WorldWideScience

Sample records for determining air crew

  1. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  2. Study of air flow and temperature distribution in ship's crew cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsafty, A.F. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical and Marine Engineering; Ali, A.A.; Nasr, A.N. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Marine Engineering Technology

    2007-07-01

    Because of low internal heights in ship's crew cabins, the supplied air is directed to the persons at low mixing ratios. However, this does not allow the mixing process between the supplied air and the indoor air to be completed before the air enters human lungs. This paper presented an experimental and numerical simulation study that used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the effect of the air supply location on thermal air diffusion in the ship's crew cabins space. The paper presented the results in terms of air diffusion performance index. The paper presented the CFD model, including selected space configurations; CFD simulation; boundary conditions; and CFD results. The CFD airflow simulation programs CFD were utilized to calculate the spatial distribution of temperature and velocity. The study focused on the typical Middle East region working vessel under thermal and boundary conditions including the high cooling load used in this region. Experimental data were also introduced to verify the CFD results package. It was concluded that the supply should be located near the high sidewall of the cabin. This gives better air distribution inside the space rather than the center of the room. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  3. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations.

  4. Air ambulance tasking: mechanism of injury, telephone interrogation or ambulance crew assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Ian; Chalk, Graham; Davies, Gareth Edward; Weaver, Anne Elizabeth; Lockey, David John

    2015-10-01

    The identification of serious injury is critical to the tasking of air ambulances. London's Air Ambulance (LAA) is dispatched by a flight paramedic based on mechanism of injury (MOI), paramedical interrogation of caller (INT) or land ambulance crew request (REQ).This study aimed to demonstrate which of the dispatch methods was most effective (in accuracy and time) in identifying patients with serious injury. A retrospective review of 3 years of data (to December 2010) was undertaken. Appropriate dispatch was defined as the requirement for LAA to escort the patient to hospital or for resuscitation on-scene. Inaccurate dispatch was where LAA was cancelled or left the patient in the care of the land ambulance crew. The χ(2) test was used to calculate p values; with significance adjusted to account for multiple testing. There were 2203 helicopter activations analysed: MOI 18.9% (n=417), INT 62.4% (n=1375) and REQ 18.7% (n=411). Appropriate dispatch rates were MOI 58.7% (245/417), INT 69.7% (959/1375) and REQ 72.2% (297/411). INT and REQ were both significantly more accurate than MOI (pground ambulance crew requests, and both are significantly better than MOI in identifying serious injury. Overtriage remains an issue with all methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Radiation shielding is not a solution. Radiation protection of air crews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Theresia [Vereinigung Cockpit e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). AG Strahlenschutz

    2012-06-15

    In most working environments it is fairly easy to minimize radiation doses of workers as postulated by radiation protection basics: Increasing the distance to the radiation source, reducing the exposure time, and the use of protective clothing or shielding. With air crews however, being the largest group of exposed persons and receiving the highest collective doses, classical protective measures are difficult or even impossible to enforce. Without neglecting the economical situation, effective measures could nevertheless be realized. Planning flights at slightly lower altitudes and further away from the geomagnetic poles can significantly reduce the radiation exposure for both crew and passengers. Furthermore, affordable high-quality dosimeters with the size of mobile phones have reached marketability. If installed on board, they could measure and display the actually received radiation during normal operation and additionally warn the flight crew in case of an abnormally high dose rate during solar particle events. Pilots could react to such warnings according to procedures that are yet to be installed. (orig.)

  6. Helicopter vibration and risk of reversible myopia among military air crews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastaman Basuki

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed to what extend the risk of reversible myopia of the different degree of helicopter vibrations and other risk factors among military helicopter pilots and flight engineers. The study was a nested case-control design using medical record at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the Indonesian Air Force and Medical Directorate of the Indonesian Army (Flying Wing. Cases and controls were military helicopter pilots and flight engineers who had ametropic visual acuity at the time of entry into military service from 1972 until 1992. Reversible myopia means visual acuity corrected of - 0.50 dioptri or less. The final model indicates there was a relationship between vibration level, duration of work and risk of reversible myopia. Helicopter crews exposed to high vibration level had 4.5 times to develop reversible myopia [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 4.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.48 - 13.55] relative to those who exposed to weak vibration level. There was noted a healthy worker's survivor effect. Those who remain work for a longer peiod had less a chance to be myopia. Those who worked for 10 years or more had a lowered risk of 85% to be myopia compared with those who worked for 14 years (adjusted OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.03 - 0.87. Helicopter crews exposed to high helicopter vibration had 4.5 times to develop reversible myopia, and a higher risk occurred during the first four years of employment. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 93-6Keywords: helicopter vibration, reversible myopia, air crews

  7. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaris, G

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders.

  8. Effects of Gas-Phase Adsorption air purification on passengers and cabin crew in simulated 11-hour flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin that had been installed in a climate chamber, 4 groups of 17 subjects, acting as passengers and crew, took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2...

  9. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  10. Aerothermodynamic Testing of Protuberances and Penetrations on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle Heat Shield in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel program is being conducted in support of an Agency wide effort to develop a replacement for the Space Shuttle and to support the NASA s long-term objective of returning to the moon and then on to Mars. This paper documents experimental measurements made on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle. Global heat transfer images and heat transfer distributions obtained using phosphor thermography were used to infer interference heating on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Cycle 1 heat shield from local protuberances and penetrations for both laminar and turbulent heating conditions. Test parametrics included free stream Reynolds numbers of 1.0x10(exp 6)/ft to 7.25x10(exp 6)/ft in Mach 6 air at a fixed angle-of-attack. Single arrays of discrete boundary layer trips were used to trip the boundary layer approaching the protuberances/penetrations to a turbulent state. Also, the effects of three compression pad diameters, two radial locations of compression pad/tension tie location, compression pad geometry, and rotational position of compression pad/tension tie were examined. The experimental data highlighted in this paper are to be used to validate CFD tools that will be used to generate the flight aerothermodynamic database. Heat transfer measurements will also assist in the determination of the most appropriate engineering methods that will be used to assess local flight environments associated with protuberances/penetrations of the CEV thermal protection system.

  11. A method to determine methylmethacrylate in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darre, E; Gottlieb, J; Nielsen, P M

    1988-01-01

    To determine the air concentrations of methylmethacrylate monomer and thus obtain information about the safety in the operating theater, a methylmethacrylate Dräger tube was used in connection with a bellows pump. This method gives an instantly readable value correlated with more complicated gas...

  12. Crew Resource Management Use in U.S. Air Force Flight and Family Medicine Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-30

    The study was designed as a cross-sectional quantitative analysis. Inclusion criteria were active duty Air Force base-level flight surgeons and family...Remember the Titans [videorecording]. Burbank, CA: Walt Disney Home Video; 2001. 14 Distribution A: Approved for public release

  13. Assessment of Fatigue in Deployed Critical Care Air Transport Team Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    caffeine [3]. Naps have been shown to provide temporary relief from the negative effects of fatigue, with a 2- to 8-hour nap prior to 24 hours of sleep ...fatigue management training, as well as sleep patterns, level of fatigue, and fatigue countermeasures used in theater by Critical Care Air Transport...During the 2-week participation period, daily sleep patterns and fatigue countermeasures were recorded via actigraphy and sleep logs for a 14-day

  14. Helicopter vibration and risk of reversible myopia among military air crews

    OpenAIRE

    Bastaman Basuki; T. Soemardoko

    2002-01-01

    We assessed to what extend the risk of reversible myopia of the different degree of helicopter vibrations and other risk factors among military helicopter pilots and flight engineers. The study was a nested case-control design using medical record at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the Indonesian Air Force and Medical Directorate of the Indonesian Army (Flying Wing). Cases and controls were military helicopter pilots and flight engineers who had ametropic visual acuity at the time of e...

  15. Determination of isocyanic acid in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, D; Dalene, M; Skarping, G; Marand, A

    2001-08-01

    A method is presented for the determination of isocyanic acid (ICA), HNCO, in air samples as a di-n-butylamine (DBA) derivative. The method is based on sampling in midget impinger flasks containing 10 ml of 0.01 mol l-1 DBA in toluene. Quantification was made using liquid chromatography (LC) and electrospray mass spectrometry (MS) monitoring positive ions. The instrumental detection limit for the LC-MS was 10 fmol of ICA-DBA. ICA was generated by thermal decomposition of urea. A standard solution containing the DBA derivatives of ICA was prepared by collecting the emitted ICA in an impinger flask containing DBA. ICA in the reference solution was characterised by LC and time-of-flight (TOF) MS and quantified by LC chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (LC-CLND). The instrumental detection limit for the LC-CLND was 1 ng of nitrogen. ICA was emitted during thermal degradation of PFU resins and polyurethane (PUR) lacquers, from car metal sheets. ICA was the most dominant isocyanate and in PUR coating up to 8% of the total weight was emitted as ICA and for PFU resins up to 14% was emitted as ICA. When air samples were collected in an iron foundry during casting in sand moulds with furan resins, concentrations of ICA in the range 50-700 micrograms m-3 were found in the working atmosphere.

  16. Crew Activity Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    . Assuming essentially instantaneous propagation of the radio signal, the distance between that beacon and the listener unit is estimated from this time difference and the speed of sound in air.] In this system, six Cricket listener units are mounted in various positions on the ceiling, and as many as four Cricket beacons are attached to crew members. The three-dimensional position of each Cricket beacon can be estimated from the time-difference readings of that beacon from at least three Cricket listener units

  17. Atomic absorption method for the determination of lead in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szivos, K.; Polos, L.; Feher, I.; Pungor, E.

    1974-01-01

    An atomic absorption method for the determination of lead in air was used to analyze air quality at a busy area of Budapest. The air was sampled by a personal sampler carried by persons on street duty at one of the busiest spots in Budapest. The air sample was pumped through a membrane filter type Synpor-3. The filter was destroyed in th 3:2 mixture of strong nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide, the acid was distilled, and the residue was then dried and filled to 2 ml with an 0.5% tartaric acid solution. The results were evaluated by means of calibration curves. The method gave a standard deviation of 3 to 5% in 1 to 3 micrograms/ml concentration. In 0.5% tartaric acid solution, the sensitivity was 0.65 micrograms lead/ml 1% absorption. The presence of tartarate increased the sensitivity of the determination by 10 to 13%. A historgram was constructed of the lead contamination in air at one of the busiest spots of Budapest in 1971. The lead content of air was lower in the summer, probably due to the more intense air currents. The samples contained 0.6 to 13 micrograms of lead, depending on the amount and on the pollution of the air driven through the sampler.

  18. Spectrophotometric Determination of Carbon Disulphide in the Workplace Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pitschmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This papre describes a simple method of carbon disulphide determination in the air of working environment in the chemical companies and plants after its absorption into aprotic N,N-dimethylformamide solvent. Carbon disulphide absorbed into aprotic solvent was transformed by using ammonium hydroxide on sulphides which were determined by spectrophotometry. 5,5′-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid and blue tetrazolium chloride were used as chromogenic sensing reagents. Colour-reducing products were measured at the wavelength of 500, respectively 520 nm. Detection limits for determination of carbon disulphide in the air are 0.2, respectively 0.4 mg·m−3.

  19. Effects of Gas-Phase Adsorption air purification on passengers and cabin crew in simulated 11-hour flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    .4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) unit in the re-circulated air system. Objective physical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments of symptom intensity were obtained. The GPA unit provided advantages with no apparent disadvantages....

  20. Advantages for passengers and cabin crew of operating a Gas-Phase Adsorption air purifier in 11-h simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber to evaluate the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by the operation of a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) purification unit. A total of 68 subjects...

  1. A New HPLC Method to Determine Carbonyl Compounds in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new HPLC method was established to determine the carbonyl compounds in air. As the absorbent, 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2, 4-DNPH) reacted with carbonyls specifically, which form the corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones, then analyzed by HPLC. The chromatographic conditions, the recovery rate, stability of samples, reagent blank, sampling efficiency were all studied systematically. The results showed that this established method had high sensitivity and good selectivity compared with other analytical methods, and it can determine ten carbonyl compounds in air in 26 min simultaneously.

  2. Factors Determining Particle Dynamics over the Air-Sea Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Larsen, S.E.; Mestayer, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Work done in the framework of the ASE subproject, topic 5, on factors determining particle dynamics over the air-sea interface, is briefly reviewed. Emphasis is on the cooperative efforts between the authors, covering a period of roughly 8 years, from 1988 until 1996 [1–16], which in part were

  3. Analytical approaches for arsenic determination in air: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel, E-mail: rodas@uhu.es [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M. [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Mining, Mechanic and Energetic Engineering, ETSI, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Alsioufi, Louay [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2015-10-22

    This review describes the different steps involved in the determination of arsenic in air, considering the particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous phase. The review focuses on sampling, sample preparation and instrumental analytical techniques for both total arsenic determination and speciation analysis. The origin, concentration and legislation concerning arsenic in ambient air are also considered. The review intends to describe the procedures for sample collection of total suspended particles (TSP) or particles with a certain diameter expressed in microns (e.g. PM10 and PM2.5), or the collection of the gaseous phase containing gaseous arsenic species. Sample digestion of the collecting media for PM is described, indicating proposed and established procedures that use acids or mixtures of acids aided with different heating procedures. The detection techniques are summarized and compared (ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ET-AAS), as well those techniques capable of direct analysis of the solid sample (PIXE, INAA and XRF). The studies about speciation in PM are also discussed, considering the initial works that employed a cold trap in combination with atomic spectroscopy detectors, or the more recent studies based on chromatography (GC or HPLC) combined with atomic or mass detectors (AFS, ICP-MS and MS). Further trends and challenges about determination of As in air are also addressed. - Highlights: • Review about arsenic in the air. • Sampling, sample treatment and analysis of arsenic in particulate matter and gaseous phase. • Total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation analysis.

  4. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for crew members... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  5. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC; Determinacion de compuestos carbonilicos en aire por HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R.M.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1995-07-01

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak Cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetoacetonitrile. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed. (Author) 12 refs.

  6. [Life support of the Mars exploration crew. Control of a zeolite system for carbon dioxide removal from space cabin air within a closed air regeneration cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekov, Iu F

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a zeolite system for carbon dioxide removal integrated into a closed air regeneration cycle aboard spacecraft. The continuous operation of a double-adsorbent regeneration system with pCO2-dependable productivity is maintained through programmable setting of adsorption (desorption) semicycle time. The optimal system regulation curve is presented within the space of statistical performance family obtained in quasi-steady operating modes with controlled parameters of the recurrent adsorption-desorption cycle. The automatically changing system productivity ensures continuous intake of concentrated CO2. Control of the adsorption-desorption process is based on calculation of the differential adsorption (desorption) heat from gradient of adsorbent and test inert substance temperatures. The adaptive algorithm of digital control is implemented through the standard spacecraft interface with the board computer system and programmable microprocessor-based controllers.

  7. Long-term monitoring of air crew exposure onboard of Czech Airlines aircraft; Monitorage a long terme de l'exposition du personnel navigant a bord d'un avion de la compagnie aerienne Czech Airlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry, Prague (Czech Republic); Ploc, O. [Czech Technical Univ., Dept. of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2007-01-15

    This contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First, the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. In the period May-December 2005, 494 individual flights have been followed using MDU-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. The results of measurements are analyzed and compared with those of calculation performed with CARI6 and EPCARD3.2 codes. Monitoring period represented about 4.6 times more than usual annual engagement of an aircrew (600 hours). Total effective dose during these 2 755 hours was between Il and 12 mSv, following the considered method of evaluation. Both the measuring and calculation methods correlate well. This fact leads to confirmation of the routine method evaluating the level of aircraft crew exposure using CARI6 code as correct for this purpose. Second, the results of individual monitoring of aircrew members obtained during few last years by this routine method are presented; general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. The contribution of aircrew exposure to total occupational exposure in the Czech Republic represents about 20%. (authors)

  8. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  9. Determination of beryllium concentrations in UK ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Sharon L.; Brown, Richard J. C.; Ghatora, Baljit K.

    2016-12-01

    Air quality monitoring of ambient air is essential to minimise the exposure of the general population to toxic substances such as heavy metals, and thus the health risks associated with them. In the UK, ambient air is already monitored under the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for a number of heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) to ensure compliance with legislative limits. However, the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) has highlighted a need to limit concentrations of beryllium (Be) in air, which is not currently monitored, because of its toxicity. The aim of this work was to analyse airborne particulate matter (PM) sampled onto filter papers from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for quantitative, trace level beryllium determination and compare the results to the guideline concentration specified by EPAQS. Samples were prepared by microwave acid digestion in a matrix of 2% sulphuric acid and 14% nitric acid, verified by the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). The digested samples were then analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The filters from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network were tested using this procedure and the average beryllium concentration across the network for the duration of the study period was 7.87 pg m-3. The highest site average concentration was 32.0 pg m-3 at Scunthorpe Low Santon, which is significantly lower than levels that are thought to cause harm. However the highest levels were observed at sites monitoring industrial point sources, indicating that beryllium is being used and emitted, albeit at very low levels, from these point sources. Comparison with other metals concentrations and data from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory suggests that current emissions of beryllium may be significantly overestimated.

  10. Determinants of elite-level air rifle shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, S; Kuitunen, S; Mononen, K; Linnamo, V

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on identifying the most important factors determining performance in elite-level air rifle shooting technique. Forty international- and national-level shooters completed a simulated air rifle shooting competition series. From a total of 13 795 shots in 319 tests, shooting score and 17 aiming point trajectory variables were measured with an optoelectronic device and six postural balance variables were measured with force platform. Principal component analysis revealed six components in the air rifle shooting technique: aiming time, stability of hold, measurement time, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering. Multiple regression analysis identified four of those, namely stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering as the most important predictors of shooting performance, accounting for 81% of the variance in shooting score. The direct effect of postural balance on performance was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in shooting score. Indirectly, the effect can be greater through a more stable holding ability, to which postural balance was correlated significantly (R = 0.55, P < 0.001). The results of the present study can be used in assessing athletes' technical strengths and weaknesses and in directing training programs on distinct shooting technical components. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Crew appliance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

  12. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  13. Gas chromatographic determination of volatile sulfur fluorides in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezkin, V.G.; Drugov, Yu.S.

    1984-07-01

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of toxic products from thermooxidative destruction of sulfur hexafluoride (650-850/sup 0/C) found in the surrounding air of the work zone in production of high quality magnesium alloys. Sulfur hexafluoride (0.6-1.2%) and carbon dioxide (3-6%) are used as the protective atmosphere. The method involved preliminary concentration of lower sulfur fluorides in a cold trap filled with porapak Q followed with thermodesorption of concentrated impurities and their determination using a flame-photometric detector. The sensitivity of this method was 0.01 mg/m/sup 3/ and relative standard deviation 0.22-0.26. It was shown that when the temperature of the alloy increased from 720 to 800/sup 0/C, the content of HF over it increased from 6.7 to 15.5 mg/m/sup 3/. When zirconium alloy was introduced into this product, the concentration of HF above it reached the level of 52 mg/m/sup 3/, showing that it catalyzed the CF/sub 6/ thermodestruction process. 15 references, 2 figures.

  14. Cyber Safety and Security for Reduced Crew Operations (RCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    NASA and the Aviation Industry is looking into reduced crew operations (RCO) that would cut today's required two-person flight crews down to a single pilot with support from ground-based crews. Shared responsibility across air and ground personnel will require highly reliable and secure data communication and supporting automation, which will be safety-critical for passenger and cargo aircraft. This paper looks at the different types and degrees of authority delegation given from the air to the ground and the ramifications of each, including the safety and security hazards introduced, the mitigation mechanisms for these hazards, and other demands on an RCO system architecture which would be highly invasive into (almost) all safety-critical avionics. The adjacent fields of unmanned aerial systems and autonomous ground vehicles are viewed to find problems that RCO may face and related aviation accident scenarios are described. The paper explores possible data communication architectures to meet stringent performance and information security (INFOSEC) requirements of RCO. Subsequently, potential challenges for RCO data communication authentication, encryption and non-repudiation are identified. The approach includes a comprehensive safety-hazard analysis of the RCO system to determine top level INFOSEC requirements for RCO and proposes an option for effective RCO implementation. This paper concludes with questioning the economic viability of RCO in light of the expense of overcoming the operational safety and security hazards it would introduce.

  15. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  16. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  17. 30 CFR 7.87 - Test to determine the maximum fuel-air ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine the maximum fuel-air ratio. 7... Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.87 Test to determine the maximum fuel-air ratio. (a) Test procedure... several speed/torque conditions to determine the concentrations of CO and NOX, dry basis, in the...

  18. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  19. Simultaneous determination of trace pesticides in urban air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Kimiko; Kitamura, Eri; Yamashita, Toshiro; Kido, Azuma

    Thirty-nine kinds of pesticides in the air were monitored in Kitakyushu City. Air samples were collected by a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and XAD-2 resin trap. After sampling about 700 m' of air, pesticides were extracted with dichloromethane from the quartz fiber filter and XAD-2 resin separately by ultrasonic method. The extracts were concentrated and fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. After adding internal standards, the sample solutions were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a selected ion monitor (GC/MS-SIM) using a fused silica capillary column for the quantification of 39 kinds of pesticides. In order to evaluate the accuracy of this method, a recovery test was performed. Standard compounds were spiked into the XAD-2 resin trap at a concentration level of l μg by sucking 700 m 3 of sample air. The recovery efficiencies of almost all tested pesticides yielded more than 70% and their relative standard deviations were less than 20%. This method was applied to monitor pesticides in air collected in summer and spring seasons in Kitakyushu City. Of the 39 pesticides examined, 23 were detected in summer and 21 detected in spring. The concentration of Isofenphos, 10 ng m ·, was the highest in the summer sample and the concentration of propoxur, 11 ng m -3, in the spring sample.

  20. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  1. Space shuttle crew training at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    From 13 to 16 October, the crew of NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-134 came to CERN for a special physics training programme. Invited here by Samuel Ting, they will deliver the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector to the International Space Station (ISS).   The STS134 crew in the Lodge at the Aiguille du Midi wearing CERN fleeces. From left to right: Captain Mark Kelly, US Navy; Pilot Gregory Johnson, USAF ret.; Mission Specialist Andrew Feustel; Mission Specialist Mike Fincke, USAF, Mission Specialist Gregory Chamitoff and Mission Specialist Roberto Vittori, ESA and Italian Air Force. Headed by Commander Mark Kelly, a US Navy captain, the crew included pilot Gregory Johnson, a US Air Force (USAF) colonel, and mission specialists Mike Fincke (also a USAF Colonel), Andrew Feustel, and Gregory Chamitoff of NASA, as well as Colonel Roberto Vittori of the European Space Agency (ESA). Two flight directors, Gary Horlache and Derek Hassmann of NASA, and the engineer responsible for the Ext...

  2. STS-47 Crew Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri answer questions from the press about the upcoming Endeavour mission and the crew's personal views of the mission.

  3. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  4. 19 CFR 122.45 - Crew list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew list. 122.45 Section 122.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for...

  5. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications...... of the European Communities It is now well established that indoor air pollution contributes significantly to the global burden of disease of the population. Therefore, the knowledge of this contribution is essential in view of risk assessment and management. The ECA STRATEX report collates the respective...... information and describes the strategies to determine population exposure to indoor air pollutants. Its major goal is to emphasise the importance of the contribution of indoor air to total air exposure. Taking this contribution into account is a prerequisite for sound risk assessment of air pollution...

  6. Crew Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  7. Air Flows in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water......Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results...... surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient...

  8. Microbiology and Crew Medical Events on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Kadwa, Biniafer; Taiym, Wafa; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane; Baalen, Mary Van

    2014-01-01

    The closed environment of the International Space Station (ISS) creates an ideal environment for microbial growth. Previous studies have identified the ubiquitous nature of microorganisms throughout the space station environment. To ensure safety of the crew, microbial monitoring of air and surface within ISS began in December 2000 and continues to be monitored on a quarterly basis. Water monitoring began in 2009 when the potable water dispenser was installed on ISS. However, it is unknown if high microbial counts are associated with inflight medical events. The microbial counts are determined for the air, surface, and water samples collected during flight operations and samples are returned to the Microbiology laboratory at the Johnson Space Center for identification. Instances of microbial counts above the established microbial limit requirements were noted and compared inflight medical events (any non-injury event such as illness, rashes, etc.) that were reported during the same calendar-quarter. Data were analyzed using repeated measures logistic regression for the forty-one US astronauts flew on ISS between 2000 and 2012. In that time frame, instances of microbial counts being above established limits were found for 10 times for air samples, 22 times for surface samples and twice for water. Seventy-eight inflight medical events were reported among the astronauts. A three times greater risk of a medical event was found when microbial samples were found to be high (OR = 3.01; p =.007). Engineering controls, crew training, and strict microbial limits have been established to mitigate the crew medical events and environmental risks. Due to the timing issues of sampling and the samples return to earth, identification of particular microorganisms causing a particular inflight medical event is difficult. Further analyses are underway.

  9. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made.

  10. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  11. Determination of radon concentration in soil air and in the radioactive spring's bathroom air by passive method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko [Otsuma Women' s Univ., School of Social Information Studies, Tama, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Tadashi [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Radioisotope Lab., Tamaho, Yamanashi (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    There are many kind of passive methods such as open vial method, {alpha}-track method and active carbon method (PICO-RAD detector) or so. The open vial method can determine radon in soil air, which dissolves easily into toluene and afterwards can be measured by the integral counting with a liquid scintillation counter. The {alpha}-track method can record {alpha} ray tracks of radon on thin cellulose nitrate film which can be rendered visible for counting after NaOH solution treatment. The PICO-RAD detectors are passive devices requiring no power. They are integrating detectors used to determine the average radon concentration in air where they are placed. The detectors consist of a plastic liquid scintillation vial which consists a porous canister held securely near the top of the vial. The porous canister contains a bed of a controlled weight of charcoal covered by a layer of desiccant. The securely capped canister has and indefinite shelf life. The {alpha} radioactivity of radon gas adsorbed in fine active charcoal exposed in the air is measured with a liquid scintillation counter. Using of those simple detectors, we have measured distribution of radon concentration in soil air and in the radioactive spring's bathroom air. (author)

  12. Coordination strategies of crew management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; Cano, Yvonne; Bryant, Don

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory study that describes and contrasts two three-person flight crews performing in a B-727 simulator is presented. This study specifically attempts to delineate crew communication patterns accounting for measured differences in performance across routine and nonroutine flight patterns. The communication patterns in the two crews evaluated indicated different modes of coordination, i.e., standardization in the less effective crew and planning/mutual adjustment in the more effective crew.

  13. Coordination strategies of crew management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; Cano, Yvonne; Bryant, Don

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory study that describes and contrasts two three-person flight crews performing in a B-727 simulator is presented. This study specifically attempts to delineate crew communication patterns accounting for measured differences in performance across routine and nonroutine flight patterns. The communication patterns in the two crews evaluated indicated different modes of coordination, i.e., standardization in the less effective crew and planning/mutual adjustment in the more effective crew.

  14. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... approval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the... Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the 2007 PM 2.5 SIP'' (dated October 2011... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air...

  15. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.;

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the Eu...

  16. 78 FR 894 - Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution... of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California... such as unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and agricultural areas in Imperial County....

  17. Un-Alerted Smoke and Fire: Checklist Content and Intended Crew Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Barbara K.

    2015-01-01

    An in-flight smoke or fire event is an emergency unlike almost any other. The early cues for un-alerted conditions, such as air conditioning smoke or fire, are often ambiguous and elusive. The checklists crews use for these conditions must help them respond quickly and effectively and must guide their decisions. Ten years ago an industry committee developed a template to guide the content of Part 121 checklists for un-alerted smoke and fire events. This template is based upon a new philosophy about how crews should use the checklists and respond to the events. To determine the degree to which current un-alerted checklists of in-flight smoke or fire comply or are consistent with the guidance outlined in the template, I collected and analysed checklists from North American air carriers.

  18. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S. [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Seibersdorf (Austria); Latocha, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  19. Validation of Finite Element Crash Test Dummy Models for Predicting Orion Crew Member Injuries During a Simulated Vehicle Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabiei, Al; Lawrence, Charles; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2009-01-01

    A series of crash tests were conducted with dummies during simulated Orion crew module landings at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. These tests consisted of several crew configurations with and without astronaut suits. Some test results were collected and are presented. In addition, finite element models of the tests were developed and are presented. The finite element models were validated using the experimental data, and the test responses were compared with the computed results. Occupant crash data, such as forces, moments, and accelerations, were collected from the simulations and compared with injury criteria to assess occupant survivability and injury. Some of the injury criteria published in the literature is summarized for completeness. These criteria were used to determine potential injury during crew impact events.

  20. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  1. Near surface spatially averaged air temperature and wind speed determined by acoustic travel time tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Raabe

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic travel time tomography is presented as a possibility for remote monitoring of near surface airtemperature and wind fields. This technique provides line-averaged effective sound speeds changing with temporally and spatially variable air temperature and wind vector. The effective sound speed is derived from the travel times of sound signals which propagate at defined paths between different acoustic sources and receivers. Starting with the travel time data a tomographic algorithm (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique, SIRT is used to calculate area-averaged air temperature and wind speed. The accuracy of the experimental method and the tomographic inversion algorithm is exemplarily demonstrated for one day without remarkable differences in the horizontal temperature field, determined by independent in situ measurements at different points within the measuring field. The differences between the conventionally determined air temperature (point measurement and the air temperature determined by tomography (area-averaged measurement representative for the area of the measuring field 200m x 260m were below 0.5 K for an average of 10 minutes. The differences obtained between the wind speed measured at a meteorological mast and calculated from acoustic measurements are not higher than 0.5 ms-1 for the same averaging time. The tomographically determined area-averaged distribution of air temperature (resolution 50 m x 50 m can be used to estimate the horizontal gradient of air temperature as a pre-condition to detect horizontal turbulent fluxes of sensible heat.

  2. 某空调生产企业噪声暴露与高血压的关系研究%Study on relationship between the noise exposure and hypertension in air-conditioning manufacture crew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江春苗; 王军义; 鲍莹; 柳绿茵

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between noise expose and hypertension in air-conditioning manufacture crew. METHODS A total of 631 air-conditioning manufacture crew who exposed to different noise levels were selected as study subjects. Measured A-weighted sound pressure noise level (LAeq) by dosimeter during a working day. According to equal-energy rule, LAeq and noise exposure duration were incorporated for the calculation of cumulative noise expose (CNE). Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between noise expose and hypertension. RESULTS The prevalence of hypertension was 9.51% in air-conditioning manufacture workers. There was an increasing tendency of hypertension rate along with the increase of accumulative noise doses (P < 0.01). Result by Logistic regression analysis: along with the increase of work-time and cumulative noise exposed, the risk of hypertension increased more (OR = 1.824). Body mass index (BMI) might serve as a risk factor of hypertension. CONCLUSION There is a dose-response relationship between CNE and hypertension; BMI might serve as a risk factor of hypertension.%目的 探讨空调生产企业噪声暴露与高血压患病率之间的关系.方法 以某大型空调企业长期接触噪声的631名工人为研究对象,测量等效A声级(LAeq).按等能量原则将LAeq和噪声作业工龄合并计算累积噪声暴露量(CNE);用Logistic回归模型分析噪声暴露量与高血压的关系.结果 空调生产企业噪声从业人员高血压患病率为9.51%.随着累积噪声暴露量(CNE)的增加高血压患病率逐渐升高(P< 0.0001),CNE与高血压患病率之间存在剂量-反应关系.非条件Logistic回归分析结果显示:随着工龄的增加,CNE的增加对患高血压的相对危险性越大(OR=1.824);体重指数(BMI) (OR=3.68)可能是高血压发病的危险因素.结论 CNE与高血压患病率之间存在剂量-反应关系,BMI可能是高血压发病的一个危险因素.

  3. 76 FR 45199 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  4. 78 FR 10554 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  5. 76 FR 76046 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  6. Getting a Crew into Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Despite the temporary setback in our country's crewed space exploration program, there will continue to be missions requiring crews to orbit Earth and beyond. Under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA should have its own heavy launch rocket and crew vehicle developed by 2016. Private companies will continue to explore space, as well. At the…

  7. A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong

    2005-08-01

    This article describes the use of a passive sampler for detecting and collecting nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , in ambient air. This device is based on microporous PTFE membranes that allow air samples to diffuse through and subsequently react with an absorbing reagent solution. The absorbance value of this reagent is proportional to the NO 2 concentration in ambient air. It has been successfully applied to determine the NO 2 concentrations in various sampling sites. The sampler is simple, lightweight, and inexpensive. The experiments are suitable for college students in analytical chemistry and environmental studies.

  8. Determination of needed parameters for measuring temperature fields in air by thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the parameters determination of equipment for measuring temperature fields in air using an infrared camera. This method is based on the visualization of temperature fields in an auxiliary material, which is inserted into the non-isothermal air flow. The accuracy of air temperature measurement (or of surface temperature of supplies by this method depends especially on (except for parameters of infrared camera the determination of the static and the dynamic qualities of auxiliary material. The emissivity of support material is the static quality and the dynamic quality is time constant. Support materials with a high emissivity and a low time constant are suitable for the measurement. The high value of emissivity results in a higher measurement sensitivity and the radiation temperature independence. In this article the emissivity of examined kinds of auxiliary materials (papers and textiles is determined by temperature measuring of heated samples by a calibrated thermocouple and by thermography, with the emissivity setting on the camera to 1 and with the homogeneous radiation temperature. Time constants are determined by a step change of air temperature in the surrounding of auxiliary material. The time constant depends mainly on heat transfer by the convection from the air into the auxiliary material. That is why the effect of air temperature is examined in this article (or a temperature difference towards the environmental temperature and the flow velocity on the time constant with various types of auxiliary materials. The obtained results allow to define the conditions for using the method of measurement of temperature fields in air during various heating and air conditioning applications.

  9. Crew decision making under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  10. STS-111 Crew Training Clip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The STS-111 Crew is in training for space flight. The crew consists of Commander Ken Cockrell, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Franklin Chang-Diaz and Philippe Perrin. The crew training begins with Post Insertion Operations with the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT). Franklin Chang-Diaz, Philippe Perrin and Paul Lockhart are shown in training for airlock and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) activities. Bailout in Crew Compartment Training (CCT) with Expedition Five is also shown. The crew also gets experience with photography, television, and habitation equipment.

  11. Corroborating the Land Use Change as Primary Determinant of Air Quality Degradation in a Concentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandung City is characterized by concentric land use pattern as found in many naturally grown cities. It radiates from mixed commercial areas in the center to low density residential areas in the periphery. This pattern generates significant traffic volume towards city center. The gener-ated traffic releases emissions and degrades urban air quality since fossil fuel is predominantly used by vehicles in Bandung. In the absence of air polluting industries as well as construction and demolition activities, traffic load generated by land use changes is the only major contribu-tor to air quality degradation in the city. The land use change can therefore be seen as primary determinant of air pollution in Bandung. This study analyses land use changes and its impacts on traffic pattern and air quality. Multivariate correlation between traffic load and land use changes is employed as tool to substantiate the proposition. Relationships between the degree of chang-es in land use, as reflected in traffic loads, and the quantity of two principal air pollutants, namely SO2 and HC are also established to validate the argument. The result of analysis sub-stantiates the correlation between land use changes and air quality degradation.

  12. STS-99 Crew Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-99 crew members designed the flight insignia for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. Two radar anternas, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, was used during the mission to map Earth's features. The goal was to provide a 3-dimensional topographic map of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. In the patch, the clear portion of Earth illustrates the radar beams penetrating its cloudy atmosphere and the unique understanding of the home planet that is provided by space travel. The grid on Earth reflects the mapping character of the SRTM mission. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting Earth in a star spangled universe. The rainbow along Earth's horizon resembles an orbital sunrise. The crew deems the bright colors of the rainbow as symbolic of the bright future ahead because of human beings' venturing into space. The crew of six launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on February 11, 2000 and completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  13. Determining Land Surface Temperature Relations with Land Use-Land Cover and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahya, Ceyhan; Bektas Balcik, Filiz; Burak Oztaner, Yasar; Guney, Burcu

    2016-04-01

    Rapid population growth in conjunction with unplanned urbanization, expansion, and encroachment into the limited agricultural fields and green areas have negative impacts on vegetated areas. Land Surface Temperature (LST), Urban Heat Islands (UHI) and air pollution are the most important environmental problems that the extensive part of the world suffers from. The main objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between LST, air pollution and Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) in Istanbul, using Landsat 8 OLI satellite image. Mono-window algorithm is used to compute LST from Landsat 8 TIR data. In order to determine the air pollution, in-situ measurements of particulate matter (PM10) of the same day as the Landsat 8 OLI satellite image are obtained. The results of this data are interpolated using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method and LULC categories of Istanbul were determined by using remote sensing indices. Error matrix was created for accuracy assessment. The relationship between LST, air pollution and LULC categories are determined by using regression analysis method. Keywords: Land Surface Temperature (LST), air pollution, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC), Istanbul

  14. Determination of phase-distributed PAH in Rome ambient air by denuder/GC-MS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possanzini, Massimiliano; Di Palo, Vincenzo; Gigliucci, Pierfrancesco; Scianò, Maria Concetta Tomasi; Cecinato, Angelo

    An annular denuder—filter sampler has been tested for determination of both gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in air. Collection efficiency and capacity over 6-h sampling at an air flow rate of 6 l min -1 were assessed. Concentrations were measured and phase distributions of the most important 2-6 ring PAH in air samples collected in downtown Rome during November 2002 to April 2003 were determined. The 2- and 3-ring PAH were found for more than 90% in the gas phase, whilst congeners with more than 4 rings were present almost entirely in the particle phase. Comparison with a high-volume filter—PUF sampler showed that similar results for total PAH contents (gas + particle) were observed only for congeners with molecular mass higher than 178 (phenanthrene and anthracene).

  15. The determination of field usability of method measuring temperature fields in the air using an infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešek Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the field usability determination of the method for measuring temperature fields in the air using an infrared camera. This method is based on the visualization of temperature fields on an auxiliary material, which is inserted into the non-isothermal air flow. In this article the field usability is determined from time constants of this method, which define borders of usability for low temperature differences (between air flow temperature and surrounding temperature and for low air flow velocities. The field usability determination for measuring temperature fields in the air can be used in many various applications such as air-heating and air-conditioning where the method of measuring temperature fields in the air by infrared camera can be used.

  16. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  17. 75 FR 15655 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AP91 Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources... Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (D205- 02), Environmental Protection Agency... facilities. Brick and Structural Clay Products; Clay 327122 Ceramic wall and floor tile manufacturing...

  18. The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    The experiment of determination of the percent of oxygen in air is performed in a general chemistry laboratory in which students compare the results calculated from the pressure measurements obtained with the calculator-based systems to those obtained in a water-measurement method. This experiment allows students to explore a fundamental reaction…

  19. COMPENDIUM OF METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AMBIENT AIR--SECOND EDITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Second Edition of the Compendium has been prepared to provide regional, state and local environmental regulatory agencies with step-by-step sampling and analysis procedures for the determination of selected toxic organic pollutants in ambient air. It is designed to assist t...

  20. COMPENDIUM OF METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AMBIENT AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Until recently, limited quidance has been available to federal, state and local agencies and to other organizations concerned with the determination of pollutant concentrations in ambient air. As a result, agencies, industry, and the general public have had to develop their own m...

  1. 75 FR 53219 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...)(2).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: August 19, 2010. Ira W. Leighton, Acting Regional...) to read as follows: Sec. 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone. * * * * * (f) Determination of...

  2. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardes, Raysa C.; Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, Hamilton S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: rc.nardes@gmail.com, E-mail: ramonziosp@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: francissanches@gmail.com, E-mail: hamiltongamafilho@hotmail.com, E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  3. Determining indoor air quality and identifying the origin of odour episodes in indoor environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Gallego; Xavier Roca; Jose Francisco Perales; Xavier Guardino

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for identifying volatile organic compounds (VOC) and determining air quality of indoor air has been developed. The air samples are collected using pump samplers by the inhabitants when they perceive odorous and/or discomfort episodes. Glass multi-sorbent tubes are connected to the pump samplers for the retention of VOC. The analysis is performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This methodology can be applied in cases of sick building syndrome (SBS) evaluation, in which building occupants experience a series of varied symptoms that appear to be linked to time spent in the building. Chemical pollutants concentrations (e.g., VOC) have been described to contribute to SBS. To exemplify the methodology, a qualitative determination and an evaluation of VOC present were performed in a dwelling where the occupants experienced the SBS symptoms. Higher total VOC (TVOC) value was detected in episodes in indoor air (1.33 ( 1.53 mg/m3) compared to outdoor air (0.71 ( 0.46 mg/m3). The concentrations of individual VOCs, such as ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, acetonitrile and 1-metoxy-2-propanol, were also higher than the expected for a standard dwelling. The external source of VOC was found to be a not declared activity of storage and manipulation of solvents located at the bottom of a contiguous building.

  4. Air-kerma determination using a variable-volume cavity ionization chamber standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D T; Kessler, C; Roger, P

    2007-12-01

    A graphite-walled cavity ionization chamber of modular design and variable volume has been used to determine the air-kerma rate in the reference 60Co field at the BIPM. The chamber can be configured in five sizes. High-accuracy mechanical measurements of the volume of the air cavity were made for each configuration using a co-ordinate measuring machine. Ionization current measurements were made for each configuration and corrected for the effects of ion recombination and diffusion, stem scatter and chamber orientation. Monte Carlo calculations of cavity dose were made to evaluate the correction factors kwall and kan. A reproducibility of the ionization current per mass of 1.5 parts in 10(4) was achieved on the repeated assembly of each configuration. The results show an air-kerma rate determination that increases with volume, the total change being around 8 parts in 10(4). When analysed differentially, the air-kerma rate relative to the BIPM standard is Kdiff/KBIPM = 1.0026(6). A detailed uncertainty budget is presented. Possible reasons for the observed behaviour are discussed that might have consequences for all existing standards for air-kerma.

  5. Determination of Radon concentration in air using scinti-cell radon monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst; Morishima, Hiroshige; Arai, Naoki; Shiraishi, Masatoshi; Shigehara, Makiko [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, School of Science and Technology, Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka(Japan); Mifune, Masaaki

    2000-01-01

    This study is carried out the methodology characteristics of {sup 222}Rn (Radon) concentration in air using the scinti-cell radon monitor (Trace environmental level detector (PMT-TEL) and Lucas cell (300 A), Pylon Co. and the determination of Radon concentrations in air on Misasa spa area in Tottori pref. and Ikeda spa in Shimane pref. on November 1995 and 1996. We have reached to the following results; (1) Minimum detectable Radon concentrations in air using the scinti-cell monitor are 7.6 Bq/m{sup 3} with 23% of accuracy (relative standard deviation) on the grab sampling of Lucas cell and 0.58 Bq/m{sup 3} with that of 17% on the continuous measuring of PMT-TEL, when it measured after 3.5 hours on the air sampling to determine the mean radon concentrations. The radon concentrations by the PMT-TEL method is about ten times more detectable than those by Lucas cell, that the former is the most sensitive among the detectors used on this research and is able to detect low level environmental concentrations, particularly outdoor and the later is valuable to use conveniently and portably on grab spot sampling of high level radon concentrations indoor air. (2) On the comparison of characteristics on spot monitoring of radon in air, a pico-rad method is suitable for the determination of the mean concentration for continuous sampling period by PMT-TEL and Lucas cell 300 A, and the variation of radon concentration can be observed on elapse of time course. (author)

  6. Test Method for Determination of Thermal Shock resistance(Air Quenching)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYong-gang; ZHANGYong-fang; 等

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the theory of thermal shock resistance in the science of materials and the test method of air quenching which is generally rec-ognized internationally,especially in Europe,the present test methods for determination of thermal shock resistance in China have been analysed,Experiment study on thermal shock resis-tance of silica and basic refractory products has been conducted,and a new test method of thermal shock resistance-air quenching method has been put forward.

  7. Crew Exercise Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalik, Kerrie

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes sustaining the current suite of on-orbit exercise devices by reducing maintenance, addressing obsolescence, and increasing reliability through creative engineering solutions. Advanced exercise systems technology development efforts focus on the sustainment of crew's physical condition beyond Low Earth Orbit for extended mission durations with significantly reduced mass, volume, and power consumption when compared to the ISS.

  8. Measurement and Determination of Friction Characteristic of Air Flow through Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sintered metal porous media currently plays an important role in air bearing systems. When flowing through porous media, the flow properties are generally represented by incompressible Darcy-Forchheimer regime or Ergun regime. In this study, a modified Ergun equation, which includes air compressibility effects, is developed to describe friction characteristic. Experimental and theoretical investigations on friction characteristic are conducted with a series of metal-sintered porous media. Re = 10 is selected as the boundary for a viscous drag region and a form drag region. Experimental data are first used to determine the coefficient α in the viscous drag region, and then the coefficient β in the form drag region, rather than both simultaneously. Also, the theoretical mass flow rate in terms of the modified Ergun equation provides close approximations to the experimental data. Finally, it is also known that both the air compressibility and inertial effects can obviously enhance the pressure drop.

  9. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri, high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout, traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge, Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout, residential area (Kawo New Extension and a control site (NFA base in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle containing hydrogen peroxide (absorbent, at a flow-rate of 10 L/min for 30 min using air vacuum pump. The concentration of SO2 in the resultant solution (absorbent was determined by titrating against 0.005 moL/dm3 NaOH solutions. The average SO2 concentrations in the six sampling stations were within the range 0.16-0.75 ppm, with the highest values of 0.75 and 0.70 ppm at highly industrialized area (Kakuri and a high traffic area (Leventis roundabout respectively. The ambient air concentrations of SO2 depict the pattern; Industrial area (Kakuri >High vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis roundabout >Traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge >Low traffic area (Tafawa Balewa roundabout >Residential area (Kawo New Extension >Remote area (NAF Base Mando. Except for highly industrial area (Kakuri and the high traffic area (Leventis, The ambient air SO2 concentration are within the acceptable limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA standard limit which is 0.5 ppm for 30 min exposure time.

  10. Does air conditioning impact on hygienic quality of indoor air on seagoing vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gabriele; Schepers, Bernd-Fred

    2007-01-01

    According to observations by occupational health physicians, nearly 50 % of the seamen on German vessels will get diseases of the upper respiratory tract. An impact of the air-conditioning systems on these diseases has been suggested. To examine the hygienic quality of indoor air on seagoing vessels, a pilot study was initiated by the See-Berufsgenossenschaft. Air samples were taken on-site at different sampling sites and analysed for the occurrence of microorganisms. Bacteria showed the highest cell numbers and the highest distribution in indoor air on vessels, whereby the maximum level was determined in the air of crew cabins. The identification of bacteria showed that beside common airborne species, pathogens existed. Air-conditioning seems to influence the quality of indoor air on seagoing vessels. Interim results of the study indicate that regular maintenance of air-conditioning systems is essential.

  11. PubMed search filters for the study of putative outdoor air pollution determinants of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano

    2016-12-21

    Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one 'more specific', one 'more sensitive'). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. The 'more specific' filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The 'more sensitive' filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the 'more specific' filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the 'more sensitive' one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the 'more specific' filter and 3.3 for the 'more sensitive' one. The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. [Determination of ethylene glycol in workplace air by capillary column gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiandi; Lin, Yiran; Zhang, Wen; He, Juntao

    2015-12-01

    To establish the method of capillary column gas chromatography for determination of ethylene glycol in workplace air. Ethylene glycol in workplace air was collected with silicone tube, desorbed with methanol, separated with FFAP (nitroterephthalic acid-modified polyethylene glycol)capillary column, and measured with flame ionization detector. The detection limit of ethylene glycol was 0.41 mg/L, the lower limit of quantification was 1.4 mg/L, the range of measurement was 1.4~163.9 mg/L, and the minimum detectable concentration was 0.3 mg/m3 (1.5 L of air was collected as the sample). This method had a good repeatability, the relative standard deviation was 1.4%~5.2%, the average desorption efficiency was 94.4%~101.7%, and the sampling efficiency was 99.2%~100%. The penetrating capacity of 200 mg silicone was higher than 6.9 mg, and the samples could be preserved for 14 days at room temperature. The method has a low detection limit, high accuracy, and good precision, which is feasible for determination of ethylene glycol in workplace air.

  13. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, retrieved from AirCore sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dipayan; Been, Henk A.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-04-01

    In this decade, understanding the impact of human activities on climate is one of the key issues of discussion globally. The continuous rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases, e.g., CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere, predominantly due to human activities, is alarming and requires continuous monitoring to understand the dynamics. Radiocarbon is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. Measurement of 14C (or radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 generally requires collection of large air samples (few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined. Currently, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most precise, reliable and widely used technique for atmospheric radiocarbon detection. However, the regular collection of air samples from troposphere and stratosphere, for example using aircraft, is prohibitively expensive. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, developed by NOAA. It comprises of a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ~ 30 km) measurements of CH4and CO2(Karion et al. 2010). In Europe, AirCore measurements are being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of two such AirCore samples collected in July 2014, Finland, for determining the 14C concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore samples were collected on consecutive days. Each stratospheric AirCore sample was divided into six fractions, each containing ~ 35 μg CO2 (~9.5 μg C). Each fraction was separately trapped in 1 /4 inch coiled stainless steel tubing for radiocarbon measurements. The procedure for CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples; the sample preparation, with samples containing < 10

  14. Determination of thoracic and inhalable fraction of sulfuric acid(VI) in workplace air

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Szewczyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak; Emilia Pągowska

    2016-01-01

    Background: The article presents the results of the determination of the inhalable and thoracic fraction of sulfuric acid(VI) in 3 workplaces producing or processing this chemical. Material and Methods: To collect thoracic fractions of sulfuric acid(VI) Parallel Particle Impactor (PPI) was used. To isolate inhalable fraction of sulfuric acid(VI) from the air we used a sampler developed at the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), United Kingdom. Parallel Particle Impactor and IOM samplers...

  15. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  16. METHOD FOR IN SITU DETERMINATION OF PCO2 IN SEA-AIR EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The method for determining PCO2 in the atmosphere and water by using gas chromatography was studied. For determination of PCO2 in the atmosphere, a sampling method was developed in which the chromatograph was connected to a 6-port valve with a sampling pipe opening to the atmosphere, so gas pressure in the sampling pipe was identical to that of the atmosphere. A semi-automatic seawater-atmosphere equilibrium system was designed to determine the PCO2 in seawater. The equilibrium chamber contained in situ seawater and the well-equilibrated gas was pushed into the sampling pipe by sample water, so pressure and temperature calibration could be avoided. This method has high accuracy for the determination of PCO2 in the air and seawater, and was used for in situ determination of PCO2 in the atmosphere and of the seawater sample in the JGOFS cruise in the East China Sea.

  17. METHOD FOR IN SITU DETERMINATION OF Pco2 IN SEA-AIR EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔鹤; 纪雷; 王军; 辛淑平; 张龙军; 陆贤昆

    2001-01-01

    The method for determining Pco2 in the atmosphere and water by using gas chroma-tography was studied. For determination of Pco2 in the atmosphere, a sampling method was developed in which the chromatograph was connected to a 6-port valve with a sampling pipe opening to the atmosphere, so gas pressure in the sampling pipe was identical to that of the atmoesphere. A semi-automatic seawater-atmosphere equilibrium system was designed to determine the Pco2 in seawater. The equilibrium chamber contained in situ seawater and the well-equilibrated gas was pushed into the sampling pipe by sample wa-ter, so pressure and temperature calibration could be avoided. This method has high accuracy for the de-termination of Pco2 in the air and seawater, and was used for in situ determination of Pco2 in the atmo-sphere and of the seawater sample in the JGOFS cruise in the East China Sea.

  18. Apollo 15 Crew Portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is the official three-member crew portrait of the Apollo 15 (SA-510). Pictured from left to right are: David R. Scott, Mission Commander; Alfred M. Worden Jr., Command Module pilot; and James B. Irwin, Lunar Module pilot. The fifth marned lunar landing mission, Apollo 15 (SA-510), lifted off on July 26, 1971. Astronauts Scott and Irwin were the first to use a wheeled surface vehicle, the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), or the Rover, which was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, and built by the Boeing Company. The astronauts spent 13 days, nearly 67 hours, on the Moon's surface to inspect a wide variety of its geological features.

  19. Crew Interviews: Treschev

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Sergei Treschev is a Cosmonaut of the Rocket Space Corporation Energia, (RSC), from Volynsky District, Lipetsk Region (Russia). He graduated from Moscow Energy Institute. After years of intense training with RSC Energia, he was selected as International Space Station (ISS) Increment 5 flight engineer. The Expedition-Five crew (two Russian cosmonauts and one American astronaut) will stay on the station for approximately 5 months. The Multipurpose Logistics Module, or MPLM, will carry experiment racks and three stowage and resupply racks to the station. The mission will also install a component of the Canadian Arm called the Mobile Base System (MBS) to the Mobile Transporter (MT) installed during STS-110. This completes the Canadian Mobile Servicing System, or MSS. The mechanical arm will now have the capability to "inchworm" from the U.S. Lab fixture to the MSS and travel along the Truss to work sites.

  20. STS-69 Crew members display 'Dog Crew' patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Following their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, the five astronauts assigned to Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 display the unofficial crew patch for their upcoming spaceflight: the Dog Crew II patch. Mission Commander David M. Walker (center) and Payload Commander James S. Voss (second from right) previously flew together on Mission STS-53, the final dedicated Department of Defense flight on the Space Shuttle. A close comradery formed among Walker, Voss and the rest of the crew, and they dubbed themselves the 'dogs of war', with each of the STS-53 'Dog Crew' members assigned a 'dog tag' or nickname. When the STS-69 astronauts also became good buddies, they decided it was time for the Dog Crew II to be named. Walker's dog tag is Red Dog, Voss's is Dogface, Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell (second from left) is Cujo, space rookie and Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (left) is Under Dog, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman (right) is Pluato. The Dog Crew II patch features a bulldog peering out from a doghouse shaped like the Space Shuttle and lists the five crew member's dog names. The five astronauts are scheduled to lift off on the fifth Shuttle flight of the year at 11:04 a.m. EDT, August 31, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  1. 19 CFR 122.46 - Crew purchase list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew purchase list. 122.46 Section 122.46 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  2. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  3. Ergonomic and anthropometric issues of the forward Apache crew station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the anthropometric accommodation in the Apache crew systems. These activities are part of a comprehensive project, in a cooperative effort from the Armstrong Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Dayton, Ohio, USA) and TNO Human Factors Research Institute (TNO HFRI) in

  4. Ergonomic and anthropometric issues of the forward Apache crew station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the anthropometric accommodation in the Apache crew systems. These activities are part of a comprehensive project, in a cooperative effort from the Armstrong Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Dayton, Ohio, USA) and TNO Human Factors Research Institute (TNO HFRI) in

  5. Determination of air and hydrofoil pressure coefficient by laser doppler anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Slavica S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some results of experiments performed in water cavitation tunnel are presented. Pressure coefficient (Cp was experimentally determined by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA measurements. Two models were tested: model of airplane G4 (Super Galeb and hydrofoil of high speed axial pump. These models are not prepared for conventional pressure measurements, so that LDA is applied for Cp determination. Numerical results were obtained using a code for average Navier-Stokes equations solutions. Comparisons between computational and experimental results prove the effectiveness of the LDA. The advantages and disadvantages of LDA application are discussed. Flow visualization was made by air bubbles.

  6. [Determination of relative elements of hard metal in workplace air and urine by inductive coupled plama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X X; Jiao, Y N; Luo, Y N; Chen, Y X; Tian, D; Lou, F; Li, H D; Li, W; Chen, J D; Yan, Y J

    2016-11-20

    Objective: To establish a rapid detection method regarding the air conditions of workplace and the workers' urine included Tungsten, Cobalt, Nickel, Titanium, Cadmium, Manganese, Lead and its compounds based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) . Methods: The experiment adopts ICP-MS to deter-mine those metals in workshop air and workers urine, evaluate the detection's limitation, the precision and accuracy of the method. Using the membrane filter and urine freeze - dried metal standard material to verify this method. Results: Each element of correlation coefficient was greater than 0.999. The recovery rate of air samples was 91.6%~104.6%, within-batch RSD precision was 1.41%~3.50%, between-run precision was 1.28%~4.31%, urine samples recovery rate was 93.0%~102.6%, within - batch RSD precision was 1.25%~3.56%, between - run precision was 1.58%~4.67%, According to the method every element was within the scope of the standard reference, it was also showed that the established method is accurate and reliable. Conclusion: ICP-MS is an effective and feasible method to detect the workshop air and the workers' urine which included Tungsten, Cobalt, Nickel, Titanium, Cadmium, Manganese, Lead and its compounds.

  7. Determination of arsenic in air particulates and diesel exhaust particulates by spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. M. Talebi; M. Abedi

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of trace arsenic by spectrophotometry. The proposed method is rapid, simple,and inexpensive. This method can be used for sensitive determination of trace arsenic in environmental samples and especially in air particulates. The results obtained by this method as a proposed method were compared with those obtained by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry as a popular reported method for the determination of arsenic and an excellent agreement was found between them. The method was also used for determination of arsenic associated with airborne particulate matter and diesel exhaust particulates.The results showed that considerable amount of arsenic are associated with diesel engine particulates. The variation in concentration of arsenic was also investigated. The atmospheric concentration of arsenic was different in different sampling stations was dependent to the traffic density.

  8. Determining the speed of sound in the air by sound wave interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Abel A.

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical waves propagate through material media. Sound is an example of a mechanical wave. In fluids like air, sound waves propagate through successive longitudinal perturbations of compression and decompression. Audible sound frequencies for human ears range from 20 to 20 000 Hz. In this study, the speed of sound v in the air is determined using the identification of maxima of interference from two synchronous waves at frequency f. The values of v were correct to 0 °C. The experimental average value of {\\bar{ν }}\\exp =336 +/- 4 {{m}} {{{s}}}-1 was found. It is 1.5% larger than the reference value. The standard deviation of 4 m s-1 (1.2% of {\\bar{ν }}\\exp ) is an improved value by the use of the concept of the central limit theorem. The proposed procedure to determine the speed of sound in the air aims to be an academic activity for physics classes of scientific and technological courses in college.

  9. Comparison of spacecraft crew escape systems through dynamic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, William G., III

    Crew escape systems have been a vital component of ensuring safety onboard manned spacecraft. Although there have been only a few aborts involving their use, their operation helps decrease risk in what is known to be a hazardous field. But despite their high reliability, crew escape systems typically suffer from heavy weight, lack of control and hazardous chemical propellants. Hybrid propulsion systems could be a viable solution to all of these problems. With their inert components, ability to throttle and higher specific impulse than solids, hybrids have obtained interest in recent years. This dissertation presents a method that can be used to compare solid and hybrid propulsion systems for the crew escape systems of spacecraft. The concepts of dynamic optimization, Monte Carlo simulation and propulsion system design are combined to produce a tool which can predict the probability of survival for a given abort scenario. The method can also determine the effect of uncertain variables, such as reaction time or the payload of the vehicle, in the safety of the crew. The method is then used to compare crew escape systems for two separate vehicles: a separable crew cabin proposed for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle and the Launch Escape System for the Crew Exploration Vehicle scheduled to begin operation in 2012. The effects of uncertain parameters are also studied. The results show the utility of this method and the objective function, and how it could be used in the design process for future space vehicles.

  10. Definition of essence of concept approaches to crewing business conduct

    OpenAIRE

    Лукашевич, Виталий Матвеевич

    2014-01-01

    It is a research of conceptual approaches to crewing business conduct. It is ascertained that their essential basements are determined by the interests of ship owner as principal and crewing company acting as servant on seaman labor market. Seaman is object in this business process though which principal and servant performing the service pursue their own interests. They treat the seaman interests as secondary and limited to assigning of salary. On the other hand, seaman maximizing behavior i...

  11. Flight Crew Integration (FCI) ISS Crew Comments Database & Products Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This Crew Debrief Data provides support for design and development of vehicles, hardware, requirements, procedures, processes, issue resolution, lessons learned, consolidation and trending for current Programs; and much of the data is also used to support development of future Programs.

  12. Shuttle Entry Air Data System concepts applied to Space Shuttle Orbiter flight pressure data to determine air data - STS 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Wolf, H.; Flanagan, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) is the implementation of a new concept in air data systems, with application to entry vehicles. This concept incorporates an array of flush orifices in the nose and forward fuselage of the vehicle and a new flowfield modeling concept for the analysis of flight data and the determination of the required air data parameters. Although the SEADS has not been fully demonstrated, a developmental analysis capability has been assembled and demonstrated. This analytical capability has been used to analyze selected Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) pressure data from STS-1 through STS-4 and determine angle of attack and freestream dynamic pressure. The results of this study verify the potential of the SEADS as a highly fault tolerant operational air data system. In addition, the transition of SEADS from its present status as an experimental system to an operational system is shown to be readily achievable.

  13. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low

  14. Flight crew fatigue I: objectives and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, P H; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Gregory, K B; Miller, D L; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    In 1980, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, initiated a program to assess flight crew fatigue, determine its potential operational consequences, and provide practical countermeasure suggestions. To assess the extent of the problem, crewmembers were monitored before, during, and after commercial short-haul (fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft), overnight cargo, and long-haul operations. A total of 197 volunteers were studied on 94 trip patterns with 1299 flight segments and 2046 h of flying time. The present paper outlines the program and describes the common methodology used in these studies, which are then presented in detail in the four subsequent papers. The sixth paper offers a synthesis of this work, reviewing the major causes of flight crew fatigue and making specific suggestions about ways to manage it in different operations.

  15. Determination of technical and economic parameters of an ionic transport membrane air separation unit working in a supercritical power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an air separation unit was analyzed. The unit consisted of: an ionic transport membrane contained in a four-end type module, an air compressor, an expander fed by gas that remains after oxygen separation and heat exchangers which heat the air and recirculated flue gas to the membrane operating temperature (850 °C. The air separation unit works in a power plant with electrical power equal to 600 MW. This power plant additionally consists of: an oxy-type pulverized-fuel boiler, a steam turbine unit and a carbon dioxide capture unit. Life steam parameters are 30 MPa/650 °C and reheated steam parameters are 6 MPa/670 °C. The listed units were analyzed. For constant electrical power of the power plant technical parameters of the air separation unit for two oxygen recovery rate (65% and 95% were determined. One of such parameters is ionic membrane surface area. In this paper the formulated equation is presented. The remaining technical parameters of the air separation unit are, among others: heat exchange surface area, power of the air compressor, power of the expander and auxiliary power. Using the listed quantities, the economic parameters, such as costs of air separation unit and of individual components were determined. These quantities allowed to determine investment costs of construction of the air separation unit. In addition, they were compared with investment costs for the entire oxy-type power plant.

  16. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels: The AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002 together with ASMU-A and HSB to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmosphere sounding system (Pagano et al 2003). The theoretical approach used to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data in the presence of clouds in the AIRS Science Team Version 3 at-launch algorithm, and that used in the Version 4 post-launch algorithm, have been published previously. Significant theoretical and practical improvements have been made in the analysis of AIRS/AMSU data since the Version 4 algorithm. Most of these have already been incorporated in the AIRS Science Team Version 5 algorithm (Susskind et al 2010), now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains three significant improvements over Version 4. Improved physics in Version 5 allowed for use of AIRS clear column radiances (R(sub i)) in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations were used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances (R(sub i)) for all channels. This new approach allowed for the generation of accurate Quality Controlled values of R(sub i) and T(p) under more stressing cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contained a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 contained for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Susskind et al 2010 shows that Version 5 AIRS Only sounding are only slightly degraded from the AIRS/AMSU soundings, even at large fractional cloud

  17. Crew Cerebral Oxygen Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposal is aimed at developing a non-invasive, optical method for monitoring crew member state of awareness in operational environments. All...

  18. Crew Cerebral Oxygen Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal is aimed at developing a non-invasive, optical method for monitoring the state of consciousness of crew members in operational...

  19. Determination of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in air using commercial solid phase extraction cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S

    2010-05-21

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)), a high production volume chemical used in personal care products, has been designated for regulation in Canada and is under review in the EU because of concerns about its persistence and potential for bioaccumulation in the environment. D(5) is a volatile compound expected to be found primarily in air, but there is little information on atmospheric concentrations due to the lack of sensitive analytical methods. Here a simple and sensitive method to determine D(5) in ambient air is presented. The challenge in the environmental analysis of D(5) is avoiding contamination. Our method is based on the high trapping efficiency of the sorbent Isolute ENV+, combined with a comparably high sampling rate. A small amount of sorbent (10 mg) is eluted in a small volume of n-hexane (0.1-0.6 mL), which is injected onto a GC/MS system without further processing. The simplicity of the method enables the use of a field blank for every sample to trace contamination. The method provides low limits of quantification (approximately 0.3 ng/m(3)), good repeatability and limited breakthrough (approximately 1%). By lowering the limit of quantification compared to published work by almost two orders of magnitude, it became possible to quantify D(5) in ambient air at locations remote from strong point sources. The concentrations at a rural Swedish site ranged from 0.7 to 8 ng/m(3) over a period of 4 months.

  20. Simultaneous determination of 18 pyrethroids in indoor air by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2009-06-26

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of 18 pyrethroids (allethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, cyphenothrin, deltamethrin, empenthrin, fenpropathrin, furamethrin, imiprothrin, metofluthrin, permethrin, phenothrin, prallethrin, profluthrin, resmethrin, tetramethrin and transfluthrin) in indoor air. The pyrethroids were collected for 24 h using a combination of adsorbents (quartz fiber filter disk and Empore C18 disk), with protection from light, and then extracted with acetone, concentrated, and analyzed by GC/MS. They could be determined accurately and precisely (detection limits: ca. 1 ng/m(3)). The collected pyrethroid samples could be stored for up to one month at 4 degrees C in a refrigerator.

  1. Spectrofluorimetric determination of formaldehyde in air after collection onto silica cartridges coated with Fluoral P

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Heloísa Lúcia C.; de Andrade, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Andrade,Jailson Bittencourt de

    2004-01-01

    p. 15-20 In the present work, a sensitive and selective fluorimetric method for formaldehyde determination in air samples is described. The method is based in the reaction between formaldehyde and Fluoral P producing 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine, which, when excited at 410 nm,emits fluorescence at 510 nm.The Fluoral P was prepared by the reaction of 0.3 ml of acetic acid, 0.2 ml of acetylacetone and 15.4 g of ammonium acetate. Then, the volume was completed to 100 ml with deionized wat...

  2. Determination of the most economical drying schedule and air velocity in softwood drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salin, J.G.

    2001-12-01

    Simulation models for conventional softwood drying have been available and have also been used by kiln operators for many years. For instance models for Scots pine and Norway spruce, dried at temperatures below about 80 deg C, are in use in Sweden, Finland and Norway. These models predict drying rates as a function of climate (schedule) and air velocity. The models thus give a direct basis for calculation of instantaneous energy demand for moisture evaporation and ventilation. There is further a direct relationship between the air velocity in the space between the board layers in the kiln stack and the electrical power demand by the circulation fans. Finally, the smaller energy consumption associated with heat losses through kiln walls and the accumulated heat in timber etc. can be estimated with sufficient accuracy. Instantaneous energy costs can thus be calculated for each part of a drying schedule. Capital costs associated with kiln investment and maintenance, personnel, insurance etc can be accounted for as an hourly cost, which is basically independent of whether timber is dried fast or slowly. A slow drying process thus accumulates more capital costs per m 3 timber. In this way it is possible to calculate the total instantaneous drying cost (Euro/m{sup 3}/h or Euro/m3/MC%) and the overall total cost (Euro or Euro/m{sup 3}). Some results obtained with a simulation model equipped with such a cost calculation are presented in the paper. A rapidly increasing drying cost is seen when the final MC is lowered. By minimising the instantaneous cost, an optimal drying schedule can be determined for a given fixed air velocity. Finally an optimal air velocity - constant or varying - can be found in the same way.

  3. Methodology to determine the appropriate amount of excess air for the operation of a gas turbine in a wet environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Leyte, R.; Zamora-Mata, J.M.; Torres-Aldaco, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col Vicentina 09340, Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Toledo-Velazquez, M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Termica e Hidraulica Aplicada, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 5, 3er piso SEPI-ESIME, C.P. 07738, Col. Lindavista, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Salazar-Pereyra, M. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Division de Ingenieria Mecatronica e Industrial, Posgrado en Ciencias en Ingenieria Mecatronica, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Col. Valle de Anahuac, C.P. 55210, Ecatepec de Morelos, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    This paper addresses the impact of excess air on turbine inlet temperature, power, and thermal efficiency at different pressure ratios. An explicit relationship is developed to determine the turbine inlet temperature as a function of excess air, pressure ratio and relative humidity. The effect of humidity on the calculation of excess air to achieve a pre-established power output is analyzed and presented. Likewise it is demonstrated that dry air calculations provide a valid upper bound for the performance of a gas turbine under a wet environment. (author)

  4. Determination of vanillin in vanilla perfumes and air by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minematsu, Saaya; Xuan, Guang-Shan; Wu, Xing-Zheng

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated capillary electrophoretic detection of vanillin in vanilla perfume and air. An UV-absorbance detector was used in a home-made capillary electrophoretic instrument. A fused silica capillary (outer diameter: 364 μm, inner diameter: 50 μm) was used as a separation capillary, and a high electric voltage (20 kV) was applied across the two ends of the capillary. Total length of the capillary was 70 cm, and the effective length was 55 cm. Experimental results showed that the vanillin peak was detected at about 600, 450, and 500 seconds when pH of running buffers in CE were 7.2, 9.3, and 11.5, respectively. The peak area of vanillin was proportional to its concentration in the range of 0-10(-2) mol/L. The detection limit was about 10(-5) mol/L. Vanillin concentration in a 1% vanilla perfume sample was determined to be about 3×10(-4) mol/L, agreed well with that obtained by a HPLC method. Furthermore, determination of vanillin in air by combination of CE and active carbon adsorption method was investigated. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Air pollution as a determinant of asthma among schoolchildren in Mohammedia, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssaini, Ahmed S Squalli; Messaouri, Hafida; Nasri, Isaad; Roth, Marie P; Nejjari, Chakib; Benchekroun, Mohammed N

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether air quality in western Morocco is truly a significant risk factor in the development and exacerbation of respiratory diseases and, in particular, asthma. The continuous measurement of the mean concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in the air and the density of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) for a period of four years was determined. Information on individual characteristics and indoor environments from 1318 children with an average age of 12 years was evaluated by questionnaire, completed by parents (assisted by professional investigators) and symptoms/diseases were medically diagnosed and reported. We have used the Student's t-test, Chi-square tests & odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%) for estimates of the risk of asthma. The prevalence of asthma varies in a significant way according to the zone (chi(2) = 14.61, p polluted zone (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.71-7.81, p pollution is a determinant factor but is not the only factor increasing the risk of asthma in children; other factors such as respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, genetic and passive smoking present a high-risk threat.

  6. A determination of the greenhouse parameter for dry and unpolluted air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penaloza M, Marcos A. [Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Merida, (Venezuela)

    1996-04-01

    The relative extinction of solar and infrared radiation by dry and clean air molecules, has been estimated through a theoretical determination of the ratio referred ordinarily as the Greenhouse Parameter (GP). In a first approach, it was calculated assuming that terrestrial air only consists of a simple mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. The method used here is based on the application, in an inverse procedure, of an homogeneous, plane-parallel, and time-independent grey model, which employs the Eddington approximation as a solution to the radiative transfer equation, both in the solar and the infrared spectral regions and, which has the GP value as an input free parameter. The best value of the GP was estimated calibrating the local temperature profile for four types of uniform surface (snow, desert, vegetation and ocean), with average albedos known in these spectral regions, adopting air surface temperature values which were chosen for an assumed micro or local climatological environment according to an average radiative criterion. With this result, it was possible for an estimation of the infrared opacity for the air layer implicated in this model and also the mean extinction coefficient in this spectral range to be calculated. The results predicted are compared with results obtained indirectly from the data provided by other authors. Although its validation is constrained solely to the radiative model applied it seems that the value of the GP obtained is more accurate than the one initially available. [Spanish] La extincion relativa de radiacion por moleculas de aire limpio y seco, tanto en la region espectral solar como en la infrarroja, ha sido estimada a traves del calculo teorico de un parametro conocido en general como Parametro de Invernadero (PI). En una primera aproximacion, este parametro fue calculado considerando el aire terrestre como una mezcla simple de oxigeno y nitrogeno solamente. El metodo usado aqui se baso en la aplicacion, bajo un

  7. Determination of benzene, toluene ,ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX in ambient air painting workshops car compared to the air surrounding residential areas during winter 1394 in Yazd city .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Title: Determination of benzene, toluene ,ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX in ambient air painting workshops car compared to the air surrounding residential areas during winter 1394 in Yazd city . MH.Salmani1 , MH. Ehrampoush2, MH.Mosadegh3 , SMH. Sharifi4* 1Depatment of Health , School of Health , Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,YAZD, IRAN 2Depatment of Health , School of Health , Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,YAZD, IRAN 3Depatment of Pharmacology , School of Pharmacy , Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,YAZD, IRAN 4Student of M.Sc Environmental Health Enginiering , international branch , Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,YAZD, IRAN ( Responder Introduction: benzene, toluene , ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX such as volatile organic compounds and air pollutants are important that have similar chemical and physical properties. The compounds in solvents, petrochemicals and colors plentiful and are released and even in small amounts as well as the risks to industry employees and the surrounding residential areas along their industry (50 meters radius around. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of these pollutants in ambient air car paint workshops, as well as residential areas around the city of Yazd. Materials and Methods: In this study, environmental air from air painting workshops Yazd city cars in winter 1394 and residential areas surrounding air workshop by Tedlar bags and personal sampling pump were collected and using gas chromatography (GC / FID analysis and evaluation of data were then with statistical software SPSS-16 were analyzed. Results: The results showed that the average concentration and standard deviation of pollutants benzene, toluene , ethyl benzene and xylene in the ambient air painting workshops are (2/14 ± 0/73 , (4/09 ± 1/97, (1/08 ± 0/290 and (3/05 ± 1/00 ppm  and the average concentration and standard deviation of pollutants benzene

  8. 空军地勤人员角色认知、自我效能感与职业倦怠相关性的调查分析%Investigation in Air Force Ground Crew on the Correlation between Role Cognition, Self-efficacy and Job Burnout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘景梨; 梁学军; 程正祥; 高存友; 段惠峰; 赵兰民

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between role cognition, self-efficacy and job burnout in air force ground crew so as to provide basis for psychological research of ground crew. Methods The military job burnout scale, role perception scale and self-effi-cacy scale were applied to 204 ground crew for evaluation and the correlation between the scores of job burnout scale and the scores of role perception scale and self-efficacy scale was analyzed. Results (1)The total score and the score of each factor of air force ground crew were much higher than military norm(P<0.05 or 0.01);(2)The officers’total score of job burnout, the scores of the sense of achievement, somatization, self-evaluation, interpersonal relationship were significantly higher than those of soldiers(P<0.05 or 0.01);(3)There existed an obvious correlation between the total score of job burnout, the score of each factor and role ambiguity, role conflict and self-efficacy(P<0.05 or 0.01). Conclusions The job burnout in air force ground crew is serious;there exists an obvious causality between role cognition and self-efficacy; more attention should be paid to the capacity training of role cognition and the raising of self-efficacy so as to reduce job burnout.%目的:探讨空军地勤人员的职业倦怠与角色认知、自我效能感的相关性,以期为地勤人员的心理研究提供参考。方法采用军人职业倦怠量表、角色认知量表和自我效能感量表,对204名空军地勤人员进行测评,分析职业倦怠量表得分与角色认知得分、自我效能感得分之间的相关关系。结果(1)空军地勤人员职业倦怠总分及各因子分均显著高于军人常模(P<0.05或0.01)。(2)军官的职业倦怠总分、成就感、躯体化、自我评价、人际关系得分均明显高于士兵(P<0.05或0.01)。(3)空军地勤人员职业倦怠总分和各因子与角色模糊、角色冲突和自我效能

  9. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldoni, Matteo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Caglieri, Andrea [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Poli, Diana [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Vettori, Maria Vittoria [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Corradi, Massimo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Apostoli, Pietro [Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Mutti, Antonio [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.mutti@unipr.it

    2006-03-15

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI)

  10. Determination of asbestos fibres in air transmission electron microscopy as a reference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Dieter; Guillemin, Michel P.; Buffat, Phillipe; Gilbert, Litzistorf

    Asbestos fibres are present everywhere in our environment. A series of questions concerning, for example, their toxicity or their acceptable levels still remain unanswered. The elaboration of an as accurate as possible reference method for the determination of mineral fibres in air which would be sensitive enough for use in environments with a very low level of contamination is thus called for. From a very short survey of the available methods it can be concluded that a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method fulfils these requirements. This method is very long and expensive and should be used only in those environments where the level of fibres is low, or in complicated situations where a reference method is required. In other types of environments, such as occupational or paraoccupational situations, other less accurate but more rapid and convenient methods may be used. It is stressed that for any of these methods, and especially for the TEM method, a detailed standardization of the procedure is essential. As a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method has also been considered for monitoring the ambient environment, the characteristics of both methods are compared, illustrated by photomicrographs and discussed. A TEM method is described in detail as follows: sampling (included recommended air volumes for different contaminated areas), sample treatment, mounting of collected fibres on electron microscopy grids, identification and counting, expression of results and detection limit. Finally, this method is applied to two different paraoccupational situations: two buildings insulated with asbestos. It is then compared with other, more simple methods. For the case of the air contaminated by long fibres (mostly crocidolite) the agreement between the different methods is fairly good. However, for the case where the fibres are short (mixture of man-made mineral fibres and chrysotile) this is not true. These differences are discussed and it is concluded that the

  11. Development of active and diffusive sampling methods for determination of 3-methoxybutyl acetate in workplace air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akito; Takigawa, Tomoko; Kawasumi, Yaeko; Yasugi, Tomojiro; Endo, Yoko; Wang, Da-Hong; Takaki, Jiro; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ogino, Keiki

    2007-11-01

    Monitoring of the workplace concentration of 3-methoxybutyl acetate (MBA), which is used in printer's ink and thinner for screen-printing and as an organic solvent to dissolve various resins, is important for health reasons. An active and a diffusive sampling method, using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector, were developed for the determination of MBA in workplace air. For the active sampling method using an activated charcoal tube, the overall desorption efficiency was 101%, the overall recovery was 104%, and the recovery after 8 days of storage in a refrigerator was more than 90%. For the diffusive sampling method using the 3M 3500 organic vapor monitor, the MBA sampling rate was 19.89 cm(3) min(-1). The linear range was from 0.01 to 96.00 microg ml(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and the detection limits of the active and diffusive samplers were 0.04 and 0.07 microg sample(-1), respectively. The geometric mean of stationary sampling and personal sampling in a screen-printing factory were 12.61 and 16.52 ppm, respectively, indicating that both methods can be used to measure MBA in workplace air.

  12. Determining aerosol particles by in-air micro-IL analysis combined with micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, Wataru, E-mail: kada.wataru@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    A new external ion microbeam ion luminescence (micro-IL) imaging system was developed on a microbeam line of a 3 MV single-ended accelerator at the TIARA facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Micro-IL was combined with an in-air micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) system to determine the chemical composition and structures of microscopic airborne particles of several micrometers in size. The hardware and software for the combined in-air micro-IL analysis system, called ion luminescence microscopic imaging and spectroscopy (ILUMIS), were studied. Wavelength-dispersive optics, including a collimator lens, a monochromator, and a photon-counting photomultiplier, were installed on the beam line. The signal processing of the IL photon signals, which were collected as spectra and two-dimensional microscopic images, was examined. Several aerosol particles were characterized to demonstrate the ILUMIS/PIXE combined analysis. The external microbeam ILUMIS analysis method provided a variety of information on the chemical and elemental composition of the micrometer-sized aerosol targets under ambient atmospheric conditions.

  13. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  14. Determination of Nanogram Microparticles from Explosives after Real Open-Air Explosions by Confocal Raman Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-07-05

    Explosives are increasingly being used for terrorist attacks to cause devastating explosions. The detection of their postblast residues after an explosion is a high challenge, which has been barely investigated, particularly using spectroscopic techniques. In this research, a novel methodology using confocal Raman microscopy has been developed for the analysis of postblast residues from 10 open-air explosions caused by 10 different explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, HMTD, dynamite, black powder, ANFO, chloratite, and ammonal) commonly used in improvised explosive devices. The methodology for the determination of postblast particles from explosives consisted of examining the samples surfaces with both the naked eye, first, and microscopically (10× and 50×), immediately afterward; and finally, analyzing the selected residues by confocal Raman spectroscopy in order to identify the postblast particles from explosives. Interestingly, confocal Raman microscopy has demonstrated to be highly suitable to rapidly, selectively, and noninvasively analyze postblast microscopic particles from explosives up to the nanogram range.

  15. An Improved Analytical Approach to Determine the Explosive Effects of Flammable Gas-Air Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J M

    2005-11-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex includes many sites and laboratories that store quantities of low-level, solid nuclear waste in drums and other types of shipping containers. The drums may be stored for long periods of time prior to being transported and final dispositioning. Based on the radioactivity (e.g., Pu{sup 239} equivalent), chemical nature (e.g. volatile organic compounds) and other characteristics of the stored waste, flammable gases may evolve. Documented safety analyses (DSAs) for storage of these drums must address storage and safety management issues to protect workers, the general public, and the environment. This paper discusses an improved analytical method for determining the explosion effects flammable gas-air mixtures as well as the subsequent accident phenomenology.

  16. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Mission Specialists (left to right) Jerry L. Ross; Sergei Krikalev, a cosmonaut from Russia; and James H. Newman examine equipment that will be on the Space Shuttle Endeavour during their upcoming flight. Launch of Mission STS-88 is targeted for Dec. 3, 1998. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Other crew members are Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow and Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  17. Determiners of the air pollution effects at Shanghai; Determinants des effets de la pollution de l'air a Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-03-15

    Age, sex and other factors that modify sensitivity to air pollution have been identified in epidemiologic studies in europe and north America. This study assesses modifying factors for the population of Shanghai, which has a different social and demographic profile and lives in a different climate. (author)

  18. On the Introduction of English Songs to Non-professional English Teaching:A Case Study on Air Crew Major of Guizhou Minzu University%非专业英语教学中英语歌曲的引入--以贵州民族大学空中乘务专业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳

    2013-01-01

    So far, how to make a non-native learner acquire a language effectively is always a difficult problem perplexing nu-merous teaching practitioners and researchers. A dearth of lan-guage environment particularly makes air crew majors hard to begin English learning. Through the practice of introducing Eng-lish songs to 80 air crew majors' English classroom, this paper finds that the use of songs can give play to the characteristics of art students, greatly motivate students' initiative in language learning, help students acquire vocabulary, and make classroom teaching achieve the expected effect. The writer hopes that the introduction of English songs can provide some beneficial refer-ences for second language classroom.%  迄今为止,如何让非母语学习者有效地习得语言一直都是困扰无数教学实践者和研究者们的难题。特别是在缺乏语言环境的条件下,英语基础薄弱的空中乘务专业的学习者对于英语学习更是无从着手,本文通过对80名空中乘务专业的学生二语课堂引入英文歌曲的实践,得出歌曲的使用发挥了艺考生的特长,能极大地调动学生学习语言的积极性,帮助学生习得词汇,使课堂教学达到既定的效果。笔者希望引入英文歌曲能为二语课堂提供一些有益的借鉴。

  19. 76 FR 56114 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  20. 76 FR 56116 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  1. 77 FR 24857 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  2. Determination of variables for air distribution system with elastic valve for down-the-hole pneumatic hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primychkin, AYu; Kondratenko, AS; Timonin, VV

    2017-02-01

    The air distribution system of down-the-hole pneumatic hammer 105 mm in diameter is updated to enhance drilling efficiency. The design model of the down-the-hole pneumatic hammer is constructed in ITI SimulationX environment. The basic variables of the air distribution system with an elastic valve are determined so that to ensure increased impact energy at the limited pre-impact velocity and the same machine size.

  3. Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air--effects of breath-holding, flow rate and purified air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lärstad, M A E; Torén, K; Bake, B; Olin, A-C

    2007-01-01

    Exhaled ethane, pentane and isoprene have been proposed as biomarkers of oxidative stress. The objectives were to explore whether ethane, pentane and isoprene are produced within the airways and to explore the effect of different sampling parameters on analyte concentrations. The flow dependency of the analyte concentrations, the concentrations in dead-space and alveolar air after breath-holding and the influence of inhaling purified air on analyte concentrations were investigated. The analytical method involved thermal desorption from sorbent tubes and gas chromatography. The studied group comprised 13 subjects with clinically stable asthma and 14 healthy controls. Ethane concentrations decreased slightly, but significantly, at higher flow rates in subjects with asthma (P = 0.0063) but not in healthy controls. Pentane levels were increased at higher flow rates both in healthy and asthmatic subjects (P = 0.022 and 0.0063 respectively). Isoprene levels were increased at higher flow rates, but only significantly in healthy subjects (P = 0.0034). After breath-holding, no significant changes in ethane levels were observed. Pentane and isoprene levels increased significantly after 20 s of breath-holding. Inhalation of purified air before exhalation resulted in a substantial decrease in ethane levels, a moderate decrease in pentane levels and an increase in isoprene levels. The major fractions of exhaled ethane, pentane and isoprene seem to be of systemic origin. There was, however, a tendency for ethane to be flow rate dependent in asthmatic subjects, although to a very limited extent, suggesting that small amounts of ethane may be formed in the airways.

  4. Air quality control in the ART laboratory is a major determinant of IVF success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Bento, Fabiola C

    2016-01-01

    A recently published article described how a fertility center in the United States implemented air quality control to newly designed in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory.1 A highly-efficient air filtration was achieved by installing a centered system supplying filtered air to the IVF laboratory and related critical areas, combining air particulate and volatile organic compound (VOC) filtration. As a consequence, live birth rates were increased by improvements in air quality. This article highlights the key aspects of air contamination in the IVF context. The topic is important not only to IVF specialists but also to Andrologists due to the great number of male infertility patients referred to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. The evidence is growing that laboratory air quality is paramount importance for improved IVF outcome. PMID:26585700

  5. Determination of nanoscale particles in the air of working zone at the metallurgical production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.S. Ulanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the air of working zone at the metallurgical production on the example of Avisma OJSC (Berezniki, the Perm Territory for the content of nanoscale particles are specified. The maximum nanoparticles concentration in the range of 13523–28609 mln./m3 is determined at the working place of the titanium production smelter with the maximum size of particles of 10–15 nm. At the working place in the administrative building (reference working place the maximum concentration is determined within the range of 524–1000 mln./m3; the maximum size of nanoparticles is 20 nm. It was established that the number concentration of nanoparticles at the reference working places (administration of Avisma OJSC is significantly lower than at the working places of main production processes. The presented studies can be used as the additional factors in the assessment of labor conditions and occupational risk during the manufacture and use of materials containing nanoparticles as well as the production processes with the nanoparticles formation.

  6. Social determinants of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Belen Herrero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the individual and environmental determinants of nonadherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment in selected districts in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, in Argentina. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a hierarchical model. Using primary and secondary data, logistic regression was performed to analyze two types of determinants. The likelihood of nonadherence to treatment was greatest among male patients. The following factors led to a greater likelihood of nonadherence to treatment: patients living in a home without running water; head of household without medical insurance; need to use more than one means of transport to reach the health center; place of residence in an area with a high proportion of households connected to the natural gas network; place of residence in an area where a large proportion of families fall below the minimum threshold of subsistence capacity; place of residence in an area where a high proportion of households do not have flushing toilets and basic sanitation. Our results show that social and economic factors – related to both individual and environmental characteristics – influence adherence to TB treatment.

  7. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  8. Specific exercise training for reducing neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flight-related neck/shoulder pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew members. With a lifetime prevalence of 81 % for pilots and 84 % for crew members, the prevalence of neck pain is considered high compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to inv......BACKGROUND: Flight-related neck/shoulder pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew members. With a lifetime prevalence of 81 % for pilots and 84 % for crew members, the prevalence of neck pain is considered high compared to the general population. The aim of this study...... was to investigate whether a specifically tailored exercise intervention would reduce the prevalence and incidence rate of neck/shoulder pain among helicopter pilots and crew members. METHOD: This study used a prospective, parallel group, single blinded, randomized controlled design. Participants were military...... helicopter pilots and crew members recruited from the Royal Danish Air Force. Inclusion criteria were: 1) employed within the Royal Danish Air Force as a helicopter pilot or onboard crew member (technician, systems-operator, tactical helicopter observer and/or navigator), 2) maintaining operational flight...

  9. Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g-7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca(2+) (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-) were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 (-) (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g-32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO4 (2-). The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Pb(2+), were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations.

  10. [A rapid gas chromatographic method for determination of P-tert-butyl toluene in the air of workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Guihua; Lin, Kai; He, Cai; Zhong, Yuetong

    2012-05-01

    To establish a rapid gas chromatographic method for determination of P-tert-Butyl toluene in the air of workplace. The air samples were collected by syringes, injected directly to the GC system, and then separated by a FFAP capillary column (30m x 0.53mm x 0.25 microm), finally determined by a Flame Ionization Detector. This method showed good linear correlation within a range of 0 - 320 microg/ml, with regression formula Y = 26437 + 4836X, r = 0.9994. The air sample could be stably stored in the syringe for 5 hours. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeated injection of P-tert-butyl toluene standard solutions at three concentration levels by six times was 0.65% - 1.98%. The minimum detectable concentration was calculated to be 1.12 mg/m3. Other volative organic solvents, e. g., M-tert-butyltoluene, ethyl acetate, methylethyl ketone, O-tert-butyl toluene, toluene, O-xylene are not interferences. This method meets the requirement of "Guide for establishing occupational health standards--Part 4: Determination methods of air chemicals in workplace". It is applicable for determination of P-tert-butyl toluene in the air of workplace.

  11. 46 CFR 185.420 - Crew training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew training. 185.420 Section 185.420 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Crew Requirements § 185.420 Crew training. (a) The owner, charterer, master or managing operator... duties listed in the station bill required by § 185.514 of this part. (b) Training conducted on a...

  12. Whither CRM? Future directions in Crew Resource Management training in the cockpit and elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The past decade has shown worldwide adoption of human factors training in civil aviation, now known as Crew Resource Management (CRM). The shift in name from cockpit to crew reflects a growing trend to extend the training to other components of the aviation system including flight attendants, dispatchers, maintenance personnel, and Air Traffic Controllers. The paper reports findings and new directions in research into human factors.

  13. Determining the Orbit Locations of Turkish Airborne Early Warning and Control Aircraft Over the Turkish Air Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    DETERMINING THE ORBIT LOCATIONS OF TURKISH AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING AND CONTROL AIRCRAFT OVER THE...Defense, the U.S. Government. AFIT/GOR/ENS/09-14 DETERMINING THE ORBIT LOCATIONS OF TURKISH AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING AND CONTROL AIRCRAFT OVER THE...AFIT/GOR/09-14 DETERMINING THE ORBIT LOCATIONS OF TURKISH AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING AND CONTROL AIRCRAFT OVER THE TURKISH AIR SPACE Nebi

  14. Determination the Level of Dust ond Free Silica in Air of Khaf Iron Stone Quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadpour4

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Silica is an inorganic material that found in the nature in various forms. The hazards of crystal of silica or α-quartz (free silica is greater than other forms. Exposure to dust that contains free silica result to pulmonary injury and result to silicosis and death finally. The present research was conducted in order to evaluate the level of workers exposure to free silica in air of Khaf Iron stone quarries."nMaterials and methods: The exposure level to total and respiratory dust measured based on personal and environmental sampling methods and concentration of dust determined based on gravimetric method. For determination of amounts of free silica, dust samples analyses based on X-ray diffraction (XRD method, and results compared with standard levels."nResults: The maximum amount of total dust and free silica measured in stone breaking station (800±155mg/m3 and 26.11±6.7 mg/m3 and minimum of them measured in official and safeguarding station (8.28±2.2 mg/m3 and 0.012±0.0019 mg/m3. The maximum amount of respiratory dust and free silica measured in red mound digging number 1 (66.14±13.45 mg/m3 and 1.48±0.39 mg/m3 and minimum of them measured in air hammer machine station (5.26±2.62 mg/m3 and 0.01±0.005 mg/m3."nConclusion: Amount of total dust only in official and safeguarding station was lower than standard levels of Iran. Amount of respiratory dust in all stations was greater than Iran standard levels. Furthermore the level of respiratory free silica only in airy hammer machine station was lower than standard level of Iran. Regarding to this amounts it is so essential to that with applying different methods generation and emission of dust protected.

  15. On the energy deposition by electrons in air and the accurate determination of the air-fluorescence yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arqueros F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty in the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield still puts a severe limit on the accuracy in the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The precise measurement of this parameter in laboratory is in turn conditioned by a careful evaluation of the energy deposited in the experimental collision chamber. In this work we discuss on the calculation of the energy deposition and its accuracy. Results from an upgraded Monte Carlo algorithm that we have developed are compared with those obtained using Geant4, showing excellent agreement. These updated calculations of energy deposition are used to apply some corrections to the available measurements of the absolute fluorescence yield, allowing us to obtain a reliable world average of this important parameter.

  16. Comparison of two different passive air samplers (PUF-PAS versus SIP-PAS) to determine time-integrated average air concentration of volatile hydrophobic organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Jong-Eun

    2014-06-01

    Despite remarkable achievements with r some chemicals, a field-measurement technique has not been advanced for volatile hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are the subjects of international concern. This study assesses the applicability of passive air sampling (PAS) by comparing PUF-PAS and its modified SIP-PAS which was made by impregnating XAD-4 powder into PUF, overviewing the principles of PAS, screening sensitive parameters, and determining the uncertainty range of PAS-derived concentration. The PAS air sampling rate determined in this study, corrected by a co-deployed low-volume active air sampler (LAS) for neutral PFCs as model chemicals, was ˜1.2 m3 day-1. Our assessment shows that the improved sorption capacity in a SIP lengthens PAS deployment duration by expanding the linear uptake range and then enlarges the effective air sampling volume and detection frequency of chemicals at trace level. Consequently, volatile chemicals can be collected during sufficiently long times without reaching equilibrium when using SIP, while this is not possible for PUF. The most sensitive parameter to influence PAS-derived CA was an air-side mass transfer coefficient (kA), implying the necessity of spiking depuration chemicals (DCs) because this parameter is strongly related with meteorological conditions. Uncertainty in partition coefficients (KPSM-A or KOA) influences PAS-derived CA to a greater extent with regard to lower KPSM-A chemicals. Also, the PAS-derived CA has an uncertainty range of a half level to a 3-fold higher level of the calculated one. This work is expected to establish solid grounds for the improvement of field measurement technique of HOCs.

  17. 19 CFR 122.49 - Correction of air cargo manifest or air waybill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Correction of air cargo manifest or air waybill. 122.49 Section 122.49 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  18. Monitoring trace metals in urban aerosols from Buenos Aires city. Determination by plasma-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smichowski, Patricia; Gómez, Dario R; Dawidowski, Laura E; Giné, María Fernanda; Bellato, Ana Claudia Sánchez; Reich, Silvia L

    2004-04-01

    A study was undertaken, within the framework of a 3 years national project, to assess the content of 13 elements in airborne particulate matter collected in representative zones of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The sampling strategy followed consisted in collecting simultaneously 67 samples of PM10 particulate matter in 9 sampling sites covering an area of about 30 km2 during one week. The collection was performed on ash-free fibre-glass filters using high volume samplers. A combination of aqua regia and perchloric acid was used for leaching metals from filters. Key elements, namely Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, Zn and Zr, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at micro g g(-1) and ng g(-1) levels. Analyte concentration varied from 130 ng g(-1)(Mo) to over 30%(Ca). Multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the data set including the measured elemental compositions for the monitored period. The atmospheric concentration found for Pb confirms the decreasing levels of this element since the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1995: 88 ng m(-3)(2001) gas imply low emissions of this element from combustion activities. To the best of our knowledge, S concentrations are reported for the first time for this city.

  19. 75 FR 36316 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Louisiana; Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... photocopies of documents. On the day of the visit, please check in at the EPA Region 6 reception area at 1445... is the background for this action? IV. What is EPA's analysis of the relevant Air Quality Data? V... standard. IV. What is EPA's analysis of the relevant air quality data? The EPA has reviewed the Baton...

  20. Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a column-gen

  1. A method for determination of methyl chloride concentration in air trapped in ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Okitsugu

    2006-05-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in air trapped in an ice core was developed. The method combines the air extraction by milling the ice core samples under vacuum and the analysis of the extracted air with a cryogenic preconcentration/gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry system. The method was applied to air from Antarctic ice core samples estimated to have been formed in the pre-industrial and/or early industrial periods. The overall precision of the method deduced from duplicate ice core analyses was estimated to be better than +/-20 pptv. The measured CH3Cl concentration of 528+/-26 pptv was similar to the present-day concentration in the remote atmosphere as well as the CH3Cl concentration over the past 300 years obtained from Antarctic firn air and ice core analyses.

  2. Electric field determination in streamer discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaventura, Z; Bourdon, A [EM2C Laboratory, Ecole Centrale Paris, UPR 288 CNRS, Grande voie des vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Celestin, S; Pasko, V P, E-mail: zbona@physics.muni.cz [Communications and Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The electric field in streamer discharges in air can be easily determined by the ratio of luminous intensities emitted by N{sub 2}(C {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}) and N{sub 2}{sup +}(B {sup 2{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +}) if the steady-state assumption of the emitting states is fully justified. At ground pressure, the steady-state condition is not fulfilled and it is demonstrated that its direct use to determine the local and instantaneous peak electric field in the streamer head may overestimate this field by a factor of 2. However, when spatial and time-integrated optical emissions (OEs) are considered, the reported results show that it is possible to formulate a correction factor in the framework of the steady-state approximation and to accurately determine the peak electric field in an air discharge at atmospheric pressure. A correction factor is defined as {Gamma} = E{sub s}/E{sub e}, where E{sub e} is the estimated electric field and E{sub s} is the true peak electric field in the streamer head. It is shown that this correction stems from (i) the shift between the location of the peak electric field and the maximum excitation rate for N{sub 2}(C {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}) and N{sub 2}{sup +}(B {sup 2{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +}) as proposed by Naidis (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 057401) and (ii) from the cylindrical geometry of the streamers as stated by Celestin and Pasko (2010 Geophys. Res. Lett. 37 L07804). For instantaneous OEs integrated over the whole radiating plasma volume, a correction factor of {Gamma} {approx} 1.4 has to be used. For time-integrated OEs, the reported results show that the ratio of intensities can be used to derive the electric field in discharges if the time of integration is sufficiently long (i.e. at least longer than the longest characteristic lifetime of excited species) to have the time to collect all the light from the emitting zones of the streamer. For OEs recorded using slits (i.e. a window with a small width but a sufficiently large radial extension to

  3. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

  4. Determination of Minimum Air Clearances for a 420kV Novel Unibody Composite Cross-Arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahangiri, Tohid; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da;

    2015-01-01

    on the theoretical formulae reported in EN 50341-1. Considering differences in gap types, the calculated values of air clearances are compared with the recommended values by CIGRÉ TB 72, EN 50341-1 and IEC 60071-1, 2 and as a result one empirical value and one calculated value are determined as phase...

  5. Cyber Safety and Security for Reduced Crew Operations (RCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.; Roy, Aloke; Ponchak, Denise S.; Downey, Alan N.

    2017-01-01

    NASA and the Aviation Industry is looking into reduced crew operations (RCO) that would cut today's required two-person flight crews down to a single pilot with support from ground-based crews. Shared responsibility across air and ground personnel will require highly reliable and secure data communication and supporting automation, which will be safety-critical for passenger and cargo aircraft. This paper looks at the different types and degrees of authority delegation given from the air to the ground and the ramifications of each, including the safety and security hazards introduced, the mitigation mechanisms for these hazards, and other demands on an RCO system architecture which would be highly invasive into (almost) all safety-critical avionics. The adjacent fields of unmanned aerial systems and autonomous ground vehicles are viewed to find problems that RCO may face and related aviation accident scenarios are described. The paper explores possible data communication architectures to meet stringent performance and information security (INFOSEC) requirements of RCO. Subsequently, potential challenges for RCO data communication authentication, encryption and non-repudiation are identified.

  6. A spatial multicriteria model for determining air pollution at sample locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réquia Júnior, Weeberb João; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution in urban centers has been one of the main causes of human illness related to the respiratory and circulatory system. Efficient monitoring of air quality is a source of information for environmental management and public health. This study investigates the spatial patterns of atmospheric pollution using a spatial multicriteria model that helps target locations for air pollution monitoring sites. The main objective was to identify high-priority areas for measuring human exposures to air pollutants as they relate to emission sources. The method proved to be viable and flexible in its application to various areas.

  7. Determination of some air pollutants emited from hospital incinerators in Hamadan in 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joneydi Jaffari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Hospital wastes pose a serious public health problem. This is primarily caused by the way individual components of the waste is handled. One acceptable method for managing the medical waste is incineration but uncontrolled incinerators can cause emission of pollutants to atmosphere. The objective of this study was to evaluate pollutants emission from hospital waste incinerators in Hamadan.Materials and methods: In this investigation, samples were collected from Emam, Syna, Fatemieh, Mobasher Kashani hospital incinerators to determine the level of lead, mercury, cadmium, benzene, toluene. Xylene, carbon monoxide, sulphour dioxide and particulate.Collected samples were analysed using gas chromatograph, atomic absorbtion, spectrometer and smoke meter in the laboratory or by SO2 and CO meter as a direct method in the field.Results: Results show that Mobasher hospital has maximum concentration of metals fume such as lead, mercury, cadmium (1113, 540, 3340 mg/m3, respectively. Mean concentration of sulphour dioxide was 127 ppm and for suspended particulate concentration was 639 mg/m3. In Syna hospital, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, toluene, xylene and carbon monoxide were maximum (77.46, 108.64, 33.6 mg/m3 and 1041 ppm respectively.Conclusion: It can be concluded that hospital atmospheric pollutants are higher than EPA standards, at least with P<0.05 which can be due to inopportune opening door of combustion chamber, input of excess air mass, low temperature, unmixed solid waste and unsuitable design of the incinerator, and leak or unsuitable pollution control device.

  8. Determination of metals in thoracic fraction of ambient air particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, P. [Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy); Canepari, S.; Cardarelli, E.; Del Cavaliere, C.; Ghighi, S. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-12-01

    The present work deals with the optimization and validation of a method for the quantitative simultaneous ICP determination of metals in ambient air particulate matter. The attention has been focused on the thoracic fraction (PM10) and twelve different metals were chosen on the basis of their toxicity and of their possible use as chemical tracers. The microwave acidic digestion of the samples has been performed in the presence of different reagents and under different conditions and particular attention has been paid to the optimization of the whole analytical procedure and to the evaluation of accuracy and precision related to the single operative steps. The interferences due to the reagents and to the sampling supports have also been evaluated. In addition, the analytical procedure has been checked by examining the equivalence of results related to parallel sampled filters pairs. [Italian] Il lavoro riguarda l'ottimizzazione e la validazione di una metodica per la determinazione simultanea mediante ICP di metalli nel materiale particellare sopseso. In particolare, l'attenzione e' stata rivolta alla frazione respirabile (PM10) ed ha riguardato dieci differenti metalli, scelti sulla base della tossicita' e di un loro possibile impiego come traccianti chimici. Sono state esaminate differenti metodiche di digestione acida con microonde, impiegando differenti reattivi e differenti condizioni di mineralizzazione. E' stata posta particolare attenzione all'ottimizzazione del procedimento analitico ed alla valutazione della riproducibilita' ed accuratezza associate ai singoli stadi operativi. E' stata inoltre valutata l'entita' delle interferenze causate dall'impiego di reattivi a diverso grado di purezza e dei supporti impiegati per il campionamento. Infine il metodo e' stato validato esaminando l'equivalenza dei dati analitici relativi a coppie di filtri campionati in parallelo.

  9. 76 FR 61291 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Ohio; Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and... preempt tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL...

  10. 75 FR 30310 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... ] List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by..., Volatile organic compounds. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. Dated: May 20, 2010. Ira W. Leighton,...

  11. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography for the determination of benzene, aniline, nitrobenzene and chlorobenzene in workplace air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S F; Lonkar, S T

    1992-05-29

    Sampling on Tenax TA of different mesh sizes followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography was evaluated as a simple method for the determination of benzene, aniline, nitrobenzene and chlorobenzene in the workplace air. An alternative sampling technique in place of pump sampling was developed. Quantitative recoveries were obtained in the mass range 0.04-10 micrograms. It was found that air humidity had no effect on recovery. The charged tubes can be stored at room temperature for 5 days with no change in recovery. The particle size of Tenax TA has no significant effect on adsorption and desorption.

  12. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck tests cushion outside the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch. Hauck, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, tumbles out CCT side hatch onto cushion as technicians look on. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  13. Reduced Crew Operations Research at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel

    2017-01-01

    In 2012, NASA began exploring the feasibility of single pilot reduced crew operations (SPORCO) in the context of scheduled passenger air carrier operations (i.e., Parts 121 and 135). This research was spurred by two trends in aviation research: the trend toward reducing costs and a shortage of pilots. A series of simulations were conducted to develop tools and a concept of operations to support RCO. This slide deck is a summary of the NASA Ames RCO research prepared for an R T team at Airbus. Airbus is considering moving forward with reducing crew during the cruise phase of flight with long-haul flights and is interested in the work we have completed.

  14. Air-kerma strength determination of a new directional {sup 103}Pd source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aima, Manik, E-mail: aima@wisc.edu; Reed, Joshua L.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Culberson, Wesley S. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: A new directional {sup 103}Pd planar source array called a CivaSheet™ has been developed by CivaTech Oncology, Inc., for potential use in low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatments. The array consists of multiple individual polymer capsules called CivaDots, containing {sup 103}Pd and a gold shield that attenuates the radiation on one side, thus defining a hot and cold side. This novel source requires new methods to establish a source strength metric. The presence of gold material in such close proximity to the active {sup 103}Pd region causes the source spectrum to be significantly different than the energy spectra of seeds normally used in LDR brachytherapy treatments. In this investigation, the authors perform air-kerma strength (S{sub K}) measurements, develop new correction factors for these measurements based on an experimentally verified energy spectrum, and test the robustness of transferring S{sub K} to a well-type ionization chamber. Methods: S{sub K} measurements were performed with the variable-aperture free-air chamber (VAFAC) at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center. Subsequent measurements were then performed in a well-type ionization chamber. To realize the quantity S{sub K} from a directional source with gold material present, new methods and correction factors were considered. Updated correction factors were calculated using the MCNP 6 Monte Carlo code in order to determine S{sub K} with the presence of gold fluorescent energy lines. In addition to S{sub K} measurements, a low-energy high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to experimentally verify the calculated spectrum, a sodium iodide (NaI) scintillating counter was used to verify the azimuthal and polar anisotropy, and a well-type ionization chamber was used to test the feasibility of disseminating S{sub K} values for a directional source within a cylindrically symmetric measurement volume. Results: The UW VAFAC was successfully used to measure the S

  15. A new fast and standardless method for direct determination of metals associated with particulate matter in air: avoiding errors in the determination of Pb in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsi, G; Reschiglian, P; Locatelli, C; Melucci, D

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new method and the relevant instrumentation necessary for its implementation in the analysis of metals associated with particulate matter in air. The procedure can be divided into two steps: in the first step the sample is accumulated in a device through electrostatic precipitation whose center is a graphite tube; in the second step the graphite tube itself is used as an atomization device for the determination of the metals present in the sample through the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. The method is simple, fast, accurate, and inexpensive. Moreover, if the experimental conditions are well chosen, there is no need for calibration, which is very convenient in the case of samples such as particulate matter in the air. The elements that can be determined with the present apparatus are Hg, Cd, Tl, Ag, Mg, and Mn. These are highly or medium volatile because the materials used cannot reach very high temperatures for long periods. The experiments are confined to air, but other gases, in which a corona discharge is possible, would give the same results. With the method proposed, it was possible to show that the official method for Pb determination in the urban environment of Bologna presents a negative systematic error of about 25%.

  16. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document with its sister documents, Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes (CCT-PLN-1120), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), and Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT-STD-1150), and International Space Station (ISS) to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase of the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP).

  17. Rapid determination of radon daughters and of artificial radionuclides in air by online gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötzl, H; Winkler, R

    1993-01-01

    For the determination of airborne radionuclide concentrations in real time, a fixed filter device was constructed which fits directly onto a germanium detector with standard nuclear electronics and a multichannel analyzer buffer connected via a data line to a personal computer for remote control and on-line spectrum evaluation. The on-line gamma-ray spectrometer was applied to the study of radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air and to the rapid detection of any contamination of the environmental air by artificial radionuclides. At Munich-Neuherberg, depending on the meterological conditions, the measured air concentrations of 214Pb, the first gamma-ray-emitting member of the 222Rn decay series, varied from about 1 to 50 Bq m-3. For the artificial radionuclides 60Co, 131I and 137Cs the detection limits were determined as a function of the varying natural radon daughter concentrations at sampling and counting times of 1 h or 1 day. For these radionuclides minimum detectable air activity concentrations of 0.3 or 0.001 Bq m-3, respectively, were obtained at low radon daughter levels. At high radon daughter levels the respective detection limits were found to be higher by a factor of only about 2.

  18. Air segmented amplitude modulated multiplexed flow analysis with software-based phase recognition: determination of phosphate ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogusu, Takeshi; Uchimoto, Katsuya; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Hideji

    2014-01-01

    Amplitude modulated multiplexed flow analysis (AMMFA) has been improved by introducing air segmentation and software-based phase recognition. Sample solutions, the flow rates of which are respectively varied at different frequencies, are merged. Air is introduced to the merged liquid stream in order to limit the dispersion of analytes within each liquid segment separated by air bubbles. The stream is led to a detector with no physical deaeration. Air signals are distinguished from liquid signals through the analysis of detector output signals, and are suppressed down to the level of liquid signals. Resulting signals are smoothed based on moving average computation. Thus processed signals are analyzed by fast Fourier transform. The analytes in the samples are respectively determined from the amplitudes of the corresponding wave components obtained. The developed system has been applied to the simultaneous determinations of phosphate ions in water samples by a Malachite Green method. The linearity of the analytical curve (0.0-31.0 μmol dm(-3)) is good (r(2)>0.999) and the detection limit (3.3 σ) at the modulation period of 30s is 0.52 μmol dm(-3). Good recoveries around 100% have been obtained for phosphate ions spiked into real water samples.

  19. Aviation Crew Recovery Experiences on Outstations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislason Sigurdur Hrafn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ACMI flight crews spend considerable time away from home on outstations. This study suggests that this long term stay carries its own considerations in regards to rest recovery with practical implications for Fatigue Risk Management as prescribed by ICAO. Four recovery experiences, Work Detachment, Control, Relaxation and Mastery, are identified and correlated with 28 crew behaviours on base. The results indicate improvement considerations for airline management organizing a long term contract with ACMI crews, in particular to increase schedule stability to improve the crew member’s sense of Control.

  20. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part I: Theoretical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Éric; Héquet, Valérie

    2017-03-06

    This study demonstrated that a laboratory-scale recirculation closed-loop reactor can be an efficient technique for the determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) air purification devices. The recirculation closed-loop reactor was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: one is a perfectly mixed reservoir and the other is a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device itself. Based on the assumption that the ratio between the residence time in the PCO device and the residence time in the reservoir τP/τR tends to 0, the model highlights that a lab closed-loop reactor can be a suitable technique for the determination of the efficiency of PCO devices. Moreover, if the single-pass removal efficiency is lower than 5% of the treated flow rate, the decrease in the pollutant concentration over time can be characterized by a first-order decay model in which the time constant is proportional to the CADR. The limits of the model are examined and reported in terms of operating conditions (experiment duration, ratio of residence times, and flow rate ranges).

  1. Determinative factors of competitive advantage between aerobic bacteria for niches at the air-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Haruta, Shin; Kato, Souichiro; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    We focused on bacterial interspecies relationships at the air-liquid interface where the formation of pellicles by aerobes was observed. Although an obligate aerobe (Brevibacillus sp. M1-5) was initially dominant in the pellicle population, a facultative aerobe (Pseudoxanthomonas sp. M1-3) emerged and the viability of M1-5 rapidly decreased due to severe competition for oxygen. Supplementation of the medium with carbohydrates allowed the two species to coexist at the air-liquid interface. These results indicate that the population dynamics within pellicles are primarily governed by oxygen utilization which was affected by a combination of carbon sources.

  2. Analysis and Design of Crew Sleep Station for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, John F.; Paul, Thomas; Eckhardt, Bradley; Smith, Fredrick

    2002-01-01

    This paper details the analysis and design of the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) environmental control system for International Space Station (ISS). The TeSS will provide crewmembers with a private and personal space, to accommodate sleeping, donning and doffing of clothing, personal communication and performance of recreational activities. The need for privacy to accommodate these activities requires adequate ventilation inside the TeSS. This study considers whether temperature, carbon dioxide, and humidity within the TeSS remain within crew comfort and safety levels for various expected operating scenarios. Evaluation of these scenarios required the use and integration of various simulation codes. An approach was adapted for this study, whereby results from a particular code were integrated with other codes when necessary. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were used to evaluate the flow field inside the TeSS, from which local gradients for temperature, velocity, and species concentration such as CO (sub 2) could be determined. A model of the TeSS, containing a human, as well as equipment such as a laptop computer, was developed in FLUENT, a finite-volume code. Other factors, such as detailed analysis of the heat transfer through the structure, radiation, and air circulation from the TeSS to the US Laboratory Aisle, where the TeSS is housed, were considered in the model. A complementary model was developed in G189A, a code which has been used by NASA/JSC for environmental control systems analyses since the Apollo program. Boundary conditions were exchanged between the FLUENT and G189A TeSS models. G189A provides human respiration rates to the FLUENT model, while the FLUENT model provides local convective heat transfer coefficients to G189A model. An additional benefit from using an approach with both a systems simulation and CFD model, is the capability to verify the results of each model by comparison to the results of the other model. The G189A and

  3. Cryogenic separation of an oxygen-argon mixture in natural air samples for the determination of isotope and molecular ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keedakkadan, Habeeb Rahman; Abe, Osamu

    2015-04-30

    The separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures are critical in the high-precision analysis of Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) for geochemical applications. At present, chromatographic methods are used for the separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures or pure oxygen, but these methods require the use of high-purity helium as a carrier gas. Considerable interest has been expressed in the development of a helium-free cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples. The precise and simplified cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures from natural air samples presented here was made possible using a single 5A (30/60 mesh) molecular sieve column. The method involves the trapping of eluted gases using molecular sieves at liquid nitrogen temperature, which is associated with isotopic fractionation. We tested the proposed method for the determination of isotopic fractionations during the gas exchange between water and atmospheric air at equilibrium. The dependency of fractionation was studied at different water temperatures and for different methods of equilibration (bubbling and stirring). Isotopic and molecular fractionations during gas desorption from molecular sieves were studied for different amounts and types of molecular sieves. Repeated measurements of atmospheric air yielded a reproducibility (±SD) of 0.021 ‰, 0.044 ‰, 15 per meg and 1.9 ‰ for δ(17) O, δ(18) O, Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) values, respectively. We applied the method to determine equilibrium isotope fractionation during gas exchange between air and water. Consistent δ(18) O and Δ(17) O results were obtained with the latest two studies, whereas there was a significant difference in δ(18) O values between seawater and deionized water. We have revised a helium-free, cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples for isotopic and molecular ratio analysis. The use of a single 13X (1/8" pellet) molecular sieve yielded the smallest isotopic

  4. Influence of the helicopter environment on patient care capabilities: flight crew perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, K. J.; Rodenberg, H.; Woodard, D.

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Flight crew perceptions of the effect of the rotary-wing environment on patient-care capabilities have not been subject to statistical analysis. We hypothesized that flight crew members perceived significant difficulties in performing patient-care tasks during air medical transport. METHODS: A survey was distributed to a convenience sample of flight crew members from 20 flight programs. Respondents were asked to compare the difficulty of performing patient-care tasks in rotary-wing and standard (emergency department or intensive care unit) settings. Demographic data collected on respondents included years of flight experience, flights per month, crew duty position and primary aircraft in which the respondent worked. Statistical analysis was performed as appropriate using Student's t-test, type III sum of squares, and analysis of variance. Alpha was defined as p responded. All tasks were significantly rated more difficult in the rotary-wing environment. Ratings were not significantly correlated with flight experience, duty position, flights per month or aircraft used. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the performance of patient-care tasks are perceived by air medical flight crew to be significantly more difficult during rotary-wing air medical transport than in hospital settings.

  5. 75 FR 12087 - Determination of Attainment, Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... several related actions under the Clean Air Act (CAA) affecting the Indiana portion (Lake and Porter... Indiana to exempt sources of Nitrogen Oxides (NO X ) in Lake and Porter Counties from CAA Reasonably... request for Lake and Porter Counties, also published in today's Federal Register, the Chicago-Gary-Lake...

  6. Thermodynamic characteristics of air masses along the Guadalquivir valley determined through the calculation of trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Hernández-Ceballos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalquivir valley favors the channeling of air masses from coastal areas to inland Andalusia. This paper presents a first approximation of the spatial variation along the Guadalquivir valley in some of the representative thermodynamic properties of air masses. We have selected three representative sites of its lower, middle and high course, analyzing all of them on their daily trajectories and hourly records of potential temperature, specific humidity and wind speed during the period 2000-2007. The set of trajectories has been calculated using the HYSPLIT model (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory, establishing 12 UTC as the arrivaltime, a duration of 120 hours and a final height of incidence of 500 m. The cluster analysis has allowed the selection of ten different types of air masses, and those with a clear origin from the west were selected from this group. Analysis in the three sites of the daily cycles of potential temperature show a gradual cooling (3-4 K during the cold period (November-February of the year and warming during the warm period (June-September in the range of 5-6 K between the ends of the valley. The specific humidity experiences a drop, regardless of the period and type of air mass, as the air mass travels through the valley, being more intense during the warm period with up to 8 g kg-1 instead of the 1-2 g kg-1 in the cold period. The wind speed cycles show a progressive drop of intensity along the valley, more marked in the final section with a reduction of up to 3 m s-1 per 100 km, the more intense values being recorded during the warm period of the year with average values of up to 4 m s-1.

  7. Crew coordination issues of EVS approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) are currently developed with the goal to alleviate restrictions in airspace and airport capacity in low visibility conditions. Existing EVS-systems are based on IR-sensors although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum. But the quality of MMW radar is rather poor compared to IR images. However, the analysis of radar images can be simplified dramatically when simple passive radar retro-reflectors are used to mark the runway. This presentation is the third in a series of studies investigating the use of such simple landing aids. In the first study the feasibility of the radar PAPI concept was determined; the second one provided first promising human performance results in a low-fidelity simulation. The present study examined pilot performance, workload, situation awareness, and crew coordination issues in a high-fidelity simulation of 'Radar-PAPI' visual aids supporting a precision straight-in landing in low visibility (CAT-II). Simulation scenarios were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator involving six two-pilot flight-deck crews. Pilots could derive visual cues to correct lateral glide-path deviations from 13 pairs of runway-marking corner reflectors. Vertical deviations were indicated by a set of six diplane reflectors using intensity-coding to provide the PAPI categories needed for the correction of vertical deviations. The study compared three display formats and associated crew coordination issues: (1) PF views a head-down B-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (2) PF views a head-down C-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (3) PF views through a head-up display (HUD) that displays primary flight guidance information and receives vertical and lateral guidance from PNF who views a head-down B-scope. PNF guidance is terminated upon PF

  8. Online hourly determination of 62 VOCs in ambient air: system evaluation and comparison with another two analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durana, Nieves; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Luclo; García, José A; Ilardia, Juan L; Gómez, M Carmen; Gangoiti, Gotzon

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents results of the processing and validation of data collected by an automatic gas chromatograph (AGC). This system was used to monitor 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air in the Basque Country, Spain. The nonpolar compounds (C2-C10) identified-paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and chlorinated compounds-accounted for 88% of the mass of total non-methane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs) in ambient air. The evaluation of linearity, precision, detection limits (DLs), and stability of retention times (RTs) indicates that the equipment is suitable for measuring ambient air automatically for prolonged periods (6 months). The calibration of the equipment using response factors calculated on the basis of the effective carbon number (ECN) showed variations of over 10% for acetylene, isoprene, and n-hexane. The results provided by the automatic chromatograph correlated significantly with simultaneous results from other widely used techniques for determining VOCs in ambient air: (1) portable GC, equipped with photoionization detector (PID), and (2) active adsorption on Tenax-TA followed by thermal desorption and chromatographic analysis.

  9. Special Purpose Crew Restraints for Teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina; Norris, Lena

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and long duration space missions being planned for the moon and Mars, humans will be living and working in microgravity over increasingly long periods of time. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility, and access to the activity area. These challenges can result in prolonged periods of unnatural postures for the crew, ultimately causing pain, injury, and loss of productivity. Determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment is crucial to mission success. While a number of general purpose restraints have been used on ISS (handrails, foot loops), experience has shown that these general purpose restraints may not be optimal, or even acceptable for some tasks that have unique requirements. For example, some onboard activities require extreme stability (e.g., glovebox microsurgery), and others involve the use of arm, torso and foot movements in order to perform the task (e-g. robotic teleoperation); standard restraint systems will not work in these situations. The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (WAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center began evaluations of crew restraints for these special situations by looking at NASAs Robonaut. Developed by the Robot Systems Technology Branch, Robonaut is a humanoid robot that can be remotely operated through a tetepresence control system by an operator. It was designed to perform work in hazardous environments (e.g., Extra Vehicular Activities). A Robonaut restraint was designed, modeled for the population, and ultimately tested onboard the KC-135 microgravity aircraft. While in microgravity, participants were asked to get in and out of the restraint from different locations, perform maximum reach exercises, and finally to teleoperate Robonaut while in the restraint. The sessions were videotaped

  10. An Analysis of Shuttle Crew Scheduling Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    From the early years of the Space Shuttle program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle crews have had a timeline of activities to guide them through their time on-orbit. Planners used scheduling constraints to build timelines that ensured the health and safety of the crews. If a constraint could not be met it resulted in a violation. Other agencies of the federal government also have scheduling constraints to ensure the safety of personnel and the public. This project examined the history of Space Shuttle scheduling constraints, constraints from Federal agencies and branches of the military and how these constraints may be used as a guide for future NASA and private spacecraft. This was conducted by reviewing rules and violations with regard to human aerospace scheduling constraints, environmental, political, social and technological factors, operating environment and relevant human factors. This study includes a statistical analysis of Shuttle Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) related violations to determine if these were a significant producer of constraint violations. It was hypothesized that the number of SCSC violations caused by EVA activities were a significant contributor to the total number of violations for Shuttle/ISS missions. Data was taken from NASA data archives at the Johnson Space Center from Space Shuttle/ISS missions prior to the STS-107 accident. The results of the analysis rejected the null hypothesis and found that EVA violations were a significant contributor to the total number of violations. This analysis could help NASA and commercial space companies understand the main source of constraint violations and allow them to create constraint rules that ensure the safe operation of future human private and exploration missions. Additional studies could be performed to evaluate other variables that could have influenced the scheduling violations that were analyzed.

  11. Determination of Xenon in Air by a Pulse-discharge Helium Ionization Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan-ying; CHANG Yin-zhong; LIU Shu-jiang; ZHANG Hai-tao; WANG Shi-lian; LI Qi

    2012-01-01

    A pulse-discharge helium ionization detector(Valco,PD-D3-I) was used to measure xenon concentration in air.The dependences of the detector relative response on various gas chromatograph parameters were investigated.Based on the well prepared gas connections for the detector system and optimized gas ehromatography(GC) working conditions,the atmospheric xenon concentration could be measured by the cheap GC method with a detection level of 0.7×10-9(parts by volume).Moreover,the xenon concentration in the ground level air around our laboratory was measured with the result of 0.085 × 10-6(parts by volume) and RSD of 0.91%.

  12. Crew Management in Passenger Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Crew management in passenger rail transport is an important factor that contributes to both the quality of service to the railway passengers and to the operational costs of the train operating company. This thesis describes how the (railway) Crew Management process can be i

  13. American ASTP prime crew participate in photography mission briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three American ASTP prime crew astronauts participate in a photography mission briefing in bldg 5 with Dr. Farouk El-Baz (wearing face mask) during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) pre-flight activity at JSC. They are, left to right, Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; Dr. El-Baz; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot. Dr. El-Baz is with the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. The face mask is to protect the crewmen from possible exposure to disease prior to launch time.

  14. Cascading Delay Risk of Airline Workforce Deployments with Crew Pairing and Schedule Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sai Ho; Ma, Hoi Lam; Chan, Hing Kai

    2017-08-01

    This article concerns the assignment of buffer time between two connected flights and the number of reserve crews in crew pairing to mitigate flight disruption due to flight arrival delay. Insufficient crew members for a flight will lead to flight disruptions such as delays or cancellations. In reality, most of these disruption cases are due to arrival delays of the previous flights. To tackle this problem, many research studies have examined the assignment method based on the historical flight arrival delay data of the concerned flights. However, flight arrival delays can be triggered by numerous factors. Accordingly, this article proposes a new forecasting approach using a cascade neural network, which considers a massive amount of historical flight arrival and departure data. The approach also incorporates learning ability so that unknown relationships behind the data can be revealed. Based on the expected flight arrival delay, the buffer time can be determined and a new dynamic reserve crew strategy can then be used to determine the required number of reserve crews. Numerical experiments are carried out based on one year of flight data obtained from 112 airports around the world. The results demonstrate that by predicting the flight departure delay as the input for the prediction of the flight arrival delay, the prediction accuracy can be increased. Moreover, by using the new dynamic reserve crew strategy, the total crew cost can be reduced. This significantly benefits airlines in flight schedule stability and cost saving in the current big data era. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  16. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Ashby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Commander Jeffrey Ashby is seen during this preflight interview, answering questions about his inspiration in becoming an astronaut and his career path and provides an overview of the mission. Ashby outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S1 truss) and the importance that the S1 truss will have in the development of the International Space Station (ISS). Ashby discusses the delivery and installation of the S1 truss scheduled to be done in the planned EVAs in some detail. He touches on the use and operation of the Canadarm 2 robotic arm in this process and outlines what supplies will be exchanged with the resident crew of the ISS during transfer activities. He ends with his thoughts on the value of the ISS in fostering international cooperation.

  17. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  18. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  19. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Yurchikhin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.

  20. Determination of benzene, toluene and xylene concentration in humid air using differential ion mobility spectrometry and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziejuk, M; Szczurek, A; Maciejewska, M; Pietrucha, T; Szyposzyńska, M

    2016-05-15

    Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX compounds) are chemicals of greatest concern due to their impact on humans and the environment. In many cases, quantitative information about each of these compounds is required. Continuous, fast-response analysis, performed on site would be desired for this purpose. Several methods have been developed to detect and quantify these compounds in this way. Methods vary considerably in sensitivity, accuracy, ease of use and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this work is to show that differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) may be applied for determining concentration of BTX compounds in humid air. We demonstrate, this goal is achievable by applying multivariate analysis of the measurement data using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The approach was tested at low concentrations of these compounds in the range of 5-20 ppm and for air humidity in a range 0-12 g/kg. These conditions correspond to the foreseeable application of the developed approach in occupational health and safety measurements. The average concentration assessment error was about 1 ppm for each: benzene, toluene and xylene. We also successfully determined water vapor content in air. The error achieved was 0.2 g/kg. The obtained results are very promising regarding further development of DMS technique as well as its application.

  1. Determination of Efficiency of Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collectors Using Artificial Neural Network Approach for Different PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to determine efficiency of semi transparent hybrid photovoltaic thermal double pass air collector for different PV technology and compare it with single pass air collector using artificial neural network (ANN technique for New Delhi weather station of India. The MATLAB 7.1 neural networks toolbox has been used for defining and training of ANN for determination of thermal, electrical, overall thermal and overall exergy efficiency of the system. The ANN model uses ambient air temperature, number of sunshine hours, number of clear days, temperature coefficient, cell efficiency, global and diffuse radiation as input parameters. The transfer function, neural network configuration and learning parameters have been selected based on highest convergence during training and testing of network. About 2000 sets of data from four weather stations (Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar and Jodhpur have been given as input for training and data of the fifth weather station (New Delhi has been used for testing purpose. It has been observed that the best transfer function for a given configuration is logsig. The feed forward back-propagation algorithm has been used in this analysis. Further the results of ANN model have been compared with analytical values on the basis of root mean square error.

  2. [A new method for determination of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine in workplace air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Jeżewska, Anna

    2017-06-27

    Toluenediamines are harmful substances. Toluene-2,4-diamine has been assigned to Carcinogen 1B hazard class, pursuant to Regulation (European Community - EC) No. 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and toluene- 2,6-diamine to Mutagen 2 hazard class. The main routes of exposure to toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine are via the respiratory tract and the skin. Toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine occur in the work environment in Poland. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the determination of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine that allows the simultaneous determination of their concentrations in the workplace air by personal sampling. Determination of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine derivatives in acetonitrile were carried out by means of liquid chromatography with a diode assay detector. The method involves passing amine-containing air through sulfuric acidtreated glass fiber filter, washing out the substance settled on the filter, using water and solution of sodium hydroxide, followed by the extraction with toluene, reaction with 3,5-dinitobenzoyl chloride, replacement of dissolvent with acetonitrile and analysis of obtained solution. The method developed in this study enables the researcher to determine the content of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine in the presence of other hazardous substances. In the specified measuring range (2.88-57.6 μg/ml) calibration curves are linear. Under the optimized conditions of determination, the limit of detection (LOD) values achieved: 51.36 ng/ml for toluene-2,4-diamine and 52.93 ng/ml for toluene-2,6-diamine. This method makes it possible to determine the concentration of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine in the workplace air within the specified measuring range of 0.004-0.08 mg/m3 (for air sample volume of 720 l). Med Pr 2017;68(4):497-505.

  3. A new method for determination of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine in workplace air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toluenediamines are harmful substances. Toluene-2,4-diamine has been assigned to Carcinogen 1B hazard class, pursuant to Regulation (European Community – EC No. 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and toluene- 2,6-diamine to Mutagen 2 hazard class. The main routes of exposure to toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine are via the respiratory tract and the skin. Toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine occur in the work environment in Poland. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the determination of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine that allows the simultaneous determination of their concentrations in the workplace air by personal sampling. Material and Methods: Determination of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine derivatives in acetonitrile were carried out by means of liquid chromatography with a diode assay detector. The method involves passing amine-containing air through sulfuric acidtreated glass fiber filter, washing out the substance settled on the filter, using water and solution of sodium hydroxide, followed by the extraction with toluene, reaction with 3,5-dinitobenzoyl chloride, replacement of dissolvent with acetonitrile and analysis of obtained solution. Results: The method developed in this study enables the researcher to determine the content of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine in the presence of other hazardous substances. In the specified measuring range (2.88–57.6 μg/ml calibration curves are linear. Under the optimized conditions of determination, the limit of detection (LOD values achieved: 51.36 ng/ml for toluene-2,4-diamine and 52.93 ng/ml for toluene-2,6-diamine. Conclusions: This method makes it possible to determine the concentration of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine in the workplace air within the specified measuring range of 0.004–0.08 mg/m3 (for air sample volume of 720 l. Med Pr 2017;68(4:497–505

  4. A system for the determination of trace-level polar and non-polar toxic organic compounds in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, A.; Dang, R.; Hoberecht, H. [Perkin Elmer Corp., Norwalk, CT (United States). Fresh Aire Lab.

    1994-12-31

    A gas chromatographic system is described for the determination of toxic organic compounds in ambient air. These compounds include all those specified within the US EPA Compendium Method TO14 and some polar additional analytes under consideration for the proposed TO15 Method. The system supports both on-line and off-line (passivated canisters and adsorption tubes) methods for sampling air--providing a fully automated analysis. A key feature of the system is that liquid cryogen is not required for either the analyte preconcentration or the subsequent chromatographic separation. Water management is achieved by dry-purging an adsorbent trap upon which the sample analytes have been retained. The performance of the system is demonstrated with conventional detection systems (electron capture and flame ionization) and with a mass spectrometer.

  5. The determination of isopropyl alcohol in ambient air%环境空气中异丙醇的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新

    2013-01-01

    建立了顶空气相色谱法测定环境空气中异丙醇的方法。空气中异丙醇经蒸馏水吸附,顶空进样氢火焰离子化检测器检测,时间定性,峰面积定量。本方法前处理简便,分析灵敏度高,不使用有机试剂,满足环境分析要求。%To establish a method for the determination of air headspace gas chromatography in isopropanol .Isopropyl alcohol in the air by distilled water adsorption , headspace hydrogen flame ionization detector , the qualitative time , peak area quantification .This method is simple, high sensitivity , no use of organic reagents , meet the demands of environmental analysis .

  6. Technical note: Boundary layer height determination from lidar for improving air pollution episode modeling: development of new algorithm and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Wang, Zifa; Zhang, Wei; Gbaguidi, Alex; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Wang, Xiquan; Matsui, Ichiro; Sun, Yele

    2017-05-01

    Predicting air pollution events in the low atmosphere over megacities requires a thorough understanding of the tropospheric dynamics and chemical processes, involving, notably, continuous and accurate determination of the boundary layer height (BLH). Through intensive observations experimented over Beijing (China) and an exhaustive evaluation of existing algorithms applied to the BLH determination, persistent critical limitations are noticed, in particular during polluted episodes. Basically, under weak thermal convection with high aerosol loading, none of the retrieval algorithms is able to fully capture the diurnal cycle of the BLH due to insufficient vertical mixing of pollutants in the boundary layer associated with the impact of gravity waves on the tropospheric structure. Consequently, a new approach based on gravity wave theory (the cubic root gradient method: CRGM) is developed to overcome such weakness and accurately reproduce the fluctuations of the BLH under various atmospheric pollution conditions. Comprehensive evaluation of CRGM highlights its high performance in determining BLH from lidar. In comparison with the existing retrieval algorithms, CRGM potentially reduces related computational uncertainties and errors from BLH determination (strong increase of correlation coefficient from 0.44 to 0.91 and significant decreases of the root mean square error from 643 to 142 m). Such a newly developed technique is undoubtedly expected to contribute to improving the accuracy of air quality modeling and forecasting systems.

  7. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  8. Southern LNG, Inc., Elba Island Terminal, Savannah Georgia Draft Air Quality Permit and PSD Preliminary Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Optical Monitor for Major Air Constituents Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The well-being of the crew on manned missions depends critical on the composition of the habitat air. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are the most important...

  10. Studies on an efficient method for determining 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine in the workplace air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: 3,3’-Dimethylbenzidene (DMB is a substance classified into the group of carcinogens. The value of maximum admissible concentration for this substance in the workplace air is not specified in Poland. Bearing in mind that DMB is used in domestic companies there is a need to develop a sensitive method for determining 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine in the work environment. Material and Methods: The method consists in passing DMB-containing air through sulfuric acid-treated glass fiber filters, washing out the substance settled on the filter, using water and solution of sodium hydroxide, liquid–liquid extraction with toluene, replacing dissolvent with acetonitrile and analyzing the obtained solution. Studies were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique. An Agilent Technologies chromatograph, series 1200, with a diode-array detector (DAD and a fluorescence detector (FLD was used in the experiment. In the test, an Ultra C18 column of dimensions: 250×4.6 mm, particle diameter (dp = 5 μm (Restek was applied. Results: The method is linear (r = 0.999 within the investigated working range of concentration 1.08–21.6 μg/ml, which is equivalent to air concentrations 2–40 μg/m3 for a 540 l air sample. The limit of detection (LOD of quantification determination is 5.4 ng/ml and the limit of quantification (LOQ – 16.19 ng/ml. Conclusions: The analytical method described in this paper allows for selective determination of 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine in the workplace air in the presence of 1,4-phenylenediamine, benzidine, aniline, 3,3’-dimethoxybenzidine, 2-nitrotoluene, 3,3’-dichlorobenzidine and azobenzene. The method is characterized by good precision and good accuracy, it also meets the criteria for procedures involving the measurement of chemical agents, listed in EN 482:2012. Med Pr 2016;67(1:43–50

  11. Cooling Properties of the Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Spacesuit: Results of an Environmental Chamber Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Bue, Grant; Son, Chan; Norcross, Jason; Kuznetz, Larry; Chapman, Kirt; Chhipwadia, Ketan; McBride, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The shuttle crew wears the Advanced Crew Escape Spacesuit (ACES) to protect themselves from cabin decompression and to support bail out during landing. ACES is cooled by a liquid-cooled garment (LCG) that interfaces to a heat exchanger that dumps heat into the cabin. The ACES outer layer is made of Gore-Tex(Registered TradeMark), permitting water vapor to escape while containing oxygen. The crew can only lose heat via insensible water losses and the LCG. Under nominal landing operations, the average cabin temperature rarely exceeds 75 F, which is adequate for the ACES to function. Problem A rescue shuttle will need to return 11 crew members if the previous mission suffers a thermal protection system failure, preventing it from returning safely to Earth. Initial analysis revealed that 11 crew members in the shuttle will increase cabin temperature at wheel stop above 80 F, which decreases the ACES ability to keep crew members cool. Air flow in the middeck of the shuttle is inhomogeneous and some ACES may experience much higher temperatures that could cause excessive thermal stress to crew members. Methods A ground study was conducted to measure the cooling efficiency of the ACES at 75 F, 85 F, and 95 F at 50% relative humidity. Test subjects representing 5, 50, and 95 percentile body habitus of the astronaut corps performed hand ergometry keeping their metabolic rate at 400, 600, and 800 BTU/hr for one hour. Core temperature was measured by rectal probe and skin, while inside and outside the suit. Environmental chamber wall and cooling unit inlet and outlet temperatures were measured using high-resolution thermistors ( 0.2 C). Conclusions Under these test conditions, the ACES was able to protect the core temperature of all test subjects, however thermal stress due to high insensible losses and skin temperature and skin heat flow may impact crew performance. Further research should be performed to understand the impact on cognitive performance.

  12. [Air conducted ocular VEMP: I. Determination of a method and application in normal patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Schaaf, H; Sommer, D; Hörmann, K

    2011-07-01

    Air conducted (AC) cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (AC cVEMP) and air conducted ocular VEMP (AC oVEMP) may be used for measurement of otolith function. However AC oVEMP are few examined till now. The aim of this pilot study was to apply a method for use of AC oVEMP in clinical practice. AC oVEMP were recorded in healthy voluntary people (n=20) using intense AC-sound stimulation (500 Hz tone bursts, 100 dB nHL). Thermal irrigation and AC cVEMP were normal as including criteria. Values were evaluated statistically. AC oVEMP were recorded in all healthy patients. Mean and standard deviation for the first negative peak was 11.35±1.00 ms and for the first negative peak 16.30±1.10 ms. The mean amplitudes were 7.70±4.50 μV. The stability of n10 and p15 component was the same. AC oVEMP can be easy and fast obtained. N10 and p15 latencies may used as parameter for clinical interpretation. Amplitude fluctuations are relatively large. Results can be used in further clinical investigation of AC oVEMP. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Determination of linear and cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in air at a regional background site in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2013-12-01

    A number of volatile methylsiloxanes have been identified as environmental contaminants and several are currently the subject of detailed risk assessments due to concerns that they may be persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. Once emitted these chemicals reside primarily in the atmosphere. Consequently, knowledge of their concentrations in air is essential to understanding their fate in the environment and any potential adverse impacts. We developed a method to analyse 4 cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (D3, D4, D5 and D6) and 4 linear volatile methylsiloxanes (L3, L4, L5 and L6) in air at regional background levels. The method showed good repeatability (median difference between sample pairs of 2-8%) and low limits of quantification (from 3.8 pg m-3 for L3 to 320 pg m-3 for D4). However, the analysis of D3 and D4 was confounded by the transformation of D5 to these analytes on the sampling cartridge. During a sampling campaign with a daily temporal resolution between November 4 and December 14 2011, all analytes with the exception of L5 and L6 could be quantified in all samples. It was hypothesized that the ratio of the concentrations of different VMS reflected the relative strength of their emissions to the airshed due to the slow phototransformation of the VMS at high latitudes in winter. This was supported by available emissions information.

  14. Development of a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determining personal care products in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Noelia; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2010-06-25

    This study describes the development of a new analytical method for determining 14 personal care products (PCPs) - nine synthetic musks, four parabens and one insect repellent - in air samples. The method is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and is rapid, sensitive and drastically reduces the risk of sample contamination. Three kinds of tubes and traps were tested, those filled with Tenax TA being the most suitable for this study. Method validation showed good repeatability and reproducibility, low detection limits (between 0.03 ng m(-3) for DPMI and 12.5 ng m(-3) for propyl paraben) and good linearity for all compounds. Stability during storage indicated that samples must be kept refrigerated at 4 degrees C and analysed within 1 week of collection. The applicability of the technique to real samples was tested in different indoor and outdoor atmospheres. The total PCP values for indoor air ranged from 135 ng m(-3) in a pharmacy to 2838 ng m(-3) in a hairdresser's, whereas the values for outdoor air ranged from 14 ng m(-3) for a suburban environment to 26 ng m(-3) for an urban environment. In general, the most abundant synthetic musks were galaxolide (5.9-1256 ng m(-3)), musk xylene (1.6-766 ng m(-3)) and tonalide (1.1-138 ng m(-3)). Methyl and ethyl paraben (2.4-313 ng m(-3) and 1.8-117 ng m(-3), respectively) were the most abundant parabens. Although thermal desorption methods have been widely used for determining volatile organic compounds, they are rarely used with semi-volatile compounds. This study thus demonstrates that the thermal desorption method performs well with semi-volatile compounds and, for the first time, that it can be used for determining PCPs.

  15. Simplified universal method for determining electrolyte temperatures in a capillary electrophoresis instrument with forced-air cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kevin H; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Cherney, Leonid T; Krylov, Sergey N

    2012-03-01

    Temperature increase due to resistive electrical heating is an inherent limitation of capillary electrophoresis (CE). Active cooling systems are used to decrease the temperature of the capillary, but their capacity is limited; and in addition, they leave "hot spots" at the detection interface and at the capillary ends. Until recently, the matter was complicated by the lack of a fast and generic method for temperature determination in efficiently and inefficiently cooled regions of the capillary. Our group recently introduced such a method, termed "Universal Method for determining Electrolyte Temperatures" (UMET). UMET is a probe-less approach that requires only measuring current versus voltage for different voltages and processing the data using an iterative algorithm. Here, we apply UMET to develop a Simplified Universal Method of Temperature Determination (SUMET) for a CE instrument with a forced-air cooling system using an Agilent 7100 CE instrument (Agilent Technologies, Saint Laurent, Quebec, Canada) as an example. We collected a wide set of empirical voltage-current data for a variety of buffers and capillary diameters. We further constructed empirical equations for temperature calculation in efficiently and inefficiently cooled parts of the capillary that require only the data from a single 1-min voltage-current measurement. The equations are specific for the Agilent 7100 CE instrument (Agilent Technologies) but can be applied to all kinds of capillaries and buffers. Similar SUMET approaches can be developed for other CE instruments with forced-air cooling using our approach.

  16. 76 FR 6590 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... (see 40 CFR 51.918), if EPA issues a determination that an area is attaining the relevant standard... the Pittsburgh Area is attaining the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. In accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, if EPA...; Determination of Attainment for the Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area...

  17. 76 FR 71450 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ..., set forth at 40 CFR 51.1004(c), would no longer exist and this area would thereafter have to address... nonattainment area has attained the 24-hour 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51...; Determination of Clean Data for the 2006 Fine Particulate Standard for the Charleston Area AGENCY: Environmental...

  18. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héquet, Valérie; Batault, Frédéric; Raillard, Cécile; Thévenet, Frédéric; Le Coq, Laurence; Dumont, Éric

    2017-03-06

    The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m³ and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10(-3) m³. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm²) and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i) light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm(-2); (ii) air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s(-1); and (iii) initial toluene concentration C₀ (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv). The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I) were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m³·h(-1), were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I), the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  19. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in ambient air by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Ocana, Rosa; Mena Granero, Angela; Egea Gonzalez, Francisco J.; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martinez Vidal, Jose L.; Plaza Bolanos, Patricia [University of Almeria, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Almeria (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    A multiresidue method for determining 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air has been developed and validated by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using a triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ). The method was validated in terms of both steps of sampling and analysis. The sampling method, which is based on active sampling using polyurethane foam (PUF) as adsorbent, was validated by generating standard atmospheres. The retention capacity of this sampling sorbent allows up to 5 m{sup 3} of air to be sampled without any breakthrough for most compounds. Two solvent extraction methods were compared: sonication and Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of n-hexane:diethyl ether (95:5 v/v). Both extraction methods yielded similar results, but the first one required less solvent and time. The method exhibited good accuracy (80.3-99.8%), precision (2.2-15.2%) and lower limits that allowed quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 0.008 ng/m{sup 3}. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of PCBs in the air in areas near to a municipal solid-waste landfill and directly above the refuse in the landfill, where it indicated the presence of some of the target compounds. (orig.)

  20. The air luminescence count for the rapid determination of {sup 222}Rn in a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Murakami, Isao; Homma, Yoshio [Laboratory for Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A liquid scintillation spectrometer has been applied to the determination of the counting efficiency for the air luminescence produced by standardized {sup 222}Rn and its daughters. Based on the counting efficiency, known amounts of {sup 222}Rn can be prepared in 3.5 h. Moreover, the {sup 226}Ra source from which {sup 222}Rn is collected does not necessary have to be a standard one. In contrast, the conventional method for preparing known amounts of {sup 222}Rn usually requires a long waiting period (ca. 15-30 days). (author)

  1. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  2. Determination of indoor air quality in archives and biodeterioration of the documentary heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Sofía; Lavin, Paola; Perdomo, Ivette; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Guiamet, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Documentary heritage is permanently subject to suffering from physical, chemical, and/or biological alterations. Biological deterioration by microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) causes undesirable changes on material properties. Microorganisms affect different organic, natural or synthetic substrates (cellulose, polycarbonates), metals, and compounds of optical and magnetic devices (CD, VHS). Paper made by vegetal fibers, functional additives (glue, optical polishers, consolidating agents), and inks with organic bindings are used as sources of nutrients. The environmental microorganisms that form the microbial charge of indoor air at repositories (archives, libraries) storing cultural heritage can deteriorate the different supports of heritage importance and affect human health as allergies and skin affections. The aims of this research were to study microbial contamination of the environment and its influence on biodeterioration by the biofilm formation and to analyze the relationship between environment microbiota and biofilm formation in materials stored at three archives in Argentina and in two repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba.

  3. Group interaction and flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis to the performance of aircraft-operation tasks by the crew as a group is discussed in an introductory review and illustrated with anecdotal material. Topics addressed include the function of a group in the operational environment, the classification of group performance factors (input, process, and output parameters), input variables and the flight crew process, and the effect of process variables on performance. Consideration is given to aviation safety issues, techniques for altering group norms, ways of increasing crew effort and coordination, and the optimization of group composition.

  4. Water-Air Volatilization Factors to Determine Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Reference Levels in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicenç Martí

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is the modeling and calculation of volatilization factors (VFs from water to air for volatile organic compounds (VOCs in order to perform human health risk-based reference levels (RLs for the safe use of water. The VF models have been developed starting from the overall mass-transfer coefficients (Koverall concept from air to water for two interaction geometries (flat surface and spherical droplets in indoor and outdoor scenarios. For a case study with five groups of risk scenarios and thirty VOCs, theoretical VFs have been calculated by using the developed models. Results showed that Koverall values for flat and spherical surface geometries were close to the mass transfer coefficient for water (KL when Henry’s law constant (KH was high. In the case of spherical drop geometry, the fraction of volatilization (fV was asymptotical when increasing KH with fV values also limited due to Koverall. VFs for flat surfaces were calculated from the emission flux of VOCs, and results showed values close to 1000KH for the most conservative indoor scenarios and almost constant values for outdoor scenarios. VFs for spherical geometry in indoor scenarios followed also constant VFs and were far from 1000KH. The highest calculated VF values corresponded to the E2A, E2B, E3A and E5A scenarios and were compared with experimental and real results in order to check the goodness of flat and sphere geometry models. Results showed an overestimation of calculated values for the E2A and E2B scenarios and an underestimation for the E3A and E5A scenarios. In both cases, most of the calculated VFs were from 0.1- to 10-times higher than experimental/real values.

  5. Experimental determination of the balance of HO{sub x} radicals in polluted air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volz-Thomas, A.; Kramp, F.; Kolahgar, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere 2: Chemie der Belasteten Atmosphaere

    1999-07-01

    During two field campaigns (SLOPE 92 and 96), simultaneous measurements of ozone and ozone precursors were conducted at Schauinsland in the Black-Forest and in the valley north of Schauinsland that channels the flow of polluted air from the city of Freiburg to the site. From the decay of reactive hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} between the two measuring sites and the known rate coefficients for their reaction with OH the average concentration of OH radicals in the air masses was estimated. The analysis yielded OH concentrations between 5 x 10{sup 6} and almost 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}, fairly large in presence of high NO{sub x} concentration around 10 ppb or more. The analysis of the budgets of OH and HO{sub x} shows that the relatively high OH concentrations can only be sustained if efficient recycling of OH via HO{sub 2} is assumed to occur and that, based on the C{sub 2}-C{sub 8} hydrocarbons measured during SLOPE 92, about two HO{sub 2} molecules must be formed for each OH radical that reacts with a hydrocarbon molecule. Additional measurements of C{sub 6}-C{sub 15} hydrocarbons made during SLOPE 96 showed that the total hydrocarbon reactivity was about twice as large than that given by the hydrocarbons measured in 1992 and that biogenic hydrocarbons made up for a large fraction of the total reactivity. Because of the higher VOC to NO{sub x} ratio, the amplification factor required to close the budget was less than 1.5 HO{sub 2} for each OH radical consumed by reaction with a hydrocarbon. Measurements of ozone and ozone precursors from balloons and airplane were made to obtain information about a possible effect of mixing processes on the OH estimation. (orig.)

  6. 76 FR 59254 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...

  7. Determination of temperature dependent Henry's law constants of polychlorinated naphthalenes: Application to air-sea exchange in Izmir Bay, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Adali, Mutlu

    2016-12-01

    The Henry's law constant (H) is a crucial variable to investigate the air-water exchange of persistent organic pollutants. H values for 32 polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners were measured using an inert gas-stripping technique at five temperatures ranging between 5 and 35 °C. H values in deionized water (at 25 °C) varied between 0.28 ± 0.08 Pa m3 mol-1 (PCN-73) and 18.01 ± 0.69 Pa m3 mol-1 (PCN-42). The agreement between the measured and estimated H values from the octanol-water and octanol-air partition coefficients was good (measured/estimated ratio = 1.00 ± 0.41, average ± SD). The calculated phase change enthalpies (ΔHH) were within the interval previously determined for other several semivolatile organic compounds (42.0-106.4 kJ mol-1). Measured H values, paired atmospheric and aqueous concentrations and meteorological variables were also used to reveal the level and direction of air-sea exchange fluxes of PCNs at the coast of Izmir Bay, Turkey. The net PCN air-sea exchange flux varied from -0.55 (volatilization, PCN-24/14) to 2.05 (deposition, PCN-23) ng m-2 day-1. PCN-19, PCN-24/14, PCN-42, and PCN-33/34/37 were mainly volatilized from seawater while the remaining congeners were mainly deposited. The overall number of the cases showing deposition was higher (67.9%) compared to volatilization (21.4%) and near equilibrium (10.7%).

  8. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  9. Air-Leakage Control Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, Jim; Washington State Energy Office; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the how and why'' of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the Simple Caulk and Seal'' (SIMPLE{center dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  10. Air-leakage control manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the ``how and why`` of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the ``Simple Caulk and Seal`` (SIMPLE{center_dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center_dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  11. A reactive and sensitive diffusion sampler for the determination of aldehydes and ketones in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Hasegawa, Shuji

    We developed a diffusive sampling device (DSD-carbonyl) for organic carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) which is suitable for collection and analysis of low concentration levels. This sampling device is composed of three parts, an exposure part made of a porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PPTFE) tube, an analysis part made of polypropylene (PP) tubing and an absorbent part made of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) coated silica gel (DNPH-silica). Aldehydes and ketones diffuse to the DSD-carbonyl through PPTFE-tube by the mechanism of molecular diffusion and react specifically with DNPH to form a stable DNPH-derivatives. Collection is controlled by moving the absorbent from the exposure part to the analysis part by changing the posture of the DSD-carbonyl. DNPH-derivatives were eluted from an analysis part of DSD-carbonyl with acetonitrile directly and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The advantages of the DSD-carbonyl are the following: (1) The DSD-carbonyl can be used in a wide range of concentration of aldehydes and ketones in atmosphere, as the DSD-carbonyl exposure part has a variable diffusion area, (2) DNPH-derivatives are eluted from DNPH-silica without contamination of air. (3) The sampler can be applied to active sampling by connecting it with a pump. The limit of detection (LOD) for concentrations of major aldehydes and ketones ranged from 0.072 to 0.13 ppb, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.24 to 0.42 ppb. The coefficient variation (CV) for concentrations of major aldehydes and ketones ranged from 2.5 to 3.0% in laboratory air. The DSD-carbonyl method and active sampling method (US EPA method IP-6A) showed a good correlation (formaldehyde, r2=0.995). The uptake rates for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were estimated as 0.078, 0.062 and 0.079 nmol ppb -1 h -1, respectively. It is possible to estimate atmospheric aldehydes and ketones at parts per billion (ppb), with high sensitivity and precision, by

  12. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  13. Flight Crew State Monitoring Metrics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS)....

  14. Crew Autonomy Measures and Models (CAMM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SA Technologies will employ a two-part solution including measures and models for evaluating crew autonomy in exploratory space missions. An integrated measurement...

  15. Simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate ions by air-segmented amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Haruka; Inui, Koji; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    The concept of amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis has been extended to the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes in a sample. A sample solution containing nitrite and nitrate ions is delivered from two channels, but the flow rates are varied at different frequencies. One of the channels has a reduction column for converting nitrate ions to nitrite ions. Downstream, the absorbance of the diazo-coupling product is monitored after the merging of both solutions with a Griess reagent. The signal is analyzed by a fast Fourier transform (FFT) in real time. From the thus-obtained amplitude, a µmol dm(-3) level of the ions can be determined. The introduction of air bubbles is effective to reduce any axial dispersion, and hence to improve the sensitivity.

  16. STS-47 Astronaut Crew Training Clip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, is seen during various parts of their training, including SAREX training in the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT), firefighting training. A familiarization flight in the KC-135, a food tasting, photo training in the Crew Compartment Trainer, and bailout training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) are also shown.

  17. Methodology and algorithms for railway crew management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, R.; Gomide, F. [State Univ. of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Lagrimante, R. [MRS Logistica S.A, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Crew management problems are highly important for many transportation systems such as airlines, railways and public bus transportation. Despite recent advances, scheduling methodologies and decision support systems still need improvement, especially their computational efficiency, practical feasibility and use. This paper briefly overview classic crew management approaches. It discusses various practical issues concerning classic methods and suggests a new approach and algorithms. Computational results and experience with actual data and real world situations are also reported. (orig.)

  18. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  19. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm crew leader as employer. 404.1010....1010 Farm crew leader as employer. A farm crew leader furnishes workers to do agricultural labor for another person, usually a farm operator. If the crew leader pays the workers (the money can be the...

  20. Experimental study on trace chemical contaminant generation rates of human metabolism in spacecraft crew module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Guo; Xinxing, He; Guoxin, Xu; Xin, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Trace chemical contaminants generated by human metabolism is a major source of contamination in spacecraft crew module. In this research, types and generation rates of pollutants from human metabolism were determined in the Chinese diets. Expired air, skin gas, and sweat of 20 subjects were analyzed at different exercise states in a simulated module. The exercise states were designed according to the basic activities in the orbit of astronauts. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of contaminants generated by human metabolic were performed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometer. Sixteen chemical compounds from metabolic sources were found. With the increase in physical load, the concentrations of chemical compounds from human skin and expired air correspondingly increased. The species and the offgassing rates of pollutants from human metabolism are different among the Chinese, Americans and the Russians due to differences in ethnicity and dietary customs. This research provides data to aid in the design, development and operation of China's long duration space mission.

  1. Comparison and evaluation of methods for the determination of flammability limits, applied to methane/hydrogen/air mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Schoor, F; Hermanns, R T E; van Oijen, J A; Verplaetsen, F; de Goey, L P H

    2008-02-11

    Different methods, both experimental and numerical, to determine the flammability limits are compared and evaluated, exemplified by a determination of the flammability limits of methane/hydrogen/air mixtures for hydrogen fuel molar fractions of 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6, at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Two different experimental methods are used. The first method uses a glass tube with visual observation of the flame, whereas the second method uses a closed spherical vessel with a pressure rise criterion to determine whether flame propagation has occurred. In addition to these experiments, the flammability limits are determined numerically. Unsteady planar and spherically expanding flames are calculated with a one-dimensional flame code with the inclusion of radiation heat loss in the optically thin limit. Comparison of the experimental results with the results of the planar flame calculations shows large differences, especially for lean mixtures. These differences increase with increasing hydrogen content in the fuel. Better agreement with the experimental results is found for the spherically expanding flame calculations. A limiting burning velocity of 5 cm/s is found to predict the upper flammability limit determined with the tube method very well, whereas the limiting flame temperature approach was found to give poorer agreement. Further analysis indicates that the neglect of flame front instabilities is the probable cause of the large differences between experimental and numerical results at the lower flammability limit.

  2. Simulation Development and Analysis of Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program is an integral step in its journey to Mars as it would expedite development of space technologies and open up partnership with U.S. commercial companies. NASA reviews and independent assessment of Commercial Crew Program is fundamental to its success, and being able to model a commercial crew vehicle in a simulation rather than conduct a live test would be a safer, faster, and less expensive way to assess and certify the capabilities of the vehicle. To this end, my project was to determine the feasibility of using a simulation tool named SOMBAT version 2.0 to model a multiple parachute system for Commercial Crew Program simulation. The main tasks assigned to me were to debug and test the main parachute system model, (capable of simulating one to four main parachute bodies), and to utilize a graphical program to animate the simulation results. To begin tackling the first task, I learned how to use SOMBAT by familiarizing myself with its mechanics and by understanding the methods used to tweak its various parameters and outputs. I then used this new knowledge to set up, run, and analyze many different situations within SOMBAT in order to explore the limitations of the parachute model. Some examples of parameters that I varied include the initial velocity and orientation of the falling capsule, the number of main parachutes, and the location where the parachutes were attached to the capsule. Each parameter changed would give a different output, and in some cases, would expose a bug or limitation in the model. A major bug that I discovered was the inability of the model to handle any number of parachutes other than three. I spent quite some time trying to debug the code logically, but was unable to figure it out until my mentor taught me that digital simulation limitations can occur when some approximations are mistakenly assumed for certain in a physical system. This led me to the realization that unlike in all of the programming classes

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  4. 78 FR 44070 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Determinations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ..., May 19, 2010) (determination of attainment of the PM 10 standard in Coso Junction, California); (75 FR... Area); (72 FR 14422, March 28, 2007) (Miami, Arizona Area); (75 FR 27944, May 19, 2010) (Coso Junction... revision for the Liberty-Clairton Area to EPA for review and approval. On November 7, 2011 (76 FR...

  5. 77 FR 44544 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Utah; Determination of Clean Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Coso Junction, California, and 75 FR 6571 (February 10, 2010), the determination of attainment of the 1..., 2007) (Miami, Arizona area); 75 FR 27944 (May 19, 2010) (Coso Junction, California area); and 76 FR... promulgated secondary PM 10 standards that were identical to the primary standards. See 52 FR 24634 (July...

  6. 78 FR 49403 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... attainment of the PM-10 standard in Coso Junction, California); (75 FR 6571, February 10, 2010), (71 FR 6352...) (Miami, Arizona area); (75 FR 27944, May 19, 2010) (Coso Junction, California area). Thus EPA has...); 75 FR 13710 and 75 FR 27944 (proposed and final determination of attainment for Coso...

  7. 78 FR 56633 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New York; Determination of Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... of attainment of the PM 10 standard in Coso Junction, California), and 75 FR 6571 (February 10, 2010..., California area); 72 FR 14422 (March 28, 2007) (Miami, Arizona area); 75 FR 27944 (May 19, 2010) (Coso... and 75 FR 27944, the proposed and final determination of attainment for Coso Junction. \\6\\ Thus,...

  8. 77 FR 66545 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... suspension of the specific requirements, set forth at 40 CFR 51.1004(c), would no longer exist and the area... NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area... Area AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making...

  9. 77 FR 53772 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Washington; Determination of Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... the specific requirements, set forth at 40 CFR 51.1004(c), would no longer exist and the area would... Nonattainment Area AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making a final determination that the Tacoma, Pierce County nonattainment area (hereafter referred to as...

  10. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing for the determination of air temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, S.A.P.; Slingerland, J.D.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a method to correct for the effect of solar radiation in atmospheric distributed temperature sensing (DTS) applications. By using two cables with different diameters, one can determine what temperature a zero diameter cable would have. Such a virtual cable would not be affected

  11. 76 FR 56694 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; Determinations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Loma (Jurupa High School), and Fontana. However, with respect to these four monitors, the failure to...; Determinations of Failure To Attain the One-Hour Ozone Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA....905(e), and that addresses contingency measures for failure to attain or make reasonable...

  12. Indirect determination of O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate in air at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, W K; Smith, J E

    1989-09-08

    This paper describes an indirect method for the quantification of the toxic military agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) in the vapor state in air or other similar gases at ng/m3 levels. The method begins with the passage of a gaseous sample through a filter impregnated with silver fluoride to convert the VX vapor to ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate. The latter compound is then trapped on a bed of Chromosorb 106, transferred to a smaller bed of the same sorbent, and desorbed thermally into a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-photometric detector. The method is comparable in sensitivity to the principal alternative method, which is based on cholinesterase inhibition, and it is less subject to interference from common organic solvents and other cholinesterase inhibitors. The detection limit was found to be limited by, and therefore dependent on, the nature and extent of any background substances that produced a significant chromatographic signal or response at the retention time of the analyte. In the absence of such substances, the instrument provided a response to 0.19 ng of VX that was thirty times larger than the peak-to-peak noise amplitude on the chromatographic base line. Moreover, the method bias (i.e., 100% minus the percent VX recovery) was found to depend on VX concentration, with estimates of agent recovery ranging from 83% at a VX concentration of 0.67 ng/m3 to 104% at a concentration of 0.084 ng/m3. The relative standard deviation varied with VX concentration and with the nature of the test that was performed to estimate it. It ranged from 2.1% in one VX vapor-challenge test to 17% in an experiment involving spiked sampling tubes, and it was generally lower at the higher VX test concentrations.

  13. Crew-Aided Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.

    2015-01-01

    A sextant provides manual capability to perform star/planet-limb sightings and offers a cheap, simple, robust backup navigation source for exploration missions independent from the ground. Sextant sightings from spacecraft were first exercised in Gemini and flew as the lost-communication backup for all Apollo missions. This study characterized error sources of navigation-grade sextants for feasibility of taking star and planetary limb sightings from inside a spacecraft. A series of similar studies was performed in the early/mid-1960s in preparation for Apollo missions. This study modernized and updated those findings in addition to showing feasibility using Linear Covariance analysis techniques. The human eyeball is a remarkable piece of optical equipment and provides many advantages over camera-based systems, including dynamic range and detail resolution. This technique utilizes those advantages and provides important autonomy to the crew in the event of lost communication with the ground. It can also provide confidence and verification of low-TRL automated onboard systems. The technique is extremely flexible and is not dependent on any particular vehicle type. The investigation involved procuring navigation-grade sextants and characterizing their performance under a variety of conditions encountered in exploration missions. The JSC optical sensor lab and Orion mockup were the primary testing locations. For the accuracy assessment, a group of test subjects took sextant readings on calibrated targets while instrument/operator precision was measured. The study demonstrated repeatability of star/planet-limb sightings with bias and standard deviation around 10 arcseconds, then used high-fidelity simulations to verify those accuracy levels met the needs for targeting mid-course maneuvers in preparation for Earth reen.

  14. The Use of Amberlite Adsorbents for Green Chromatography Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Juan-Peiró

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive samplers have been widely used for volatile organic compounds determination. Following the green chemistry tendency of the direct determination of adsorbed compounds in membrane-based devices through using head space direct chromatography analysis, this work has evaluated the use of Amberlite XAD-2, XAD-4, and XAD-16 adsorbents as a filling material for passive samplers. Direct analysis of the membranes by HS-GC-MS involves a solvent-free method avoiding any sample treatment. For exposed membranes, recoveries ranged from 10% to 203%, depending on the compound and adsorbent used. The limit of the detection values ranged from 1 to 140 ng per sampler. Acceptable precision and sensitivity levels were obtained for the XAD resins assayed.

  15. From Crew Communication to Coordination: A Fundamental Means to an End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the purposes and contexts of communication, factors which affect the interpretation of communication, and the advantages of effective, systematic communication to and from crews. Communication accomplishes information transfer, team/task management, shared problem solving and decision making, and establishment of the interpersonal climate. These accomplishments support outcomes: Technical task performance; CRM (crew resource management); Procedures and ATC (air traffic control); and Work/team atmosphere. The presentation lists various types of management inefficiency which can result from a lack of each of the four accomplishments. Communication skills are used within the following contexts: physical; social and organizational; task and operational; and speech and linguistic. Crew communication can be evaluated through investigation (case study), research (experimentation), and training.

  16. Determination of Ion Concentrations and Heavy Metals in the Air Particulates of an Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Işıldak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the determination of heavy metals, anions and cations in atmospheric aerosols at four heavily polluted sites in Samsun city, Turkey. The anions (Cl-, Br-, NO3- and NO2- and cations (Na+, K+ and NH4+ in the samples were determined by ion chromatography using a potentiometric detector with ion selective electrodes. Flame and graphite-furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer was used for the determination of Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe. The average values of Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, Br-, Na+, K+ and NH4+ concentrations in the samples were 4.58±1.30, 7.42±1.32, 0.86±0.10, 0.28±0.05, 0.77±0.13, 0.72±0.06, and 1.08±0.09 µg/m3 respectively. The average values of Zn, Cu, Fe and Pb concentrations in the samples were 2.32±0.21, 1.71±0.14, 2.29±0.18, and 2.46±0.22 µg/m3 respectively.

  17. The Impact of Data Communications Messages in the Terminal Area on Flight Crew Workload and Eye Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Baxley, Brian T.; Norman, Robert M.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Adams, Cathy A.; Latorella, Kara A.; Lynn, William A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper, to accompany a discussion panel, describes a collaborative FAA and NASA research study to determine the effect Data Communications (Data Comm) messages have on flight crew workload and eye scanning behavior in busy terminal area operations. In the Next Generation Air Transportation System Concept of Operations, for the period 2017-2022, the FAA envisions Data Comm between controllers and the flight crew to become the primary means of communicating non-time critical information. Four research conditions were defined that span current day to future equipage levels (Voice with Paper map, Data Comm with Paper map, Data Comm with Moving Map Display with ownship position displayed, Data Comm with Moving Map, ownship and taxi route displayed), and were used to create arrival and departure scenarios at Boston Logan Airport. Preliminary results for workload, situation awareness, and pilot head-up time are presented here. Questionnaire data indicated that pilot acceptability, workload, and situation awareness ratings were favorable for all of the conditions tested. Pilots did indicate that there were times during final approach and landing when they would prefer not to hear the message chime, and would not be able to make a quick response due to high priority tasks in the cockpit.

  18. Use of Data Comm by Flight Crew to Conduct Interval Management Operations to Parallel Dependent Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Hubbs, Clay; Shay, Rick; Karanian, James

    2011-01-01

    The Interval Management (IM) concept is being developed as a method to maintain or increase high traffic density airport arrival throughput while allowing aircraft to conduct near idle thrust descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR1) experiment at NASA Langley Research Center used 24 commercial pilots to examine IM procedures to conduct parallel dependent runway arrival operations while maintaining safe but efficient intervals behind the preceding aircraft. The use of IM procedures during these operations requires a lengthy and complex clearance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) to the participating aircraft, thereby making the use of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) highly desirable as the communication method. The use of CPDLC reduces the need for voice transmissions between controllers and flight crew, and enables automated transfer of IM clearance elements into flight management systems or other aircraft avionics. The result is reduced crew workload and an increase in the efficiency of crew procedures. This paper focuses on the subset of data collected related to the use of CPDLC for IM operations into a busy airport. Overall, the experiment and results were very successful, with the mean time under 43 seconds for the flight crew to load the clearance into the IM spacing tool, review the calculated speed, and respond to ATC. An overall mean rating of Moderately Agree was given when the crews were asked if the use of CPDLC was operationally acceptable as simulated in this experiment. Approximately half of the flight crew reported the use of CPDLC below 10,000 for IM operations was unacceptable, with 83% reporting below 5000 was unacceptable. Also described are proposed modifications to the IM operations that may reduce CPDLC Respond time to less than 30 seconds and should significantly reduce the complexity of crew procedures, as well as follow-on research issues for operational use of CPDLC during IM

  19. Application of Needle Trap Device Packed with Polydimethylsiloxane for Determination of Carbon Tetrachloride and Trichloroethylene in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The use of modern microextraction techniques for determination and evaluation of pollutants is progressively increasing nowadays. Needle trap microextraction (NTME technique has privileges compared to the other techniques for sampling occupa-tional and environmental pollutants from air. In this study the application of NTD technique packed with polydimethylsiloxane as sorbent for determination of two organohalogen com-pounds (carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene was investigated. Material & Methods: In this experimental study NTDs were prepared with the same length of proposed sorbent and used after calibration of sampling pump. The parameters related to per-formance of NTD and proposed sorbent including temperature and relative humidity, sam-pling storage time and breakthrough volume were investigated. In analytical performances, the capability of NTD on time and temperature of desorption also carryover of analytes were assessed. Finally, the results for NTD microextraction e were compared to the NIOSH 1003 method. Results: Results have shown that, temperature and relative humidity had effects on the per-formance of NTD and it's sorbent, and NTD contained PDMS showed better performance in the lower temperature and relative humidity at the range of assessment. The performance of NTD and it's sorbent for storage of sampled analytes was more than 95% of analytes mass after 4 days of sampling. The proposed technique also showed a good performance for de-sorption parameters and desorption temperature and time was 290?C and 4 minutes, respec-tively. After desorption, the carryover was also investigated and measured as 4 min. Relative standard division (RSD for repeatability of method for NTD from different concentration levels of 1-250 µgL-1were 4.1-7.5%. Conclusions: The NTD technique as an active sampling method with high enrichment factor showed a good performance for sampling and analysis of volatile organohalogen

  20. Analysis of Crew Fatigue in AIA Guantanamo Bay Aviation Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Flight operations can engender fatigue, which can affect flight crew performance, vigilance, and mood. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) requested the NASA Fatigue Countermeasures Program to analyze crew fatigue factors in an aviation accident that occurred at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. There are specific fatigue factors that can be considered in such investigations: cumulative sleep loss, continuous hours of wakefulness prior to the incident or accident, and the time of day at which the accident occurred. Data from the NTSB Human Performance Investigator's Factual Report, the Operations Group Chairman's Factual Report, and the Flight 808 Crew Statements were analyzed, using conservative estimates and averages to reconcile discrepancies among the sources. Analysis of these data determined the following: the entire crew displayed cumulative sleep loss, operated during an extended period of continuous wakefulness, and obtained sleep at times in opposition to the circadian disposition for sleep, and that the accident occurred in the afternoon window of physiological sleepiness. In addition to these findings, evidence that fatigue affected performance was suggested by the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) transcript as well as in the captain's testimony. Examples from the CVR showed degraded decision-making skills, fixation, and slowed responses, all of which can be affected by fatigue; also, the captain testified to feeling "lethargic and indifferent" just prior to the accident. Therefore, the sleep/wake history data supports the hypothesis that fatigue was a factor that affected crewmembers' performance. Furthermore, the examples from the CVR and the captain's testimony support the hypothesis that the fatigue had an impact on specific actions involved in the occurrence of the accident.

  1. Determination of selected oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) in diesel and air particulate matter standard reference materials (SRMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocun, Margarete S; Schantz, Michele M

    2013-06-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) have recently received much attention in discussions regarding the negative impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. The National Institute of Standards and Technology provides several environmental matrix standard reference materials (SRMs) with certified and reference values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of oxygenated PAHs are determined in three air PM SRMs (1649b, 1648a, and 2786) and three diesel PM SRMs (1650b, 2975, and 1975) using two independent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Concentrations of oxy-PAHs were at the milligrams per kilogram level with higher overall concentrations in diesel PM (up to 50 mg/kg for 9,10-anthraquinone). One of the highest oxy-PAH concentrations (up to 5 mg/kg) measured in the air particulate SRMs was for 7,12-benz[a]anthracenquinone. These results suggest that oxygenated PAHs should not be neglected in the analysis of PM as their concentrations can be as high as those of some PAHs and are one to two orders of magnitude higher than those for nitro-PAHs.

  2. A macro-driven Excel template for determining the anaerobic capacity using an air-braked ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, J P; Sainsbury, D A; Withers, R T

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a microcomputer system for automating the process of data collection, calculation and display of anaerobic capacity tests on an air-braked ergometer. The use of the spreadsheet Excel and associated 'Dalog' program represents an advance on current software which estimates the anaerobic capacity from work performed alone. Numerous calculations are required when air-braked, rather than friction-braked erogometers are used. Each 1 s power output collected during an all-out sprint on the ergometer is corrected against the criterion of a dynamic calibration rig and adjusted for differences in barometric pressure, ambient temperature and humidity. The Excel template features a series of macros invoked by buttons imbedded in the spreadsheet. Their selection displays various dialogue boxes which request input related to the calculation of oxygen deficit and related variables. Selecting the final macro prints a summary table and charts which include: power output, fatigue index, mechanical work performed, % aerobic contribution to work, oxygen demand, oxygen consumption and anaerobic capacity as determined by the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit.

  3. Determination of radon in the air of housings of the Aguascalientes municipality; Determinacion de radon en el aire en viviendas del municipio de Aguascalientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso G, M.R.; Lira P, M.G.; Bonilla P, A.; Ruvalcaba S, L.; Gutierrez S, K.M.; Sandoval A, G.E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Lopez Mateos 1801, 20256 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Sanchez H, L. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jassogonzalezre@yahoo.com.mx

    2006-07-01

    This study reports the results of the first exploratory sampling of the radon concentration in the air in a group of housings of the Aguascalientes City, Mexico. The municipality of Aguascalientes was divided in 4 sampling areas considering a total of 179 housings. In these housings, the radon concentration in the air was monitored during a period of 10 days. The results obtained in this study indicate that the radon concentration in the air of 45% of the sampling housings overcomes the concentration limit of 250 Bq/m{sup 3} suggested by the EPA. (Author)

  4. A new air displacement plethysmograph for the determination of Japanese body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, N; Nonaka, K; Fujii, M

    1999-11-01

    A new device based on the plethysmographic measurement of body volume, named the BOD POD Body Composition System, was developed for the purpose of estimating body composition. The performance, reliability, validity, and clinical application of this system were evaluated in Japanese subjects. The coefficient variation (CV:%) in same-day tests was 2.48, in three separate-day tests it was 2.27, and for independent operators it was 4.53, respectively. There was a clear correlation between the results from BOD POD and those from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (r = 0.910, p BOD POD. The findings indicate that the BOD POD is a highly reliable and valid method for determining body fat percentage. This new method has several advantages, e.g. it is quick, simple to operate and may accommodate wide populations.

  5. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference. Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of

  6. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building.The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference.Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of five

  7. Comparison of available measurements of the absolute air-fluorescence yield and determination of its global average value

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results of the absolute air-fluorescence yield are given very often in different units (photons/MeV or photons/m) and for different wavelength intervals. In this work we present a comparison of available results normalized to its value in photons/MeV for the 337 nm band at 1013 hPa and 293 K. The conversion of photons/m to photons/MeV requires an accurate determination of the energy deposited by the electrons in the field of view of the experimental set-up. We have calculated the energy deposition for each experiment by means of a detailed Monte Carlo simulation and the results have been compared with those assumed or calculated by the authors. As a result, corrections to the reported fluorescence yields are proposed. These corrections improve the compatibility between measurements in such a way that a reliable average value with uncertainty at the level of 5% is obtained.

  8. An analytical method to determine activity concentrations of uranium- and thorium-series radionuclides in outdoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozas, S.; Moja, M.; Alegria, N.; Idoeta, R.; Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n, E-48013, Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Radon and its progeny in the outdoor air are one of the contributors to human exposure from natural sources. However, not only are their concentrations in the low layers of the atmosphere very low and affected by atmospheric mixing phenomena, some of these radionuclides have quite a low or very low half-life as well. These facts make the assessment of an independent activity concentration value for each of them difficult and as the existence of radioactive equilibrium in free air among the different radionuclides from the radioactive series cannot be considered, some approaches like the use of an established equilibrium factor are usually taken into account. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to characterize the outdoor air of Bilbao (Spain) in terms of natural radionuclides composition and to obtain the specific value of the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny. To achieve these objectives a set of experimental steps have been carried out: aerosols and particles have been collected from the air using an aerosol sampling station with a nominal flow rate of 500 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and, simultaneously, the Rn activity concentration was obtained by means of an automatic radon probe which provides values applying a pseudo-coincidence technique. Obtained particle filters were immediately measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and also one week and one month after the first measurement. After that, an analytical method, based on Bateman equations, has been used to obtain the activity concentrations of short-lived radionuclides in the sampled air from the values obtained in the early gamma-ray measurements. This analytical method has been previously used to determine the activity concentration of these radionuclides during a welding process and results have been published. As a result of this process, the air is characterized and the data needed to assess the equilibrium factor, by means of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration, obtained. Achieved

  9. Feasibility of a simple laboratory approach for determining temperature influence on SPMD-air partition coefficients of selected compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicenaite, A.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Kauneliene, V.; Bergqvist, P.-A.

    2007-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a widely used passive sampling methodology for both waterborne and airborne hydrophobic organic contaminants. The exchange kinetics and partition coefficients of an analyte in a SPMD are mediated by its physicochemical properties and certain environmental conditions. Controlled laboratory experiments are used for determining the SPMD-air (Ksa's) partition coefficients and the exchange kinetics of organic vapors. This study focused on determining a simple approach for measuring equilibrium Ksa's for naphthalene (Naph), o-chlorophenol (o-CPh) and p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) over a wide range of temperatures. SPMDs were exposed to test chemical vapors in small, gas-tight chambers at four different temperatures (-16, -4, 22 and 40 ??C). The exposure times ranged from 6 h to 28 d depending on test temperature. Ksa's or non-equilibrium concentrations in SPMDs were determined for all compounds, temperatures and exposure periods with the exception of Naph, which could not be quantified in SPMDs until 4 weeks at the -16 ??C temperature. To perform this study the assumption of constant and saturated atmospheric concentrations in test chambers was made. It could influence the results, which suggest that flow through experimental system and performance reference compounds should be used for SPMD calibration. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Feasibility of a simple laboratory approach for determining temperature influence on SPMD–air partition coefficients of selected compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicenaite, Aurelija; Huckins, James N.; Alvarez, David A.; Cranor, Walter L.; Gale, Robert W.; Kauneliene, Violeta; Bergqvist, Per-Anders

    2007-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a widely used passive sampling methodology for both waterborne and airborne hydrophobic organic contaminants. The exchange kinetics and partition coefficients of an analyte in a SPMD are mediated by its physicochemical properties and certain environmental conditions. Controlled laboratory experiments are used for determining the SPMD–air (Ksa's) partition coefficients and the exchange kinetics of organic vapors. This study focused on determining a simple approach for measuring equilibrium Ksa's for naphthalene (Naph), o-chlorophenol (o-CPh) and p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) over a wide range of temperatures. SPMDs were exposed to test chemical vapors in small, gas-tight chambers at four different temperatures (−16, −4, 22 and 40 °C). The exposure times ranged from 6 h to 28 d depending on test temperature. Ksa's or non-equilibrium concentrations in SPMDs were determined for all compounds, temperatures and exposure periods with the exception of Naph, which could not be quantified in SPMDs until 4 weeks at the −16 °C temperature. To perform this study the assumption of constant and saturated atmospheric concentrations in test chambers was made. It could influence the results, which suggest that flow through experimental system and performance reference compounds should be used for SPMD calibration.

  11. Protein Quantity on the Air-Solid Interface Determines Degradation Rates of Human Growth Hormone in Lyophilized Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yemin; Grobelny, Pawel; von Allmen, Alexander; Knudson, Korben; Pikal, Michael; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    rhGH was lyophilized with various glass-forming stabilizers, employing cycles that incorporated various freezing and annealing procedures to manipulate glass formation kinetics, associated relaxation processes and glass specific surface areas (SSA’s). The secondary structure in the cake was monitored by IR and in reconstituted samples by CD. The rhGH concentrations on the surface of lyophilized powders were determined from ESCA. Tg, SSA’s and water contents were determined immediately after lyophilization. Lyophilized samples were incubated at 323 K for 16 weeks, and the resulting extents of rhGH aggregation, oxidation and deamidation were determined after rehydration. Water contents and Tg were independent of lyophilization process parameters. Compared to samples lyophilized after rapid freezing, rhGH in samples that had been annealed in frozen solids prior to drying, or annealed in glassy solids after secondary drying retained more native-like protein secondary structure, had a smaller fraction of the protein on the surface of the cake and exhibited lower levels of degradation during incubation. A simple kinetic model suggested that the differences in the extent of rhGH degradation during storage in the dried state between different formulations and processing methods could largely be ascribed to the associated levels of rhGH at the solid-air interface after lyophilization. PMID:24623139

  12. Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Bond, Cody R.

    2013-09-01

    To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the third annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the wind industry. The CREW database uses both high resolution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from operating plants and Strategic Power Systems ORAPWindª (Operational Reliability Analysis Program for Wind) data, which consist of downtime and reserve event records and daily summaries of various time categories for each turbine. Together, these data are used as inputs into CREWs reliability modeling. The results presented here include: the primary CREW Benchmark statistics (operational availability, utilization, capacity factor, mean time between events, and mean downtime); time accounting from an availability perspective; time accounting in terms of the combination of wind speed and generation levels; power curve analysis; and top system and component contributors to unavailability.

  13. Determination of the integral characteristics of an asymmetrical thermal plume from air speed/velocity and temperature measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    A method, named the Approximate Distributions Integration Method (ADI-method), is proposed for calculation of parameters of the asymmetrical thermal plume above a heat source, such as maximum air temperature excess and velocity, their position in the plume cross-section, the widths...... of the temperature and velocity profiles, asymmetry parameters of the plume cross-section, and the integral characteristics. The method is based on an approximation of the measured profiles of air velocity and air temperature excess in the plume cross-section. A procedure for conversion of the air speed measured...... by omnidirectional sensors into air velocity is incorporated with the ADI-method. Experiments were performed in a climate chamber with air temperature of 23 _C, radiant temperature equal to the air temperature and upward airflow with velocity of less than 0.05 m/s. Air speed and temperature in a thermal plume...

  14. A sensitive diffusion sampler for the determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Asai, Masae; Hasegawa, Shuji

    We developed a diffusive sampling device (DSD-voc) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which is suitable for collection of low level VOCs and analysis with thermal desorption. This sampling device is composed of two parts, an exposure part made of a porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter, and an analysis part made of stainless-steel tubing. The DSD-voc collects VOCs through the mechanism of molecular diffusion. Collection is controlled by moving the adsorbent from the exposure part to the analysis part by changing the posture of the DSD-voc. Adsorbates in the DSD-voc were analyzed by GC/MS with a thermal desorption cold trap injector (TCT). The TCT has the advantage of being able to accept the entire quantity of VOCs. We connected a condenser between the DSD-voc and the trap tube to prevent moisture from freezing in the trap tube when the sampler was packed with strong adsorbent. We also examined the desorption efficiency for VOCs from several types of adsorbents (Carboxen TM 1000, Carbosieve TM G, Carbosieve S III, Carbotrap TM B, and activated carbon) over a wide range of temperatures. Carboxen 1000 was suitable for the determination of VOCs with a low boiling point range, from CFC12 to hexane, while Carbotrap B was suitable for VOCs from hexane to 1,4-dichlorobenzene. The limits of detection with Carboxen 1000 and Carbotrap B were 0.036-0.046 and 0.0035-0.014 ppb, respectively, for a sampling duration of 24 h. Coefficients of variation for concentrations of major VOCs ranged from 3.8 to 14%. It is possible to estimate atmospheric VOCs at sub-parts per billion (sub-ppb), with high sensitivity, by using both adsorbents in combination.

  15. Determination of the air attenuation and electronic loss for the free air concentric cylinders ionization chamber; Determinacao da atenuacao do ar e perda eletronica para a camara de ionizacao de ar livre de cilindros concentricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hebert Pinto Silveira de

    2010-07-01

    Along the latest years, the LNMRI has been proceeding a continuous research work with a concentric cylinders type free air ionizing chamber (VICTOREEN, model 481), aiming to establish it as a new national standard, and, as a consequence, replace the worldwide accepted secondary standard, calibrated by PTB. Taking into account that the absolute determination of kerma in air with a free air ionizing chamber implies the acquirement of a number of correction factors. The main objective of the present work comprises the determination of the two factors, specifically, electronic loss (k{sub e}) and air attenuation (k{sub a}). The correction factors were obtained through mammography qualities reference spectrum, using Monte Carlo simulation method. The Penelope code was used in the simulation procedures. Simulations took place in two stages, the acquirement of specters related to the qualities of interest (mammography) with the x ray tube (Pantak, model HF160 e Panalytical, model XRF window), and the free-air ionization chamber. The data were compared to those related to the BIPM chamber, to electronic loss were not detected. The comparison between air attenuation factors was obtained data bellow 0.13%. (author)

  16. STS-114 Crew Interviews: 1. Eileen Collins 2. Wendy Lawrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    1) STS-114 Commander Eileen Collins emphasized her love for teaching, respect for teachers, and her plan to go back to teaching again someday. Her solid background in Math and Science, focus on her interests, with great support from her family, and great training and support during her career with the Air Force gave her confidence in pursuing her dream to become an astronaut. Commander Collins shares her thoughts on the Columbia, details the various flight operations and crew tasks that will take place during the mission and the importance of Shuttle missions to the International Space Station and space exploration. 2) STS-114 Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence first dreamed of becoming an astronaut when she watched Neil Armstrong walk on the moon from their black and white TV set. She majored in Engineering and became a Navy pilot. She shares her thoughts on the Columbia, details her major role as the crew in charge of all the transfer operations; getting the MPLM unpacked and repacked; and the importance of Shuttle missions to the International Space Station and space exploration.

  17. Radon in indoor air of primary schools: determinant factors, their variability and effective dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João; Moreira, André; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Pereira, Alcides

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas, abundant in granitic areas, such as in the city of Porto at the north-east of Portugal. This gas is a recognized carcinogenic agent, being appointed by the World Health Organization as the leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The aim of this preliminary survey was to determine indoor radon concentrations in public primary schools, to analyse the main factors influencing their indoor concentration levels and to estimate the effective dose in students and teachers in primary schools. Radon concentrations were measured in 45 classrooms from 13 public primary schools located in Porto, using CR-39 passive radon detectors for about 2-month period. In all schools, radon concentrations ranged from 56 to 889 Bq/m(3) (mean = 197 Bq/m(3)). The results showed that the limit of 100 Bq/m(3) established by WHO IAQ guidelines was exceeded in 92 % of the measurements, as well as 8 % of the measurements exceeded the limit of 400 Bq/m(3) established by the national legislation. Moreover, the mean annual effective dose was calculated as 1.25 mSv/y (ranging between 0.58 and 3.07 mSv/y), which is below the action level (3-10 mSv). The considerable variability of radon concentration observed between and within floors indicates a need to monitor concentrations in several rooms for each floor. A single radon detector for each room can be used, provided that the measurement error is considerably lower than variability of radon concentration between rooms. The results of the present survey will provide useful baseline data for adopting safety measures and dealing effectively with radiation emergencies. In particular, radon remediation techniques should be used in buildings located in the highest radon risk areas of Portugal. The results obtained in the current study concerning radon levels and their variations will be useful to optimize the design of future research surveys.

  18. DETERMINATION OF MOBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN THE URBAN AIR PARTICULATES MATTER OF ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KALANTARI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In addition to, Carbohyrates, Lipids, Amino acids and vitamins, some of the trace metals are known vital for biological activity. But some of them not only are not necessary, but also they are very toxic and carcinogen. In this research the rate of Mobility and Bioavailability of heavy metals associated with airborne particulates matter such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr have been measured. Methods: The sequential extraction has been used for releasing of heavy metales from solid samples as airborne particulates matter on the paper filter samples. Five stages in the sequential extraction procedure developed by Tessier, et al, was first used for extraction and determination of the concentration and percentages of heavy metals which could be released in each stage. In the 1st stage, exchangable metals were released. The sample was extracted with 10 ml of ammonium acetat, pH=7 for 1h. Then the sample was centrifuged at 2000 rpm. The solution of extraction, was analysed for Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr. In the 2nd stage, heavy metals bound to carbonates which were sensitive to pH were extracted. The residue from stage 1, with 10 ml of sodium acetate 1 M the pH was adjusted to 5 with acetic acid. Then the sample was centrifuged as stage 1. In the third stage heavy metals bound to iron and manganese oxides were extracted. The residue from stage 2 was reacted with 10 ml hydroxyl amine hydrochloride at 25% v/v. In the 4th stage metals bound to sulfides and organic compounds were extracted. The residue from stage 3 with 5 ml nitric acid and 5 ml hydrogen peroxide 30% and heated at 85° C. Finally in the 5th stage residual heavy metals were extracted. the residue from fraction 4 with 10 ml nitric acid and 3 ml hydroflouric acid were extracted. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in some fractions of sequential extraction were too low, so, we carried out preconcentration method for these two elements. Results and Discussion: The results

  19. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the outcome of the NESC assessment. NASA/TM-2013-217380, "Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events." supercedes this document.

  20. STS-129 shuttle crew visits Stennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the STS-129 space shuttle crew visited NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on Jan. 19 to share details of their November visit to the International Space Station. During their 11-day mission aboard shuttle Atlantis, crew members delivered equipment, supplies and spare parts to the ISS. Following their mission report, astronauts visited with Stennis employees during a brief reception. Astronauts visiting Stennis were Pilot Barry Wilmore, Mission Specialist Randy Bresnik, Commander Charles Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Mike Foreman and Robert Satcher.

  1. Determination of carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide in refinery hydrogen gases and air by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Marian; Kartanowicz, Rafal; Jastrzebski, Daniel; Kamiński, Marcin M

    2003-03-14

    This paper illustrates a method for determining trace amounts of CO, CH4 and CO2 with the detection limit of 0.15, 0.15 and 0.20 microg/l, respectively, in refinery hydrogen gases or in air. A simple modification of a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector is presented. A Porapak Q column, additionally connected with a short molecular sieve 5A packed column and a catalytic hydrogenation reactor on the Ni catalyst have been applied. The principle of the analytical method proposed is the separation of CO from O2 before the introduction of CO to the methanizer. The analytical procedure and examples of the results obtained have been presented. The modification applied makes it possible to use the GC instrument for other determinations, requiring utilization of the Porapak Q column and the flame-ionization detector. In such cases, the short molecular sieve 5A column and the methanizer can be by-passed.

  2. Analysis of biological factors for determination of air pollution tolerance index of selected plants in Yamuna Nagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Panwar, Neeraj; Arora, Pooja; Luhach, Jyoti; Chaudhry, Smita

    2013-05-01

    Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated for various plant species growing in vicinity of three different industrial areas (Paper mill, Sugar mill, Thermal Power Plant) and Yamuna River belt of Yamuna Nagar. Studies were carried out to determine the physiological response of ten plant species. The leaf samples collected from these plant species were used to determine their plant APTI by calculating the ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, pH, and relative water content for all selected sites. Highest pH, relative water content, ascorbic acid and total chlorophyll was observed in Castor (9.86), Parthenium (96.99%), Ficus benghalensis (14.90 mg g(-1)) and Amaranthus (7.08 mg g(-1)) at Yamuna river, Thermal power plant, Yamuna river and paper mill respectively. It was concluded that out of ten species studied only one species (Ficus benghalensis) showed moderately tolerant response in all selected sites, while other species showed sensitive response. According to observed APTI values, Ficus benghalensis showed the highest value (21.65) at sugar mill followed by thermal power plant (19.38), Paper mill (17.65) and Yamuna River (17.61). The lowest APTI values were reported in Oxalis corniculata (6.42) at Yamuna River belt followed by Malvestrum at sugar mill (7.71).

  3. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  4. Exercise for the treatment of neck pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Riebling Nørnberg, Bo

    Care Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Denmark 3Royal Danish Air Force, Tactical Air Command, Denmark (TACDEN) Introduction: Flight-related neck pain is common among helicopter pilots and crew (1). The aim of this study was to quantify the physical workload on neck/shoulder muscles during flight......, and design an exercise training program aiming at prevention and treatment of neck pain. Methods: 9 pilots and 9 crew members participated in 9 standardized flight sorties encompassing: Patient-transport (PT), Patient-transport with Night Vision Goggles (NVG) (PT+NVG), and Search And Rescue with NVG (SAR...... targeting deep/superficial neck muscles (2). TheraBand® elastics as well as video instructions and training diaries were used. Discussion: Muscle activity was ~10% MVC in UNE and such sustained activity implies a high risk for developing disorders (3). An ongoing randomized controlled trial will evaluate...

  5. Determination and analysis of trace metals and surfactant in air particulate matter during biomass burning haze episode in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Manan; Guo, Xinxin; Zhao, Xing-Min

    2016-09-01

    Trace metal species and surface active agent (surfactant) emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic source can cause various health related and environmental problems. Limited data exists for determinations of atmospheric particulate matter particularly trace metals and surfactant concentration in Malaysia during biomass burning haze episode. We used simple and validated effective methodology for the determination of trace metals and surfactant in atmospheric particulate matter (TSP & PM2.5) collected during the biomass burning haze episode in Kampar, Malaysia from end of August to October 2015. Colorimetric method of analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactant as methylene blue active substance (MBAS) and cationic surfactant as disulphine blue active substance (DBAS) using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Particulate samples were also analyzed for trace metals with inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by extraction from glass microfiber filters with close vessel microwave acid digestion. The result showed that the concentrations of surfactant in both samples (TSP & PM2.5) were dominated by MBAS (0.147-4.626 mmol/m3) rather than DBAS (0.111-0.671 mmol/m3) and higher than the other researcher found. Iron (147.31-1381.19 μg/m3) was recorded leading trace metal in PM followed by Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and others. During the haze period the highest mass concentration of TSP 313.34 μg/m3 and 191.07 μg/m3 for PM2.5 were recorded. Furthermore, the backward air trajectories from Kampar in north of peninsular Malaysia confirmed that nearly all the winds paths originate from Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  6. Multifunctional Coating for Crew Cabin Surfaces and Fabrics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's crewed spacecrafts require routine cleaning of particulate, moisture, organic, and salt contaminants on the crew cabin surfaces and fabrics. Self-cleaning...

  7. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  8. Integrated and Dynamic Vehicle and Crew Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Huisman (Dennis)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDue to increased competition in the public transport market and the pressure on governments to cut expenses, increasing attention has been paid to cost reductions in public transportation. Since the main resources used in public transportation are vehicles and crews, producing efficient

  9. COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS IN A MIXED CREW ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ASTRATINEI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping has become a highly international and multicultural industry due to a globalised labour market of seafarers. About two thirds of the world`s merchant fleets, are manned by a mixed crew, which may include two to three different nationalities. The common language used on board ship is English. So the crewmembers must have a good command of this language. 80% of all maritime accidents are, according to incident reports, caused by human error i.e. negligence, fatigue, incompetence or communication breakdown. Another factor that may affect the safety of crew and cargo is the cultural differences within the mixed nationality crews which, if not appeased in time, may lead to very serious conflicts. This paper proposes to analyse some characteristics of the Asian culture and traditions and suggest some ways of improving the professional relationship among multinational crew members by making them aware of their shipmates identities. A questionnaire, which we intend to use as a research tool, will be provided and explained.

  10. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  11. The use of tristimulus colorimetry for the determination of hydrogen cyanide in air by a modified König method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR PITSCHMANN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple visual and tristimulus colorimetric method (three-dimensional system CIE-L*a*b* for the determination of trace amounts of hydrogen cyanide in air has been developed. The method is based on the suction of hydrogen cyanide through a chlorinating cartridge where cyanogen chloride is formed, which is further driven to an indicator disc made of a modified cotton fabric. This indicator disc is placed into an adapter. Prior to analysis, the disc is saturated with a chromogenic reagent, a solution of 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone and 4-benzylpyridine in ethanol. In the presence of hydrogen cyanide (cyanogen chloride, a pink coloration emerges on the indicator disc, the intensity of which is evaluated either visually or by use of a tristimulus colorimeter. The detection limit is 0.1 mg m-3. The method is mainly suitable for mobile field analyses. It was applied for the CHP-5 chemical agent detector introduced into the equipment of the Czech Army corps.

  12. An electrical conductivity based method of determining the particle deposition rate in air-liquid interface devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Harald; Meyer, Jörg; Kasper, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    A new in-situ method of determining the particle deposition rate onto cell cultures inside air-liquid interface devices is described. It is based on depositing a surrogate aerosol of salt particles onto the water filled wells of a culture plate while measuring the resulting change in electrical conductivity of the solution in situ, in order to derive the accumulated particle mass. For evaluation purposes, the wells of a six-well cell culture plate were equipped with custom designed electrodes and calibrated with a series of commercially available standard solutions. After the necessary corrections prescribed by theory, the calibration resulted in an accuracy and comparability between cells of ±3% in terms of measured conductivity. The method was then applied to a specific ALI device consisting essentially of the calibrated six-well culture plate inside an electrostatic cross-flow precipitator, and tested with submicron NaCl aerosol of defined size distribution produced by nebulization of a salt solution. 2h of particle accumulation were sufficient to accumulate between 30 and 10 μg of salt per well, depending on the location in the precipitator. Resulting deposition rates varied narrowly between the wells by about 2 ng min(-1) cm(-2). Factors affecting the overall accuracy and reproducibility are discussed.

  13. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  14. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David M.; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2010-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  15. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2009-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  16. 14 CFR 27.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are not convenient to the flight crew, there must be flight crew emergency exits, on both sides of the rotorcraft...

  17. 14 CFR 29.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are... rotorcraft or as a top hatch, in the flight crew area. (b) Each flight crew emergency exit must be...

  18. Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Gangs and Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Edward M.; Wishard, Alison; Gallimore, Ronald; Rivera, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with…

  19. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 121.385 Section... Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane with less than the minimum flight crew in the airworthiness certificate or the airplane Flight Manual approved for that...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3121(o)-1 - Crew leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew leader. 31.3121(o)-1 Section 31.3121(o)-1... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(o)-1 Crew leader. The term “crew leader” means an individual who furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor...

  1. Occupant Protection Project for the Orion Crew Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Jones, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This powerpoint presentation describes the occupant protection project for the Orion Crew Vehicle. Background information on the Orion Crew Vehicle along with comparisons of the Space Shuttle, Ares I, Ares V, Saturn V and Soyuz-FG are also described. The contents include: 1) Background and Overview; 2) Crew health and safety overview; 3) Occupant Protection project overview; and 4) Suit Element injury risk.

  2. Considerations on radiation protection of aircraft crew in Brazil; Consideracoes a respeito de protecao radiologica de tripulacoes de aeronaves no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, C.A.; Goncalez, O.L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.b [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Sordi, G.M.; Caldas, L.V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper discuss the guidelines existing in the ICRP documents related to radiation protection applied to the aircraft crew and it is presented a brief report on the evolution of these studies in this field, and also the regulations already adopted by the integrating of the European Union, Canada and USA. Also, are presented some peculiarities of Brazilian air space and the legislation applied to work with ionizing radiation, discussing the general aspects of radiation protection applied to the aircraft crew in Brazil

  3. Determining the long-term effects of H₂S concentration, relative humidity and air temperature on concrete sewer corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2014-11-15

    Many studies of sewer corrosion are performed in accelerated conditions that are not representing the actual corrosion processes. This study investigated the effects of various factors over 3.5 years under controlled conditions simulating the sewer environment. Concrete coupons prepared from precorroded sewers were exposed, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater, in laboratory controlled corrosion chambers. Over the 45 month exposure period, three environmental factors of H2S concentration, relative humidity and air temperature were controlled at different levels in the corrosion chambers. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the long term effects of these factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, corrosion layer sulfate levels and concrete loss. Corrosion rates were also determined for different exposure periods. It was found that the corrosion rate of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the H2S concentration in the gas phase. Relative humidity played also a role for the corrosion activity of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as the surfaces of these coupons were saturated due to capillary suction of sewage on the coupon surface. The effect of temperature on corrosion activity varied and possibly the acclimation of corrosion-inducing microbes to temperature mitigated effects of that factor. It was apparent that biological sulfide oxidation was not the limiting step of the overall corrosion process. These findings provide real insights into the long-term effects of these key environmental factors on the sewer corrosion processes.

  4. Determining Spatial Distribution And Air-Water Exchange Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Stormwater Runoff Catchment Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaraneni, V. K.; Schifman, L. A.; Craver, V.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater runoff is a conduit for several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in to surface and ground water bodies. The control of runoff and pollutants is typically addressed by best management practices (BMPs), such as retention/detention ponds or catchment basins in general. The effectiveness of catchment basins in reducing the volume of runoff and removal of some contaminants has been established. However, very little is known about the fate of the contaminants settled within these structures. In coastal regions and places with shallow groundwater tables accumulation of high concentrations of PAHs in the bottom sediments poses a potential threat for groundwater contamination. The concentrations of PAHs accumulated in the sediments of these catchment basins will primarily depend on the sources of runoff origin and the surrounding land use. Due to the physico-chemical characteristics of PAHs, their transport not only can occur in the liquid and solid phase, but it is also possible that gaseous emissions can be produced from BMP systems. For the purpose of this study, five stormwater catchment basins along the I-95 corridor in Rhode Island were selected based on the stormwater runoff origin and covering (industrial, urban, highway, and commercial) land uses. To study the stratification of PAHs sediment cores one foot were collected and analyzed for 31PAHs (16 EPA parent PAH and 15 methylated PAHs). In order to determine whether the catchment basins are a source of atmospheric pollution polyethylene passive samplers were deployed to determine the freely dissolved PAHs in the water column and gas phase PAHs at the air-water interface. This presentation will describe how PAH fluxes move between three environmental compartments (sediments, water column, atmosphere) within the five stormwater catchment basins. Further, it will be investigated whether these BMP structures can act as contaminant sources rather than sinks and whether BMP

  5. Crew Scheduling Considering both Crew Duty Time Difference and Cost on Urban Rail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail crew scheduling problem is to allocate train services to crews based on a given train timetable while satisfying all the operational and contractual requirements. In this paper, we present a new mathematical programming model with the aim of minimizing both the related costs of crew duty and the variance of duty time spreads. In addition to iincorporating the commonly encountered crew scheduling constraints, it also takes into consideration the constraint of arranging crews having a meal in the specific meal period of one day rather than after a minimum continual service time. The proposed model is solved by an ant colony algorithm which is built based on the construction of ant travel network and the design of ant travel path choosing strategy. The performances of the model and the algorithm are evaluated by conducting case study on Changsha urban rail. The results indicate that the proposed method can obtain a satisfactory crew schedule for urban rails with a relatively small computational time.

  6. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  7. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint

  8. Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air: Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P.

    2004-01-01

    The differences in the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in the ambient air from the two urban locations, were studied by the undergraduate analytical chemistry students. Tetraglyme is very widely used due to its simplicity and its potential for use to investigate VOCs in ambient and indoor air employing a purge-and-trap concentrator…

  9. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system approved by CBP and must set forth the information specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial... “non-crew member” is limited to all-cargo flights. (On a passenger or dual flight (passengers and cargo...

  10. The Fate of Trace Contaminants in a Crewed Spacecraft Cabin Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminants produced via equipment offgassing, human metabolic sources, and vehicle operations are removed from the cabin atmosphere by active contamination control equipment and incidental removal by other air quality control equipment. The fate of representative trace contaminants commonly observed in spacecraft cabin atmospheres is explored. Removal mechanisms are described and predictive mass balance techniques are reviewed. Results from the predictive techniques are compared to cabin air quality analysis results. Considerations are discussed for an integrated trace contaminant control architecture suitable for long duration crewed space exploration missions.

  11. Permanent medical disqualification in airline cabin crew: causes in 136 cases, 1993-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombal, Rui; Peixoto, Helena; Lima, Margarida; Jorge, Anabela

    2005-10-01

    Pronouncing cabin crew permanently unfit to fly is a difficult decision involving personal, professional, ethical, and corporate aspects. We analyzed the causes of permanent medical disqualification in cabin crew in a medium-sized European commercial airline for the period 1993-2002. The minutes of the official Medical Assessment Board of UCS for TAP Air Portugal were systematically reviewed and yielded a total of 136 cases of permanent medical disqualifications. The medical conditions most frequently responsible for grounding were otorhinolaryngological (30.1%), followed by musculoskeletal (21.3%), and psychiatric (12.5%). The remaining cases resulted from cardiovascular, malignant neoplastic, ophthalmologic, respiratory, neurological, infectious, urinary, digestive, and metabolic conditions. The disqualification rate was 9.2 for every 1000 cabin crewmembers per year. More than half of all cases (53.6%) were in the age range 41-50 yr (median 46 yr) and 66.1% were women. More than 85% had been with the company for 16 yr or more. The early retirement of these patients resulted in the loss of approximately 2364 person-years of work as cabin crew, although many patients were reassigned to ground duties with the airline. The annual disqualification rates found in this study were higher than those for airline pilots; we could find no comparable studies of rates for cabin crew. The results indicate the relevance of early detection as well as clinical and occupational follow up.

  12. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... separate Crew Rest Compartments: a Flight Crew Rest Compartment (FCRC) intended to be occupied by flight crew members only, and a Cabin Crew Rest Compartment (CCRC) intended to be occupied by cabin crew...

  13. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  14. Orion Pad Abort 1 Crew Module Mass Properties Test Approach and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Claudia; Harding, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The Flight Loads Laboratory at the Dryden Flight Research Center conducted tests to measure the inertia properties of the Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) Crew Module (CM). These measurements were taken to validate analytical predictions of the inertia properties of the vehicle and assist in reducing uncertainty for derived aero performance coefficients to be calculated post-launch. The first test conducted was to determine the Ixx of the Crew Module. This test approach used a modified torsion pendulum test setup that allowed the suspended Crew Module to rotate about the x axis. The second test used a different approach to measure both the Iyy and Izz properties. This test used a Knife Edge fixture that allowed small rotation of the Crew Module about the y and z axes. Discussions of the techniques and equations used to accomplish each test are presented. Comparisons with the predicted values used for the final flight calculations are made. Problem areas, with explanations and recommendations where available, are addressed. Finally, an evaluation of the value and success of these techniques to measure the moments of inertia of the Crew Module is provided.

  15. A NASA Perspective on Maintenance Activities and Maintenance Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth Tim

    2007-01-01

    Proactive consideration of ground crew factors enhances the designs of space vehicles and vehicle safety by: (1) Reducing the risk of undetected ground crew errors and collateral damage that compromise vehicle reliability and flight safety (2) Ensuring compatibility of specific vehicle to ground system interfaces (3) Optimizing ground systems. During ground processing and launch operations, public safety, flight crew safety, ground crew safety, and the safety of high-value spacecraft are inter-related. For extended Exploration missions, surface crews perform functions that merge traditional flight and ground operations.

  16. FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.

  17. EPA Method EMSL-33: Isotopic Determination of Plutonium, Uranium, and Thorium in Water, Soil, Air, and Biological Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAM lists this method to provide for the analysis of isotopic plutonium, uranium and thorium, together or individually, in drinking water, aqueous/liquid, soil/sediment, surface wipe and/or air filter samples by alpha spectrometry.

  18. Crew goal setting for security control

    OpenAIRE

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Hofer, Franziska; Jonas, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of simple goal setting in airport security control. As outcome, crew performance in terms of productivity (Experiment 1, field setting) was studied. Furthermore, the moderating role of negative and positive priming due to a previous task on the impact of goals (Experiment 2, laboratory setting) was analyzed. This research builds a bridge from goal setting theory to practice and prepares the grounds for its application in se...

  19. The Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Justesen, Tor

    In the Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem (HCCSP) a staff of caretakers has to be assigned a number of visits, such that the total number of assigned visits is maximised. The visits have different locations and positions in time, and travelling time and time windows must be respected. The challenge...... clustering of the visits based on the problem structure. The algorithm is tested on real-life problem instances and we obtain solutions that are better than current practice in all cases....

  20. Helicopter crew/passenger vibration sensitivity -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, R.; Reed, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Helicopter crew and passenger vibration sensitivity are presented. Pilot subjective ratings are established for discrete frequencies and the impact of combinations of harmonic frequencies is examined. A passenger long term comfort level and a short term limit are defined for discrete frequencies and compared with pilot ratings. The results show reasonable agreement between pilot and passenger. Subjective comfort levels obtained for mixed frequency environments clearly demonstrate the need for a multi-frequency criterion.

  1. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  2. Psychometric Properties of the AIR Self-Determination Scale: The Chinese Version (AIR SDS-C) for Chinese People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, P. K. S.; Wong, D. F. K.; Zhuang, X. Y.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The construct of self-determination has received considerable attention in the international field of intellectual disabilities (ID). Recently, there has been a rapid development of this construct in Chinese societies including Hong Kong. However, there is no locally validated instrument to measure self-determination in people with ID.…

  3. Holographic Weapons Sight as Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merancy, Nujoud; Dehmlow, Brian; Brazzel, Jack P.

    2011-01-01

    Crew Optical Alignment Sights (COAS) are used by spacecraft pilots to provide a visual reference to a target spacecraft for lateral relative position during rendezvous and docking operations. NASA s Orion vehicle, which is currently under development, has not included a COAS in favor of automated sensors, but the crew office has requested such a device be added for situational awareness and contingency support. The current Space Shuttle COAS was adopted from Apollo heritage, weighs several pounds, and is no longer available for procurement which would make re-use difficult. In response, a study was conducted to examine the possibility of converting a commercially available weapons sight to a COAS for the Orion spacecraft. The device used in this study was the XPS series Holographic Weapon Sight (HWS) procured from L-3 EOTech. This device was selected because the targeting reticule can subtend several degrees, and display a graphic pattern tailored to rendezvous and docking operations. Evaluations of the COAS were performed in both the Orion low-fidelity mockup and rendezvous simulations in the Reconfigurable Operational Cockpit (ROC) by crewmembers, rendezvous engineering experts, and flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. These evaluations determined that this unit s size and mounting options can support proper operation and that the reticule visual qualities are as good as or better than the current Space Shuttle COAS. The results positively indicate that the device could be used as a functional COAS and supports a low-cost technology conversion solution.

  4. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  5. Highly sensitive determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after molecularly imprinted polymer extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Bhagat, Bhagyashree; Khan, Muntazir S

    2010-08-01

    A method based on solid--phase extraction with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed to determine five probable human carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Molecularly imprinted poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) was chosen as solid-phase extraction (SPE) material for PAHs. The conditions affecting extraction efficiency, for example surface properties, concentration of PAHs, and equilibration times were evaluated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, pre-concentration factors for MIP-SPE ranged between 80 and 93 for 10 mL ambient air dust leachate. PAHs recoveries from MIP-SPE after extraction from air dust were between 85% and 97% and calibration graphs of the PAHs showed a good linearity between 10 and 1000 ng L(-1) (r = 0.99). The extraction efficiency of MIP for PAHs was compared with that of commercially available SPE materials--powdered activated carbon (PAC) and polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD)--and it was shown that the extraction capacity of the MIP was better than that of the other two SPE materials. Organic matter in air dust had no effect on MIP extraction, which produced a clean extract for GC-MS analysis. The detection limit of the method proposed in this article is 0.15 ng L(-1) for benzo[a]pyrene, which is a marker molecule of air pollution. The method has been applied to the determination of probable carcinogenic PAHs in air dust of industrial zones and satisfactory results were obtained.

  6. Highly sensitive determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after molecularly imprinted polymer extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J.; Bhagat, Bhagyashree; Khan, Muntazir S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2010-08-15

    A method based on solid-phase extraction with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed to determine five probable human carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Molecularly imprinted poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) was chosen as solid-phase extraction (SPE) material for PAHs. The conditions affecting extraction efficiency, for example surface properties, concentration of PAHs, and equilibration times were evaluated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, pre-concentration factors for MIP-SPE ranged between 80 and 93 for 10 mL ambient air dust leachate. PAHs recoveries from MIP-SPE after extraction from air dust were between 85% and 97% and calibration graphs of the PAHs showed a good linearity between 10 and 1000 ng L{sup -1} (r=0.99). The extraction efficiency of MIP for PAHs was compared with that of commercially available SPE materials - powdered activated carbon (PAC) and polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD) - and it was shown that the extraction capacity of the MIP was better than that of the other two SPE materials. Organic matter in air dust had no effect on MIP extraction, which produced a clean extract for GC-MS analysis. The detection limit of the method proposed in this article is 0.15 ng L{sup -1} for benzo[a]pyrene, which is a marker molecule of air pollution. The method has been applied to the determination of probable carcinogenic PAHs in air dust of industrial zones and satisfactory results were obtained. (orig.)

  7. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  8. Experimental Determination of Demand Response Control Models and Cost of Control for Ensembles of Window-Mount Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Drew Adam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Control of consumer electrical devices for providing electrical grid services is expanding in both the scope and the diversity of loads that are engaged in control, but there are few experimentally-based models of these devices suitable for control designs and for assessing the cost of control. A laboratory-scale test system is developed to experimentally evaluate the use of a simple window-mount air conditioner for electrical grid regulation services. The experimental test bed is a single, isolated air conditioner embedded in a test system that both emulates the thermodynamics of an air conditioned room and also isolates the air conditioner from the real-world external environmental and human variables that perturb the careful measurements required to capture a model that fully characterizes both the control response functions and the cost of control. The control response functions and cost of control are measured using harmonic perturbation of the temperature set point and a test protocol that further isolates the air conditioner from low frequency environmental variability.

  9. Determining the Optimal C-130 Deployed Crew Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Flights Missions per Day: A count of the total number of missions launched from a location with a discreet mission number. Subsequent legs on the...the three flight times to render the total flight hours per discreet mission ID.for all legs are summed. After an initial review of the data, it was...will mathematically meet mission requirements in most plausible scenarios, less quantifiable factors would significantly increase the likelihood of

  10. Determination of the conversion coefficient for ambient dose equivalent, H(10), from air kerma measurements; Determinacion del coeficiente de conversion para la dosis equivalente ambiental, H*(10), a partir de mediciones de kerma en aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Namely the operational magnitudes can be determined by the product of a conversion coefficient by exposure air kerma or fluence, etc. In particular in Mexico for the first time is determined the conversion coefficient (Cc) for operational magnitude Environmental Dose Equivalent H(10) by thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) technique. First 30 TLD-100 dosimeters are calibrated in terms of air kerma, then these dosimeters are irradiated inside a sphere ICRU type of PMMA and with the aid of theory cavity the absorbed dose in PMMA is determined at a depth of 10 mm within the sphere D{sub PMMA}(10), subsequently absorbed dose to ICRU tissue is corrected and the dose equivalent H(10) is determined. The Cc is determined as the ratio of H(10)/K{sub a} obtaining a value of 1.20 Sv Gy{sup -1} with a u{sub c}= 3.66%, this being consistent with the published value in ISO-4037-3 of 1.20 Sv Gy{sup -1} with a u{sub c}= 2%. (Author)

  11. An IP Framework for the Crew Pairing Problem Using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David

    In this paper we consider an important problem for the airline industry. The widely studied crew pairing problem is typically formulated as a set partitioning problem and solved using the branch-and-price methodology. Here we develop a new integer programming framework, based on the concept...... of subsequence generation, for solving the set partitioning formulation. In subsequence generation one restricts the number of permitted subsequent flights, that a crew member can turn to after completing any particular flight. By restricting the number of subsequences, the number of pairings in the problem...... decreases. The aim is then to dynamically add attractive subsequences to the problem, thereby increasing the number of possible pairings and improving the solution quality. Encouraging results are obtained on 19 real-life instances supplied by Air New Zealand and show that the described methodology...

  12. [Photometric determination of butyl "aeroflot" flotation agent (sodium dibutyl dithiophosphate) in the air of work zone and skin washings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorogova, V B; Kucheriavykh, E I; Sokolova, T V

    1989-01-01

    Photometric procedure of butyl "aeroflot" identification in the work zone air and in wash-out from workers' integument was developed, The procedure was based on the formation of yellow- and orange-dyed copper dibutyl dithiophosphate under butyl "aeroflot" interaction with copper sulphate with the subsequent photometry of dyed solutions for the wavelength of 420 nm in the 10-mm cell. Buffer solution with pH-9.2 was used as an absorbing solution for the workplace air sampling and integument wash-out.

  13. On-orbit prospective echocardiography on International Space Station crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R; Sargsyan, Ashot E; Martin, David S; Garcia, Kathleen M; Melton, Shannon L; Feiveson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A

    2011-05-01

    A prospective trial of echocardiography was conducted on six crew members onboard the International Space Station. The main objective was to determine the efficacy of remotely guided tele-echocardiography, including just-in-time e-training methods and determine what is "space normal" echocardiographic data. Each crew member operator (n = 6) had 2-hour preflight training. Baseline echocardiographic data were collected 55-167 days preflight. Similar equipment was used in each 60-minute in-flight session (mean microgravity exposure--114 days [34--190]). On-orbit ultrasound (US) operators used an e-learning system within 24 hours of these sessions. Expert assistance was provided using US video downlink and two-way voice. Testing was repeated 5-16 days after landing. Separate ANOVA was used on each echocardiographic variable (n = 33). Within each ANOVA, three tests were made: (a) effect of mission phase (preflight, in-flight, postflight); (b) effect of echo technician (two technicians independently analyzed the data); (c) interaction between mission phase and technician. Eleven rejections of the null hypothesis (mission phase or technician or both had no effect) were found that could be considered for possible follow up. Of these, eight rejections were for significant technician effects, not space flight. Three rejections of the null hypothesis (aortic valve time velocity integral, mitral E-wave velocity, and heart rate) were attributable to space flight but determine to not be clinically significant. No rejections were due to the interaction between technician and space flight. Thus, we found no consistent clinically significant effects of long-duration space flight on echocardiographic variables of the given group of subjects. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Blood lead level and types of aviation fuel in aircraft maintenance crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Ju; Gu, Hye-Min; Lee, Suk-Ho

    2013-10-01

    This study inquired into any significant difference in blood lead levels (BLLs) among aircraft maintenance crews at the air-bases, each with a different aviation fuel in use, and confirmed an environmental impact of leaded aviation gasoline (AVGAS). This study included a total of 256 male aircraft maintenance personnel, among whom 105 used only AVGAS as their aviation fuel, while 151 used only jet propellant 8 (JP-8), a kerosene variety. BLLs were measured and the data on related factors were obtained. The arithmetic and geometric means of BLLs of the personnel at the airbases that used only AVGAS were 4.20 microg x dl(-1) and 4.01 microg x dl(-1) and that used only JP-8 were 3.79 microg x dl(-1) and 3.57 microg x dl(-1), respectively. The BLLs of the maintenance crew of the main workspace that was located within a 200-m distance from the runway were higher than those of the main workspace that was located 200 m or farther from the runway. The longer the work hours in the runway or the longer the work duration, the higher the BLLs of the maintenance crew. This investigation exposed the fact that a body's BLL could be increased by AVGAS emissions through the examination of aircraft maintenance crew. This result is in agreement with results of previous studies that suggest proximity to an airport may be associated with elevated BLLs for adults and children. Collectively, the results of the current study and previous research suggest that long-duration inhabitation and/or activities in close proximity to an air facility should be limited given that lead poses known health risks.

  15. The lateral distribution function of coherent radio emission from extensive air showers : Determining the chemical composition of cosmic rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; van den Berg, Ad M.; Scholten, Olaf; Werner, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The lateral distribution function (LDF) for coherent electromagnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is calculated using a macroscopic description. A new expression is derived to calculate the coherent radio pulse at small distances from the observer. It is show

  16. Spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls around a municipal solid waste incinerator, determined using polyurethane foam passive air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lidan; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-six ambient air samples were collected around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in the summer and winter using polyurethane foam passive air samplers, and analyzed to assess the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three stack gas samples were also collected and analyzed to determine PCDD/F (971 pg m(-3) in average) and PCB (2,671 pg m(-3) in average) emissions from the MSWI and to help identify the sources of the pollutants in the ambient air. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air samples were lower in the summer (472-1,223 fg m(-3)) than the winter (561-3913 fg m(-3)). In contrast, the atmospheric total PCB concentrations were higher in the summer (716-4,902 fg m(-3)) than the winter (489-2,298 fg m(-3)). Principal component analysis showed that, besides emissions from the MSWI, the domestic burning of coal and wood also contributed to the presence of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air. The PCDD/F and PCB spatial distributions were analyzed using ordinary Kriging Interpolation and limited effect was found to be caused by emissions from the MSWI. Higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were observed downwind of the MSWI than in the other directions, but the highest concentrations were not to be found in the direction with the greatest wind frequency which might be caused by emissions from domestic coal and wood burning. We used a systemic method including sampling and data analysis method which can provide pioneering information for characterizing risks and assessing uncertainty of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air around MSWIs in China.

  17. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  18. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  19. Changes in winter air temperatures near Lake Michigan, 1851-1993, as determined from regional lake-ice records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assel, R.A.; Robertson, Dale M.

    1995-01-01

    Records of freezeup and breakup dates for Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, and Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, are among the longest ice records available near the Great Lakes, beginning in 185 1 and 1855, respectively. The timing of freezeup and breakup results from an integration of meteorological conditions (primarily air temperature) that occur before these events. Changes in the average timing of these ice-events are translated into changes in air temperature by the use of empirical and process-driven models. The timing of freezeup and breakup at the two locations represents an integration of air temperatures over slightly different seasons (months). Records from both locations indicate that the early winter period before about 1890 was - 15°C cooler than the early winter period after that time; the mean temperature has, however, remained relatively constant since about 1890. Changes in breakup dates demonstrate a similar 1.0-1 .5”C increase in late winter and early spring air temperatures about 1890. More recent average breakup dates at both locations have been earlier than during 1890-1940, indicating an additional warming of 1.2”C in March since about 1940 and a warming of 1 . 1°C in January-March since about 1980. Ice records at these sites will continue to provide an early indication of the anticipated climatic warming, not only because of the large response of ice cover to small changes in air temperature but also because these records integrate climatic conditions during the seasons (winter-spring) when most warming is forecast to occur. Future reductions in ice cover may strongly affect the winter ecology of the Great Lakes by reducing the stable environment required by various levels of the food chain. 

  20. Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in Air by Ion Chromatography%离子色谱法测定空气中二氧化硫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严利民; 文刚; 吴昊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the new determination method of sulfur dioxide in air with ion chromatography. Methods A new method of the determination of sulfur dioxide in air with ion chromatography was proposed. Results In the condition of ion chromatography, a good correlation coef icient ( r=0.9994) was obtained with the linear range of 1~50μg/ml for SO42-, and the limit of deteciton was 0.01μg/ml. Conclusion The new method possessed many advangtages including easily control, sensitive, precision and could met the determination of sulfur dioxide in real air samples.%目的:探索离子色谱法测定空气中二氧化硫的测定方法。方法建立离子色谱法测定空气中二氧化硫的测定方法。结果在一定的离子色谱条件下,SO42-在1~50μg/ml范围内具有良好的线性关系,相关系数r0.9994,检出限0.01μg/ml,回收率95.2~106.8%。结论离子色谱法实验条件容易控制,方法灵敏,精密度高,能满足空气中二氧化硫的测定。

  1. Crew Management Processes Revitalize Patient Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, two physicians, former NASA astronauts, created LifeWings Partners LLC in Memphis, Tennessee and began using Crew Resource Management (CRM) techniques developed at Ames Research Center in the 1970s to help improve safety and efficiency at hospitals. According to the company, when hospitals follow LifeWings? training, they can see major improvements in a number of areas, including efficiency, employee satisfaction, operating room turnaround, patient advocacy, and overall patient outcomes. LifeWings has brought its CRM training to over 90 health care organizations and annual sales have remained close to $3 million since 2007.

  2. STS-104 Crew Interview: Steve Lindsey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-104 Commander Steve Lindsey is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, its payload (the Joint Airlock and the external gas tanks), and the usefulness of the newly installed Canadian Robotic Arm (installed by STS-100 crew). Lindsey describes his role in the rendezvous, docking, undocking, and flyaround of the Atlantis Orbiter and the International Space Station (ISS) and discusses the mission's planned spacewalks.

  3. Crew participating in the ALICE TRD beamtests

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 1: Sitting in front of the experimental setup is part of the crew participating in the ALICE TRD beamtests at pion/electron secondary beams at CERN Proton Synchrotron in October 2002. From left to right: Mircea Ciobanu, Andres Sandoval, Vojtech Petracek, Oliver Busch, Chilo Garabatos, Wilrid Ludolphs and Harald Appelshaeuser. photo 2: Two fierce experimental physicists, Chilo Garabatos (left) and Anton Andronic, guarding their most valuable asset: Transition Radiation Detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment. These detectors are tested in electron/pion secondary beams at CERN Proton Synchrotron.

  4. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  5. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  6. APOLLO 13: The Crew Makes Emergency Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: Support on the ground design emergency equipment for the crew of Aquarius, and then radio instructions From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  7. GASA Hybird Algorithm Applied in Airline Crew Rostering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yinghui; RAO Yunbo; ZHOU Mingtian

    2007-01-01

    Crew postering system is a daily grind in the management of both corporation and enterprise. A fair and reasonable rostering method plays a very important role in the arousing worker's enthusiasm and improving the work efficiency. This paper presents a method of building models for automatic crew rostering mode with computer and advancing the multi-objective optimum scheme. The method to build models for crew rostering system is also discussed. The question to crew rostering system model is solved by genetic algorithms and simulated annealing algorithms. Simulation results show the correctness of algorithms. The actual data of the airways have justified its reasonability and efficiency.

  8. The Relationship Between El Nino/La Nina Oscillations and Recent Anomaly Time Series of OLR Determined by CERES and AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Loeb, Norman G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial anomaly time series of OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) and OLRCLR (Clear Sky OLR) as determined using CERES and AIRS observations over the time period September 2002 through June 2010. We find excellent agreement in OLR anomaly time series of both data sets in almost every detail, down to the 1 x 1 spatial grid point level. This extremely close agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates to some extent the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used in the computation of the AIRS OLR product. The paper then examines anomaly time series of AIRS derived products over the extended time period September 2002 through April 2011. We show that OLR anomalies during this period are closely in phase with those of an El Nino index, and that the recent global and tropical mean decreases in OLR and OLRCLR are a result of a transition from an El Nino condition at the beginning of the data record to La Nina conditions toward the end of the data period. We show that the relationship between global mean, and especially tropical mean, OLR anomalies to the El Nino index can be explained by temporal changes of the distribution of mid-tropospheric water vapor and cloud cover in two spatial regions that are in direct response to El Nino/La Nina activity which occurs outside these spatial regions.

  9. Application of a pulse-discharge helium detector to the determination of neon in air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, J; Mochalski, P; Lokas, E; Kedzior, L

    2002-08-30

    A pulse-discharge helium detector (Valco, PD-D2-I) is used to measure neon concentrations in air and water. The detection level is 0.5 x 10(-8) g/cm3 (0.2 ppm). Discharge gas doped with neon results in a linear response to the neon mass up to 10(-6) g. For measuring the neon concentration in water, a simple enrichment system is used.

  10. 77 FR 64036 - Determination of Attainment of the 1-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Web site show a single exceedance (0.128 ppm) of the 1-hour...-0014)......... 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sloughhouse Rd. (06-067-5003) 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 Vacaville... Action On......

  11. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  12. Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Grace L.; Cooper, Maya; Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2016-01-01

    NASA is preparing for long duration manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit that will be challenged in several ways, including long-term exposure to the space environment, impacts to crew physiological and psychological health, limited resources, and no resupply. The food system is one of the most significant daily factors that can be altered to improve human health, and performance during space exploration. Therefore, the paramount importance of determining the methods, technologies, and requirements to provide a safe, nutritious, and acceptable food system that promotes crew health and performance cannot be underestimated. The processed and prepackaged food system is the main source of nutrition to the crew, therefore significant losses in nutrition, either through degradation of nutrients during processing and storage or inadequate food intake due to low acceptability, variety, or usability, may significantly compromise the crew's health and performance. Shelf life studies indicate that key nutrients and quality factors in many space foods degrade to concerning levels within three years, suggesting that food system will not meet the nutrition and acceptability requirements of a long duration mission beyond low-Earth orbit. Likewise, mass and volume evaluations indicate that the current food system is a significant resource burden. Alternative provisioning strategies, such as inclusion of bioregenerative foods, are challenged with resource requirements, and food safety and scarcity concerns. Ensuring provisioning of an adequate food system relies not only upon determining technologies, and requirements for nutrition, quality, and safety, but upon establishing a food system that will support nutritional adequacy, even with individual crew preference and self-selection. In short, the space food system is challenged to maintain safety, nutrition, and acceptability for all phases of an exploration mission within resource constraints. This document presents the

  13. 19 CFR 122.49c - Master crew member list and master non-crew member list requirement for commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master crew member list and master non-crew member... Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and Overflying the United States § 122.49c Master crew member list and master non-crew member list requirement for commercial aircraft arriving in,...

  14. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  15. How Effective Is Communication Training For Aircraft Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Report surveys communication training for aircraft crews. Intended to alleviate problems caused or worsened by poor communication and coordination among crewmembers. Focuses on two training methods: assertiveness training and grid-management training. Examines theoretical background of methods and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. Presents criteria for evaluating applicability to aviation environment. Concludes communication training appropriate for aircraft crews.

  16. High Speed Lunar Navigation for Crewed and Remotely Piloted Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L.; Allan, M.; To, V.; Utz, H.; Wojcikiewicz, W.; Chautems, C.

    2010-01-01

    Increased navigation speed is desirable for lunar rovers, whether autonomous, crewed or remotely operated, but is hampered by the low gravity, high contrast lighting and rough terrain. We describe lidar based navigation system deployed on NASA's K10 autonomous rover and to increase the terrain hazard situational awareness of the Lunar Electric Rover crew.

  17. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 135.99 Section... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with...

  18. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREWS ADDRESS PERSONNEL IN LCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Soviet and American crews for the July Apollo Soyuz Test Project [standing, center] addressed personnel assembled in a firing room at KSC on February 10. The crews for the joint manned space mission toured the Center during their three-day visit which also included inspection of ASTP equipment and facilities and a trip to Disney World.

  19. STS-86 crew members Bloomfield and Chretien in white room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    While a white room closeout crew member looks on, STS-86 Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, at right, gets some assistance from fellow crew member, Mission Specialist Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES, before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A.

  20. Rowing Crew Coordination Dynamics at Increasing Stroke Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, Laura S.; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; de Poel, Harjo J.

    2015-01-01

    In rowing, perfect synchronisation is important for optimal performance of a crew. Remarkably, a recent study on ergometers demonstrated that antiphase crew coordination might be mechanically more efficient by reducing the power lost to within-cycle velocity fluctuations of the boat. However, couple

  1. Production rates for crews using hand tools on firelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Haven; T. Parkin Hunter; Theodore G. Storey

    1982-01-01

    Reported rates at which hand crews construct firelines can vary widely because of differences in fuels, fire and measurement conditions, and fuel resistance-to-control classification schemes. Real-time fire dispatching and fire simulation planning models, however, require accurate estimates of hand crew productivity. Errors in estimating rate of fireline production...

  2. Application of operational car crew universal speed stenogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Gradusov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimentally to check up possibility and efficiency of application of operative cars of universal speed shorthand records of unknown roads crews. Materials and Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization, pedagogical supervisions, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. In research took part 20 professional crews road patrol State Automobile Inspectorate, in all 40 persons, up-diffused on 2 groups for 10 crews: experimental and control. Results: application of methods of universal speed shorthand record of СД an experimental group allowed to shorten time-of-flight of segment of control distance on 7,37%. Conclusion: the results of pedagogical experiment at participation of professional crews road patrol State Automobile Inspectorate on official cars in the contention terms of the real route testify to possibility and efficiency of application of operative cars of the special setting of universal speed shorthand records of unknown roads crews during their professional activity.

  3. STS-26 crew in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers have donned their new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) for a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Commander Frederick H. Hauck is in the center foreground. Hauck is flanked by fellow crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge, MS George D. Nelson, Pilot Richard O. Covey, and MS David C. Hilmers. Astronaut Steven R. Nagel, not assigned as crewmember but assisting in training, is at far right. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  4. The Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Justesen, Tor; Dohn, Anders

    In the Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem a staff of caretakers has to be assigned a number of visits to patients' homes, such that the overall service level is maximised. The problem is a generalisation of the vehicle routing problem with time windows. Required travel time between visits and time...... windows of the visits must be respected. The challenge when assigning visits to caretakers lies in the existence of soft preference constraints and in temporal dependencies between the start times of visits. We model the problem as a set partitioning problem with side constraints and develop an exact...... branch-and-price solution algorithm, as this method has previously given solid results for classical vehicle routing problems. Temporal dependencies are modelled as generalised precedence constraints and enforced through the branching. We introduce a novel visit clustering approach based on the soft...

  5. STS-110 Crew Interviews: Steve Smith

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialist Steve Smith is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Smith outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Smith discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  6. STS-110 Crew Interview: Jerry Ross

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Ross outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Ross discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  7. STS-88 Crew Interview: Jerry Ross

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Jerry Ross discusses the seven-day mission that will be highlighted by the mating of the U.S.-built Node 1 station element to the Functional Energy Block (FGB) which will already be in orbit, and two spacewalks to connect power and data transmission cables between the Node and the FGB. Node 1 will be the first Space Station hardware delivered by the Space Shuttle. He also disscusses the assembly sequence. The crew will conduct a series of rendezvous maneuvers similar to those conducted on other Shuttle missions to reach the orbiting FGB. Once the two elements are docked, Ross and Newman will conduct two scheduled spacewalks to connect power and data cables between the Node, PMAs and the FGB. The day following the spacewalks, Endeavour will undock from the two components, completing the first Space Station assembly mission.

  8. STS-110 Crew Interview: Mike Bloomfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Commander Mike Bloomfield is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Bloomfield outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Bloomfield discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  9. STS-96 Crew Training, Mission Animation, Crew Interviews, STARSHINE, Discovery Rollout and Repair of Hail Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-96, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev during various training activities. Scenes include astronaut suit-up, EVA training in the Virtual Reality Lab, Orbiter space vision training, bailout training, and crew photo session. Footage also shows individual crew interviews, repair activities to the external fuel tank, and Discovery's return to the launch pad. The engineers are seen sanding, bending, and painting the foam used in repairing the tank. An animation of the deployment of the STARSHINE satellite, International Space Station, and the STS-96 Mission is presented. Footage shows the students from Edgar Allen Poe Middle School sanding, polishing, and inspecting the mirrors for the STARSHINE satellite. Live footage also includes students from St. Michael the Archangel School wearing bunny suits and entering the clean room at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  10. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  11. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  12. Investigations on the on-line determination of metals in air flows by capacitively coupled microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, M.; Broekaert, J. A. C.

    2001-09-01

    Plasma optical emission spectrometry with a capacitively coupled microwave plasma (CMP) operated with air has been investigated with respect to its possibilities for real-time environmental monitoring of combustion processes. The unique feature is the possibility to operate the CMP with air as working gas, as is usually the case in exhaust gases of combustion processes. The CMP also is shown to be stable in the presence of large amounts of water and CO 2, which makes this source ideally suitable for this purpose. The detection limits obtained for the environmentally relevant elements Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Ni and Pb show the possibility to monitor directly heavy metals in air in an on-line mode and down to the 2-160-μg m -3 level. These detection limits are generally lower than the threshold limit values of the 'Federal Law for Immission Protection' in Germany in the gaseous effluents of industrial plants. In order to investigate the influence of the water loading (32-222 g m -3) on the detection limits a comparison of results obtained with three different nebulizers (Légère nebulizer, hydraulic high-pressure nebulizer and ultrasonic nebulizer) was made, with which aerosols with different water loading are entered into the plasma. For the hydraulic high-pressure nebulizer and the ultrasonic nebulizer no desolvation unit was found to be necessary. It was shown that especially for elements with lines having high excitation energy (Cd) or for which ion lines are used (Mg II) the increase in water loading deteriorates the detection limits. The rotational temperatures ( Trot) and excitation temperatures ( Texe) in the case of different amounts of water are of the order of 3700-4900 K and 4700-7100 K, respectively. The temperatures show that changes in the geometry and temperature distribution in the case of Trot but also the values of Texe themselves are responsible for this increase in detection limits. Furthermore, different amounts of CO 2 mixed to the working gas (3

  13. Development of capacity for measuring ionizing radiation in aircraft crew; Desenvolvimento da capacitacao para efetuar medicoes de radiacao ionizante em tripulacoes de aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, C.A.; Goncalez, O.L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.b [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica; Caldas, L.V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper describes the activities performed in a research program of the Institute of Advanced Studies, Brazil, belonging to the Brazilian Air Force, joining to researches from Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, in order to bring to Brazil the capacity and acknowledge necessary to the evaluation of dose from ionizing radiation originated in the cosmic radiation and its by products which fall on aircraft crews

  14. Determinant of Nokia's Users Loyalties (Case Study on Societies of Air Simpang Village, Ketahun Subdistrict, Bengkulu Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Azhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the impact of the quality and price perception to the loyalty of Nokia mobile phone users in the Air Simpang Village. Ketahun Subdistrict, Bengkulu Utara. The primary data used in this study was obtained from a questionnaire distributed to 318 people who meet the criteria respondent sample. The results showed that the quality of the product has positive effect on customer loyalty, and price has a positive effect on customer loyalty. Based on regression testing, the independent variable that most influence on customer loyalty of mobile phone users in the Water Village Simpang is the price.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i1.2837 

  15. Determining air pollutant effects on the growth and productivity of Concord grapevines using open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Crowe, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    A 4-year study was conducted to compare wine growth and yield in ambient air with growth in charcoal-filtered to remove ozone. Open top chambers, with and without charcoal filters, were placed over individual vines in a mature 'Concord' (Vitis labruscana, Bailey) vineyard. Vines growing in open top chambers, regardless of charcoal filtration, grew less, had delayed maturity of shoots, and delayed leaf senescence as compared to those not growing in chambers. Though chamber effect masked treatment effect on total vine productivity, charcoal filtration reduced oxidant stipple and increased fruit soluble solids. Year-to-year variability in severity of oxidant stipple may be related to seasonal rainfall and ambient ozone levels. 13 references, 3 tables.

  16. Both Inter- and Intramolecular Coupling of O-H Groups Determine the Vibrational Response of the Water/Air Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Jan; Nagata, Yuki; Bonn, Mischa

    2016-01-01

    Vibrational coupling is relevant not only for dissipation of excess energy after chemical reactions but also for elucidating molecular structure and dynamics. It is particularly important for OH stretch vibrational spectra of water, for which it is known that in bulk both intra- and intermolecular coupling alter the intensity and line shape of the spectra. In contrast with bulk, the unified picture of the inter/intra-molecular coupling of OH groups at the water-air interface has been lacking. Here, combining sum-frequency generation experiments and simulation for isotopically diluted water and alcohols, we unveil effects of inter- and intramolecular coupling on the vibrational spectra of interfacial water. Our results show that both inter- and intramolecular coupling contribute to the OH stretch vibrational response of the neat H2O surface, with intramolecular coupling generating a double-peak feature, while the intermolecular coupling induces a significant red shift in the OH stretch response.

  17. Determination of mass diffusion coefficients of oxygenated fuel additives in air using digital real-time holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maogang; Guo, Ying; Zhong, Qiu; Zhang, Ying

    2009-02-01

    In this work, an experimental system based on digital real-time holographic interferometry for measuring the mass diffusion coefficients of fluid is introduced. The method of processing interference fringe hologram is also introduced thoroughly. By uncertainties analysis and experimental verification, the accuracy of this system is validated. The experimental uncertainties in temperature and mass diffusion coefficient are estimated to be no greater than ± 0.16 K and ± 0.2 %, respectively. On this basis, the mass diffusion coefficients of three fuel additives, diethyl 1,6-hexanedioate (diethyl adipate, DEA), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) in air were measured at T = (278.15 to 338.15) K under atmospheric pressure, and polynomial was fitted by the experimental data.

  18. Determining smoking level of hospital employees and the evaluation of the smoke-free air zone applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Meltem Koç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study is to define the health knowledge, cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts and successes to quit smoking and obstacles indicated by the ones who still smoke among a Training and Research Hospital staff four years after the application of the law “Smoke Free Air Zone”. Methods: A questionnaire developed by the researchers is used for this cross sectional research. It questions the sociodemographic features and thoughts and attitudes about the “Smoke Free Air Zone” and “Smoke Free Hospital” applications. Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test is also applied to the smoking attendants to define the level of dependence. Results:It was found that 29.6% of the participants still smoke. Among the still smoking ones; 29.4% did not ever attempt to quit, 28.2% attempted before starting work in the hospital, 20% attempted after starting work in the hospital and 22.4% attempted on both periods. Regarding the questions about application of “Smoke Free Hospital” it was found that 70.7% of the hospital staff support the application, 53.3% think that violators should be punished with a penalty, 48.1% think that it should be punished by the administration, 30.1% think that passive smoking is an intrusion to the personal rights and 59.1% think that quitters increased with this application. Conclusion: Reducing the smoking rates among healthcare staff is extremely important in the struggle against smoking. Establishment of applications with institutional education programs and easing access to the related services may be helpful for healthcare personnel quit smoking. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1: 33-39

  19. Location Problem of Air Materials Supply Center for Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 何亚群; 陶学禹

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of three influencing factors on the air material supply center location, the location model of air material supply center was established. By solving the model, the rational supply center of air materials was also determined.

  20. Integrated sampling and analysis unit for the determination of sexual pheromones in environmental air using fabric phase sorptive extraction and headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcudia-León, M Carmen; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-03-10

    This article presents a novel unit that integrates for the first time air sampling and preconcentration based on the use of fabric phase sorptive extraction principles. The determination of Tuta absoluta sexual pheromone traces in environmental air has been selected as analytical problem. For this aim, a novel laboratory-built unit made up of commercial brass elements as holder of the sol-gel coated fabric extracting phase has been designed and optimized. The performance of the integrated unit was evaluated analyzing environmental air sampled in tomato crops. The unit can work under sampling and analysis mode which eliminates any need for sorptive phase manipulation prior to instrumental analysis. In the sampling mode, the unit can be connected to a sampling pump to pass the air through the sorptive phase at a controlled flow-rate. In the analysis mode, it is placed in the gas chromatograph autosampler without any instrumental modification. It also diminishes the risk of cross contamination between sampling and analysis. The performance of the new unit has been evaluated using the main components of the sexual pheromone of Tuta absoluta [(3E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatrien-1-yl acetate and (3E,8Z)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate] as model analytes. The limits of detection for both compounds resulted to be 1.6μg and 0.8μg, respectively, while the precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was better than 3.7%. Finally, the unit has been deployed in the field to analyze a number of real life samples, some of them were found positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  2. Observations of Crew Dynamics during Mars Analog Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Stacy L.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the crew dynamics during two simulations of Mars Missions. Using an analog of a Mars habitat in two locations, Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) which is located on Devon Island at 75 deg North in the Canadian Arctic, and the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) which is located in the south of Utah, the presentation examines the crew dynamics in relation to the leadership style of the commander of the mission. The difference in the interaction of the two crews were shown to be related to the leadership style and the age group in the crew. As much as possible the habitats and environment was to resemble a Mars outpost. The difference between the International Space Station and a Mars missions is reviewed. The leadership styles are reviewed and the contrast between the FMARS and the MDRS leadership styles were related to crew productivity, and the personal interactions between the crew members. It became evident that leadership styles and interpersonal skill had more affect on mission success and crew dynamics than other characteristics.

  3. Integration of kerma-area product and cumulative air kerma determination into a skin dose tracking system for fluoroscopic imaging procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Sarath; Shankar, Alok; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    The skin dose tracking system (DTS) that we developed provides a color-coded mapping of the cumulative skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during fluoroscopic procedures in real time. The DTS has now been modified to also calculate the kerma area product (KAP) and cumulative air kerma (CAK) for fluoroscopic interventions using data obtained in real-time from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix system. KAP is the integral of air kerma over the beam area and is typically measured with a large-area transmission ionization chamber incorporated into the collimator assembly. In this software, KAP is automatically determined for each x-ray pulse as the product of the air kerma/ mAs from a calibration file for the given kVp and beam filtration times the mAs per pulse times the length and width of the beam times a field nonuniformity correction factor. Field nonuniformity is primarily the result of the heel effect and the correction factor was determined from the beam profile measured using radio-chromic film. Dividing the KAP by the beam area at the interventional reference point provides the area averaged CAK. The KAP and CAK per x-ray pulse are summed after each pulse to obtain the total procedure values in real-time. The calculated KAP and CAK were compared to the values displayed by the fluoroscopy machine with excellent agreement. The DTS now is able to automatically calculate both KAP and CAK without the need for measurement by an add-on transmission ionization chamber.

  4. Determination of mercury in ambient air using highly time resolved on-line methods; Bestimmung von Quecksilber in Umgebungsluft mit Hilfe von zeitlich hochaufloesenden On-line-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinghaus, R.; Kock, H.H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany); Hempel, M. [GALAB Umweltlaboratorium, Technologiezentrum GKSS, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    In this work we present recently marketed automated analysers for the on-line determination of mercury in ambient air. Examples show the wide range of possible applications of these instruments in environmental research and monitoring. Presented applications include long-term monitoring of atmospheric mercury at a coastal station, rapid on-site screening methods for Hg-contaminated soils and indoor air, the quantification of mercury emissions from soils and the operation onboard of research aircraft. First results obtained with a new method for the determination of reactive gaseous mercury species at a monitoring station of the German Federal Environmental Protection Agency are presented. Measures taken for quality assurance as well as pros and cons of the automated analysers for different study purposes are presented and discussed. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit werden neuartige automatisierte Online-Verfahren fuer die Bestimmung von Quecksilber in Umgebungsluft vorgestellt. Anhand von Beispielen wird die grosse Bandbreite ihrer Einsatzmoeglichkeiten in der Umweltueberwachung und -forschung dargelegt. Die Untersuchungen beinhalten Langzeitmessungen an einer Kuestenmessstelle, den schnellen Vor-Ort-Einsatz bei der Erkundung von Quecksilberaltlast-Verdachtsflaechen sowie Kontaminationen in Innenraeumen, Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Quecksilberausgasung aus Boeden und den Einsatz an Bord eines Forschungsflugzeuges. Erste Ergebnisse eines neuartigen Verfahrens zur Bestimmung von reaktiven gasfoermigen Quecksilberspezies an einer Messstelle des Umweltbundesamtes werden ebenfalls vorgestellt. Massnahmen zur Qualitaetssicherung sowie Vor- und Nachteile der automatisierten Verfahren bei verschiedenen Einsatzzwecken werden beschrieben und diskutiert. (orig.)

  5. 罐采样与GC-MS联用测定空气中三甲胺%Determining Trimethylamine in Air by Canister Sampling and GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭锋

    2015-01-01

    采用真空罐采样,三级冷阱预浓缩仪处理样品,气相色谱-质谱法测定空气中的三甲胺.结果表明,检出限为0.005 mg/m3,相对标准偏差为4.1%,加标回收率为92.0%~108%,能达到国家标准要求.该方法操作简单,测定准确可靠,可用于环境空气中三甲胺的测定.%With Sampling by vacuum canister and processing samples by three stage cold trap,we determined trimethylamine in the air samples by gas chromatography⁃mass spectrometry. The results show that the detection limit was 0.005 mg/m3,the relative standard deviation is 4.1%,and the recovery rate was 92.0%~108%,which can meet the requirements of Emission Standards for Odor Pollutants. This method is simple,accurate and reliable,which can be used for determination of trimethylamine in ambient air.

  6. Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air using a multi-bed adsorbent and end-cut gas-solid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lärstad, Mona; Loh, Carina; Ljungkvist, Göran; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell

    2002-11-01

    A method for the determination of exhaled ethane, pentane and isoprene was developed and validated. The method was based on pre-concentration of the analytes on a multi-bed solid adsorbent tube containing Tenax TA, Carboxen 569 and Carboxen 1000, thermal desorption and gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detection (FID). A pre-column in an end-cut GC system was used to avoid problems with water and strongly retained substances. The detection limits were 5, 2 and 6 pmol per sample for ethane, pentane and isoprene, respectively, using a sample volume of 500 ml. The linearity was good for all analytes with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. The repeatability for exhaled air samples was 7, 10 and 12% for ethane, pentane and isoprene, respectively. Analysis of a certified reference material of ethane and pentane did not differ significantly from the certified values. Ethane and pentane levels were stable up to six days of storage in sample tubes. Isoprene levels were not stable during storage in the sample tubes used here, but using Carbopack X instead of Carboxen 569, levels were stable up to two days. The levels of exhaled ethane, pentane and isoprene in healthy subjects (n = 4) were 8.1+/-5.8 pmol l(-1), 11+/-5.8 pmol l(-1) and 2.4+/-0.90 mnol l(-1), respectively. The method could, with minor modifications, be used to determine other low-molecular hydrocarbons in exhaled air as well.

  7. New approach applying a pet fish air pump in liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of Sudan dyes in food samples by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoen, Phitchan; Limchoowong, Nunticha; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2017-07-27

    A new approach applying a pet fish air pump is introduced to develop an extraction method, namely, air-pump-enhanced emulsion, followed by salt-assisted emulsion breaking based on solidified floating organic drop microextraction for the extraction and preconcentration of Sudan I-IV before high-performance liquid chromatography. The applicability of this method was successfully demonstrated by determination of these dyes in four chili products that include chili powder, chili oil, chili sauce, and chili paste. An enrichment factor of 62 was obtained only with a sample solution of 5 mL. A linear range of 0.5-2500 ng/mL was obtained with a limit of detection of 0.16-0.24 ng/mL and recovery of 90-110%. This method is superior to other liquid-liquid extraction methods, as is simple, rapid, environmental friendly, and its phase separation needs no centrifugation. It also needs no disperser solvent and requires less organic solvent, and satisfies the criteria to be called as a green extraction. Therefore, this facile extraction method can be successfully applied in the determination of Sudan dyes in food samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 石墨炉原子吸收法测定空气中铋%Determination of bismuth in the air by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪

    2013-01-01

    建立了硝酸-双氧水体系消解、石墨炉原子吸收法测定空气中铋的方法。采用抗坏血酸和磷酸二氢铵作混合基体改进剂,热解涂层石墨管,塞曼扣背景。此方法对测定环境空气中铋的灵敏度、准确度都有很大的提高,方法的最低检出浓度为1.00μg/L,当采样体积为150L,铋最低检出质量浓度为0.0007mg/m3。%To establish a method for determination of bismuth nitrate in air - hydrogen peroxide system, di-gestion and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The ascorbic acid and two hydrogen ammonium phosphate as a mixed matrix modifier, pyrolytic coated graphite tube, Zeeman background correction. The sen-sitivity of this method, determination of bismuth in ambient air the accuracy is greatly improved, the minimum detection limit was 1 μg/L, when the sampling volume was 150L, the minimum detectable concentration of 0. 0007mg/m3 bismuth.

  9. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman Ill Ballistic Missiles At Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) analyze VAFB sounding data to determine the probability of violating (PoV) upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. The AMU suggested also including forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model. This would provide further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast on launch day.

  10. Study of azo dye decolorization and determination of cathode microorganism profile in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Mert; Eren, Hilal; Catal, Tunc; Bermek, Hakan; Akarsubaşi, Alper Tunga

    2012-09-01

    Five textile azo dyes, as part of an artificial mixture, were treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells while simultaneously utilizing acetate for electricity production. Remazol Black, Remazol Brilliant Blue, Remazol Turquoise Blue, Reactive Yellow and Reactive Red at concentrations of 40 or 80 mg L(-1) were decolorized to a similar extent, at averages of 78, 95, 53, 93 and 74%, respectively, in 24 hours. During the process of decolorization, electricity generation from acetate oxidation continued. Power densities obtained in the presence of textile dyes ranged from 347 to 521 mW m(-2) at the current density range of 0.071 - 0.086 mA cm(-2). Microbial community analyses of cathode biofilm exhibited dynamic changes in abundant species following dye decolorization. Upon the addition of the first dye, a major change (63%) in microbial diversity was observed; however, subsequent addition of other dyes did not affect the community profile significantly. Actinobacteria, Aquamicrobium, Mesorhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Thauera, Paracoccus, Achromobacter and Chelatacoccus affiliated phylotypes were the major phylotypes detected. Our results demonstrate that microbial fuel cells could be a promising alternative for treatment of textile wastewaters and an active bacterial community can rapidly be established for simultaneous azo dye decolorization and sustainable electricity generation.

  11. The Single Crew Module Concept for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Many concepts have been proposed for exploring space. In early 2010 presidential direction called for reconsidering the approach to address changes in exploration destinations, use of new technologies and development of new capabilities to support exploration of space. Considering the proposed new technology and capabilities that NASA was directed to pursue, the single crew module (SCM) concept for a more streamlined approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions was developed. The SCM concept combines many of the new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that uses a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them prior to departure of the vicinity of Earth provides the capability of using the single habitat both in transit to an exploration destination and while exploring the destination. The concept employs the capability to return the habitat and interplanetary propulsion system to Earth vicinity so that those elements can be reused on subsequent exploration missions. This paper describes the SCM concept, provides a top level mass estimate for the elements needed and trades the concept against Many concepts have been proposed for exploring space. In early 2010 presidential direction called for reconsidering the approach to address changes in exploration destinations, use of new technologies and development of new capabilities to support exploration of space. Considering the proposed new technology and capabilities that NASA was directed to pursue, the single crew module (SCM) concept for a more streamlined approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions was developed. The SCM concept combines many of the new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that uses a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them

  12. Determination of the distribution of air and water in porous media by electrical impedance tomography and magneto-electrical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegel, Franz-Hubert, E-mail: f.h.haegel@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere, ICG-4 Agrosphaere, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Zimmermann, Egon [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Esser, Odilia; Breede, Katrin; Huisman, Johan Alexander [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere, ICG-4 Agrosphaere, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Glaas, Walter; Berwix, Joachim [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Vereecken, Harry [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere, ICG-4 Agrosphaere, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Monitoring the distribution of water content is essential for understanding hydrological processes in the lithosphere and the pedosphere. The movement of water in unsaturated rock formations and in the vadose zone is influenced by different processes (mainly infiltration, evaporation, percolation and capillary flow) which may be rate determining depending on the actual conditions. The interdependence of these processes also strongly influences the transport and distribution of solutes in the pore space. In order to gain a better understanding of the movement and distribution of water in unsaturated media, systematic investigations with non-invasive or minimal invasive methods appear to be most suitable. Studies on the distribution of electrical conductivity can improve risk analysis concerning waste disposals in general and nuclear waste repositories in particular. Induced polarization and magnetic flux density determined with two highly sensitive accessories yield additional information and may allow for better discrimination of coupled flow processes. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with 20 current injection and 48 voltage electrodes was used here to monitor the evaporation of tap water from a container filled with sand under laboratory conditions at 20 deg. C. The results are compared with data obtained by determining spectral induced polarization (SIP) of sand during desaturation in a multi-step outflow equipment. Infiltration processes and evaporation from sand saturated with 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} were determined by magneto-electrical resistivity imaging technique (MERIT). The results were obtained from a long-term experiment under controlled conditions.

  13. Equal Pay for Equal Qualifications? A Model for Determining Race or Sex Discrimination in Salaries. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffo, John; And Others

    Equal pay for equal work by persons of equal qualifications is the concept behind laws against race and sex discrimination in salaries in the United States. However, determining the existence and extent of discrimination is not a simple matter. A four-step procedure is recommended that attempts to uncover the existence of discrimination and begins…

  14. Application of Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) Patterns to Reduced Crew Operations (RCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, R. Jay; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel; Matessa, Mike; Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Air Force - NASA Bi-Annual Research Council Meeting, slides will be presented on recent Reduced Crew Operations (RCO) work. Unmanned aerial systems, robotics, advanced cockpits, and air traffic management are all examples of domains that are seeing dramatic increases in automation. While automation may take on some tasks previously performed by humans, humans will still be required, for the foreseeable future, to remain in the system. The collaboration with humans and these increasingly autonomous systems will begin to resemble cooperation between teammates, rather than simple task allocation. It is critical to understand this human-autonomy teaming (HAT) to optimize these systems in the future. One methodology to understand HAT is by identifying recurring patterns of HAT that have similar characteristics and solutions. A methodology for identifying HAT patterns to an advanced cockpit project is discussed.

  15. A new method to determine tissue specific tissue factor thrombomodulin activities: endotoxin and particulate air pollution induced disbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlofs-Nijland Miriam E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in tissue factor (TF and loss in thrombomodulin (TM antigen levels has been described in various inflammatory disorders. The functional consequences of such changes in antigen concentrations in the coagulation balance are, however, not known. This study was designed to assess the consequences of inflammation-driven organ specific functional properties of the procoagulant response. Methods Tissue specific procoagulant activity was assessed by adding tissue homogenate to normal human pool plasma and recording of the thrombin generation curve. The new technique was subsequently applied on two inflammation driven animal models: 1 mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced endotoxemia and 2 spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to environmental air pollution (particulate matter (PM. Results Addition of lung tissue from untreated animals to human plasma suppressed the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP (175 ± 61 vs. 1437 ± 112 nM.min for control. This inhibitory effect was due to TM, because a it was absent in protein C deficient plasma and b lungs from TMpro/pro mice allowed full thrombin generation (ETP: 1686 ± 209 nM.min. The inhibitory effect of TM was lost after LPS administration to mice, which induced TF activity in lungs of C57Bl/6 mice as well as increased the ETP (941 ± 523 vs. 194 ± 159 nM.min for control. Another pro-inflammatory stimulus, PM dose-dependently increased TF in the lungs of spontaneously hypertensive rats at 4 and 48 hours after PM exposure. The ETP increased up to 48 hours at the highest concentration of PM (1441 ± 289 nM.min vs. saline: 164 ± 64 nM.min, p Conclusion Inflammation associated procoagulant effects in tissues are dependent on variations in activity of the TF-TM balance. The application of these novel organ specific functional assays is a useful tool to monitor inflammation-driven shifts in the coagulation balance within animal or human tissues.

  16. Dry deposition of acidic air pollutants to tree leaves, determined by a modified leaf-washing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mirai; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Koshikawa, Masami K.; Yamamura, Shigeki; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    Dry deposition fluxes ( FL) of NO 3- and SO 42- to leaf surfaces were measured for Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora), Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa), and Japanese white oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia), together with atmospheric concentrations ( CL) of NO x (NO + NO 2), T-NO 3 (gaseous HNO 3 + particulate NO 3-) and SO x (gaseous SO 2 + particulate SO 42-) around the leaves in a suburban area of Japan, using a modified leaf-washing technique. FL of NO 3- and SO 42- decreased as follows: pine >> cedar > cypress ≥ oak and pine >> cedar > oak ≥ cypress, respectively. FL of NO 3- for all tree species fluctuated synchronously with CL of T-NO 3. FL of SO 42- fluctuated with CL of SO x, but the dominant pollutant deposited (SO 2 or SO 42-) appeared to differ for different tree species. Dry deposition conductance ( KL) of T-NO 3 and SO x was derived as an FL/ CL ratio. Seasonal variations of KL likely reflect the gas/particle ratios of T-NO 3 and SO x, which were affected by meteorological conditions such as temperature. Dry deposition velocities ( Vd) of T-NO 3 and SO x were obtained as the mathematical product of annual mean KL and the total leaf surface areas in the forests. The comparison of Vd among tree species indicated that the loads of acidic air pollutants were higher to coniferous forests than broad-leaved forest because of the higher KL and/or larger leaf surface areas.

  17. STS-41-D Crew Enjoying Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Crewmembers of NASA's 41-D mission take a group shot displaying their fun moments in space aboard the orbiter Discovery. Crewmembers are (counter-clockwise from center) crew commander Henry W. Harsfield Jr., pilot Michael L. Coats, mission specialist Steven A. Hawley, mission specialist Judith A. Resnik, payload specialist Charles D. Walker, and mission specialist Richard M. Mullane. Dr. Judith Resnik is shown enjoying the weightlessness of space during her first mission. Born on April 5, 1949 in Akron, Ohio, she received a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1970, and a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from University of Maryland in 1977. Dr. Resnik joined NASA in 1978 as a senior systems engineer in product development with Xerox Corporation at El Segundo, California. NASA later selected her as an astronaut candidate in January 1978; she completed a 1-year training and evaluation period in August 1979. Dr. Resnik died on January 28, 1986 on her second mission, during the failed launch of Challenger STS-51 L.

  18. Determining the Levels of Volatile Organic Pollutants in Urban Air Using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Nicoara; Loris Tonidandel; Pietro Traldi; Jonathan Watson; Geraint Morgan; Ovidiu Popa

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the application of a method based on coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using an isotopically labelled internal standard for the quantitative analysis of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and o-, m-, p-xylenes (X). Their atmospheric concentrations were determined based on short-term sampling, in different sites of Cluj-Napoca, a highly populated urban centre in N-W Romania, with numerous and diversified road vehicles with internal combustion engines. T...

  19. Crew Alertness Management on the Flight Deck: Cognitive and Vigilance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, David F.

    1998-01-01

    This project had three broad goals: (1) to identify environmental and organismic risks to performance of long-haul cockpit crews; (2) to assess how cognitive and psychomotor vigilance performance, and subjective measures of alertness, were affected by work-rest schedules typical of long-haul cockpit crews; and (3) to determine the alertness-promoting effectiveness of behavioral and technological countermeasures to fatigue on the flight deck. During the course of the research, a number of studies were completed in cooperation with the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program. The publications emerging from this project are listed in a bibliography in the appendix. Progress toward these goals will be summarized below according to the period in which it was accomplished.

  20. Ammonia and ammonium over the southern Baltic Sea. Part 1. Preparation of aerosol and air samples for the determination of ammonia by the indophenol method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Falkowska

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 1997 saw the start of a study into the spatial and temporal changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere over the littoral and offshore waters of the Baltic Sea. Collection of samples and their subsequent chemical analysis was preceded by meticulous laboratory experiments concerning the validation and adaptation of the analytical procedures. The colorimetric indophenol blue technique was used to analyse the aerosol samples for the concentration of ammonium ions and the air samples for their gaseous ammonia. The samples were collected with PTFE-filters and Whatman 41 filters coated with 5% orthophosphoric acid. This acid enhances the aerosol sampling efficacy but reduces the pH of the reaction in which indophenol is formed. The pH of the aerosol samples thus had to be raised, and this in turn required an alteration to the original procedure prior to ammonia determination. It was demonstrated that the addition of 0.1 N KOH to the filters coated with H3PO4 increases the pH of the reaction medium to the required level of pH = 8-11.5 and does not substantially influence the precision of the determination; the error of the modified procedure was of the order of 5.2%.      Air samples for the determination of gaseous ammonia were collected with annular denuders. Oxalic acid and citric acid are the usual impregnating agents. In the present experiments oxalic acid was used for denuder impregnation; it turned out to be more effective than citric acid under the conditions of the southern Baltic Sea.      The detection limit of the indophenol blue method in these laboratory experiments was 0.045 mmol dm-3. The respective relative standard deviations (RSD within the range of higher and lower concentrations were 0.64% and 4.53%.

  1. Crew Health And Recreation Gear Exercise Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid based exoskeleton leg demonstrator was developed to help long duration exploration mission crews obtain exercise with entertainment...

  2. BALANCING AMBULANCE CREW WORKLOADS VIA A TIERED DISPATCH POLICY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xun; Saydam, Cem

    2016-01-01

    ... relocations to ensure high demand zones are covered adequately. In this paper we propose a tiered dispatch policy to balance the ambulance crew workloads while meeting fast response times for priority 1 calls...

  3. Avatar Robot for Crew Performance and Behavioral Health Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project investigates the effectiveness of using an avatar robotic platform as a crew assistant and a family member substitute. This type of avatar robot is...

  4. CREW PARTITIONING: ITS EFFECT(S) ON FEMALE DIRECTINGIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paper argued and concluded that crew should not be gender sensitive; hence, directing .... religious beliefs in the life of [black] Africa, and theatre inclusive, for it finds its main subject in ..... Self and World: Readings in Philosophy,. 2nd Edition.

  5. Influence of storm electromagnetic field on the aircraft crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Э. Г. Азнакаев

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered is the biophysical influence of alternative electromagnetic fields, caused by electrical discharges in atmosphere. Analyzed are conditions which may provoke inadequate actions and errors of the crew in airplane flight control

  6. Cosmic rays score direct hits with Apollo crew

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts conduted experiments during the spaceflight to help scientists to understand why previous crews have seen flashes of light during missions, believed to be caused by cosmic rays (1 page).

  7. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements Revision D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    The Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements document has been prepared for use by designers of battery-powered vehicles, portable equipment, and experiments intended for crewed spaceflight. The purpose of the requirements document is to provide battery designers with information on design provisions to be incorporated in and around the battery and on the verification to be undertaken to demonstrate a safe battery is provided. The term "safe battery" means that the battery is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and use; safe to be used in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle; and safe to be mounted or used in unpressurized spaces adjacent to habitable areas. Battery design review, approval, and certification is required before the batteries can be used for ground operations and be certified for flight.

  8. Cosmic radiation and magnetic fields: Exposure assessment and health outcomes among airline flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Joyce Shealy

    Airline flight crews are chronically exposed to cosmic radiation and to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical system. Potential disease risks have been identified in health studies among commercial flight crews outside of the United States and among military pilots within the United States. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify exposure to both cosmic radiation and magnetic fields onboard aircraft, (2) to develop a methodology for estimating career cosmic radiation doses to individual crew members, and (3) to compare mortality among United States commercial pilots and navigators with that of all occupational groups. Cosmic radiation equivalent doses to bone marrow and skeletal tissue were calculated on a flight-by-flight basis. Flight-by-flight calculations were used to develop an estimation methodology for cumulative (career) cosmic radiation doses. Magnetic fields were measured directly onboard aircraft during flight. Health outcomes among United States commercial pilots and navigators were investigated using proportional mortality ratios, proportional cancer mortality ratios, and mortality odds ratios. Based on the sample used in this study, the cosmic radiation equivalent dose to bone marrow and skeletal tissue associated with air travel ranges from 30 to 570 microsieverts per 100 flight hours (not including ground time) depending on altitude, latitude, phase of solar cycle, and flight duration. Magnetic field exposure appears to be characterized by frequencies between 100 and 800 hertz and varies in strength depending on stages of flight, location within the aircraft, and aircraft type. Based on limited measurements, maximum field strengths may increase from 0.6 microtesla in economy class to 1.2 microtesla in first class, suggesting that cockpit exposures may be higher. Potential synergistic effects of cosmic radiation and magnetic fields may be associated with certain cancers found in excess among flight crews, in particular

  9. Determination of transmission factors of concretes with different water/cement ratio, curing condition, and dosage of cement and air entraining agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Remzi, E-mail: rsahin@atauni.edu.tr [Dept. of Civil Eng., Faculty of Eng., Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Polat, Recep [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Education, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Icelli, Orhan [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Celik, Cafer [Dept. of Industrial Eng., Faculty of Eng., Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > We determined transmission factors of parameters affecting properties of concrete. > The most important parameter is W/C ratio for attenuation of radiation of concrete. > Taguchi Method provides an appropriate methodology for parameter reduction. - Abstract: This study focuses on determination of transmission factors of main parameters affecting the properties of both normal- and heavy-weight concrete in order to increase knowledge and understanding of radiation attenuation in concrete at a later age. Water/cement (W/C) ratio, curing condition, cement quantity and air entraining agent (AEA) were selected as the main parameters. Eight energy values have been selected within the energy interval of 30.85-383.85 keV to be used in the radiation source. The Taguchi Method was used as the method of optimization. It was determined in the study that the most important parameter affecting the attenuation of the radiation of the concrete is the W/C ratio and the concretes produced with the lowest level of W/C ratio absorb more radiation. However, it was also determined that there was a combined effect between the W/C ratio and the cement dosage.

  10. Determination of Glycol Ethers in Ambient Air by Adsorption Sampling and Thermal Desorption with GC/MS Analysis: Performance Evaluation and Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kyo Seo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of glycol ethers, such as 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME and 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE are known to be toxic and classified as hazardous air pollutants in USA, Japan and Germany. In Korea, however, there has been no study conducted so far for these compounds in ambient air. In addition, no clear methodologies for the measurement of glycol ethers have been yet established. We carried out this study to evaluate a sampling and analytical method for the determination of glycol ethers, in ambient air samples collected in specific industrial areas of South Korea. To measure glycol ethers, adsorption sampling and thermal desorption with GC/MS analysis were used in this study. The analytical method showed good repeatability, linearity and sensitivity. The lower detection limits were estimated to be approximately 0.3∼0.5 ppb. Based on storage tests, it was suggested that samples should be analyzed within two weeks. It was also demonstrated that this method can be used for the simultaneous measurement of glycol ethers and other aromatic VOCs such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Field sampling campaign was carried out at 2 sites, located in a large industrial area, from October 2006 to June 2007, and a total of 480 samples were collected seasonally. Among them, 2-ME was not detected from any samples, while 2-EE and 2-Ethyloxyethylacetate (2-EEA were found in 7 and 70 samples, respectively. The measured concentrations of 2-EE and 2-EEA for samples were ranged from 0.7-2.5 ppb and from 0.5-10.5 ppb, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement report for glycol ethers in the ambient atmosphere not only in Korea but also the rest of the world.

  11. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  12. Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  13. Progress of Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST) On the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Matthew; Marquez, Jessica; Hillenius, Steven; Korth, David; Bakalyar, Lauren Rush; Woodbury, Neil; Larsen, Crystal M.; Bates, Shelby; Kockler, Mikayla; Rhodes, Brooke; hide

    2017-01-01

    The United States space policy is evolving toward missions beyond low Earth orbit. In an effort to meet that policy, NASA has recognized Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) as a valuable capability. Identified within AMO capabilities is the potential for autonomous planning and replanning during human spaceflight operations. That is allowing crew members to collectively or individually participate in the development of their own schedules. Currently, dedicated mission operations planners collaborate with international partners to create daily plans for astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS), taking into account mission requirements, ground rules, and various vehicle and payload constraints. In future deep space operations the crew will require more independence from ground support due to communication transmission delays. Furthermore, crew members who are provided with the capability to schedule their own activities are able to leverage direct experience operating in the space environment, and possibly maximize their efficiency. CAST (Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test) is an ISS investigation designed to analyze three important hypotheses about crew autonomous scheduling. First, given appropriate inputs, the crew is able to create and execute a plan in a reasonable period of time without impacts to mission success. Second, the proximity of the planner, in this case the crew, to the planned operations increases their operational efficiency. Third, crew members are more satisfied when given a role in plan development. This presentation shows the progress done in this study with a single astronaut test subject participating in five CAST sessions. CAST is a technology demonstration payload sponsored by the ISS Research Science and Technology Office, and performed by experts in Mission Operations Planning from the Flight Operations Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center, and researchers across multiple NASA centers.

  14. Three STS 26 astronauts training in the Crew Compartment trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Three astronauts named in January 1987 as part of a five-member crew for NASA's first flight since the Challenger accident are shown in a photo session of July 1986. Left to right are Astronauts John M. (Mike) Lounge, Richard O. Covey and David C. Hilmers. Lounge and Hilmers will serve as Mission specialists for the STS 26 flight and Covey will serve as pilot. The three are on the middeck of JSC's one-G Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  15. Crew Systems Laboratory/Building 7. Historical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovinac, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Building 7 is managed by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division of the JSC Engineering Directorate. Originally named the Life Systems Laboratory, it contained five major test facilities: two advanced environmental control laboratories and three human-rated vacuum chambers (8 , 11 , and the 20 ). These facilities supported flight crew familiarization and the testing and evaluation of hardware used in the early manned spaceflight programs, including Gemini, Apollo, and the ASTP.

  16. Mars Conjunction Crewed Missions With a Reusable Hybrid Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Strange, Nathan J.; Qu, Min; Hatten, Noble

    2015-01-01

    A new crew Mars architecture has been developed that provides many potential benefits for NASA-led human Mars moons and surface missions beginning in the 2030s or 2040s. By using both chemical and electric propulsion systems where they are most beneficial and maintaining as much orbital energy as possible, the Hybrid spaceship that carries crew round trip to Mars is pre-integrated before launch and can be delivered to orbit by a single launch. After check-out on the way to cis-lunar space, it is refueled and can travel round trip to Mars in less than 1100 days, with a minimum of 300 days in Mars vicinity (opportunity dependent). The entire spaceship is recaptured into cis-lunar space and can be reused. The spaceship consists of a habitat for 4 crew attached to the Hybrid propulsion stage which uses long duration electric and chemical in-space propulsion technologies that are in use today. The hybrid architecture's con-ops has no in-space assembly of the crew transfer vehicle and requires only rendezvous of crew in a highly elliptical Earth orbit for arrival at and departure from the spaceship. The crew transfer vehicle does not travel to Mars so it only needs be able to last in space for weeks and re-enter at lunar velocities. The spaceship can be refueled and resupplied for multiple trips to Mars (every other opportunity). The hybrid propulsion stage for crewed transits can also be utilized for cargo delivery to Mars every other opportunity in a reusable manner to pre-deploy infrastructure required for Mars vicinity operations. Finally, the Hybrid architecture provides evolution options for mitigating key long-duration space exploration risks, including crew microgravity and radiation exposure.

  17. 14 CFR 1214.403 - Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Station Crew. 1214.403 Section 1214.403 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.403 Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew. The Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew, which sets...

  18. Determination of a wide range of volatile organic compounds in ambient air using multisorbent adsorption/thermal desorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, J.F.; Luo, W.; Isabelle, L.M.; Bender, D.A.; Baker, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Adsorption/thermal desorption with multisorbent air-sampling cartridges was developed for the determination of 87 method analytes including halogenated alkanes, halogenated alkenes, ethers, alcohols, nitriles, esters, ketones, aromatics, a disulfide, and a furan. The volatilities of the compounds ranged from that of dichlorofluoromethane (CFC12) to that of 1,2,3- trichlorobenzene. The eight most volatile compounds were determined using a 1.5-L air sample and a sample cartridge containing 50 mg of Carbotrap B and 280 mg of Carboxen 1000; the remaining 79 compounds were determined using a 5-L air sample and a cartridge containing 180 mg of Carbotrap B and 70 mg of Carboxen 1000. Analysis and detection were by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The minimum detectable level (MDL) concentration values ranged from 0.01 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) for chlorobenzene to 0.4 ppbv for bromomethane; most of the MDL values were in the range 0.02-0.06 ppbv. No breakthrough was detected with the prescribed sample volumes. Analyte stability on the cartridges was very good. Excellent recoveries were obtained with independent check standards. Travel spike recoveries ranged from 90 to 110% for 72 of the 87 compounds. The recoveries were less than 70% for bromomethane and chloroethene and for a few compounds such as methyl acetate that are subject to losses by hydrolysis; the lowest travel spike recovery was obtained for bromomethane (62%). Blank values for all compounds were either below detection or very low. Ambient atmospheric sampling was conducted in New Jersey from April to December, 1997. Three sites characterized by low, moderate, and high densities of urbanization/traffic were sampled. The median detected concentrations of the compounds were either similar at all three sites (as with the chlorofluorocarbon compounds) or increased with the density of urbanization/traffic (as with dichloromethane, MTBE, benzene, and toluene). For toluene, the median detected

  19. Carbon dioxide and water vapor production at rest and during exercise. A report on data collection for the Crew and Thermal Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1994-01-01

    The current environmental control device in the shuttle uses lithium hydroxide (LiOH) filter canisters to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the cabin air, requiring several bulky filter canisters that can only be used once and must be changed frequently. To alleviate a stowage problem and decrease launch weight, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been researching a system to be used on future shuttle missions. This system uses two beds of solid amine material to absorb CO2 and water, later desorbing them to space vacuum. In this way the air scrubbing medium is regenerable and reusable. To identify the efficacy of this regenerable CO2 removal system (RCRS), CTSD began investigations in the shuttle mockup. The purpose of this investigation was to support the CTSD program by determining mean levels of carbon dioxide and water vapor production in normal, healthy males and females age-matched with the astronaut corps. Subjects' responses were measured at rest and during exercise at intensity levels equivalent to normal shuttle operation activities. The results were used to assess the adjustments made to RCRS and are reported as a reference for future investigations in shuttle environmental control.

  20. Determination of inorganic nickel compounds in the particulate matter of emissions and workplace air by selective sequential dissolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profumo, A; Spini, G; Cucca, L; Pesavento, M

    2003-11-12

    A speciation method of inorganic nickel compounds in airborne particulate, based on selective sequential extractions, is described. It allows the separation and the determination of Ni(0), Ni(II) soluble salts such as sulphate and chloride, Ni insoluble compounds such as nickel oxide and sulphide, to which a different toxicity and therefore a different risk are related. The nickel concentration in each fraction was determined by Flame or Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The proposed procedure has been tested first, on synthetic samples prepared with the different nickel compounds, in the presence of atmospherical particulate matter not containing nickel, in order to take into account the possible matrix influence. The speciation was then repeated on four different samples (fly ash deriving from a solid waste incinerator and three RSMS from NIST: Coal Fly ash SRM 1633b, Urban Particulate 1648, Washington Dust 1649), followed by an evaluation of matrix spiking and recovery analyses. Performing multiple analyses of the spiked samples assessed the repeatability of the procedure.

  1. Adaptive coordination and heedfulness make better cockpit crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, G; Kolbe, M; Zala-Mezö, E; Bienefeld-Seall, N; Künzle, B

    2010-02-01

    Team coordination during a simulated clean approach performed by 42 civil aviation cockpit crews was analysed. Several hypotheses regarding the adaptive use of implicit and explicit coordination, leadership and heedful interrelating were tested. The results indicate the adaptiveness of coordination to different levels of standardisation and task load and the general importance of explicit coordination for good performance. Leadership seems to be required mainly for work phases with little standardisation. In exploratory lag sequential analyses, heedful behaviour in the seven best and six worst performing crews was examined. The coordination sequences in high performance crews were found to be more succinct and well balanced, indicating that a shared sense of heedfulness is crucial for effectiveness. Theoretical implications for the conceptualisation of adaptive coordination and heedfulness and practical implications for improving crew training are discussed. Statement of Relevance: Analyses of team coordination during a simulated clean approach performed by civil aviation cockpit crews demonstrated the occurrence and effectiveness of adaptive coordination in response to different levels of task load and standardisation. Results also indicated the importance of heedful interrelating, both as a form of coordination and as a way of regulating the adaptiveness of coordination efforts. These findings have important implications for improving crew training, leadership practices and possibly also standard operating procedures.

  2. Intercultural crew issues in long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    Before long-duration flights with international crews can be safely undertaken, potential interpersonal difficulties will need to be addressed. Crew performance breakdown has been recognized by the American Institute of Medicine, in scientific literature, and in popular culture. However, few studies of human interaction and performance in confined, isolated environments exist, and the data pertaining to those studies are mostly anecdotal. Many incidents involving crew interpersonal dynamics, those among flight crews, as well as between flight crews and ground controllers, are reported only in non-peer reviewed books and newspapers. Consequently, due to this lack of concrete knowledge, the selection of astronauts and cosmonauts has focused on individual rather than group selection. Additional selection criteria such as interpersonal and communication competence, along with intercultural training, will have a decisive impact on future mission success. Furthermore, industrial psychological research has demonstrated the ability to select a group based on compatibility. With all this in mind, it is essential to conduct further research on heterogeneous, multi-national crews including selection and training for long-duration space missions.

  3. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  4. Intercultural crew issues in long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    Before long-duration flights with international crews can be safely undertaken, potential interpersonal difficulties will need to be addressed. Crew performance breakdown has been recognized by the American Institute of Medicine, in scientific literature, and in popular culture. However, few studies of human interaction and performance in confined, isolated environments exist, and the data pertaining to those studies are mostly anecdotal. Many incidents involving crew interpersonal dynamics, those among flight crews, as well as between flight crews and ground controllers, are reported only in non-peer reviewed books and newspapers. Consequently, due to this lack of concrete knowledge, the selection of astronauts and cosmonauts has focused on individual rather than group selection. Additional selection criteria such as interpersonal and communication competence, along with intercultural training, will have a decisive impact on future mission success. Furthermore, industrial psychological research has demonstrated the ability to select a group based on compatibility. With all this in mind, it is essential to conduct further research on heterogeneous, multi-national crews including selection and training for long-duration space missions.

  5. A method for the determination of dimethylamine in air by collection on solid support sorbent with subsequent derivatization and spectrophotometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner-Martínez, Y; Campíns-Falcó, P; Herráez-Hernández, R

    2004-12-03

    A new method for dimethylamine determination in air is reported. The proposed assay is based on the employment of C18-packed solid phase extraction cartridges for sampling. The retained amine is then derivatized inside the cartridges with the reagent 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate. By observing the coloured area of the cartridge, a semiquantitative estimation of the amine can be made. It was also possible to distinguish between primary and secondary amines by visual inspection. Quantitative tests entailed desorption from the cartridges of the derivatives formed, and measurement of the absorbance of the collected extracts. The selected conditions were applied to quantify dimethylamine up to 100 microg, the quantification and detection limits being 6.7 and 2 microg, respectively. Satisfactory linearity and precision were obtained. Possible interferences by ammonia, primary amines and diethylamine were tested. The applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by estimating the concentration of dimethylamine in generated and real air samples. The procedure was useful for short-term exposure limit and threshold limit value estimations.

  6. Development of open-air type electrolyte-as-cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectrometry for determination of trace metals in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo J.; Lee, Jeong H.; Kim, Myung Y.; Cserfalvi, T.; Mezei, P.

    2000-07-01

    The open-air type electrolyte cathode atomic glow discharge (ELCAD) has been developed and studied for fundamental and analytical applications for determination of trace heavy metals in water. The normal closed-type discharge cell shows some problems such as unstable plasma due to changes in the pressure inside the cell during the discharge, and water vapor condensing onto the window. Applying approximately 1500 V to the several-millimeter gap between the electrolyte solution cathode and a Pt rod anode in atmospheric air pressure produced a stable plasma and significantly improved sensitivity. The emission spectrum of de-ionized water containing 100 mg/l Cu was measured and some emission lines were found from Cu I (324.7 nm, 327.4 nm and 510.5 nm) and Cu II (224.7 nm and 229.4 nm). The LODs of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn are in the ranges from 0.01 mg/l to 0.6 mg/l. The LODs of Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn improve by approximately one order of magnitude compared to the previous closed-type ELCAD.

  7. Various Lifestyle Factors of Flight Crew Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various Lifestyle Factors of Flight Crew Members The main aim of the research was to analyze certain lifestyle factors of flight crew members. This profession has rather high demands relating to body type, basic skills, as well as good mental and physical condition. The sample of respondents included 76 members of the Adria Airways d. d. cabin crew (19.7% men and 80.3% women with the average age of 30.3 years (SD = 9.88, most of them (74.1% finished high school and only one third had a full-time work contract. Using a questionnaire, we investigated the amount of exercise they get during work and in their free time, as well as their health conditions. Results show that in their free time most of the respondents participate in sports, with outdoor sports being the most popular form of exercise (running and walking, hiking, skiing, and swimming. The respondents spend most of their time at work standing up (18.4% and walking (27.6%. Many of them (35% find that they have to maintain postures that are uncomfortable. Most of them experience a combination of all the above. Most (38.2% do sports at least twice a week, and as many as 84.2% 3 to 5 times a week. Only 4% of the respondents participate in sports activities organized by their employer. Most (77.6% believe themselves to be in good health and only 6.6% believe themselves to be often under stress. Relatively many smoke. Among health problems, the highest percentage (46.1% of respondents list fatigue, followed by back pain (34.2% and neck pain (30.3%. Considering the characteristics of this profession, we recommend cabin crew members do aerobic exercise as well as more complex and preventative sport exercises intended to prevent back pain, and also to do more exercises for strength, core stability and flexibility. Různé faktory životního stylu členů letové posádky Hlavním cílem výzkumu bylo analyzovat některé faktory životního stylu členů letových posádek. Tato profese klade

  8. Potential of multispectral imaging for real-time determination of colour change and moisture distribution in carrot slices during hot air dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xuzhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-03-15

    Colour and moisture content are important indices in quality monitoring of dehydrating carrot slices during dehydration process. This study investigated the potential of using multispectral imaging for real-time and non-destructive determination of colour change and moisture distribution during the hot air dehydration of carrot slices. Multispectral reflectance images, ranging from 405 to 970 nm, were acquired and then calibrated based on three chemometrics models of partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back propagation neural network (BPNN), respectively. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN considerably improved the prediction performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP(2))=0.991, root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP)=1.482% and residual predictive deviation (RPD)=11.378 for moisture content. It was concluded that multispectral imaging has an excellent potential for rapid, non-destructive and simultaneous determination of colour change and moisture distribution of carrot slices during dehydration.

  9. A simple, comprehensive, and miniaturized solvent extraction method for determination of particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic compounds in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Aldenor G; Regis, Ana Carla D; da Rocha, Gisele O; Bezerra, Marcos de A; de Jesus, Robson M; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2016-02-26

    The method allowed simultaneous characterization of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and quinones in atmospheric particulate matter. This method employs a miniaturized micro-extraction step that uses 500 μL of an acetonitrile-dichloromethane mix and instrumental analysis by means of a high-resolution GC-MS. The method was validated using the SRM1649b NIST standard reference material as well as deuterated internal standards. The results are in good agreement with the certified values and show recoveries between 75% and 145%. Limit of detection (LOD) values for PAHs were found to be between 0.5 pg (benzo[a]pyrene) to 2.1 pg (dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), for nitro-PAHs ranged between 3.2 pg (1-nitrobenzo[e]pyrene) and 22.2 pg (3-nitrophenanthrene), and for quinones ranged between 11.5 pg (1,4-naphthoquinone) and 458 pg (9,10-phenanthraquinone). The validated method was applied to real PM10 samples collected on quartz fiber filters. Concentrations in the PM10 samples ranged from 0.06 to 15 ng m(-3) for PAHs, fromdetermination of polycyclic aromatic compounds in airborne particles from both polluted and non-polluted atmospheres.

  10. Determining the Levels of Volatile Organic Pollutants in Urban Air Using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Nicoara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of a method based on coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using an isotopically labelled internal standard for the quantitative analysis of benzene (B, toluene (T, ethyl benzene (E, and o-, m-, p-xylenes (X. Their atmospheric concentrations were determined based on short-term sampling, in different sites of Cluj-Napoca, a highly populated urban centre in N-W Romania, with numerous and diversified road vehicles with internal combustion engines. The method is relatively inexpensive and simple and shows good precision and linearity in the ranges of 7–60 μg/m3 (B, 13–90 μg/m3 (T, 7–50 μg/m3 (E, 10–70 μg/m3 (X-m,p, and 20–130 μg/m3 (X-o. The limits of quantitation/detection of the method LOQ/LOD are of 10/5 μg/m3 (Xo, 5/3 μg/m3 (B, E, X-m,p, and of 3/1 μg/m3 (T, respectively.

  11. [Determination of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus in high risk areas at the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Alvarez, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzimo inmuno assay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of Anti-HBc and Anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalency of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life.

  12. KORELASI PENGGUNAAN ALAT PELINDUNG DIRI DENGAN KECELAKAAN KERJA PADA CREW DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monik Kasman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal Protective Equipment (PPE is one of the way to control occupational safety and health hazard.  PPE is the last risk control to protect workers if control efforts hazard including elimination, substitution of equipment, design, discipline and administration, but the potential risk is still high. This study was purposed to to determine the correlation of using PPE in drilling crew of private (contracted rig of PT. Pertamina EP Asset Field Jambi which was doing well service to accident in workplace (in the job accident. This study used the cause-effect relationship which there are two variables observed which is influencing variable (independent variable and affected variable (dependent variable. Subject focused on this study is the total population of 30 drilling crews. The data were analyzed statistically by t-test and correlation test of product moment. Results showed that there is a no strong correlation between wearing PPE and in the job accident. The correlation coefficient of product moment obtained is -0,019, or negative correlation. This negative correlation represents that the relationship between wearing PPE and in the job accident is  reciprocal, the job accident suffered by drilling crew would be higher by the decreasing of level use of personal protective equipment.

  13. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  14. Air sampling and determination of vapours and aerosols of bitumen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Human Bitumen Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Dietmar; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Höber, Dieter; Emmel, Christoph; Musanke, Uwe; Rühl, Reinhold; Spickenheuer, Anne; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Bramer, Rainer; Seidel, Albrecht; Schilling, Bernd; Heinze, Evelyn; Kendzia, Benjamin; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Welge, Peter; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2011-06-01

    The chemical complexity of emissions from bitumen applications is a challenge in the assessment of exposure. Personal sampling of vapours and aerosols of bitumen was organized in 320 bitumen-exposed workers and 69 non-exposed construction workers during 2001-2008. Area sampling was conducted at 44 construction sites. Area and personal sampling of vapours and aerosols of bitumen showed similar concentrations between 5 and 10 mg/m(3), while area sampling yielded higher concentrations above the former occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 10 mg/m(3). The median concentration of personal bitumen exposure was 3.46 mg/m(3) (inter-quartile range 1.80-5.90 mg/m(3)). Only few workers were exposed above the former OEL. The specificity of the method measuring C-H stretch vibration is limited. This accounts for a median background level of 0.20 mg/m³ in non-exposed workers which is likely due to ubiquitous aliphatic hydrocarbons. Further, area measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were taken at 25 construction sites. U.S. EPA PAHs were determined with GC/MS, with the result of a median concentration of 2.47 μg/m(3) at 15 mastic asphalt worksites associated with vapours and aerosols of bitumen, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.45 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.78). PAH exposure at mastic-asphalt works was higher than at reference worksites (median 0.21 μg/m(3)), but about one order of magnitude lower compared to coke-oven works. For a comparison of concentrations of vapours and aerosols of bitumen and PAHs in asphalt works, differences in sampling and analytical methods must to be taken into account.

  15. Fluidized Bed Air-to-Air Heat Pump Evaporator Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Frost formation of air-to-air heat pump evaporator surfaces reduces unit efficiency and restricts application. The use of a fluidized bed heat...exchanger as an air-to- heat pump evaporator was investigated to determine if frost accumulation could be eliminated. Experimental investigations were...evaluated, with no practical solution being developed. The use of a fluidized bed heat exchanger for air-to-air heat pump evaporators was determined not feasible. (Author)

  16. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  17. Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  19. Understanding Crew Decision-Making in the Presence of Complexity: A Flight Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Evans, Emory; deHaag, Maarten Uijt; Duan, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Crew decision making and response have long been leading causal and contributing factors associated with aircraft accidents. Further, it is anticipated that future aircraft and operational environments will increase exposure to risks related to these factors if proactive steps are not taken to account for ever-increasing complexity. A flight simulation study was designed to collect data to help in understanding how complexity can, or may, be manifest. More specifically, an experimental apparatus was constructed that allowed for manipulation of information complexity and uncertainty, while also manipulating operational complexity and uncertainty. Through these manipulations, and the aid of experienced airline pilots, several issues have been discovered, related most prominently to the influence of information content, quality, and management. Flight crews were immersed in an environment that included new operational complexities suggested for the future air transportation system as well as new technological complexities (e.g. electronic flight bags, expanded data link services, synthetic and enhanced vision systems, and interval management automation). In addition, a set of off-nominal situations were emulated. These included, for example, adverse weather conditions, traffic deviations, equipment failures, poor data quality, communication errors, and unexpected clearances, or changes to flight plans. Each situation was based on one or more reference events from past accidents or incidents, or on a similar case that had been used in previous developmental tests or studies. Over the course of the study, 10 twopilot airline crews participated, completing over 230 flights. Each flight consisted of an approach beginning at 10,000 ft. Based on the recorded data and pilot and research observations, preliminary results are presented regarding decision-making issues in the presence of the operational and technological complexities encountered during the flights.

  20. Study and determination of the national dosimetric standards in terms of air kerma for X-rays radiation fields of low and medium-energies; Etude et realisation des references dosimetriques nationales en termes de kerma dans l'air pour les faisceaux de rayons X de basses et moyennes energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksouri, W

    2008-12-15

    Progress in radiation protection and radiotherapy, and the increased needs in terms of accuracy lead national metrology institutes to improve the standard. For ionizing radiation, the standard is defined by an absolute instrument used for air kerma rate measurement. The aim of the thesis is to establish standards, in terms of air kerma for X-rays beams of low and medium-energies. This work enables to complement the standard beam range of the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB). Two free-air chambers have been developed, WK06 for medium-energy and WK07 for low-energy. The air-kerma rate is corrected by several correction factors. Some are determined experimentally; and the others by using Monte Carlo simulations. The uncertainty budget of the air-kerma rate at one standard deviation has been established. These dosimetric standards were compared with those of counterparts' laboratories and are consistent in terms of degree of equivalence. (author)

  1. STS-47 crew and backups at MSFC's Payload Crew Training Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Spacelab Japan (SLJ) crewmembers and backup payload specialists stand outside SLJ module mockup at the Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall SpaceFlight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. From left to right are Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, MS N. Jan Davis, backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee. The MSFC-managed mission is a joint venture in space-based research between the United States and Japan. Mohri, Doi, and Mukai represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). View provided with alternate number 92P-142.

  2. An optodynamic determination of the depth of laser-drilled holes by the simultaneous detection of ultrasonic waves in the air and in the workpiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strgar, Simon; Mozina, Janez

    2002-05-01

    A sufficiently powerful pulsed-laser beam can be used to 'drill' a hole in a stainless-steel workpiece. Here we present a real-time method for determining the depth of such a hole produced by multi-pulse laser drilling with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The developed experimental setup allowed us to detect the laser-induced ultrasonic waves in the surrounding air and in the workpiece simultaneously by means of a probe-beam-deflection method and a piezoelectric transducer. Our optodynamic approach involved an analysis of these ultrasonic waves in order to determine the depth of the hole at any stage of the process. The increasing depth of the hole and its maximum extent were estimated from changes in the propagation time of the ultrasonic waves traveling from the bottom of the hole to both detectors. Measurements of the maximum hole depth were compared with the predictions of a theoretical model and they were found to be in a good agreement.

  3. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  4. Microfabricated gas chromatograph for on-site determinations of TCE in indoor air arising from vapor intrusion. 2. Spatial/temporal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Kyu; Burris, David R; Bryant-Genevier, Jonathan; Gorder, Kyle A; Dettenmaier, Erik M; Zellers, Edward T

    2012-06-05

    We demonstrate the use of two prototype Si-microfabricated gas chromatographs (μGC) for continuous, short-term measurements of indoor trichloroethylene (TCE) vapor concentrations related to the investigation of TCE vapor intrusion (VI) in two houses. In the first house, with documented TCE VI, temporal variations in TCE air concentrations were monitored continuously for up to 48 h near the primary VI entry location under different levels of induced differential pressure (relative to the subslab). Concentrations ranged from 0.23 to 27 ppb by volume (1.2-150 μg/m(3)), and concentration trends agreed closely with those determined from concurrent reference samples. The sensitivity and temporal resolution of the measurements were sufficiently high to detect transient fluctuations in concentration resulting from short-term changes in variables affecting the extent of VI. Spatial monitoring showed a decreasing TCE concentration gradient with increasing distance from the primary VI entry location. In the second house, with no TCE VI, spatial profiles derived from the μGC prototype data revealed an intentionally hidden source of TCE within a closet, demonstrating the capability for locating non-VI sources. Concentrations measured in this house ranged from 0.51 to 56 ppb (2.7-300 μg/m(3)), in good agreement with reference method values. This first field demonstration of μGC technology for automated, near-real-time, selective VOC monitoring at low- or subppb levels augurs well for its use in short- and long-term on-site analysis of indoor air in support of VI assessments.

  5. Ultrasound-air-assisted demulsified liquid-liquid microextraction by solidification of a floating organic droplet for determination of three antifungal drugs in water and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddin, Maryam; Shojaie, Mehran; Abdi, Khosrou; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-03-01

    A novel ultrasound-air-assisted demulsified liquid-liquid microextraction by solidification of a floating organic droplet (UAAD-LLM-SFO) followed by HPLC-UV detection was developed for the analysis of three antifungal drugs in water and biological samples. In this method, 1-dodecanol was used as the extraction solvent. The emulsion was rapidly formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of sample solution and extraction solvent for 5 times repeatedly using a 10-mL glass syringe while sonication was performed. Therefore, an organic dispersive solvent required in common microextraction methods was not used in the proposed method. After dispersing, an aliquot of acetonitrile was introduced as a demulsifier solvent into the sample solution to separate two phases. Therefore, some additional steps, such as the centrifugation, ultrasonication, or agitation of the sample solution, are not needed. Parameters influencing the extraction recovery were investigated. The proposed method showed a good linearity for the three antifungal drugs studied with the correlation coefficients (R (2) > 0.9995). The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of the quantification (LOQs) were between 0.01-0.03 μg L(-1) and 0.03-0.08 μg L(-1), respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were in the range of 107-116, respectively. The precisions, as the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 5), for inter-day and intra-day analysis were in the range of 2.1-4.5% and 6.5-8.5%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to determine the three antifungal drugs in tap water and biological samples. The recoveries of antifungal drugs in these samples were 92.4-98.5%. Graphical abstract Ultrasound-air-assisted demulsified liquid-liquid microextraction by solidification of a floating organic droplet for the analysis of three antifungal drugs prior HPLC-UV.

  6. 气相色谱法测定环境空气中吡啶%Determination of pyridine in environmental air by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉

    2013-01-01

    Amethod of gas chromatography method for the determination of pyridine in air .Activated carbon adsorption, pyridine in air environment of carbon disulfide desorption , DB-200 capillary column, direct injection analysis, hydrogen flame ionization detector , the qualitative time, peak area quantification, pyridine recovery rate is 91.5% ~103.1%, when the sampling volume was 20L, the minimum detectable concentration of pyridine were 0.006mg/m 3 .This method is simple, good degree of separation, high sensitivity, meet the de-mands of environmental analysis .%  建立了用气相色谱法测定环境空气中吡啶的方法。环境空气中吡啶活性炭吸附,二硫化碳解吸,DB-200毛细管柱分离,直接进样分析,氢火焰离子化检测器检测,时间定性,峰面积定量,吡啶回收率为91.5%~103.1%,当采样体积为20L,吡啶最低检出质量浓度分别为0.006mg/m 3。本方法前处理简便,分离度好,分析灵敏度高,满足环境分析要求。

  7. Ion chromatographic determination of formaldehyde in indoor air%离子色谱法测定室内空气中甲醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳钧

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of an ion chromatographic method for the determination of formaldehyde in air by the method of . Formaldehyde in air by activated carbon adsorption ,hydrogen peroxide oxidation of formic acid ,microwave extraction ,anion sepa-ration column separation ,sample analysis ,the qualitative time ,peak height quantitative ,its formaldehyde recovery rate was 92 .3%~ 105 .5% ,the sampling volume 48L conditions ,formaldehyde minimum detectable mass concentration of 0 .005mg/m3 .This method is easy pretreatment ,separation of good little interference ,high analysis sensitivity ,chemical reagents used less ,to meet the demands of environmental analysis .%  建立了用离子色谱法测定空气中甲醛的方法。空气中甲醛活性炭吸附,过氧化氢氧化甲酸、微波提取,阴离子分离柱分离,直接进样分析,时间定性,峰高定量,其甲醛回收率为92.3%~105.5%,在采样体积为48L的条件下,甲醛最低检出质量浓度为0.005mg/m3。本方法前处理简便,分离度好干扰少,分析灵敏度高,化学试剂使用量少,满足环境分析要求。

  8. Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-10-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

  9. Operational considerations for a crewed nuclear powered space transportation vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrer, Jerry L.; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    Applying nuclear propulsion technology to human space travel will require new approaches to conducting human operations in space. Due to the remoteness of these types of missions, the crew and their vehicle must be capable of operating independent from Earth-based support. This paper discusses current operational studies which address methods for performing these types of remote and autonomous missions. Methods of managing the hazards to humans who will operate these high-energy nuclear-powered transportation vehicles also is reviewed. Crew training for both normal and contingency operations is considered. Options are evaluated on how best to train crews to operate and maintain the systems associated with a nuclear engine. Methods of maintaining crew proficiency during the long months of space travel are discussed. Vehicle health maintenance also will be a primary concern during these long missions. A discussion is presented on how on-board vehicle health maintenance systems will monitor system trends, identified system weaknesses, and either isolate critical failures or provide the crew with adequate warning of impending problems.

  10. Crew Roles and Interactions in Scientific Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human spaceflight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future spaceflight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future spaceflights.

  11. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  12. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  13. Determination of semi-volatile and particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Stockholm air with emphasis on the highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Lim, Hwanmi; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-09-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been determined in the gaseous phase and in various particulate matter (PM) size fractions at different locations in and outside of Stockholm, Sweden, representative of street level, urban and rural background. The focus has been on the seldom determined but highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers (DBPs) dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. PAHs with 3 rings were found to be mainly associated with the vapor phase (>90%) whereas PAHs with 5-6 rings were mostly associated with particulate matter (>92%) and the 4-ringed PAHs partitioned between the two phases. PAH abundance was determined to be in the order street level > urban background > rural background with the PM10 street level 2010 mean of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) reaching 0.24 ng/m3, well below the EU annual limit value of 1 ng/m3. In addition, higher PAH concentrations were found in the sub-micron particle fraction (PM1) as compared to the super-micron fraction (PM1-10) with the abundance in PM1 varying between 57 and 86% of the total PAHs. The B[a]P equivalent concentrations derived for DB[a,l]P and total DBPs exceeded 1-2 and 2-4 times, respectively, that of B[a]P at the four sampling sites; therefore underestimation of the cancer risk posed by PAHs in air could be made if the DBPs were not considered in risk assessment using the toxic equivalency approach, whilst the high correlation (p big difference in concentration ratios of B[a]P and the DBPs between the present study and some literature data calls for further research to evaluate the temporal and spatial invariance of the B[a]P/DBP ratios.

  14. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-01-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83.3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  15. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-04-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83·3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions.

  16. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection. Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the appendices to the NESC assessment report. NASA/TM-2013-217380, Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events supersedes this document.

  17. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  18. Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

    2008-01-01

    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  19. 离子色谱法测定环境空气中氯乙酸研究%Determination of Chloroacetic Acid in Air by Ion Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军

    2013-01-01

    建立了测定环境空气中氯乙酸的离子色谱法。采用碳酸钠和碳酸氢钠淋洗液作为吸收液采集大气中氯乙酸,氯乙酸吸收后转化成较稳定的氯乙酸钠,阴离子分离柱分离,过滤后直接进样分析,时间定性,峰高定量.对实际废气样品进行分析,氯乙酸的回收率94.0%~103.7%。当采样体积为30 L时,氯乙酸方法最低检出浓度0.01 mg/m3。该方法分析速度快,所需样品量少,无需使用机试剂和有毒有害试剂,前处理简便,灵敏、可靠,适用于环境空气和工业废气中氯乙酸的测定。%Ion chromatography was adopted to determine chloroacetic acid in ambient air .Taking sodium carbonate and sodi-um bicarbonate leaching solution as absorption liquid, this study collected the chloroacetic acid in the atmosphere , which turned into more stable sodium chloroacetate.The sample is then separated with anion separation column and filtered before the analysis. The peak of actual gas samples was analyzed .The recovery ratio of chloroacetic acid is 94%~103.7%.When the sampling vol-ume was 30 L, the minimum detectable concentration of chloroacetic acid is 0.01 mg/m3 .This method is fast, needs small sam-ple quantity, without the use of toxic reagents.The pretreatment procedure is simple, sensitive and reliable, suitable for determi-nation of chloroacetic acid in ambient air and in industrial waste gas.

  20. Prevalence of neck pain among cabin crew of Saudi Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Hesham M; Al-Sultan, Alanood; Al-Shammari, Anwar; Alyousef, Dana; Al-Hamidi, Hager; Al-Dossary, Nafla; Al-Zahrani, Nuha; Al-Abdulqader, Wala

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain is considered to be a major health problem in modern societies. Many previous studies found that certain occupations are related to this problem or are associated with the risk of developing it in future. Although the pain is caused by mechanical factors, it may progress to a serious problem and give rise to other abnormal symptoms such as vertigo, headache, or migraine. To investigate the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crew of Saudi Airlines. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the available Saudi Airlines cabin crews in King Fahad Airport during our visits, using questionnaires and measurements of several parameters. Neck Pain Questionnaires were distributed to the cabin crews on Saudi Airlines and assessment sheets were completed by all participants of the study to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of neck pain. Physical therapy examination of neck motions in different directions and specific tests were performed by all the participants to identify any symptoms. Using these data the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews was calculated. Collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS software calculating the mean, median, and score of the questionnaire. According to the scoring system of the study, 31 (30.09%) of 105 cabin crew staff of Saudi Airlines had neck pain. Our study confirmed a positive correlation between this occupation and neck pain, and in fact found that according to the results of logistic regression analysis, this occupation is the only significant factor that affects the positive compression test. The prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews of Saudi Airlines was emphasized. The results show a high prevalence of neck pain in the participants of the study, with most cases appearing to run a chronic - episodic course. Further research is needed to help us understand more about the long-term course of neck pain and its broader outcomes and impacts.

  1. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares 1-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

  2. STS-103 crew practice emergency egress in the slidewire basket

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the slidewire basket on Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) gets ready to pull the lever, which will release the basket. With Foale are fellow crew members Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). The baskets are part of the emergency egress system for persons in the Shuttle vehicle or on the Rotating Service Structure. Seven slidewires extend from the orbiter access arm, with a netted, flatbottom basket suspended from each wire. The STS-103 crew are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities in preparation for launch. The other crew members taking part are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The TCDT provides the crew with the emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  3. Toward Reducing Crew Time and Conserving Resources: Superhydrophillic Treatment of Hardware in Crew Hygiene Areas Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant challenges remain for the designers of life support equipment for spacecraft—primarily for the processing of aqueous fluids: oxygen supply, air...

  4. Adaptive Attitude Control of the Crew Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    An H(sub infinity)-NMA architecture for the Crew Launch Vehicle was developed in a state feedback setting. The minimal complexity adaptive law was shown to improve base line performance relative to a performance metric based on Crew Launch Vehicle design requirements for all most all of the Worst-on-Worst dispersion cases. The adaptive law was able to maintain stability for some dispersions that are unstable with the nominal control law. Due to the nature of the H(sub infinity)-NMA architecture, the augmented adaptive control signal has low bandwidth which is a great benefit for a manned launch vehicle.

  5. The evolution of Crew Resource Management training in commercial aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Merritt, A. C.; Wilhelm, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we describe changes in the nature of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in commercial aviation, including its shift from cockpit to crew resource management. Validation of the impact of CRM is discussed. Limitations of CRM, including lack of cross-cultural generality are considered. An overarching framework that stresses error management to increase acceptance of CRM concepts is presented. The error management approach defines behavioral strategies taught in CRM as error countermeasures that are employed to avoid error, to trap errors committed, and to mitigate the consequences of error.

  6. Passive Thrust Oscillation Mitigation for the CEV Crew Pallet System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Matthew; Powell, Cory; Pellicciotti, Joseph; Buehrle, Ralph; Johnson, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was intended to be the next-generation human spacecraft for the Constellation Program. The CEV Isolator Strut mechanism was designed to mitigate loads imparted to the CEV crew caused by the Thrust Oscillation (TO) phenomenon of the proposed Ares I Launch Vehicle (LV). The Isolator Strut was also designed to be compatible with Launch Abort (LA) contingencies and landing scenarios. Prototype struts were designed, built, and tested in component, sub-system, and system-level testing. The design of the strut, the results of the tests, and the conclusions and lessons learned from the program will be explored in this paper.

  7. Skylab 3 crew during training in Orbital Workshop trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The three prime crewmen of the Skylab 3 mission check over flight data during a training session in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at JSC. They are from left to right, Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot; and Astronauts Alan L. bean, commander, and Jack R. Lousma, pilot (28419); Skylab 3 crew work with Inflight Medical Support System (IMSS) resupply container atop the food table in the OWS. From left to right are Garriott, Lousma and Bean (28420).

  8. Damping Effects of Drogue Parachutes on Orion Crew Module Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Because simulations of the Orion Crew Module (CM) dynamics with drogue parachutes deployed were under-predicting the amount of damping seen in free-flight tests, an attach-point damping model was applied to the Orion system. A key hypothesis in this model is that the drogue parachutes' net load vector aligns with the CM drogue attachment point velocity vector. This assumption seems reasonable and has historically produced good results, but has never been experimentally verified. The wake of the CM influences the drogue parachutes, which makes performance predictions of the parachutes difficult. Many of these effects are not currently modeled in the simulations. A forced oscillation test of the CM with parachutes was conducted in the NASA LaRC 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) to gather additional data to validate and refine the attach-point damping model. A second loads balance was added to the original Orion VST model to measure the drogue parachute loads independently of the CM. The objective of the test was to identify the contribution of the drogues to CM damping and provide additional information to quantify wake effects and the interactions between the CM and parachutes. The drogue parachute force vector was shown to be highly dependent on the CM wake characteristics. Based on these wind tunnel test data, the attach-point damping model was determined to be a sufficient approximation of the parachute dynamics in relationship to the CM dynamics for preliminary entry vehicle system design. More wake effects should be included to better model the system.

  9. Novel method for determining DDT in vapour and particulate phases within contaminated indoor air in a malaria area of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naude, Yvette, E-mail: yvette.naude@up.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Rohwer, Egmont R., E-mail: egmont.rohwer@up.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a novel denuder for the determination of DDT in contaminated indoor air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single step concentration of vapour phase on PDMS, particulate phase on filter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-free green technique, sample extraction not required. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of airborne p,p Prime -DDD/p,p Prime -DDT and of o,p Prime -DDT/p,p Prime -DDT are unusual. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecticidal efficacy of technical DDT may be compromised. - Abstract: The organochlorine insecticide DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still used for malaria vector control in certain areas of South Africa. The strict Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) allows spraying on the inside of traditional dwellings with DDT. In rural villages contaminated dust presents an additional pathway for exposure to DDT. We present a new method for the determination of DDT in indoor air where separate vapour and particulate samples are collected in a single step with a denuder configuration of a multi-channel open tubular silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) trap combined with a micro quartz fibre filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap section of the denuder concentrates vapour phase insecticide whereas particle associated insecticide is transferred downstream where it is collected on a micro-fibre filter followed by a second multi-channel PDMS trap to capture the blow-off from the filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap and filter combination are designed to fit a commercial thermal desorber for direct introduction of samples into a GC-MS. The technique is solvent-free. Analyte extraction and sample clean-up is not required. Two fractions, vapour phase and particulate phase p,p Prime -DDT, o,p Prime -DDT; p,p Prime -DDD, o,p Prime -DDD; p,p Prime -DDE and o,p Prime -DDE in 4 L contaminated indoor air, were each quantitatively analysed by GC-MS using

  10. Dr. Robert Clark studies levels of radiation Skylab 2 crew was exposed to

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    In the Radiation Counting Laboratory sixty feet underground at JSC, Dr. Robert S. Clark prepares to load pieces of iridium foil - sandwiched between plastic sheets - into the laboratory's radiation detector. The iridium foil strips were worn by the crew of the second Skylab flight in personal radiation dosimeters throughout their 59.5 days in space. Inside the radiation detector assembly surrounded by 28 tons of lead shielding, the sample will be tested to determine the total neutron dose to which the astronauts were exposed during their long stay aboard the space station.

  11. Service Test of Night Vision Sight, Crew Served Weapons (Second Generation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the test were to determine to what degree the test item meets the performance requirements of the QMR and to evaluate the adequacy of the maintenance test package. Throughout testing, the First Generation Night Vision Sight, Crew Served Weapons, AN/TVS-2A, was used as a control sight. The two test items accumulated a total of 1,047.5 hours, were transported a total of...ammunition. The test items were considered satisfactory in the areas of preoperational inspection and physical characteristics; stowage; safety; target

  12. Simultaneous derivatization and air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction of some parabens in personal care products and their determination by GC with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Khosrowshahi, Elnaz Marzi; Khorram, Parisa

    2013-11-01

    A simultaneous derivatization/air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction technique has been developed for the sample pretreatment of some parabens in aqueous samples. The analytes were derivatized and extracted simultaneously by a fast reaction/extraction with butylchloroformate (derivatization agent/extraction solvent) from the aqueous samples and then analyzed by GC with flame ionization detection. The effect of catalyst type and volume, derivatization agent/extraction solvent volume, ionic strength of aqueous solution, pH, numbers of extraction, aqueous sample volume, etc. on the method efficiency was investigated. Calibration graphs were linear in the range of 2-5000 μg/L with squared correlation coefficients >0.990. Enhancement factors and enrichment factors ranged from 1535 to 1941 and 268 to 343, respectively. Detection limits were obtained in the range of 0.41-0.62 μg/L. The RSDs for the extraction and determination of 250 μg/L of each paraben were <4.9% (n = 6). In this method, the derivatization agent and extraction solvent were the same and there is no need for a dispersive solvent, which is common in a traditional dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique. Furthermore, the sample preparation time is very short.

  13. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (China)

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  14. A determinação colorimétrica de vapôres de benzeno no ar The colorimetric determination of benzene vapors in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert M. A. Stettiner

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se um método simples para a determinação de pequenas quantidades de vapôres de benzeno no ar, aplicável em presença de seus homólogos. A interferência dos homólogos é eliminada destruindo seus nitrocompostos segundo BAERNSTEIN¹ (1943 pela oxidação com ácido crômico. Êste procedimento é combinado com o de DOLIN2,3 (1943, 1947 que isola o m-dinitrobenzeno pela extração com éter etílico, usando o extrato etéreo para a revelação da côr vermelha e para a colorimetria.A simple method is developed for the determination of small amounts of benzene vapor in air in the presence of its homologues. The chromic acid method of BAERNSTEIN¹ (1943 for eliminating the interference of the homologues is combined with the procedure of DOLIN2,3 (1943, 1947 who makes the final colorimetric measurement after separating the colored matter by extraction with ethyl ether.

  15. Air-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction by solidifying the floating organic droplets for the rapid determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Xiangwei [Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Xing, Zhuokan [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Liu, Fengmao, E-mail: liufengmao@cau.edu.cn [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Zhang, Xu [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • A novel AALLME-SFO method was firstly reported for pesticide residue analysis. • Solvent with low density and proper melting point was used as extraction solvent. • The formation of “cloudy solvent” with a syringe only. • The new method avoided the use of organic dispersive solvent. - Abstract: A novel air assisted liquid–liquid microextraction using the solidification of a floating organic droplet method (AALLME-SFO) was developed for the rapid and simple determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples, using the gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). This method combines the advantages of AALLME and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) for the first time. In this method, a low-density solvent with a melting point near room temperature was used as the extraction solvent, and the emulsion was rapidly formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent for ten times repeatedly using a 10-mL glass syringe. After centrifugation, the extractant droplet could be easily collected from the top of the aqueous samples by solidifying it at a temperature lower than the melting point. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities with the correlation coefficients (γ) higher than 0.9959 were obtained and the limits of detection (LOD) varied between 0.02 and 0.25 μg L{sup −1}. The proposed method was applied to determine the target fungicides in juice samples and acceptable recoveries ranged from 72.6% to 114.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.3–13.0% were achieved. Compared with the conventional DLLME method, the newly proposed method will neither require a highly toxic chlorinated solvent for extraction nor an organic dispersive solvent in the application process; hence, it is more environmentally friendly.

  16. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasmin; Chuhta, Jesse D.; Hughes, Michael P.; Radke, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics models used to verify no re-contact. The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) architecture includes a highly-integrated Forward Bay Cover (FBC) jettison assembly design that combines parachutes and piston thrusters to separate the FBC from the Crew Module (CM) and avoid re-contact. A multi-disciplinary team across numerous organizations examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the FBC separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute elements, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1. Additional testing will be required to support human certification of this separation event, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust human-rated FBC separation event.

  17. Flight Crew Survey Responses from the Interval Management (IM) Avionics Phase 2 Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Roper, Roy D.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Goess, Paul A.; Shay, Richard F.

    2017-01-01

    The Interval Management (IM) Avionics Phase 2 flight test used three aircraft over a nineteen day period to operationally evaluate a prototype IM avionics. Quantitative data were collected on aircraft state data and IM spacing algorithm performance, and qualitative data were collected through end-of-scenario and end-of-day flight crew surveys. The majority of the IM operations met the performance goals established for spacing accuracy at the Achieve-by Point and the Planned Termination Point, however there were operations that did not meet goals for a variety of reasons. While the positive spacing accuracy results demonstrate the prototype IM avionics can contribute to the overall air traffic goal, critical issues were also identified that need to be addressed to enhance IM performance. The first category was those issues that impacted the conduct and results of the flight test, but are not part of the IM concept or procedures. These included the design of arrival and approach procedures was not ideal to support speed as the primary control mechanism, the ground-side of the Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) integrated concept of operations was not part of the flight test, and the high workload to manually enter the information required to conduct an IM operation. The second category was issues associated with the IM spacing algorithm or flight crew procedures. These issues include the high frequency of IM speed changes and reversals (accelerations), a mismatch between the deceleration rate used by the spacing algorithm and the actual aircraft performance, and some spacing error calculations were sensitive to normal operational variations in aircraft airspeed or altitude which triggered additional IM speed changes. Once the issues in these two categories are addressed, the future IM avionics should have considerable promise supporting the goals of improving system throughput and aircraft efficiency.

  18. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman III Ballistic Missiles at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum wind shear datasets and applied this information when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition, the AMU included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on the day of launch. The AMU developed an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic for Applications. The GUI displays the critical sounding data easily and quickly for LWOs on day of launch. This tool will replace the existing one used by the 30 OSSWF, assist the LWOs in determining the probability of exceeding specific wind threshold values, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast for

  19. Determination of hydrogen sulfide and volatile thiols in air samples by mercury probe derivatization coupled with liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanti, Emilia; D'Ulivo, Lucia; Lomonte, Cristina; Onor, Massimo; Zamboni, Roberto; Raspi, Giorgio; D'Ulivo, Alessandro

    2006-10-02

    A new procedure is proposed for the sampling and storage of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and volatile thiols (methanethiol or methyl mercaptan, ethanethiol and propanethiol) for their determination by liquid chromatography. The sampling procedure is based on the trapping/pre-concentration of the analytes in alkaline aqueous solution containing an organic mercurial probe p-hydroxymercurybenzoate, HO-Hg-C6H4-COO- (PHMB), where they are derivatized to stable PHMB complexes based on mercury-sulfur covalent bonds. PHMB complexes are separated on a C18 reverse phase column, allowing their determination by liquid chromatography coupled with sequential non-selective UV-vis (DAD) and mercury specific (chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, CVGAFS) on-line detectors. PHMB complexes, S(PHMB)2CH3S-PHMB, C2H5S-PHMB and C3H7S-PHMB, are stable alt least for 12 h at room temperature and for 3 months if stored frozen (-20 degrees C). The best analytical figures of merits in the optimized conditions were obtained by CVGAFS detection, with detection limits (LODc) of 9.7 microg L(-1) for H2S, 13.7 microg L(-1) for CH(3)SH, 17.7 microg L(-1) for C2H5SH and 21.7 microg L(-1) for C3H7SH in the trapping solution in form of RS-PHMB complexes, the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) ranging between 1.0 and 1.5%, and a linear dynamic range (LDR) between 10 and 9700 microg L(-1). Conventional UV absorbance detectors tuned at 254 nm can be employed as well with comparable R.S.D. and LDR, but with LODc one order of magnitude higher than AFS detector and lower specificity. The sampling procedure followed by LC-DAD-CVGAFS analysis has been validated, as example, for H2S determination by a certified gas permeation tube as a source of 3.071+/-0.154 microg min(-1) of H2S, giving a recovery of 99.8+/-7% and it has been applied to the determination of sulfur compounds in real gas samples (biogas and the air of a plant for fractional distillation of crude oil).

  20. Determination of hydrogen sulfide and volatile thiols in air samples by mercury probe derivatization coupled with liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramanti, Emilia [Italian National Research Council, CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Laboratory of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: emilia@ipcf.cnr.it; D' Ulivo, Lucia [Italian National Research Council, CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Laboratory of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Lomonte, Cristina [Italian National Research Council, CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Laboratory of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Ambiente s.c.r.l., Via Frassina 21, 54033, Carrrara, Massa (Italy); Onor, Massimo [Italian National Research Council, CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Laboratory of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Zamboni, Roberto [Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Raspi, Giorgio [Italian National Research Council, CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Laboratory of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); D' Ulivo, Alessandro [Italian National Research Council, CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Laboratory of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2006-10-02

    A new procedure is proposed for the sampling and storage of hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) and volatile thiols (methanethiol or methyl mercaptan, ethanethiol and propanethiol) for their determination by liquid chromatography. The sampling procedure is based on the trapping/pre-concentration of the analytes in alkaline aqueous solution containing an organic mercurial probe p-hydroxymercurybenzoate, HO-Hg-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-COO{sup -} (PHMB), where they are derivatized to stable PHMB complexes based on mercury-sulfur covalent bonds. PHMB complexes are separated on a C{sub 18} reverse phase column, allowing their determination by liquid chromatography coupled with sequential non-selective UV-vis (DAD) and mercury specific (chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, CVGAFS) on-line detectors. PHMB complexes, S(PHMB){sub 2}CH{sub 3}S-PHMB, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}S-PHMB and C{sub 3}H{sub 7}S-PHMB, are stable alt least for 12 h at room temperature and for 3 months if stored frozen (-20 deg. C). The best analytical figures of merits in the optimized conditions were obtained by CVGAFS detection, with detection limits (LODc) of 9.7 {mu}g L{sup -1} for H{sub 2}S, 13.7 {mu}g L{sup -1} for CH{sub 3}SH, 17.7 {mu}g L{sup -1} for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SH and 21.7 {mu}g L{sup -1} for C{sub 3}H{sub 7}SH in the trapping solution in form of RS-PHMB complexes, the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) ranging between 1.0 and 1.5%, and a linear dynamic range (LDR) between 10 and 9700 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Conventional UV absorbance detectors tuned at 254 nm can be employed as well with comparable R.S.D. and LDR, but with LODc one order of magnitude higher than AFS detector and lower specificity. The sampling procedure followed by LC-DAD-CVGAFS analysis has been validated, as example, for H{sub 2}S determination by a certified gas permeation tube as a source of 3.071 {+-} 0.154 {mu}g min{sup -1} of H{sub 2}S, giving a recovery of 99.8 {+-} 7% and it has been applied to the determination of

  1. History of the Naval Air Development Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-15

    radioactive isotope project Academics involved in all aspects of NADC work; university professors as summer employees - B- 16 NADC-82251-09 Tape 9 Jerry Polin ...Washington NADC’s outside appearance From Philadelphia Navy Yard it looked like a "country club" B-17 NADC-82251-09 Jerry Polin Tape 9 (Continued): Side B: Air...Crew Equipment Department, Aero Structures Lab, and Aero Materials Lab moved to NADC Interview in Philadelphia with John Lazo, who urged Polin to

  2. A Multi-Operator Simulation for Investigation of Distributed Air Traffic Management Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark E.; Ballin, Mark G.; Sakosky, John S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the current development of an air traffic operations simulation that supports feasibility research for advanced air traffic management concepts. The Air Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) supports the research of future concepts that provide a much greater role for the flight crew in traffic management decision-making. ATOS provides representations of the future communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure, a future flight deck systems architecture, and advanced crew interfaces. ATOS also provides a platform for the development of advanced flight guidance and decision support systems that may be required for autonomous operations.

  3. Integrating Timetabling and Crew Scheduling at a Freight Railway Operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bach (Lucas); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We investigate to what degree we can integrate a Train Timetabling / Engine Scheduling Problem with a Crew Scheduling Problem. In the Timetabling Problem we design a timetable for the desired lines by fixing the departure and arrival times. Also, we allocate time-slots

  4. SCOPE : an intelligent maintenance system for supporting crew operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Neerincx, M.A.; Wolff, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent maintenance system for Supporting Crew OPErations (SCOPE). SCOPE supports the astronauts onboard the ISS and helps them to maximize the availability of complex payload systems. SCOPE detects system failures, guides the isolation of the root causes of failure, and

  5. Bullying 101: The Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bullying 101" is the Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention. A visually-friendly, age-appropriate, 16-page colorful guide for students to read or for parents to use when talking with children, this guide describes and explains what bullying is and is not, the roles of other students, and tips on what each student can do to prevent…

  6. Advanced concept for a crewed mission to the martian moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Davide; Di Carlo, Marilena; Budzyń, Dorota; Burgoyne, Hayden; Fries, Dan; Grulich, Maria; Heizmann, Sören; Jethani, Henna; Lapôtre, Mathieu; Roos, Tobias; Castillo, Encarnación Serrano; Schermann, Marcel; Vieceli, Rhiannon; Wilson, Lee; Wynard, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design of the IMaGInE (Innovative Mars Global International Exploration) Mission. The mission's objectives are to deliver a crew of four astronauts to the surface of Deimos and perform a robotic exploration mission to Phobos. Over the course of the 343 day mission during the years 2031 and 2032, the crew will perform surface excursions, technology demonstrations, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of the Martian moons, as well as site reconnaissance for future human exploration of Mars. This mission design makes use of an innovative hybrid propulsion concept (chemical and electric) to deliver a relatively low-mass reusable crewed spacecraft (approximately 100 mt) to cis-martian space. The crew makes use of torpor which minimizes launch payload mass. Green technologies are proposed as a stepping stone towards minimum environmental impact space access. The usage of beamed energy to power a grid of decentralized science stations is introduced, allowing for large scale characterization of the Martian environment. The low-thrust outbound and inbound trajectories are computed through the use of a direct method and a multiple shooting algorithm that considers various thrust and coast sequences to arrive at the final body with zero relative velocity. It is shown that the entire mission is rooted within the current NASA technology roadmap, ongoing scientific investments and feasible with an extrapolated NASA Budget. The presented mission won the 2016 Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts - Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) competition.

  7. Bullying 101: The Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bullying 101" is the Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention. A visually-friendly, age-appropriate, 16-page colorful guide for students to read or for parents to use when talking with children, this guide describes and explains what bullying is and is not, the roles of other students, and tips on what each student can do to prevent…

  8. Crew Endurance Management Practices: A Guide for Maritime Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Watchkeeping for Seafarers ( STCW ) regarding hours of work and rest. The fundamental purpose of this guide is to provide managers, captains, department...should use this information, along with the guidelines provided in OPA 90 and STCW : • To identify risk factors affecting crew endurance in specific

  9. STS-103 crew wait inside Discovery for simulated countdown exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. sits inside orbiter Discovery waiting for the start of a simulated countdown exercise. The simulation is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT also provides the crew with emergency egress training and opportunities to inspect their mission payload in the orbiter's payload bay. Other crew members taking part in the TCDT are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Fran'''ois Clervoy of France, and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  10. The Biomolecule Sequencer Project: Nanopore Sequencing as a Dual-Use Tool for Crew Health and Astrobiology Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K. K.; Botkin, D. S.; Burton, A. S.; Castro-Wallace, S. L.; Chaput, J. D.; Dworkin, J. P.; Lehman, N.; Lupisella, M. L.; Mason, C. E.; Smith, D. J.; Stahl, S; Switzer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Human missions to Mars will fundamentally transform how the planet is explored, enabling new scientific discoveries through more sophisticated sample acquisition and processing than can currently be implemented in robotic exploration. The presence of humans also poses new challenges, including ensuring astronaut safety and health and monitoring contamination. Because the capability to transfer materials to Earth will be extremely limited, there is a strong need for in situ diagnostic capabilities. Nucleotide sequencing is a particularly powerful tool because it can be used to: (1) mitigate microbial risks to crew by allowing identification of microbes in water, in air, and on surfaces; (2) identify optimal treatment strategies for infections that arise in crew members; and (3) track how crew members, microbes, and mission-relevant organisms (e.g., farmed plants) respond to conditions on Mars through transcriptomic and genomic changes. Sequencing would also offer benefits for science investigations occurring on the surface of Mars by permitting identification of Earth-derived contamination in samples. If Mars contains indigenous life, and that life is based on nucleic acids or other closely related molecules, sequencing would serve as a critical tool for the characterization of those molecules. Therefore, spaceflight-compatible nucleic acid sequencing would be an important capability for both crew health and astrobiology exploration. Advances in sequencing technology on Earth have been driven largely by needs for higher throughput and read accuracy. Although some reduction in size has been achieved, nearly all commercially available sequencers are not compatible with spaceflight due to size, power, and operational requirements. Exceptions are nanopore-based sequencers that measure changes in current caused by DNA passing through pores; these devices are inherently much smaller and require significantly less power than sequencers using other detection methods

  11. Determination of air kerma standard of high dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source; Determinacao da taxa de kerma no ar de referencia para {sup 192}Ir de alta taxa de dose para braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, E.J.; Alves, C.F.E.; Leite, S.P.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; David, M.G.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: cfealves@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Di Prinzio, R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed by the Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas and presently in use for determining of the air kerma standard of {sup 192}Ir high dose rate sources to calibrate well-type chambers. Uncertainty analysis involving the measurements procedure are presented. (author)

  12. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Nominal Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Gerald; williams, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the President announced that, in 2025, the U.S. intended to launch a human mission to an asteroid [1]. This announcement was followed by the idea of a Capability Driven Framework (CDF) [2], which is based on the idea of evolving capabilities from less demanding to more demanding missions to multiple possible destinations and with increased flexibility, cost effectiveness and sustainability. Focused missions, such as a NASA inter-Center study that examined the viability and implications of sending a crew to a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) [3], provided a way to better understand and evaluate the utility of these CDF capabilities when applied to an actual mission. The long duration of the NEA missions were contrasted with a concept described in a study prepared for the Keck Institute of Space Studies (KISS) [4] where a robotic spacecraft would redirect an asteroid to the Earth-Moon vicinity, where a relatively short duration crewed mission could be conducted to the captured asteroid. This mission concept was included in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) fiscal year 2014 budget request, as submitted by the NASA Administrator [5]. NASA studies continued to examine the idea of a crewed mission to a captured asteroid in the Earth-Moon vicinity. During this time was an announcement of NASA's Asteroid Grand Challenge [6]. Key goals for the Asteroid Grand Challenge are to locate, redirect, and explore an asteroid, as well as find and plan for asteroid threats. An Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) study was being conducted, which supports this Grand Challenge by providing understanding in how to execute an asteroid rendezvous, capture it, and redirect it to Earth-Moon space, and, in particular, to a distant retrograde orbit (DRO). Subsequent to the returning of the asteroid to a DRO, would be the launch of a crewed mission to rendezvous with the redirected asteroid. This report examines that crewed mission by assessing the Asteroid Redirect Crewed

  13. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  14. STS-103 crew look over payload inside Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the STS-103 crew, with representatives from Goddard Space Flight Center, look over the Hubble servicing cargo in the payload bay of Space Shuttle Discovery at Launch Pad 39B. From left are Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland; Steve Pataki and Dave Southwick, with Goddard; and Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Inspecting the payload is part of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), which also provides the crew with emergency egress training and a simulated countdown exercise. Other crew members taking part in the TCDT are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Jean- Fran'''ois Clervoy of France. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  15. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... installation of an overhead crew rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain... Design Features Crew rest compartments have been installed and certificated on several Boeing...

  16. 76 FR 10476 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew-Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Crew- Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... will have novel or unusual design features associated with installation of an overhead crew-rest (OCR... Sec. 21.101. Novel or Unusual Design Features Crew-rest compartments have been installed...

  17. 75 FR 18825 - Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC AGENCY: Department of Energy... intent to grant to: Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC, of... enhanced. Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC, of...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1074 - Farm crew leader who is self-employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm crew leader who is self-employed. 404.1074 Section 404.1074 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... § 404.1074 Farm crew leader who is self-employed. If you are a farm crew leader and are deemed...

  19. 14 CFR 417.311 - Flight safety crew roles and qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety crew roles and qualifications... crew roles and qualifications. (a) A flight safety crew must operate the flight safety system hardware... must include: (1) Mission specific training programs to ensure team readiness. (2) Launch...

  20. "EVALUATION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS RISK FACTORS AMONG THE CREW OF THE IRANIAN PORTS AND SHIPPING ORGANIZATION’S VESSELS"

    OpenAIRE

    Saraji, J. N.; M. A. Hassanzadeh; M. Pourmahabadian S. J. Shahtaheri

    2004-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are important causes of work incapacity and loss of work days. MSDs are major problems in almost all countries and increasingly can be found in service industries such as maritime sector. This study aimed at evaluation of MSDs symptoms among crew of tugboats, dredgers, pilot boats and barges by using Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and also determination of work-related MSDs risk factors by application of Ovako Working Analysis Posture System (OWAS)...