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Sample records for determining aroma compounds

  1. Determination of volatile aroma compounds of Ganoderma lucidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010-2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols ...

  2. Determination of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Ganoderma Lucidum by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Taşkın, Hatıra; Kafkas, Ebru; Çakıroğlu, Özgün; Büyükalaca, Saadet

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010–2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, phenol, L-Alanine, d-Alanine, 3Methyl, 2-Butanamine, 2-Propanamine were determined. 1-Octen-3-ol (Alcohol) and 3-methyl butanal (Aldehyde) were identified as major aroma compounds.

  3. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Ndip, Roland N.; Clarke, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential. PMID:22272147

  4. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

  5. Volatile compounds in honey: a review on their involvement in aroma, botanical origin determination and potential biomedical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Ndip, Roland N; Clarke, Anna M

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey's botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey's aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

  6. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  7. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  8. Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S S; Goddik, L; Qian, M C

    2004-12-01

    Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder were investigated in this study. Volatiles were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Fractionation was used to separate acidic from nonacidic volatiles. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were used for the identification of aroma compounds. Osme methodology was applied to assess the relative importance of each aroma compound. The most aroma-intense free fatty acids detected were acetic, propanoic, butanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, and 9-decenoic acids. The most aroma-intense nonacidic compounds detected were hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-one, methional, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, p-cresol, 2-acetylpyrrole, maltol, furaneol, and several lactones. This study suggested that the aroma of whey powder could comprise compounds originating from milk, compounds generated by the starter culture during cheese making, and compounds formed during the manufacturing process of whey powder.

  9. Rapid determination of floral aroma compounds of lilac blossom by fast gas chromatography combined with surface acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Yeon; Shin, Hyun Du; Kim, Sung Jean; Hong, Jongki

    2008-03-07

    A novel analytical method using fast gas chromatography combined with surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been developed for the detection of volatile aroma compounds emanated from lilac blossom (Syringa species: Syringa vulgaris variginata and Syringa dilatata). GC/SAW could detect and quantify various fragrance emitted from lilac blossom, enabling to provide fragrance pattern analysis results. The fragrance pattern analysis could easily characterize the delicate differences in aromas caused by the substantial difference of chemical composition according to different color and shape of petals. Moreover, the method validation of GC/SAW was performed for the purpose of volatile floral actual aroma analysis, achieving a high reproducibility and excellent sensitivity. From the validation results, GC/SAW could serve as an alternative analytical technique for the analysis of volatile floral actual aroma of lilac. In addition, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS was employed to further confirm the identification of fragrances emitted from lilac blossom and compared to GC/SAW.

  10. Key Aroma Compounds in Lippia dulcis (Dushi Button).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Rainer; Cappi, Michael; Pollner, Gwendola; Greger, Veronika

    2018-03-14

    An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied on aroma extracts prepared from the edible flower Dushi Button ( Lippia dulcis) resulted in the detection of 34 odor-active compounds. The highest flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined for methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, an unknown caramel-like compound, and vanillin. Quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), resulted in the revelation of 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, linalool, myrcene, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and ( Z)-3-hexenal as important contributors to the flavor of Dushi Buttons.

  11. Volatile compounds responsible for aroma of Jutrzenka liquer wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Dziadas, Mariusz; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Wąsowicz, Erwin

    2011-10-21

    Jutrzenka is a sweet liquer wine produced in Poland from the grape variety of the same name, developed in Poland to withstand the harsh climate of winery regions. Jutrzenka wine has a characteristic aroma with strong fruity and flowery notes, which make it unique among other liquer wines as demonstrated in sensory profile analysis. The work was aimed at characterization of volatile compounds in this wine, with the emphasis on characterization of compounds responsible for its unique aroma. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was applied to identify the key odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) approach. To facilitate free and bound terpenes and C(13)-norisoprenoids identification solid phase extraction (SPE) was used followed by GC/MS. Among identified key odorants β-damascenone was the compound having the highest FD (4096), followed by isoamyl alcohol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (FD=2048), methional, linalool, ethyl decanoate (FD=1024) and ethyl hexanoate, furaneol (FD=512). Other significant compounds were ethyl 2-methyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and phenyl ethyl alcohol. Determination of odor activity values (OAV) showed the highest values for β-damascenone (566), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (288) ethyl hexanoate (32) and linalool (7). Jutrzenka exhibited also a rich profile of free, and to lesser extent bound terpenes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  13. Volatile aroma compounds and sensory characteristics of traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LY

    fruity, floral, banana, sweet and fatty notes. However, the overall aroma profiles of the investigated Urwagwa wines were dominated by the fruity note due to the high amount of ethyl caprylate, ethyl caprate and ethyl caproate in this Rwandan traditional banana wine. Keywords: Aroma compounds; Sensory analysis; Banana ...

  14. Quantification of prominent volatile compounds responsible for muskmelon and watermelon aroma by purge and trap extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredes, Alejandro; Sales, Carlos; Barreda, Mercedes; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Roselló, Salvador; Beltrán, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic headspace purge-and-trap (DHS-P&T) methodology for the determination and quantification of 61 volatile compounds responsible for muskmelon and watermelon aroma has been developed and validated. The methodology is based on the application of purge-and-trap extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to (ion trap) mass spectrometry detection. For this purpose two different P&T sorbent cartridges have been evaluated. The influence of different extraction factors (sample weight, extraction time, and purge flow) on extraction efficiency has been studied and optimised using response surface methodology. Precision, expressed as repeatability, has been evaluated by analysing six replicates of real samples, showing relative standard deviations between 3% and 27%. Linearity has been studied in the range of 10-6130 ng mL(-1) depending on the compound response, showing coefficients of correlation between 0.995 and 0.999. Detection limits ranged between 0.1 and 274 ng g(-1). The methodology developed is well suited for analysis of large numbers of muskmelon and watermelon samples in plant breeding programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of Wine Aroma Compounds by Head Space “In Tube Extraction” Technique and Gas Chromatography (HS-ITEX-GC/MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa Vârva; Sonia Socaci; Anca Fărcaş; Liana Salanţă; Ana Viorica Pop Cuceu; Elena Mudura; Maria Tofană

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of vintage on the aroma compounds of white wine Episcopal from vineyard Ciumbrud, located in central Transylvania, by a non-destructive head space in tube extraction technique in tandem with GC-MS. The samples selected for analysis come from three consecutive years (2009, 2010 and 2011) from Episcopal assortment, a high quality wine obtained by blending three types of wine varieties: Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer and Pinot Gris. The results reflect the compos...

  16. Determination of Wine Aroma Compounds by Head Space “In Tube Extraction” Technique and Gas Chromatography (HS-ITEX-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Vârva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of vintage on the aroma compounds of white wine Episcopal from vineyard Ciumbrud, located in central Transylvania, by a non-destructive head space in tube extraction technique in tandem with GC-MS. The samples selected for analysis come from three consecutive years (2009, 2010 and 2011 from Episcopal assortment, a high quality wine obtained by blending three types of wine varieties: Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer and Pinot Gris. The results reflect the compositional similarities but also the influence of vintage on the composition of wine aroma compounds. Results showed significant similarities between the composition of major compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol, butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, octanoic acid ethyl ester, which together account for over 50% of the compounds identified. Significant differences appear both on the number of identified compounds in wine harvest 2010 compared to the other two years as well as through differences in concentration of two compounds: 3-methyl-butanol and 2,4-hexadienoic acid ethyl ester.

  17. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  18. Chemical characterization of the aroma of Grenache rosé wines: aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitative determination, and sensory reconstitution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Ortín, Natalia; Escudero, Ana; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan

    2002-07-03

    The aroma of a Grenache rosé wine from Calatayud (Zaragoza, Spain) has been elucidated following a strategy consisting of an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), followed by the quantitative analysis of the main odorants and the determination of odor activities values (OAVs) and, finally, by a series of reconstitution and omission tests with synthetic aroma models. Thirty-eight aroma compounds were found in the AEDA study, 35 of which were identified. Twenty-one compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. An aroma model prepared by mixing the 24 compounds with OAV > 0.5 in a synthetic wine showed a high qualitative similarity with the aroma of the rosé wine. The addition of compounds with OAV 10 was very different from that of the wine. Omission tests revealed that the most important odorant of this Grenache rosé wine was 3-mercapto-1-hexanol, with a deep impact on the wine fruity and citric notes. The synergic action of Furaneol and homofuraneol also had an important impact on wine aroma, particularly in its fruity and caramel notes. The omission of beta-damascenone, which had the second highest OAV, caused only a slight decrease on the intensity of the aroma model. Still weaker was the sensory effect caused by the omission of 10 other compounds, such as fatty acids and their ethyl esters, isoamyl acetate, and higher alcohols.

  19. A New Aroma Index to Determine the Aroma Quality of Roasted and Ground Coffee During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Marin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The staling of ground roasted coffee blend was studied over one year of storage. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to identify and semi-quantify 40 volatile compounds. We focused on volatile compounds related to the ageing of coffee: methanethiol, propanal, 2-methylfuran, 2-butanone, 2,3-butanedione, 2-furfurylthiol and hexanal. Changes in sensory properties of coffee beverage prepared from the ground roasted coffee samples during storage in laminate packages (PET/ aluminium foil/PE under air atmosphere, under nitrogen or in punctured packages were determined. Samples were stored at (23±2 °C and (40±10 % relative humidity. The reference coffee was packed similarly in laminate packages under nitrogen and stored at (-20±1 °C. Applying a statistical assessment of the results, we found the loss of most volatile compounds from all stored coffee samples, including even those stored under freezing conditions. The ratios of 2-methylfuran/2-butanone and methanethiol/hexanal proved useful indicators of staling. Our new proposed aroma index, the ratio of 2-furfurylthiol/ hexanal, proved to be the most effective, giving high correlation coefficients (R≥0.80 with aroma freshness for coffee brews prepared from the ground roasted coffee stored under different conditions at room temperature.

  20. Influence of the Production Process on the Key Aroma Compounds of Rum: From Molasses to the Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-30

    The production of rum consists of fermentation, distillation, and aging. To check the influence of each step on the final rum aroma, molasses, mash, distillate, and the final rum were analyzed using the sensomics concept. The changes in key aroma compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) for quantitation. Odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) were calculated for the compounds determined in the rum and, finally, the rum aroma was successfully simulated by recombination. (E)-β-Damascenone showed by far the highest OAV (3280) in rum. Although this compound was determined already in molasses, its concentration increased significantly during distillation, indicating a thermolabile precursor. Vanillin, 4-ethylphenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol are well-known compounds mainly stemming from the wood barrels used for aging and showed an OAV ≥ 1. Another important group of aroma-active compounds in rum were ethyl esters, for which a significant increase was determined during fermentation but also to a lesser extent during aging. Altogether, the concentrations of 68% of the aroma-active compounds increased during the process, demonstrating its influence on the overall rum aroma.

  1. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Vidal Icewine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tang, Ke; Xu, Yan; Li, Ji-Ming

    2017-01-18

    The key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and nonpolar columns, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 59 odor-active aroma compounds in three ranks of Vidal icewines were identified, and 28 odorants (FD ≥ 9) were further quantitated for aroma reconstitution and omission tests. β-Damascenone showed the highest FD value of 2187 in all icewines. Methional and furaneol were first observed as important odorants in Vidal icewine. Aroma recombination experiments revealed a good similarity containing the 28 important aromas. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of β-damascenone and the entire group of esters. Besides, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional) also had significant effects on icewine character, especially on apricot, caramel, and tropical fruit characteristics.

  2. Identification of volatile compounds associated with the aroma of white strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Loreto; Espinoza, María Inés; Agosin, Eduardo; Silva, Herman

    2014-03-15

    Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Mill spp. chiloensis form chiloensis, is a strawberry that produces white fruits with unique aromas. This species, endemic to Chile, is one of the progenitors of Fragaria x ananassa Duch. In order to identify the volatile compounds that might be responsible for aroma, these were extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and compared with sensory analyses. Three methods of extraction were used: solvent-assisted evaporation (SAFE), headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Ninety-nine volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS, of which 75 showed odor activity using GC-O. Based on the highest dilution factor (FD = 1000) and GC-O intensity ≥2, we determined 20 major compounds in white strawberry fruit that contribute to its aroma. We chose 51 compounds to be tested against their commercial standards. The identities were confirmed by comparison of their linear retention indices against the commercial standards. The aroma of white strawberry fruits was reconstituted with a synthetic mixture of most of these compounds. The volatile profile of white strawberry fruit described as fruity, green-fresh, floral, caramel, sweet, nutty and woody will be a useful reference for future strawberry breeding programs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Aroma volatile compounds from two fresh pineapple varieties in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang-Yong; Sun, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yu-Ge; Lv, Ling-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Wei, Chang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6) were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 μg·kg(-1) and 380.66 μg·kg(-1) in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs) of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  4. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg−1 and 380.66 µg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  5. Sorption of aroma compounds in PET and PVC during the storage of a strawberry syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducruet, V; Vitrac, O; Saillard, P; Guichard, E; Feigenbaum, A; Fournier, N

    2007-11-01

    The sorption of 14 aroma compounds into PET and PVC was monitored during storage of a strawberry syrup for 1 year. Concentrations in the syrup and in the polymer were determined during storage and compared with previously published results obtained with glass bottles. Apparent partition coefficients between the polymer and the syrup (noted K app) were estimated from experimental kinetics without reaching equilibrium K app values and optimally identified from the kinetic data obtained between 30 and 90 days. They exhibited a similar behaviour for both polymers with values were between 2 x 10(-5) and 2 x 10(-3), 4 x 10(-5) and 3 x 10(-2), respectively, for PET and PVC. The variation of K app values in PET was mainly correlated to the polarity of tested compounds as assessed by their log P values. By contrast, the variations in K app values for PVC were mainly related to their chain lengths. Due to slightly higher partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients in PVC compared with PET, the amount of absorbed aroma was four times higher in PVC than in PET; however, the amount of absorbed aroma compounds was less than 0.1% of the initial amount present into the syrup, except for octyl butanoate. The variation in concentration in the syrup was interpreted as a combination of a degradation process and a transport process into the packaging material. Both effects were particularly noticeable for both PET and unstable aroma compounds.

  6. Transport of hop aroma compounds across Caco-2 monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, A; Metzger, M; Walles, H; Buettner, A

    2014-11-01

    Although being reported and used as a sedative remedy for several years, the bioactive principle of hop preparations is still not decisively clarified. Understanding absorption and transformation processes of potential physiologically active constituents is essential to evaluate the likeliness of biological effects on humans. Therefore, single hop aroma compounds as well as digestive transformation products thereof have been investigated in view of their human intestinal absorption, applying Caco-2 transport experiments as well as investigations on potential biotransformation processes. Selective and sensitive identification and quantification were thereby achieved by application of two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in conjunction with stable isotope dilution analysis, leading to the determination of apparent permeability values by different mathematical approaches considering sink and non-sink conditions. Overall, calculated permeability values ranged from 2.6 × 10(-6) to 1.8 × 10(-4) cm s(-1) with all mathematical approaches, indicating high absorption potential and almost complete bioavailability for all tested compounds with hydroxyl-functionalities. Considering this high permeability together with the high lipophilicity of these substances, a passive transcellular uptake route can be speculated. Investigated sesquiterpenes and β-myrcene showed flat absorption profiles while the investigated esters showed decreasing profiles. In view of the lipophilic and volatile nature of the investigated substances, special attention was paid to recovery and mass balance determination. Furthermore, in the course of the transport experiments of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, additional biotransformation products were observed, namely 3-octanone and 3-methyl-2-butenal, respectively. The absence of these additional substances in control experiments strongly indicates an intestinal first-pass metabolism of the

  7. Key volatile aroma compounds of lactic acid fermented malt based beverages - impact of lactic acid bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning Dongmo, Sorelle; Sacher, Bertram; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    This study aims to define the aroma composition and key aroma compounds of barley malt wort beverages produced from fermentation using six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry-olfactometry and flame ionization detection was employed; key aroma compounds were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Fifty-six detected volatile compounds were similar among beverages. However, significant differences were observed in the concentration of individual compounds. Key aroma compounds (flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥16) were β-damascenone, furaneol, phenylacetic acid, 2-phenylethanol, 4-vinylguaiacol, sotolon, methional, vanillin, acetic acid, nor-furaneol, guaiacol and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. Furthermore, acetaldehyde had the greatest odor activity value of up to 4266. Sensory analyses revealed large differences in the flavor profile. Beverage from L. plantarum Lp. 758 showed the highest FD factors in key aroma compounds and was correlated to fruity flavors. Therefore, we suggest that suitable LAB strain selection may improve the flavor of malt based beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  9. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of surfactant on headspace single drop microextraction for the determination of some volatile aroma compounds in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves by gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for the determination of some volatile aromatic compounds (VACs), including citronellal, citronellol, neral, geranial, geraniol, and eugenol in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves, was developed using surfactant as a surface tension modifier while performing headspace single drop m...

  11. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the

  12. Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

  13. Agroecosystem development of industrial fermentation waste -- characterization of aroma-active compounds from the cultivation medium of Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shinpuku, Hideto; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) during the cultivation process of Lactobacillus brevis were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed to determine the utility of the liquid waste. The composition of the volatile oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 55 and 36 compounds were detected in the volatile oils from MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were N-containing compounds, including 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (16, 37.1 %), methylpyrazine (4, 17.1 %). The important aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O), and their intensity of aroma were measured by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Expressly, pyrazine compounds were determined as key aroma components; in particular, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were the most primary aroma-active compound in MAI oil. These results imply that the waste medium after incubation of L. brevis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  14. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers’ evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit. PMID:27347931

  15. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-08-23

    The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms.

  16. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-02-08

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica . Aroma components of the S. officinalis , L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  17. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. PMID:28231089

  18. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Salih Sonmezdag

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  19. Sensory Characteristics of Various Concentrations of Phenolic Compounds Potentially Associated with Smoked Aroma in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the sensory odor characteristics of 19 phenolic compounds (11 phenol derivatives, six guaiacol derivatives, and two syringol derivatives that have been associated with smoked aroma in previous literature. Seven concentrations varying from 1 to 100,000 ppm of each chemical were examined. A highly trained descriptive panel used a recently published lexicon for smoky aroma and flavor and found that smoked aroma compounds have many different attributes that make up smokiness. Musty/dusty, musty/earthy, pungent, acid, smoky, woody, burnt, ashy, cedar, creosote or petroleum-like collectively imparted smoked aroma. Most of the phenolic compounds were described as having smoky characteristics at low concentrations, generally at 1 and 10 ppm, except 3,4-dimethylphenol at 5000 ppm. 2,6-Dimethylphenol was not associated with smoky characteristics. This research is the first to evaluate a set of phenolic compounds for their sensory characteristics using a professionally developed set of sensory attributes.

  20. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-04-08

    Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas.

  1. Analysis of aroma compounds of Roselle by Dynamic Headspace Sampling using different preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different methods of sample preparation on the aroma profiles of dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was studied. Least amounts of aroma compounds were recovered by analysis of whole dry calyxes (WD) followed by ground dry (GD), blended together with water (BTW), and ground...... and then mixed with water (GMW). The highest number of aroma compounds was found in Roselle treated in water bath (2hr/40°C) (GMWKB). GMW was chosen as the preparation method because it was shown to be an efficient extraction method without the possibility of excessive chemical changes of the sample....

  2. Sexual Differences in Chemical Composition and Aroma-active Compounds of Essential Oil from Flower Buds of Eurya japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Usami, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takio; Tsuji, Kaoru; Takehara, Manami; Hori, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of essential oil from buds of male and female Eurya japonica flowers and to determine the aroma-active compounds of this plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), sensory evaluation, and odor activity values (OAV). The oils contained eighty-five compounds. We identified for the first time forty-four compounds in E. japonica. Through sensory evaluation, nineteen aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Because the chemical composition can affect the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects, our results suggest that essential oils from male and female flower buds of E. japonica differently affect herbivores. Sexual differences in essential oils deserve further investigations in this plant-insect system.

  3. Aroma-Active Compounds in Bartlett Pears and Their Changes during the Manufacturing Process of Bartlett Pear Brandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Bianca; Schieberle, Peter; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-12-21

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to Bartlett pears and the fermented mash produced thereof revealed 24 and 34 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range between 8 and 8192. Twenty-eight compounds, which have not been described before in Bartlett pears or in fermented pear mash, were identified. While ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear-like, metallic odor impression), hexyl acetate (green, fruity), and acetic acid (vinegar-like) showed the highest concentrations in Bartlett pears, ethanol (ethanolic), acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol (malty), 1-hexanol (grassy, marzipan-like), (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty), and 2-phenylethanol (flowery, honey-like) were present at the highest amounts in the fermented mash. The key aroma compounds were quantitated in each pear brandy production step (pears, fermented mash, distillate, and aged distillate) by stable isotope dilution analysis showing a clear influence of each step on the overall aroma of the spirit and, consequently, revealing clearly changing concentrations (e.g., of ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and ethyl (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate) and different aroma perceptions during the manufacturing process. In addition, the concentrations of the so-called "pear esters" ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and ethyl (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate were determined in 6 different pear varieties (Abate Fetel, Anjou, Bartlett, Forelle, Kaiser Alexander, and Packham's Triumph) clearly demonstrating the aroma potential of the variety Bartlett, which is mostly used for brandy production due to the high amounts of both esters eliciting a typical pear-like odor impression.

  4. Aluminium and Aroma Compound Concentration in Beer During Storage at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Soldo Gjeldum

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of aluminium in beer has been elaborated in several papers over the last decade. However, the effect of aluminium on organoleptic properties of beer has been observed in few papers where it has been stated that aluminium gives beer a »metallic« and bitter flavour without any observations on particular aroma compound changes. Also, the number of reports on precise changes of aroma components throughout different storage conditions is surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate the changes of aluminium concentration along with aroma compound changes, graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GF-AAS with Zeeman background correction and gas chromatography with static headspace sampler (GC-HSS were used in this work. Analyses were conducted periodically throughout seven months of storage on three different brands of beer from name breweries. Samples were taken before and after filling in aluminium cans. One part of samples was stored in a refrigerator (4 °C and the other in a thermostatic chamber (22 °C. The effects of beer brand and storage conditions on aluminium concentration and level of aroma compounds were measured. To prove the effect of aluminium concentration on the changes of aroma compounds, the adequate level of aluminium sulphate was added to bottled beer samples stored at 28 °C. Although different beer types showed significantly different aluminium concentration, it could be the result of other factors (different batches of identical beer type showed significantly different aluminium concentration as well. Samples that were stored in the refrigerator were protected from aluminium migration from the can to the beer and showed increased aroma stability. Level of aroma constituents of analyzed beer brands was significantly different. Elevated aluminium concentration did not have any noticeable effect on the level of aroma compounds in beer samples stored at 28 °C.

  5. Analysis of aroma compounds of pitaya fruit wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Ma, Lina; Li, Liuji; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Shaodan; Lin, Mao

    2017-12-01

    In order to analyze the volatile components in red pitaya fruit wine, the study using headspace solid phase microextractionand gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology of pitaya fruit juice and wine aroma composition analysis comparison. Results showed that 55 volatile components were detected in red pitaya fruit wine, including 12 kinds of alcohol (18.16%), 18 kinds of esters (66.17%), 7 kinds of acids (5.94%), 11 kinds of alkanes (4.32%), one kind of aldehyde (0.09%), 2 kinds of olefins (0.09%) and 3 kinds of other volatile substances (0.23%). Relative contents among them bigger have 11 species, such as decanoic acid, ethyl ester (22.92%), respectively, diisoamylene (20.75%), octanoic acid, ethyl ester (17.73%), etc. The red pitaya fruit wine contained a lot of aroma components, which offer the products special aroma like brandy, rose and fruit.

  6. Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sheng Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS. In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI, odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal, benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid, ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  7. Comparitive Study on Volatile Aroma Compounds of Two Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backround: The medicinal use of garlic is much older than its usage as a food. The medical importance of garlic comes forward for its sulfurcontaining components. In this study, it was aimed to compare Kastamonu garlic type with Chinese garlic type based on their aroma profiles. Materials and Methods: Fresh Kastamonu ...

  8. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value.

  9. Volatile aroma compounds and sensory characteristics of traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urwagwa, produced mainly from the fermentation of banana juice, is the oldest and popular Rwandan traditional alcoholic beverage. In the present paper, the aroma profiles of Urwagwa wine samples collected from the districts of Rulindo and Ngoma were investigated. Headspace/ Solid-Phase Micro Extraction (HS- SPME) ...

  10. Glycosidically bound aroma compounds and impact odorants of four strawberry varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; San-Juan, Felipe; Concejero, Belén; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernández-Orte, Purificación

    2012-06-20

    This paper reports the determination of glycosidically bound aroma compounds and the olfactometric analysis in four strawberry varieties (Fuentepina, Camarosa, Candonga and Sabrina). Different hydrolytic strategies were also studied. The results showed significant differences between acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. In general terms, the greater the duration of acid hydrolysis, the higher was the content of norisoprenoids, volatile phenols, benzenes, lactones, Furaneol, and mesifurane. A total of 51 aglycones were identified, 38 of them unreported in strawberry. Olfactometric analyses revealed that the odorants with higher modified frequencies were Furaneol, γ-decalactone, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, diacetyl, hexanoic acid, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. This last compound, described as geranium/green/pepper/lettuce (linear retention index = 1378), was identified for the first time. Differences with regard to fruity, sweet, floral, and green aroma characters were observed among varieties. In Candonga and Fuentepina, the green character overpowered the sweet. In the other two strawberry varieties sweet attributes were stronger than the rest.

  11. Partition of five aroma compounds between air and skim milk, anhydrous milk fat or full-fat cream

    OpenAIRE

    Meynier, Anne; Garillon, Aurélie; Lethuaut, Laurent; Genot, Claude

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The present study deals with the physicochemical interactions between aroma compounds and various dairy media used as models of complex food matrices, as well as the consequences of the interactions on aroma partitioning between the air and matrix. Five aroma compounds were investigated: amyl and isoamyl acetate, ethyl pentanoate, hexanal and t-2-hexenal. Skim milk, anhydrous milk fat and full-fat cream were chosen as dairy media, while water was used as a reference me...

  12. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  13. Characterization of key aroma-active compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS. Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA. Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD factor range of 2–1024. Methional (cooked potato and geraniol (sweet, floral exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel, nerol (floral, sweet, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS (preserved vegetable, sulfury, linalool (floral, (E,Z-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil. Furthermore, the flavor profile of ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was described by sensory analysis. Floral, tropical fruit, peach/apricot and honey were scored with relatively high scores for each aroma attribute. The sweetness rating was the highest score among all the attributes. Keywords: AEDA, Aroma-active compounds, GC-MS/O, SAFE, Sensory analysis

  14. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in dry flower of Malva sylvestris L. by GC-MS-O analysis and OAV calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Atsushi; Kashima, Yusei; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aroma-active compounds in the dried flower of Malva sylvestris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). A light yellow oil with a sweet odor was obtained with a percentage yield of 0.039% (w/w), and 143 volatile compounds (89.86%) were identified by GC-MS. The main compounds were hexadecanoic acid (10.1%), pentacosane (4.8%) and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (4.1%). The essential oil consisted mainly of hydrocarbons (25.40%) followed by, alcohols (18.78%), acids (16.66%), ethers (5.01%) ketones (7.28%), esters(12.43%), aldehydes (2.30%) and others (2.00%). Of these compounds, 20 were determined by GC-O and AEDA, to be odor-active (FD (flavor dilution) factor ≥ 1). β-Damascenone (FD = 9, sweet), phenylacetaldehyde (FD = 8, floral, honey-like) and (E)-β-ocimene (FD = 8, spicy) were the most intense aroma-active compounds in M. sylvestris. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the compounds to the aroma of M. sylvestris, odor activity values (OAVs) were used. β-Damascenone had the highest odor activity values (OAV) (50,700), followed by (E)-β-ionone (15,444) and decanal (3,510). In particular, β-damascenone had a high FD factors, and therefore, this compound was considered to be the main aroma-active components of the essential oil. On the basis of AEDA, OAVs, and sensory evaluation results, β-damascenone is estimated to be the main aroma-active compound of the essential oil.

  15. Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Warming, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10-45 degreesC) and at varying feed flow rates (100-500 l/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set tip. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500...

  16. Effects of Fermentation Temperature on Key Aroma Compounds and Sensory Properties of Apple Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bangzhu; Li, Fuling; Cui, Lu; Guo, Yaodong

    2015-12-01

    Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 °C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 °C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 °C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 °C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making. Changes in the fermentation temperature can considerably affect the production of key aroma compounds and sensory profiles of apple wine. These results could help apple wine producers make better quality production for consumers at the optimal fermentation temperature. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Aroma active compounds in milk from goat fed basil (Ocimum basilicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Šípalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the addition of basil (Ocimum basilicum green tops into goat feeding ratio and with the effect of this addition on aroma active compounds in milk. The experiment comprised 8 goats crossbreed of White Goat and Brown Mountain Goat. These goats, which were on the second lactation, were divided into two groups – control (n = 4 and experimental (n = 4. The addition of 0.1 kg of basil green tops into goat feeding ration had no statistically significant effect on differences in total solid, fat or total nitrogen substances in milk during basil green tops feeding. However, the content of aroma active compounds (1-octanol, 1-undecanol, 2-nonanone, which were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE and determined with usage GC-MS, reached statistically significant differences in days of basil green tops feeding. The amount of 1-octanol, 1-undecanol and 2-nonanone rose from 18.24 ± 0.019, 4.48 ± 0.019 and 5.37 ± 0.032 μl/100 ml of milk in days without basil green tops in feeding ration to 24.15 ± 10.398, 9.60 ± 0.118 and 23.29 ± 0.408 μl/100 ml of milk in the first day of basil green tops feeding when the increase was mostly the highest. In the next days of experiment the amount of 1-octanol, 1-undecanol and 2-nonanone was falling despite of readily goats’ acceptation of basil green tops.

  18. Preparation, aroma characteristics and volatile compounds of flavorings from enzymatic hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2018-02-19

    Rice bran is a by-product obtained from the rice milling industry. The aims of this research were to add value to rice bran by preparation of enzymatic hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate (HRPC) as a flavoring agent and the flavoring which was produced by HRPC has not been investigated. Different drying methods (freeze-drying and spray-drying) and fructose additions were studied for improvement of rice bran protein sensorial aroma characteristics. The most abundant amino acids in liquid HRPC (LH) were glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid and leucine. The intensity of desirable aromas, such as cereal-like, nut-like, milk-powder-like, sweet, and cocoa-like aroma, were higher in spray-dried HRPC powder (SHP) than in LH and freeze-dried HRPC. Volatile compounds, such as aldehydes, pyrazines and ketones, were significantly increased in HRPC powders in which fructose was added before spray-drying (SHP-F). Higher amounts of 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, vanillin, 2-acetylpyrrole and maltol were detected in SHP-F. Moreover, these compounds had high odor active values, which accounted for the cocoa-like, sweet, nut-like, and milk-powder-like characteristics of SHP-F. These findings could lead to the creation of desirable aroma characteristics of rice bran protein concentrate by different preparation methods. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Characterization of key aroma-active compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Huang, Mingyang; Crane, Jonathan Henry; Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Volatile compounds in 'Sweetheart' lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in 'Sweetheart' lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2-1024. Methional (cooked potato) and geraniol (sweet, floral) exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel), nerol (floral, sweet), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) (preserved vegetable, sulfury), linalool (floral), (E,Z)-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber) and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil). Furthermore, the flavor profile of 'Sweetheart' lychee was described by sensory analysis. Floral, tropical fruit, peach/apricot and honey were scored with relatively high scores for each aroma attribute. The sweetness rating was the highest score among all the attributes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Claudia M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae, a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as ethyl butanoate (fruity, sweet, ethyl hexanoate (fruity, 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like, butyric acid (rancid, cheese, hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese and phenylethyl alcohol (floral. Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

  1. Identification of aroma active compounds in orange essence oil using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högnadóttir, Aslaug; Rouseff, Russell L

    2003-05-23

    Using GC-MS and GC-flame ionization detection (FID)/olfactometry, 95 volatile components were detected in orange essence oil, of which 55 were aroma active. In terms of FID peak area the most abundant compounds were: limonene, 94.5%; myrcene, 1%; valencene, 0.8%; linalool, 0.7%, and octanal, decanal, and ethyl butyrate, 0.3% each. One hundred percent of the aroma activity was generated by slightly more than 4% of the total volatiles. The most intense aromas were produced by octanal, wine lactone, linalool, decanal, beta-ionone, citronellal, and beta-sinensal. Potent aroma components reported for the first time in orange essence oil include: E-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-ol, Z-4-decenal, E,E-2,4-nonadienal, guaiacol, gamma-octalactone, and m-cresol. Over 20 compounds were identified for the first time in orange essence oil using MS, however, most did not exhibit aroma activity.

  2. Authenticity of aroma components Enantiomeric separation and compound specific stable isotope analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg

    using solid phase micro extraction with a polyacrylate fiber coating. The isotopic composition of the aroma extracted from vanilla custard powder, vanilla sugar, and cookies were determined and their authenticity evaluated accordingly. Extraction of vanilla aroma from ice cream was more complicated...... and a preliminary extraction was investigated. A liquid-liquid extraction was chosen in combination with solid phase micro extraction. With this method it was possible to analyze vanillin from 7 different ice creams and to evaluate their authenticity based on the measured carbon isotopic composition....

  3. Insights into the Key Aroma Compounds in Mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden') Fruits by Stable Isotope Dilution Quantitation and Aroma Simulation Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-four aroma-active compounds, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis, were quantified in tree-ripened fruits of mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden'). From the results, the odor activity value (OAV) was calculated for each compound as the ratio of its concentration in the mangoes to its odor threshold in water. OAVs > 1 were obtained for 24 compounds, among which ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 2100), (3E,5Z)-undeca-1,3,5-triene (pineapple-like; OAV 1900), ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1600), and ethyl butanoate (fruity; OAV 980) were the most potent, followed by (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal (cucumber-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (sulfurous), γ-decalactone (peach-like), β-myrcene (terpeny), (3Z)-hex-3-enal (green), 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (tropical fruit-like), and ethyl octanoate (fruity). Aroma simulation and omission experiments revealed that these 15 compounds, when combined in a model mixture in their natural concentrations, were able to mimic the aroma of the fruits.

  4. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Syrah Wine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry-Mass Spectrometry and Aroma Reconstitution Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengtao; Gao, Jinxin; Qian, Michael; Li, Hua

    2017-06-24

    The key aroma compounds and the organoleptic quality of two Chinese Syrah wines from the Yunnan Shangri-La region and Ningxia Helan mountain region were characterized. The most important eighty aroma-active compounds were identified by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry. In both Syrah samples, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 2- and 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-phenethyl acetate, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, β -damascenone, guaiacol, 2-phenylethanol, trans -whiskylactone, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, and sotolon were detected to have the highest odor intensities. In the chemical analysis, 72 compounds were quantitated by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction combined with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Based on the Odor Activity Value (OAV), the aromas were reconstituted by combining aroma compounds in the synthetic wine, and sensory descriptive analysis was used to verify the chemical data. Fatty acid ethyl esters, acetate esters, and β -damascenone were found with higher OAVs in the more fruity-smelling sample of Helan Mountain rather than Shangri-La.

  5. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of Malaxation Process using Major Aroma Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cevik,Serife; Ozkan,Gulcan; Kıralan,Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimization of major aroma compounds in olive oils produced from fruits at three maturity stages wasstudied. A central composite design was used for the optimization of malaxation conditions of temperature and times, each at five levels with 13 runs including five central points. The responses of interest were trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, which were investigated and their contents were optimized. A full quadratic second order regression model including the linear, quadratic, and two...

  7. SORPTION OF AROMA COMPOUNDS IN PET AND PVC DURING THE STORAGE OF A STRAWBERRY SYRUP

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The sorption of 14 aroma compounds into PET and PVC was monitored during one year storage of a strawberry syrup. Their concentrations in the syrup and in the polymer were assessed during storage and compared with previously published results obtained with glass bottles. Apparent partition coefficients between the polymer and the syrup (noted Kapp) were estimated from experimental kinetics without reaching the equilibrium Kapp values were optimally identified from the k...

  8. β-carotene biotransformation to obtain aroma compounds Biotransformação de β-caroteno para obtenção de compostos de aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Uenojo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are important constituents of food due to their color and because their degradation products generate important volatile compounds in foods. Aroma compounds derived from carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, and they are precursors of many important aromas in foods such as fruits and in flowers as well. They present high aromatic potential and are therefore of great interest to the industries of aromas and fragrances. In this study, more than 300 previously isolated microorganisms with potential for biotransformation of β-carotene present in the culture medium were selected using the plate method; about 80 strains presented capacity to produce aroma compounds and 7 strains were selected by an untrained panel of tasters to generate aroma compounds. The β-ionone was the main compound produced by CS1 (34.0 mg.L-1 and CF9 (42.4 mg.L-1 microorganisms at 72 and 24 hours of fermentation, cultured with and without pre-inoculation, respectively. The β-damascone and pseudoionone were found in low concentrations, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen (TTN was tentatively identified and other compounds such as apocarotenoids, apparently obtained from the cleavage of the central part of the carotenoid, were detected.Carotenoides são importantes constituintes de alimentos por sua coloração e por seus produtos de degradação gerarem compostos voláteis em alimentos. Compostos de aromas derivados de carotenoides estão distribuídos na natureza, constituem precursores de aromas importantes em alimentos como frutas e em flores. Apresentam alto potencial aromático e, por isso, são de grande interesse para as indústrias de aromas e fragrâncias. Neste trabalho, mais de 300 microrganismos foram selecionados pelo método da placa, de acordo com sua capacidade de degradar carotenoides presentes no meio de cultura. Cerca de 80 linhagens apresentaram capacidade de produção de aromas e 7 cepas apresentaram descritores e

  9. Fermentative Aroma Compounds and Sensory Descriptors of Traditional Croatian Dessert Wine Prošek from Plavac mali cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Zdunić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prošek is a traditional dessert wine from the coastal region of Croatia made from partially dried grapes. There is very little literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of Prošek, so an experimental production from the dried grapes of Plavac mali cultivar has been done using native and induced alcoholic fermentations. To determine the volatile compounds, gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (GC/FID was used on the samples prepared with solid phase microextraction (SPME. Higher alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and volatile acids were determined in the wine samples. Wines were grouped according to the production method using principal component analysis (PCA. It was found that Prošek wines produced with native and induced alcoholic fermentation differ in their volatile compounds. Descriptive sensory analysis was applied to show the sensory properties of Prošek wine, whose characteristic aromas include those of dried fruit (raisins, red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla. A significant difference depending on the type of fermentation was determined in two sensory attributes, strawberry jam aroma and fullness.

  10. Quantitative analysis by GC-MS/MS of 18 aroma compounds related to oxidative off-flavor in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Christine M; Capone, Dimitra L; Pardon, Kevin H; Black, Cory A; Pomeroy, Damian; Francis, I Leigh

    2015-04-08

    A quantitation method for 18 aroma compounds reported to contribute to "oxidative" flavor in wines was developed. The method allows quantitation of the (E)-2-alkenals ((E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E)-2-nonenal), various Strecker aldehydes (methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal), aldehydes (furfural, 5-methylfurfural, hexanal, and benzaldehyde), furans (sotolon, furaneol, and homofuraneol), as well as alcohols (methionol, eugenol, and maltol) in the same analysis. The aldehydes were determined after derivatization directly in the wine with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride; the formed oximes along with the underivatized aroma compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by means of GC-MS/MS. The method was used to investigate the effect of different closures (synthetic closures, natural corks, and screw cap) on the formation of oxidation-related compounds in 14 year old white wine. Results showed a significant increase in the concentration of some of the monitored compounds in the wine, particularly methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, and 3-methylbutanal.

  11. Gas-liquid transfer of aroma compounds during winemaking fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Mouret, J. R.; Morakul, S.; Nicolle, P.; Athes, V.; Sablayrolles, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We precisely monitored the production kinetics of 16 volatile carbon compounds corresponding to the predominant higher alcohols and esters produced during the alcoholic fermentation of wine using an online GC system. We studied the gas-liquid partitioning of isobutanol, isoamyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate and showed that CO2 stripping had no impact on the partition coefficient (k(i)). We formulated a predictive model for k(i) changes during the fermentation and calculated the gas-liquid balan...

  12. Placing of aroma compounds by food sales promotion in chosen services business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Berčík

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several ways to get higher sale involving human senses too. One of the options is a security of stimulating atmosphere of sale/ business environment. In addition to equipment, design and staff, the lighting, sound (noise, and last ones but not least smell, respectively air quality significantly take part on that. Aroma is the element that inherently belongs to the visual merchandising tools. It can influence not only emotions, memory, but total customers´ satisfaction and preferences as well as spending time in that place. In this context, it is important to find right compromise when choosing the aromatic compounds for various products, in the process of their application (intensity, process of aromatization and security of sufficient air quality, because everybody perceives the odours with different sensitivity. Properly chosen smell and factors of air quality bring for business operators (services trades many advantages; from staff, who more relax and friendly behave to the guests until making of various associations and stimulations of customers, who spend time inside of service. Fragrance or air quality looks like based on of present researches as the most important factor directly on point-of-sale, while aroma acquires the importance in case of memory too. On the one side, the thinks, which are seen or heard by customers, could be memorized by them few days or weeks, so on the second side, the thinks which are smelled, could be memorized by guests many decades. Except this, the Scientifics studies show, that over 75 % of all emotions are generated based on scent´ perception. The main aim of this paper is a research, how aroma influences customer purchasing decision (preferences in chosen service provider through the tracking of daily sales of baked baguettes (Paninis with using of aroma equipment; Aroma Dispenser.

  13. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics.

  14. QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyer Damien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the production of 44 compounds by a population of 30 segregants from a cross between a laboratory strain and an industrial strain genotyped at high density. Results We detected eight genomic regions explaining the diversity concerning 15 compounds, some produced de novo by yeast, such as nerolidol, ethyl esters and phenyl ethanol, and others derived from grape compounds such as citronellol, and cis-rose oxide. In three of these eight regions, we identified genes involved in the phenotype. Hemizygote comparison allowed the attribution of differences in the production of nerolidol and 2-phenyl ethanol to the PDR8 and ABZ1 genes, respectively. Deletion of a PLB2 gene confirmed its involvement in the production of ethyl esters. A comparison of allelic variants of PDR8 and ABZ1 in a set of available sequences revealed that both genes present a higher than expected number of non-synonymous mutations indicating possible balancing selection. Conclusions This study illustrates the value of QTL analysis for the analysis of metabolic traits, and in particular the production of wine aromas. It also identifies the particular role of the PDR8 gene in the production of farnesyldiphosphate derivatives, of ABZ1 in the production of numerous compounds and of PLB2 in ethyl ester synthesis. This work also provides a basis for elucidating the metabolism of various grape compounds, such as citronellol and cis-rose oxide.

  15. Quantification of selected aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wines from different grape maturities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    Effect of grape maturity on aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wine was investigated using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). High correlation coefficient (> 0.95) and low standard deviation (noir wines with three different grape maturities each were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that both grape maturity and growing year significantly affected the aroma composition of the final wine. Analysis of wine samples from the same vintage indicated that grape maturity could affect aroma compounds in different ways, based on their biochemical formation in the wines. For most short-chain fatty acid esters, there were no obvious trends with grape maturity, however, the concentrations of ethyl 2-methylpropanoate and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate consistently decreased with grape maturity. The decreasing trend was also observed for other esters including ethyl cinnamate, ethyl dihydroxycinnamate, and ethyl anthranilate, with the exception of ethyl vanillate, while C13 norisoprenoids, monoterpenes, and guaiacols had increasing trends with grape maturation.

  16. Effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelaphiwat, Pattarin; Harte, Janice B; Auras, Rafael A; Ong, Peter Kc; Chonhenchob, Vanee

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the QDA panel. The mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging materials (Nylon 6, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA)) stored at 38 °C (accelerated storage condition), and evaluated by the trained QDA panel during storage for 49 days. The descriptive words for Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder developed by the trained panelists were lemongrass, vinegary and leafy for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf dried powder, respectively. The aroma intensities significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with increased storage time. However, the intensity scores for aroma attributes were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the packaging materials studied. The major components in Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, quantified by GC-MS, were estragole, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, β-bisabolene, benzoic acid and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. The concentrations of major aroma compounds significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with storage time. Aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' powder can be determined by descriptive sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. Nylon, PET and PLA exhibited similar aroma barrier properties against key aroma compounds in Thai 'tom yam'. This information can be used for prediction of aroma loss through packaging materials during storage of Thai 'tom yam'. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  18. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  19. Optimization of Malaxation Process using Major Aroma Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Cevik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Optimization of major aroma compounds in olive oils produced from fruits at three maturity stages wasstudied. A central composite design was used for the optimization of malaxation conditions of temperature and times, each at five levels with 13 runs including five central points. The responses of interest were trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, which were investigated and their contents were optimized. A full quadratic second order regression model including the linear, quadratic, and two factor interaction effects was proposed to explain the variation in the contents of target compounds depending on the malaxation conditions. Adequacies of models were evaluated by checking regression coefficients for each model. Models were found to work with high success for trans-2-hexenal prediction for oils from fruits at both purple and black stages, whereas the model for hexanalwas only in black stage oil. Their regression coefficients were higher than 0.86. Influences of time and temperature for the malaxation process were found to be significant for the transition of major aroma compounds from the fruit matrix to olive oil. The optimum conditions of temperature and time pairs to maximize trans-2-hexenal and hexanal was found to be 23°C/31 minutes for black olive and to maximize only trans-2-hexenal was also 29°C/41 minutes for purple olive.

  20. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  1. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma......-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight......-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had...

  2. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  3. A comparative study of aroma-active compounds between dark and milk chocolate: relationship to sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbin; Liu, Mengya; He, Congcong; Song, Huanlu; Guo, Jia; Wang, Ye; Yang, Haiying; Su, Xiaoxia

    2015-04-01

    The most important aroma-active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. A total of 32 major aroma-active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27-729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur-containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma-active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Desalination of fish sauce by electrodialysis: effect on selected aroma compounds and amino acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindapan, Nathamol; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Sablani, Shyam S

    2011-09-01

    Fish sauce is an ingredient that exhibits unique flavor and is widely used by people in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce, however, contains a significant amount of salt (sodium chloride). Recently, electrodialysis (ED) has been successfully applied to reduce salt in fish sauce; however, no information is available on the effect of ED on changes in compounds providing aroma and taste of ED-treated fish sauce. The selected aroma compounds, amino acids, and sensory quality of the ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations were then analyzed. The amounts of trimethylamine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, phenols, and all carboxylic acids except for hexanoic acid significantly decreased, whereas benzaldehyde increased significantly when the salt removal level was higher. The amounts of all amino acids decreased with the increased salt removal level. Significant difference in flavor and saltiness intensity among ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations, as assessed by a discriminative test, were observed. Information obtained in this work can serve as a guideline for optimization of a process to produce low-sodium fish sauce by ED. It also forms a basis for further in-depth sensory analysis of low-sodium fish sauce. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effect of gamma-radiation on major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside of cured vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Ruzalina Bahrin; Maizatul Akmam Mohd Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Radiation processing of food materials by gamma-radiation is a well established method for microbial decontamination and insect disinfestation. Irradiation of spices at doses ranging from 10 to 30 kGy has been reported to result in complete elimination of microorganisms with negligible changes in the flavour quality. The effect of gamma-radiation on microflora and vanillin content of cured vanilla beans in the dose range of 5-50 kGy has been investigated, but its effect on other major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside (vanillin aroma precursor) remaining after curing have not been studied so far. Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is one such compound used as a flavouring agent and as a dietary component. It is the major component of natural vanilla, which is one of the most widely used and important flavouring materials throughout the world. Vanillin is an antioxidant capable of protecting membrane against lipid peroxidation and DNA against strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species. The present work was aimed to study the effect of gamma-radiation processing on the major aroma compounds of cured vanilla beans and also to investigate possible enhancement in vanillin content by the radiolytic breakdown of vanillin glucoside present already. Cured vanilla beans were irradiated (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 kGy) and the vanillin content of control and irradiated samples were analysed, respectively for a possible enhancement of vanillin content by radiolysis of vanillin glucoside. Radiolytic breakdown of glycosidic precursors of aroma constituents and consequent release of free aroma was shown to result in the enhancement of aroma quality of these products. Since a considerable amount of vanillin exists as its glycosidic precursor in cured vanilla pods, a possible enhancement in yield of vanillin by radiation processing is thus expected. Hence the highly stable oxygen-carbon linkage between vanillin and glucose limits the possible enhancement of aroma

  6. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  7. Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuan; Mai, Rong-zhang; Zou, Jing-jing; Zhang, Hong-yan; Zeng, Xiang-ling; Zheng, Ri-ru; Wang, Cai-yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences. Methods: Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white (‘Houban Yingui’, HBYG), yellow (‘Liuye Jingui’, LYJG), and orange (‘Gecheng Dangui’, GCDG) cultivars. Results: Seventeen aroma-active compounds were detected among 54 volatiles. trans-β-Ocimene, trans-β-ionone, and linalool, which were major volatiles, were identified as aroma-active, while cis-3-hexenyl butanoate, γ-terpinene, and hexyl butanoate were also aroma-active compounds, although their contents were low. Analysis of the odors was based on the sum of the modified frequency (MF) values of aroma-active compounds in different odor groups. HBYG contained more herb odors, contributed by cis-β-ocimene and trans-β-ocimene, while LYJG had more woody/violet/fruity odors released by trans-β-ionone, α-ionone, and hexyl butanoate. In GCDG, the more floral odors were the result of cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, and linalool. Conclusions: Aroma-active compounds were not necessarily only the major volatiles: some volatiles with low content also contributed to aroma. The aroma differences among the three cultivars resulted from variation in the content of different odor groups and in the intensities of aroma-active compounds. PMID:25001223

  8. Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

    2011-07-15

    This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, β-damascenone, α-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Key volatile aroma compounds of three black velvet tamarind (Dialium) fruit species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; See, Ng Siew

    2015-02-01

    Nineteen odour-active compounds were quantified in three black velvet tamarind fruit species. Calculation of the odour activity values (OAVs) of the odorants showed that differences in odour profiles of the tamarinds were mainly caused by linalool, limonene, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, and (Z)-3-hexenal. On the basis of their high OAVs, cis-linalool oxide (furanoid), geranyl acetone, and cinnamyl acetate were identified as other potent odorants in the three tamarinds. Sensory studies revealed very distinct aroma profiles, which are characteristic of these types of fruits. While the Dialiumguineense elicited floral, flowery, caramel-like notes, the other two species were dominated by leaf-like, caramel, and green notes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  11. Characterization of aroma active compounds in fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bi Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Gang; Yao, Xiao Lin; Pan, Si Yi

    2008-06-12

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, beta-myrcene, octanal, linalool, alpha-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  12. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck by GC-MS and GC-O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Yi Pan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, β-myrcene, octanal, linalool, α-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF AROMA COMPOUNDS BY Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr. Kumm. CULTURED ON VARIOUS SUBSTRATES E. N. Vlasenko, J. V. Stepnevskaya, O. V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Vlasenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the intensity of synthesis of volatile aroma compounds by Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom on sunflower husks and barley straw using sensory profile analysis and UV spectroscopy. The main cultural and morphological characteristics of the mycelial growth and development of fruiting bodies are determined: the period of mycelial development on the substrate, the time of primordial formation, the number of mushroom bunches per unit volume of substrate, the morphology of carpophores. Characteristic attributes of the aroma of dried fruiting bodies (mushroom, woody, sweet, herbaceous, fish, meat, floral, earthy, acidic, putrescent are established and their aroma profiles are built. Sensory profile analysis of flavor of dried samples showed that the mushroom flavor of fungi cultivated on the sunflower husk is more pronounced than of those grown on barley straw. The light absorption maxima are recorded in the ranges 204–210 and 250–290 nm according to UV absorption spectra. Optimal conditions for extracting aromatics from dried fungi samples are the extraction time of 20–35 min at the boiling point of the solvent. Analysis of the UV spectra of fungal alcohol and hexane extracts showed that the intensity of the synthesis of volatile compounds is higher for strains cultivated on sunflower husks than for samples obtained on barley straw.

  14. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  15. Important aroma compounds in freshly ground wholemeal and white wheat flour-identification and quantitative changes during sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-11-06

    An investigation on the odor-active compounds of wholemeal (WWF) and white wheat flour (WF 550) by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and by quantitative studies using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) revealed a significant number of odor-active compounds, such as (E)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)- and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, and vanillin, with high odor activities in both wheat flours. The amounts and, consequently, the aroma potencies of vanillin, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 3-(methylthio)propanal were much higher in the WWF than in the WF 550 samples. Fermentation of suspensions of both flours with lactic acid bacteria did not generate new odorants; however, many compounds, such as acetic acid or 3-methylbutanal, were increased, whereas aldehydes (formed from the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids) were decreased. Comparing the odorant concentrations present before and after fermentation gave evidence that the main influence of the microorganisms on sourdough aroma is to either enhance or decrease specific volatiles already present in the flour. A comparison with literature data indicated that most of these odorants are also important for the bread crumb aroma present after baking of the dough.

  16. The analysis of aroma/flavor compounds in green tea using ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluhayb, Abdullah H; Logue, Brian A

    2017-10-06

    Worldwide, green tea is one of the most popular beverages. It promotes blood circulation, liver function, and lowers the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This drink is characterized by the distinctive odors and flavors produced by its constituent compounds, with its value predicated on the amount and type of constituents extracted from the tea leaves during brewing. Ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer (ICECLES) is a novel sample preparation technique, especially applicable for the extraction of relatively polar compounds while retaining excellent extraction efficiencies for non-polar compounds. In this study, ICECLES was used to prepare green tea for analysis of aroma/flavor compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ICECLES performed very well, revealing 301 constituents as compared to 245 for SBSE (i.e., 56 more constituents were detected via ICECLES). Moreover, ICECLES produced stronger signal to noise ratios for all except 4 of 301 constituents, with a maximum signal enhancement of 19. Of the constituents which were only detectable using ICECLES, some very important aroma/flavor and/or medicinal compounds were easily identified, including furfural, furfural alcohol, maltol, eugenol, 2-methylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and α-terpineol. Overall, we confirmed that ICECLES sample preparation followed by GC-MS consistently allowed more complete green tea aroma/flavor analysis, especially for relatively polar compounds, some of which are critical for flavor quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds and headspace aroma compounds after treatment of red wines with chitosans with different structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe-Ribeiro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds and headspace aroma abundance of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with a commercial crustacean chitin (CHTN, two commercial crustacean chitosans (CHTB, CHTD, one fungal chitosan (CHTF, one additional chitin (CHTNA and one additional chitosan (CHTC produced by alkaline deacetylation of CHTN and CHTB, respectively. Chitin and chitosans presented different structural features, namely deacetylation degree (DD, average molecular weight (MW, sugar and mineral composition (“Reducing the negative sensory impact of volatile phenols in red wine with different chitosan: effect of structure on efficiency” (Filipe-Ribeiro et al., 2018 [1]. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates the changes in headspace aroma abundance of red wines with the chitosans structural features at 10 g/h L application dose. Keywords: Red wine, 4-Ethylphenol, 4-Ethylguaiacol, Chitosan, Chitin, Chromatic characteristics, Phenolic compounds, Headspace aroma abundance

  18. Lactococcal aminotransferases AraT and BcaT are key enzymes for the formation of aroma compounds from amino acids in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, L.; Yvon, M.; Kranenburg, van R.; Courtin, P.; Verheul, A.; Chambellon, E.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid catabolism plays a major role in cheese aroma development. Previously, we showed that the lactococcal aminotransferases AraT and BcaT initiate the conversion of aromatic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids and methionine to aroma compounds. In this study, we evaluated the importance

  19. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds.

  20. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  1. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ≥2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ≥128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars.

  2. Aroma Compounds Prevision using Artificial Neural Networks Influence of Newly Indigenous Saccharomyces SPP in White Wine Produced with Vitis Vinifera Cv Siria

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, A. Teresa; Martins, M. Rosário; Cabrita, Maria João; Ambrósio, Cristina; Arteiro, José; Neves, José; Vicente, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Commercial yeasts strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae are frequently used in white wine production as starters in fermentation process, however, these strains can affect the wine characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three strains of Saccharomyces spp. (var. 1, 2 and 3) on wine aroma compounds produced in microvinification assays. Microvinification assays were carried out with Vitis vinifera cv Síria grapes using the strains in study as starters. Aroma compounds ...

  3. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Muškat ruža porečki was obtained during the production of rosé wines. All fermented marc samples were distilled using a traditional copper alembic. The obtained distillates were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analyses. Malvazija istarska distillates exhibited exceptionally high methanol content. Distillates from white grape varieties were found to be characterized by higher C6 alcohol and 1-propanol concentrations, while red grape distillates contained higher amounts of the majority of alcohols, acids, and esters. In Muškat ruža distillates intermediate concentrations of many important aroma compounds were found. It was concluded that differences in the production technology parameters, depending on the variety, resulted in differences in secondary aroma profiles, most evident between distillates from white and red varieties. These findings were confirmed applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA, which resulted in 100 % correct classification of distillates according to the variety and corresponding production technology.

  4. Rheological and sensory properties and aroma compounds formed during ripening of soft brined cheese made from camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2018-01-01

    Protein degradation, rheological properties, sensory properties and the aroma profile of soft brined cheese made from camel milk using two levels of coagulant (camel chymosin) [55 and 85 International Milk Clotting Units (IMCU) L−1] and two levels of brine (2% or 5% NaCl, w/w) were investigated...... over a ripening period of 60 d. Casein degradation in soft brined camel milk cheese significantly (p ... during ripening. However, cheese made with 85 IMCU L−1 coagulant resulted in softening of cheese texture and higher salt uptake. Using descriptive sensory analysis, the experimental cheeses were described as salty, sour and firm. The volatile aroma compounds formed in soft ripened camel milk cheese...

  5. Preliminary quantification of the permeability, solubility and diffusion coefficients of major aroma compounds present in herbs through various plastic packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelaphiwat, Pattarin; Auras, Rafael A; Burgess, Gary J; Harte, Janice B; Chonhenchob, Vanee

    2018-03-01

    Aroma permeation through packaging material is an important factor when designing a package for food products. The masses of aroma compounds permeating through films over time were measured at 25 °C using a quasi-isostatic system. A model was proposed for estimating the permeability coefficients (P) of key aroma compounds present in fresh herbs (i.e. eucalyptol, estragole, linalool and citral) through major plastic films used by the food industry [i.e. low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), nylon (Nylon), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), metalised-polyethylene terephthalate (MPET) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)]. Solubility coefficients (S) were estimated from the amount of aroma compound sorbed in the films. Diffusion coefficients (D) were estimated following from the relation P = D*S. P and D for all four aroma compounds were highest in LDPE, except for eucalyptol, which P was slightly higher in PLA. The solubility coefficients and contact angles were highest in PLA suggesting the highest affinity of PLA to these aroma compounds. The theoretical solubility parameters were correlated with the solubility coefficients for estragole and citral, but not for eucalyptol and linalool. The preliminary P, D and S of eucalyptol, estragole, linalool and citral through LDPE, PP, Nylon, PET, MPET and PLA can be useful in selecting the proper packaging material for preserving these specific aroma compounds in food products and can potentially be used for estimating the shelf life of food products based on aroma loss. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The addition of a cocktail of yeast species to Cantalet cheese changes bacterial survival and enhances aroma compound formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Isabelle; Pinon, Nicolas; Maubois, Jean-Louis; Lortal, Sylvie; Thierry, Anne

    2009-01-31

    Indigenous yeasts can be detected at high populations in raw milk Cantal cheese, a French Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) hard cheese. To investigate their use as adjunct cultures to promote flavour development in Cantalet (small Cantal) cheese, three strains isolated from raw milk Cantal cheese, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Pichia fermentans were added at 3 (E3) and 5 (E5) log(10) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL to microfiltered milk at a ratio of 80/10/10 viable cells, respectively. The global microbial, compositional and biochemical changes induced by the presence of yeasts in cheese were determined. Adjunct yeasts did not grow but stayed at viable populations of approximately 4 and 6 log(10) cfu/g in E3 and E5 cheeses, respectively, throughout the ripening period. They were mainly constituted of K. lactis, while P. fermentans and Y. lipolytica were not detectable after 3 and 45 days of ripening, respectively. Several species of indigenous yeasts were also detected in E3 cheeses at the beginning of ripening only, and in the control cheeses without yeasts added. Lactoccoci survived for longer periods in the presence of yeast adjuncts, while, conversely, the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus decreased more rapidly. The addition of yeasts did not influence cheese composition and total free amino acid content. In contrast, it slightly increased lipolysis in both E3 and E5 cheeses and markedly enhanced the formation of some volatile aroma compounds. The concentrations of ethanol, ethyl esters and some branched-chain alcohols were 6 to 10 fold higher in E5 cheeses than in the control cheeses, and only slightly higher in E3 cheeses. This study shows that K. lactis has a potential as cheese adjunct culture in Cantalet cheese and that, added at populations of 4-5 log(10) cfu/g cheese, it enhances the formation of flavour compounds.

  7. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on wine fermentation aroma compounds and its relation with assimilable nitrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Francisco; Medina, Karina; Fariña, Laura; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2010-09-30

    Different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been applied at the winemaking level, trying to establish a dominant population of selected strains from the start of fermentation and ensuring the complete consumption of sugars. Although a large population of active yeast cells can be introduced in the inoculated wines, resulting in a complete fermentation, this does not necessarily mean an improvement of the sensory characteristics of the wines. The impact of the size of the inocula in wine quality parameters has been very little studied, and in no case the nutrient balance of the grape must utilized was taken into account. In this work we present results obtained for wine aroma compounds at three inoculum levels (10(4), 10(5) and 10(6)cells/mL), and two different yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) in a white grape must, using two S. cerevisiae strains commonly used for winemaking. A significant effect in the final concentrations of higher alcohols, esters, fatty acids, free monoterpenes and lactones was attributed to the size of inoculum in both strains but not in an easily predictable way. However, a consistent increase of desired aroma compounds (esters, lactones and free monoterpenes), and a decrease of less desired compounds for white wine (higher alcohols and medium chain fatty acids), was shown at inoculum sizes of 10(5)cells/mL for both strains in real winemaking conditions. In a discriminant analysis six aroma compounds discriminate the three inoculum sizes for all wine samples: 1,8-terpine, hodiol I (trans-3,7-dimethyl-1,5-octadiene-3,7-diol), isobutyl alcohol, iso C4 acid, ethyl C6 ester and C8 acid. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of aroma compounds and nutrient contents of mabolo (Diospyros blancoi A. DC., an ethnobotanical fruit of Austronesian Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Feng Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diospyros blancoi A. DC. is an evergreen tree species of high-quality wood. Mabolo, the fruit of this plant, is popular among the natives in Taiwan, but its potential in economic use has not been fully explored. Mabolo has a rich aroma. Of the 39 different volatile compounds isolated, its intact fruit and peel were found to both contain 24 compounds, whereas the pulp contained 28 compounds. The most important aroma compounds were esters and α-farnesene. Our data show that mabolo is rich in dietary fiber (3.2%, and the contents of other nutrients such as malic acid, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and choline chloride were 227.1 mg/100 g, 0.075 mg/100 g, 0.157 mg/100 g, 0.623 mg/100 g, 0.19 mg/100 g, and 62.52 mg/100 g, respectively. Moreover, it is rich in calcium and zinc; the contents of which were found to be 42.8 mg/100 g and 3.6 mg/100 g, respectively. Our results show that D. blancoi has the potential to be bred for a novel fruit.

  9. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  10. Modelling stochastic variability and uncertainty in aroma active compounds of PEF-treated peach nectar as a function of physical and sensory properties, and treatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Avsar, Yahya Kemal; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on 28 aroma active compounds, and four physical and eight sensory properties of peach nectar were explored using the best-fit multiple linear regression (MLR) models and Monte Carlo simulations as a function of the treatment times of 0, 66, 131, and 210 μs. The PEF treatment time of 131 μs on average led consistently to the least loss of most compounds. Significantly enhanced or no significant changes in the sensory properties were found as a function of the PEF treatment times. The most influential sensory predictor of the 28 MLR models was flavour, while the aroma compound most influential on the sensory properties of aftertaste, flavour, sweetness, and overall acceptance was octadecanoic acid. Monte Carlo simulations were used for the probabilistic assessments of stochastic variability and uncertainty associated with aroma active compounds of PEF-treated peach nectar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of some commercial yeast strains on aroma compounds and sensorial analysis on two white wine varieties made in PGI Dealurile Olteniei, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorica Liviu-Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight wines of Pinot gris and five wines of Sauvignon blanc obtained by fermenting grape juices from PGI Dealurile Olteniei with different commercial selected yeast strains and with indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of sensorial characteristics and their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology with dynamic head-space trap, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, (HS-trap-GC-MS permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The aim of the work was to link these aroma compounds, arranged in different chemical families, with the sensorial analysis and to establish the characteristics of each biotechnology used in the trials so we can find solutions to improve the quality of white wines made in hot climate zone that in time was a traditional area of red wines.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L. Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus sp. juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574 recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6GL° with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28C°, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  13. Aminoacid metabolism and the production of wine aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Leandro Dias

    2012-01-01

    Os produtos do metabolismo de aminoácidos por leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante a fermentação alcoólica têm um impacto relevante no perfil sensorial de vinhos. Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da composição de aminoácidos do meio na formação da base do aroma típico de vinho, meios sintéticos contendo diferentes compostos nitrogenados foram fermentados por S. cerevisiae. Em um primeiro experimento, cinco meios de composições distintas quanto à fonte de azoto foram testados, send...

  14. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L.; Hernández, Luis M.; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae. PMID

  15. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío eVelázquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by S. cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odour descriptors, including those with the greatest odour activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odours. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S

  16. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L; Hernández, Luis M; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae.

  17. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone.

  18. Effect of eugenol and guaiacol application on tomato aroma composition determined by headspace stir bar sorptive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-García, Ana I; Martínez-Gil, Ana M; López-Córcoles, Horacio; Zalacain, Amaya; Salinas, Rosario

    2013-03-30

    The present work was carried out because there is only a small amount of literature on how the volatile composition of tomatoes can be modified by the effect of exogenous substances in contact with tomato plants. This work studies how eugenol and guaiacol, either by foliar application and/or in the surrounding atmosphere, can affect the volatile composition of this fruit. An important work of this study was also conduced to validate the analytical method [headspace stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SBSE-GC-MS)] to determine the composition of the volatiles in tomato. Analytical method validation parameters such as linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and recovery proved that this method is suitable for the analysis of tomato volatiles. Their eugenol and guaiacol content changed, with an increase of 200 and 35 times, respectively, when foliar treatment was used, and an increase of 10, in both cases, when plants were in contact with the contaminated atmosphere. As consequence of the treatments other volatile compounds changed considerably. For first time, a HS-SBSE-GC-MS method was successfully validated for the study of volatiles in tomatos. Results suggests that exogenous compounds in contact with the plants, such as eugenol and guaiacol, can be absorbed changing the global volatile composition of fruits, which could produce a negative or positive effect in their aroma. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  20. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of

  2. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species ( Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  3. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample.

  4. Influence of Fruit Ripening on Color, Organic Acid Contents, Capsaicinoids, Aroma Compounds, and Antioxidant Capacity of Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikharda; Takahashi, Makoto; Arakaki, Mika; Yonamine, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages. The volatile compound profile of Shimatogarashi was dominated by the presence of esters, which mainly contributed to fruity notes. The total amount of volatile compounds analyzed by gas chromatography-headspace solid-phase microextraction (GC-HS-SPME), especially esters, decreased as the fruit changed in color from green to red. This was in contrast to the amount of terpenoids, especially limonene, which increased at the red stage, denoting a change in flavor from fruity to a more citrus-like aroma. Based on the total phenolic content (TPC), the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method, the antioxidant capacity of Shimatogarashi showed an increase at the mature red stage. However, while the red stage showed higher pungency and antioxidant capacity as well as an attractive color, the results of aromatic compound analysis revealed that the immature green stage had the advantages of having pleasant fruity smell, making it suitable for use in condiments.

  5. Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-06-11

    The volatiles present in fresh, pink-fleshed Colombian guavas ( Psidium guajava, L.), variety regional rojo, were carefully isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, and the aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, and 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, ( Z)-3-hexenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, and cinnamyl acetate as important aroma contributors. Enantioselective gas chromatography revealed an enantiomeric distribution close to the racemate in 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate as well as in 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol. In addition, two fruity smelling diastereomeric methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoates were identified as the ( R,S)- and the ( S,S)-isomers, whereas the ( S,R)- and ( R,R)-isomers were absent. Seven odorants were identified for the first time in guavas, among them 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, and methional were the most odor-active.

  6. Effects of cooking method and final core-temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Dicky Tri; Baek, Ki Ho; Jeong, Hae Seong; Yoon, Seok Ki; Joo, Seon-Tea; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    This study observed the effects of cooking method and final core temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, aroma volatiles, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket ( deep pectoralis ). Deep pectoralis muscles (8.65% of crude fat) were obtained from three Hanwoo steer carcasses with 1 + quality grade. Samples were either oven-roasted at 180°C (dry heat) or cooked in boiling water (moist heat) to final core temperature of 70°C (medium) or 77°C (well-done). Boiling method reduced more fat but retained more moisture than did the oven roasting method (pcore temperature increased (pcore temperature increased. Regardless the method used for cooking, malondialdehyde (pcore temperature increased except for hypoxanthine. Samples cooked to 77°C using oven roasting method released more intense aroma than did the others and the aroma pattern was discriminated based on the intensity. Most of aldehydes and pyrazines were more abundant in oven-roasted samples than in boiled samples. Among identified volatiles, hexanal had the highest area unit in both boiled and oven-roasted samples, of which the abundance increased as the final core temperature increased. The boiling method extracted inosinic acid and rendered fat from beef brisket, whereas oven roasting intensified aroma derived from aldehydes and pyrazines and prevented the extreme loss of inosinic acid.

  7. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    property has been used to determine whether a compound is aromatic or not. Mesoionic compounds are structurally very different from ben- zenoid compounds, but they fulfill most of the criteria of aroma- ticity and form a part of a variety of aromatic compounds, which can be classified as follows. A) Benzenoid Compounds.

  8. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-02

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time

  9. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds, headspace aroma compounds and sensory profile after treatment of red wines with activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Milheiro, Juliana; Matos, Carlos C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2017-06-01

    Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds, headspace aroma composition and sensory profile of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with seven activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics, namely surface area, micropore volume and mesopore volume ("Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine by activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics: impact on wine quality" Filipe-Ribeiro et al. (2017) [1]). Data on the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons are shown. Statistical data on the sensory expert panel consistency by General Procrustes Analysis is shown. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates the changes in chemical composition of red wines with the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbons used.

  10. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds, headspace aroma compounds and sensory profile after treatment of red wines with activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe-Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds, headspace aroma composition and sensory profile of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with seven activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics, namely surface area, micropore volume and mesopore volume (“Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine by activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics: impact on wine quality” Filipe-Ribeiro et al. (2017 [1]. Data on the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons are shown. Statistical data on the sensory expert panel consistency by General Procrustes Analysis is shown. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates the changes in chemical composition of red wines with the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbons used.

  11. Production and Recovery of Aroma Compounds Produced by Solid-State Fermentation Using Different Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane B. P. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds with fruity characteristics were produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata in two different bioreactors: columns (laboratory scale and horizontal drum (semi-pilot scale. Coffee husk was used as substrate for the production of volatile compounds by solid-state fermentation. The production of volatile compounds was significantly higher when horizontal drum bioreactor was used than when column bioreactors were used. These results showed that this model of bioreactor presents good perspectives for scale-up and application in an industrial production. Headspace analysis of the solid-state culture detected twelve compounds, among them: ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, and isoamyl acetate. Ethyl acetate was the predominant product in the headspace (28.55 µmol/L/g of initial dry matter. Activated carbon, Tenax-TA, and Amberlite XAD-2 were tested to perform the recovery of the compounds. The adsorbent columns were connected to the column-type bioreactor. All compounds present in the headspace of the columns were adsorbed in Amberlite XAD-2. With Tenax-TA, acetaldehyde was adsorbed in higher concentrations. However, the recovery found by using the activated carbon was very low.

  12. Identification of Aroma-active Compounds in Essential Oil from Uncaria Hook by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Megumi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maki, Yusuke; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Usami, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Uncaria Hook ("Chotoko" in Japanese), the branch with curved hook of the herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla has been investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses. Eighty-four compounds, representing 90.8% of the total content was identified in oil obtained from Uncaria Hook. The main components i were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (13.4%), α-copaene (8.0%), methyl eugenol (6.8%), δ-cadinene (5.3%), and curcumene (3.6%). The important key aroma-active compounds in the oil were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), using the flavor dilution (FD) factor to express the odor potency of each compounds. Furthermore, the odor activity value (OAV) has been used as a measure of the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma of the Uncaria Hook oil. The GC-O and AEDA results showed that α-copaene (FD = 4, OAV = 4376), (E)-linalool oxide (FD = 64, OAV = 9.1), and methyl eugenol (FD = 64, OAV = 29) contributed to the woody and spicy odor of Uncaria Hook oil, whereas furfural (FD = 8, OAV = 4808) contributed to its sweet odor. These results warrant further investigations of the application of essential oil from Uncaria Hook in the phytochemical and medicinal fields.

  13. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    and Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface...... edge of the sausages contained higher amounts of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline than the core, indicating that the mould growing on the surface of Mediterranean products produces 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline....

  14. Effects of cooking method and final core-temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Tri Utama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study observed the effects of cooking method and final core temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, aroma volatiles, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket (deep pectoralis. Methods Deep pectoralis muscles (8.65% of crude fat were obtained from three Hanwoo steer carcasses with 1+ quality grade. Samples were either oven-roasted at 180°C (dry heat or cooked in boiling water (moist heat to final core temperature of 70°C (medium or 77°C (well-done. Results Boiling method reduced more fat but retained more moisture than did the oven roasting method (p<0.001, thus no significant differences were found on cooking loss. However, samples lost more weight as final core temperature increased (p<0.01. Further, total saturated fatty acid increased (p = 0.02 while total monounsaturated fatty acid decreased (p = 0.03 as final core temperature increased. Regardless the method used for cooking, malondialdehyde (p<0.01 and free iron contents (p<0.001 were observed higher in samples cooked to 77°C. Oven roasting retained more inosinic acid, inosine and hypoxanthine in samples than did the boiling method (p<0.001, of which the concentration decreased as final core temperature increased except for hypoxanthine. Samples cooked to 77°C using oven roasting method released more intense aroma than did the others and the aroma pattern was discriminated based on the intensity. Most of aldehydes and pyrazines were more abundant in oven-roasted samples than in boiled samples. Among identified volatiles, hexanal had the highest area unit in both boiled and oven-roasted samples, of which the abundance increased as the final core temperature increased. Conclusion The boiling method extracted inosinic acid and rendered fat from beef brisket, whereas oven roasting intensified aroma derived from aldehydes and pyrazines and prevented the extreme loss of inosinic acid.

  15. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Tang

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo, and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino, 'Yu Meiren' (YMR and 'Cui Bao' (CB; a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon, 'Shao Gua' (SHAO; and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud, 'Cai Gua' (CAI. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid. Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  16. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), 'Yu Meiren' (YMR) and 'Cui Bao' (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), 'Shao Gua' (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), 'Cai Gua' (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  17. Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymagı (clotted cream and their effects on aroma and flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Some carbonyl compounds (acetaldeyhde, acetone, butanone-2 and diacetyl, the lactic acid and free fatty acid compositions of Afyon kaymagı, produced from pure buffalo milk obtained from seven different farms, and their effects on aroma and flavor were investigated. Acetone was found in the highest amount of carbonyl compounds. Butyric, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were characteristic free fatty acids for Afyon Kaymagı. The effect of the investigated compounds on the aroma and flavor scores (AFS of Afyon Kaymagı was found to be 93.3%. Lactic acid was negatively correlated but was the second most important compound for the aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymagı (R2 = 40%. The investigated carbonyl compounds explained only 3.2% of the variation in aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymagı. Lactic acid, acetone, diacetyl, C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C18:0 had negative effects on the AFS, but acetaldehyde, butanone-2, C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were positively related to the AFS.

    Se han investigado algunos compuestos carbonílicos (acetaldehido, acetona, 2-butanona y diacetil, el ácido láctico y la composición de los ácidos grasos libres de Afyon kaymagi (cuajada, producida sólo a partir de leche de búfalas obtenidas de siete granjas diferentes y sus efectos sobre el aroma y el sabor. Entre los compuestos carbonílicos, la acetona fué el que se encontró en mayor concentración. Butírico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y linolénico son los ácidos grasos libres característicos de Afyon Kaymagı. El efecto de los compuestos investigados en las puntuaciones (AFS de aroma y sabor de Afyon Kaymagı se encontró que fué del 93,3%. El ácido láctico, segundo compuesto importante, se correlacionó negativamente con el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymagı (R2 = 40%. Los compuestos

  18. Characteristic Chemical Components and Aroma-active Compounds of the Essential Oils from Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus Used in Japanese Traditional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Satoshi; Usami, Atsushi; Yorimoto, Tomohito; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were β-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. β-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus.

  19. The changes of flavour and aroma active compounds content during production of Edam cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of flavour of Edam cheeses, i.e. natural hard cheese with low heat curd. The cheese samples were produced in dairy MILTRA B, Ltd., Městečko Trnávka.A number of volatile substances contribute to flavour of cheese including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, esters, lactones, terpenes etc. The development of these components during production was monitored in chosen Edam cheese (fat 30% w/w using headspace-SPME-GC method. The samples were taken from cheesemilk up to technologically ripe cheese. In total 37 various organic compounds belonging to five chemical groups were identified in milk and cheese samples. Their total content increased during production. The first increase was observed after pressing and then especially in last part of ripening. Ethanol (185.8 ± 15.85 mg.kg−1, acetoin (97.7 ± 3.78 mg.kg−1, 2-methylpropanol (71.2 ± 5.23 mg.kg−1, acetic acid (54.4 ± 1.70 mg.kg−1 and acetaldehyde (36.4 ± 10.17 mg.kg−1 were the most abundant in ripened cheeses. The flavour and other organoleptic properties (appearance, texture of Edam cheese samples were also sensorially evaluated during ripening. The five point ordinal scale and profile tests were used for evaluation. The sensory quality was improved during ripening, until the final marked flavour characteristic for these cheese types.

  20. Aroma production by tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrazdina, G

    2006-02-22

    Although plant tissue cultures have been in use for the past hundred years, adapting them for the production of aroma compounds started only in the 1970s. The use of tissue cultures in aroma production has its advantages, because plant cells, unlike whole plants, are not limited to geographic locations or the seasons. Cell mass can be doubled relatively rapidly and can be induced for the production of compounds in a coordinated manner. Compounds can be isolated from cells or the medium with relative ease. Therefore, it would seem to be ideal to use plant cell cultures for the production of aroma compounds. Cell cultures, however, also have some problems. The production of aroma compounds or their precursors is in relatively low amounts, and thus this production method is expensive. Additional expenses are the cost of the medium and the purification of the compounds for food use. Also, cell cultures can only be used effectively in systems for which the biochemical pathway of the aroma compounds is known. In this paper the results of experiments for the use of tissue cultures in the production of vanilla, raspberry, strawberry garlic, and onion aromas is discussed.

  1. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  2. Comparison of Wine Aroma Compounds Produced by Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Herjavec

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine specific enological characteristics of Saccharomyces paradoxus species, potential differences in production of volatile components between Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and their influence on final wine quality. Samples of young wine were analysed for higher alcohols, fatty acids and volatile esters. At the same time wines were subjected to sensory evaluation. The results showed a notable influence of Saccharomyces paradoxus strain RO88 on chemical and sensory properties of Gewürtztraminer wine and indicated some differences between Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae species.

  3. Determination of Volatile Compounds of Illicium verum Hook. f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    02.1 mass spectral library in MSD ChemStation. Relative content of each compound in essential oil was calculated by peak area normalization method. These compounds accounted for more than 90 % in total star anise aroma molecules, including trans-anethole (75.76 %), p- anisaldehyde (8.65 %), estragole (4.70 %),.

  4. Development of a headspace trap HRGC/MS method for the assessment of the relevance of certain aroma compounds on the sensorial characteristics of commercial apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfardjam, Martin Pour; Maier, Daniel

    2011-06-15

    A reliable and simple method was developed for the completely automatised analysis of apple juice aroma compounds. In total 26 flavour compounds could be measured by headspace trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We used the method to analyse 85 commercially available apple juices, of which 67 apple juices were not from concentrate. Our results show that apple juices not from concentrate are mainly characterised by flavour compounds responsible for fruity, ripe, and sweet aroma impressions, such as 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, ethylbutyrate, and ethyl-2-methylbutyrate. On the contrary, apple juices made from concentrate were dominated by acetaldehyde, E-2-hexenal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and hexanal, which are mainly responsible for sensory impressions, such as 'green, fresh, estery'. According to our data, neither of the single compounds nor indexes calculated thereof as suggested by some authors could be used for the reliable assessment of apple juice quality. Thus, these results suggest that sensory evaluation remains the ultimate mean to reliably assess apple juice quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

  6. Multiple automated headspace in-tube extraction for the accurate analysis of relevant wine aroma compounds and for the estimation of their relative liquid-gas transfer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Julián; Lopez, Ricardo; Herrero, Paula; Ferreira, Vicente

    2012-11-30

    An automated headspace in-tube extraction (ITEX) method combined with multiple headspace extraction (MHE) has been developed to provide simultaneously information about the accurate wine content in 20 relevant aroma compounds and about their relative transfer rates to the headspace and hence about the relative strength of their interactions with the matrix. In the method, 5 μL (for alcohols, acetates and carbonyl alcohols) or 200 μL (for ethyl esters) of wine sample were introduced in a 2 mL vial, heated at 35°C and extracted with 32 (for alcohols, acetates and carbonyl alcohols) or 16 (for ethyl esters) 0.5 mL pumping strokes in four consecutive extraction and analysis cycles. The application of the classical theory of Multiple Extractions makes it possible to obtain a highly reliable estimate of the total amount of volatile compound present in the sample and a second parameter, β, which is simply the proportion of volatile not transferred to the trap in one extraction cycle, but that seems to be a reliable indicator of the actual volatility of the compound in that particular wine. A study with 20 wines of different types and 1 synthetic sample has revealed the existence of significant differences in the relative volatility of 15 out of 20 odorants. Differences are particularly intense for acetaldehyde and other carbonyls, but are also notable for alcohols and long chain fatty acid ethyl esters. It is expected that these differences, linked likely to sulphur dioxide and some unknown specific compositional aspects of the wine matrix, can be responsible for relevant sensory changes, and may even be the cause explaining why the same aroma composition can produce different aroma perceptions in two different wines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN THE AROMA OF THREE SPECIES OF WOOD-ROTTING BASIDIOMYCETES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiana Virginia PETRE; Alin Constantin DÎRȚU; Marius NICULAUA; Cătălin TĂNASE

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the volatile organic compounds synthesized by three species of wood-rotting basidiomycetes: Coriolopsis gallica, Megacollybia platyphylla and Lentinus arcularius and test their antifungal potential. The species were cultivated on liquid media and kept for 25 days at 25 °C. The surface cultures were then homogenized, filtrated and extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile compounds identified were mainly alcohols, ketones, aldehydes...

  8. Dual solid-phase and stir bar sorptive extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis provides a suitable tool for assaying limonene-derived mint aroma compounds in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Magali; Franc, Céline; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2018-02-25

    A novel analytical method was developed for quantitative determination of eight limonene-derived monoterpenes responsible for the mint aroma in red wine. As these aromatic compounds are present at trace levels, a new dual extraction approach was proposed, combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The various parameters affecting the efficiency of extracting the analytes from wine samples in both the SPE and SBSE steps were first investigated, to determine the best compromise for the simultaneous analysis of the compounds studied. Following preliminary optimization of the dilution factor, phase ratio, and methanol content in the SBSE sample, cartridge sorbent mass, type of solvent, elution volume, and wine sample volume in the pre-concentration SPE step were studied. Highest response values were obtained when a 90 mL wine sample was extracted on a 500 mg SPE C18 cartridge and eluted with 1.5 mL methanol. The wine extract was then diluted in 10 mL water to obtain a final methanol content of 15% before the SBSE step. Good linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy and the required low detection and quantification limits were obtained under the conditions described, making this SPE-SBSE combination a suitable, powerful tool for routine analysis of the selected limonene-derived mint aroma compounds in large series of wine samples. Finally, the validated method was applied to 15 commercial red Bordeaux wines, aged from 3 to 23 years. Most of the compounds studied, present within the ng.L -1 range, were easily quantified for the first time in wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aroma profile of malbec red wines from La Mancha region: Chemical and sensory characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Trujillo, M; García Ruiz, A; González Viñas, M A

    2017-10-01

    The aroma of La Mancha Malbec red wines over four consecutive vintages was characterized by chemical and sensory analysis. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to isolate and analyze free volatile compounds. Quantitative Descriptive Sensory Analysis (QDA) was carried out to characterize the sensory aroma profile. A total of 79 free volatile compounds were identified and quantified in the wines over these four vintages. Volatile aroma compounds were classified into seven aromatic series and their odour activity values were calculated in order to determine the aroma impact compounds in these wines. The aroma sensory profile of these wines was characterized by red fruit, fresh, prune, liquorice, clove, caramel, leather, tobacco and coffee aromas. This study provides a complete aroma characterization of La Mancha Malbec red wines and it is proposed that these wines can be considered as an alternative to wines from traditional grape varieties of this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tahıl Ürünlerinde Aroma Maddeleri : I. Ekmek / Flavor Compounds In Cereal Product : I. Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Karaoğlu, M. Murat; Kotancılar, H. Gürbüz

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET : Ekmek aroması, pek çoğu koku karakterinde olan birçok bileşenin karışımından oluşmaktadır. 6-asetiltetrahidropiridin ve 2-asetil-1-pirolin ekmek kabuğunun kızarmış hissini veren önemli koku maddeleri olurken, 2-feniletanol, 2-nonenal ve 2,4-dekadienal ekmek içinin güçlü aroma maddeleri olarak teşhis edilmişlerdir. 2,3-butanedion, methional, 4-hidroksi-2,3-dimetil-3 (2H)-furanon, 2 ve 3-metil bütiri...

  11. Selective determination of volatile sulfur compounds in wine by gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tracey E; Solomon, Mark R; Pollnitz, Alan P; Jeffery, David W

    2010-09-08

    Volatile sulfur compounds can be formed at various stages during wine production and storage, and some may impart unpleasant "reduced" aromas to wine when present at sensorially significant concentrations. Quantitative data are necessary to understand factors that influence the formation of volatile sulfur compounds, but their analysis is not a trivial undertaking. A rapid and selective method for determining 10 volatile sulfur-containing aroma compounds in wine that have been linked to "off-odors" has been developed. The method utilizes static headspace injection and cool-on-column gas chromatography coupled with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD). Validation demonstrated that the method is accurate, precise, robust, and sensitive, with limits of quantitation around 1 microg/L or better, which is below the aroma detection thresholds for the analytes. Importantly, the method does not form artifacts, such as disulfides, during sample preparation or analysis. To study the contribution of volatile sulfur compounds, the GC-SCD method was applied to 68 commercial wines that had reductive sensory evaluations. The analytes implicated as contributors to reductive characters were hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide, whereas carbon disulfide played an uncertain role.

  12. Confirmation of 1-Phenylethane-1-thiol as the Character Impact Aroma Compound in Curry Leaves and Its Behavior during Tissue Disruption, Drying, and Frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin

    2017-03-15

    The most odor-active compounds previously identified by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis were quantitated in freshly picked curry leaves, either by stable isotope dilution assays in combination with GC-GC-MS or by GC-FID after simultaneous extraction/fractionation. Odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratios of concentrations to odor threshold values. The topmost OAVs were obtained for (3Z)-hex-3-enal (grassy; OAV 180 000), (1S)-1-phenylethane-1-thiol (sulfury, burnt; OAV 150 000), (1R)-1-phenylethane-1-thiol (sulfury, burnt; OAV 120 000), (3R)-linalool (citrusy; OAV 58 000), and myrcene (geranium leaf-like; OAV 23 000). The high OAVs calculated for its enantiomers confirmed 1-phenylethane-1-thiol as character impact compound of the typical sulfury and burnt aroma of curry leaves. The 1-phenylethane-1-thiol concentration in curry leaves decreased upon tissue disruption and drying, as well as upon frying of fresh leaves. By contrast, frying of dried leaves led to an increase of 1-phenylethane-1-thiol, indicating a yet unknown thermolabile precursor.

  13. Determination of Volatile Compounds of Illicium verum Hook. f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limonene (1.01 %) and 4'- ethoxypropiophenone (0.72 %) were the lowest. Conclusion: Combining SDE coupled with AEDA and SPME coupled with GC-MS is beneficial for identifying characteristic aroma compounds for star anise, such as trans-anethole, linalool and limonene in terms of FD value. The findings may be ...

  14. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-08

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  15. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. β-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of response surface methodology to optimize solid-phase microextraction procedure for chromatographic determination of aroma-active monoterpenes in berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Tomasz; Kupska, Magdalena; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-04-15

    Most of scientific papers concern the qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of aroma-active terpenes in liquid food matrices. Therefore, the procedure based on solid-phase microextraction and two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for determination of monoterpenes in fresh berries was developed. The optimal extraction conditions using divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber were: temperature of 50°C, extraction time of 26min, equilibrium time of 29min. The developed procedure provides a high recovery (70.8-99.2%), good repeatability (CV0.9915) and offers practical advantages over currently used methods: reliability of compounds identification, simplicity of extraction and at least one order of magnitude lower detection limits (0.10-0.011μg/L). The method was successfully applied to determine monoterpenes in 27 berry samples of different varieties and 4 berry products. Tukey's test revealed that monoterpenes content is a reliable indicator of fruit maturity and origin. It suggests that the method may be of interest to researchers and food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN THE AROMA OF THREE SPECIES OF WOOD-ROTTING BASIDIOMYCETES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Virginia PETRE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the volatile organic compounds synthesized by three species of wood-rotting basidiomycetes: Coriolopsis gallica, Megacollybia platyphylla and Lentinus arcularius and test their antifungal potential. The species were cultivated on liquid media and kept for 25 days at 25 °C. The surface cultures were then homogenized, filtrated and extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile compounds identified were mainly alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and terpenes. The most common volatiles identified in the experiment are: 1-octen-3-ol, 3-hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-octanone, 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, and limonene. The volatiles metabolites of these species were tested for their antifungal activity using the bi-compartmented Petri dishes method against two species of plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, on three media. The volatiles produced by Coriolopsis gallica showed the highest antifungal potential against the phytopathogens. The results revealed the importance of media composition in the synthesis of antifungal volatile compounds.

  18. Influence of strawberry yogurt composition on aroma release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jennifer B; Reineccius, Gary A; Knighton, W Berk; Grimsrud, Eric P

    2004-10-06

    The primary objective of this study was to determine how yogurt ingredients affect aroma release in the mouth during eating. A model strawberry flavor consisting of ethyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 5-hexylhydro-2(3H)-furanone, and 3-methyl-3-phenylglycidic acid ethyl ester was added to unflavored, unsweetened yogurt that had different added sweeteners and hydrocolloids. In all, 12 yogurt formulations were examined to determine the effects of gelatin, modified food starch, pectin, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and aspartame on aroma release. Aroma release was monitored by breath-by-breath analysis (proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry) during eating of the test yogurts. Results showed aroma release of the ethyl butanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate to be suppressed by sweeteners, with 55 DE high-fructose corn syrup having the greatest effect. Addition of thickening agents had no significant effect on the aroma release profiles of the compounds under study.

  19. Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials to Major Aroma Volatiles in Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelaphiwat Pattarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the main transport coefficients (diffusion, solubility and permeability of key aroma compounds present in tropical herbs (eucalyptol and estragol through low‒density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP, nylon (Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, metalized‒polyethylene terephthalate (MPET and poly(lactic acid (PLA films at 15 and 25 °C. The concentration of aroma compounds permeating through the films were evaluated at various time intervals using a gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC–FID. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients of aroma compounds were highest in LDPE whereas the solubility coefficients were highest in PLA at both temperatures. PLA had the highest permeability coefficients for estragol at both temperatures. PP and LDPE had the highest permeability coefficients for eucalyptol at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. MPET had the lowest permeability for both aroma compounds studied. Aroma barrier properties can be used when selecting polymeric packaging materials to prevent aroma loss in various food and consumer products.

  20. Changes in aroma composition of blackberry wine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at investigating the influence of fermentation (primary and secondary) on aroma composition of blackberry wine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to quantify the compounds relevant to sparkling wine aroma. Investigation on this study revealed that a number of aroma ...

  1. Effect of trehalose addition on volatiles responsible for strawberry aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopjar, Mirela; Hribar, Janez; Simcic, Marjan; Zlatić, Emil; Pozrl, Tomaz; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2013-12-01

    Aroma is one of the most important quality properties of food products and has a great influence on quality and acceptability of foods. Since it is very difficult to control, in this study the effect of addition of trehalose (3, 5 and 10%) to freeze-dried strawberry cream fillings was investigated as a possible means for retention of some of the aroma compounds responsible for the strawberry aroma. In samples with added trehalose, higher amounts of fruity esters were determined. Increase of trehalose content did not cause a proportional increase in the amount of fruity esters. However, results of our research showed that trehalose addition did not have the same effect on both gamma-decalactone and furaneol.

  2. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils.

  3. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry To Control the Aroma Fingerprint of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Three Tunisian Cultivars at Three Harvest Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Amanpour, Asghar; Chtourou, Fatma; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-03-21

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry was used for the analysis of volatile compounds and key odorants of three less studied Tunisian olive oil cultivars for the first time. A total of 42 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in extra virgin olive oils. The present study revealed that the most dominant volatiles in olive oil samples qualitatively and quantitatively were aldehydes and alcohols, followed by terpenes and esters. Indeed, chemometric analysis has shown a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. The determination of aroma-active compounds of olive oil samples was carried out using aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 15 aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract of extra virgin olive oil, of which 14 were identified. On the basis of the flavor dilution (FD) factor, the most potent aromatic active compound was hexanal (FD = 512) in Fakhari olive oil, (FD = 256) in Touffehi oils, and (FD = 128) in Jemri olive oil.

  4. Rapid method for quantitative analysis of the aroma impact compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, in fragrant rice using automated headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriseadka, Tinakorn; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Kitsawatpaiboon, Pisan

    2006-10-18

    A rapid method employing static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) has been developed and validated for quantitative analysis of the impact aroma compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), in grains of fragrant rice. This developed method excludes wet extraction, and the rice headspace volatiles are brought directly and automatically to GC analysis. The conditions of the static HS autosampler were optimized to achieve high recovery and sensitivity. The most effective amount of rice sample used was 1 g, which provided 51% recovery and a linear multiple headspace extraction (MHE) plot of the peak area of 2AP. The sensitivity of the method was enhanced by utilizing a megabore fused silica capillary column in conjunction with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). Method validations performed for both static HS-GC-FID and HS-GC-NPD demonstrated linear calibration ranges of 20-10 000 (r(2) = 0.9997) and 5-8000 (r(2) = 0.9998) ng of 2AP/g of rice sample, respectively. The limits of detection for both systems were 20 and 5 ng of 2AP, and the limits of quantitation were 0.30 and 0.01 g of brown rice sample, respectively. Reproducibility calculated as intraday and interday coefficients of variation were 3.25% RSD (n = 15) and 3.92% RSD (n = 35), respectively, for SHS-GC-FID and 1.87% RSD (n = 15) and 2.85% RSD (n = 35), respectively, for SHS-GC-NPD. The method was found to be effective when applied to the evaluation of aroma quality, based on 2AP concentrations, of some fragrant rice samples.

  5. Aromatic compound in different peach cultivars and effect of preservatives on the final aroma of cooked fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavcon-Kralj Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we were used four yellow-fleshed peach cultivars ‟Royal Glory‟, „Redhaven", 'Maria Marta' and 'Norman', during two-year period. The characterization of aromatic constituents of investigated cultivars was done using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. The intention was to make implicit discrimination between cultivars by analysis of components present in all cultivars during two-year period. Also, the impact of added preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid on the final aroma of cooked peaches was studied. The cultivars' differences and the impact of preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid were statistically evaluated. Multiple discriminant analysis of peaches‟ aromatic profile was used to segregate investigated peach cultivars. Although they were very similar, the cultivars were segregated by two discriminant function, function 1 (which accounted for 56.9% of this peach model and function 2 (31.7%. The use of preservatives had also an important impact on the aromatic profile of cooked peaches. The statistical analysis indicated that from 57 identified volatiles, 40 volatiles showed statistically significant difference regarding the way of preservation. The main negative impact had Na-benzoate compared to control or samples preserved with citric acid.

  6. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Vreuls, J.J.; van der Heijden, A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water

  7. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89–93% and 24–27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82–89%, 7.7–9.1% and 48–50%, 55–59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

  8. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-11-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation.

  9. Structural determination of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintzinger, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the current methods available in high-field NMR spectroscopy are such that the tridimensional structure determination of any rigid molecule containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms may be achieved. The connectivities between carbon-carbon, carbon-hydrogen, and hydrogen-hydrogen atoms are determined by multipulse and two-dimensional (2D) experiments. These connectivity patterns or maps allow a step-by-step reconstruction of the molecular structures. From the carbon-carbon connectivity map, the carbon framework of the molecule is obtained, whereas the carbon-hydrogen pattern allows determination of the positions of the hydrogen atoms on their corresponding carbon atoms. High-field spectrometers are then necessary to remove fortuitous degeneracy and to reduce the proton spectra to a nearly first-order one, allowing an easy measurement of the chemical shifts and the coupling constants

  10. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part I: Case of aquaculture water from earthen-ponds farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive analyses were accomplished to explore the odorous molecules responsible for off-odour development in earthen-ponds rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture farming in Germany. In this part of the study, water odorants were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE); then, extracts were analysed by one- and two- dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry using two columns with different polarity (DB-FFAP and DB-5). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extract samples revealed 54 odorants, and 47 of them were identified. In this study, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture water including, amongst others, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), 5α-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone), and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Moreover, the sensory experiment indicated that (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, and 1-octen-3-one are the main contributors to the metallic, cucumber, and mushroom notes of the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Model studies on the key aroma compounds formed by an oxidative degradation of ω-3 fatty acids initiated by either copper(II) ions or lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Michaela; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-11-20

    Due to the high number of double bonds, ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic aid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are prone to rapid oxidation, leading to the formation of intense taints often described as "fishy". To clarify the compounds responsible for such off-flavors, EPA, DHA, and α-linolenic acid (ALA) were oxidized singly either in the presence of copper ions or in the presence of lipoxygenase. The autoxidation of EPA and DHA led to a mixture of odorants eliciting an overall fishy odor quality, whereas neither the oxidation of ALA by copper ions nor that by lipoxygenase led to an unpleasant odor. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatiles generated by autoxidation of EPA revealed trans-4,5-epoxy-(E,Z)-2,7-decadienal, identified for the first time as fatty acid degradation product, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z,Z)-2,5-octadienal, (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienal, and (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors. The autoxidation as well as the enzymatic oxidation of all three acids led to the same odorants, but with different FD factors depending on the acid and/or the type of oxidation applied. Thus, the results suggested that a defined ratio of a few odorants is needed to generate a fishy off-flavor.

  12. Meta-analysis of the core aroma components of grape and wine aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Ilc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  13. Determination of volatile compounds and quality parameters of traditional Istrian dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Nives; Vidaček, Sanja; Janči, Tibor; Petrak, Tomislav; Medić, Helga

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the characteristics of Istrian dry-cured ham by instrumental methods and sensory analysis. The aroma-active compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham from 2010 and 2012 were investigated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples of biceps femoris were also evaluated by measuring physical and chemical characteristics. 92 volatile aroma compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham were found. Volatile compounds belonged to several chemical groups: aldehydes (51.4; 51.3%), terpenes (16.5; 16.4%), alcohols (15.5; 13.2%), ketones (8.6; 7.4%), alkanes (3.8; 5.7%), esters (1.3; 1.6%), aromatic hydrocarbons (0.8; 3.9%) and acids (0.6; 0.9%). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fat content, tenderness and melting texture were positively correlated. Terpenes were strongly correlated with flavour of added spices. Sweet taste and the presence of esters were positively correlated as well as negative odour, raw meat flavour and water content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

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    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  15. Chemotaxonomic analysis of the aroma compounds in essential oils of two different Ocimum basilicum L. varieties from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmoradi, Mohammad Reza; Moghaddam, Mohammad; Farhadi, Nasrin

    2013-07-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oils of 21 accessions of Ocimum basilicum L. belonging to two different varieties (var. purpurascens and var. dianatnejadii) from Iran were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil yield was found to be between 0.6 and 1.1% (v/w). In total, 49 compounds, accounting for 96.6-99.7% of the oil compositions, were identified. Aromatic compounds, represented mainly by methyl chavicol (33.6-49.1%), and oxygenated monoterpenes, represented by linalool (14.4-39.3%), were the main components in all essential oils. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were present in the essential oils of all accessions of the purpurascens variety, whereas they were completely absent in those of the dianatnejadii variety, indicating that monoterpene hydrocarbons might be considered as marker constituents of the purpurascens variety. The chemotaxonomic value of the essential-oil compositions was discussed according to the results of the cluster analysis (CA). The CA showed a clear separation of the O. basilicum var. purpurascens accessions and the O. basilicum var. dianatnejadii accessions, although the data showed no major chemotype variation between the studied varieties. Indeed, the CA revealed only one principal chemotype (methyl chavicol/linalool) for both varieties. In conclusion, GC/MS analyses in combination with CA showed to be a flexible and reliable method for the characterization of the chemical profiles of different varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discr...

  17. PENGOLAHAN BERAS WANGI BUATAN METODE DAN RETENSI SENYAWA AROMA [Processing of Artificial Fragrant Rice The Method and Aroma Retention

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    Filli Pratama

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Processing of artificial fragrant rice in which one or more aroma compounds were introduced into raw milled rice were studied. The end product, which is potentially marketable, showed no visible difference in appearance from the untreated rice, and the cooked product showed perceivable aroma to the consumers. The aromatisation process used liquid carbon dioxide as a vehicle to deliver the aroma. Five aroma compounds of eugenol, iso-eugenol, methyl eugenol, cinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamaldehyde were used as model compounds. The results showed that liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure of 8 MPa and an equilibration time of 5 minutes were found to be the optimum conditions for imparting the aroma compounds into the rice. The retention of the model aroma compounds in rice were in the range of 33% to 50%. The aroma carrier was found to be able to carry the model compounds into the core of rice. This was significant, as it potentially provided a longer period for the aroma compounds to remain in the rice.

  18. Voltammetric determination of zirconium using azo compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orshulyak, O.O.; Levitskaya, G.D.

    2008-01-01

    The optimum conditions for zirconium complexation with azo compounds are found. The applicability of Eriochrome Red B, Calcon, and Calcion to the voltammetric determination of zirconium, total Zr(IV) and Hf(IV), and Zr(IV) in the presence of Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), or Ti(IV) is demonstrated. The developed procedures are used to determine zirconium in a terbium alloy and in an alloy for airplane wheel drums [ru

  19. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  20. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Proso Millet Wine Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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    Jingke Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds in proso millet wine were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (85 μm polyacrylate (PA, 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 75 μm Carboxen (CAR/PDMS, and 50/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB/CAR/PDMS fibers, and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; the odor characteristics and intensities were analyzed by the odor activity value (OAV. Different sample preparation factors were used to optimize this method: sample amount, extraction time, extraction temperature, and content of NaCl. A total of 64 volatile compounds were identified from the wine sample, including 14 esters, seven alcohols, five aldehydes, five ketones, 12 benzene derivatives, 12 hydrocarbons, two terpenes, three phenols, two acids, and two heterocycles. Ethyl benzeneacetate, phenylethyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found in the samples. According to their OAVs, 14 volatile compounds were determined to be odor-active compounds (OAV > 1, and benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and biphenyl were the prominent odor-active compounds (OAV > 50, having a high OAV. Principal component analysis (PCA showed the difference of distribution of the 64 volatile compounds and 14 odor-active compounds with four solid-phase microextraction (SPME fibers.

  1. Carbon determination in uranium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Abrao, A.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon content in uranium and its compounds, especially ceramic grade UO 2 , must be controlled rigorously. A method for the determination of carbon with the aid of commercial equipment which uses platinum as a catalyst for the oxidation of CO, and infrared cells for CO 2 measurement is described. The detection limit is 5μg C/g U and the determination range is 0.0005 to 5% C/U. The method is being used routinely to control the carbon content in nuclear fuel materials. (Author) [pt

  2. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

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    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  3. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  4. Volatile components and aroma active compounds in aqueous essence and fresh pink guava fruit puree (Psidium guajava L.) by GC-MS and multidimensional GC/GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, María J; Margaría, Carlos A; Shaw, Philip E; Goodner, Kevin L

    2003-02-26

    Characterization of the aromatic profile in commercial guava essence and fresh fruit puree by GC-MS yielded a total of 51 components quantified. Commercial essence was characterized to present a volatile profile rich in components with low molecular weight, especially alcohols, esters, and aldehydes, whereas in the fresh fruit puree terpenic hydrocarbons and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were the most abundant components. In the olfactometric analyses totals of 43 and 48 aroma active components were detected by the panelists in commercial essence and fruit puree, respectively. New components were described for the first time as active aromatic constituents in pink guava fruit (3-penten-2-ol and 2-butenyl acetate). Principal differences between the aroma of the commercial guava essence and the fresh fruit puree could be related to acetic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanediol, 3-methylbutanoic acid, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, limonene, octanol, ethyl octanoate, 3-phenylpropanol, cinnamyl alcohol, alpha-copaene, and an unknown component. (E)-2-Hexenal seems to be more significant to the aroma of the commercial essence than of the fresh fruit puree.

  5. Flavor perception and aroma release from model dairy desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethuaut, Laurent; Weel, Koen G C; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; Brossard, Chantal D

    2004-06-02

    Six model dairy desserts, with three different textures and two sucrose levels, were equally flavored with a blend of four aroma compounds [ethyl pentanoate, amyl acetate, hexanal, and (E)-2-hexenal] and evaluated by a seven person panel in order to study whether the sensory perception of the flavor and the aroma release during eating varied with the textural characteristics or the sweetness intensity of the desserts. The sensory perception was recorded by the time intensity (TI) method, while the in vivo aroma release was simultaneously measured by the MS-nose. Considering the panel as a whole, averaged flavor intensity increased with sucrose level and varied with the texture of the desserts. Depending on the aroma compound, the averaged profile of in vivo aroma release varied, but for each aroma compound, averaged aroma release showed no difference with the sucrose level and little difference with the texture of the desserts. Perceptual sweetness-aroma interactions were the main factors influencing perception whatever the texture of the desserts.

  6. Aroma extract dilution analysis of a beeflike process flavor from extruded enzyme-hydrolyzed soybean protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, H H; Kim, C J; Ahn, B H; Nam, H S; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-02-01

    Aroma-active compounds from a beeflike process flavor, produced by extrusion of enzyme-hydrolyzed vegetable protein (E-HVP), were analyzed using aroma extract dilution analysis. The number of aroma-active compounds and the aroma intensity were increased by the addition of aroma precursors prior to extrusion. The most intense compound was 2-methyl-3-furanthiol having a cooked rice/vitamin-like/meaty aroma note. Several sulfur-containing furans, such as 2-methyl-3-(methylthio)furan, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan, and bis(2-methylfuryl)disulfide, were detected with high flavor dilution (FD) factors. Some pyrazines, such as 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,6-diethylpyrazine, and 3,5-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine, also had high FD factors. It is hypothesized that sulfur-containing amino acids and thiamin were important precursors in aroma formation in process flavor from E-HVP.

  7. Effects of Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator fungi on the aroma character of grape must: A comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-09-15

    Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator are among the most relevant fungi in viticulture. In order to deepen our knowledge about their potential impact on wine quality, their effects on the aroma character of the initial stage of wine production, i.e. the must were studied. The main aroma compounds were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and ranked according to their relative intensities by means of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Clear differences between healthy and infected samples were observed. Botrytis cinerea had a positive impact on fruity and floral notes while several earthy smelling compounds were developed as result of the infection. Unlike in previous studies, however, we did not observe any clear differences in the quantities of earthy-mushroom-like smelling substances as result of the infection process with Erysiphe necator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory and instrumental evaluation of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskiene, Renata; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Demyttenaere, Jan C R

    2003-06-18

    The present study investigates the composition of volatile constituents and sensory characteristics of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) grown in Lithuania. Hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, static headspace, and solid phase microextraction methods were used for the isolation of aroma volatiles. Geranyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, citronellol, and geraniol were the major constituents in catnip. Differences in the quantitative compositions of volatile compounds isolated by the different techniques were considerable. A sensory panel performed sensory analysis of the ground herb, pure essential oil, and extract; aroma profiles of the products were expressed graphically, and some effects of odor qualities of individual compounds present in catnip on the overall aroma of this herb were observed.

  9. Aroma components of American country ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H; Cadwallader, K R

    2008-01-01

    The aroma-active compounds of American country ham were investigated by using direct solvent extraction-solvent assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE), dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated the involvement of numerous volatile constituents in the aroma of country ham. For DHDA, 38 compounds were identified as major odorants, among them, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 1-nonen-3-one, decanal, and (E)-2-nonenal were the most predominant, having FD-factors >or= 125 in all 3 hams examined, followed by 3-methylbutanal, 1-hexen-3-one, octanal, acetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and Furaneol. For the DSE-SAFE method, the neutral/basic fraction was dominated by 1-octen-3-one, methional, guaiacol, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-decenal, p-cresol as well as 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, phenylacetaldehyde, and gamma-nonalactone. The acidic fraction contained mainly short-chain volatile acids (3-methylbutanoic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, and acetic acid) and Maillard reaction products (for example, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone). The above compounds identified were derived from lipid oxidation, amino acid degradation, and Maillard/Strecker and associated reactions. Both methods revealed the same nature of the aroma components of American country ham.

  10. Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Costa de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

  11. Enhanced Levels of the Aroma and Flavor Compound S-Linalool by Metabolic Engineering of the Terpenoid Pathway in Tomato Fruits1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Efraim; Schalechet, Fernond; Wilkinson, Jack; Matsui, Kenji; Tadmor, Yaakov; Nam, Kyoung-Hee; Amar, Orit; Lastochkin, Elena; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Hiatt, William; Gepstein, Shimon; Pichersky, Eran

    2001-01-01

    The aromas of fruits, vegetables, and flowers are mixtures of volatile metabolites, often present in parts per billion levels or less. We show here that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants transgenic for a heterologous Clarkia breweri S-linalool synthase (LIS) gene, under the control of the tomato late-ripening-specific E8 promoter, synthesize and accumulate S-linalool and 8-hydroxylinalool in ripening fruits. Apart from the difference in volatiles, no other phenotypic alterations were noted, including the levels of other terpenoids such as γ- and α-tocopherols, lycopene, β-carotene, and lutein. Our studies indicate that it is possible to enhance the levels of monoterpenes in ripening fruits by metabolic engineering. PMID:11706204

  12. Aroma Potential in Early- and Late-Maturity Pinot noir Grapes Evaluated by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Qian, Michael C

    2016-01-20

    Aroma potentials in early and late maturity Pinot noir grapes were investigated in two consecutive vintages. The grape samples were hydrolyzed under acidic conditions, and the released odorants were studied by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Forty-nine main odor-active compounds were detected in the AEDA. The odorants released with high flavor dilution values were 1-hexanal, β-damascenone, guaiacol, and vanillin, together with C6-aldehydes and -alcohols, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-vinylphenol, and 1-octen-3-one. The concentrations of aroma-active compounds were further quantitated. Compared with early harvest grapes, late harvest grapes released more β-damascenone, vanillin, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylphenol in both years according to both AEDA and quantitation results, suggesting they were important aroma compounds that contribute to the characteristic of matured Pinot noir grapes.

  13. DETERMINATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF PASTIRMA USING SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Demirok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pastırma, a traditional dry cured Turkish meat product, has a great number of specific aroma compounds, which occur as a result of lipid oxidation, protein degradation and formulation of çemen paste. These compounds give characteristic flavor to pastırma and the main objective of this study was to determine the nature of these compounds. Fifty-eight volatile compounds, grouped into nine chemical classes were identified using solid phase microextraction technique (SPME coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Aldehydes, mostly lipid oxidation products, were determined as the major chemical group, representing 17.54-78.02% of total volatile compounds. The major volatile aldehyde was hexanal (2.36-55.41%, followed by 2-methyl-2-butenal (0.97-14.69% and then heptanal (0.29-4.77%. Sulfur compounds possibly derived from spices or formed by proteolysis of sulfur-containing amino acids, were the second most abundant group, with concentrations ranging between 6.04 and 50.60%. Other important volatile compounds of pastırma were aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic ketones, hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, acids, terpenes, and furans.

  14. THEORY DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYMATIC AROMA RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Dubova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The fruit and vegetable pretreatment conditions and subsequent environment in which enzymatic reactions take place can be considered as potential factors in the formation of fresh flavors. The synthesis of aromatic components of fresh grass and green leaves occurs involving vegetable lipoxygenases. The molecules of a precursor-compound can withstand the processing modes, while enzymes and aromatic compounds break down frequently. Vegetable homogenates are potential sources of enzymes which produce natural aromatic substances. Formation of fresh favors is the most perceptible when it occurs as the result of the reaction between poliunsaturated fatty acids of cytoplasmic membranes and lipoxygenases and hydroperoxide lyase of plant material. Pre-treatment of samples positively influences binding energy in the complex of enzyme-substrate. The change of iodine number in treated homogenates, as compared to fresh ones, shows isomerization of flavor precursors. The minimal quantity of homogenates introduced (up to 20 g and the duration of aroma-restoring reaction (from 5 to 7 minutes were defined. Pre-cooling of homogenates activates enzymes, strengthens oxidability of the PUFA, and results in recovery of fresh aroma of plant material. Under conditions of enzyme inactivation, the synthesis of aromas is not possible. Conversely, production of aroma in food glazes and foams is possible in case of interphase activation between a substrate and enzymes.

  15. HS/GC-MS analyzed chemical composition of the aroma of fruiting bodies of two species of genus Lentinus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Gerardo; Valdez, Karina; Mendoza, Remedios; Trigos, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the aroma of fresh fruiting bodies of the cultivated mushroom Lentinus boryanus is described here and compared with medicinal shiitake mushroom L. edodes. Volatile compounds were analyzed through headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mushrooms under study were grown on different substrates based on barley straw, sugarcane bagasse, oak wood sawdust, and beech leaf litter. It was determined that L. boryanus as well as L. edodes contain an abundant amount of a volatile compound identified as 3-octanone with a sweet fruity aroma. On the other hand, only L. boryanus produced 3-octanol a characteristic aroma of cod liver oil. In total, 10 aromatic compounds were identified, some of which were obtained exclusively in one species or substrate.

  16. Characteristic Changes in the Aroma Profile of Patchouli Depending on Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Yoshitome, Kazuma; Fujihara, Takashi; Santoso, Mardi; Aziz, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Patchouli is used as an incense material and essential oil. The characteristic odor of patchouli leaves results from the drying process used in their production; however, there have to date been no reports on the changes in the odor of patchouli leaves during the drying process. We investigated the aroma profile of dried patchouli leaves using the hexane extracts of fresh and dried patchouli leaves. We focused on the presence or absence of the constituents of the fresh and dried extracts, and the differences in the content of the common constituents. Fourteen constituents were identified as characteristic of dried patchouli extract odor by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The structures of seven of the 14 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (α-patchoulene, seychellene, humulene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, caryophyllene oxide, and patchouli alcohol). The aroma profile of the essential oil obtained from the dried patchouli leaves was clearly different from that of dried patchouli. The aroma profile of the essential oil was investigated by a similar method. We identified 12 compounds as important odor constituents. The structures of nine of the 12 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (cis-thujopsene, caryophyllene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, seychellene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, patchouli alcohol, and corymbolone). Comparing the odors and constituents demonstrated that the aroma profile of patchouli depends on the manufacturing process.

  17. Chemical Compositions and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile Oil from the Industrial Cultivation Medium of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maeba, Keisuke; Yonejima, Yasunori; Toyoda, Masanori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species colonizing the intestines of animals and humans. The characteristic odor of the volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of E. faecalis was investigated to determine the utility of the liquid medium. In total, fifty-six and thirty-two compounds were detected in the volatile oils from the MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (19.3%), phenylacetaldehyde (19.3%), and phenylethyl alcohol (9.3%). The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The total number of aroma-active compounds identified in the volatile oil from MBI and MAI was thirteen compounds; in particular, 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethyl alcohol were the most primary aroma-active compounds in MAI oil. These results imply that the industrial cultivation medium after incubation of E. faecalis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  18. Prevention of β-Glucosidase Inhibition by High Molecular Mass Compounds During Enzymatic Wine Aroma Enhancement Using a Hollow Fiber Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Daz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme activity and stability in a membrane reactor for wine aroma enhancement can be higher than when the enzyme is present in a free state since the catalyst would only be in contact with the low molecular mass components of this beverage. To test this hypothesis, the activity and stability of two commercial β-glucosidases were measured in the presence of Tannat wine and of its low molecular mass fraction (<10 kDa obtained by ultrafiltration. The relative activities of Endozym Rouge and Endozym β-split β-glucosidases were higher in this fraction (3.8 and 7.6 %, respectively than in the whole wine (0.9 and 5.6 %, respectively. Both enzymes were also more stable in the low molecular mass fraction. Endozym β-split β-glucosidase retained about 75 % of its initial activity after 14 days in the low molecular mass fraction, as contrasted with only 37.5 % in the wine. The ability of Endozym Rouge β-glucosidase to hydrolyze the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenylglucoside was examined in a simple batch membrane reactor. A rate of hydrolysis comparable to that obtained with the free Endozym Rouge β-glucosidase was reached. Finally, Endozym β-split β-glucosidase was used to hydrolyze the synthetic substrate in a hollow fiber membrane reactor and a substrate conversion near 58 % was achieved.

  19. Foliar application of amino acids modulates aroma components of 'FUJI' apple (malus domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, W.; Zhang, L.; Chen, F.; Cui, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, P.; Tian, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile flavor compounds play a key role in determining the perception and acceptability as well as enhancing market competitiveness of apple (Malus domestica L.). In our study, we evaluated the effects of foliar-applied four different amino acids, i.e. leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and alanine (Ala), on aroma components and two key enzymes activities involved in aroma metabolism of Fuji apple. The total amount of aromatic components under Ala treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments. There was a considerable increase in total aroma content, including hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, methyleugenol, ethyl acetate, butanoic acid-pentyl ester, butanoic acid-hexyl ester, butyric acid ethyl ester, acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester, treated with spraying amino acids compared with the control. More specifically, hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, methyleugenol and acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester exhibited a greater substantial increase of their contents than those of in other ingredients. However, butanoic acid-2-methyl-2-methyl butyl ester maintained a highest level among all aroma components regardless of different amino acids application. Furthermore, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were much higher under Ala treatment than those under other treatments. We concluded that foliar-applied organic nitrogen (N), especially for Ala, can improve aroma metabolism and it could be used in production to enhance fruit quality on a commercial scale. (author)

  20. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-06

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of sulfur and nitrogen compounds during the processing of dry fermented sausages and their relation to amino acid generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sara; Leitner, Erich; Siegmund, Barbara; Flores, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The identification of odor-active sulfur and nitrogen compounds formed during the processing of dry fermented sausages was the objective of this study. In order to elucidate their possible origin, free amino acids (FAAs) were also determined. The volatile compounds present in the dry sausages were extracted using solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and monitored by one and two-dimensional gas chromatography with different detectors: mass spectrometry (MS), nitrogen phosphorous (NPD), flame photometric (FPD) detectors, as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry. A total of seventeen sulfur and nitrogen compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline was the most potent odor active compound, followed by methional, ethylpyrazine and 2,3-dihydrothiophene characterized by toasted, cooked potato, and nutty notes. The degradation of FAAs, generated during processing, was related to the production of aroma compounds, such as methionine forming methional and benzothiazole while ornithine was the precursor compound for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and glycine for ethylpyrazine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of aroma synthesis in two hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii in winemaking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, Amparo; Belloch, Carmela; Querol, Amparo

    2015-09-04

    Aroma is one of the most important attributes defining wine quality in which yeasts play a crucial role, synthesizing aromatic compounds or releasing odourless conjugates. A present-day trend in winemaking consists of lowering fermentation temperature to achieve higher aroma production and retention. S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids seem to have inherited beneficial traits from their parental species, like fermenting efficiently at low temperature or producing higher amounts of certain aromatic compounds. In this study, allelic composition and gene expression of the genes related to aroma synthesis in two genetically and phenotypically different S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids, Lalvin W27 and VIN7, were compared and related to aroma production in microvinifications at 12 and 28 °C. In addition, the contribution of the allele coming from each parental to the overall expression was explored by RT-PCR. The results indicated large differences in allele composition, gene expression and the contribution of each parental to the overall expression at the fermentation temperatures tested. Results obtained by RT-PCR showed that in ARO1 and ATF2 genes the S. kudriavzevii allele was more expressed than that of S. cerevisiae particularly at 12 °C. This study revealed high differences regarding allele composition and gene expression in two S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids, which may have led to different aroma profiles in winemaking conditions. The contribution of the alleles coming from each parental to the overall expression has proved to differently influence aroma synthesis. Besides, the quantitative contribution to the overall gene expression of the alleles coming from one parental strain or the other was clearly determined by the fermentation temperature for some genes.

  3. Rapid volatile metabolomics and genomics in large strawberry populations segregating for aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) represent a large portion of the fruit secondary metabolome, and contribute significantly to aroma, flavor, disease resistance, pest resistance and overall fruit quality. Understanding the basis for volatile compound biosynthesis and it...

  4. Rapid determination of the aromatic compounds methyl-anthranilate, 2'-aminoacetophenone and furaneol by GC-MS: Method validation and characterization of grape derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio Dutra, Maria da Conceição; de Souza, Joyce Fagundes; Viana, Arão Cardoso; de Oliveira, Débora; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Dos Santos Lima, Marcos

    2018-05-01

    A methodology for the rapid determination of the aromatic compounds methyl anthranilate (MA), 2'-aminoacetophenone (2-AAP) and furaneol by GC-MS was validated and used to characterize grape juice and wine elaborated with the new Brazilian grape varieties cultivated in northeastern Brazil, and Brazilian grape nectars. The method presented linearity (R 2  ˃ 0.9952), good accuracy (CV furaneol in the aroma of grape juice and wines elaborated with the new Brazilian grape varieties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part II: Case of fish meat and skin from earthen-ponds farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Odorous molecules in earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture farming in Germany were investigated with a special focus on musty-earthy off-odorants. To this aim, fish meat and skin were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) and were mildly concentrated; extracts were subsequently analysed by means of one- and two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and olfactometry (GC-MS/O and 2D-HRGC-MS/O). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extracts revealed the presence of 76 odorants of which 75 were successfully identified. Thereby, rotundone (black pepper) is described for the first time as an odour-active substance in fish. Moreover, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German aquaculture rainbow trout fish, including, amongst others, (E,Z,Z)-2,4,7-tridecatrienal, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), d-limonene, and indole. The analytical findings were further compared to sensory evaluation of the samples, and previously obtained data on the respective aquacultural water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the Typical Potent Odorants in Chinese Roasted Sesame-like Flavor Type Liquor by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction-Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis, with Special Emphasis on Sulfur-Containing Odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Sha; Chen, Shuang; Qian, Michael; Wang, Chengcheng; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-11

    The aroma profile of Chinese roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor was investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction-aroma extract dilution analysis (HS-SPME-AEDA). Sixty-three odor-active regions were detected by HS-SPME-AEDA with flavor dilution (FD) factors >5, and 58 of these were further identified. Among them, ethyl hexanoate, 2-furfurylthiol, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl pentanoate, and ethyl 4-methylpentanoate appeared with the highest FD factors. In particular, eight sulfur-containing odorants were identified to be potentially important to roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. The concentration of these odor-active compounds was further quantitated by combination of four different quantitative measurements, and 36 odorants had concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), 2-furfurylthiol (OAV 1182), dimethyl trisulfide (OAV 220), β-damascenone (OAV 116), and methional (OAV 99) could be responsible for the unique aroma of roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. An aroma recombination model prepared by mixing 36 aroma compounds with OAVs >1 showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. For the first time, 2-furfurylthiol was determined to be a typical potent odorant in roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor by omission study.

  7. Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Tunisian Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Peel and Juice and Determination of Their Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jabri karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representin...

  8. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  9. Real Time Detection of Aroma Compounds in Meat and Meat Products by SIFT-MS and Comparison to Conventional Techniques (SPME-GC-MS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flores, M.; Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Španěl, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2013), s. 622-630 ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172; GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : volatile compounds * flovar * meat Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  10. In situ recovery of the aroma compound perillene from stirred-tank cultured Pleurotus ostreatus using gas stripping and adsorption on polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2008-08-01

    Supplementation of the key metabolite, alpha-(Z)-acaridiol, to stirred-tank cultured Pleurotus ostreatus was used to demonstrate that integrated in situ product recovery resulted in high conversion rates and quantitative separation of the target product perillene from the nutrient medium. The conversion of beta-myrcene by P. ostreatus was scaled-up from shake-flasks into a controlled, stirred tank bioreactor equipped with gas stripping and adsorption on a polystyrene fixed bed. The formation of the attractive flavour compound perillene was measured daily using standard controlled capillary gas chromatography. The formation of alpha-(Z)-acaridiol was the metabolic bottleneck of the conversion of beta-myrcene to perillene. Efficient in situ recovery of the volatile product enabled quantitative separation of the pure flavour compound. Appropriated bioprocessing, i.e. in situ separation of product, steadily shifted the metabolic equilibria and thus accomplished high conversion rate and pure product.

  11. Short communication: Identification of the aroma compounds responsible for the floral/rose flavor in water-soluble fractions of Manchego cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Soto-Yarritu, P; Amigo, L; Taborda, G; Martínez-Castro, I; Gómez-Ruiz, J A

    2007-11-01

    Water-soluble fractions from Protected Denomination of Origin Manchego cheese, with molecular weight <1,000 Da, were fractionated using gel permeation chromatography and studied using both instrumental and sensorial analysis. In 2 of the fractions, panelists detected a floral, rose-like flavor. Analysis of these fractions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after simultaneous distillation extraction with dichloromethane identified 2-phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde as the compounds responsible for this flavor.

  12. Determination of hydrogen isotope composition in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordzhonikidze, K.G.; Parulava, L.P.; Vakhaniya, G.V.; Tarielashvili, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    method for determination of hydrogen isotope composition just in organic compounds using mass-spectrometer of the second class is suggested. The method enables to determine atomic fraction of hydrogen without multiplet separation. The accuracy of determination of deuterium atomic fraction in acetone in 1-99% range was equal to 3-0.2% respectively

  13. Determining the Degree of Promiscuity of Extensively Assayed Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, an emerging concept in drug discovery, promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of compounds to specifically interact with multiple targets. Promiscuity of drugs and bioactive compounds has thus far been analyzed computationally on the basis of activity annotations, without taking assay frequencies or inactivity records into account. Most recent estimates have indicated that bioactive compounds interact on average with only one to two targets, whereas drugs interact with six or more. In this study, we have further extended promiscuity analysis by identifying the most extensively assayed public domain compounds and systematically determining their promiscuity. These compounds were tested in hundreds of assays against hundreds of targets. In our analysis, assay promiscuity was distinguished from target promiscuity and separately analyzed for primary and confirmatory assays. Differences between the degree of assay and target promiscuity were surprisingly small and average and median degrees of target promiscuity of 2.6 to 3.4 and 2.0 were determined, respectively. Thus, target promiscuity remained at a low level even for most extensively tested active compounds. These findings provide further evidence that bioactive compounds are less promiscuous than drugs and have implications for pharmaceutical research. In addition to a possible explanation that drugs are more extensively tested for additional targets, the results would also support a "promiscuity enrichment model" according to which promiscuous compounds might be preferentially selected for therapeutic efficacy during clinical evaluation to ultimately become drugs.

  14. Time-dependent categorization of volatile aroma compound formation in stewed Chinese spicy beef using electron nose profile coupled with thermal desorption GC–MS detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, flavor profiles of Chinese spiced beef in the cooking process were comparatively analyzed by electronic nose, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS with a thermal desorption system (TDS, and solid-phase microextraction (SPME. A total of 82 volatile compounds were identified, and 3-methyl-butanal, pentanal, hexanal, ρ-xylene, heptanal, limonene, terpinene, octanal, linalool, 4-terpinenol, α-terpineol, and (E-anethole were identified as the characteristic flavor compounds in Chinese spiced beef. Variation in the content of volatile components produced by different cooking processes was observed. In general, a cooking time of 4 h resulted in optimal flavor quality and stability. Results indicated that the electronic nose could profile and rapidly distinguish variation among different cooking time. The volatile profiling by TDS-GC–MS and responses from the electronic nose, in combination with multivariate statistical analysis, are a promising tool for control the cooking process of spiced beef.

  15. Sensory and instrumental analysis of food aromas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, J.H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Food aromas are generally perceived as unitary aromas, i.e. fried potatoes smell like fried potatoes and roasted coffee smells like roasted coffee. Nonetheless, nearly all food aromas are produced by a multitude of volatile components that contribute to an extensive collection of aromas in various

  16. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE

  17. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Farneti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium spp. fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars (“Biloxi,” “Brigitta Blue,” “Centurion,” “Chandler,” and “Ozark Blue” harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. (“Brigitta,” “Chandler,” “Liberty,” and “Ozark Blue”, V. virgatum Aiton (“Centurion,” “Powder Blue,” and “Sky Blue”, V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations, and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide

  18. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC) composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry). The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars (“Biloxi,” “Brigitta Blue,” “Centurion,” “Chandler,” and “Ozark Blue”) harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe) to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. (“Brigitta,” “Chandler,” “Liberty,” and “Ozark Blue”), V. virgatum Aiton (“Centurion,” “Powder Blue,” and “Sky Blue”), V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations), and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide pull of VOCs

  19. Similarities in the aroma chemistry of Gewürztraminer variety wines and lychee (Litchi chinesis sonn.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, P K; Acree, T E

    1999-02-01

    GC/O analysis of canned lychees indicated that cis-rose oxide, linalool, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, furaneol, vanillin, (E)-2-nonenal, beta-damascenone, isovaleric acid, and (E)-furan linalool oxide were the most odor potent compounds detected in the fruit extracts. However, on the basis of calculated odor activity values (OAVs), cis-rose oxide, beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl isobutyrate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, and delta-decalactone were determined to be the main contributors of canned lychee aroma. When these results were compared with GC/O results of fresh lychees and Gewürztraminer wine, 12 common odor-active volatile compounds were found in all three products. These included cis-rose oxide, ethyl hexanoate/ethyl isohexanoate, beta-damascenone, linalool, ethyl isobutyrate, geraniol, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-phenylethanol, furaneol, vanillin, citronellol, and phenethyl acetate. On the basis of OAVs, cis-rose oxide had the highest values among the common odorants in the three products, indicating its importance to the aroma of both lychee fruit and Gewürztraminer wines. Other compounds that had significant OAVs included beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl hexanoate, and geraniol. This indicated that while differences exist in the aroma profile of lychee and Gewürztraminer, the common odorants detected in both fruit and wine, particularly cis-rose oxide, were responsible for the lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer wine. When headspace SPME was used as a rapid analytical tool to detect the levels of selected aroma compounds deemed important to lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer-type wines, cis-rose oxide, linalool, and geraniol were found to be at relatively higher levels in Gewürztraminers. No cis-rose oxide was detected in the control wines (Chardonnay and Riesling), while lower levels were detected in the Gewürztraminer-hybrid wine Traminette. Gewürztraminers produced in the Alsace region showed differences in the

  20. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...... of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have...

  1. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Determination of borneol and other chemical compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine borneol and other chemical compounds of essential oil derived from the exudate of Dryobalanops aromatica in Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed ...

  3. Determination of oxygen in uranium compounds using sulfur monochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.; Besson, J.; Blum, P.L.; Tran-Van, Danh

    1964-01-01

    The authors have described in an other paper (Anal. Chim. Acta, in press) a method for oxygen determination in uranium compounds, in which the sample is attacked by sulfur monochloride. The present paper is concerned with the experimental aspects of the method: apparatus procedure. (authors) [fr

  4. Aroma volatiles recovered in the water phase of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice during concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Karina L; Garruti, Deborah S; Franco, Maria Regina B; Janzantti, Natalia S; Da Silva, Maria Aparecida Ap

    2011-08-15

    There is a considerable loss of volatile compounds during the thermal concentration of cashew apple juice, damaging product quality, and as yet there is little research on the subject. Thus the purpose of this research was to identify the aroma volatiles evaporated off from cashew apple juice and recovered in the water phase during concentration of this beverage in an industrial plant. Water phase volatiles were extracted using dichloromethane, concentrated under a nitrogen flow, separated by gas chromatography (GC) and identified by GC-mass spectrometry. In order to determine the contribution of each volatile to the cashew aroma, five trained judges evaluated the GC effluents using the Osme GC-olfactometry technique. 71 volatiles were identified; of these, 47 were odour active. Alcohols were preferentially recovered in the cashew water phase, notably heptanol, trans-3-hexen-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, representing 42% of the total chromatogram area and imparting green grass and fruity aroma notes to the water phase. Esters represented 21% of the total chromatogram area, especially ethyl 2-hydroxyhexanoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and were responsible for the fruity/cashew-like aroma of the water phase. On the other hand, 3-methylbutanoic and 2-methylbutanoic acids were the volatiles that presented the greatest odour impact in the GC effluents of the water phase. Overall, the results of the present study strongly indicated that further concentration of the esters recovered in the water phase, either by partial distillation or by alternative technologies such as pervaporation, could generate a higher-quality natural cashew apple essence. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Determination of fluorine in organic compounds: Microcombustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, H.S.

    1951-01-01

    A reliable and widely applicable means of determining fluorine in organic compounds has long been needed. Increased interest in this field of research in recent years has intensified the need. Fluorine in organic combinations may be determined by combustion at 900?? C. in a quartz tube with a platinum catalyst, followed by an acid-base titration of the combustion products. Certain necessary precautions and known limitations are discussed in some detail. Milligram samples suffice, and the accuracy of the method is about that usually associated with the other halogen determinations. Use of this method has facilitated the work upon organic fluorine compounds in this laboratory and it should prove to be equally valuable to others.

  6. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  7. [Aroma and perfume allergy: anathema for some epicurean appeal?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Nikkels, A F; Cornil, F; Deleixhe-Mauhin, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2002-09-01

    Aromas and fragrances are present in many cosmetics, some topical drugs, food and various hygiene, household and industrial products. They can be responsible for contact dermatitis. Multiple sensitizations can even involve in various combinations some fragrance compounds, a given degradation product or a contaminant. The diagnosis relies on clinical examination and oriented anamnesis. A histological examination is sometimes necessary. Specific path testing brings insight on the culprit chemical compounds.

  8. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milovanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used in creating various functional food and feed products, but certain species of microalgae and cyanobacteria are known to produce various compounds causing off-flavour. In this work, we investigated selected cyanobacterial strains of Spirulina, Anabaena, and Nostoc genera originating from Serbia, with the aim of determining the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds produced by these organisms. Additionally, the influence of nitrogen level during growth on the production of volatile compounds was investigated for Nostoc and Anabaena strains. In addition, multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, were used for making distinction among different microalgal strains. The results show that the main volatile compounds in these species are medium chain length alkanes, but other odorous compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (0.51–4.48%, 2-pentylfuran (0.72–8.98%, β-cyclocitral (0.00–1.17%, and β-ionone (1.15–2.72% were also detected in the samples. Addition of nitrogen to growth medium was shown to negatively affect the production of 2-methylisoborneol, while geosmin was not detected in any of the analyzed samples, which indicates that the manipulation of growth conditions may be useful in reducing levels of some unwanted odor-causing components.

  9. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties...... such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...... of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have...

  10. Determination of chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunqing; Liu Fuyun; Huang Dianfan

    1988-01-01

    The determination of chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds is discribed. Chlorine is separated from uranium oxide pyrohydrolytically with stream of wet oxygen in a furnace at 800 ∼ 900 deg C. Chlorine is volatilized as hydrochloric acid, absorbed in a dilute alkaline solution and measured with chlorine-selective electrode. This method covers the concentration range of 10 ∼ 500 pm chlorine in uranium oxide. Precision of at least ± 10% and recovery of 85 ∼ 108% have been reported

  11. Structural determination of some uranyl compounds by vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez S, A.; Martinez Q, E.

    1990-07-01

    The vibrational spectra of different uranyl compounds has been studied and of it spectral information has been used the fundamental asymmetric vibrational frequency, to determine the length and constant bond force U=O by means of the combination of the concept of absorbed energy and the mathematical expression of Badger modified by Jones. It is intended a factor that simplifies the mathematical treatment and the results are compared with the values obtained for other methods. (Author)

  12. Aroma improvement by repeated freeze-thaw treatment during Tuber melanosporum fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Deng-Rong; Liu, Rui-Sang; He, Long; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy are the most important characteristics of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum. However, these three aroma attributes are absent in the T. melanosporum fermentation system. To improve the quality of the aroma, repeated freeze-thaw treatment (RFTT) was adopted to affect the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using RFTT, not only was the score on the hedonic scale of the aroma increased from the “liked slightly” to the “liked moderately” grade, but the aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy could also be smelled in the T. melanosporum fermentation system for the first time. A total of 29 VOCs were identified, and 9 compounds were identified as the key discriminative volatiles affected by RFTT. Amino acid analysis revealed that methionine, valine, serine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine were the key substrates associated with the biosynthesis of the 9 key discriminative VOCs. This study noted that amino acid metabolism played an important role in the regulation of the aroma of the T. melanosporum fermentation system. PMID:26607288

  13. Influence of Different Maceration Treatments on the Aroma Profile of Rosé and Red Wines from Croatian Aromatic cv. Muškat ruža porečki (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lukić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different grape mash maceration treatments on the varietal and secondary aroma profiles of wines produced from an aromatic red grape variety, Muškat ruža porečki, have been investigated. Two essentially different techniques were applied, fermentative maceration at room temperature and prefermentative cryomaceration, both in durations of one, three and five days. Generally, higher concentrations of free and bound varietal aroma compounds were found in wines obtained by maceration at room temperature in relation to cryomaceration. Regarding the effect of the duration of maceration, the highest concentrations were determined in wines obtained by three-day maceration treatments, in both fermentative and cryomaceration treatments. Secondary aroma compounds followed a less uniform pattern. The compounds with the highest odour unit values in all investigated wines were linalool, citronellol, geraniol, β-damascenone, β-ionone, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and diethyl succinate. It has been shown that Muškat ruža porečki is an aromatic variety, producing wines with notable monoterpenol fraction, which are characterized by a typical varietal Muscat aroma with a dominant rose odour accompanied by red fruit nuances. Sensorially, longer maceration treatments improved odour and overall wine quality, together with the intensity and recognisability of varietal Muscat aroma, while short-term cryomaceration emerged as a preferable technique for the production of light rosé wines with pronounced Muscat aroma and low phenolic content. The presented maceration techniques were shown to be applicable for the production of different types of Muškat ruža porečki rosé and red wines.

  14. Influence of packaging on the aroma stability of strawberry syrup during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducruet, V; Fournier, N; Saillard, P; Feigenbaum, A; Guichard, E

    2001-05-01

    Different types of packaging (glass bottle, PVC, and PET) were compared for the preservation of aroma quality of a strawberry syrup during shelf life. Esters, alcohols, and aldehydes were analyzed by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and solvent extraction. During storage, hydrolysis of esters in acids and alcohols led to a modification of the aroma profile which can be explained by the replacement of "fruity" and "fresh" notes by "dairy note" in the syrup. Aroma compounds that are responsible for fruity notes, such as methyl cinnamate, methyl anthranilate, and methyl dihydrojasmonate, were strongly reduced after 90 days. This could be explained by a selective interaction of these compounds with the polymer matrix (PET or PVC). After 330 days, a later and important decrease of the "fruity notes" occurred in both PETs; so PVC2 and the glass bottle were found to be able to maintain a balanced aroma for long-term storage.

  15. Aroma behaviour during steam cooking within a potato starch-based model matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descours, Emilie; Hambleton, Alicia; Kurek, Mia; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Voilley, Andrée; Seuvre, Anne-Marie

    2013-06-05

    To help understand the organoleptic qualities of steam cooked foods, the kinetics of aroma release during cooking in a potato starch based model matrix was studied. Behaviour of components having a major impact in potato flavour were studied using solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Evolution of microstructure of potato starch model-matrix during steam cooking process was analyzed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Both aroma compounds that are naturally present in starch matrix and those that were added were analyzed. Both the aroma compounds naturally presented and those added had different behaviour depending on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, saturation vapour pressure, molecular weight, etc.). The physical state of potato starch influences of the retention of aromatized matrix with Starch gelatinization appearing to be the major phenomenon influencing aroma release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  17. Determination of organic compounds in water using ultraviolet LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ji, Taeksoo; Eom, Joo Beom

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a method of detecting organic compounds in water using an ultraviolet LED (280 nm) spectroscopy system and a photodetector. The LED spectroscopy system showed a high correlation between the concentration of the prepared potassium hydrogen phthalate and that calculated by multiple linear regression, indicating an adjusted coefficient of determination ranging from 0.953-0.993. In addition, a comparison between the performance of the spectroscopy system and the total organic carbon analyzer indicated that the difference in concentration was small. Based on the close correlation between the spectroscopy and photodetector absorbance values, organic measurement with a photodetector could be configured for monitoring.

  18. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R.M.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak Cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetoacetonitrile. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed. (Author) 12 refs

  19. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R.M.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1995-09-01

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone+acrolein. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed

  20. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Belda Aguilar, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Esteban Fernández, Adelaida; Navascués, Eva; Marquina Díaz, Domingo; Santos de la Sen, Antonio; Moreno Arribas, M. Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer’s preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production ...

  1. Does oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) made from a combination of leaf and stem smell more aromatic than leaf-only tea? Contribution of the stem to oolong tea aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lanting; Zhou, Ying; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Cheng, Sihua; Gui, Jiadong; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jinchi; Ma, Shengzhou; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    The raw materials used to make oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) are a combination of leaf and stem. Oolong tea made from leaf and stem is thought to have a more aromatic smell than leaf-only tea. However, there is no available evidence to support the viewpoint. In this study, sensory evaluation and detailed characterization of emitted and internal volatiles (not readily emitted, but stored in samples) of dry oolong teas and infusions indicated that the presence of stem did not significantly improve the total aroma characteristics. During the enzyme-active processes, volatile monoterpenes and theanine were accumulated more abundantly in stem than in leaf, while jasmine lactone, indole, and trans-nerolidol were lower in stem than in leaf. Tissue-specific aroma-related gene expression and availability of precursors of aroma compounds resulted in different aroma distributions in leaf and stem. This study presents the first determination of the contribution of stem to oolong tea aroma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The aroma of the probiotic yogurts with and without supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in aromacompounds of fermented milks with probiotics during storage as a function of time and temperature. The aroma compounds concentration in probiotic yogurt samples, during storage at + 4 and +20°C were studied. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethanol and organic acids (lactate, acetate, citrate content were determined during 20 days, every fifth day from the beginning of storage. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, lactic, citric and acetic acid concentration were determined using an enzymatic method, while diacetyl concentration was determined using colorimetric method. The results showed that the acetaldehyde decreased during storage. The decrease was higher at elevated temperature. On the other hand, diacetyl, ethanol and acetic acid increased during storage at both temperatures. The concentration of lactic acid increased during storage at both temperature and at the end of storage it was doubled. The amount of citric acid increased in the same manner. The increase of all organic acids during storage was higher at elevated temperature.

  3. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Systems approach for exploring the intricate associations between sweetness, color and aroma in melon fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Shiri; Lev, Shery; Gonda, Itay; Reuveni, Eli; Portnoy, Vitaly; Oren, Elad; Lohse, Marc; Galpaz, Navot; Bar, Einat; Tzuri, Galil; Wissotsky, Guy; Meir, Ayala; Burger, Joseph; Tadmor, Yaakov; Schaffer, Arthur; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Katzir, Nurit

    2015-03-03

    Melon (Cucumis melo) fruits exhibit phenotypic diversity in several key quality determinants such as taste, color and aroma. Sucrose, carotenoids and volatiles are recognized as the key compounds shaping the above corresponding traits yet the full network of biochemical events underlying their synthesis have not been comprehensively described. To delineate the cellular processes shaping fruit quality phenotypes, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was used as a source of phenotypic and genotypic variations. In parallel, ripe fruits were analyzed for both the quantified level of 77 metabolic traits directly associated with fruit quality and for RNA-seq based expression profiles generated for 27,000 unigenes. First, we explored inter-metabolite association patterns; then, we described metabolites versus gene association patterns; finally, we used the correlation-based associations for predicting uncharacterized synthesis pathways. Based on metabolite versus metabolite and metabolite versus gene association patterns, we divided metabolites into two key groups: a group including ethylene and aroma determining volatiles whose accumulation patterns are correlated with the expression of genes involved in the glycolysis and TCA cycle pathways; and a group including sucrose and color determining carotenoids whose accumulation levels are correlated with the expression of genes associated with plastid formation. The study integrates multiple processes into a genome scale perspective of cellular activity. This lays a foundation for deciphering the role of gene markers associated with the determination of fruit quality traits.

  5. Aroma constituents and alkylamides of red and green huajiao (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaogen

    2008-03-12

    Huajiao denotes the fruits of various species of Zanthoxylum in the plant family Rutaceare used for cooking. The two most commercially popular species are bungeanum (red huajiao) and schinifolium (green huajiao). Fresh huajiao has a very high content of essential oil, up to 11%, which is described as having fresh, spicy, floral, cooling, and green aroma notes. A comprehensive analysis of the essential oils by GC-MS using advanced peak deconvolution and data processing software, revealed many overlapping components. A total of 120 aroma compounds for each species has been found. In the essential oils, linalyl acetate (15%), linalool (13%), and limonene (12%) are the major components of red huajiao, whereas linalool (29%), limonene (14%), and sabinene (13%) are the major components of green huajiao. For estimation of the aroma contribution of individual components, a new concept, "aroma character impact value" (ACI), is introduced as the percentage of the ratio of the concentration of an aroma component to its odor threshold value. Despite the differences in major components, both species have six common compounds of top aroma character impact: linalool, alpha-terpineol, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, and geraniol. The tingling sensation of huajiao is caused mainly by the alkylamide hydroxy-alpha-sanshool. The tingling compound decomposes easily under hydrolytic conditions or under UV light.

  6. Aroma Constituents in Shanxi Aged Vinegar before and after Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Xie, Jianchun; Hou, Li; Zhao, Mengyao; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Shi; Sun, Bao-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Shanxi aged vinegar is one of the most famous Chinese traditional cereal vinegars produced by spontaneous solid-state fermentation. However, the aroma composition of Shanxi aged vinegar is still ambiguous. The Shanxi vinegars before and after aging were both analyzed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) in aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 87 odor-active regions were found by GC-O, and 80 odor-active compounds were identified. By GC-MS/MS, in selected reaction monitoring mode, 30 important identifications were quantitated using authentic standards. In comparison, the aroma molecules for the vinegars before and after aging were almost the same; only their levels were altered, with mostly the esters and some compounds that produce pungent smells being lost and the levels of those from the Maillard reaction, especially the pyrazines (e.g., tetramethylpyrazine), being greatly increased. As for the aged vinegar, the compounds found to have high flavor dilution factors (>128) were 3-(methylthio)propanal, vanillin, 2,3-butanedione, tetramethylpyrazine, 3-methylbutanoic acid, γ-nonalactone, guaiacol, 3-(methylthio)propyl acetate, dimethyl trisulfide, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, furfural, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. However, the aroma compounds found at high concentrations (>25 μg/L) in the aged vinegar were acetic acid, followed by 2,3-butanedione, furfural, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, tetramethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, and 3-methylbutanoic acid.

  7. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatogra...... amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour....

  8. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked......Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...

  9. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2....... The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial baker’s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with baker’s yeast IV, VI...

  10. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    2006-07-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  11. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelly, Todd E.

    2006-01-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  12. [Compound preservative and cyclamat determinated by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruozhu; Ding, Mei; Zheng, Xianguang; Li, Yajuan

    2008-07-01

    To establish a gas chromatography method for synchronous determination of six preservatives and cyclamat in cake and pastry. The pre-treatment of complicated compound was finished by dialysis cleaning technology. The interference of the complicated foundation body in the cake and pastry was removed by the best dialysis condition: 2 g/L NaOH of dialysis fluid was dialyzed at the temperature of 25 degrees C for 24h, and the six preservatives and cyclamat (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, dehydroacetic acid, ethylparabenum, propylparabenum, butylparabenun and sodium cyclamate) were synchronously seperated by 60-80 mesh Chromosorb WAW DMCS glass packing column of intercoated 5% DEGS + 1% H3 PO4. The seven components in the sample had a good lining relation at the concentration 100 -5000 mg/L when the external standard method was used, and their correlation coefficients were 0.9993-0.9998, and their average recovery rates were 87.5%-101.9%, and their relative standard deviations were 0.64%-3.3%, and detection limits were 1.1-8.8 mg/L. This method could be used to quickly analyse the compound preservatives of the large batch cake and pastry through the common gas chromatography and packed column and this method was simple, accurate and quick.

  13. Large-scale selection and breeding to generate industrial yeasts with superior aroma production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Meersman, Esther; Snoek, Tim; Saels, Veerle; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations and relative ratios of various aroma compounds produced by fermenting yeast cells are essential for the sensory quality of many fermented foods, including beer, bread, wine, and sake. Since the production of these aroma-active compounds varies highly among different yeast strains, careful selection of variants with optimal aromatic profiles is of crucial importance for a high-quality end product. This study evaluates the production of different aroma-active compounds in 301 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast strains. Our results show that the production of key aroma compounds like isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate varies by an order of magnitude between natural yeasts, with the concentrations of some compounds showing significant positive correlation, whereas others vary independently. Targeted hybridization of some of the best aroma-producing strains yielded 46 intraspecific hybrids, of which some show a distinct heterosis (hybrid vigor) effect and produce up to 45% more isoamyl acetate than the best parental strains while retaining their overall fermentation performance. Together, our results demonstrate the potential of large-scale outbreeding to obtain superior industrial yeasts that are directly applicable for commercial use. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Determination of aniline and quinoline compounds in textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Giovanna; Iadaresta, Francesco; Moccia, Emanuele; Östman, Conny; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2016-11-04

    A simple method for simultaneous determination of twenty-one analytes, belonging to two classes of compounds, aromatic amines and quinolines, is presented. Several of the analytes considered in this study frequently occur in textiles goods on the open market and have been related to allergic contact dermatitis and/or are proven or suspected carcinogens. The method includes an efficient clean-up step using graphitized carbon black (GCB) that simplifies and improves the robustness of the subsequent GC-MS analysis. Briefly, after solvent extraction of the textile sample, the extract is passed through a GCB SPE cartridge that selectively retain dyes and other interfering compounds present in the matrix, producing a clean extract, suitable for GC-MS analysis, is obtained. The method was evaluated by spiking blank textiles with the selected analytes. Method quantification limits (MQL) ranged from 5 to 720ng/g depending on the analyte. The linear range of the calibration curves ranged over two order magnitude with coefficients of determination (R 2 ) higher than 0.99. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 92% with RSDs 1.7-14%. The effectiveness of the method was tested on a variety of textile materials samples from different origin. In a pilot explorative survey, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline was detected in all the analysed clothing samples in concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 576μg/g. 2,4-dinitroaniline was detected in four of the seven samples with a highest concentration of 305μg/g. Quinoline was detected in all samples in concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 6.2μg/g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in atmospheric environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H W; Li, G K; Li, H; Zhang, Z X; Wang, B G; Li, T; Luo, H K

    2001-11-01

    It is well known that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the main photochemical pollutants and ozone precursors of the photochemical smog. Investigation of photochemical pollution in the ambient air must focus on VOCs, but the concentration of VOCs in ambient air is in a very low level (10(-9)-10(-12), volume fraction), so there are difficulties in the determination of VOCs. In this work, based on the TO14A and TO15 methods recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency of United States, an improved method for the determination of fifty-six VOCs, mainly O3 precursors, in atmospheric environment was developed. Operating conditions of VOCs preconcentrator, gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were optimized. Air sample was first frozen by liquid nitrogen, and then H2O and CO2 were eliminated in the VOCs preconcentrator. The preconcentrated VOCs sample was injected to GC and detected by MS or hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID). The C2-C10 hydrocarbons were separated effectively in capillary columns under the high concentration of CO2. The detection limits were 0.1 microgram.m-3 and the relative standard deviations were in the range from 2.57% to 9.82%. This method has been used for the determination of VOCs in real samples. The results were satisfactory.

  16. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-04

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  17. Volatile composition of Merlot red wine and its contribution to the aroma: optimization and validation of analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcari, Stefany Grützmann; Caliari, Vinicius; Sganzerla, Marla; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2017-11-01

    A methodology for the determination of volatile compounds in red wine using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap/ mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) and flame ionization detector (GC -FID) was developed, validated and applied to a sample of Brazilian red wine. The optimization strategy was conducted using the Plackett-Burman design for variable selection and central composite rotational design (CCRD). The response surface methodology showed that the performance of the extraction of the volatile compounds using divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber is improved with no sample dilution, the addition of 30% NaCl, applying an extraction temperature of 56°C and extraction time of 55min. The qualitative method allowed the extraction and identification of 60 volatile compounds in the sample studied, notably the classes of esters, alcohols, and fatty acids. Furthermore, the method was successfully validated for the quantification of 55 volatile compounds of importance in wines and applied to twelve samples of Merlot red wine from South of Brazil. The calculation of the odor activity value (OAV) showed the most important components of the samples aroma. Ethyl isovalerate, ethyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, octanoic acid and ethyl cinnamate had the greatest contribution to the aroma of the wines analyzed, which is predominantly fruity with the presence of herbal and fatty odors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectrographic determination of some rare earths in thorium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method for spectrographic determination of Gd, Sm, Dy, Eu, Y, Yb, Tm and Lu in thorium compounds has been developed. Sensibilities of 0.01 μg rare earths/g Th02 were achieved. The rare earth elements were chromatographycally separated in a nitric acid-ether-cellulose system. The solvent mixture was prepared by dissolving 11% of concentrated nitric acid in ether. The method is based upon the sorption of the rare earths on activated cellulose, the elements being eluted together with 0.01 M HNO 3 . The retention of the 152 , 154 Eu used as tracer was 99,4%. The other elements showed recoveries varying from 95 to 99%. A direct carrier destillation procedure for the spectrochemical determination of the mentioned elements was used. Several concentrations of silver chloride were used to study the volatility behavior of the rare earths. 2%AgCl was added to the matrix as definite carrier, being lantanum selected as internal standard. The average coefficient of variation for this method was +- -+ 7%. The method has been appleid to the analysis of rare earths in thorium coumpounds prepared by Thorium Purification Pilot Plant at Atomic Energy Institute, Sao Paulo [pt

  19. DNA tests for strawberry: mesifurane "sherry" aroma - FaOMT-SI/NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amazing flavor and texture in strawberries is caused by a complex balance of numerous sugars and aromatic compounds. One of the most important aromatic compounds contributing to the flavor we have come to love in strawberries is mesifurane. Mesifurane produces a sweet sherry-like aroma and incre...

  20. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  1. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of sugars on liquid-vapour partition of volatile compounds in ready-to-drink coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccone, P; Lonzarich, V; Navarini, L; Fusella, G; Pittia, P

    2012-09-01

    The effect of sugars (sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose, 10%w/v) on the liquid-vapour partition of selected volatile compounds of coffee beverages has been investigated in espresso coffee and ready-to-drink (RTD) canned coffee prepared and obtained by using the same Arabica roasted coffee beans blend. Aroma composition of coffee beverages has been preliminary investigated by headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) and solid phase microextraction-HS-GC-mass spectrometry to characterize the volatile pattern of the systems and to evaluate the effects of sugars on the aroma release/retention. Then, the liquid-vapour partition coefficient (k) of 4 selected key aroma compounds (diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, ethylpyrazine, hexanal) was determined in water, sugars solutions as well as RTD coffee brews added with the same sugars (10%w/v). Sugars added in coffee beverages affected the release of the volatiles and thus its aroma profile with differences due to the type of added sugar and coffee brew type. The k values of the selected volatile compounds resulted different depending on the model system composition (water, coffee brew) and sugar type added. In particular, melanoidins as well as other non-volatile components (lipids, acids, carbohydrates) in the RTD coffee brews could be implied in the change of k of the volatile compounds in respect to that observed in water. The effects of the sugar type on the release/retention of the four key coffee aroma compounds were partly explained in terms of 'salting out' especially for the more polar volatile compounds and in the sucrose-added model systems. The change of chemical and physico-chemical properties of the water and brews induced by the sugars as well as the occurrence of interactions between volatile compounds and non-volatile components may be implied in the reduction of the vapour partition of the aroma compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Determining the Degree of Promiscuity of Extensively Assayed Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, J?rgen

    2016-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, an emerging concept in drug discovery, promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of compounds to specifically interact with multiple targets. Promiscuity of drugs and bioactive compounds has thus far been analyzed computationally on the basis of activity annotations, without taking assay frequencies or inactivity records into account. Most recent estimates have indicated that bioactive compounds interact on average with only one to two targets, whereas dru...

  4. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adahchour, M; Vreuls, R J; van der Heijden, A; Brinkman, U A

    1999-06-04

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water fraction are collected by off-line SPE on cartidges packed with a copolymer sorbent. After desorption with 500 microliters of methyl acetate, 1-microliter aliquots are quantified and/or identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The procedure was tested with respect to recovery, linearity and limit of detection in real-life samples using five polar model analytes. It allows the characterisation of polar flavour compounds in butter prior to and after heat treatment at 170 degrees C. From the five model compounds, vanillin, traces of diacetyl and maltol were found to be present in the butter samples. After heat treatment 500-1000-fold increased concentration of maltol, and substantial amounts of furaneol were detected.

  5. Influence of composition (CO2 and sugar) on aroma release and perception of mint-flavored carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Déléris, Isabelle; Aubin, Elodie; Semon, Etienne; Feron, Gilles; Rabillier, Jean-Marc; Ibarra, Dominique; Guichard, Elisabeth; Souchon, Isabelle

    2009-07-08

    The aim of the present work was to identify and quantify physical mechanisms responsible for in-nose aroma release during the consumption of mint-flavored carbonated beverages in order to better understand how they are perceived. The effect of two composition factors (sugar and CO(2)) was investigated on both the sensory and physicochemical properties of drinks by studying in vitro and in vivo aroma release. Sensory results revealed that the presence of CO(2) increased aroma perception regardless of the sugar content. In agreement with volatility parameters, in vivo measurements showed that carbonated drinks released a greater quantity of aroma compounds in the nose space than non-carbonated ones. CO(2) seemed thus to induce large modifications of the physicochemical mechanisms responsible for the aroma release and flavor perception of soft drinks. Moreover, sugar content seemed to have an impact (increase) on aroma perception only in the case of non-carbonated beverages. Sensory interactions were thus observed, in particular, between sweet and aroma perceptions. For carbonated beverages, sugar content had an impact only on aroma release, but not on their perception.

  6. SIFAT FISIOKIMIA DAN AROMA EKSTRAK VANILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Setyaningsih

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of vanilla beans from dried vanilla to vanilla extract would give added value to vanilla products. Aroma and taste in vanilla extract depend on variety of plants, cultivation methods, and curing process. Indonesian vanilla extract tend to give woody and phenolic aroma because it was harvested too early and it did not cure perfectly. This study was to identify the physicochemical and aroma characteristics of vanilla extracts from importer, exporter, and vanilla extracts from the newest experiment from our laboratory. There were seven samples, three from importers (Tahiti grade I, Tahiti grade II, Virginia Dare, two from Indonesian Vanilla exporters (Djasula Wangi, Cobra, and two from our laboratory (G11, 57. The physicochemical characteristics which were analyzed were vanillin content, ash, soluble ash, alkalinity of soluble ash, alkalinity of total ash, total acidity, and lead number, all compared with the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA standard. Sensory analysis used aroma description test consist of qualitative descriptive test (in-depth interview and focus group methods and quantitative descriptive analysis. The result showed that the laboratory's sample from modified curing process (G11 followed the FDA standard in physicochemical characters, but the aroma description was not as strong as the aroma of vanilla extract from exporters, namely Cobra with creamy, sweet, and vanilla aroma; and vanilla extract from importer, namely Virginia with smoky and spicy aroma

  7. Determination of bacteria and trihalomethane compounds in sachet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portable water is essential to humans and other forms of life. Poor treatment of drinking water results in the distribution of drinking water contaminated with bacteria and trihalomethane (THMs) compounds. Five brands of sachet drinking water were analyzed for coliform colony units and THM compounds concentration using ...

  8. True cooking aroma or artefact. 15N gives the answer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metro, F.; Boudaud, N.; Dumont, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    In order to determine the respective contributions of the various nitrous precursor families in aroma preparations, the usually added amino acids were substituted with 15 N isotope labelled homologous components. Results concerning isotope ratios for the volatile fraction nitrous components collected from poultry meat aromatic preparations, are presented. Terminal product labelling appears to allow for a better determination of the substrate and functional additive contributions. 4 figs., 6 refs

  9. Processing of nominal compounds and gender-marked determiners in aphasia: evidence from German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Antje; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2014-01-01

    The present study tests theories about the representation of compound nouns and grammatical gender in the mental lexicon. Comprehension and production of determiner-compound-noun phrases were examined in three aphasic native speakers of German, a language that marks grammatical gender on definite determiners of nouns. In picture naming, participants were more impaired in retrieving compounds than matched simple nouns and showed different error patterns. However, retrieving the correct determiner was equally impaired for compounds and simple nouns. Clear dissociations between impaired determiner retrieval in production and relatively preserved processing of determiner-noun phrases in comprehension were observed for existing compounds and simple nouns. In contrast, processing of novel compounds was more impaired in both modalities, and gender-mismatch effects were especially observed for novel compounds. The results support the account of decomposed word forms and holistic lemma representations of compound nouns in the mental lexicon.

  10. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of key odorant compounds in freshly distilled cognac using GC-O, GC-MS, and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gérald; Lablanquie, Odile; Cantagrel, Roger; Ledauphin, Jérôme; Payot, Thierry; Fournier, Nicole; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2004-09-08

    This aim of this work was to identify the odorant compounds responsible for the typical sensory descriptors attributed to freshly distilled Cognac spirits, not matured in barrels. Panelists were first selected and trained for gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the 150 volatile compounds identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, only 34 are mainly responsible for the odors detected in the spirits. The "butter" descriptor is explained by the presence of diacetyl, the "hay" descriptor by nerolidol, the "grass" descriptor mainly by Z-3-hexen-1-ol, but also by other compounds, the "pear" and "banana" descriptors by 2- and 3-methylbutyl acetates, the "rose" descriptor by 2-phenylethyl acetate, and the "lime tree" descriptor by linalool. This study demonstrated that many odorant molecules are already present in freshly distilled Cognac, thereby giving the spirit its specific aroma.

  12. KOMPONEN VOTALIT DANKARAKTERISASI KOMPONEN KUNCI AROMA BUAH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. [Colatile Aroma Constituents and Potent Odorant of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Andaliman, a wild spice well known in Northem Sumatera, has a fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery odor. This research was conducted to analyse pontent odorant from andaliman maceration extract using GC-MS, GC/O and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA method. Monoterpenes were the main constituens among the 24 identified components by GC-MS. Results od AEDA revealed that citronellal and limonene had the greatest impact on the aroma of andaliman with flavour dilution factor 128 and 32. β-myrcene, 2-β-ocimene, linalool, β-citronellol, neral, geraniol, gerabial, geranyl acetate, an unkwown compound, and a sesquiterpene also contributed to andaliman fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery aroma.

  13. Norisoprenoids, sesquiterpenes and terpenoids content of Valpolicella wines during ageing: investigating aroma potential in relationship to evolution of tobacco and balsamic aroma in aged wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Ugliano, Maurizio

    2018-03-01

    During wine ageing, tobacco and balsamic aroma notes appear. In this paper, volatile compounds directly or potentially related to those aromas have been investigated in Corvina and Corvinone wines during aging. Corvina and Corvinone are two northern-Italy autochthonous red grape varieties, used to produce Valpolicella Classico and Amarone wines, both characterized by tobacco and balsamic aroma notes. Wines were analysed shortly after bottling or following model ageing at 60 °C for 48, 72, and 168 hours. Volatile compounds were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Results showed that compounds related to tobacco aroma (β-damascenone, 3-oxo-α-ionol, (E)-1-(2,3,6-Trimethylphenyl)-buta-1,3-diene (TPB) and megastigmatrienones) increased in relationship to storage time with different patterns. β-Damascenone and 3-oxo-α-ionol rapidly increased to reach a plateau in the first 48-72 hours of model ageing. Instead, TPB and megastigmatrienones concentration showed a linear correlation with ageing time. During model ageing, several cyclic terpenes tended to increase. Among them 1,8-cineole and 1,4-cineole, previously reported to contribute to red wine eucalyptus notes increased proportionally to storage time, and this behavior was clearly associated with reactions involving α-terpineol, limonene and terpinolene, as confirmed by studies with model wine solutions. Among other relevant volatile compounds, sesquiterpenes appear to contribute potentially balsamic and spicy aroma notes. In this study, linear sesquiterpenes (nerolidol, farnesol) underwent acid hydrolysis during long wine ageing, while cyclic sesquiterpenes seemed to increase with time. The chemical pathways associated with evolution of some of the compounds investigated have been studied in model wine.

  14. Norisoprenoids, Sesquiterpenes and Terpenoids Content of Valpolicella Wines During Aging: Investigating Aroma Potential in Relationship to Evolution of Tobacco and Balsamic Aroma in Aged Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Ugliano, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    During wine aging, tobacco and balsamic aroma notes appear. In this paper, volatile compounds directly or potentially related to those aromas have been investigated in Corvina and Corvinone wines during aging. Corvina and Corvinone are two northern-Italy autochthonous red grape varieties, used to produce Valpolicella Classico and Amarone wines, both characterized by tobacco and balsamic aroma notes. Wines were analyzed shortly after bottling or following model aging at 60°C for 48, 72, and 168 h. Volatile compounds were analyzed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Results showed that compounds related to tobacco aroma [β-damascenone, 3-oxo-α-ionol, (E)-1-(2,3,6-Trimethylphenyl)-buta-1,3-diene (TPB), and megastigmatrienones] increased in relationship to storage time with different patterns. β-Damascenone and 3-oxo-α-ionol rapidly increased to reach a plateau in the first 48-72 h of model aging. Instead, TPB and megastigmatrienones concentration showed a linear correlation with aging time. During model aging, several cyclic terpenes tended to increase. Among them 1,8-cineole and 1,4-cineole, previously reported to contribute to red wine eucalyptus notes increased proportionally to storage time, and this behavior was clearly associated with reactions involving α-terpineol, limonene, and terpinolene, as confirmed by studies with model wine solutions. Among other relevant volatile compounds, sesquiterpenes appear to contribute potentially balsamic and spicy aroma notes. In this study, linear sesquiterpenes (nerolidol, farnesol) underwent acid hydrolysis during long wine aging, while cyclic sesquiterpenes seemed to increase with time. The chemical pathways associated with evolution of some of the compounds investigated have been studied in model wine.

  15. Norisoprenoids, Sesquiterpenes and Terpenoids Content of Valpolicella Wines During Aging: Investigating Aroma Potential in Relationship to Evolution of Tobacco and Balsamic Aroma in Aged Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Ugliano, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    During wine aging, tobacco and balsamic aroma notes appear. In this paper, volatile compounds directly or potentially related to those aromas have been investigated in Corvina and Corvinone wines during aging. Corvina and Corvinone are two northern-Italy autochthonous red grape varieties, used to produce Valpolicella Classico and Amarone wines, both characterized by tobacco and balsamic aroma notes. Wines were analyzed shortly after bottling or following model aging at 60°C for 48, 72, and 168 h. Volatile compounds were analyzed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Results showed that compounds related to tobacco aroma [β-damascenone, 3-oxo-α-ionol, (E)-1-(2,3,6-Trimethylphenyl)-buta-1,3-diene (TPB), and megastigmatrienones] increased in relationship to storage time with different patterns. β-Damascenone and 3-oxo-α-ionol rapidly increased to reach a plateau in the first 48–72 h of model aging. Instead, TPB and megastigmatrienones concentration showed a linear correlation with aging time. During model aging, several cyclic terpenes tended to increase. Among them 1,8-cineole and 1,4-cineole, previously reported to contribute to red wine eucalyptus notes increased proportionally to storage time, and this behavior was clearly associated with reactions involving α-terpineol, limonene, and terpinolene, as confirmed by studies with model wine solutions. Among other relevant volatile compounds, sesquiterpenes appear to contribute potentially balsamic and spicy aroma notes. In this study, linear sesquiterpenes (nerolidol, farnesol) underwent acid hydrolysis during long wine aging, while cyclic sesquiterpenes seemed to increase with time. The chemical pathways associated with evolution of some of the compounds investigated have been studied in model wine. PMID:29616214

  16. Norisoprenoids, Sesquiterpenes and Terpenoids Content of Valpolicella Wines During Aging: Investigating Aroma Potential in Relationship to Evolution of Tobacco and Balsamic Aroma in Aged Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Slaghenaufi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During wine aging, tobacco and balsamic aroma notes appear. In this paper, volatile compounds directly or potentially related to those aromas have been investigated in Corvina and Corvinone wines during aging. Corvina and Corvinone are two northern-Italy autochthonous red grape varieties, used to produce Valpolicella Classico and Amarone wines, both characterized by tobacco and balsamic aroma notes. Wines were analyzed shortly after bottling or following model aging at 60°C for 48, 72, and 168 h. Volatile compounds were analyzed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Results showed that compounds related to tobacco aroma [β-damascenone, 3-oxo-α-ionol, (E-1-(2,3,6-Trimethylphenyl-buta-1,3-diene (TPB, and megastigmatrienones] increased in relationship to storage time with different patterns. β-Damascenone and 3-oxo-α-ionol rapidly increased to reach a plateau in the first 48–72 h of model aging. Instead, TPB and megastigmatrienones concentration showed a linear correlation with aging time. During model aging, several cyclic terpenes tended to increase. Among them 1,8-cineole and 1,4-cineole, previously reported to contribute to red wine eucalyptus notes increased proportionally to storage time, and this behavior was clearly associated with reactions involving α-terpineol, limonene, and terpinolene, as confirmed by studies with model wine solutions. Among other relevant volatile compounds, sesquiterpenes appear to contribute potentially balsamic and spicy aroma notes. In this study, linear sesquiterpenes (nerolidol, farnesol underwent acid hydrolysis during long wine aging, while cyclic sesquiterpenes seemed to increase with time. The chemical pathways associated with evolution of some of the compounds investigated have been studied in model wine.

  17. Changes in Wine Aroma Composition According to Botrytized Berry Percentage: A Preliminary Study on Amarone Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fedrizzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of Botrytis cinerea, a noble rot, on the aroma components of Amarone, a dry red wine produced from withered grapes. A comparative analysis of wines obtained from manually selected healthy and botrytized grapes was done. Aroma analysis revealed that most compounds varied significantly according to the percentage of botrytized berries utilized. Botrytized wines contained less fatty acids and more fruity acetates than healthy wines. A positive correlation between the content of N-(3-methylbutylacetamide, sherry lactone and an unidentified compound and the level of fungal infection was also observed. The results indicate that noble rot can significantly modify important aroma components of Amarone wine.

  18. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.

  19. Millennial size-dependent velocity of coarse river sediment determined using 10Be in cobbles of the Aroma canyon (Atacama, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretier, Sebastien; Regard, Vincent; Leanni, Laetitia; Farias, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    We focus on coarse sediment routing velocity in fluvial systems. The millennial mean velocity at which coarse sediment move along the fluvial system lies at the heart of many source-to-sink issues. For example, this velocity determines if a climatic or tectonic pulse of sediment generated in the mountain is advected or diluted towards the basin, and thus if the basin stratigraphy is able to record such variations. Whether this millennial velocity depends on pebble size or not is still unclear. Yet, quantifying this possible size dependence is fundamental to interpret the observed transitions between coarse and fine sediment in basin architecture. These uncertainties result from the difficulty to measure coarse sediment velocities and flux that integrate a wide range of floods over periods longer than several years. Here we show that the 10Be concentrations in distinct river pebbles can bridge this gap. We selected cobbles and pebbles ([0.01-0.3] m) along a 50 km Andean arid canyon in the Atacama. These samples come from a unique lithological source at catchment head. We obtained the mean 10Be concentrations of 20 to 100 samples at 7 river stations downstream. In addition, the 10Be concentration of individual pebbles was measured for 3 of these 7 locations. They show a downstream increase of both the mean and scattering of 10Be concentrations. Using a simple stochastic model of grain transport and 10Be evolution, we show that: 1- the millennial maximum mean velocity of 10 cm pebbles is on the order of several meters by year, and 2- that the velocity is inversely related to pebble size, despite a large variability for a given size. This size-dependence is consistent with the observed downstream fining in this river. Such velocities imply a wide range of residence times ([0.1-100] ka) of pebbles ([0.01-0.3] m) in this arid canyon.

  20. Aroma modulation of Cabernet Gernischt dry red wine by optimal enzyme treatment strategy in winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Xuan; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2018-04-15

    Cabernet Gernischt (CG) is a famous Chinese wine grape cultivar, the red wine of which is known for its green trait, especially when produced from grapes cultivated in regions with monsoon climate. To modify CG wine aroma, three enzyme preparations (H. uvarum extracellular enzyme, AR2000, and pectinase) were introduced in different winemaking stages with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Free and bound aroma compounds in young wines were detected using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and aroma characteristics were quantified by trained panelists. Results showed that simultaneous inoculation of enzymes and yeasts improved wine aroma. Partial least-squares regression revealed that the green trait was due mainly to varietal compounds, especially C 6 compounds, and could be partly weakened by fermentative compounds. Moreover, H. uvarum enzyme treatments enriched the acid fruit note of CG wine by enhancing the synergistic effect of varietal volatiles and certain fermentative compounds, such as esters and phenylethyls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical Composition and Aroma Evaluation of Essential Oils from Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Kashima, Yusei; Motooka, Ryota; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Yoshii, Takashi; Usami, Atsushi; Marumoto, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Two sample preparation methods, namely hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), have been used to investigate the essential oils of the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Symplocarpus foetidus, a plant with a characteristic odor, by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Characteristic aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). From the HD method, the main compounds in the oil were found to be p-vinyl-guaiacol (15.5%), 2-pentyl-furan (13.4%), and (Z)-ligustilide (9.5%). From the SAFE method, the main compounds were 2-butoxy-ethanol (49.6%), ethyl-pentanoate (4.5%), and mesitylene (4.0%). In HD oil, the most intense aroma-active compounds were 2-pentyl-furan (flavor dilution factor (FD) = 32, odor activity value (OAV) = 57), p-vinyl-guaiacol (FD = 16, OAV = 41), and dimethyl disulfide (FD = 16, OAV = 41). In SAFE oil, the main aroma-active compounds were 2-butoxy ethanol (FD = 32, OAV = 16), and 2-methoxy thiazole (FD = 32, OAV = 25).

  2. Determination of ferulic acid and related compounds by thin layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of certain phenolic compounds from plants, and their chemical transformation with microorganisms or isolated enzymes, has application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. The rapid quantitative estimation of ferulic acid by thin layer chromatography is described by measurement of the area of the ...

  3. Simultaneous determination of ten compounds in two main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attempts were made to distinguish different medicinal parts of P. hookeri. Results: Regression equation for 10 compounds showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.9994). The relative standard deviations of precision, stability, repeatability and recovery were under 5 %. Compared with the aerial plant part, the root had ...

  4. Determination of borneol and other chemical compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Essential oil (7.58 %) was obtained with the highest yield (3.24 %) in the first 2 h of fractional distillation. Thirty compounds which accounted for ... Commonwealth Forest Reserve, Selangor,. Malaysia. Plant identification was ... system was operated in scan mode with a mass range of 50 – 800 m/z. Identification of.

  5. Effects of Basal Defoliation on Wine Aromas: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal defoliation, as one of the most common viticulture management practices to modify fruit zone microclimates, has been widely applied aiming at improving wine quality. Wine aroma contributes greatly to wine quality, yet the effects of basal defoliation on wine aromas show discrepancies according to previous studies. This study is a meta-analysis performed to dissect the factors related to the influence of basal defoliation on volatile compounds in wine. Timing of basal defoliation plays an important role in the concentration of varietal aromas in wine. Pre-veraison defoliation induces an increase in β-damascenone and linalool as well as a reduction in 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP. The effects of basal defoliation on certain volatile compounds relative to fermentation aromas in wine (1-hexanol, β-phenylethanol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, decanoic acid, and ethyl octanoate depend on grape maturity. There are also other factors, such as cultivar and climate conditions, that might be responsible for the effect of basal defoliation on wine aromas. The concentrations of isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid as well as ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl isovalerate, and ethyl decanoate in wine are not markedly affected by basal defoliation. Due to limited studies included in this meta-analysis, more trials are needed to confirm the current findings.

  6. Study of aroma scalping through thermosealable polymers used in food packaging by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavara, R; Catalá, R; Hernández-Muñoz, P

    1997-01-01

    Scalping of aroma components in polymers used for food packaging was determined by solubility experiments. Aromas were selected from different families: esters, alcohols, hydrocarbons and ketones. Polymers were a linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), an ionomer and a new thermosealable polyester (PET). Polymers were selected from thermosealable materials because of their resistance to fats and oils. Sorption isotherms (low sorbate activity range) for every system aroma (vapour)/polymer were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Isotherms were found to be linear. Hence, solubility coefficients (S) as defined by Henry's law were calculated from the isotherm slopes. According to S values, PET appears to be the best choice to minimize aroma scalping by sorption in the packaging inner layer, Ionomers improve the barrier to aroma when compared with LLDPE except for polar sorbates. Sorption of aroma components was shown to be selective, e.g. limonene was preferentially sorbed in LLDPE. The value of S for the limonene/LLDPE system was 2.5 times the value of S for ethyl caproate/LLDPE. This selectivity may lead to an imbalance in the flavour and may be more important than the prevention of overall scalping.

  7. Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera L.): effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Gaiotti, Federica; Belfiore, Nicola; Matarese, Fabiola; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Environmental factors have been acknowledged to greatly influence grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has scarcely been debated in literature available to date. In the present study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest site (200 m above sea level) and, even with differences in temperature in the range 1.5-2 °C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site demonstrated slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all of the main classes of aroma compounds typical of the Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance. Altitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in the sparkling wines subsequently produced. Moreover, the present study shows that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly that of benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Multi-volatile method for aroma analysis using sequential dynamic headspace sampling with an application to brewed coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas

    2014-12-05

    A novel multi-volatile method (MVM) using sequential dynamic headspace (DHS) sampling for analysis of aroma compounds in aqueous sample was developed. The MVM consists of three different DHS method parameters sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. The first DHS sampling at 25 °C using a carbon-based adsorbent trap targets very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>20 kPa). The second DHS sampling at 25 °C using the same type of carbon-based adsorbent trap targets volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-20 kPa). The third DHS sampling using a Tenax TA trap at 80 °C targets solutes with low vapor pressure (0.9910) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 1.0-7.5 ng mL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed coffee. Ten potent aroma compounds from top-note to base-note (acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 4-ethyl guaiacol, furaneol, guaiacol, 3-methyl butanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, vanillin, and 4-vinyl guaiacol) could be identified together with an additional 72 aroma compounds. Thirty compounds including 9 potent aroma compounds were quantified in the range of 74-4300 ng mL(-1) (RSD<10%, n=5). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of gaseous compounds using online mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praun, S.

    1999-08-01

    The work is divided in three major parts and describes various measurements of gaseous compounds. The first part tasks the problem of transit traffic along the motorway from Kufstein, Northern Tyrol/Austria until Ala, Trentino/Italy. During three periods measurements of the immissions of many compounds were carried out simultaneously in Northern Tyrol, Southern Tyrol and Trentino. The influence of the ban of heavy lorry traffic during the weekend and during the night on the reduction of NO 2 could be demonstrated. Furthermore certain compounds (e.g. Benzene) were monitored online for the first time along the motorway at lowest concentrations using the mass spectrometer 'Airsense 500'. In the second part online measurements of exhaled human breath after the oral application of a medicine against bronchitis was performed. In that way beside clinical and pharmacological studies the effectiveness of this pharmacon could be proved. The last part of the present work shows adsorption- and desorption measurements on four different adsorbents. During this procedure seven different gases with an increasing number of carbon atoms were monitored online by the hyphenation of these adsorbents with the mass spectrometer 'Airsense 500'. Thereby, the various properties of the adsorbents in the interaction with the gases could be demonstrated. (author)

  10. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ( 1 H and 13 C NMR, IR). (author)

  11. Combined effects of nutrients and temperature on the production of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Bloem, Audrey; Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie; Mouret, Jean-Roch

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution.

  12. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings on a quantitative evaluation of carbonyl levels in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The cigarettes evaluated include products with 5.0 mg ‘tar’, 10.6 mg ‘tar’ and 16.2 mg ‘tar’, where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water, and the cigarettes are smoked following U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendations. The measured levels of carbonyls in the exhaled smoke were compared with calculated yields of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke and a retention efficiency was obtained. The number of human subjects included a total of ten smokers for the 10.6 mg ‘tar’, five for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’, and five for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, each subject smoking three cigarettes. The analyzed carbonyl compounds included several aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde, and two ketones (acetone and 2-butanone. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. Exhaled smoke was collected on Cambridge pads pretreated with a solution of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the dinitrophenylhydrazones of the carbonyl compounds. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke, based on calibration curves. These were generated separately by analyzing the carbonyls in smoke and the nicotine in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. The comparison of the level of carbonyl compounds in exhaled smoke with that from the inhaled smoke showed high retention of all the carbonyls. The retention of aldehydes was above 95% for all three different ‘tar’ levels cigarettes. The ketones were retained with a

  13. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  14. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshick, Stacy-Ann; Griest, Wayne H.; Vass, Arpad A.

    1997-02-01

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic 'fingerprint' pattern representative of the vapor-phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The result to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  15. Aroma e sabor no jardim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONJA DE CASTRO BOECHAT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas que contêm óleo essencial são conhecidas como plantas aromáticas. Têm amplo uso na condimentação de alimentos, propiciando combinações inigualáveis às receitas, sejam elas salgadas ou doces. Arbóreas, arbustivas, herbáceas e trepadeiras com tais características são apresentadas, com ênfase em seu uso na culinária. Breves considerações são feitas sobre os constituintes ativos que lhes dão aroma e sabor e sobre a colheita, secagem e armazenamento adequados de forma a preservá-los. A sua propagação e o correto cultivo, além do controle natural de pragas são, igualmente, abordados. Cultivadas de forma criativa, em espaços limitados ou mais amplos, podem formar agradáveis recantos.

  16. Study of Trehalose Addition on Aroma Retention in Dehydrated Strawberry Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženka Komes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of dehydrated fruit products, the influence of the addition of two sugars (sucrose and trehalose on the retention of aroma components during dehydration of strawberry puree was investigated. Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME, containing polydimethylsiloxane coated fibre (100 μm coupled with gas chromatography (GC-FID and GC-MS was used for the analysis of the aroma of strawberry puree dehydrated by using freeze drying and foam-mat drying. The analytes identified included esters, carbonyl compounds, terpenoids, several alcohols and acids. The results obtained in this study give further insight into the mechanisms concerning the application of trehalose as flavouring additive, due to its ability to retain and preserve the fruit volatiles responsible for the characteristic flavour of fresh fruits during dehydration processes. The best retention of aroma components in dehydrated strawberry puree was obtained by trehalose addition when combined with freeze drying.

  17. Affinity and selectivity of plant proteins for red wine components relevant to color and aroma traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Tiziana Mariarita; Ferranti, Pasquale; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco

    2018-08-01

    The effects of fining with various plant proteins were assessed on Aglianico red wine, using both the young wine and wine aged for twelve and twenty-four months, and including wine unfined or fined with gelatin as controls. Color traits and fining efficiency were considered, along with the content of various types of phenolics and of aroma-related compounds of either varietal or fermentative origin. All agents had comparable fining efficiency, although with distinct kinetics, and had similar effects on wine color. Individual plant proteins and enzymatic hydrolyzates differed in their ability to interact with some anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins complexes, and with some aroma components of fermentative origin. Changes in varietal aroma components upon fining were very limited or absent. Effects of all the fining agents tested in this study on the anthocyanidin components were most noticeable in young red wine, and decreased markedly with increasing wine ageing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  19. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

  20. How ingredients influence furan and aroma generation in sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Vázquez, Mayela; Rega, Barbara; Descharles, Nicolas; Camel, Valérie

    2018-04-15

    A wide range of compounds can be formed during thermal processing of food, some of which are relevant for aroma (e.g., furfural), while others are of great health concern (e.g., furan). This paper presents the study of formulation as affecting the simultaneous generation of furan and furfural, along with other aroma quality markers, in sponge cake by means of headspace trap/GC-MS. Ingredients were screened according to their category (fat, salt, sugar, egg-based). Glucose-containing formulation resulted in the highest content of furan and furfural (12.5 ± 0.5 ng g -1 and 9.2 ± 0.2 μg g -1 , dry basis, respectively), while their lowest amount was found in the egg-white recipe (3.1 ± 0.1 ng g -1 for furan and 0.287 ± 0.078 µg g -1 for furfural, dry basis). The latter also related negatively to all studied compounds. This work will be useful for developing novel strategies to deliver safe foods with appealing organoleptic attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carotenóides: propriedades, aplicações e biotransformação para formação de compostos de aroma Carotenoids: properties, applications and biotransformation in flavor compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Uenojo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, providing yellow, orange or red color in a great number of vegetables, microorganisms and in some animals. Carotenoids act as biological antioxidants and seem to play an important role in human health by protecting cells and tissues from the damaging effects of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Several authors describe the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids in flavor compounds as occuring through chemical or photochemical degradations or through biotechnological processes. Biotransformation of carotenoids seems to be a reasonable alternative to produce flavor compounds since these compounds are considered 'natural' ingredients. In this work we describe the properties of some carotenoids, as well as biotechnological approaches to obtain its oxyfunctionalized derivatives.

  2. Determination of total gas in lithium tritide-deuteride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Koski, N.L.; Waterbury, G.R.

    1979-04-01

    Lithium tritide--deuteride samples are enclosed in a copper foil and decomposed by heating to 850 0 C in a copper reaction tube in vacuum. The temperature and pressure of the evolved gas, collected in a measured volume using a Toepler pump, are measured to determine the total moles of gas released from the sample. The gas is transferred to a removable sample bulb and, if required, analyzed for gaseous constituents by mass spectrometry. Based on 14 total gas determinations for a lithium deuteride sample, the calculated relative standard deviation was 1.0% and the estimated bias was <2.5%

  3. Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, D.

    2003-02-01

    This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4 o C for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the

  4. Determination of carbon in uranium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Garcia, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper collects the analytical methods used our laboratories for the determination of carbon in uranium metal, uranate salts and the oxides, fluorides and carbides of uranium. The carbon is usually burned off in a induction or resistance oven under oxygen flow. The CO 2 is collected in barite solution. Where it is backtitrated with potassium biphthalate. (Author)

  5. Determining drug release rates of hydrophobic compounds from nanocarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Addio, Suzanne M.; Bukari, Abdallah A.; Dawoud, Mohammed; Bunjes, Heike; Rinaldi, Carlos; Prud’homme, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining meaningful drug release profiles for drug formulations is essential prior to in vivo testing and for ensuring consistent quality. The release kinetics of hydrophobic drugs from nanocarriers (NCs) are not well understood because the standard protocols for maintaining sink conditions and sampling are not valid owing to mass transfer and solubility limitations. In this work, a new in vitroassay protocol based on ‘lipid sinks’ and magnetic separation produces release conditions that mimic the concentrations of lipid membranes and lipoproteins in vivo, facilitates separation, and thus allows determination of intrinsic release rates of drugs from NCs. The assay protocol is validated by (i) determining the magnetic separation efficiency, (ii) demonstrating that sink condition requirements are met, and (iii) accounting for drug by completing a mass balance. NCs of itraconazole and cyclosporine A (CsA) were prepared and the drug release profiles were determined. This release protocol has been used to compare the drug release from a polymer stabilized NC of CsA to a solid drug NP of CsA alone. These data have led to the finding that stabilizing block copolymer layers have a retarding effect on drug release from NCs, reducing the rate of CsA release fourfold compared with the nanoparticle without a polymer coating. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation’. PMID:27298440

  6. Perceptual characterization and analysis of aroma mixtures using gas chromatography recomposition-olfactometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle J Johnson

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R, that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME, separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1. Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to "cut apart" and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator's discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the "reconstitution discrepancy" sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola 'Hidcote Blue' as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of "lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor.

  7. Method of determining the efficiency of air sampling traps to collect and release volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucco, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is described that facilitates determining the efficiency of air sampling traps to adsorb and thermally desorb volatile organic compounds. A known volume of a liquid standard of volatile organic compounds is vaporized into an air stream, a fraction of which is collected on an air sampling trap. This trap is subsequently thermally desorbed and analyzed using a GC/FID. The efficiency of the trap to adsorb and thermally desorb each compound tested is calculated.

  8. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Peaches: Identification of the Key Individual Characteristic Flavor Compounds by Integrating Consumers' Acceptability with Flavor Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpeng XI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the key flavor compounds influencing the consumers' choice for honey peach, nectarine, and flat peach and provide important information for orientation breeding, sugars, organic acids, and aroma volatiles in 3 types of peaches were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS and their key individual characteristic flavor compounds were identified by multivariate analysis integrated with consumers' evaluation. No significant differences in sugar and organic acid were observed between 3 types of peaches. In hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA models, 3 types of peaches could not be differentiated by sugars or organic acids, but could be identified completely by aroma volatiles or by flavor compounds. A partial least squares regression (PLSR model revealed that the key individual characteristic volatiles in nectarine, honey peach, and flat peach are C9 compounds and terpenic compounds, norisoprenoids and C6 compounds, and benzaldehyde, γ-decalactone, and δ-dodecalactone, respectively. These results suggest that sugars and organic acids form the background flavor of peach fruit and lactones shape the typical peach aroma. However, the individual aroma volatiles play the decisive role in unique flavor determination of different types of peaches.

  10. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  11. Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Tunisian Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L. Peel and Juice and Determination of Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iness Jabri karoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25% and juice (91.61%. HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid. Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  12. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  13. A deletion of the gene encoding amino aldehyde dehydrogenase enhances the "pandan-like" aroma of winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and is a functional marker for the development of the aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangnam, Saowalak; Wanchana, Samart; Phoka, Nongnat; Saeansuk, Chatree; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya; de Hoop, Simon Jan; Toojinda, Theerayut; Vanavichit, Apichart; Arikit, Siwaret

    2017-12-01

    The gene conferring a "pandan-like" aroma of winter melon was identified. The sequence variation (804-bp deletion) found in the gene was used as the target for functional marker development. Winter melon (Benincasa hispida), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries that is popular for its nutritional and medicinal value. A "pandan-like" aroma, which is economically important in crops including rice and soybean, is rarely found in most commercial varieties of winter melon, but is present in some landraces. This aroma is a value-added potential trait in breeding winter melon with a higher economic value. In this study, we confirmed that the aroma of winter melon is due to the potent volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) as previously identified in other plants. Based on an analysis of public transcriptome data, BhAMADH encoding an aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) was identified as a candidate gene conferring aroma of winter melon. A sequence comparison of BhAMADH between the aromatic and non-aromatic accessions revealed an 804-bp deletion encompassing exons 11-13 in the aromatic accession. The deletion caused several premature stop codons and could result in a truncated protein with a length of only 208 amino acids compared with 503 amino acids in the normal protein. A functional marker was successfully developed based on the 804-bp deletion and validated in 237 F 2 progenies. A perfect association of the marker genotypes and aroma phenotypes indicates that BhAMADH is the major gene conferring the aroma. The recently developed functional marker could be efficiently used in breeding programs for the aroma trait in winter melon.

  14. Celluclast 1.5L pretreatment enhanced aroma of palm kernels and oil after kernel roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wencan; Zhao, Fangju; Yang, Tiankui; Zhao, Feifei; Liu, Shaoquan

    2017-12-01

    The aroma of palm kernel oil (PKO) affects its applications. Little information is available on how enzymatic modification of palm kernels (PK) affects PK and PKO aroma after kernel roasting. Celluclast (cellulase) pretreatment of PK resulted in a 2.4-fold increment in the concentration of soluble sugars, with glucose being increased by 6.0-fold. Higher levels of 1.7-, 1.8- and 1.9-fold of O-heterocyclic volatile compounds were found in the treated PK after roasting at 180 °C for 8, 14 and 20 min respectively relative to the corresponding control, with furfural, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2-furanmethanol and maltol in particularly higher amounts. Volatile differences between PKOs from control and treated PK were also found, though less obvious owing to the aqueous extraction process. Principal component analysis based on aroma-active compounds revealed that upon the proceeding of roasting, the differentiation between control and treated PK was enlarged while that of corresponding PKOs was less clear-cut. Celluclast pretreatment enabled the medium roasted PK to impart more nutty, roasty and caramelic odor and the corresponding PKO to impart more caramelic but less roasty and burnt notes. Celluclast pretreatment of PK followed by roasting may be a promising new way of improving PKO aroma. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Aroma Leakage from Orange Juice Packed in Gable-Top Paper Containers for Chilled Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Risa; Tokuda, Aika; Shigemura, Yasutaka; Mineki, Machiko; Sato, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a study to examine aroma leakage from orange juice packed in gable-top paper containers for chilled distribution. Limonene, an aromatic component of orange juice, was considered as an index compound of aroma leakage, and its seepage on the surface of the container and concentration in the orange juice were measured by GC-MS for 12 commercial samples. After 3 days of storage, limonene was detected on the surface of 8 orange juice containers, and the concentration of limonene in the orange juice was found to have decreased. Thus, limonene leaked through the container within a few days, and the extent of leakage differed between containers, presumably depending upon their barrier properties. In addition, limonene was detected in green tea and milk that was stored together with the unopened orange juice containers at 4℃. The transference of orange aroma into milk was significant, because the contamination of the milk was confirmed by subjective sensory evaluation. This study suggests the possibility of transfer of aroma compounds through paper containers to other beverages.

  16. A simple method to determine mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Kyung; Madary, Michael W; Satchivi, Norbert M

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of organic compounds in soil is often determined by measuring the decrease of the parent compound and analyzing the occurrence of its metabolites. However, determining carbon species as end products of parent compound dissipation requires using labeled materials that allow more accurate determination of the environmental fate of the compound of interest. The current conventional closed system widely used to monitor degradation of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil is complex and expensive and requires a specialized apparatus and facility. In the present study, the authors describe a simple system that facilitates measurement of mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds applied to soil samples. In the system, soda lime pellets to trap mineralized (14) C-carbon species, including carbon dioxide, were placed in a cup, which was then inserted above the treated soil sample in a tube. Mineralization of [(14) C]2,4-D applied to soil samples in the simple system was compared with that in the conventional system. The simple system provided an equivalent detection of (14) C-carbon species mineralized from the parent compound. The results demonstrate that this cost- and space-effective simple system is suitable for examining degradation and mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil and could potentially be used to investigate their mineralization in other biological matrices. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. ANALISIS EFEKTIVITAS PENGGUNAAN MODAL KERJA DALAM MENINGKATKAN RENTABILITAS ( STUDI KASUS UD. KOPI AROMA KALOSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMAWATI _

    2017-05-01

    The research was conducted in October and November at UD. Aroma coffee Kalosi Enrekang which is a company engaged in the industry. This study aims to determine how the working capital turnover at Aroma UD. coffee Kalosi, and to determine the level of effectiveness of the use of working capital. The method used in this paper is the descriptive analysis and the analysis of effectiveness ratios and profitability ratios. Data collection is done is interview and observation. The study states that the shortage of working capital has not been effective in the sense that companies are still experiencing a shortage of capital from year to year.

  18. Effects of bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) fungal diseases on wine aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on the primary quality parameter of wine, the aroma. The influence of these fungal diseases was studied by comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analyses (AEDA) and sensory tests. The effect of bunch rot was investigated on three grape varieties, namely White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer and that of powdery mildew on the hybrid Gm 8622-3; thereby, samples were selected that showed pronounced cases of infection to elaborate potential currently unknown effects. Both infections revealed aromatic differences induced by these fungi. The sensory changes were not associated with one specific compound only, but were due to quantitative variations of diverse substances. Bunch rot predominantly induced an increase in the intensities of peach-like/fruity, floral and liquor-like/toasty aroma notes. These effects were found to be related to variations in aroma substance composition as monitored via AEDA, mainly an increase in the FD factors of lactones and a general moderate increase of esters and alcohols. On the other hand, powdery mildew decreased the vanilla-like character of the wine while the remaining sensory attributes were rather unaffected. Correspondingly, FD factors of the main aroma constituents were either the same or only slightly modified by this disease. Moreover, bunch rot influenced the aroma profiles of the three varieties studied to a different degree. In hedonic evaluation, bunch rot-affected samples were rated as being more pleasant in comparison to their healthy controls in all three varieties while the powdery mildew-affected sample was rated as being less pleasant than its healthy control.

  19. Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Haddadi, Azita; Amin, Gholamreza; Nikan, Marjan; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbass

    2014-04-01

    The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME - GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%), linalyl acetate (18.2%), were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%), nerol (34.0%) and α- citral (52.0%) were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%), and linalool (19.0%), linalyl acetate (51.5%), respectively. H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays.

  20. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth Seeds for “Ugba” Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Nwokeleme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  1. Efecto del deshuesado de la aceituna sobre el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz, C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6 was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5 and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in the cultivar Verdial caused by olive fruit stoning was observed to be due both to tissue wounding and to the absence of the olive seed during the crushing-malaxation process to obtain olive oil aroma. Both factors contribute independently to the content modification of C6, C5 compounds and esters in the olive oil aroma from stoned fruits.El deshuesado de la aceituna da lugar a una importante modificación del aroma del aceite de oliva virgen. La intensidad de esta modificación es característica de cada variedad. En los aceites obtenidos de aceitunas Verdial y Manzanilla se produce un incremento en el contenido de los compuestos de seis átomos de carbono (C6 que no se detecta en la variedad Picual. En las tres variedades estudiadas se observa un descenso del contenido de compuestos de cinco átomos de carbono (C5 así como del contenido en ésteres. En la variedad Verdial se ha comprobado que la modificación del aroma como consecuencia del deshuesado del fruto se debe tanto al daño tisular generado durante este proceso como a la ausencia de la semilla durante la molturación de la aceituna. Ambos factores contribuyen de forma independiente a la modificación del contenido de compuestos C6, C5 y ésteres en el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen procedente de aceituna deshuesada.

  2. Biyoteknolojik Yollarla Aroma Maddelerinin Üretimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaztekin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dünya gıda katkı maddeleri pazarının % 25'ini oluşturan aroma maddeleri yıllık 7 milyar dolar civarında bir pazar payına sahiptir. Aroma maddeleri önceden beri bitkilerden elde edilmiş, ancak bitkilerde düşük miktarlarda bulundukları için saflaştırılmaları zor ve pahalı olmuştur. Kimyasal yolla sentezlenen sentetik aroma maddelerinin üretimi ucuzdur, ancak sağlık açısından zararlı etkileri ve tüketicilerde doğal ürünlere olan talebin artması nedeniyle tercih edilmemektedirler. Bu nedenle, son dönemlerde alternatif olarak biyoteknolojik yöntemler üzerinde durulmaktadır. Bu derlemede, aroma maddelerinin üretiminde kullanılan fermantasyon ve biyodönüşüm yöntemleri ile bu yöntemlerle vanilin, benzaldehit, lakton ve ester aromalarının üretimi ele alınmıştır.

  3. Identifying genes that impact on aroma profiles produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the production of higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Jacobson, Dan; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-08-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, many volatile aroma compounds are formed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including esters, fatty acids, and higher alcohols. While the metabolic network that leads to the formation of these compounds is reasonably well mapped, surprisingly little is known about specific enzymes involved in specific reactions, the regulation of the network, and the physiological roles of individual pathways within the network. Furthermore, different yeast strains tend to produce significantly different aroma profiles. These differences are of tremendous biotechnological interest, since producers of alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer are searching for means to diversify and improve their product range. Various factors such as the redox, energy, and nutritional balance of a cell have previously been suggested to directly or indirectly affect and regulate the network. To gain a better understanding of the regulations and physiological role of this network, we screened a subset of the EUROSCARF strain deletion library for genes that, when deleted, would impact most significantly on the aroma profile produced under fermentative conditions. The 10 genes whose deletion impacted most significantly on higher alcohol production were selected and further characterized to assess their mode of action within or on this metabolic network. This is the first description of a large-scale screening approach using aroma production as the primary selection criteria, and the data suggest that many of the identified genes indeed play central and direct roles within the aroma production network of S. cerevisiae.

  4. Quantitative determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor dust using gas chromatography-UV spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anders; Lagesson, Verner; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Tagesson, Christer

    2005-10-01

    A novel technique, gas chromatography-UV spectrometry (GC-UV), was used to quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in settled dust from 389 residences in Sweden. The dust samples were thermally desorbed in an inert atmosphere and evaporated compounds were concentrated by solid phase micro extraction and separated by capillary GC. Eluting compounds were then detected, identified, and quantified using a diode array UV spectrophotometer. Altogether, 28 compounds were quantified in each sample; 24 of these were found in more than 50% of the samples. The compounds found in highest concentrations were saturated aldehydes (C5-C10), furfuryl alcohol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), 2-furaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. Alkenals were also found, notably 2-butenal (crotonaldehyde), 2-methyl-propenal (methacrolein), hexenal, heptenal, octenal, and nonenal. The concentrations of each of the 28 compounds ranged between two to three orders of magnitude, or even more. These results demonstrate the presence of a number of VOCs in indoor dust, and provide, for the first time, a quantitative determination of these compounds in a larger number of dust samples from residents. The findings also illustrate the potential use of GC-UV for analysing volatile compounds in indoor dust, some of which are potential irritants (to the skin, eyes or respiratory system) if present at higher concentrations. The potential use of GC-UV for improving survey and control of the human exposure to particle-bound irritants and other chemicals is inferred.

  5. Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

    2015-03-15

    Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of the Aroma Volatiles of Pear Fruits Supplemented with Fatty Acid Metabolic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaihua Qin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored “Nanguoli” fruits than in green-flavored “Dangshansuli” fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in “Dangshansuli” fruits were higher than in “Nanguoli” fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in “Dangshansuli” was approximately three times that in “Nanguoli”. The higher contents of hexyl esters in “Dangshansuli” may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented.

  7. Optimization of Postharvest Conditions To Produce Chocolate Aroma from Jackfruit Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Fernanda Papa; Zerbeto, Lais Masson; Ragazi, Gabriel Bernardes Cabreira; Gutierrez, Érika Maria Roel; Souza, Miriam Coelho; Parker, Jane K; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2017-02-15

    Jackfruit seeds are an underutilized waste in many tropical countries. This work demonstrates the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to develop chocolate aroma. Twenty-seven different roasted jackfruit seed flours were produced from local jackfruit by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying and then roasting under different time/temperature combinations. The chocolate aroma of groups of four flours were ranked by a sensory panel (n = 162), and response surface methodology was used to identify optimum conditions. The results indicated a significant and positive influence of fermentation and acidification on the production of chocolate aroma. SPME/GC-MS of the flours showed that important aroma compounds such as 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine and 2-phenylethyl acetate were substantially higher in the fermented product and that the more severe roasting conditions produced 2-3 times more 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, but less 3-methylbutanal. Moisture, a w , pH, luminosity, and color were also monitored to ensure that these properties were similar to those of cocoa powder or cocoa substitutes.

  8. Changes in sparkling wine aroma during the second fermentation under CO2 pressure in sealed bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Rafael; García-Martínez, Teresa; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2017-12-15

    High quality sparkling wine made by the traditional method requires a second alcoholic fermentation of a base wine in sealed bottles, followed by an aging time in contact with yeast lees. The CO 2 overpressure released during this second fermentation has an important effect on the yeast metabolism and therefore on the wine aroma composition. This study focuses on the changes in chemical composition and 43 aroma compounds released by yeast during this fermentation carried out under two pressure conditions. The data were subjected to statistical analysis allowing differentiating between the base wine and the wine samples taken in the middle and at the end of fermentation. The differentiation among wines obtained to the end of fermentation with or without CO 2 pressure is only achieved by a principal component analysis of 15 selected minor compounds (mainly ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate, hexyl acetate, ethyl butanoate and ethyl isobutanoate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensory and chemical drivers of wine minerality aroma: An application to Chablis wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Heber; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Valentin, Dominique; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente; De La Fuente Blanco, Arancha; Ballester, Jordi

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of vineyard position on the minerality of wines and to establish relationships between minerality scores, sensory descriptors and chemical composition. Sensory analyses included minerality rating and free description performed by wine professionals under two conditions: orthonasal olfaction alone and global tasting. Chemical characterization included analysis of major and minor volatile compounds, volatile sulphur compounds, mercaptans, metals, anions and cations. Results showed a significant effect of the river bank on wine minerality scores only in the orthonasal olfaction condition, samples from the left being more mineral than those from the right bank. Methanethiol, involved in shellfish aroma, was significantly higher in wines from the left (more mineral) than from the right bank. Contrary, copper levels, related to lower levels of free MeSH, and norisoprenoids, responsible for white fruit and floral aromas, were higher in wines from the right bank (less mineral). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Halfway to Scarborough Fair? The Cognitive and Mood Effects of Rosemary and Sage Aromas

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The application of aromas as therapeutic treatments and mood stabilisers/enhancers is widely recognised and practised. The possibility of their use as cognitive enhancers is less well known or researched. Received wisdom assumed that our cognitive functioning was optimal for the environment in which we have evolved. However, research has demonstrated that natural nutritional interventions can augment cognition. My research has investigated the possibility that natural aromatic compounds absor...

  12. Studies on the aroma of five fresh tomato cultivars and the precursors of cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenals and methional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Florian; Takeoka, Gary R; Buttery, Ron G; Whitehand, Linda C; Naim, Michael; Rabinowitch, Haim D

    2008-05-28

    Three tasty (BR-139, FA-624, and FA-612) and two less tasty (R-144 and R-175) fresh greenhouse tomato cultivars, which significantly differ in their flavor profiles, were screened for potent odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). On the basis of AEDA results, 19 volatiles were selected for quantification in those 5 cultivars using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compounds such as 1-penten-3-one, ( E, E)- and ( E, Z)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone (Furaneol) had higher odor units in the more preferred cultivars, whereas methional, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol, or 2-isobutylthiazole had higher odor units in the less preferred cultivars. Simulation of the odor of the selected tomato cultivars by preparation of aroma models and comparison with the corresponding real samples confirmed that all important fresh tomato odorants were identified, that their concentrations were determined correctly in all five cultivars, and that differences in concentration, especially of the compounds mentioned above, make it possible to distinguish between them and are responsible for the differential preference. To help elucidate formation pathways of key odorants, labeled precursors were added to tomatoes. Biogenesis of cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenals from linoleic acid and methional from methionine was confirmed.

  13. Application of HPLC-DAD Technique for Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Bee Pollen Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was elaborated to determine phenolic compounds (vanillin, caffeic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids, and flavonoids: rutin, hesperetin, quercetin, pinocembrin, apigenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, chrysin, and acacetin in bee pollen loads using highperformance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. Phenolic compounds from bee pollen were isolated on Cleanert C18-SPE columns (500 mg/6 mL, Agela Technologies. Polyphenols were identified by comparing the retention times and spectra of compounds found in pollen load samples with the ones of the standard mixture. Quantitative analysis was conducted using the external standard method. In addition, basic validation parameters for the method were determined. For the identified compounds (except for the salicylic acid, satisfactory (≥0.997 linear correlations were obtained. The elaborated method showed high repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility. Variability coeffcients of the majority of phenolic compounds did not exceed 10% in conditions of repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility, and for the total polyphenolic content they were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The pollen load samples (n = 15 differed in qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic compounds. In all the samples, we identified the p-coumaric and salicylic acids and flavonoids rutin, hesperetin, and apigenin nevertheless, these compounds’ contents significantly differed among individual samples. The total phenolic content in the tested samples of pollen loads ranged from 0.653 to 5.966 mg/100 g (on average 2.737 mg/100 g.

  14. Rapid and accurate determination of radiochemical purity of sup(99m)Tc compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamat, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The wide spread use of sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and limitation of the short half-life of the isotope, is associated with an urgent need for a rapid, simple but accurate method for determining the radiochemical purity of the compound. A short paper chromatographic (KK) or thin layer chromatographic (KLT) method using 95% methanol or 0.9% saline solution as solvents, has solved the problem. With these methods, the amount of free sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in a compound, can be determined in only a few minutes. These methods compare satisfactorily with lengtheir procedures. (author)

  15. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as a cleaving agent for colorimetric determination of pyridyl and pyrimidinyl compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.C.

    1985-06-01

    By use of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and dimethylbarbituric acid (DMBA) as reagents, a colorimetric method for the determination of pyridyl and pyrimidinyl compounds has been established. DCC breaks the pyridine or pyrimidine ring to afford glutaconaldehyde or malonaldehyde and then reacts with DMBA to produce chromophores. These heterocycles could be determined by measuring the chromophores. The relative standard deviations obtained with different amounts of these compounds were in a range of 0.63 to 5.36% (n = 10). The reaction mechanism is also discussed. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. Aroma: a larger than life experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine DE SWARDT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is today an essential part of our diet. Often used to reinforce the initial neutral taste of the food produced on an industrial scale, it is sometimes the main course, at the core of many edible products. First thought as accessory, it now takes the lead. From this observation and through the review of examples of the food industry, this article puts forward the hypothesis that the aroma supplants the food –in the relation of resemblance between the original model and its representation, which falls under the inculcation – and eclipses it. Potentially strong on the palate, it is a promise of intense experience. This is particularly true in the case of flavors without pre-established references. Pure abstract aromatic constructions allow greater freedom of projection, and foster discursive emphasis. In these cases, the taste alone, uncorrelated with prerogatives of nutrition, becomes the support of a hyperesthesic experience.

  17. A study of certain properties of bitumen compounds which determine the conditions for their storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhikharev, M.I.; Zakharova, K.P.; Polyakov, A.S.; Sobolev, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    The extent to which solidified radioactive waste is securely isolated in a repository is determined by the hydrogeological conditions at the site, the impermeability to water of the engineered barriers and the properties of the waste being stored. The main causes of radionuclide migration may include inadequate impermeability, explosion, fire or changes in the properties of the materials during storage. Radiation or microbiological processes may give rise to changes in the properties of the compounds. This paper sets forth the results of a study of the biological stability of bitumen compounds, the risk of explosion of bitumen compounds in storage, the fire hazard associated with the production and storage of bitumen compounds, and the possibility of extinguishing fires. (author)

  18. Healing of pain by music and aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takashi; Ikeda, Yoshitomo

    2007-01-01

    To see the alteration and modification by music and aroma of the brain activity at the moment of pain stimulus, authors studied 3D images by dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with continuous intravenous 99m Tc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) method that they had developed. The radiopharmaceutical was i.v. injected at a constant infusion rate of 1,110 MBq/30 ml/30 min and dynamic SPECT was performed for 30 min at every 2 min interval with the gamma camera GCA 7200A/UI 2-head SPECT system (Toshiba) to make the time-activity curve of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During the infusion, pain stimulus was given by clipping the tip of third finger for 3 sec repeatedly for 2 min. Subjects, healthy normal or with disease, were 18 cases with no healing, 14 with music and 32 with aroma. Pain alone or plus pop music induced rCBF increase in wide regions of the brain while slow-paced music or calm aroma (rose and lavender) suppressed the rCBF increase by pain in the lateral margin of frontal lobe. These changes were thought to be related to healing effects. (T.I.)

  19. Odour Detection Threshold Determination of Volatile Compounds in Topical Skin Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe; Taylor, Robert

    2018-01-01

    determination and also odour description by a trained sensory panel. In one case, the odour detection threshold value was 50 times higher (less detectable) in skin care products than in water, whereas for other volatile compounds the odour detection threshold value was only 1.5 times higher. The odour...... description of the volatile compounds was, in most cases, different from that reported in literature. The observed differences are hypothesised to be due to a masking effect of the base odour of the skin care product(s), a volatile-retaining power of the base matrix and to a cocktail effect of the combined...... odours from different volatile oxidation products. Practical applications: In this study, the impact of volatile compounds on off-odour was explored in prototype skin care formulations. The odour detection threshold value and odour description were determined for butanal, pentanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2...

  20. Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, M M; Balaban, M O; Marshall, M R; Rouseff, R L

    2011-03-01

    Calyxes from the Roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were used to prepare cold (22 °C for 4 h) and hot (98 °C for 16 min) infusions/teas from both fresh and dried forms. Aroma volatiles were extracted using static headspace SPME and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-O with 2 different columns (DB-5 and DB-Wax). Totals of 28, 25, 17, and 16 volatiles were identified using GC-MS in the dried hot extract (DHE), dried cold extract (DCE), fresh hot extract (FHE), and fresh cold extract (FCE) samples, respectively. In terms of total GC-MS peak areas DHE ≫ DCE > FHE ≫ FCE. Nonanal, decanal, octanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were among the major volatiles in all 4 beverage types. Thirteen volatiles were common to all 4 teas. Furfural and 5-methyl furfural were detected only in dried hibiscus beverages whereas linalool and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were detected only in beverages from fresh hibiscus. In terms of aroma active volatiles, 17, 16, 13, and 10 aroma active volatiles were detected for DHE, DCE, FHE, and FCE samples, respectively. The most intense aroma volatiles were 1-octen-3-one and nonanal with a group of 4 aldehydes and 3 ketones common to all samples. Dried samples contained dramatically higher levels of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, nonanal, and decanal. In fresh hibiscus extracts, linalool (floral, citrus) and octanal (lemon, citrus) were among the highest intensity aroma compounds but linalool was not detected in any of the dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus teas/infusions are one of the highest volume specialty botanical products in international commerce. The beverage is consumed for both sensory pleasure and health attributes and is prepared a number of ways throughout the world. Although color and taste attributes have been examined, little information is known about its aroma volatiles and no other study has compared extractions from both fresh and dried as well as extraction temperature differences. This is also, apparently, the first study to identify

  1. DIRECT-METHODS FOR INCOMMENSURATE INTERGROWTH COMPOUNDS .1. DETERMINATION OF THE MODULATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAN, HF; VANSMAALEN, S; LAM, EJW; BEURSKENS, PT

    1993-01-01

    A direct method is proposed for the determination of the modulation in incommensurate intergrowth compounds. The method is based on a new type of Sayre equation that relates the phase of a satellite reflection to the sum of structure-factor products of pairs of main reflections. Phases of satellite

  2. Determining order-up-to levels under periodic review for compound binomial (intermittent) demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method for determining order-up-to levels for intermittent demand items in a periodic review system. Contrary to existing methods, we exploit the intermittent character of demand by modelling lead time demand as a compound binomial process. in an extensive numerical study using

  3. Determination of volatile compounds of the first rose oil and the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rose water and rose oil are used in the perfume, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The determination of volatile compounds in rose oil and rose water obtained from oil-bearing rose is highly important in terms of availability in the industry and in human health. Materials and Methods: Twenty four ...

  4. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular hot drinks in the world; it may be prepared by several methods, but the most common forms are boiled (brew) and pressurized (espresso). Analytical studies on the substances responsible for the pleasant aroma of roasted coffee have been carried out for more than 100 years. Brew coffee and espresso coffee (EC) have a different and peculiar aroma profile, demonstrating the importance of the brewing process on the final product sensorial quality. Concerning bioactive compounds, the extraction mechanism plays a crucial role. The differences in the composition of coffee brew in chlorogenic acids and caffeine content is the result of the different procedures of coffee preparation. The aim of the present review is to detail how the brewing process affects coffee aroma and composition.

  5. Analytical and sensory characterization of the aroma of "Langhe D.O.C. Nebbiolo" wines: influence of the prefermentative cold maceration with dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrozziello, Maurizio; Guaita, Massimo; Motta, Silvia; Panero, Loretta; Bosso, Antonella

    2011-05-01

    The present work concerns the determination of the volatile compounds, as well as the description of the olfactory characteristics, of "Langhe DOC Nebbiolo" wines produced through the prefermentative cold maceration with dry ice, on full scale (30 quintals) in private cellars. The free volatile compounds and those obtained by enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis of the glycosilated precursors were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among free volatile compounds, a loss of alcohols with 6 carbon atoms in the cryo-macerated trials was observed. The cryo-maceration technique, when correctly applied, increased the floral and fruity notes (blackberry, cherry, and plum). This increase is related to the extraction of polyphenolic compounds (maceration effect), but no volatile compounds, neither in free form, nor produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosilated precursors, can discriminate the wines according to their content of polyphenols. Only some compounds produced by chemical hydrolysis of the precursors can discriminate the wines (statistically significant differences): 3-hydroxy-β-damascone, methylvanillate, and blumenol C. These compounds, however, form during aging and do not have any influence on young wines aroma. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Volatile aroma compounds and sensory characteristics of traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LY

    measured as degree brix using a hand refractometer (ATAGO brand, Japan). Ethanol was ..... indicators to differentiate the wine, and may contribute to floral note of the wine (Falqué al.,. 2001; Calleja and Falqué, .... Falqué, E., Fernández, E., and Dubourdieu, D. (2001) Differentiation of white wines by their aromatic index.

  7. The use of voltammetry for determining uranium and associated elements in compounds of nuclear interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.M.S. de.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of uranium and some trace elements found as impurities in nuclear materials by the voltammetric technique using the hanging mercury drop electrode is presented. Emphasis is given to the determination of uranium, of major interest. Europium and ytterbium are simultaneously determined in fractions of individual lanthanides. A procedure for the simultaneous determination of copper, cadmium, nickel and zinc in water, industrial effluents and uranium compounds is discussed. The advantage of the procedure is its simplicity and easiness of execution, with excellent precision and accuracy. (author) [pt

  8. Influence of Fermentation Temperature, Yeast Strain, and Grape Juice on the Aroma Chemistry and Sensory Profile of Sauvignon Blanc Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C

    2017-10-11

    Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold fermentations produce and retain more "fruity" aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2, and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry. The 12.5 °C-fermented wines had lower 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and higher alcohols but increased fruity acetate esters. However, a sensory panel did not find a significant difference between fruitiness in 75% of wine pairs based on fermentation temperature, in spite of chemical differences. For wine pairs with significant differences (25%), the 25 °C-fermented wines were fruitier than the 12.5 °C-fermented wines, with high fruitiness associated with 3MH. We propose that the benefits of low fermentation temperatures are not derived from increased fruitiness but a better balance between fruitiness and greenness. Even so, since 75% of wines showed no significant difference, higher fermentation temperatures could be utilized without detriment, lowering costs for the wine industry.

  9. Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Compounds Tested Against Punta Toro Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-29

    cells were grown in minimum essential medium (MEM; GIBCO Labs, Grand Island, NY) containing 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS; HyClone Labs, Logan, UT) and 0.1... bovine serum (FBS, HyClone Labs, Logan, UT) and 0.1% NaHCO3 without antibiotics. All were determined to be mycoplasma-free. Test Compounds: All...influenza, parainfluenza , rhino, vesicular stomatitis, bluetongue, reo and rota viruses (3-6). The compound was only slightly effective vs PTV in vitro (VR

  10. Separation of halogens from uranium compounds by means of pyrohydrolysis and their determination by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Brandao Filho, D.; Abrao, A.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describs the determination of fluorine in nuclear grade uranium compounds by means of phyrohydrolysis. A stream of wet oxygem at a temperature of 900 to 1000 0 C is passed through a quartz tube where the powdered samples is put. The halogens are volatilized as their respective acids that are absorbed in a buffer solution or water. The measurements are made with ion-seletive eletrodes or by ion chromatography. The sensitivity is of 1μg F - /g and 5μg Cl - /g. The separation of fluorine from uranium compounds by diferent methods is discussed. (Author) [pt

  11. Effect of packaging material on enological parameters and volatile compounds of dry white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revi, M; Badeka, A; Kontakos, S; Kontominas, M G

    2014-01-01

    The enological parameters and volatile compounds of white wine packaged in dark coloured glass and two commercial bag-in-box (BIB) pouches (low density polyethylene - LDPE and ethylene vinyl acetate - EVA lined) were determined for a period of 6 months at 20 °C. Parameters monitored included: titratable acidity, volatile acidity, pH, total SO2, free SO2, colour, volatile compounds and sensory attributes. The BIB packaging materials affected the titratable acidity, total and free SO2 and colour of wine. A substantial portion of the wine aroma compounds was adsorbed by the plastic materials or lost to the environment through leakage of the valve fitment. Between the two plastics, the LDPE lined pouch showed a considerably higher aroma sorption as compared to EVA. Wine packaged in glass retained the largest portion of its aroma compounds. Sensory evaluation showed that white wine packaged in both plastics was of acceptable quality for 3 months vs. at least 6 months for that in glass bottles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method of low tantalum amounts determination in niobium and its compounds by ICP-OES technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolik, Marek; Turkowska, Magdalena

    2013-10-15

    A method of determination of low amounts of tantalum in niobium and niobium compounds without its prior separation by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) has been worked out. The method involves dissolution of the analyzed samples of niobium as well as its various compounds (oxides, fluorides, chlorides, niobates(V)) in fluoride environments, precipitation of sparingly soluble niobic(tantalic) acid (Nb2O5(Ta2O5) · xH2O), converting them into soluble complex compounds by means of oxalic acid with addition of hydrogen peroxide and finally analyzing directly obtained solutions by ICP-OES. This method permits determination of Ta in niobium at the level of 10(-3)% with relatively good precision (≤ 8% RSD) and accuracy (recovery factor: 0.9-1.1). Relative differences in the results obtained by two independent methods (ICP-OES and ICP-MS) do not exceed 14%, and other elements present in niobium compounds (Ti, W, Zr, Hf, V, Mo, Fe, Cr) at the level of 10(-2)% do not affect determination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Separation of chloride and fluoride from uranium compounds and their determination by ion selective electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Abrao, A.

    1982-01-01

    Fluoride and chloride must be rigorously controlled in uranium compounds, especially in ceramic grade UO 2 . Their determination is very difficult without previous uranium separation, particularly when both are at a low concentration. A simple procedure is described for this separation using a strong cationic resin to retain the uranyl ion. Both anions are determined in the effluent solution. Uranium compounds of nuclear fuel cycle, especially ammonium diuranate, ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, sodium diuranate, uranium trioxide and dioxide and uranium peroxide are dissolved in nitric acid and the solutions are percolated through the resin column. Chloride and fluoride are determined in the effluent by selective electrodes, the detection limits being 0.02 μg F - /ml and 1.0 μg Cl - /ml. The dissolution of the sample, the acidity of the solution, the measurement conditions and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Physicochemical and sensory (aroma and colour) characterisation of a non-centrifugal cane sugar ("panela") beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juliana María; Narváez, Paulo César; Heredia, Francisco José; Orjuela, Álvaro; Osorio, Coralia

    2017-08-01

    Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS), also called "panela", is a high carbohydrate-content food obtained by boil evaporation of the sugar cane juice. This study was undertaken to assess physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of panela beverage at two different concentrations. Evaluation of pH, °Brix, and colour (tristimulus colorimetry) was carried out in all panela drink samples. In order to characterise the odour-active volatiles of the beverage, a simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction method was applied using a mixture of diethyl ether-pentane (1:1,w/w) as solvent. The Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis revealed the presence of six odour-active compounds, being 2-methyl pyrazine the key aroma compound of this beverage. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that there were no differences in the aroma and physicochemical properties (pH and °Brix) with respect to the geographical origin of analysed samples; however colour depends on heating during processing of NCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  16. Atomic absorption determination of iron and copper impurities in rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelyukova, Yu.V.; Kravchenko, J.B.; Kucher, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    An extraction atomic absorption method for the determination of copper and iron impurities in rare earth compounds has been developed. The extraction separation of determined elements as hydroxy quinolinates with isobuthyl alcohol was used. It increased the sensitivity of these element determination and excluded the effect of the analysed sample. Cu, Te, Zn, Bi, Sn, In, Ga, Tl and the some other elements can be determined at pH 2.0-3.0 but rare earths are remained in an aqueous phase. The condition of the flame combustion does not change during the introduction of isobutyl extract but the sensitivity of the determination of the elements increased 2-3 times. The limit of Fe determination is 0.01 mg/ml and the limit of Cu determination is 0.014 mg/ml

  17. Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tunick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the original sample. Queso Fresco, a fresh non-melting cheese, may be heated at 60 °C for 30 min; in contrast, compounds are produced in milk when exposed to light and elevated temperatures, so milk samples are heated as little as possible. Products such as dehydrated whey protein are more stable and can be exposed to longer periods (60 min of warming at lower temperature (40 °C without decomposition, allowing for capture and analysis of many minor components. The techniques for determining the volatiles in dairy products by SPME and GC-MS have to be optimized to produce reliable results with minimal modifications and analysis times.

  18. Identification of key aromatic compounds in Congou black tea by PLSR with variable importance of projection scores and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shihong; Lu, Changqi; Li, Meifeng; Ye, Yulong; Wei, Xu; Tong, Huarong

    2018-04-13

    Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) is the most frequently used method to estimate the sensory contribution of single odorant, but disregards the interactions between volatiles. In order to select the key volatiles responsible for the aroma attributes of Congou black tea (Camellia sinensis), instrumental, sensory and multivariate statistical approaches were applied. By sensory analysis, nine panelists developed 8 descriptors, namely, floral, sweet, fruity, green, roasted, oil, spicy, and off-odor. Linalool, (E)-furan linalool oxide, (Z)-pyran linalool oxide, methyl salicylate, β-myrcene, phenylethyl alcohol which identified from the most representative samples by GC-O procedure, were the essential aroma-active compounds in the formation of basic Congou black tea aroma. In addition, 136 volatiles were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), among which 55 compounds were determined as the key factors for the six sensory attributes by partial least-square regression (PLSR) with variable importance of projection (VIP) scores. Our results demonstrated that HS-SPME/GC-MS/GC-O was a fast approach for isolation and quantification aroma-active compounds. PLSR method was also considered to be a useful tool in selecting important variables for sensory attributes. These two strategies allowed us to comprehensively evaluate the sensorial contribution of single volatile from different perspectives, can be applied to related products for comprehensive quality control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Minor Volatile Compounds Profiles of ‘Aligoté’ Wines Fermented with Different Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin VARARU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aroma of wine can be classified accordingly to its origin, in varietal aroma, pre-fermentative aroma, fermentative aroma and post-fermentative aroma. Although a number of flavor components are found in the original grape, the dominant and major compounds contributing to white wines are formed during alcoholic fermentation, in concordance with the yeast strain used. In order to highlight the influence of the yeast strain to the aroma composition of wines, wine samples from ‘Aligoté’ grape variety made with 8 different yeast strains were subjected to stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS analyses. Also, a sensorial analysis of the studied wines was performed by a tasting panel consisting of 15 tasters. 38 minor volatile compounds were quantified by SBSE-GC-MS technique. Different concentration of the same compound and different aroma compounds were identified and quantified in wines obtained with different yeast strains. A wine finger printing was obtained by multivariate data analyses of aroma compounds grouped by chemical families. The analytical and sensorial analysis of the wine samples confirms that there are differences in aroma composition of the wines made with different yeast strains.

  20. Perceived bitterness character of beer in relation to hop variety and the impact of hop aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; James, Sue; Cowley, Trevor; Dehrmann, Frieda; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2017-09-01

    The impact of hop variety and hop aroma on perceived beer bitterness intensity and character was investigated using analytical and sensory methods. Beers made from malt extract were hopped with 3 distinctive hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus) to achieve equi-bitter levels. A trained sensory panel determined the bitterness character profile of each singly-hopped beer using a novel lexicon. Results showed different bitterness character profiles for each beer, with hop aroma also found to change the hop variety-derived bitterness character profiles of the beer. Rank-rating evaluations further showed the significant effect of hop aroma on selected key bitterness character attributes, by increasing perceived harsh and lingering bitterness, astringency, and bitterness intensity via cross-modal flavour interactions. This study advances understanding of the complexity of beer bitterness perception by demonstrating that hop variety selection and hop aroma both impact significantly on the perceived intensity and character of this key sensory attribute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE, ultrasound (UE, agitation (AE, and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respectively. The combined-extractions: HHPE-UE and HHPE-AE, were carried out for 5 min and 15 min, respectively. The highest values found were total phenolic 129.1 mg GAE/100 g FW, antioxidant capacity by DPPH 20.6 mM TE/100 g FW, and voltammetry 141.0 mM TE/100 g FW for HHPE-UE method in free compound extraction. Regarding vitamin C content, its highest value was found by HHPE-UE (74 mg/100 g FW a combined extraction method. The phenolic compounds rutin and p-coumaric acid were found in all the extracts, both in free and bound forms, respectively. Besides, the combined techniques improved the extraction of bioactive compounds.

  2. [Simultaneous determination of ten organotin compounds in polyvinyl chloride plastics using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Bin; Liu, Li; Zhang, Chen; Wu, Jingwu; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Xintian

    2009-01-01

    A rapid and effective gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method has been developed systematically and studied for the simultaneous determination of 10 organotin compounds, dibutyltin-dichloride (DBT), n-butyltin-trichloride (MBT), triethyltinchloride (TET), fentin-chloride (TPhT), chlorotributylstannane (TBT), tri-n-propyltinchloride (TPrT), diphenyltin-dichloride (DPhT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), di-n-octyltin-dichloride (DOT), phenyltin trichloride (MPhT)), in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. The PVC sample was dissolved with tetrahydrofuran and the polymer in the sample was precipitated with methanol, and then the target compounds were derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate and extracted with hexane under ultrasonication. The qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out by GC-MS and the total ion chromatogram and selected ion chromatogram were obtained. The derivatization and extraction conditions, such as the derivatization time, derivatization pH value, dosages of derivatization reagent and precipitation reagent were optimized. The good linearities, recoveries and precisions were obtained. The linearity ranges were 0.5 - 50 mg/L. The linearity correlation coefficients of 10 organotin compounds were between 0.997 8 and 0.999 7. The average recoveries were 84.23% - 109.1% with relative standard deviations of 4.24% - 10.75%. The established method has been successfully applied to the determination of organotin compounds in PVC plastics.

  3. Micro-organisms growing on rapeseed during storage affect the profile of volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Claudia; Bonte, Anja; Brühl, Ludger; Niehaus, Karsten; Bednarz, Hanna; Matthäus, Bertrand

    2017-09-27

    Micro-organisms populate on rapeseed after harvest during storage depending on the growing conditions. The composition of the bacterial colonization is unknown, although its contribution to the profile of volatile aroma-active compounds determines the sensory quality of virgin cold-pressed rapeseed oil. From four rapeseed samples, 46 bacterial strains were isolated. By DNA-sequencing, the identification of four bacteria species and 17 bacteria genera was possible. In total, 22 strains were selected, based on their typical off-flavors resembling those of virgin sensory bad cold-pressed rapeseed oils. The cultivation of these strains on rapeseed meal agar and examination of volatile compounds by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of 29 different compounds, mainly degradation products of fatty acids such as alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols and, in addition, sulfur-containing compounds, including one terpene and three pyrazines. From these compounds, 19 are described as aroma-active in the literature. Micro-organisms populating on rapeseed during storage may strongly influence the sensory quality of virgin rapeseed oil as a result of the development of volatile aroma-active metabolic products. It can be assumed that occurrence of off-flavor of virgin rapeseed oils on the market are the result of metabolic degradation products produced by micro-organisms populating on rapeseed during storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Limits of rapid log P determination methods for highly lipophilic and flexible compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sophie; Begnaud, Frédéric; Schuler, William; Gillerat, Fabrice; Oberhauser, Nils; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2016-04-07

    Lipophilicity is of crucial importance in many fields including pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetic and food industries. Whereas different experimental strategies have been developed for rapid lipophilicity determination of new chemical entities, log P determination of highly lipophilic compounds is always challenging. In this study, three published chromatographic methods have been compared on a series of phenylalkanoic acids including the pro-perfume HaloscentD (HD-C12). Different log P values were obtained depending on the chromatographic method used for log P estimation. Molecular modelling suggested that log P variations may be due to the chromatographic conditions applied (isocratic or gradient mode, ratio methanol/water in the mobile phase), responsible of specific conformations of the molecule in solution. Thus, for flexible compounds, published methods have to be used with caution and considered as a good tool to estimate a log P range, depending on the molecular conformational state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Biological and Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disruptor compounds (EDCs can mimic natural hormones and produce adverse effects in the endocrine functions by interacting with estrogen receptors. EDCs include both natural and synthetic chemicals, such as hormones, personal care products, surfactants, and flame retardants, among others. EDCs are characterised by their ubiquitous presence at trace-level concentrations and their wide diversity. Since the discovery of the adverse effects of these pollutants on wildlife and human health, analytical methods have been developed for their qualitative and quantitative determination. In particular, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. This paper reviews recently published analytical methodologies for the sample preparation and for the determination of these compounds in different environmental and biological matrices by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The various sample preparation techniques are compared and discussed. In addition, recent developments and advances in this field are presented.

  6. Effects of retro-nasal aroma release on satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Ru, de J.A.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.

    2008-01-01

    It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid

  7. Changes in aroma composition of blackberry wine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    academics

    number of aroma components in raw material (55 in numbers), raw wine (54 in numbers), and aging wine (50 in numbers) were ..... Wang et al. 16509. Table 1. The main aroma compositions in blackberry fruit juice after primary and secondary fermentation. Alcohol. Molecular formula. Molecular weight. Percentage (%). 1#.

  8. Effect of methyl butyrate aroma on the survival and viability of human breast cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Rumana Ahmad, R.; Srivastava, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aroma can have far reaching effects on mind, body and soul. Pleasant aromas are known to have a soothing effect on the mind and are known to relieve stress and enhance concentration. Recently, it has been demonstrated that aroma may also have some curative effects as well as benefits and can be used both for prophylaxis and therapy of diseases. Our aim was to test our hypothesis whether aroma can cure or prevent cancer. Methyl butyrate (MB) is the methyl ester of butyric acid having a characteristic sweet and fruity odor like that of apples and pineapples. It occurs in many plant products in minute quantities and in pineapple oil. Methods: In the present study, the effect of aroma of MB has been evaluated on human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro . The percentage viability of the cell line was determined by using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Results: It was found that MB at a concentration of 0.01 M was effective in causing considerable cytotoxicity (40%) in breast cancer cells (without even coming in contact with cells) while at 0.02 M, % cytotoxicity was found to be 50%. Mechanism of action of MB on cancer cells was investigated by acridine orange–ethidium bromide assay using fluorescence microscopy and DNA fragmentation assay. MB aroma appeared to induce necrosis in cancer cells exposed to it. Conclusion: No study involving the effect of aroma/smell on cancer cells has ever been reported before and warrants further investigation on other cancer and normal cell lines.

  9. Determination of the rates of clearance of insoluble compounds of plutonium from the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, L.

    1974-04-01

    There are indications that the process of clearance of inhaled insoluble plutonium compounds from the lung may be represented by a model consisting of three exponential phases. A survey of published data on 'in vivo' and bioassay measurements made after 239 PuO 2 inhalation by men and dogs has been carried out, and the half times of the three exponential phases determined as approximately 1 day, 30 days and 500 days. (author)

  10. Determination of one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitive compounds by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhihua; Yao Side; Li Hucheng; Lin Nianyun; Jin Yizun

    1994-01-01

    One-electron reduction potential (E 7 1 ) is one of the important parameters of radiosensitive compound with high electron affinity. In this work one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitizers, such as Miso, 911, CMNa, SMU-1, SMU-2, SMD, SNN, S 3 and BSO, were determined pulse radiolytically by using anthraquinone-2-sulfate (AQS), duroquinone (DQ) and methyl viologen (MV 2+ ) as references

  11. Ion exchange separation of nitrate from uranium compounds and its determination by spectrophotometry and ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Atalla, L.T.; Abrao, A.

    1985-11-01

    A procedure for the separation of nitrate from uranium compounds by retaintion of uranyl ion on a cationic ion exchanger and its determination in the effluent is described. Nitrate is analysed by the spectrometric method with 1-phenol-2,4-dissulphonic acid. This determination covers the 1 to 10 μg NO - 3 /mL range and requires an amount of 10 to 100 μg NO - 3 . The main interference is uranium (VI) due its own intense yellow color. This difficulty is overcome by the complete separation of UO 2 ++ with the cationic resin. Alternatively, the ion chromatography technique is used for the determination of nitrate in the effluent of the cationic resin. The determination was easily made by the comparison of the nitrate peak hights of the analyte and the standard solutions. The ion chromatography method is very sensitive (0,3 μg NO - 3 /mL), reproducible and suitable for routine analysis and permits the determination of fraction of part per million of nitrate in uranium. The results of nitrate determination using both spectrophotometric and ion chromatography techniques are compared. The method is being routinely applied for the quality control of uranium compounds in the fuel cycle, specially uranium oxide, ammonium diuranate, uranium peroxide and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. (Author) [pt

  12. Physico-chemical properties, wax composition, aroma profiles, and antioxidant activity of granulated non-centrifugal sugars from sugarcane cultivars of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerawatanakorn, Monthana; Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chuekittisak, Raweewan

    2016-11-01

    Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) is globally consumed and has various health benefits. It is mostly produced in hardened block form, which is less convenient than in granulated form for food applications. In terms of the traditional processing of NCS, preparation of granulated products is difficult due to the impurities found in the cane juice extracted from the whole stalk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize and determine the physico-chemical properties, wax composition (policosanols and long-chain aldehydes), volatile aroma profiles, and antioxidant activity of traditional NCS in granular form made from four different cane cultivars of Thailand. The total soluble solid, pH, color, and mineral content varied among the sugarcane cultivars, whereas there was no significant difference in the total sugar, phenolic and flavonoid content. The total policosanol, a cholesterol-lowering nutraceutical wax component, and long-chain aldehyde contents were similar in the NCS products amongst three cultivars, and ranged from 2.63 to 3.69 mg/100 g. The granulated NCS products, in which acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide were the main volatile compounds, gave less aroma components than traditional NCS. The use of different sugarcane cultivars thus influenced the quality attributes of granulated non-centrifugal sugar products.

  13. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and HS-SPME-GCMS quantification of key aroma volatiles for fruit and sap of Australian mango cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Anh T; Joyce, Daryl C; Hofman, Peter J; Macnish, Andrew J; Webb, Richard I; Matovic, Nicolas J; Williams, Craig M; De Voss, James J; Wong, Siew H; Smyth, Heather E

    2017-04-15

    Reported herein is a high throughput method to quantify in a single analysis the key volatiles that contribute to the aroma of commercially significant mango cultivars grown in Australia. The method constitutes stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) in conjunction with headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Deuterium labelled analogues of the target analytes were either purchased commercially or synthesised for use as internal standards. Seven volatiles, hexanal, 3-carene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, limonene, α-terpinolene and ethyl octanoate, were targeted. The resulting calibration functions had determination coefficients (R 2 ) ranging from 0.93775 to 0.99741. High recovery efficiencies for spiked mango samples were also achieved. The method was applied to identify the key aroma volatile compounds produced by 'Kensington Pride' and 'B74' mango fruit and by 'Honey Gold' mango sap. This method represents a marked improvement over current methods for detecting and measuring concentrations of mango fruit and sap volatiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of aroma volatiles in commercial Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Ozan; Rouseff, June M; Rouseff, Russell L

    2006-05-31

    Seventy-four aroma active compounds were observed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced in California and Australia. Volatiles were sampled using solid phase microextraction and analyzed using time-intensity gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The most intense odorants were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, octanal, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, beta-damascenone, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethenyl-2-methoxy-phenol, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, acetic acid, and 2-phenylethanol. Aroma compounds were classified according to their aroma descriptor similarity and summed into nine distinct categories consisting of fruity, sulfury, caramel/cooked, spicy/peppery, floral, earthy, pungent/chemical, woody, and green/vegetative/fatty. Both Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines were characterized by high fruity, caramel, green, and earthy aroma totals. Although there were distinct quantitative differences between Merlot and Cabernet wines, the relative aroma category profiles of the four wines were similar. Of the 66 volatiles identified by GC-MS, 28 were esters and 19 were minor alcohols. Between 81 and 88% of the total MS total ion chromatogram peak areas from each wine type were produced from only eight compounds: ethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, diethyl succinate, and 2-phenylethanol. Merlot wines from both Australia and California contained 4-5 times more ethyl octanoate than Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the same sources.

  15. Radiochromatographic method for determination of macroenergetic phosphorus compounds in the rat heart muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajdowicz, A.

    1980-01-01

    The 32 P was injected intraperitoneally. After 20 min. a part of heart muscle was taken off under anaesthesia from which phosphorus compounds were extracted and separated by means of paper chromatography. Separation was performed on the Whatman 1 paper, in glass tank produced by Shandon by means of method replacing of two direction descending chromatography use together with three solvent system. Identification of nucleotides was conducted in the UV light, besides CP and inorganic phosphorus by means of chemical methods. For the qualitative analysis of separated phosphorus compounds autoradiography was applied. Quantitative analysis was conducted by means of radiogrametric method. Radioactivity for each of examined phosphorus compounds was computed from chromatograms. Radioactive curves were indicated for each stage of chromatography separation. It was found the peaks on the radioactive curves equal the black spots on the autoradiograms and the spots identified with optical test and by the chemical method. This method permits in constant condition absolute separation and quantitative determination of phosphorus compounds in the rat heart muscle. It is relatively simple and more specific than chemical methods. (author)

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Four Compounds in a Nelumbo nucifera Seed Embryo by HPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahee Ryu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera has a variety of biological activities. So it was importantly used as various herbal medicines since traditional times. A simple, fast, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method was developed in this study for efficient quality control of N. nucifera. Four different compounds, including neferine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-[(4-hydroxyphenyl methyl]-2-methyl-7-isoquinolinol, 1-hydroxy-2-methylpropene, and 3-(prop-1-enylbenzene-1,2,4,5-tetrol, were simultaneously determined. The four compounds were isolated through a Dionex C18 column by gradient elution with 0.1% TFA-water and methanol. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and the wavelength was detected at 205, 254, 280, and 330 nm. The chromatograms were acquired at 205 nm. The four compounds showed good linear relationships (r2>0.96 over five different concentrations, and an average recovery of the method ranged from 96.27% to 108.78%. Through the analysis validation test and application of the method, the optimized conditions verified that it is efficient to isolate the compounds of N. nucifera seed embryos.

  17. Determination of phenolic compounds in air by using cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous composite samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela R; Ponce-Català, Patricia; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina; Amorós, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method for the determination of phenolic compounds in air samples based on the use of cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous composite samplers is proposed. The method allows the determination of phenol, guaiacol, cresol isomers, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in workplaces according to the Norm UNE-EN 1076:2009 for active sampling. Therefore, the proposed method offers an alternative for the assessment of the occupational exposure to phenol and cresol isomers. The detection limits of the proposed method are lower than those for the NIOSH Method 2546. Storage time of samples almost reaches 44 days. Recovery values for phenol, guaiacol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol and 4-ethylphenol are 109%, 99%, 102%, 94%, 94%, 91%, 95% and 102%, respectively with a coefficient of variation below 6%. The method has been applied to the assessment of exposure in different areas of a farm and regarding the quantification of these compounds in the vapors generated by burning incense sticks and an essential oil marketed as air fresheners. The acquired results are comparable with those provided from a reference method for a 95% of confidence level. The possible use of these samplers for the sampling of other toxic compounds such as phthalates is evaluated by qualitative analysis of extracts from incense sticks and essential oil samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate containers designated for water conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepović Azra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET has in the last several years become the main packaging material for many food products, particularly carbonated beverages and bottled water, as well as for products of chemical industry (packaging of various hygiene maintenance agents, pesticides, solvents, etc.. The strength and permeability properties of PET are very good for packaging of beverages, its resistance to chemicals is high and it has a high degree of transparency. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are formed during the thermoforming of PET containers. After cooling, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde remain trapped in the walls of a PET bottle and may migrate into the water after filling and storage. Since there are no migration tests in Serbia prescribed for the determination of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, the purpose of the paper is to test the quantitative contents of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in PET containers of different volumes, made by various manufacturers of bottled mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water, and exposed to different temperatures. In this study, the migration of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde from PET bottles into mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Taking into consideration that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have no UV active or fluorescent group, the chromatography shall be preceded by derivatization in a closed system (due to a low boiling point of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, which shall transform carbonyl compounds into UV active compounds.

  19. Determination of the major phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Toselli, Moreno; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2013-06-05

    Traditionally, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been consumed as fresh fruit or as pomegranate juice. In this study, the main phenolic compounds of 12 pomegranate varieties and 5 pomegranate clones were determined by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS. Two chromatographic methods with a fused-core C18 column and a classical HPLC system were developed. Thirteen anthocyanins and fourteen other phenolic compounds were determined in the pomegranate juices. As far as we are concerned, a new flavonol-glycoside, phellatin or its isomer amurensin, has been tentatively identified for the first time in pomegranate juices. Total phenolic content ranged from 580.8 to 2551.3 mg/L of pomegranate juice. Anthocyanins varied between 20 to 82% of total phenolic content. Flavonoids were 1.6-23.6% of total phenolic compounds, while phenolic acids and ellagitannins were in the range 16.4-65.8%. The five clones reported a phenolic content comparable with that of the other pomegranate samples.

  20. Effect of reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri coupled with glycerol on the volatile fraction, odour and aroma of semi-hard ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Delgado, David; Garde, Sonia

    2016-09-02

    The effect of the biopreservation system formed by Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572, a reuterin-producing strain, and glycerol (required for reuterin production), on the volatile fraction, aroma and odour of industrial sized semi-hard ewe milk cheese (Castellano type) was investigated over a 3-month ripening period. The volatile compounds were extracted and analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and cheese odour and aroma profiles were studied by descriptive sensory analysis. Control cheese was made only with a mesophilic starter and experimental cheeses with L. reuteri were made with and without glycerol. The addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 to milk enhanced the formation of six volatile compounds. Despite the changes in the volatile compounds profile, the use of L. reuteri INIA P572 did not noticeably affect the sensory characteristics of cheese. On the other hand, the addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 coupled with 30mM glycerol enhanced the formation of twelve volatile compounds, but decreased the formation of five ones. The use of the biopreservation system did not affect overall odour and aroma quality of cheese although it resulted in a significant decrease of the odour intensity scores. In addition, this cheese received significant higher scores for "cheesy" aroma and significant lower scores for the aroma attributes "milky", "caramel" and "yogurt-like". The first two axes of a principal component analysis (PCA) performed for selected volatile compounds and sensory characteristics, accounting for 75% of the variability between cheeses, separated cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 and glycerol from the rest of cheeses, and also differentiated control cheese from cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 from day 60 onward. Our results showed that the reuterin-producing L. reuteri INIA P572 strain, when coupled with glycerol, may be a suitable biopreservation system to use in cheese without affecting odour and aroma quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Caffeine and Other Purine Compounds in Food and Pharmaceuitcals by Micellar Electrokinetic Chrmoatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Carla; Contradi, S.; Rohde, E.

    1997-09-01

    Capillary elctrophoresis is a modern separation technique, especially the extremely high efficiencies and minimal requirements with regard to buffers, samples and solvents lead to a dramatic increase of applications in the last few years. This paper offers an introduction to the technique of micellar elektrokinetic chromatography as a special kind of capillary electrophoresis. Caffeine and other purine compounds have been determined in foodstuff (tea, coffee, cocoa) as well as in pharmaceutical formulations. Different sample preparation procedures which have been developed with regard to the special properties of the sample matrices are discussed in the paper.This preparation facilitates the separation in many cases. So students have to solve a relatively simple separation problem by variation of buffer pH, buffer components and separation parameters. By doing a calibration for the analyzed purine compounds they will learn about reproducibility in capillary electrophoresis.

  2. Innovación del empaque para preservar el exquisito y delicioso aroma y sabor del café Zarumeño como factor de competitividad

    OpenAIRE

    Asanza Salazar, Andrea Estefanía; León Hidalgo, Andrea Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Zaruma Canton is located in San Antonio Royal Villa of Cerro de Oro of Zaruma in El Oro province. It has beautiful landscapes with hidden treasures that make this place enjoyable but the most important fact is their delectable coffee mugs that make this homey place with ancestral traditions and customs very special. Coffee is one of the most desirable global drinks and Zaruma not just have coffee, has that unique aroma, coffee aroma. This project will determine the feasibility of introduci...

  3. Aroma components of acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein made by partial hydrolysis of rice bran protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarunrattanasri, Arporn; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-04-18

    Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) was prepared from rice bran protein concentrate (RBPc) by partial hydrolysis with aqueous 0.5 N HCl at 95 degrees C for 12 or 36 h (H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively). Aroma components of the RBPc and the HVPs were characterized by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs). The predominant odorants in RBPc were 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-aminoacetophenone, (E)-2-nonenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and beta-damascenone. Among these, the odor of 2-aminoacetophenone, present at 59 ng/g in RBPc, was reminiscent of the typical odor of RBPc. Most of the predominant odorants had higher log3FD factors in the H-RBPc-36 as compared to H-RBPc-12. Aroma impact compounds of H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36 were 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)furanone (sotolon), vanillin, 3-methylbutanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (p-vinylguaiacol), and beta-damascenone. Guaiacol had the highest OAV values of 2770 and 17650 in H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively.

  4. Aroma release in the oral cavity after wine intake is influenced by wine matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, María; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study has been to investigate if wine matrix composition might influence the interaction between odorants and oral mucosa in the oral cavity during a "wine intake-like" situation. Aroma released after exposing the oral cavity of three individuals to different wines (n=12) previously spiked with six target aromas was followed by an -in vivo intra-oral SPME approach. Results showed a significant effect of wine matrix composition on the intra-oral aroma release of certain odorants. Among the wine matrix parameters, phenolic compounds showed the largest impact. This effect was dependent on their chemical structure. Some phenolic acids (e.g. hippuric, caffeic) were associated to an increase in the intra-oral release of certain odorants (e.g. linalool, β-ionone), while flavonoids showed the opposite effect, decreasing the intra-oral release of aliphatic esters (ethyl hexanoate). This work shows for the first time, the impact of wine composition on oral-mucosa interactions under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Ptea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  6. Aroma extraction dilution analysis of Sauternes wines. Key role of polyfunctional thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Collin, Sonia

    2006-09-20

    The aim of the present work was to investigate Sauternes wine aromas. In all wine extracts, polyfunctional thiols were revealed to have a huge impact. A very strong bacon-petroleum odor emerged at RI = 845 from a CP-Sil5-CB column. Two thiols proved to participate in this perception: 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal and 2-methylfuran-3-thiol. A strong synergetic effect was evidenced between the two compounds. The former, never mentioned before in wines, and not found in the musts of this study, is most probably synthesized during fermentation. 3-Methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol, 3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 3-sulfanylheptanal also contribute to the global aromas of Sauternes wines. Among other key odorants, the presence of a varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl isovalerate), carbonyls (trans-non-2-enal and beta-damascenone), and wood flavors (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and Furaneol) is worth stressing.

  7. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives. 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. The Impact of Single Amino Acids on Growth and Volatile Aroma Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Fairbairn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen availability and utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae significantly influence fermentation kinetics and the production of volatile compounds important for wine aroma. Amino acids are the most important nitrogen source and have been classified based on how well they support growth. This study evaluated the effect of single amino acids on growth kinetics and major volatile production of two phenotypically different commercial wine yeast strains in synthetic grape must. Four growth parameters, lag phase, maximum growth rate, total biomass formation and time to complete fermentation were evaluated. In contrast with previous findings, in fermentative conditions, phenylalanine and valine supported growth well and asparagine supported it poorly. The four parameters showed good correlations for most amino acid treatments, with some notable exceptions. Single amino acid treatments resulted in the predictable production of aromatic compounds, with a linear correlation between amino acid concentration and the concentration of aromatic compounds that are directly derived from these amino acids. With the increased complexity of nitrogen sources, linear correlations were lost and aroma production became unpredictable. However, even in complex medium minor changes in amino acid concentration continued to directly impact the formation of aromatic compounds, suggesting that the relative concentration of individual amino acids remains a predictor of aromatic outputs, independently of the complexity of metabolic interactions between carbon and nitrogen metabolism and between amino acid degradation and utilization pathways.

  9. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  10. Development of a coulometric method for the determination of gaseous sulfur compounds in urban atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Magali

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure for the determination of atmospheric sulfur compounds was developed and applied during three months in the central area of the City of Porto Alegre- RS, and one month near an oil refinery located close to this city. The method is based on the coulometric determination of the tarnishing rate of pure silver. The results were compared with the method of pararosaniline, which is being currently used in some of the studied sites for the determination of SO2. The results obtained showed a good correlation between the coulometric method and the pararosaniline method, when only SO2 is present, as usually is the case of urban atmospheres. When H2S is also present, as in the case of industrial areas, the methodology tends to strongly overestimate SO2 concentration.

  11. Determination of phenolic compounds in Yucca gloriosa bark and root by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Skhirtladze, Alexandre; Bassarello, Carla; Perrone, Angela; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2008-08-05

    On the basis of the biological activities shown by yuccaols and gloriosaols from Yucca schidigera and Yucca gloriosa, the content of yuccaols and gloriosaols in two different parts of Y. gloriosa (roots and bark), was determined for each single compound, and compared with phenolic determination in Y. schidigera bark, concluding that Y. gloriosa bark and roots are rich sources of phenolic derivatives structurally related to resveratrol. LC/ESIMS (liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry) qualitative and an LC/ESIMS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to tandem electrospray mass spectrometry) quantitative studies of the phenolic fraction of Y. gloriosa were performed. LC/ESIMS/MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method previously described for yuccaols in Y. schidigera was applied and optimised for separation and determination of gloriosaols and yuccaols in Y. gloriosa. Due to the sensitivity and the repeatability of the assay, we suggest this method as suitable for industrial quality control of raw materials and final products.

  12. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    , except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma...

  13. Aroma profile of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine fermented by single and co-culture starters of autochthonous Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eTofalo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Montepulciano d’Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73, a strain of Starm. bacillaris (STS12, one of H. uvarum (STS45 and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1 and Starm. bacillaris (STS12, in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after three days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains Starm. bacillaris (STS12 and H. uvarum (STS45. At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step towards the use of tailored

  14. Analytical applications of oscillatory chemical reactions: determination of some pharmaceuticaly and biologically important compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Nataša D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel analytical methods for quantitive determination of analytes based on perturbations of oscillatory chemical reactions realized under open reactor conditions (continuosly fed well stirred tank reactor, CSTR, have been developed in the past twenty years. The proposed kinetic methods are generally based on the ability of the analyzed substances to change the kinetics of the chemical reactions matrix. The unambiguous correlation of quantitative characteristics of perturbations, and the amount (concentration of analyte expressed as a regression equation, or its graphics (calibration curve, enable the determination of the unknown analyte concentration. Attention is given to the development of these methods because of their simple experimental procedures, broad range of linear regression ( 10-7 10-4 mol L-1 and low limits of detection of analytes ( 10-6 10-8 mol L1, in some cases even lower than 10-12 mol L-1. Therefore, their application is very convenient for routine analysis of various inorganic and organic compounds as well as gases. This review summarizes progress made in the past 5 years on quantitative determination of pharmaceutically and biologically important compounds.

  15. Quantitative Determination of Compounds from Akebia quinata by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Nguyen; Thu, Nguyen; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Ah [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jong Keun [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Sui [Pukyung National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eun Rhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    To provide the scientific corroboration of the traditional uses of Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne., a detailed analytical examination of A. quinata stems was carried out using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method coupled to photodiode array detector (PDA) for the simultaneous determination of four phenolic substances; cuneataside D, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3-caffeoylquinic acid and calceolarioside B. Particular attention was focused on the main compound, 3-caffeoylquinic acid, which has a range of biological functions. In addition, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was considered as a discernible marker of A. quinata from its easy confuse plants. The contents of compounds 2 and 3 ranged from 0.72 to 2.68 mg/g and from 1.66 to 5.64 mg/g, respectively. The validation data indicated that this HPLC/PDA assay was used successfully to quantify the four phenolic compounds in A. quinata from different locations using relatively simple conditions and procedures. The pattern-recognition analysis data from 53 samples classified them into two groups, allowing discrimination between A. quinata and comparable herbs. The results suggest that the established HPLC/PDA method is suitable for quantitation and pattern-recognition analyses for a quality evaluation of this medicinal herb.

  16. Spectrographic determination of zirconium, niobium, rhodium, ruthenium, tantalum, and tungsten in uranium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F.A.; Capdevila, C.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of Nb, Rh, Ru, Ta, W and Zr in uranium and its compounds has been studied, using the carrier distillation method with either AgCl or AgCl-SrF 2 (4:3) as carrier. In order to get the best sensitivity, the influence of the carrier concentration, the dc arc intensity and several controlled atmospheres on the variation of the line to background ratio of intensities has been considered. With the most suitable conditions, the sensitivities achieved for the considered elements are in the range 1-10 ppm. (author)

  17. Simultaneous separation and determination of hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds by using a two-step microcolumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, O M; Desideri, P G; Lepri, L; Checchini, L

    1991-08-30

    The simultaneous separation and determination of a mixture of hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds was successfully carried out by using sorption chromatography on a two-step microcolumn of silica and aluminium oxide for their fractionation, and a dual detector system. In addition to the separation and identification of hydrocarbons and heterocompounds containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur atoms, separation and identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons (dichlorobenzenes, p-chlorotoluene, hexachlorobutadiene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and 2-chloronaphthalene), pesticides (chlorpicrin, aldrin, lindane, alpha- and beta-benzene hexachloride (BHC), endrin, dieldrin, endosulphan, methoxychlor) and herbicides (propanil, dichlobenil, trifluralin, difolatan) were achieved in mixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyl, strobane and chlordane.

  18. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC; Determinacion de compuestos carbonilicos en aire por HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R.M.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1995-07-01

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak Cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetoacetonitrile. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Flame photometric determination of Na, K and Li in uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    A flame photometric method for the determination of Na, K and Li in uranium compounds is described. The uranium is separated by solvent extraction from hydrochloric acid medium with tri-butyl phosphate. Amounts of uranium in order of 20 μg/ml don't cause any interference in the photometric results. The element Na presents a residual concentration due to the contamination of the reagents. The relative standard deviation is about 10% for the three elements. The relative error varies with the concentration of the element and it is between 1 and 24% for Na, between O and 12% for K and between O and 33% for Li. (Author) [pt

  20. Determination of chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds by ion-selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunqing; Liu Fuyun; Huang Dianfan.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of microamount chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds is described. Chlorine is separated from uranium oxide pyrohydrolytically with stream of wet oxygen in a furnace at 800-900 deg C. Chlorine is volatilized as hydrochloric acid, which then is absorbed in a dilute alkaline solution and measured with chlorine selective electrode. This method covers the concentration range of 10-500 ppm chlorine in uranium oxide. The relative standard diviation is better than 10% and recovery of 85-108% has been reported

  1. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  2. How to tackle chemical communication? Relative proportions versus semiquantitative determination of compounds in lizard chemical secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Roa, Roberto; Sáiz, Jorge; Gómara, Belén; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge about chemical communication in some vertebrates is still relatively limited. Squamates are a glaring example of this, even when recent evidences indicate that scents are involved in social and sexual interactions. In lizards, where our understanding of chemical communication has considerably progressed in the last few years, many questions about chemical interactions remain unanswered. A potential reason for this is the inherent complexity and technical limitations that some methodologies embody when analyzing the compounds used to convey information. We provide here a straightforward procedure to analyze lizard chemical secretions based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that uses an internal standard for the semiquantification of compounds. We compare the results of this method with those obtained by the traditional procedure of calculating relative proportions of compounds. For such purpose, we designed two experiments to investigate if these procedures allowed revealing changes in chemical secretions 1) when lizards received previously a vitamin dietary supplementation or 2) when the chemical secretions were exposed to high temperatures. Our results show that the procedure based on relative proportions is useful to describe the overall chemical profile, or changes in it, at population or species levels. On the other hand, the use of the procedure based on semiquantitative determination can be applied when the target of study is the variation in one or more particular compounds of the sample, as it has proved more accurate detecting quantitative variations in the secretions. This method would reveal new aspects produced by, for example, the effects of different physiological and climatic factors that the traditional method does not show.

  3. Flow injection determination of carboxylate, phosphate, and sulfhydryl compounds using metal exchange complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Fotouh R; Shafi, Mohammad A; Danielson, Neil D

    2012-06-15

    The determination of carboxylate, phosphorous, and sulfhydryl compounds has been studied using flow injection by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the Fe(III)-salicylate complex due to preferential ligand interaction with ferric ion. Targeted compounds include polycarboxylates such as sodium citrate, sodium oxalate, and EDTA, anionic phosphorous compounds such as sodium monofluoroorthophosphate, sodium trimetaphosphate, and sodium hexametaphosphate, and sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine, glutathione, and captopril. Initial flow injection optimization has focused on citrate based on its ability to replace salicylate ion in the Fe(III)-salicylate complex causing a decrease in absorbance at 525 nm proportional to the citrate concentration. Two flow injection analysis methods are developed. In the first method, offline reaction flow injection, sodium citrate dissolved in 100 μmol L(-1) Fe-salicylate is injected in a carrier solution of 100 μmol L(-1) Fe-salicylate. The decrease in peak area is linear over a range of 1.36-109 μmol L(-1) using a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) and an injection volume of 100 μL. The effect of pH on the Fe-salicylate complex absorbance is studied from 1 to 3.5; pH 3 shows both a high and stable complex absorbance in the visible range which provided important potential selectivity over UV detection. The limit of detection is found to be less than 57 nmol L(-1) depending on the Fe(III)-salicylate concentration used. The second method is reverse flow injection using the sample as a flowing stream in which 3 mmol L(-1) Fe(III)-salicylate is injected and the decrease in the response with increased sample concentration was monitored. The commercially available pharmaceutical product (Citroma)(®) is used to assess the accuracy and precision of the two proposed methods as compared to a reference method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differentiation of aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of different grades using gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Hee; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Kim, Young-Suk

    2007-03-21

    Two independent approaches, gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis, were used to evaluate and compare the aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of four different grades. The aroma-active compounds responsible for the sensory attributes of pine- mushrooms were investigated based on the correlation between instrumental and sensory analyses through partial least-square regression. Piny, meaty, and floral attributes were strongly correlated with each other and were the most important descriptors for defining the pine-mushrooms of the highest grade, and they decreased as the grade decreased. Among 23 aroma-active compounds, (E)-2-decenal, alpha-terpineol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid ethyl ester contributed most to these attributes. On the other hand, the major aroma characteristics of the pine-mushrooms of the lowest grade were wet soil-like, alcohol, metallic, moldy, and fermented, and they decreased as the grade increased. These aroma characteristics were strongly associated with 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, and methional.

  5. Multimodal sensory integration during sequential eating--linking chewing activity, aroma release, and aroma perception over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Ségolène; Blancher, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The respective effects of chewing activity, aroma release from a gelled candy, and aroma perception were investigated. Specifically, the study aimed at 1) comparing an imposed chewing and swallowing pattern (IP) and free protocol (FP) on panelists for in vivo measurements, 2) investigating carryover effects in sequential eating, and 3) studying the link between instrumental data and their perception counterpart. Chewing activity, in-nose aroma concentration, and aroma perception over time were measured by electromyography, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and time intensity, respectively. Model gel candies were flavored at 2 intensity levels (low-L and high-H). The panelists evaluated 3 sequences (H then H, H then L, and L then H) in duplicates with both IP and FP. They scored aroma intensity over time while their in-nose aroma concentrations and their chewing activity were measured. Overall, only limited advantages were found in imposing a chewing and swallowing pattern for instrumental and sensory data. In addition, the study highlighted the role of brain integration on perceived intensity and dynamics of perception, in the framework of sequential eating without rinsing. Because of the presence of adaptation phenomena, contrast effect, and potential taste and texture cross-modal interaction with aroma perception, it was concluded that dynamic in-nose concentration data provide only one part of the perception picture and therefore cannot be used alone in prediction models.

  6. Voltammetric determination of zinc in compound pharmaceutical preparations--validation of method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutka, Anna; Bukowska, Honorata

    2009-01-01

    The conditions of voltammetric determination of zinc in compound pharmaceutical preparations were established and validated. The three investigated preparations (Organic zinc (A), Calcium, zinc, copper with vitamin C (B), Vigor complete (V) contained different salts of zinc (II) and increasing number of other components. The samples of powdered tablets of each preparation were undergone mineralization or extraction procedures for the purpose to transfer the zinc ions into solution. The concentration of zinc in solution was determined by differential pulse voltammetry (DP). The selectivity, accuracy, precision and linearity of DP determination of zinc in three preparations were estimated in validation process. Zinc was determined within the concentration range of 1-12 ppm (1-12 microg/mL): the mean recoveries approached 96-99% (A), 96-102% (B), 106% (V); the relative standard deviations of determinations (RSD) were 2,97-2,98% (A), 2,83-3,84% (B) and 2,65% (V). The mean recoveries and the errors of determination satisfied the requirements for the analyte concentration at the level 1-20 ppm (12).

  7. Volatile composition and aroma activity of guava puree before and after thermal and dense phase carbon dioxide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Maria Lourdes; Marshall, Maurice R; Rouseff, Russell Lee

    2015-02-01

    Volatiles from initially frozen, dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD)- and thermally treated guava purees were isolated by solid phase microextraction (SPME), chromatographically separated and identified using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD, sulfur mode). Fifty-eight volatiles were identified using GC-MS consisting of: 6 aldehydes, 2 acids, 15 alcohols, 6 ketones, 21 esters, and 8 terpenes. Eleven volatiles were newly identified in guava puree. Hexanal was the most abundant volatile in all 3 types of guava puree. Ten sulfur compounds were identified using GC-PFPD of which 3 possessed aroma activity and 3 were not previously reported in guava puree. Both treatments profoundly reduced total sulfur peak areas and produced different peak patterns compared to control. Thermal treatment reduced total sulfur peak area 47.9% compared to a loss of 34.7% with DPCD treatment. Twenty-six volatiles possessed aroma activity. (Z)-3-Hexenyl hexanoate was the major contributor to the aroma of the freshly thawed and DPCD-treated guava puree. DPCD treatment reduced total MS ion chromatogram (MS TIC) peak area 35% but produced a GC-O aroma profile very similar to control. Whereas thermal treatment reduced total TIC peak area only 8.7% compared to control but produced a 35% loss in total GC-O peak intensities. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Florfenicol and Diclazuril in Compound Powder by RP-HPLC-UV Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A RP-HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of florfenicol and diclazuril in compound powder. The separation involved using a SinoChoom ODS-BP C18 (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm analytical column. The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid (pH was adjusted to 3.0 with triethylamine. The ratio of acetonitrile and 0.2% phosphoric acid in the mobile phase was 60 : 40 (v/v from 0 minutes to 6 minutes and 70 : 30 (v/v from 6.1 minutes to 15 minutes. The flow rate was 1 mL/min. The temperature of the analytical column was maintained at 30°C. The detection was monitored at 225 nm and 277 nm for florfenicol and diclazuril, respectively. The excipients in the compound powder did not interfere with the drug peaks. The calibration curves of florfenicol and diclazuril were fairly linear over the concentration ranges between 50.0–500.0 μg/mL (r=0.9995 and 10.0–100.0 μg/mL (r=0.9992, respectively. The RSD of both the intraday and interday variations was below 2.1% for florfenicol and diclazuril. The method was successfully validated according to International Conference on Harmonisation and proved to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of florfenicol and diclazuril in compound powder.

  10. Comparison of mild extraction procedures for determination of plant-available arsenic compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakova, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Pavlikova, Daniela; Balik, Jiri [Czech University of Agriculture, Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Prague (Czech Republic); Goessler, Walter; Schlagenhaufen, Claudia [Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Institute of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2005-05-01

    In this work three mild extraction agents for determination of plant-available fractions of elements in soil were evaluated for arsenic speciation in soil samples. Pepper (Capsicum annum, L.) var. California Wonder was cultivated in pots, and aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, at a concentration of 15 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, were added at the beginning of the experiment. Control pots (untreated) were also included. Deionized water, 0.01 mol L{sup -1} CaCl{sub 2}, and 0.05 mol L{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} were used to extract the plant-available fraction of the arsenic compounds in soil samples collected during the vegetation period of the plants. Whereas in control samples the extractable arsenic fraction did not exceed 1% of total arsenic content, soil amendment by arsenic compounds resulted in extraction of larger amounts, which varied between 1.4 and 8.1% of total arsenic content, depending on soil treatment and on the extracting agent applied. Among arsenic compounds determined by HPLC-ICPMS arsenate was predominant, followed by small amounts of arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, depending on the individual soil treatment. In all the experiments in which methylarsonic acid was added to the soil methylarsonous acid was detected in the extracts, suggesting that the soil bacteria are capable of reducing methylarsonic acid before a further methylation occurs. No significant differences were observed between analytical data obtained by using different extraction procedures. (orig.)

  11. Novel Protein-Based Solid-Biosensor for Determining Pro-oxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Esin; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2017-07-19

    To develop a protein-based biosensor measuring the pro-oxidant activities of phenolic compounds, egg white proteins were precipitated with calcium chloride to obtain an insoluble calcium proteinate complex. This biosensor was used for the determination of Cu(II)-induced pro-oxidant activity of antioxidants such as gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and myricetin, and ascorbic acid. This assay involved the reduction of Cu(II) ions to Cu(I) by antioxidant compounds (simultaneously giving rise to reactive oxygen species) and binding of the formed Cu(I) to the solid biosensor. The protein-bound Cu(I), an indicator of pro-oxidant activity of antioxidants on proteins, was colorimetrically determined at 450 nm with neocuproine (Nc). The method was applied to synthetic mixtures and herbal (sage, green tea, mint, and marjoram) infusions, and its findings were compared to those of a modified carbonyl detection assay. This low-cost biosensor can be prepared in large quantities and used for a long time.

  12. Application and potential of capillary electroseparation methods to determine antioxidant phenolic compounds from plant food material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Gómez-Romero, María; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-12-15

    Antioxidants are one of the most common active ingredients of nutritionally functional foods which can play an important role in the prevention of oxidation and cellular damage inhibiting or delaying the oxidative processes. In recent years there has been an increased interest in the application of antioxidants to medical treatment as information is constantly gathered linking the development of human diseases to oxidative stress. Within antioxidants, phenolic molecules are an important category of compounds, commonly present in a wide variety of plant food materials. Their correct determination is pivotal nowadays and involves their extraction from the sample, analytical separation, identification, quantification and interpretation of the data. The aim of this review is to provide an overview about all the necessary steps of any analytical procedure to achieve the determination of phenolic compounds from plant matrices, paying particular attention to the application and potential of capillary electroseparation methods. Since it is quite complicated to establish a classification of plant food material, and to structure the current review, we will group the different matrices as follows: fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and medicinal plants, beverages, vegetable oils, cereals, legumes and nuts and other matrices (including cocoa beans and bee products). At the end of the overview, we include two sections to explain the usefulness of the data about phenols provided by capillary electrophoresis and the newest trends. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microextraction Techniques Used in the Procedures for Determining Organomercury and Organotin Compounds in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Rutkowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to human activities, the concentrations of organometallic compounds in all parts of the environment have increased in recent decades. The toxicity and some biochemical properties of mercury and tin present in the environment depend on the concentration and chemical form of these two elements. The ever-increasing demand for determining compounds at very low concentration levels in samples with complex matrices requires the elimination of interfering substances, the reduction of the final extract volume, and analyte enrichment in order to employ a detection technique, which is characterised by high sensitivity at low limits of quantification. On the other hand, in accordance with current trends, the analytical procedures should aim at the miniaturisation and simplification of the sample preparation step. In the near future, more importance will be given to the fulfilment of the requirements of Green Chemistry and Green Analytical Chemistry in order to reduce the intensity of anthropogenic activities related to analytical laboratories. In this case, one can consider the use of solvent-free/solvent-less techniques for sample preparation and microextraction techniques, because the use of the latter leads to lowering the quantity of reagents used (including solvents due to the reduction of the scale of analysis. This paper presents an overview of microextraction techniques (SPME and LPME used in the procedures for determining different chemical forms of mercury and tin.

  14. In situ moisture determination of a cytotoxic compound during process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael B; Zhou, George X; Lieberman, David R; Antonucci, Vincent; Ge, Zhihong; Shi, Yao-Jun; Cameron, Mark; Lynch, Joseph E

    2003-03-01

    A simple and safe prototype apparatus was designed and adapted for the in situ determination of the moisture content of a cytotoxic compound (9-fluorenylmethyl-protected doxorubicin-peptide conjugate, or Fm-DPC) by near-infrared absorbance spectroscopy during optimization of the chemical isolation procedure. The cytotoxic nature of the compound restricts one's ability to safely sample such drying processes for more traditional means of moisture determination for fear of hazardous solids dusting, hence in situ sampling approaches are of great importance. These concerns also exist for the process development laboratory, where despite the smaller scale of operations, the volume of experiments (hence cytotoxic samples) required to define a chemical process is often more significant. In this application, partial least squares regression was used with Karl Fischer volumetric titration analysis to generate a calibration model. Although pronounced differences in cake density were observed as a function of the buffer selected for the isolation process, the model still achieved a standard error of calibration of 0.63% w/w and a standard error of prediction of 0.99% (w/w). These results demonstrated the versatility of the prototype apparatus/data processing approach to model Fm-DPC drying under extremely variable conditions, as inherently expected during the investigational laboratory development of a chemical process. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss Inc. and the American Pharmaeceutical Association

  15. Differential pulse polarographic determination of Sn (II) in DTPA radiopharmaceutical compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hadzri Yaacob; Fielden, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    A differential pulse polarographic technique has been developed for the assay of Sn(II). Acting as a reducing agent, Sn(II) is one of the most important components in radiopharmaceutical compounds. Under optimum conditions, Sn(II) undergoes reduction to form an amalgam at the dropping mercury electrode, producing a well-defined and characteristic peak at -0.45 + 0.030V, with respect to the standard calomel electrode (SCE) in 5M perchloric acid. For quantitative determination by this technique, a linear calibration graph was obtained over a concentration 0 to 70 ppm of stannous chloride for the analysis of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) samples. Average recovery from ten measurements of a fixed amount of standard solution was 90%. A detection limit of 2.3ppm which was fairly low compared to the actual content of Sn(II) which was 20 ppm, could be obtained. The analysis of the sample using this technique gave a well-defined Sn(II)peak without the interference of the chelate compounds present in the sample, and reproducible results with a typical coefficient variation of less than 7% for ten determinations. The results obtained demonstrated that the proposed DPP technique was a convenient, sensitive, accurate and rapid method. The results were in good agreement with those found by iodimetric titration. An advantage of this method is that it is free of interference from the other constituents of the sample, hence there is no need to separate the matrix

  16. Hard cap espresso extraction and liquid chromatography determination of bioactive compounds in vegetables and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sena, María Teresa; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Armenta, Sergio

    2017-12-15

    A new analytical procedure, based on liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection, has been proposed for the determination of bioactive compounds in vegetables and spices after hard cap espresso extraction. This novel extraction system has been tested for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from fresh chilli and sweet pepper, piperine from ground pepper, curcumin from turmeric and curry, and myristicin from nutmeg. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by using acetonitrile:water and ethanol:water mixtures. The proposed method allows the extraction of samples with 100mL of 60% (v/v) ethanol in water. The obtained limits of quantification for the proposed procedure ranged from 0.07 to 0.30mgg -1 and results were statistically comparable with those obtained by ultrasound assisted extraction. Hard cap espresso machines offer a fast, effective and quantitative tool for the extraction of bioactive compounds from food samples with an extraction time lower than 30s, using a global available and low cost equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Free energy of melts and intermetallic compounds of binary alloys determined by a molecular dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerdane, M

    2014-02-01

    We present an atomistic approach aimed at determining the free energy g(liq) of binary alloy liquids, a quantity which governs the thermodynamics of phase transformations and whose evaluation has long been a challenge to modeling methods. Our approach, illustrated here for a metallic system model NiZr, combines two methods: the quasiharmonic approximation, applied for some existing (real or hypothetical) intermetallic compounds, and the liquid-solid coexistence conditions. The underlying equations for g(liq) are solved by means of a subregular-solution approximation. We demonstrate the high reliability of our calculated free energies in determining the phase diagram of a binary system and describing quantitatively the growth kinetics. The latter issue is illustrated by linking molecular dynamics simulations to phase-field modeling with regard to directional solidification and melting in a two-phase system [Ni(x)Zr(1-x)](liq)-Zr(cryst) out of chemical equilibrium.

  18. Rapid determination of volatile organic compounds in environmentally hazardous wastewaters using solid phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, K.J.; Stack, M.A. [Ecotoxicology Research Unit, Chemistry Department, Cork RTC, Bishopstown, Cork (Ireland)

    1997-08-01

    Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was applied to the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater discharges. Environmentally significant samples, typical of those subject to regulatory control, were examined and included discharges from pharmaceutical, petrochemical and municipal sewerage treatment plants. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following sampling using headspace or immersion SPME. Fused silica fibres, coated with either poly(dimethylsiloxane) or poly(acrylate), were examined to determine VOC which included chloroform, saturated carboxylic acids, alkylbenzenes, phenol, benzonitrile and benzofuran. Detection limits varied from 10 to 170 ng/ml and satisfactory relative standard deviations (%RSD < 10) were obtained. For most samples, headspace sampling was preferred to immersion. SPME was found to be a useful technique for the rapid screening of wastewaters for VOC. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Determination of phenolic compounds and evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Campomanesia adamantium leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, I.D.; Coelho, R.G.; Honda, N.K.; Silva, J.R.M.; Cardoso, C.A.L. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: claudia@uems.br; Kataoka, V.M.F. [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Quimica; Vilegas, W. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2008-10-15

    Five flavanones and three chalcones were isolated from Campomanesia adamantium Berg. (Myrtaceae) leaves. The contents of these compounds were determined by HPLC. The phenolic contents were also determined. The monitoring of the antioxidant activity was carried out by inhibition of peroxidation using the linoleic acid system and radical-scavenging (DPPH). The plants were collected from 4 distinct cities of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The different samples exhibited a range of 4.67-232.35 mg/g chalcones and 15.62-50.71 mg/g flavanones and phenolic contents of the 7.24-21.19 mg/g gallic acid. All extracts showed high antioxidant activity with a wide range of the radical-scavenging (DPPH) from 52.0 to 92.2 % and inhibition oxidation of linoleic acid from 14.6 to 94.2%. (author)

  20. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Determination of organotin compounds in water soluble paints and adhesives by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Nakashima, Harunobu; Ooshima, Tomoko; Tsuchiya, Toshie; Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2010-02-01

    The use of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in some household products are prohibited by "Act on the Control of Household Products Containing Harmful Substances" in Japan. In this study, methods for determination of TBT and TPT in water soluble paints and adhesives were developed by GC-MS. These compounds in paints and adhesives, which were mainly composed of vinyl acetate, urethane and acryl resins, and chloroprene rubber, were firstly extracted with HCl-acetone, and then extracted with hexane. On the other hand, the adhesive composed of natural rubber was firstly dispersed in water before acidification. The organotins were extracted with hexane from this solution and then these compounds were extracted with acetonitrile from hexane extract. These extracts were purified by a florisil cartridge column after ethyl-derivation with sodium tetraethylborate, and analyzed by GC-MS. The quantifications using deuterated compound of both organotins as surrogate standard were conducted, and good results were obtained. The recoveries were 81 to 118% and the coefficients of variation were 0.83 to 4.3% (TBT and TPT added; 5 microg/g). The method quantification limits were 0.0090 to 0.025 microg/g, which were lower than those of an official method. These methods were applied to monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monophenyltin (MPT), and diphenyltin (DPT). DBT and DPT in paints and adhesives were quantified, except for DPT in natural rubber. These methods were applied to commercial products. DBT was detected at low concentrations (t.r.-0.19 microg/g) in some paint samples, while TBT and TPT were not detected in all samples.

  2. Odour-active compounds in banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Febles, Yanet

    2013-11-15

    Application of solid-phase microextraction, simultaneous distillation-extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 146 compounds, 124 of them were positively identified. Thirty-one odourants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical banana aroma, eleven of them are reported for the first time as odour-active compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-tube extraction for the determination of the main volatile compounds in Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupska, Magdalena; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2017-01-01

    An analytical procedure based on in-tube extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of 24 of the main volatile components in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) samples. According to their chemical structure, the compounds were organized into different groups: one hydrocarbon, one aldehyde, four alcohols, four esters, and 14 monoterpenes. By single-factor experiments, incubation temperature, incubation time, extraction volume, extraction strokes, extraction speed, desorption temperature, and desorption speed were determined as 60°C, 20 min, 1000 μL, 20, 50:50 μL/s, 280°C, 100 μL/s, respectively. Quantitative analysis using authentic standards and external calibration curves was performed. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the analytical procedure were calculated. Results shown the benzaldehyde, ethyl butanoate, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-butanol, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol were the most abundant volatile compounds in analyzed fruits (68.6-585 μg/kg). The obtained data may contribute to qualify cape gooseberry to the group of superfruits and, therefore, increase its popularity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Competition between intermolecular interaction and configuration entropy as the structure-determining factor for inclusion compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, O.; Belosludov, V.; Adamova, T. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Nikolaev Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Belosludov, R.; Kawazoe, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Kudoh, J.I. [Tohoku Univ., Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan). Center for Northeast Asia Studies

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed method to accurately predict the thermodynamic properties of clathrate hydrates, particularly their structural phase transitions under pressure. The method is based on the theory of Van-der-Waals and Platteeuw with some modifications that include the influence of guest molecules on the host lattice. The model was used to explain the exception from the established rule that small guest molecules form structure s1 and large molecules form structure s2 hydrates. In this study, the thermodynamic properties of argon (Ar) hydrate and methane hydrate, each in both cubic structure s1 and s2 were modelled. The model showed that two competing factors play a role in the formation of inclusions, notably the intermolecular interaction of guest molecules with water molecules, and the configuration entropy. Competition of these 2 factors determines the structure of hydrate formed at different pressures. The model provides an accurate description of the thermodynamic properties of gas hydrates and how they behave under pressure. For the argon hydrates, the structural phase transition from structure s2 to s1 at high pressure was predicted, while methane hydrates were predicted to be metastable in the s2 structure. The model can be used for other inclusion compounds with the same type of composition such as clathrate silicon, zeolites, and inclusion compounds of semiconductor elements. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Syntheses and crystal structure determination by X-ray powder diffraction of new compounds of Benzovesamicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukiah, M.; Assaad, Th.

    2012-06-01

    The compound 2,2,2-Trifluoro-N-(1a,2,7,7 a-tetra-hydronaphtho[2,3-b]oxiren-3-yl)- acetamide, C 1 2H 1 0F 3 NO 2 , an important precursor in the preparation of benzovesamicol analogues for the diagnosis of Alzheimers disease, was prepared by the epoxidation of 5,8-dihydronaphthalene-1-amine using 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. The structure was determined by X-ray powder diffraction, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. A pair of molecules form intermolecular N- H...O hydrogen bonds, involving the amino and oxirene groups, to produce a dimer.The two racemic compounds (2RS,3RS)-5-amino-3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronaphthalene-2-ol, C 2 0H 2 5N 3 O, (I) and (2RS,3RS)-5-amino-3-[4-(3- methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-ol, C 2 1H 2 7N 3 O 2 , (II) important benzovesamicol analogues for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, have been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, and 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopic analyses. The crystal structures were analyses using powder diffraction as no suitable single crystal were obtained. The two compounds are racemic mixtures of enantiomers which crystallize in the monoclinic system in a centrosymmetric space group (P21/c). Crystallography, in particular powder X-ray diffraction, was pivotal in revealing that the enantio-resolution did not succeed. In two compounds, the piperazine ring has a chair conformation, while the cyclohexene ring assumes a half-chair conformation. In (I) the crystal packing is mediated by weak contacts, principally by complementary intermolecular N--H...O hydrogen bonds that connect successive molecules into a chain. Further stabilization is provided by weak C--H...N contacts and by a weak intermolecular C--H...π interaction. While in (II), the crystal packing is dominated by intermolecular O--H...N hydrogen bonding which links molecules along the c direction. (authors)

  7. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri (Turkey); Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Moleculer Biology, 49250-Mus (Turkey); Özdemir, Hasan, E-mail: hozdemir@atauni.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  8. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2006-01-01

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  9. Women have better olfactory perception for wine aromas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the influence of the gender on the olfactory perception of aromas found in the wines, as well as to identify the aromatic groups most perceived by men and women. Twenty different aromas of different aromatic classes described in the wines were used: fruity, spices, wood, herbaceous, floral, buttery, defects. The different aromatic groups were packed in Erlenmeyer glasses wrapped with aluminum paper in order to avoid the visualization of the aromas by the participants. Fifty people, 25 men and 25 women, aged between 21 and 65 years, were ramdomly separated in groups of 10 people to participate of the evaluation. The influence of the gender on the ability to identify aromas was verified. Women matched 56.8% of the aromas, while men matched 44.6%. In relation to the aromatic class, a greater index of the feminine gender in all the aromatic classes was verified, being spices the group of aromas that women most perceived, with 80.6% of hits, followed by the floral aromas with 50% accuracy. For men, the aromatic class with the highest index of accuracy was also the spices, however, with a success rate of 58.4%, followed by the herbaceous group with 38.2% of correct answers. Both females and males obtained high scores for the group of wine defects (acetic acid and ethyl acetate, 85.2% and 81.0%, respectively, overcoming the other aromatic classes. Buttery aromas were the ones least recognized by women, with 30.8% of hits, whereas the least perceived aroma for men were the floral ones, with no hits observed in any group of participants. The results found in this study show that there are differences in olfactory perception between men and women, and this factor, in addition to the wine service temperature, wine glass type, olfactory memory, must also be considered in sensory analysis. Female gender has a greater ability to identify aromas in relation to the male gender, since women have a greater number of cells

  10. Determination of polyphenolic compounds of red wines by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelo-Vidal, M J; Vázquez, M

    2014-09-01

    Spectral analysis is a quick and non-destructive method to analyse wine. In this work, trans-resveratrol, oenin, malvin, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and syringic acid were determined in commercial red wines from DO Rías Baixas and DO Ribeira Sacra (Spain) by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. Calibration models were developed using principal component regression (PCR) or partial least squares (PLS) regression. HPLC was used as reference method. The results showed that reliable PLS models were obtained to quantify all polyphenols for Rías Baixas wines. For Ribeira Sacra, feasible models were obtained to determine quercetin, epicatechin, oenin and syringic acid. PCR calibration models showed worst reliable of prediction than PLS models. For red wines from mencía grapes, feasible models were obtained for catechin and oenin, regardless the geographical origin. The results obtained demonstrate that UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used to determine individual polyphenolic compounds in red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exact Sight Distance Determination on Compound Vertical and Horizontal Curves in the Presence of Road Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The sight distance (SD on a three-dimensional (3-d compound curve has been studied recently in the absence of obstacles at road sides. Often, physical barriers are installed at road sides or in a roadway median for reducing potential collision severities; these rigid, semi-rigid, or even temporary cushion-type barriers can limit or reduce the driver's sight distance, depending on their horizontal offset distances away from the nearest edge of traveled way (ETW. The closer a barrier to the ETW is, the shorter the driver's sight distance would be. Since most barriers are constructed to prevent running-off road or crossing-median collisions, it is crucial to check whether the installation would reduce the driver's sight distance and potentially cause other traffic collisions such as rear-end or side swipe collisions. In this paper, an exact analytic framework is formulated with derived equations the first time to calculate the sight distance on a 3-d compound curve in the presence of a median barrier, a roadside barrier, or a temporary cushion or barrier used for construction or other maintenance purposes. This framework provides an engineer a handy tool to examine the possible change of SD in the presence of a barrier and choose the required horizontal offset/clearance of a barrier from the nearest traveled way edge to meet certain design criteria or standards. This critical offset distance determined using this framework not only reinforces the importance of having roadside clearance recovery zones on highways but also provides a method to determine its horizontal clearance from a different standpoint. This analytic framework can easily be programmed into an Excel spreadsheet to evaluate the design of a physical barrier and its potential influence on sight distance along a 3-d compound horizontal and vertical curve. Transportation engineers or practitioners may find this design tool handy and useful once the programmed spreadsheet is saved in a

  12. Differentiation of the aromas of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using sensory and instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotseridis, Y; Razungles, A; Bertrand, A; Baumes, R

    2000-11-01

    The aromas of six Merlot and three Cabernet Sauvignon wines of the 1996 vintage from the Bordeaux region were evaluated by sensory analysis. A panel of selected enology students was trained to assess 20 attributes previously generated for these wines by enologists of Bordeaux. Using statistical methods, this 20-attribute list was reduced to a 12-attribute list. The aroma profiles of the wines of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon were very close. Differentiation of the wines of these two varieties was significant only for the caramel descriptor, which was rated higher in the Merlot wines. Gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O) and GC/MS analyses were used to detect and identify the potent odorants with the caramel odor in the two most differentiated samples for this attribute, a Merlot wine and a Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Two odorant zones with this odor resulted in identification of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (HEMF). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method showed a higher dilution factor (FD) for HDMF in the Merlot wine extract than in the Cabernet Sauvignon extract. The HDMF levels determined in the wines studied using a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) method were consistent with the results found by sensory analysis and GC/O; i.e., higher HDMF levels were present in the Merlot wines than in the Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

  13. Identification of the key odorants in Tahitian cured vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) by GC-MS and an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The key odorants of Tahitian vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) were characterized by a sensory evaluation, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), quantification, and aroma reconstitution. Vanillin and anisaldehyde were identified in the same highest flavor dilution (FD) factor as the most characteristic odor-active compounds in Tahitian vanilla beans, followed by anisyl alcohol and anisyl acetate. Vanillin and anisyl alcohol were by far the most abundant odorants present with the highest concentration in the beans, followed by acetic acid, anisaldehyde, and anisyl acetate. A sensory evaluation of Tahitian vanilla beans and its reconstitute aroma concentrate characterized both samples as similar. These results indicated vanillin, anisaldehyde, anisyl alcohol, and anisyl acetate to be the key odorants in Tahitian vanilla beans. 3-Methylnonane-2,4-dione were identified for the first time in vanilla beans. β-Damascenone and phenylacetic acid were identified for the first time in Tahitian vanilla beans.

  14. Inline roasting hyphenated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an innovative approach for assessment of cocoa fermentation quality and aroma formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Jim; Ingels, Isabel; De Winne, Ann

    2016-08-15

    Today, the cocoa industry is in great need of faster and robust analytical techniques to objectively assess incoming cocoa quality. In this work, inline roasting hyphenated with a cooled injection system coupled to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ILR-CIS-GC-MS) has been explored for the first time to assess fermentation quality and/or overall aroma formation potential of cocoa. This innovative approach resulted in the in-situ formation of relevant cocoa aroma compounds. After comparison with data obtained by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS) on conventional roasted cocoa beans, ILR-CIS-GC-MS data on unroasted cocoa beans showed similar formation trends of important cocoa aroma markers as a function of fermentation quality. The latter approach only requires small aliquots of unroasted cocoa beans, can be automatated, requires no sample preparation, needs relatively short analytical times (<1h) and is highly reproducible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of metabolic products of Aspergillus oryzae on the formation of aroma components by sake yeast. : On the aroma produced by yeast (XI)

    OpenAIRE

    小泉, 武夫; 鈴木, 昌治; 佐藤, 直樹; 角田, 潔和; 野白, 喜久雄; T., KOIZUMI; M., SUZUKI; N., SATOH; K., KAKUTA; K., NOJIRO; 東京農業大学醸造学科; 東京農業大学醸造学科; 東京農業大学醸造学科; 東京農業大学醸造学科; 東京農業大学醸造学科

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of metabolic products of A.oryzae on the formation of aroma components by sake yeast. Addition of extract of rice-koji or culture broth of A. oryzae to Hayduck medium increased the aroma formation of sake yeast. Mevalonic acid, a specific product of A. oryzae, stimulated the aroma formation of sake yeast. Products of A. oryzae had a greater stimulative effect on aroma formation in alcoholic fermentation by sake yeast than those of A. awamori. Aroma formation in...

  16. Effects of ultraviolet light and ultrasound on microbial quality and aroma-active components of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Burcu; Karagul Yuceer, Yonca

    2012-04-01

    Heat treatment is the most common way to extend the shelf life of milk. However, alternative technologies such as ultraviolet (UV) light and ultrasound (US), which are non-thermal methods for processing milk, have been developed to replace heat treatment. These technologies do not have any adverse effects on the quality of milk. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of UV and US on different micro-organism groups and aroma compounds in milk. Heat pasteurisation at 65 °C for 30 min was used as thermal control treatment. The growth of total coliform group bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. was completely reduced by UV treatment. Application of US was not sufficient to reduce the numbers of yeasts and moulds. In neutral/basic fractions, 3-methylthiophene (plastic), hexanal (grass) and 1-hexen-3-one (floral) were major volatiles in milk samples. UV had a major effect on total coliforms, E. coli and Staphylococcus spp., but US was not as effective as UV and heat treatment in reducing certain groups of micro-organisms. No major differences were observed in terms of aroma-active compounds and flavour of milk following the different treatments. However, some new volatiles and change in rheological properties were generated by UV and US treatments. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Prohens, Jaime; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

    2004-09-08

    The volatile constituents of 10 clones (4 parents with different flavors and 6 hybrids from selected crossings among these parents) of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs) were detected by GC-olfactometry-MS analyses and included 24 esters (acetates, 3-methylbutanoates, and 3-methylbut-2-enoates), 7 aldehydes (especially hexenals and nonenals), 6 ketones, 9 alcohols, 3 lactones, 2 terpenes, beta-damascenone, and mesifurane. Among these compounds, 17, of which 5 had not been reported previously in pepino, were found to contribute significantly to pepino aroma. OCVs can be assigned to three groups according to their odor quality: fruity fresh (acetates and prenol), green vegetable (C6 and C9 aldehydes), and exotic (lactones, mesifuran, and beta-damascenone). Quantitative and qualitative differences between clones for these compounds are clearly related to differences in their overall flavor impression. The positive value found for the hybrid-midparent regression coefficient for volatile composition indicates that an important fraction of the variation observed is inheritable, which has important implications in breeding for improving aroma. Significant and positive correlations were found between OCVs having common precursors or related pathways.

  18. Extraction and determination of major hypotensive compounds in bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of three major hypotensive compounds, namely geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide in the bark of Eucommia ulmoides. Soxhlet extraction of GPA, GPS, and CA from E. ulmoides was optimized according to the Taguchi experimental design. Maximum global yields were obtained using the following conditions: extraction temperature, 80°C; extraction time, 1 h; number of extractions, three; solvent volume, 16 ml/g of sample; and 50% ethanol concentration in water. Optimal conditions of separation and detection were achieved on a Diamonsil ODS C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm with a linear gradient of methanol and 0.04% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and detection wavelength of 240 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999 within test ranges. The relative deviation of this method was less than 3% for intra- and inter-day assays, and the recovery percentage of the method was 95-104%, with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D. of less than 5%. The current assay method was used for quantitative determination of geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide in five samples of E. ulmoides with different age. The results indicate that the developed method could be readily utilized as a quality control method in working with E. ulmoides.

  19. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç��o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono

  20. Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5 MPa, 8% CO₂, 6.5 min, and 40 °C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75 °C for 15 s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4 °C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14 weeks of storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A rapid method for determination of polar compounds in used frying fats and oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M.C.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of polar compounds by adsorption chromatography is the most accepted method for the analysis of used frying fats due to its high precision and accuracy. However, this method is expensive and time consuming. In this study, a rapid analytical method to determine polar compounds is proposed. Starting from milligrams of sample dissolved in a solution of hexane containing methyl oleate as internal standard, the nonpolar fraction, which comprises the non-altered triglycerides (TG and the internal standard, is obtained by solid phase extraction. Then, the non polar fraction is quantitatively analyzed in 15 min by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC and the polar fraction is determined by difference of weight. Response factors for pure TG and FAME were calculated. Six samples of sunflower oils of different degrees of unsaturation were analyzed in triplicate and the results were compared with those obtained by the gravimetric method based on silica classical column chromatography. Results showed no significant differences between the two methods. In addition, the repeatability of the proposed method was excellent, as the coefficient of variation ranged from 1.5 to 13% depending on the contents of polar compounds.La determinación de compuestos polares mediante cromatografía de adsorción es el método más aceptado en el análisis de aceites y grasas de fritura debido a su elevada exactitud y precisión. Sin embargo, la determinación es costosa, debido al elevado consumo de sílice y disolventes, y son necesarias varias horas para la obtención del resultado. En este estudio se propone una determinación alternativa rápida. Partiendo de miligramos de muestra disueltos en una solución de hexano con oleato de metilo como patrón interno, la fracción no polar, que contiene los triglicéridos no alterados y el patrón interno, es aislada mediante extracción en fase sólida. Posteriormente, la fracción no polar se

  2. Flavor and taste compounds analysis in Chinese solid fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 82 kinds of volatile compounds were identified, including alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, alkynes and benzenes. The subtle aroma of the soy sauce seemed to depend not only on particular key compounds but also on a “critical balance” or a “weighted concentration

  3. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  4. A powerful aromatic volatile thiol, 2-furanmethanethiol, exhibiting roast coffee aroma in wines made from several Vitis vinifera grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, T; Blanchard, L; Darriet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-05-01

    The chemical compound 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM), with a strong roast coffee aroma, has been identified in sweet white wines made from the Petit manseng grape variety, and in certain red Bordeaux wines (made from the Merlot, Cabernet franc, and Cabernet sauvignon grape varieties). This was done by extracting specific volatile thiols using p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. The 2FM has also been found in toasted oak used in barrel-making. All the Petit manseng sweet white wines and some of the red Bordeaux wines analyzed contained between a few ng/L and several dozen ng/L of 2FM. Taking into account its very low perception threshold (0.4 ng/L in a model hydro alcoholic environment), 2FM could therefore contribute to the roast coffee aroma of certain wines.

  5. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Fourty Five Salvia Species by Thermal Desorption-GC-MS Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Damla Hatipoglu; Nihal Zorlu; Tuncay Dirmenci; Ahmet C. Goren; Turan Ozturk; Gulacti Topcu

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from dried aerial parts (flowers, leafs, leafy branches and stems) of fourty five Salvia species, harvested from different regions of Turkey, were determined using thermal desorption technique coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS). Total percentages of the detected volatile organic compounds of the Salvia species ranged from 70.30 to 99.65% . Total yield of VOC was found to be highly variable among Salvia species, and the percentage of eac...

  6. Determination of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Leaves from Wild Rubus L. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones. Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially sanguiin H-6, ellagitannins, lambertianin C, and casuarinin. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. The highest level of phenolic compounds was measured for R. perrobustus, R. wimmerianus, R. pedemontanus and R. grabowskii. The study showed that wild blackberry leaves can be considered a good source of antioxidant compounds. There is clear potential for the utilization of blackberry leaves as a food additive, medicinal source or herbal tea.

  7. Determination of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in leaves from wild Rubus L. species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Cebulak, Tomasz; Wolanin, Mateusz

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones). Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially sanguiin H-6, ellagitannins, lambertianin C, and casuarinin. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. The highest level of phenolic compounds was measured for R. perrobustus, R. wimmerianus, R. pedemontanus and R. grabowskii. The study showed that wild blackberry leaves can be considered a good source of antioxidant compounds. There is clear potential for the utilization of blackberry leaves as a food additive, medicinal source or herbal tea.

  8. Determination of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Leaves from Wild Rubus L. Species

    OpenAIRE

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Cebulak, Tomasz; Wolanin, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones). Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially ...

  9. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...... fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles...... in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...

  10. HPLC determination of salinomycin and related compounds in fermentation media of Streptomyces albus and premixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazsek, Milos; Kubis, Marián

    2005-09-15

    A rapid, sensitive and selective HPLC method with post-column derivatization was proposed for the determination of salinomycin and related products in fermentation broths and premixes. The solvent extracts of samples were analysed on a reversed-phase monolithic type column. The mobile phase consisted of methanol/zinc acetate (0.05 M) adjusted to pH 4.0 with acetic acid (85/15, v/v). Post-column derivatization with vanillin at 85 degrees C was used for simultaneous, selective detection of salinomycin at 520 nm and related products at 460 nm. Optimal ratio of mobile phase/reagent flow rate was 2:1. Alternatively, pre-column derivatization of salinomycin and related products with three different reagents (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, p-bromophenacyl bromide and p-nitrobenzoyl chloride) was examined. Suitable derivates for HPLC separation and UV detection were prepared using p-nitrobenzoyl chloride. Extraction ability of various solvents for extracting of salinomycin and co-products from premix samples was also tested. Acetone, ethanol and pyridine were found to be the best extraction solvents for these compounds.

  11. Reliable determination of new lipid peroxidation compounds as potential early Alzheimer Disease biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Ana; Peña-Bautista, Carmen; Oger, Camille; Vigor, Claire; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Martín-Ibáñez, Nuria; Baquero, Miguel; Vento, Máximo; Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo

    2018-07-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays an important role in Alzheimer Disease, so corresponding metabolites found in urine samples could be potential biomarkers. The aim of this work is to develop a reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical method to determine a new set of lipid peroxidation compounds in urine samples. Excellent sensitivity was achieved with limits of detection between 0.08 and 17 nmol L -1 , which renders this method suitable to monitor analytes concentrations in real samples. The method's precision was satisfactory with coefficients of variation around 5-17% (intra-day) and 8-19% (inter-day). The accuracy of the method was assessed by analysis of spiked urine samples obtaining recoveries between 70% and 120% for most of the analytes. The utility of the described method was tested by analyzing urine samples from patients early diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia Alzheimer Disease following the clinical standard criteria. As preliminary results, some analytes (17(RS)-10-epi-SC-Δ 15 -11-dihomo-IsoF, PGE 2 ) and total parameters (Neuroprostanes, Isoprostanes, Isofurans) show differences between the control and the clinical groups. So, these analytes could be potential early Alzheimer Disease biomarkers assessing the patients' pro-oxidant condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nondestructive determination of compound amoxicillin powder by NIR spectroscopy with the aid of chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Nan; Zhu, Mingchao; Mi, Hong; Dou, Ying; Ren, Yulin

    2008-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrics, enables nondestructive analysis of solid samples without time-consuming sample preparation methods. A new method for the nondestructive determination of compound amoxicillin powder drug via NIR spectroscopy combined with an improved neural network model based on principal component analysis (PCA) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks is investigated. The PCA technique is applied to extraction relevant features from lots of spectra data in order to reduce the input variables of the RBF neural networks. Various optimum principal component analysis-radial basis function (PCA-RBF) network models based on conventional spectra and preprocessing spectra (standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC)) have been established and compared. Principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibrations are also used, which are compared with PCA-RBF neural networks. Experiment results show that the proposed PCA-RBF method is more efficient than PCR and PLS multivariate calibrations. And the PCA-RBF approach with SNV preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best performance.

  13. Active machine learning-driven experimentation to determine compound effects on protein patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Armaghan W; Kangas, Joshua D; Sullivan, Devin P; Murphy, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    High throughput screening determines the effects of many conditions on a given biological target. Currently, to estimate the effects of those conditions on other targets requires either strong modeling assumptions (e.g. similarities among targets) or separate screens. Ideally, data-driven experimentation could be used to learn accurate models for many conditions and targets without doing all possible experiments. We have previously described an active machine learning algorithm that can iteratively choose small sets of experiments to learn models of multiple effects. We now show that, with no prior knowledge and with liquid handling robotics and automated microscopy under its control, this learner accurately learned the effects of 48 chemical compounds on the subcellular localization of 48 proteins while performing only 29% of all possible experiments. The results represent the first practical demonstration of the utility of active learning-driven biological experimentation in which the set of possible phenotypes is unknown in advance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10047.001 PMID:26840049

  14. Acute Effects of Complexity in Aroma Composition on Satiation and Food Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to placebo, subjects felt significantly more satiated during aroma stimulation with the multicomponent strawberry aroma in the olfactometer-aided setting. Additionally, perceived satiation was significantly increased 10-15 min after consumption of the multicomponent strawberry-aromatized

  15. Comparison of methods for determining volatile compounds in milk, cheese, and whey powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted for optimal SPME release while not generating new compounds that are abs...

  16. Determination the total neutron yields of several semiconductor compounds using various alpha emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ramadhan Hayder; Sabr, Barzan Nehmat

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, the cross-sections of (α,n) reactions available in the literature as a function of α-particle energies for light and medium elements have been rearranged for α-particle energies from near threshold up to 10 MeV in steps of (0.050MeV) using the (Excel and Matlab) computer programs. The obtained data were used to calculate the neutron yields (n/106α) using the quick basic-computer program (Simpson Rules). The stopping powers of alpha particle energies from near threshold to 10 MeV for light and medium elements such as (nat.Be,10B,11B,13C,14N,nat.O,nat.F,nat.Mg,nat.Al,29Si,30Si, nat.P and 46.48Ti) have been calculated using the Zeigler formula. The kinetic energies (Tα) and the branching ratios of each α-emitters such as (211Bi, 210Po, 211Po, 215Po, 217At, 218Rn, 219Rn, 222Rn, 224Ra, 226Ra, 215Th, 228Th, 232U, 234U, 236U, 238U, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 245Es, 252Fm, 254Fm, 256Fm, 257Fm and 257Md) are taken into consideration to calculate the mean kinetic energy . The polynomial expressions were used to fitting the calculated weighted average of neutron yields (n/106α) for natural light and medium elements such as (Be, B, C, N, O, F, Mg, Al, Si, P and Ti) to determine the adopted neutron yields from the best fitting equation with minimum (CHISQ) at mean kinetic energies of various α-emitters. The total neutron yields (n/s/gx/ppmi) of the mentioned natural light and medium elements have been calculated using the adopted neutron yields (n/106α) from the fitting equations at mean kinetic energies of various α-emitters. The total neutron yields (n/s/gα-emitters/gcompounds) of semiconductor compounds such as (AlN, AlP, BN, BP, SiC, TiO2, BeSiN2, MgCN2, MgSiN2 and MgSiP2) have been calculated by mixing (1gram) of compounds with (1gram) of pure α-emitters using the quick basic computer program. The aim of the present work is to constructed and fabricate the neutron sources theoretically

  17. Extraction, chemical characterization and biological activity determination of broccoli health promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José

    2013-10-25

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) contains substantial amount of health-promoting compounds such as vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and dietary essential minerals; thus, it benefits health beyond providing just basic nutrition, and consumption of broccoli has been increasing over the years. This review gives an overview on the extraction and separation techniques, as well as the biological activity of some of the above mentioned compounds which have been published in the period January 2008 to January 2013. The work has been distributed according to the different families of health promoting compounds discussing the extraction procedures and the analytical techniques employed for their characterization. Finally, information about the different biological activities of these compounds has been also provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of volatile compounds by gas liquid chromatography in tropical fruit, guava (psidium guajav L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Zeb-un-Nisa; Asi, M. R.; Ahmad, R.; Iqbal, Z.; Maqbool, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    Volatile flavor components from both white and pink guava fruits were collected using Likens-Nickerson concurrent Distillation Extraction method and were analyzed by GC/FID. In the essence collected by using likens-Nickerson concurrent distillation extraction apparatus, 23 compounds were present in white guava fruit, of which 11 compounds (furfural, alpha-pinene, trans-2-hexene-1-ol, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, hexyl acetate Beta-ionone, limonene, 2-nonanone, cinamyl acetate and octyl acetate) were identified. Similarly for pink guava fruit, 13 compounds out of 29 compounds were identified by comparing retention times of unknown with that of standard compounds and sniffing at the odour port. These were hexanal, furfural, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, methyl furfural hexyl acetate, beta-ionone, alpha-pinene, 2-nonanone, limonene, cinnamyl acetate, ethyl undecanoate and octyl acetate. (author)

  19. [Changes in amino acid and fatty acid contents as well as activity of some related enzymes in apple fruit during aroma production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lan-Chun; Sun, Jian-She; Di, Bao

    2005-12-01

    Aroma volatiles from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. var. Starkrimson) fruit at different stages of maturity were collected by solid adsorbent-Tenax-GC and determined by thermodesorption and GC-MS. Production of propyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate and total ester volatiles and changes in concentration of the precursors of aroma biosynthsis--free amino acids and fatty acids and activities of lipoxygenases (LOX) and alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT) in apple fruits during ripening were studied. The results showed that propyl acetate and total esters were very low when the endogenous ethylene formation of the fruit was very low. At the stage of the increase in ethylene production, the rate of formation of propyl acetate and total esters increased. Butyl acetate appeared at the beginning of ethylene rise and increased thereafter. Ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate was produced at the beginning of climacteric stage and then increased sharply (Figs.1). These facts suggest that the aroma production is closely related to ethylene production. Among the 14 free amino acids detected in fruit, isoleucine which is considered to be the biosynthetic precursor of some branched chain esters showed a great increase during fruit ripening while the others decreased or remained stable (Table 1). The accumulation of isoleucine suggested that isoleucine supply in fruit may not limit the biosynthesis of esters with branched chain alkyl groups. Concentrations of free fatty acids such as palmitic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, stearic acids increased before the increase of aroma production, decreased with the increase of aroma production and showed an increase at postclimacteric stages (Fig.2). LOX activity increased at climacteric stages and declined rapidly thereafter. AAT activity increased sharply at the early stage of fruit maturity when the aroma was very low and remained at a stable high level during fruit ripening (Fig.3) indicating that the AAT activity is not the limiting

  20. Determination of phenolic compounds and hydroxymethylfurfural in meads using high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric-array and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahoun, David; Rezková, Sona; Veskrnová, Katerina; Královský, Josef; Holcapek, Michal

    2008-08-15

    The objective of this study was the determination of 25 phenolic compounds in different mead samples (honeywines) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with coulometric-array detection and in case of hydroxymethylfurfural with UV detection. Our method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The method development included the optimization of mobile phase composition, the pH value, conditions of the gradient elution and the flow rate using a window-diagram approach. The developed method was used for the determination of limits of detection and limits of quantitation for individual compounds. The linearity of calibration curves, accuracy and precision (intra- and inter-day) at three concentration levels (low, middle and high concentration range) were verified. Mead samples were diluted with the mobile phase at 1:1 to 1:50 ratio depending on the concentration and filtered through a PTFE filter without any other sample pre-treatment. Phenolic compounds concentration was determined in 50 real samples of meads and correlated with meads composition and hydroxymethylfurfural concentration. The most frequently occurred compounds were protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid (both of them were present in 98% samples), the least occurred compounds were (+)-catechin (10% samples) and sinapic acid (12% samples). Vanillin and ethylvanillin, which are used as artificial additives for the taste improvement, were found in 60% and 42% samples, respectively. Hydroxymethylfurfural concentration, as an indicator of honey quality, was in the range from 2.47 to 158 mg/L. Our method is applicable for the determination of 25 phenolic compounds in mead, honey and related natural samples.

  1. Determination of Polar Compounds in Guava Leaves Infusions and Ultrasound Aqueous Extract by HPLC-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature lacks publications about polar compounds content in infusion or guava leaves tea. Because of that, a comparison between different times of infusion and a conventional ultrasound aqueous extract was carried out. Several polar compounds have been identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by FRAP and ABTS assays. Four different classes of phenolic compounds (gallic and ellagic acid derivatives, flavonols, flavanones, and flavan-3-ols and some benzophenones were determined. The quantification results reported that the order, in terms of concentration of the classes of polar compounds in all samples, was flavonols > flavan-3-ols > gallic and ellagic acid derivatives > benzophenones > flavanones. As expected, the aqueous extract obtained by sonication showed the highest content in the compounds studied. Significative differences were noticed about the different times of infusion and five minutes was the optimal time to obtain the highest content in polar compounds using this culinary method. All the identified compounds, except HHDP isomers and naringenin, were positively correlated with antioxidant activity.

  2. RP-HPTLC densitometric determination and validation of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in accelerated solvent extract of Vanilla planifolia*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Upendra Kumar; Sharma, Nandini; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Arun Kumar

    2007-12-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive RP-HPTLC method is developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts of Vanilla planifolia pods. In addition to this, the applicability of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) as an alternative to microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet extraction was also explored for the rapid extraction of phenolic compounds in vanilla pods. Good separation was achieved on aluminium plates precoated with silica gel RP-18 F(254S) in the mobile phase of methanol/water/isopropanol/acetic acid (30:65:2:3, by volume). The method showed good linearity, high precision and good recovery of compounds of interest. ASE showed good extraction efficiency in less time as compared to other techniques for all the phenolic compounds. The present method would be useful for analytical research and for routine analysis of vanilla extracts for their quality control.

  3. Retro-nasal aroma release is correlated with variations in the in-mouth air cavity volume after empty deglutition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mishellany-Dutour

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL ±0.62 that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL ±2.37 to 22.82 mL ±3.04 that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H and low (L. The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition.

  4. Componentes voláteis do café torrado. Parte I: compostos heterocíclicos Volatile components in roasted coffee. Part I: heterocyclic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of heterocyclic compounds in roasted coffee is presented. The contents, precursors and sensorial properties of furans, pyrroles, oxazoles, thiazoles, thiophenes, pyrazines and pyridines are discussed. The impact heterocyclic compounds of coffee aroma are described.

  5. [Evaluation of uncertainty for determination of tin and its compounds in air of workplace by flame atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiuning; Wei, Yuan; Liu, Fangfang; Ding, Yalei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the method for uncertainty evaluation of determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The national occupational health standards, GBZ/T160.28-2004 and JJF1059-1999, were used to build a mathematical model of determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace and to calculate the components of uncertainty. In determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, the uncertainty for the concentration of the standard solution, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, sample digestion, parallel determination, least square fitting of the calibration curve, and sample collection was 0.436%, 0.13%, 1.07%, 1.65%, 3.05%, and 2.89%, respectively. The combined uncertainty was 9.3%.The concentration of tin in the test sample was 0.132 mg/m³, and the expanded uncertainty for the measurement was 0.012 mg/m³ (K=2). The dominant uncertainty for determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace comes from least squares fitting of the calibration curve and sample collection. Quality control should be improved in the process of calibration curve fitting and sample collection.

  6. Interfacing capillary electrophoresis and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy for the determination of dye compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arraez Roman, D.; Efremov, E.V.; Ariese, F.; Segura Carretero, A.; Gooijer, C.

    2005-01-01

    The at-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) was optimized for the separation and subsequent spectroscopic identification of charged analytes (dye compounds). Raman spectra were recorded following deposition of the electropherogram

  7. DIRECT-METHODS FOR INCOMMENSURATE INTERGROWTH COMPOUNDS .2. DETERMINATION OF THE MODULATION USING ONLY MAIN REFLECTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SHA, BD; FAN, HF; VANSMAALEN, S; LAM, EJW; BEURSKENS, PT

    1994-01-01

    A modified Sayre equation for incommensurate intergrowth compounds is presented. With this equation, both magnitude and phase for structure factors of satellite reflections can be estimated quantitatively through the observed intensities of main reflections, provided their phases are already known.

  8. Ionization Potentials of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds Determined with Density Functional Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, J

    2000-01-01

    ...) agents at contaminated sites. Reported herein are theoretical ionization potentials for CW agents and their related compounds calculated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory...

  9. Impacto de las condiciones de beneficio sobre los compuestos precursores de aroma en granos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L del clon CCN-51.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pallares Pallares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The influence of the days of fermentation and drying in the aroma compounds (volatile fraction of cocoa beans CCN-51 was evaluated. The method used was Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry, coupled to Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction (HS-SPMEGC-GS. A multifactorial experimental design was created, containing 15 experiments per repetition. The fermentation technique was microfermentation in boxes, while drying was achieved by exposing the samples to the sun. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed to explain 68% of the total variability associated with aroma characteristics (volatile compounds. Both, desirable and undesirable compounds were identified throughout the processes of fermentation and drying. The benefit process (fermentation and drying was divided in stages depending on the degree of fermentation. The desirable compounds identified were: 3-methy-1-butanol, 2-phenyl-ethanol, benzaldehyde, phenyl acetaldehyde, ethylhexanoate, ethyl benzoate, ethylphenyl acetate and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate, which are associated with odoriferous notes very nice (chocolate, candy, sweet, nutty, honey, fruity, floral. Finally, a pre-treatment of cocoa beans CCN-51 prior to fermentation was proposed to be incorporated during the benefit of the beans as it seems to enhance the formation of desirable aroma compounds.

  10. Aroma chemistry of African Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa rice and their interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungeun; Nuijten, Edwin; Shewfelt, Robert L; Kays, Stanley J

    2014-03-15

    To increase rice production in Africa, considerable research has focused on creating interspecific hybrids between African (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian (O. sativa L.) rice in an attempt to obtain the positive attributes of each in new cultivars. Since flavor is a key criterion in consumer acceptance of rice, as an initial inquiry we characterized and compared the aroma chemistry of selected cultivars of African O. sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp. indica, O. glaberrima, and their interspecific hybrids grown in West Africa, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-olfactometry and descriptive sensory analysis. Of 41 volatiles identified across seven representative rice cultivars grown in West Africa, 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, styrene, eucalyptol, linalool, myrtenal and L-α-terpineol had not been previously reported in rice. Thirty-three odor-active compounds were characterized. 4-Ethylphenol and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal were unique to O. glaberrima, and pyridine, eucalyptol and myrtenal were described only in an interspecific hybrid. Descriptive sensory analysis indicated 'cooked grain', 'barny' and 'earthy' attributes were statistically different among the cultivars. The aroma chemistry data suggest that it should be possible to separate African cultivars into distinct flavor types thereby facilitating selection of new cultivars with superior flavor in African rice breeding programs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Determination of heat purgeable and ambient purgeable volatile organic compounds in water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donna L.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Murtagh, Lucinda K.

    2016-09-08

    Two new analytical methods have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) that allow the determination of 37 heat purgeable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (USGS Method O-4437-16 [NWQL Laboratory Schedule (LS) 4437]) and 49 ambient purgeable VOCs (USGS Method O-4436-16 [NWQL LS 4436]) in unfiltered water. This report documents the procedures and initial performance of both methods. The compounds chosen for inclusion in the methods were determined as having high priority by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Both methods use a purge-and-trap technique with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The compounds are extracted from the sample by bubbling helium through a 25-milliliter sample. For the polar and less volatile compounds, the sample is heated at 60 degrees Celsius, whereas the less polar and more volatile compounds are purged using a separate analytical procedure at ambient temperature. The compounds are trapped on a sorbent trap, desorbed into a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer for separation, and then identified and quantified. Sample preservation is recommended for both methods by adding a 1:1 solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl [1:1]) to water samples to adjust the pH to 2. Analysis within 14 days from sampling is recommended.The heat purgeable method (USGS Method O-4437-16) operates with the mass spectrometer in the simultaneous full scan/selected ion monitoring mode. This method supersedes USGS Method O-4024-03 (NWQL LS 4024). Method detection limits (MDLs) for fumigant compounds 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, chloropicrin, and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane range from 0.002 to 0.010 microgram per liter (µg/L). The MDLs for all remaining heat purgeable VOCs range from 0.006 µg/L for tert-butyl methyl ether to 3 µg/L for alpha-terpineol. Calculated holding times indicate that 36 of the 37 heat purgeable VOCs are stable for a minimum of 14 days

  12. Determination of crystal structures by x-ray diffraction: applications to a lanthanide complex and a natural organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.M. de.

    1986-01-01

    The study fir determining crystal structures of the Ho (ReO sub(4)) sub(3) 4 TDTD 3 H sub(2) O complex and the natural organic compound C sub(14) H sub(16) O sub(6) by X-ray diffraction are presented. The experimental equipments are described in details. (M.C.K.)

  13. Study of the effect of surfactants on extraction and determination of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of fruits extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosseinzadeh

    Full Text Available Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications.

  14. Study of the Effect of Surfactants on Extraction and Determination of Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Hemmaty, Syavash

    2013-01-01

    Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin–Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V) potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:23472082

  15. Headspace-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of sulphur mustard and related compounds in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røen, Bent T; Unneberg, Erik; Tørnes, John Aa; Lundanes, Elsa

    2010-04-02

    Methods for trace determination of sulphur mustard (HD) and some related cyclic sulphur compounds in soil samples have been developed using headspace-trap in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two quite different types of soil were employed in the method optimisation (sandy loam and silty clay loam). Prior to analysis, water saturated with sodium chloride was added to the samples, at a water to soil ratio of 1:1. A detection limit of 3 ng/g was achieved for HD, while the cyclic sulphur compounds 1,4-thioxane, 1,3-dithiolane and 1,4-dithiane could be detected at 0.2-0.7 ng/g. The methods were validated in the concentration range from the limit of quantification (LOQ) to hundred times LOQ. The within assay precision at fifty times LOQ was 6.9-7.3% relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of the cyclic sulphur compounds, and 15% RSD for determination of HD. Recoveries were in the range of 43-60% from the two soil types. As the technique requires very little sample preparation, the total time for sample handling and analysis was less than 1h. The technique was successfully employed for the determination of cyclic sulphur compounds in a sediment sample from an old dumping site for chemical munitions, known to contain HD degradation products. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigations on the Aroma of Cocoa Pulp ( Theobroma cacao L.) and Its Influence on the Odor of Fermented Cocoa Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetschik, Irene; Kneubühl, Markus; Chatelain, Karin; Schlüter, Ansgar; Bernath, Konrad; Hühn, Tilo

    2018-03-14

    The odor-active constituents of cocoa pulp have been analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) for the first time. Pulps of three different cocoa varieties have been investigated. The variety CCN51 showed low flavor intensities, in terms of flavor dilution (FD) factors, in comparison to varieties FSV41 and UF564, for which floral and fruity notes were detected in higher intensities. To gain first insights on a molecular level of how the cocoa pulp odorants affected the odor quality of cocoa beans during fermentation, quantitative measurements of selected aroma compounds were conducted in pulp and bean at different time points of the fermentation. The results showed significantly higher concentrations of 2-phenylethanol and 3-methylbutyl acetate in pulp than in the bean during the different time steps of the fermentation, whereas the reverse could be observed for the odorants linalool and 2-methoxyphenol. The findings of this study constitute a basis for further investigations on the aroma formation of cocoa during fermentation.

  17. Evaluation of genotype and environment effects on taste and aroma flavor components of Spanish fresh tomato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Roselló, Salvador; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Serrano, Elena; Beltrán, Joaquim; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-03-23

    Taste and aroma related compounds have been analyzed in a collection of four traditional varieties and two tomato hybrids, representing a wide variability in fruit shape and color, grown in different environments: screenhouse and open field. Protected cultivation tended to show lower sugar concentration (fructose and glucose) but similar acid contents (citric, malic, and glutamic acids). The decreased levels of sucrose equivalents and the similar ratios of sucrose equivalents to citric or glutamic acid contents indicated that protected cultivation, despite being useful to reduce the incidence of pests and viral diseases, reduces the organoleptic quality. Additionally, it doubles the interaccession variability and increased the level of intra-accession variability. In the case of aroma, the genotypic effect was considerably higher than the environmental component on the 12 main volatiles analyzed. Only hexanal and methyl salicylate were significantly affected by environment, while 10 out of 12 volatiles were affected by the genotype. Biplot analysis showed that, even in considerably different environments, it is possible to identify genotype-dependent main aroma profiles. In the case of 13 background volatiles, the environment showed no significant effects and the genotypic effect was lower, though it is possible to identify genotypic trends in background notes.

  18. Characterization of the aroma profile of Madeira wine by sorptive extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R F; Nascimento, A M D; Nogueira, J M F

    2005-08-01

    The characterization of the aroma profile of 33 samples of Madeira wine from five monovarieties (Sercial, Verdelho, Boal, Malvasia and Tinta Negra Mole) having different type and categories is presented, using solid phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction techniques (SPME and SBSE) followed by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). Headspace SPME/GC-MS provided effectiveness to identify the major constituents of the aroma profile of Madeira wine, where no remarkable differences occur among the samples studied. The volatile compounds are mainly constituted by ethyl octanoate (11.3-256.9μgL -1 ), ethyl decanoate (21.5-210.5μgL -1 ), ethyl decenoate (0.1-112.8μgL -1 ), diethyl succinate (0.9-65.6μgL -1 ), ethyl dodecanoate (1.2-6.5μgL -1 ), ethyl nonanoate (0.6-5.2μgL -1 ), ethyl hexanoate (0.2-3.7μgL -1 ) and isoamyl octanoate (0-2.2μgL -1 ). C 13 norisoprenoids such as vitispirane (0.9-7.0μgL -1 ) and 1,1,6-trimethyl 1,2-dihydro naphthalene (0.7-12.5μgL -1 ), as well as phenyl ethanol (0-8.1μgL -1 ), were also found in Madeira wine samples. The powerful capabilities of SBSE followed thermal desorption and GC-MS analysis allowed higher ability for profiling traces and ultra traces of compounds in Madeira wine samples, including esters (80.7-89.7%), carboxylic acids (1.6-4.2%), alcohols (3.5-8.2%), aldehydes (0.9-3.7%), pyrans (0.2-1.7%), lactones (sensorial threshold limits. Excellent correlation between Madeira wine ageing and the abundance of cis-oak lactone was attained showing to be an important chemical descriptor to characterize reserves and Vintages as well as a contributor to wine flavour. The differentiation between reserves, dry/medium dry and sweet/medium sweet young wines could be well established by means of chemometric analysis, using particular aroma compounds such as diethyl succinate, cis-oak lactone and ethyl octanoate as discriminating variables.

  19. Seasonal variation in chemical composition, aroma volatiles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate compositional changes and antioxidant capacities of pomegranate fruit ('Bhagwa' and 'Ruby') at five distinct stages of maturity over two growing seasons. Total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity and aroma volatile ...

  20. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in workplace by portable gas-chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Zheng; Tang, Hongfang; Liu, Danhua; Zhu, Haibao; Pan, Ji; Zou, Wu; Qian, Yaling

    2016-03-01

    To establish a portable gas chromatography (GC) method for the on-site rapid determination of epoxyethane, furan, dichloromethane, benzene, toluene in workplace. By using dynamic dilutor, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) standard gas was prepared and drawn to the capillary column of GC (PID) for separation and analysis. Based on the retention time and peak area, the VOCs was identified and quantified. At the conditions of 60 degrees C column temperature and 9psi pre-pressure, The five VOCs were well separated. Good linear ranges were obtained within the ranges of 0.45 - 90.72 mg/m3 for epoxyethane, 0.22 - 44.50 mg/m3 for furan, 2.19 - 437.4 mg/m3 for dichloromethane, 0.32 - 13.29 mg/m3 for benzene, 0.38 - 15.68 mg/m3 for toluene, respectively. The correlation coefficient was not less than 0.999. The detection limits were 0.03, 0.04, 0.2, 0.008 and 0.03 mg/m3, respectively. The RSD were 0.79% - 2.4%, 1.5% - 1.9%, 0.97% - 1.8%, 2.3% - 3.2% and 3.4% - 4.6%, respectively. The average recovery were 101.4% - 108.4% 85.49% - 94.98%, 97.78% - 106.2%, 99.29% - 103.5% and 95.54% - 101.7% respectively. By using the 7890A GC method, the relative tolerance for the same gas samples were 0.091% - 8.8% for epoxyethane, 3.8% - 6.7% for furan, 0.77% - 9.4% for dichloromethane, 0.24% - 1.6% for benzene, 0.31% - 8.0% for toluene. The method is portable, accurate, sensitive, rapid, and exhibits good separation and anti-interference ability. This method is suitable for the rapid detection of VOCs in workplace and also provides reference VOC detection method for the occupational health standard.

  1. DETERMINATION OF PHASE COMPOSITION OF SEALING COATING BASED ON APC (ALUMINOPHOSPHATE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Goal. To investigate the phase composition of the obtained sealing coatings based on aluminophosphate compound (APC and the impact of temperature rise on it. Methods. Qualitative X-ray phase analysis (XRPA and differential thermal analysis (DTA are used as the methods of research. Roentgenograms for structural analysis were obtained on a DRON-4-07 using filtered copper radiation in the secondary beam. Registration and initial processing of diffraction patterns was performed using the software package PDOS with the output of the diffraction patterns on the screen. Using the "loupe" option allowed to identify weak interference lines, which increased the accuracy of the method of qualitative XRPA. The thermograms for DTA received on the device type Termoskan-2. The results. It is revealed that base of coating is X-ray amorphous phase. There are following crystalline phases: Al, AlPO4, Al (PO3 3, BN found in the coating. It is revealed that annealing doesn’t make a significant influence on the phase composition of the crystalline phases and the coating doesn’t lose properties after annealing during repeated thermal stress. Scientific novelty. The phase composition of the proposed sealing coatings based on APC and produced by plasma spraying, and the effect of annealing on the phase composition of the coating are investigated. The reaction of synthesis of primary material forming on the basis of APC for coating is offered. Practical significance. The results can be used in aviation technology in the development of gas turbine engines (GTE and the design of the compressors. The sealing coating may be used to improve the reliability of the compressor and to increase the efficiency ratio of turbine engine. During the operation the compressor’s blades touch the sealing coating of compressor’s stator and grooves it without causing locking and destruction of the rotor. Therefore, the development of new sealing coating compositions that

  2. Determination through symmetry arguments of the various contributions to the self polarisation field at rare earth nuclei in cubic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belorizky, E.; Berthier, Y.; Devine, R.A.B.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 38 - Grenoble; Levy, P.M.; Niez, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    NMR of the rare earth nuclei in cubic RE-X 2 compounds has shown that the self polarisation field, Hsub(sp) gives an important contribution to the total hyperfine field at the RE nuclei. Both orbital and spin polarisations of the conduction bands arise through anisotropic exchange interaction between the ordered magnetic moments of the rare earth and the conduction electrons. These polarisations are further reflected through orbital, magnetic dipole dipole and contact or core polarisation terms in Hsub(sp). Due to the complexity of the problem, group symmetry arguments are used to determine the independant parameters of the problem for cubic compounds

  3. Determination of phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography with Ce{sup 4+}-Tween 20 chemiluminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Hua; Zhou Jian; Xu Feng; Lai Chunze; Wan Guohui

    2004-05-31

    A novel method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid, resorcinol, phloroglucinol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and m-nitrophenol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by phenolic compounds of the cerium(IV)-Tween 20 system in a sulfuric acid medium. The separation was carried out with an isocratic elution or with a gradient elution using a mixture of methanol and 1.5% acetic acid. For six phenolic compounds, the detection limits (3{sigma}) were in the range 1.40-5.02 ng/ml and the relative standard deviations (n=11) for the determination of 0.1 {mu}g/ml compounds were in the range 1.9-2.9%. The CL reaction was well compatible with the mobile phase of HPLC, no baseline drift often occurred in HPLC-CL detection was observed with a gradient elution. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of salicylic acid and resorcinol in Dermatitis Clear Tincture and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in apple juices.

  4. Volatile Compounds in Dry Dog Foods and Their Influence on Sensory Aromatic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Adhikari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine volatile compounds in dry dog foods and their possible influence on sensory aromatic profile. Grain-free dry dog foods were compared to dry dog foods manufactured with grain, but also with different protein sources for their aromatic volatiles. Solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the aromatic compounds present in the headspace of these samples. Partial Least Squares regression was performed to correlate the instrumental aromatic data with the descriptive aroma analysis data. A total of 54 aromatic compounds were tentatively identified in the dry dog food samples, with aldehydes and ketones being the most represented organic volatiles group. Grain-added products were on the average higher in total volatiles than grain-free products. Partial Least Squares regression analysis indicated possible connections with sensory aromatic profile and grain-added samples, such as rancid aroma and aldehydes, especially hexanal. The results of this study showed that dry dog foods are products with complex odor characteristics and that grain-free products are less aromatic.

  5. Volatile compounds in dry dog foods and their influence on sensory aromatic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Adhikari, Koushik; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this study was to determine volatile compounds in dry dog foods and their possible influence on sensory aromatic profile. Grain-free dry dog foods were compared to dry dog foods manufactured with grain, but also with different protein sources for their aromatic volatiles. Solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the aromatic compounds present in the headspace of these samples. Partial Least Squares regression was performed to correlate the instrumental aromatic data with the descriptive aroma analysis data. A total of 54 aromatic compounds were tentatively identified in the dry dog food samples, with aldehydes and ketones being the most represented organic volatiles group. Grain-added products were on the average higher in total volatiles than grain-free products. Partial Least Squares regression analysis indicated possible connections with sensory aromatic profile and grain-added samples, such as rancid aroma and aldehydes, especially hexanal. The results of this study showed that dry dog foods are products with complex odor characteristics and that grain-free products are less aromatic.

  6. Maximum entropy as a tool for the determination of the c-axis profile of layered compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depondt, P.; Neumann, D.A.; Trevino, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    A simple procedure for the determination of the structure normal to the basal plane of layered compounds based on the now ubiquitous maximum-entropy method is presented. It is illustrated by the analysis of room-temperature (00l) elastic neutron-scattering experiments performed on two graphite intercalation compounds, stage 3 C 44.6 MoCl 5 and stage 1 KC 24 (ND 3 ) 4.3 . The former example is quite simple, requiring only a crude heuristic model to determine the structure-factor phases. The latter shows good sensitivity to the orientation of the ND 3 threefold axis with respect to the basal plane, thus providing its first direct determination. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of methods for determining volatile compounds in cheese, milk, and whey powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but selecting the proper procedures presents challenges. Heat is applied to drive volatiles from the samp...

  8. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial compounding allows the determination of crack size in austeno-ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallart, R.; Billon, A.C.; Mequio, C.; Chofflet, L.; Champigny, F.; Theron, G.

    1994-01-01

    The merging of ultrasonic data obtained under various incidence angles is expected to provide an improved underclad crack detection and sizing. The authors propose a merging scheme based on spatial compounding. This technique requires the precise registration of the images. This is achieved through an image warping algorithm. Experimental examples illustrate the feasibility of the technique and the NDE performance improvement they may expect

  10. Analytical Procedure Development to Determine Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in the PM2.5-PM10 Fraction of Atmospheric Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrado, A. I.; Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an optimized and validated analytical methodology for the determination of various polycyclic aromatic compounds in ambient air using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. This analysis method was applied to samples obtained during more than one year in an area of Madrid. Selected compounds have included thirteen polycyclic hydrocarbons considered priorities by the EPA, and hydroxylated derivatives, which have been less investigated in air samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. We have characterized and compared the concentration ranges of compounds identified and studied seasonal and monthly variations. In addition, the techniques have been applied to study multivariate correlations, factor analysis and cluster analysis to extract as much information as possible for interpretation and more complete and accurate characterization of the results and their relationship with meteorological parameters and physicochemical. (Author)

  11. Identification and determination of chemical compounds of five aromatic waters from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hosseinabadi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Herbal aromatic waters are one of the products used in the Iranian traditional medicine. These products have small amount of essential oil. The purpose of this study was to identify the effective substances of herbal aromatic waters by various techniques (GC/FID and GC/MS. It is hoped that with assessment of these compounds by mentioned techniques a suitable way could be found for standardization of the herbal aromatic waters. Methods: Four medicinal plants (Zataria multiflora, Fumaria parviflora, Rosa damascena, and Mentha spicata and aromatic water of Salix aegyptiaca were purchased from Tehran and their aromatic waters were extracted by hydrodistillation. In the next step, the essential oils of these aromatic waters were extracted by n-hexane and injected into GC/FID and GC/MS and chemical compounds were identified. Also, the standard components (thymol, carvone and 2-phenylethanol were injected to GC, separately and calibration curves were drawn. So, the content of the major components was calculated, carefully. Results: The results showed that the essential oil of F. parviflora contained more than 30 compounds. Its main compounds included carvacrol (16.7% and dihydroactinidiolide (13.8%. The essential oil of Salix aegyptiaca had 27 different compounds including 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (33.3% and heptacosane (28.1%. Z. multiflora, M. spicata and R. damascena essential oils contained thymol (0.065 mg/mL, carvone (0.01 mg/mL and 2-phenylethanol (0.015 mg/mL, as the main component, respectively. Conclusion: These results can be helpful for standardization and quality control of aromatic waters used in Iran.

  12. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    from the catabolism of amino acids. These compounds are produced by the Ehrlich pathway. The conversion of amino acids into aroma alcohols is accomplished by three enzymatic steps: i) a transamination, ii) a decarboxylation and iii) a dehydration reaction. The transaminase and decarboxylase enzymes...... and 2-phenylacetate. The last part of this thesis presents the initial characterization of twenty non-conventional yeasts (NCY) and their potential application in fermentative processes. These strains have been selected as they have been previously isolated from various fermented food sources...

  13. Aroma Profile of Rubus ulmifolius Flowers and Fruits During Different Ontogenetic Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Melai, Bernardo; Cioni, Pierluigi; Flamini, Guido; Pistelli, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of spontaneous volatile emission from Rubus ulmifolius flowers and fruits during different stages of development was evaluated by HS-SPME-GC/MS. In total, 155 chemical compounds were identified accounting 84.6 - 99.4% of whole aroma profile of flowers samples and 92.4 - 96.6% for fruit samples. The main constituents were α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, 1,7-octadien-3-one,2-methyl-6-methylene, tridecane, (E)-2-hexenol acetate, (E)-3-hexenol acetate and cyperene. The results give a chemotaxonomic contribution to the characterization of the VOCs emitted from flowers and fruits during their ontogenic development. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Identification of PAH Isomeric Structure in Cosmic Dust Analogs: The AROMA Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Bonnamy, Anthony; Joblin, Christine [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Papanastasiou, Dimitris [Fasmatech Science + Technology, Athens, GR (Greece); Cernicharo, Jose; Martín-Gago, Jose-Angel, E-mail: christine.joblin@irap.omp.eu [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    We developed a new analytical experimental setup called AROMA (Astrochemistry Research of Organics with Molecular Analyzer) that combines laser desorption/ionization techniques with ion trap mass spectrometry. We report here on the ability of the apparatus to detect aromatic species in complex materials of astrophysical interest and characterize their structures. A limit of detection of 100 femto-grams has been achieved using pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples, which corresponds to 2 × 10{sup 8} molecules in the case of coronene (C{sub 24}H{sub 12}). We detected the PAH distribution in the Murchison meteorite, which is made of a complex mixture of extraterrestrial organic compounds. In addition, collision induced dissociation experiments were performed on selected species detected in Murchison, which led to the first firm identification of pyrene and its methylated derivatives in this sample.

  15. Quantification of megastigmatrienone, a potential contributor to tobacco aroma in spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Perello, Marie-Claire; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles

    2016-07-15

    A SPME-GC-MS method was adapted and validated in order to quantify 5 megastigmatrienones and related odorous compounds from oak wood: guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, trans-whisky lactone, γ-nonalactone, eugenol, vanillin, and acetovanillone in a single run. The five megastigmatrienone isomers (tabanones) were quantified, for the first time, in Cognac, Armagnac and rum, as contributors to tobacco-like aromas. Spirits aged in oak barrels contain higher amounts, but megastigmatrienones are also present in freshly-distilled spirits. Statistical analysis revealed that freshly-distilled and barrel-aged spirits were differentiated by their megastigma-4,7E,9-trien-3-one levels. The Armagnac and Cognac samples were distinguished by their concentrations of the megastigma-4,6Z,8E-trien-3-one isomer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chapter 3. Determination of semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Burbank, Teresa L.; Olson, Mary C.; Iverson, Jana L.; Schroeder, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 38 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semivolatile organic compounds in solid samples is described. Samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from the solid sample twice at 13,800 kilopascals; first at 120 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (50:50, volume-to-volume ratio), and then the sample is extracted at 200 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio). The compounds are isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing divinylbenzene-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer resin. The cartridges are dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds are eluted from the SPE material using a dichloromethane/diethyl ether mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio) and passed through a sodium sulfate/Florisil SPE cartridge to remove residual water and to further clean up the extract. The concentrated extract is solvent exchanged into ethyl acetate and the solvent volume reduced to 0.5 milliliter. Internal standard compounds are added prior to analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Comparisons of PAH data for 28 sediment samples extracted by Soxhlet and the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method described in this report produced similar results. Extraction of PAH compounds from standard reference material using this method also compared favorably with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of PAHs less than molecular weight 202 (pyrene or fluoranthene) are higher by up to 20 percent using this ASE method, whereas the recoveries of PAHs greater than or equal to molecular weight 202 are equivalent. This ASE method of sample extraction of solids has advantages over conventional Soxhlet extraction by increasing automation of the extraction process, reducing extraction time, and using less solvent. Extract cleanup also is greatly simplified because SPE replaces

  17. The Changes in Color, Soluble Sugars, Organic Acids, Anthocyanins and Aroma Components in “Starkrimson” during the Ripening Period in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Starkrimson” is a traditional apple cultivar that was developed a long time ago and was widely cultivated in the arid region of the northern Wei River of China. However, little information regarding the quality characteristics of “Starkrimson” fruit has been reported in this area. To elucidate these characteristics, the color, soluble sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and aroma components were measured during the ripening period through the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results indicated that the changes in anthocyanin contents took place later than the changes in the Commission International Eclairage (CIE parameters. Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal, fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. Furthermore, rapidly changing soluble sugars and organic acid synchronization took place in the early ripening period, while rapidly changing aroma components occurred later, on the basis of fresh weight. This result suggested that the production of aroma components might be a useful index of apple maturity.

  18. Automated and quantitative headspace in-tube extraction for the accurate determination of highly volatile compounds from wines and beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Julián; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; Lopez, Ricardo; Ferreira, Vicente

    2012-03-23

    An automatic headspace in-tube extraction (ITEX) method for the accurate determination of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, diacetyl and other volatile compounds from wine and beer has been developed and validated. Method accuracy is based on the nearly quantitative transference of volatile compounds from the sample to the ITEX trap. For achieving that goal most methodological aspects and parameters have been carefully examined. The vial and sample sizes and the trapping materials were found to be critical due to the pernicious saturation effects of ethanol. Small 2 mL vials containing very small amounts of sample (20 μL of 1:10 diluted sample) and a trap filled with 22 mg of Bond Elut ENV resins could guarantee a complete trapping of sample vapors. The complete extraction requires 100 × 0.5 mL pumping strokes at 60 °C and takes 24 min. Analytes are further desorbed at 240 °C into the GC injector under a 1:5 split ratio. The proportion of analytes finally transferred to the trap ranged from 85 to 99%. The validation of the method showed satisfactory figures of merit. Determination coefficients were better than 0.995 in all cases and good repeatability was also obtained (better than 7% in all cases). Reproducibility was better than 8.3% except for acetaldehyde (13.1%). Detection limits were below the odor detection thresholds of these target compounds in wine and beer and well below the normal ranges of occurrence. Recoveries were not significantly different to 100%, except in the case of acetaldehyde. In such a case it could be determined that the method is not able to break some of the adducts that this compound forms with sulfites. However, such problem was avoided after incubating the sample with glyoxal. The method can constitute a general and reliable alternative for the analysis of very volatile compounds in other difficult matrixes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Monasterio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO, with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on “multi-emission” detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified. The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004–7.143 μg·mL−1 and 0.013–23.810 μg·mL−1, respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs.

  20. SPECIES DETERMINATION OF ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS USING ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY WITH LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, H.; Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years we have devised and expanded the capabilities of Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy (ZAA). Using this technique, trace elements in a complex matrix can be directly analyzed with high accuracy even when there is only one atom of interest contained in several million atoms of the host material. Quantities in the nanogram, or in some cases picogram, range can be determined within IS seconds for more than 30 elements. Because of its high selectivity and high sensitivity, ZAA can be used as a new technique for organometallic species determination by interfacing with a high pressure liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The HPLC separates various molecular species. Different kinds of mobil solvents can be directly introduced in the ZAA detection system; even organic solvents or high concentration salt solutions. Then, organometallic species in the ppb range are separately detected according to their retention times. This technique has a much larger field of application than HPLC coupled with conventional AA. The advantages of the ZAA technique are described in a recent publication. In this case, a steady magnetic field at 11 kgauss is applied to the sample vapor perpendicular to the incident light beam. The difference in absorption of the polarized constituents P{perpendicular} and P{parallel} is proportional to the atomic density, but is not affected by the various kind of spectral interferences caused by thermal decomposition of the eluants. The recently developed HPLC technique has many advantages over gas chromatography. Nonvolatile, polar, thermally unstable molecules or high molecular weight compounds can be separated. In the present system, the main requirement is that the solute be soluble in the mobile solvent. A demonstration of the operation of this system is provided by the analysis of a mixture of vitamin B12 and Co(No{sub 3}){sub 2}. As shown in Figure 1, vitamin B12 has a Co in its functional center. Sample 1 contained Co of 0