electrochemical reaction system (ERS2) is slightly different from ERS1. The application of these electrochemical techniques/equations to chemical power sources' system requires carefulness. The misuse of these electrochemical techniques can be easily found in the literatures and some of them even lead to a wrong conclusion. In this review, almost all the electrochemical techniques to measure the exchange current and diffusion coefficient were compiled for reference to the readers, including pulse step, electrochemical impedance, alternating cyclic voltammetry, etc. The necessary requirements/conditions to apply these techniques have been briefly discussed and some simple examples were also discussed for a better understanding. (author)
Siti Farizwana, M. R.; Mazrura, S.; Zurahanim Fasha, A.; Ahmad Rohi, G.
2010-01-01
The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems. PMID:21461348
Determination of kinetic parameters of Phlomis bovei de Noé using thermogravimetric analysis.
Yahiaoui, Meriem; Hadoun, Hocine; Toumert, Idir; Hassani, Aicha
2015-11-01
This paper reports the pyrolysis study of Phlomis bovei biomass by thermogravimetric experiments in order to determine the thermal degradation behavior and kinetic parameters. The weight losses were found to occur in three stages. In the DTG thermograms, an increase of the heating rate tended to delay thermal degradation processes towards higher temperatures. The average values of activation energy and pre-exponential factor calculated from Ozawa-Flynn-Wall, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Kissinger methods are 134.83, 134.06, 223.31kJ/mol and 4.1610(13), 1.1810(10), 2.8110(11)/s, respectively. The three-pseudo-component method shows that the activation energy increases with increasing the heating rate for hemicellulose and cellulose while the activation energy of the lignin decreased with an increase of the heating rate. Predicted results and experimental data exhibit similar tendencies and the three pseudo-components model with n different from unity 1 is recommended as the most suitable for prediction of kinetic behavior of Phlomis bovei de Noé.
Determination of the basic optical parameters of ZnSnN(2).
Deng, Fuling; Cao, Hongtao; Liang, Lingyan; Li, Jun; Gao, Junhua; Zhang, Hongliang; Qin, Ruifeng; Liu, Caichi
2015-04-01
Polycrystalline ZnSnN(2) thin films were successfully prepared by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Both the as-deposited and annealed films showed n-type conduction, with electron concentration varying between 1.6×10(18) and 2.3×10(17) cm(-3) and the maximum mobility of 3.98 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The basic optical parameters such as the refraction index, extinction coefficient, and absorption coefficient were precisely determined through the spectroscopic ellipsometry measurement and analysis. The optical bandgap of the ZnSnN(2)films was calculated to around 1.9 eV, with the absorption coefficient greater than 10(4) cm(-1) at wavelengths less than 845 nm. The easy-fabricated ZnSnN(2) possesses a sound absorption coefficient ranging from the ultraviolet through visible light and into the near-infrared, comparable to some typical photovoltaic materials such as GaAs, CdTe, and InP.
THE FIRST DETERMINATION OF THE VISCOSITY PARAMETER IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK OF A Be STAR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carciofi, Alex C.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Haubois, Xavier [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Otero, Sebastian A. [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Okazaki, Atsuo T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); Stefl, Stanislav; Rivinius, Thomas [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Baade, Dietrich, E-mail: carciofi@usp.br, E-mail: jon@physics.utoledo.edu [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)
2012-01-15
Be stars possess gaseous circumstellar decretion disks, which are well described using standard {alpha}-disk theory. The Be star 28 CMa recently underwent a long outburst followed by a long period of quiescence, during which the disk dissipated. Here we present the first time-dependent models of the dissipation of a viscous decretion disk. By modeling the rate of decline of the V-band excess, we determine that the viscosity parameter {alpha} = 1.0 {+-} 0.2, corresponding to a mass injection rate M-dot =(3.5{+-}1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Such a large value of {alpha} suggests that the origin of the turbulent viscosity is an instability in the disk whose growth is limited by shock dissipation. The mass injection rate is more than an order of magnitude larger than the wind mass-loss rate inferred from UV observations, implying that the mass injection mechanism most likely is not the stellar wind, but some other mechanism.
Siti Farizwana, M R; Mazrura, S; Zurahanim Fasha, A; Ahmad Rohi, G
2010-01-01
The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. R. Siti Farizwana
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and residual chlorine in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S, the treatment plant outlet (TPO, and at the nearest houses (H1 and the furthest houses (H2 from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90. The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU. Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L. Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.
The effects of machine parameters on residual stress determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.
1988-12-01
The effects of machine parameters on residual stresses in single point diamond turned silicon and germanium have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Residual stresses were sampled across ductile feed cuts in < 100 > silicon and germanium which were single point diamond turned using a variety of feed rates, rake angles and clearance angles. High spatial resolution micro-Raman spectra (1{mu}m spot) were obtained in regions of ductile cutting where no visible surface damage was present. The use of both 514-5nm and 488.0nm excitation wavelengths, by virtue of their differing characteristic penetration depths in the materials, allowed determinations of stress profiles as a function of depth into the sample. Previous discussions have demonstrated that such Raman spectra will exhibit asymmetrically broadened peaks which are characteristic of the superposition of a continuum of Raman scatterers from the various depths probed. Depth profiles of residual stress were obtained using computer deconvolution of the resulting asymmetrically broadened raman spectra.
Kinetic parameters and tissue distribution of 5-oxo-L-prolinase determined by a fluorimetric assay.
Weber, P; Jäger, M; Bangsow, T; Knell, G; Piechaczek, K; Koch, J; Wolf, S
1999-01-13
5-Oxo-L-prolinase (5-OPase) catalyses the hydrolysis of 5-oxo-L-proline to glutamate with concomitant stoichiometric cleavage of ATP to ADP, a reaction which is known to be part of the gamma-glutamyl cycle-an interrelated series of reactions involved in the synthesis and metabolism of glutathione. As recent studies indicate, this cyclic pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of amino acid transport. Apparently, the intermediate product 5-oxo-L-proline functions as a second messenger molecule that upregulates the activity of certain amino acid transport systems. Thus, the degradation of 5-oxo-L-proline by 5-OPase leads to the downregulation of this stimulus. In this study, a new sensitive fluorimetric assay for 5-OPase activity was established which is based on the derivatization of glutamate with o-phthaldialdehyde in the presence of thiols and subsequent separation of the products by HPLC. The method is suitable for the screening of chromatography fractions as well as for the determination of the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of purified 5-OPase. Additionally, it can be used for the measurement of enzyme activity in crude cell extracts and evaluation of tissue distribution.
Determination of the pathological state of skin samples by optical polarimetry parameters
Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Buelta, L.; Arce-Diego, J. L.
2008-11-01
Polarimetry is widely known to involve a series of powerful optical techniques that characterize the polarization behaviour of a sample. In this work, we propose a method for applying polarimetric procedures to the characterization of biological tissues, in order to differentiate between healthy and pathologic tissues on a polarimetric basis. Usually, medical morphology diseases are diagnosed based on histological alterations of the tissue. The fact that these alterations will be reflected in polarization information highlights the suitability of polarimetric procedures for diagnostic purposes. The analysis is mainly focused on the depolarization properties of the media, as long as the internal structure strongly affects the polarization state of the light that interacts with the sample. Therefore, a method is developed in order to determine the correlation between pathological ultraestructural characteristics and the subsequent variations in the polarimetric parameters of the backscattered light. This study is applied to three samples of porcine skin corresponding to a healthy region, a mole, and a cancerous region. The results show that the method proposed is indeed an adequate technique in order to achieve an early, accurate and effective cancer detection.
Analysing generator matrices G of similar state but varying minimum determinants
Harun, H.; Razali, M. F.; Rahman, N. A. Abdul
2016-10-01
Since Tarokh discovered Space-Time Trellis Code (STTC) in 1998, a considerable effort has been done to improve the performance of the original STTC. One way of achieving enhancement is by focusing on the generator matrix G, which represents the encoder structure for STTC. Until now, researchers have only concentrated on STTCs of different states in analyzing the performance of generator matrix G. No effort has been made on different generator matrices G of similar state. The reason being, it is difficult to produce a wide variety of generator matrices G with diverse minimum determinants. In this paper a number of generator matrices G with minimum determinant of four (4), eight (8) and sixteen (16) of the same state (i.e., 4-PSK) have been successfully produced. The performance of different generator matrices G in term of their bit error rate and signal-to-noise ratio for a Rayleigh fading environment are compared and evaluated. It is found from the MATLAB simulation that at low SNR (14) there is no significant difference between the BER of these generator matrices G.
Measuring parameters of large-aperture crystals used for generating optical harmonics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
English, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, R. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michie, R. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wegner, P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Auerbach, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Norton, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Summers, M. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Perfect, S. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
1999-02-23
The purpose of this project was to develop tools for understanding the influence of crystal quality and crystal mounting on harmonic-generation efficiency at high irradiance. Measuring the homogeneity of crystals interferometrically, making detailed physics calculations of conversion efficiency, performing finite- element modeling of mounted crystals, and designing a new optical metrology tool were key elements in obtaining that understanding. For this work, we used the following frequency-tripling scheme: type I second- harmonic generation followed by type II sum-frequency mixing of the residual fundamental and the second harmonic light. The doubler was potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), and the tripler was deuterated KDP (KD*P). With this scheme, near-infrared light (1053 nm) can be frequency tripled (to 351 nm) at high efficiency (theoretically >90%) for high irradiance (>3 GW/cm²). Spatial variations in the birefringence of the large crystals studied here (37 to 41 cm square by about 1 cm thick) imply that the ideal phase-matching orientation of the crystal with respect to the incident laser beam varies across the crystal. We have shown that phase-measuring interferometry can be used to measure these spatial variations. We observed transmitted wavefront differences between orthogonally polarized interferograms of {lambda}/50 to {lambda}/100, which correspond to index variations of order 10^{-6}. On some plates that we measured, the standard deviation of angular errors is 22-23 µrad; this corresponds to a 1% reduction in efficiency. Because these conversion crystals are relatively thin, their surfaces are not flat (deviate by k2.5 urn from flat). A crystal is mounted against a precision-machined surface that supports the crystal on four edges. This mounting surface is not flat either (deviates by +2.5 µm from flat). A retaining flange presses a compliant element against the crystal. The load thus applied near the edges of the crystal surface holds
ARTICLES: Second-generation lidar system for determining the distance to the Moon
Kokurin, Yu L.; Kurbasov, V. V.; Lobanov, V. F.; Sukhanovskiĭ, A. N.
1983-06-01
A description is given of a lidar system for determination of the distance to the Moon. This system has a resolution of 1 nsec and it consists of a laser transmitter, a photodetector, a pulse processing subsystem, as well as timing and guiding subsystems. The system has been in operation since 1978. The parameters of the subsystems and the errors in the determination of time intervals are discussed.
Second-generation lidar system for determining the distance to the moon
Kokurin, Iu. L.; Kurbasov, V. V.; Lobanov, V. F.; Sukhanovskii, A. N.
1983-06-01
A description is given of a lidar system for determination of the distance to the moon. This system has a resolution of 1 nsec and it consists of a laser transmitter, a photodetector, a pulse processing subsystem, as well as timing and guiding subsystems. The system has been in operation since 1978. The parameters of the subsystems and the errors in the determination of time intervals are discussed.
Arpine, Hovhannisyan; Gayane, Shahnazaryan
2016-08-01
The determination of background values of hydrochemical parameters, to distinguish between natural concentration and anthropogenically-influenced concentrations, is highly relevant. In presented study, to estimate the background values of hydrochemical parameters in Akhuryan River Basin, log-normal probability functions on the hydrochemical parameters concentrations was applied. The study is carried out on the basis of hydrochemical data of surface water quality monitoring for the period of 2010-2013. This study highlights the usefulness of application of site-specific background concentrations for the evaluation, interpretation of surface water quality and for determination of pollution sources.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexey Efimov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A multi-spark discharge generator was used for the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were obtained in the form of fractal-like agglomerates with an average size of 30-60 nm consisting of primary spherical nanoparticles with a diameter of about 7-8 nm according to TEM measurements. We found that changing the operating parameters of the generator - energy of the capacitor (2 to18 J, repetition frequency of discharge (0.5 to 4 Hz and velocity of airflow (1.4 to 5.4 m/s changed only the size of the agglomerates while the size of the primary nanoparticles stayed the same.
Gómez-Carracedo, M P; Andrade, J M; Calviño, M A; Prada, D; Fernández, E; Muniategui, S
2003-07-27
The worldwide use of kerosene as aviation jet fuel makes its safety considerations of most importance not only for aircraft security but for the workers' health (chronic and/or acute exposure). As most kerosene risks come from its vapours, this work focuses on predicting seven characteristics (flash point, freezing point, % of aromatics and four distillation points) which assess its potential hazards. Two experimental devices were implemented in order to, first, generate a kerosene vapour phase and, then, to measure its mid-IR spectrum. All the working conditions required to generate the gas phase were optimised either in a univariate or a multivariate (SIMPLEX) approach. Next, multivariate prediction models were deployed using partial least squares regression and it was found that both the average prediction errors and precision parameters were satisfactory, almost always well below the reference figures.
Generation and mid-IR measurement of a gas-phase to predict security parameters of aviation jet fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez-Carracedo, M.P.; Andrade, J.M.; Calvino, M.A.; Prada, D.; Fernandez, E.; Muniategui, S. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071, A Coruna (Spain)
2003-07-27
The worldwide use of kerosene as aviation jet fuel makes its safety considerations of most importance not only for aircraft security but for the workers' health (chronic and/or acute exposure). As most kerosene risks come from its vapours, this work focuses on predicting seven characteristics (flash point, freezing point, % of aromatics and four distillation points) which assess its potential hazards. Two experimental devices were implemented in order to, first, generate a kerosene vapour phase and, then, to measure its mid-IR spectrum. All the working conditions required to generate the gas phase were optimised either in a univariate or a multivariate (SIMPLEX) approach. Next, multivariate prediction models were deployed using partial least squares regression and it was found that both the average prediction errors and precision parameters were satisfactory, almost always well below the reference figures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moo-Yeon Lee
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment
Determination of source parameters for local and regional earthquakes in Israel
Ataeva, G.; Shapira, A.; Hofstetter, A.
2015-04-01
We have investigated earthquake source parameters and seismic moment-magnitude relations from 103 regional and local earthquakes with moment magnitude 2.6 to 7.2, which occurred in a distance range from 4.5 to 550 km during 1995-2012 by applying Brune's seismic source model (J Geophys Res 75:4997-5009, 1970, J Geophys Res 76:5002, 1971) for P- and S/Lg-wave displacement spectra. Considering P- and S-wave data separately, we first studied the empirical dependence of the Fourier spectral amplitudes Ω due to the geometrical spreading and the inelastic attenuation and of the corner frequency, f 0, with the epicentral distances, R. We found the distance correction parameters, Re 0.0042 R and R 0.8333 e 0.00365 R for the low-frequency spectral amplitudes and f 0 = f {0/'} e 0.00043 R and f 0 = f {0/'} e 0.00044 R for the corner frequency at the source, f 0, and observed at the station, f {0/'}, from P-wave and S-wave spectra, respectively. Applying the distance correction procedure, we determined the source displacement spectrum of P and S waves for each earthquake to estimate the seismic moment, M 0; the moment magnitude, M W; the source radius, r; and the stress drop, Δσ. The seismic moments range from 1.06 × 1013 to 7.67 × 1019 N m, and their corresponding moment magnitudes are in the range of 2.6-7.2. Values of stress drop Δσ vary from 0.1 to 44 MPa. It was found that the stress drop increases with the increasing seismic moment in the range of 1013-1016 N m and possibly becomes constant at higher magnitudes, reaching a maximum value of about 40-45 MPa. We demonstrate that the values of the M 0 and M W estimated from P-wave and S-wave analysis are consistent and confirmed by the results of waveform inversions, i.e., centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution.
A new methodology for determination of macroscopic transport parameters in drying porous media
Attari Moghaddam, A.; Kharaghani, A.; Tsotsas, E.; Prat, M.
2015-12-01
Two main approaches have been used to model the drying process: The first approach considers the partially saturated porous medium as a continuum and partial differential equations are used to describe the mass, momentum and energy balances of the fluid phases. The continuum-scale models (CM) obtained by this approach involve constitutive laws which require effective material properties, such as the diffusivity, permeability, and thermal conductivity which are often determined by experiments. The second approach considers the material at the pore scale, where the void space is represented by a network of pores (PN). Micro- or nanofluidics models used in each pore give rise to a large system of ordinary differential equations with degrees of freedom at each node of the pore network. In this work, the moisture transport coefficient (D), the pseudo desorption isotherm inside the network and at the evaporative surface are estimated from the post-processing of the three-dimensional pore network drying simulations for fifteen realizations of the pore space geometry from a given probability distribution. A slice sampling method is used in order to extract these parameters from PN simulations. The moisture transport coefficient obtained in this way is shown in Fig. 1a. The minimum of average D values demonstrates the transition between liquid dominated moisture transport region and vapor dominated moisture transport region; a similar behavior has been observed in previous experimental findings. A function is fitted to the average D values and then is fed into the non-linear moisture diffusion equation. The saturation profiles obtained from PN and CM simulations are shown in Fig. 1b. Figure 1: (a) extracted moisture transport coefficient during drying for fifteen realizations of the pore network, (b) average moisture profiles during drying obtained from PN and CM simulations.
Kassym, Laura; Nounou, Mohammed A.; Zhumadilova, Zauresh; Dajani, Asad I.; Barkibayeva, Nurgul; Myssayev, Ayan; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Abuhammour, Adnan M.
2016-01-01
Background: The diagnosis of chronic liver disease (CLD) leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension had witnessed dramatic changes after the introduction of noninvasive figure accessible tools over the past few years. Imaging techniques that are based on evaluation of the liver stiffness was particularly useful in this respect. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) emerged as an interesting figure tool with reliable repute and high precision. Aims: To evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and splenic stiffness measurement (SSM) in healthy volunteers as concluded by the ARFI technique and to out a numeric calculated ratio that may reflect their correlation in the otherwise healthy liver. Patients and Methods: A ratio (splenic stiffness/liver stiffness in kPa) was determined in 207 consenting healthy subjects and was investigated with respect to age, gender, ethnic origin, body mass index (BMI), liver and spleen sizes healthy volunteers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), platelet count (PLT), APRI, and FIB-4 scores. Results: Data from this work led to computing an index of 4.72 (3.42–7.33) in healthy persons on an average. Females had a higher index than males 6.37 vs 4.92, P=0.002. There was not any significant difference of the ratio in different age groups; ethnic origins; any correlation between SSM/LSM ratio and BMI; liver and spleen sizes; or ALT, AST, PLT, APRI, and FIB-4 scores. Conclusions: A quantifiable numeric relationship between splenic and liver stiffness in the healthy subjects could be computed to a parameter expressed as SSM/LSM ratio. We believe that this ratio can be a useful reference tool for further researches in CLD. PMID:27488328
Biedron, S G; Yu, L H
2000-01-01
One possible design for a fourth-generation light source is the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL). Here, a coherent seed with a wavelength at a subharmonic of the desired output radiation interacts with the electron beam in an energy-modulating section. This energy modulation is then converted into spatial bunching while traversing a dispersive section (a three-dipole chicane). The final step is passage through an undulator tuned to the desired higher harmonic output wavelength. The coherent seed serves to suppress and can be at a much lower subharmonic of the output radiation. Recently, a 3D code that includes multiple frequencies, multiple undulators (both in quantity and/or type), quadrupole magnets, and dipole magnets was developed to easily simulate HGHG. Here, a brief review of the HGHG theory, the code development, the Accelerator Test Facility's (ATF) HGHG FEL experimental parameters, and the parameter analysis from simulations of this specific experiment will be discussed...
Generation and use of the Goddard trajectory determination system SLP ephemeris files
Armstrong, M. G.; Tomaszewski, I. B.
1973-01-01
Information is presented to acquaint users of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System Solar/Lunar/Planetary ephemeris files with the details connected with the generation and use of these files. In particular, certain sections constitute a user's manual for the ephemeris files.
Medan, N.; Banica, M.
2016-11-01
The regular cleaning of the materials deposed in sewer networks is realized, especially with equipment that uses high pressure water jets. The functioning of this equipment is dependent on certain process parameters that can vary, causing variations of the impact forces. The impact force directly affects the cleaning of sewer systems. In order to determine the influence of the process parameters on the impact forces produced by water jets the method of research used is the experiment. The research methods used is that Taguchi design and full factorial design. For the experimental determination of the impact forces a stand for generating water jets and a device for measuring the forces of impact are used. The processing of data is carried out using the Software Minitab 17.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marrero, Julieta [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650-San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Unidad Proyectos Especiales de Suministros Nucleares, Av. Libertador 8250, 1429-Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2002-09-01
Volatile species of Ni were generated by merging acidified aqueous samples and sodium tetrahydroborate(III) in a continuous flow system. The gaseous analyte was subsequently introduced via a stream of Ar carrier into the inlet tube of the plasma torch. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used for detection. The operating conditions (chemical and physical parameters) and the concentrations of different acids were evaluated for the efficient generation of Ni vapor. The detection limit (3 {sigma}{sub blank}) was 1.8 ng mL{sup -1}. The precision (RSD) of the determination was 4.2% at a level of 500 ng mL{sup -1} and 7.3% for 20 ng mL{sup -1} (n=10). The efficiency of the generation process was estimated to be 51%. The possible interfering effect of transition metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn), hydride forming elements (As, Ge, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te), and Hg on Ni signal was examined. This study has demonstrated that Ni vapor generation is markedly free of interferences. (orig.)
Dafonte, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Garabato, D.; Álvarez, M. A.; Ulla, A.; Allende Prieto, C.
2016-10-01
Aims: We present an innovative artificial neural network (ANN) architecture, called Generative ANN (GANN), that computes the forward model, that is it learns the function that relates the unknown outputs (stellar atmospheric parameters, in this case) to the given inputs (spectra). Such a model can be integrated in a Bayesian framework to estimate the posterior distribution of the outputs. Methods: The architecture of the GANN follows the same scheme as a normal ANN, but with the inputs and outputs inverted. We train the network with the set of atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H] and [α/ Fe]), obtaining the stellar spectra for such inputs. The residuals between the spectra in the grid and the estimated spectra are minimized using a validation dataset to keep solutions as general as possible. Results: The performance of both conventional ANNs and GANNs to estimate the stellar parameters as a function of the star brightness is presented and compared for different Galactic populations. GANNs provide significantly improved parameterizations for early and intermediate spectral types with rich and intermediate metallicities. The behaviour of both algorithms is very similar for our sample of late-type stars, obtaining residuals in the derivation of [Fe/H] and [α/ Fe] below 0.1 dex for stars with Gaia magnitude Grvs model is assumed. This can be used for novelty detection and quality assessment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruben M. Mouangue
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The modeling of the wind speed distribution is of great importance for the assessment of wind energy potential and the performance of wind energy conversion system. In this paper, the choice of two determination methods of Weibull parameters shows theirs influences on the Weibull distribution performances. Because of important calm winds on the site of Ngaoundere airport, we characterize the wind potential using the approach of Weibull distribution with parameters which are determined by the modified maximum likelihood method. This approach is compared to the Weibull distribution with parameters which are determined by the maximum likelihood method and the hybrid distribution which is recommended for wind potential assessment of sites having nonzero probability of calm. Using data provided by the ASECNA Weather Service (Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar, we evaluate the goodness of fit of the various fitted distributions to the wind speed data using the Q – Q plots, the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation, the mean wind speed, the mean square error, the energy density and its relative error. It appears from the results that the accuracy of the Weibull distribution with parameters which are determined by the modified maximum likelihood method is higher than others. Then, this approach is used to estimate the monthly and annual energy productions of the site of the Ngaoundere airport. The most energy contribution is made in March with 255.7 MWh. It also appears from the results that a wind turbine generator installed on this particular site could not work for at least a half of the time because of higher frequency of calm. For this kind of sites, the modified maximum likelihood method proposed by Seguro and Lambert in 2000 is one of the best methods which can be used to determinate the Weibull parameters.
New Fluorescence Parameters for the Determination of QA Redox State and Excitation Energy Fluxes.
Kramer, David M; Johnson, Giles; Kiirats, Olavi; Edwards, Gerald E
2004-02-01
A number of useful photosynthetic parameters are commonly derived from saturation pulse-induced fluorescence analysis. We show, that qP, an estimate of the fraction of open centers, is based on a pure 'puddle' antenna model, where each Photosystem (PS) II center possesses its own independent antenna system. This parameter is incompatible with more realistic models of the photosynthetic unit, where reaction centers are connected by shared antenna, that is, the so-called 'lake' or 'connected units' models. We thus introduce a new parameter, qL, based on a Stern-Volmer approach using a lake model, which estimates the fraction of open PS II centers. We suggest that qL should be a useful parameter for terrestrial plants consistent with a high connectivity of PS II units, whereas some marine species with distinct antenna architecture, may require the use of more complex parameters based on intermediate models of the photosynthetic unit. Another useful parameter calculated from fluorescence analysis is ΦII, the yield of PS II. In contrast to qL, we show that the ΦII parameter can be derived from either a pure 'lake' or pure 'puddle' model, and is thus likely to be a robust parameter. The energy absorbed by PS II is divided between the fraction used in photochemistry, ΦII, and that lost non-photochemically. We introduce two additional parameters that can be used to estimate the flux of excitation energy into competing non-photochemical pathways, the yield induced by downregulatory processes, ΦNPQ, and the yield for other energy losses, ΦNO.
Nelson, C. A.; Zhu, X.-Y.
2016-10-01
Optical excitations at semiconductor surfaces or interfaces are accompanied by transient interfacial electric fields due to charge redistribution or transfer. While such transient fields may be probed by time-resolved second harmonic generation (TR-SHG), it is difficult to determine the field direction, which is invaluable to unveiling the underlying physics. Here we apply a time-resolved frequency domain interferometric second harmonic (TR-FDISH) generation technique to determine the phase relationship between the SH field emitted from bulk GaAs(1 0 0) and the transient SH field from the space charge region. The interference between these two SH fields allow us to unambiguously determine the directions of transient electric fields. Since SH fields from a static bulk contribution and a changing electric field contribution are present at most semiconductor surfaces or interfaces under optical excitation, the TR-FDISH technique is of general significance to probing the dynamics of interfacial charge transfer/redistribution.
A determination of the greenhouse parameter for dry and unpolluted air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Penaloza M, Marcos A. [Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Merida, (Venezuela)
1996-04-01
The relative extinction of solar and infrared radiation by dry and clean air molecules, has been estimated through a theoretical determination of the ratio referred ordinarily as the Greenhouse Parameter (GP). In a first approach, it was calculated assuming that terrestrial air only consists of a simple mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. The method used here is based on the application, in an inverse procedure, of an homogeneous, plane-parallel, and time-independent grey model, which employs the Eddington approximation as a solution to the radiative transfer equation, both in the solar and the infrared spectral regions and, which has the GP value as an input free parameter. The best value of the GP was estimated calibrating the local temperature profile for four types of uniform surface (snow, desert, vegetation and ocean), with average albedos known in these spectral regions, adopting air surface temperature values which were chosen for an assumed micro or local climatological environment according to an average radiative criterion. With this result, it was possible for an estimation of the infrared opacity for the air layer implicated in this model and also the mean extinction coefficient in this spectral range to be calculated. The results predicted are compared with results obtained indirectly from the data provided by other authors. Although its validation is constrained solely to the radiative model applied it seems that the value of the GP obtained is more accurate than the one initially available. [Spanish] La extincion relativa de radiacion por moleculas de aire limpio y seco, tanto en la region espectral solar como en la infrarroja, ha sido estimada a traves del calculo teorico de un parametro conocido en general como Parametro de Invernadero (PI). En una primera aproximacion, este parametro fue calculado considerando el aire terrestre como una mezcla simple de oxigeno y nitrogeno solamente. El metodo usado aqui se baso en la aplicacion, bajo un
Manne, Jagadeeshwari; Webster, Christopher R.
2016-03-01
Molecular line parameters of line strengths, self- and foreign-broadening by nitrogen, carbon dioxide and helium gas have been experimentally determined for infrared ro-vibrational spectral lines of water and carbon dioxide at 2.78 μm targeted by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. Good agreement is found by comparison with the line parameters reported in the HITRAN-2012 database.
Determination of optimum thermal debinding and sintering process parameters using Taguchi Method
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Seerane, M
2015-07-01
Full Text Available from a green body after injection moulding; failure to completely remove the binder components results in distortion, cracking, blisters and contamination at elevated temperatures. This study focuses on optimising thermal debinding process parameters...
Jean, Legaye
2013-01-01
Objective. To propose and validate a dimensional parameter, the sagittal pelvic thickness (SPT) (distance between the middle point of the upper sacral plate and the femoral heads axis, expressed as a ratio with the length of the upper plate of S1: (SPT/S1) for the analysis of the sagittal balance of the pelvispinal unit. Methods. The parameters were analysed on standing radiographic imaging and compared for normal, low back pain, children, and spondylolysis cases. Results. Values of SPT/S1 were observed significantly higher in high grade spondylolysis populations and in children (3,5 and 3,7) than in normal population (3,3). A geometrical connection with the classical angular parameters validated SPT/S1. Conclusion. SPT/S1 was considered reflecting the lever arm of action of spinopelvic muscles and ligaments and describing the ability of a subject to compensate a sagittal unbalance. It was proposed as an anatomical and functional pelvic parameter.
Adamska, K; Bellinghausen, R; Voelkel, A
2008-06-27
The Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) seems to be a useful tool for the thermodynamic characterization of different materials. Unfortunately, estimation of the HSP values can cause some problems. In this work different procedures by using inverse gas chromatography have been presented for calculation of pharmaceutical excipients' solubility parameter. The new procedure proposed, based on the Lindvig et al. methodology, where experimental data of Flory-Huggins interaction parameter are used, can be a reasonable alternative for the estimation of HSP values. The advantage of this method is that the values of Flory-Huggins interaction parameter chi for all test solutes are used for further calculation, thus diverse interactions between test solute and material are taken into consideration.
Reed, Lloyd F; Urry, Stephen R; Wearing, Scott C
2013-08-21
Despite the emerging use of treadmills integrated with pressure platforms as outcome tools in both clinical and research settings, published evidence regarding the measurement properties of these new systems is limited. This study evaluated the within- and between-day repeatability of spatial, temporal and vertical ground reaction force parameters measured by a treadmill system instrumented with a capacitance-based pressure platform. Thirty three healthy adults (mean age, 21.5 ± 2.8 years; height, 168.4 ± 9.9 cm; and mass, 67.8 ± 18.6 kg), walked barefoot on a treadmill system (FDM-THM-S, Zebris Medical GmbH) on three separate occasions. For each testing session, participants set their preferred pace but were blinded to treadmill speed. Spatial (foot rotation, step width, stride and step length), temporal (stride and step times, duration of stance, swing and single and double support) and peak vertical ground reaction force variables were collected over a 30-second capture period, equating to an average of 52 ± 5 steps of steady-state walking. Testing was repeated one week following the initial trial and again, for a third time, 20 minutes later. Repeated measures ANOVAs within a generalized linear modelling framework were used to assess between-session differences in gait parameters. Agreement between gait parameters measured within the same day (session 2 and 3) and between days (session 1 and 2; 1 and 3) were evaluated using the 95% repeatability coefficient. There were statistically significant differences in the majority (14/16) of temporal, spatial and kinetic gait parameters over the three test sessions (P < .01). The minimum change that could be detected with 95% confidence ranged between 3% and 17% for temporal parameters, 14% and 33% for spatial parameters, and 4% and 20% for kinetic parameters between days. Within-day repeatability was similar to that observed between days. Temporal and kinetic gait parameters were typically more
Determination of Diffusion and Dispersion Parameters for Flow in Porous Media
Kohno, Iichiro; Nishigaki, Makoto
1982-01-01
The purposes of this research is an investigation of the intrusion of sea water into coastal aquifers. For this subject, this paper deals with proposing rational methods of getting diffusion coefficient and dispersion parameter for flow in porous media in a laboratory. These parameters of soil are indispensable in order to apply an analytical approach or a numerical approach to actual salt water intrusion problems. Experimental apparatuses were constructed and test procedures were also develo...
DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL BALL BURNISHING PARAMETERS FOR SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF ALUMINUM ALLOY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.B. Patel
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Burnishing is a cold-working process, which easily produces a smooth and work-hardened surface through the plastic deformation of surface irregularities. In the present work, the influences of the main burnishing parameters (speed, feed, force, number of tool passes, and ball diameter on the surface roughness are studied. It is found that the burnishing forces and the number of tool passes are the parameters that have the greatest effect on the workpiece surface during the burnishing process.
Determining the Walker exponent and developing a modified Smith-Watson-Topper parameter model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lv, Zhiqiang; Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Gao, Huiying; Zuo, Fang Jun [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)
2016-03-15
Mean stress effects significantly influence the fatigue life of components. In general, tensile mean stresses are known to reduce the fatigue life of components, whereas compressive mean stresses are known to increase it. To date, various methods that account for mean stress effects have been studied. In this research, considering the high accuracy of mean stress correction and the difficulty in obtaining the material parameter of the Walker method, a practical method is proposed to describe the material parameter of this method. The test data of various materials are then used to verify the proposed practical method. Furthermore, by applying the Walker material parameter and the Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) parameter, a modified strain-life model is developed to consider sensitivity to mean stress of materials. In addition, three sets of experimental fatigue data from super alloy GH4133, aluminum alloy 7075-T651, and carbon steel are used to estimate the accuracy of the proposed model. A comparison is also made between the SWT parameter method and the proposed strainlife model. The proposed strain-life model provides more accurate life prediction results than the SWT parameter method.
Soncin, Rafael; Mezêncio, Bruno; Ferreira, Jacielle Carolina; Rodrigues, Sara Andrade; Huebner, Rudolf; Serrão, Julio Cerca; Szmuchrowski, Leszek
2017-06-01
The aim of this study was to propose a new force parameter, associated with swimmers' technique and performance. Twelve swimmers performed five repetitions of 25 m sprint crawl and a tethered swimming test with maximal effort. The parameters calculated were: the mean swimming velocity for crawl sprint, the mean propulsive force of the tethered swimming test as well as an oscillation parameter calculated from force fluctuation. The oscillation parameter evaluates the force variation around the mean force during the tethered test as a measure of swimming technique. Two parameters showed significant correlations with swimming velocity: the mean force during the tethered swimming (r = 0.85) and the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation (r = 0.86). However, the intercept coefficient was significantly different from zero only for the mean force, suggesting that although the correlation coefficient of the parameters was similar, part of the mean velocity magnitude that was not associated with the mean force was associated with the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation. Thus, force fluctuation during tethered swimming can be used as a quantitative index of swimmers' technique.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kotowicz Janusz
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper an air separation unit was analyzed. The unit consisted of: an ionic transport membrane contained in a four-end type module, an air compressor, an expander fed by gas that remains after oxygen separation and heat exchangers which heat the air and recirculated flue gas to the membrane operating temperature (850 °C. The air separation unit works in a power plant with electrical power equal to 600 MW. This power plant additionally consists of: an oxy-type pulverized-fuel boiler, a steam turbine unit and a carbon dioxide capture unit. Life steam parameters are 30 MPa/650 °C and reheated steam parameters are 6 MPa/670 °C. The listed units were analyzed. For constant electrical power of the power plant technical parameters of the air separation unit for two oxygen recovery rate (65% and 95% were determined. One of such parameters is ionic membrane surface area. In this paper the formulated equation is presented. The remaining technical parameters of the air separation unit are, among others: heat exchange surface area, power of the air compressor, power of the expander and auxiliary power. Using the listed quantities, the economic parameters, such as costs of air separation unit and of individual components were determined. These quantities allowed to determine investment costs of construction of the air separation unit. In addition, they were compared with investment costs for the entire oxy-type power plant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veissid, N. (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)); Cruz, M.T.F. da (Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica); Andrade, A.M. de (Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Microeletronica)
1990-05-01
A method for the determination of the standard deviations of the solar cell characteristic curve fitting parameters is presented for the first time. In this method, a Taylor series expansion of the parameters, around their best values, is made resulting in linear functions which permit the determination of the standard deviations with the least-squares method. The parameters, with the respective standard deviations, were determined from the experimental I-V characteristic curves obtained under illuminated and dark conditions. For the studied experimental I-V curves, the diode saturation currents, the diode factor and the shunt resistance showed smaller standard deviations in the dark condition, and the series resistance appeared to be more precise in the illuminated I-V characteristic. (orig.).
Ceriotti, G.; Porta, G. M.; Geloni, C.; Dalla Rosa, M.; Guadagnini, A.
2017-09-01
We develop a methodological framework and mathematical formulation which yields estimates of the uncertainty associated with the amounts of CO2 generated by Carbonate-Clays Reactions (CCR) in large-scale subsurface systems to assist characterization of the main features of this geochemical process. Our approach couples a one-dimensional compaction model, providing the dynamics of the evolution of porosity, temperature and pressure along the vertical direction, with a chemical model able to quantify the partial pressure of CO2 resulting from minerals and pore water interaction. The modeling framework we propose allows (i) estimating the depth at which the source of gases is located and (ii) quantifying the amount of CO2 generated, based on the mineralogy of the sediments involved in the basin formation process. A distinctive objective of the study is the quantification of the way the uncertainty affecting chemical equilibrium constants propagates to model outputs, i.e., the flux of CO2. These parameters are considered as key sources of uncertainty in our modeling approach because temperature and pressure distributions associated with deep burial depths typically fall outside the range of validity of commonly employed geochemical databases and typically used geochemical software. We also analyze the impact of the relative abundancy of primary phases in the sediments on the activation of CCR processes. As a test bed, we consider a computational study where pressure and temperature conditions are representative of those observed in real sedimentary formation. Our results are conducive to the probabilistic assessment of (i) the characteristic pressure and temperature at which CCR leads to generation of CO2 in sedimentary systems, (ii) the order of magnitude of the CO2 generation rate that can be associated with CCR processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mcdonald, Ross D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Singleton, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lancaster, Tom [OXFORD UNIV.; Goddard, Paul [OXFORD UNIV.; Manson, Jamie [EASTERN WASHINGTON UNIV.
2011-01-14
We nave measured the high-field magnetization of a number of Ni-based metal-organic molecular magnets. These materials are self-assembly coordination polymers formed from transition metal ions and organic ligands. The chemistry of the compounds is versatile allowing many structures with different magnetic properties to be formed. These studies follow on from previous measurements of the Cu-based analogues in which we showed it was possible to extract the exchange parameters of low-dimensional magnets using pulsed magnetic fields. In our recent experiments we have investigated the compound (Ni(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2})PF{sub 6}, where pyz = pyrazine, and the Ni-ions are linked in a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) square lattice via the pyrazine molecules, with the layers held together by HF{sub 2} ligands. We also investigated Ni(NCS){sub 2}(pyzdo){sub 2}, where pyzdo = pyrazine dioxide. The samples are grown at Eastern Washington University using techniques described elsewhere. Measurements are performed at the pulsed magnetic field laboratory in Los Alamos. The magnetization of powdered samples is determined using a compensated coil magnetometer in a 65 T short pulse magnet. Temperatures as low as 500 mK are achievable using a {sup 3}He cryostat. The main figure shows the magnetization of the spin-1 [Ni(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]PF{sub 6} compound at 1.43 K. The magnetization rises slowly at first, achieving a rounded saturation whose midpoint is around 19 T. A small anomaly is also seen in the susceptibility at low fields ({approx}3 T), which might be attributed to a spin-flop transition. In contrast, the spin-1/2 [Cu(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]PF{sub 6} measured previously has a saturation magnetization of 35.5 T and a strongly concave form of M(B) below this field. This latter compound was shown to be a good example of a Q2D Heisenberg antiferromagnet with the strong exchange coupling (J{sub 2D} = 12.4 K, J{sub {perpendicular}}/J{sub 2D} {approx} 10{sup -2}) directed along
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sotelo, S.S.; Romero, R.J. [Univ. Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico). Centro di Investigacion en Ingeneria y Ciencias Aplicadas; Best, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energie
2009-07-01
A mathematical model was used to characterize the thermal behaviour of a steam generator in an alternative energy upgrade system. A thermodynamic cycle was used to increase the temperatures produced by solar, geothermal, and waste heat from industrial processes. The absorption heat transformer (AHT) process can be used in industrial processes where low temperature heat flows occur. Alternative energy was supplied to the generator where the working fluid was condensed and then transported to the evaporator through an expansion valve. Vapor was then transported to the absorber in order to deliver heat at a higher temperature. The solution was then returned to the generator in order to start the cycle again. A heat exchanger was placed between the absorber and the generator in order to preheat incoming solutions from the generator. The mathematical model was used to simulate heat transfer in the generator in order to determine optimal operating conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using equations reported for single phase flow. It was concluded that the highest heat transfer coefficients were obtained for a Reynolds number of 2300 with an alternative energy source of 90 degrees C at mass flows of 4 L/m. 33 refs., 14 figs.
Determine the Dose Distribution Using Ultrasound Parameters in MAGIC-f Polymer Gels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Masoumi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, using methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper (MAGIC-f polymer gel after megavoltage energy exposure, the sensitivity of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient dose-dependent parameters was evaluated. The MAGIC-f polymer gel was irradiated under 1.25 MeV cobalt-60, ranging from 0 to 60 Gy in 2-Gy steps, and received dose uniformity and accuracy of ±2%. After calibration of the ultrasonic systems with a frequency of 500 kHz, the parameters of ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient of the irradiated gel samples were measured. According to the dose–response curve, the ability of ultrasonic parameters was evaluated in dose rate readings. Based on a 4-order polynomial curve, fitted on the dose–response parameters of ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient and observed at 24 hours after irradiation, ultrasonic parameters had more sensitivity. The sensitivity of the dose–velocity and dose-attenuation coefficient curves was observed as 50 m/s/Gy and 0.06 dB/MHz/Gy over the linear range of 4 to 44 Gy, respectively. The ultrasonic parameters at 5°C, 15°C, and 25°C on the gel dosimeter after 0 to 60 Gy irradiation showed that readings at 25°C have higher sensitivity compared to 15°C and 5°C. Maximum sensitivity time and temperature readings of the MAGIC-f ultrasonic parameters were concluded 24 hours after irradiation and at a temperature of 25°C.
Determination of ductile damage parameters by local deformation fields: Measurement and simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Springmann, M. [Chair of Structural Mechanics and Vehicle Vibrational Technology, BTU Cottbus, Cottbus (Germany); Kuna, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany)
2006-10-15
This work comprises the development, implementation and application of methods for the parameter identification of damage mechanical constitutive laws. Ductile damage is described on a continuum mechanical basis by extension of the von Mises yield condition with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman as well as with the Rousselier model. The classical Rousselier model is complemented by accelerated void growth and void nucleation. The non-linear boundary and initial value problem is solved by the finite element system SPC-PMHP, which was developed in the frame of the special research program SFB393 for parallel computers. The material parameters are identified by locally measured displacement fields and measured force-displacement curves. For the material parameter identification a non-linear optimization algorithm is used, which renders the objective function to a minimum by means of a gradient based method. A useful strategy to identify the material parameters was found by careful numerical studies. Finally, using the object grating method the local displacement fields as well as the force-displacement curves are measured at notched flat bar tension specimens made of StE 690 and the parameters of the material are identified. (orig.)
Determining the Characteristics of Trips Generated on Southern Bali using Category Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Wayan Suweda
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Southern Bali, a tourism center of Indonesia, has been rapidly developed. Unfortunately, the development is not followed simultaneously by the development of adequate transportation network, as a result, traffic congestion are inevitably occurred along every urban road in the district. Therefore integrated development and regional transport planning therefore, is urgently required. In this study, trip generation is determined using Category Analysis. It is Figured out from the household based interview that Denpasar Barat zones are found to have the largest trip generation while Pecatu zones are found to be the smallest. Most of the household trips generated use private vehicles (94.95% and the rest uses public transport. This also indicates that public transport services in Southern Bali still need to be developed.
Mao, Albert H; 10.1063/1.4742068
2012-01-01
Accurate models of alkali and halide ions in aqueous solution are necessary for computer simulations of a broad variety of systems. Previous efforts to develop ion force fields have generally focused on reproducing experimental measurements of aqueous solution properties such as hydration free energies and ion-water distribution functions. This dependency limits transferability of the resulting parameters because of the variety and known limitations of water models. We present a solvent-independent approach to calibrating ion parameters based exclusively on crystal lattice properties. Our procedure relies on minimization of lattice sums to calculate lattice energies and interionic distances instead of equilibrium ensemble simulations of dense fluids. The gain in computational efficiency enables simultaneous optimization of all parameters for Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, F-, Cl-, Br-, and I- subject to constraints that enforce consistency with periodic table trends. We demonstrate the method by presenting lattice-d...
Experimental Determination of E-Cloud Simulation Input Parameters for DAFNE
Vaccarezza, Cristina; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano
2005-01-01
After the first experimental observations compatible with the presence of the electron-cloud effect in the DAFNE positron ring, an experimental campaign has been started to measure realistic parameters to be used in the simulation codes. Here we present a synchrotron radiation experiment on the photon reflectivity from the actual Al vacuum chamber of DAFNE (same material, roughness and surface cleaning as the one used to manufacture the ring) in the same energy range of photons produced by the accelerator itself. The derived experimental parameter has than been included in the e-cloud simulation codes and the obtained results confirm the relevance of the detailed knowledge of the input parameter to obtain reliable e-cloud simulations.
Fartoukh, Stéphane David
2002-01-01
The control of the mechanical and dynamic aperture of the LHC requires a tight control of linear optics parameters such as the tune, the beta-functions and the linear coupling resonance driving terms. This report presents a non-standard measurement method of these parameters based on a transverse excitation of the beam in "AC-dipole" mode, that is at one or several frequencies close to but outside the eigenfrequency spectrum of the beam. After having derived the general expression of the beam response in four dimensions, the measurement protocol and different possible hardware configurations will be described and simulation results obtained for the LHC will be presented.
2013-01-01
Objective. To propose and validate a dimensional parameter, the sagittal pelvic thickness (SPT) (distance between the middle point of the upper sacral plate and the femoral heads axis, expressed as a ratio with the length of the upper plate of S1: (SPT/S1) for the analysis of the sagittal balance of the pelvispinal unit. Methods. The parameters were analysed on standing radiographic imaging and compared for normal, low back pain, children, and spondylolysis cases. Results. Values of SPT/S1 we...
Foliation-Based Parameter Tuning in a Model of the GnRH Pulse and Surge Generator
Clement, Frederique; Vidal, Alexandre
2009-01-01
We investigate a model of the GnRH pulse and surge generator, with the definite aim of constraining the model GnRH output with respect to a physiologically relevant list of specifications. The alternating pulse and surge pattern of secretion results from the interaction between a GnRH secreting system and a regulating system exhibiting slow-fast dynamics. The mechanisms underlying the behavior of the model are reviewed from the study of the Boundary-Layer System according to the dissection method principle. Using singular perturbation theory, we describe the sequence of bifurcations undergone by the regulating (FitzHugh-Nagumo) system, encompassing the rarely investigated case of homoclinic connection. Based on pure dynamical considerations, we restrict the space of parameter search for the regulating system and describe a foliation of this restricted space, whose leaves define constant duration ratios between the surge and the pulsatility phase in the whole system. We propose an algorithm to fix the parameter values also to meet the other prescribed ratios dealing with amplitude and frequency features of the secretion signal. We finally apply these results to illustrate the dynamics of GnRH secretion in the ovine species and the rhesus monkey.
Wang, Bei; Sugi, Takenao; Wang, Xingyu; Nakamura, Masatoshi
Data for human sleep study may be affected by internal and external influences. The recorded sleep data contains complex and stochastic factors, which increase the difficulties for the computerized sleep stage determination techniques to be applied for clinical practice. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic sleep stage determination system which is optimized for variable sleep data. The main methodology includes two modules: expert knowledge database construction and automatic sleep stage determination. Visual inspection by a qualified clinician is utilized to obtain the probability density function of parameters during the learning process of expert knowledge database construction. Parameter selection is introduced in order to make the algorithm flexible. Automatic sleep stage determination is manipulated based on conditional probability. The result showed close agreement comparing with the visual inspection by clinician. The developed system can meet the customized requirements in hospitals and institutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Anischenko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
van Drongelen, W.; Lee, H. C.; Koch, H.; Elsen, F.; Carroll, M. S.; Hereld, M.; Stevens, R. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago
2004-01-01
We examined the effects of both intrinsic neuronal membrane properties and network parameters on oscillatory activity in a model of neocortex. A scalable network model with six different cell types was built with the pGENESIS neural simulator. The neocortical network consisted of two types of pyramidal cells and four types of inhibitory interneurons. All cell types contained both fast sodium and delayed rectifier potassium channels for generation of action potentials. A subset of the pyramidal neurons contained an additional slow inactivating (persistent) sodium current (NaP). The neurons with the NaP current showed spontaneous bursting activity in the absence of external stimulation. The model also included a routine to calculate a simulated electroencephalogram (EEG) trace from the population activity. This revealed emergent network behavior which ranged from desynchronized activity to different types of seizure-like bursting patterns. At settings with weaker excitatory network effects, the propensity to generate seizure-like behavior increased. Strong excitatory network connectivity destroyed oscillatory behavior, whereas weak connectivity enhanced the relative importance of the spontaneously bursting cells. Our findings are in contradiction with the general opinion that strong excitatory synaptic and/or insufficient inhibition effects are associated with seizure initiation, but are in agreement with previously reported behavior in neocortex.
Coralli, Alberto; Villela de Miranda, Hugo; Espiúca Monteiro, Carlos Felipe; Resende da Silva, José Francisco; Valadão de Miranda, Paulo Emílio
2014-12-01
Solid oxide fuel cells are globally recognized as a very promising technology in the area of highly efficient electricity generation with a low environmental impact. This technology can be advantageously implemented in many situations in Brazil and it is well suited to the use of ethanol as a primary energy source, an important feature given the highly developed Brazilian ethanol industry. In this perspective, a simplified mathematical model is developed for a fuel cell and its balance of plant, in order to identify the optimal system structure and the most convenient values for the operational parameters, with the aim of maximizing the global electric efficiency. In this way it is discovered the best operational configuration for the desired application, which is the distributed generation in the concession area of the electricity distribution company Elektro. The data regarding this configuration are required for the continuation of the research project, i.e. the development of a prototype, a cost analysis of the developed system and a detailed perspective of the market opportunities in Brazil.
Vu, Hoang Lan; Ng, Kelvin Tsun Wai; Richter, Amy
2017-08-17
Canada has one of the highest waste generation rates in the world. Because of high land availability, land disposal rates in the province of Saskatchewan are high compared to the rest of the country. In this study, landfill gas data was collected at semi-arid landfills in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and curve fitting was carried out to find optimal k and Lo or DOC values using LandGEM, Afvalzorg Simple, and IPCC first order decay models. Model parameters at each landfill were estimated and compared using default k and Lo or DOC values. Methane generation rates were substantially overestimated using default values (with percentage errors from 55 to 135%). The mean percentage errors for the optimized k and Lo or DOC values ranged from 11.60% to 19.93% at the Regina landfill, and 1.65% to 10.83% at the Saskatoon landfill. Finally, the effect of different iterative methods on the curve fitting process was examined. The residual sum of squares for each model and iterative approaches were similar, with the exception of iterative method 1 for the IPCC model. The default values in these models fail to represent landfills located in cold semi-arid climates. The use of site specific data, provided enough information is available regarding waste mass and composition, can greatly help to improve the accuracy of these first order decay models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitney, Jon; Carswell, William; Rylander, Nichole
2013-06-01
Predictions of injury in response to photothermal therapy in vivo are frequently made using Arrhenius parameters obtained from cell monolayers exposed to laser or water bath heating. However, the impact of different heating methods and cellular microenvironments on Arrhenius predictions has not been thoroughly investigated. This study determined the influence of heating method (water bath and laser irradiation) and cellular microenvironment (cell monolayers and tissue phantoms) on Arrhenius parameters and spatial viability. MDA-MB-231 cells seeded in monolayers and sodium alginate phantoms were heated with a water bath for 3-20 min at 46, 50, and 54 °C or laser irradiated (wavelength of 1064 nm and fluences of 40 W/cm(2) or 3.8 W/cm(2) for 0-4 min) in combination with photoabsorptive carbon nanohorns. Spatial viability was measured using digital image analysis of cells stained with calcein AM and propidium iodide and used to determine Arrhenius parameters. The influence of microenvironment and heating method on Arrhenius parameters and capability of parameters derived from more simplistic experimental conditions (e.g. water bath heating of monolayers) to predict more physiologically relevant systems (e.g. laser heating of phantoms) were assessed. Arrhenius predictions of the treated area (Arrhenius parameters, with heating method having the greater impact.
Determining the parameters at which burnout occurs in the waterwall tubes of drum boilers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
I.I. Belyakov [Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association (OAO TsKTI), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2007-09-15
Parameters at which burnout occurs are presented that were obtained by measuring the temperature and heat fluxes during experiments carried out directly on a boiler. The results of a comparison between the obtained values and the data of investigations on a test facility are given.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P Ravindra Babu; K Ankamma; T Siva Prasad; A V S Raju; N Eswara Prasad
2012-08-01
The present study is aimed at ﬁlling the gaps in scientiﬁc understanding of the burnishing process, and also to aid and arrive at technological solutions for the surface modiﬁcations based on burnishing of some of the commonly employed engineering materials. The effects of various burnishing parameters on the surface characteristics, surface microstructure, micro hardness are evaluated, reported and discussed in the case of EN Series steels (EN 8, EN 24 and EN 31), Aluminum alloy (AA6061) and Alpha-beta brass. The burnishing parameters considered for studies principally are burnishing speed, burnishing force, burnishing feed and number of passes. Taguchi technique is employed in the present investigation to identify the most inﬂuencing parameters on surface roughness. Effort is also made to identify the optimal burnishing parameters and the factors for scientiﬁc basis of such optimization. Finally, a brief attempt is made to construct the Burnishing maps with respect to strength level (in this case, average micro hardness of unburnished material).
Determination of aerodynamic parameters of urban surfaces: methods and results revisited
Mohammad, A. F.; Zaki, S. A.; Hagishima, A.; Ali, M. S. M.
2015-11-01
Estimates of aerodynamic parameters, in particular roughness length z 0 and displacement height d, are important for the analysis of the roughness of an urban surface, which affects processes that occur within the urban boundary layer such as pollutant dispersion and urban ventilation. Findings regarding the aerodynamic effects of various configurations of urban arrays were compiled from various studies. Several experimental, numerical and semi-empirical studies to estimate z 0 and d were reviewed and compared with each other. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) the influence of the frontal area index ( λ f ) on z 0 is significant and their relationship has been confirmed by both experimental and numerical data; (2) compared to one-parameter and two-parameter fitting methods, the three-parameter fitting method is the least accurate; (3) the physical meaning of d remains vague because its definition as the height where surface drag acts may not be accurate for sharp-edged roughness blocks and (4) the peak values of z 0 for uniform and heterogeneous block heights indicate presence of skimming or wake-interference flow effects, which may influence surface roughness. Finally, the semi-empirical models were found to be limited to cases derived from available experimental data, which normally involve uniform arrays of cubes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn; Rasmussen, Knud
2008-01-01
such as the acoustic centres. In this work, a hybrid method is presented. The velocity distributions of condenser Laboratory Standard microphones were measured using a laser vibrometer. This measured velocity distribution was used for estimating the microphone responses and parameters. The agreement with experimental...
A Precise Determination of $\\alpha_s$ from the C-parameter Distribution
Hoang, André H; Mateu, Vicent; Stewart, Iain W
2015-01-01
We present a global fit for $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$, analyzing the available C-parameter data measured at center-of-mass energies between $Q=35$ and $207$ GeV. The experimental data is compared to a N$^3$LL$^\\prime$ + $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s^3)$ + $\\Omega_1$ theoretical prediction (up to the missing 4-loop cusp anomalous dimension), which includes power corrections coming from a field theoretical nonperturbative soft function. The dominant hadronic parameter is its first moment $\\Omega_1$, which is defined in a scheme which eliminates the $\\mathcal{O}(\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD})$ renormalon ambiguity. The resummation region plays a dominant role in the C-parameter spectrum, and in this region a fit for $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ and $\\Omega_1$ is sufficient. We find $\\alpha_s(m_Z)=0.1123\\pm 0.0015$ and $\\Omega_1=0.421\\pm 0.063\\,{\\rm GeV}$ with $\\chi^2/\\rm{dof}=0.988$ for $404$ bins of data. These results agree with the prediction of universality for $\\Omega_1$ between thrust and C-parameter within 1-$\\sigma$.
Sysoev, I. V.; Ponomarenko, V. I.; Prokhorov, M. D.
2016-01-01
A method for the reconstruction of the architecture, strength of couplings, and parameters of elements in ensembles of coupled time-delay systems from their time series is proposed. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on chaotic time series of the ensemble of diffusively coupled nonidentical Ikeda equations in the presence of noise.
The structural parameters of self-assembled quantum dots determined from the optical spectra
Hong, Boon Hon; Tinkler, Lloyd; Beaumont, Matthew; Rybchenko, Sergey I.; Itskevich, Igor E.; Haywood, Stephanie K.; Hugues, Maxime
2013-12-01
Structural parameters of InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs), which were grown using In-flush technique, were deduced using optical spectroscopy combined with computer modeling. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data obtained from transmission electron microscopy. The developed approach suggests a promising alternative to structural characterization methods for SAQDs.
The structural parameters of self-assembled quantum dots determined from the optical spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Boon Hon; Beaumont, Matthew; Rybchenko, Sergey I.; Itskevich, Igor E.; Haywood, Stephanie K. [Department of Engineering, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Tinkler, Lloyd [Department of Engineering, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Hugues, Maxime [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Grégory, 06560 Valbonne (France)
2013-12-04
Structural parameters of InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs), which were grown using In-flush technique, were deduced using optical spectroscopy combined with computer modeling. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data obtained from transmission electron microscopy. The developed approach suggests a promising alternative to structural characterization methods for SAQDs.