WorldWideScience

Sample records for determines strain-specific protective

  1. Strain-specific protective effect of the immunity induced by live malarial sporozoites under chloroquine cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayalath, Wathsala; Cheesman, Sandra; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Carter, Richard; Pathirana, Sisira

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of a whole-sporozoite malaria vaccine would partly be determined by the strain-specificity of the protective responses against malarial sporozoites and liver-stage parasites. Evidence from previous reports were inconsistent, where some studies have shown that the protective immunity induced by irradiated or live sporozoites in rodents or humans were cross-protective and in others strain-specific. In the present work, we have studied the strain-specificity of live sporozoite-induced immunity using two genetically and immunologically different strains of Plasmodium cynomolgi, Pc746 and PcCeylon, in toque monkeys. Two groups of monkeys were immunized against live sporozoites of either the Pc746 (n = 5), or the PcCeylon (n = 4) strain, by the bites of 2-4 sporozoite-infected Anopheles tessellates mosquitoes per monkey under concurrent treatments with chloroquine and primaquine to abrogate detectable blood infections. Subsequently, a group of non-immunized monkeys (n = 4), and the two groups of immunized monkeys were challenged with a mixture of sporozoites of the two strains by the bites of 2-5 infective mosquitoes from each strain per monkey. In order to determine the strain-specificity of the protective immunity, the proportions of parasites of the two strains in the challenge infections were quantified using an allele quantification assay, Pyrosequencing™, based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the parasites' circumsporozoite protein gene. The Pyrosequencing™ data showed that a significant reduction of parasites of the immunizing strain in each group of strain-specifically immunized monkeys had occurred, indicating a stronger killing effect on parasites of the immunizing strain. Thus, the protective immunity developed following a single, live sporozoite/chloroquine immunization, acted specifically against the immunizing strain and was, therefore, strain-specific. As our experiment does not allow us to determine the parasite stage at

  2. Influenza M2 virus-like particles confer a broader range of cross protection to the strain-specific pre-existing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Cho, Min Kyoung; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Ha, Suk-Hoon; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2014-10-07

    Immunity in humans with annual vaccination does not provide effective protection against antigenically distinct strains. As an approach to improve cross-protection in the presence of pre-existing strain-specific immunity, we investigated the efficacy of heterologous and heterosubtypic protection in previously vaccinated mice at earlier times after subsequent immunization with conserved-antigenic target influenza M2 ectodomain (M2e) virus-like particle vaccine (M2e5× VLP). Immunization of mice with H1N1 split vaccine induced virus specific antibodies to homologous influenza virus but did not provide heterosubtypic hemagglutination inhibiting antibody responses and cross-protection. However, subsequent M2e5× VLP immunization induced an M2e specific antibody response as well as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) producing cells in systemic and mucosal sites. Upon lethal challenge with H3N2 or H5N1 subtype influenza viruses, subsequently immunized mice with M2e5× VLP were well protected against heterosubtypic influenza viruses. These results provide evidence that non-seasonal immunization with M2e5× VLP, an experimental candidate for universal vaccine, is a promising approach for broadening the cross-protection even in the presence of strain-specific immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ralstonia solanacearum RSc0411 (lptC) is a determinant for full virulence and has a strain-specific novel function in the T3SS activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Mei; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Cheng, Chiu-Ping

    2013-06-01

    Previously, we have identified an avirulent Ralstonia solanacearum mutant carrying a transposon insertion in RSc0411, a gene homologous to the Escherichia coli LPS-transporting protein LptC. However, how the disruption of RSc0411 affects the bacterium-plant interactions and leads to decreased pathogenicity was not known. Here we show that the disruption of RSc0411 leads to pleiotropic defects, including reducing bacterial motility, biofilm formation, root attachment, rough-form LPS production and virulence in tomato and increasing membrane permeability. Disruption of the orthologous RSc0411 present in other R. solanacearum strains proves that most of these functions are conserved in the species. In contrast, trans-complementation analyses show that only RSc0411 orthologues from closely related bacteria can rescue the defects of the disruption mutant. These results enable us to propose a function for RSc0411, and for the clustered genes, in LPS biogenesis, and for the first time, to our knowledge, also a role of a gene from the DUF1239 gene family in bacterial pathogenicity. In addition and notably, the RSc0411 mutant displays a strain-specific phenotype for hypersensitive response (HR), in which the RSc0411 disruption impairs the HR caused by strain Pss190 but not that by strain Pss1308. Consistent with this strain-specific defect, the mutation clearly affects expression of the type III secretion system (T3SS) in Pss190 but not in other strains, suggesting that the HR-deficient phenotype of the RSc0411 mutant in Pss190 is due to impairment of the T3SS and thus RSc0411 has a strain-specific role in the T3SS activity of R. solanacearum.

  4. REDUCED PROTECTIVE CLOTHING DETERMINATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    This technical basis document defines conditions where reduced protective clothing can be allowed, defines reduced protective clothing, and documents the regulatory review that determines the process is compliant with the Tank Farm Radiological Control Manual (TFRCM) and Title 10, Part 835, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). The criteria, standards, and requirements contained in this document apply only to Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) facilities

  5. The impact of strain-specific immunity on Lyme disease incidence is spatially heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchikian, Camilo E; Nadelman, Robert B; Nowakowski, John; Schwartz, Ira; Wormser, Gary P; Brisson, Dustin

    2017-12-01

    Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne infection in the US. Recent studies have demonstrated that the incidence of human Lyme disease would have been even greater were it not for the presence of strain-specific immunity, which protects previously infected patients against subsequent infections by the same B. burgdorferi strain. Here, spatial heterogeneity is incorporated into epidemiological models to accurately estimate the impact of strain-specific immunity on human Lyme disease incidence. The estimated reduction in the number of Lyme disease cases is greater in epidemiologic models that explicitly include the spatial distribution of Lyme disease cases reported at the county level than those that utilize nationwide data. strain-specific immunity has the greatest epidemiologic impact in geographic areas with the highest Lyme disease incidence due to the greater proportion of people that have been previously infected and have developed strain-specific immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Envelope determinants of equine lentiviral vaccine protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi K Craigo

    Full Text Available Lentiviral envelope (Env antigenic variation and associated immune evasion present major obstacles to vaccine development. The concept that Env is a critical determinant for vaccine efficacy is well accepted, however defined correlates of protection associated with Env variation have yet to be determined. We reported an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV vaccine study that directly examined the effect of lentiviral Env sequence variation on vaccine efficacy. The study identified a significant, inverse, linear correlation between vaccine efficacy and increasing divergence of the challenge virus Env gp90 protein compared to the vaccine virus gp90. The report demonstrated approximately 100% protection of immunized ponies from disease after challenge by virus with a homologous gp90 (EV0, and roughly 40% protection against challenge by virus (EV13 with a gp90 13% divergent from the vaccine strain. In the current study we examine whether the protection observed when challenging with the EV0 strain could be conferred to animals via chimeric challenge viruses between the EV0 and EV13 strains, allowing for mapping of protection to specific Env sequences. Viruses containing the EV13 proviral backbone and selected domains of the EV0 gp90 were constructed and in vitro and in vivo infectivity examined. Vaccine efficacy studies indicated that homology between the vaccine strain gp90 and the N-terminus of the challenge strain gp90 was capable of inducing immunity that resulted in significantly lower levels of post-challenge virus and significantly delayed the onset of disease. However, a homologous N-terminal region alone inserted in the EV13 backbone could not impart the 100% protection observed with the EV0 strain. Data presented here denote the complicated and potentially contradictory relationship between in vitro virulence and in vivo pathogenicity. The study highlights the importance of structural conformation for immunogens and emphasizes

  7. Envelope Determinants of Equine Lentiviral Vaccine Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Jodi K.; Ezzelarab, Corin; Cook, Sheila J.; Chong, Liu; Horohov, David; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Lentiviral envelope (Env) antigenic variation and associated immune evasion present major obstacles to vaccine development. The concept that Env is a critical determinant for vaccine efficacy is well accepted, however defined correlates of protection associated with Env variation have yet to be determined. We reported an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine study that directly examined the effect of lentiviral Env sequence variation on vaccine efficacy. The study identified a significant, inverse, linear correlation between vaccine efficacy and increasing divergence of the challenge virus Env gp90 protein compared to the vaccine virus gp90. The report demonstrated approximately 100% protection of immunized ponies from disease after challenge by virus with a homologous gp90 (EV0), and roughly 40% protection against challenge by virus (EV13) with a gp90 13% divergent from the vaccine strain. In the current study we examine whether the protection observed when challenging with the EV0 strain could be conferred to animals via chimeric challenge viruses between the EV0 and EV13 strains, allowing for mapping of protection to specific Env sequences. Viruses containing the EV13 proviral backbone and selected domains of the EV0 gp90 were constructed and in vitro and in vivo infectivity examined. Vaccine efficacy studies indicated that homology between the vaccine strain gp90 and the N-terminus of the challenge strain gp90 was capable of inducing immunity that resulted in significantly lower levels of post-challenge virus and significantly delayed the onset of disease. However, a homologous N-terminal region alone inserted in the EV13 backbone could not impart the 100% protection observed with the EV0 strain. Data presented here denote the complicated and potentially contradictory relationship between in vitro virulence and in vivo pathogenicity. The study highlights the importance of structural conformation for immunogens and emphasizes the need for

  8. Determining the protective function of sports footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, M J

    2000-10-01

    To reduce the risk of injury associated with foot-ground interaction during sporting activities, there is a need for adequate assessment of the protective function of sports footwear. The present objectives are to review the typical biomechanical approaches used to identify protection offered by sports footwear during dynamic activities and to outline some of the recent methodological approaches aimed at improving this characterization. Attention is focused on biomechanical techniques that have been shown to best differentiate safety features of footwear. It was determined that subject tests would be used in combination with standard mechanical techniques to evaluate footwear protection. Impact attenuation characteristics of footwear during sporting activities were most distinguished by analysis of tibial shock signals in the frequency and joint time-frequency domains. It has been argued that lateral stability and traction properties of footwear are better assessed using game-like manoeuvres of subjects on the actual sporting surface. Furthermore, the ability of such tests to discriminate between shoes has been improved through methods aimed at reducing or accounting for variability in individual execution of dynamic manoeuvres. Advances in tools allowing measurement of dynamic foot function inside the shoe also aid our assessment of shoe protective performance. In combination, these newer approaches should provide more information for the design of safer sports footwear.

  9. Strain-Specific Features of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Their Impact on Lactobacillus plantarum-Host Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Chiao; Caggianiello, Graziano; van Swam, Iris I; Taverne, Nico; Meijerink, Marjolein; Bron, Peter A; Spano, Giuseppe; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacilli are found in diverse environments and are widely applied as probiotic, health-promoting food supplements. Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present on the cell surface of lactobacilli and are considered to contribute to the species- and strain-specific probiotic effects that are typically observed. Two Lactobacillus plantarum strains, SF2A35B and Lp90, have an obvious ropy phenotype, implying high extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production levels. In this work, we set out to identify the genes involved in EPS production in these L. plantarum strains and to demonstrate their role in EPS production by gene deletion analysis. A model L. plantarum strain, WCFS1, and its previously constructed derivative that produced reduced levels of EPS were included as reference strains. The constructed EPS-reduced derivatives were analyzed for the abundance and sugar compositions of their EPS, revealing cps2-like gene clusters in SF2A35B and Lp90 responsible for major EPS production. Moreover, these mutant strains were tested for phenotypic characteristics that are of relevance for their capacity to interact with the host epithelium in the intestinal tract, including bacterial surface properties as well as survival under the stress conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (acid and bile stress). In addition, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling and immunomodulatory capacities of the EPS-negative derivatives and their respective wild-type strains were compared, revealing strain-specific impacts of EPS on the immunomodulatory properties. Taken together, these experiments illustrate the importance of EPS in L. plantarum strains as a strain-specific determinant in host interaction. This study evaluates the role of extracellular polysaccharides that are produced by different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in the determination of the cell surface properties of these bacteria and their capacity to interact with their environment, including their

  10. Legionella pneumophila pangenome reveals strain-specific virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peris-Bondia Francesc

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila is a gram-negative γ-Proteobacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a form of epidemic pneumonia. It has a water-related life cycle. In industrialized cities L. pneumophila is commonly encountered in refrigeration towers and water pipes. Infection is always via infected aerosols to humans. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate Legionella from buildings, it still contaminates the water systems. The town of Alcoy (Valencian Region, Spain has had recurrent outbreaks since 1999. The strain "Alcoy 2300/99" is a particularly persistent and recurrent strain that was isolated during one of the most significant outbreaks between the years 1999-2000. Results We have sequenced the genome of the particularly persistent L. pneumophila strain Alcoy 2300/99 and have compared it with four previously sequenced strains known as Philadelphia (USA, Lens (France, Paris (France and Corby (England. Pangenome analysis facilitated the identification of strain-specific features, as well as some that are shared by two or more strains. We identified: (1 three islands related to anti-drug resistance systems; (2 a system for transport and secretion of heavy metals; (3 three systems related to DNA transfer; (4 two CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats systems, known to provide resistance against phage infections, one similar in the Lens and Alcoy strains, and another specific to the Paris strain; and (5 seven islands of phage-related proteins, five of which seem to be strain-specific and two shared. Conclusions The dispensable genome disclosed by the pangenomic analysis seems to be a reservoir of new traits that have mainly been acquired by horizontal gene transfer and could confer evolutionary advantages over strains lacking them.

  11. Site and strain-specific variation in gut microbiota profiles and metabolism in experimental mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K Friswell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM of mammals is a complex microbial consortium, the composition and activities of which influences mucosal development, immunity, nutrition and drug metabolism. It remains unclear whether the composition of the dominant GTM is conserved within animals of the same strain and whether stable GTMs are selected for by host-specific factors or dictated by environmental variables.The GTM composition of six highly inbred, genetically distinct strains of mouse (C3H, C57, GFEC, CD1, CBA nu/nu and SCID was profiled using eubacterial -specific PCR-DGGE and quantitative PCR of feces. Animals exhibited strain-specific fecal eubacterial profiles that were highly stable (c. >95% concordance over 26 months for C57. Analyses of mice that had been relocated before and after maturity indicated marked, reproducible changes in fecal consortia and that occurred only in young animals. Implantation of a female BDF1 mouse with genetically distinct (C57 and Agoutie embryos produced highly similar GTM profiles (c. 95% concordance between mother and offspring, regardless of offspring strain, which was also reflected in urinary metabolite profiles. Marked institution-specific GTM profiles were apparent in C3H mice raised in two different research institutions.Strain-specific data were suggestive of genetic determination of the composition and activities of intestinal symbiotic consortia. However, relocation studies and uterine implantation demonstrated the dominance of environmental influences on the GTM. This was manifested in large variations between isogenic adult mice reared in different research institutions.

  12. Congruent strain specific intestinal persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an intestine-mimicking in vitro system and in human volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien van Bokhorst-van de Veen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species. However, data on the in situ persistence characteristics of individual or mixtures of strains of the same species in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy human volunteers have not been reported to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The GI-tract survival of individual L. plantarum strains was determined using an intestine mimicking model system, revealing substantial inter-strain differences. The obtained data were correlated to genomic diversity of the strains using comparative genome hybridization (CGH datasets, but this approach failed to discover specific genetic loci that explain the observed differences between the strains. Moreover, we developed a next-generation sequencing-based method that targets a variable intergenic region, and employed this method to assess the in vivo GI-tract persistence of different L. plantarum strains when administered in mixtures to healthy human volunteers. Remarkable consistency of the strain-specific persistence curves were observed between individual volunteers, which also correlated significantly with the GI-tract survival predicted on basis of the in vitro assay. CONCLUSION: The survival of individual L. plantarum strains in the GI-tract could not be correlated to the absence or presence of specific genes compared to the reference strain L. plantarum WCFS1. Nevertheless, in vivo persistence analysis in the human GI-tract confirmed the strain-specific persistence, which appeared to be remarkably similar in different healthy volunteers. Moreover, the relative strain-specific persistence in vivo appeared to be accurately and significantly predicted by their relative survival in the intestine-mimicking in vitro

  13. Strain-Specific Impact of Fusobacterium nucleatum on Neutrophil Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Şivge; Kansal, Shevali; Nguyen, Daniel; Stephens, Danielle; Koroneos, Yannis; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2017-04-01

    Neutrophil function is critical for initiation and progression of infecto-inflammatory diseases. Key quorum-sensing plaque bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, act as bridging species between early and late colonizer pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, as the biofilm ages and periodontal inflammation increases. This study is designed to determine impact of different F. nucleatum strains on neutrophil function. Cells of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line-60 were differentiated into neutrophil-like cells and cultured with F. nucleatum strains of subspecies (ssp.) nucleatum ATCC 25586, ssp. polymorphum ATCC 10953, and ssp. vincentii ATCC 49256. Neutrophil phagocytosis of F. nucleatum strains and neutrophil apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured by cytochrome C reduction in the presence and absence of N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP) (1 μM) stimulation. Proinflammatory cytokine release was determined after 2, 6, and 24 hours of culture in the presence/absence of different F. nucleatum strains. Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B mRNA levels were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Each experiment was repeated at least three times in triplicate. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by post hoc Bonferroni correction. All strains of F. nucleatum significantly increased phagocytic capacity of neutrophils. Neutrophil phagocytosis of F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum was significantly greater than that of F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii and ssp. nucleatum (P nucleatum ssp. nucleatum and ssp. polymorphum significantly blocked fMLP-induced superoxide generation (P nucleatum vincentii also reduced superoxide generation (25%), the impact was not as strong as that of ssp. nucleatum (83%) and ssp. polymorphum (100%). All F. nucleatum strains stimulated significant increase in neutrophil apoptosis compared with control (P

  14. [Determination of the need for solar UV radiation protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letić, Milorad

    2010-01-01

    Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin, the eyes and the immune system are well known. The need for UV radiation protection is popularized by the introduction of UV index. Uneven intensity of UV radiation in different regions in different periods of the year and in different times of the day requires that recommendations for UV radiation protection are given for possible UV index values in those regions. The aim of the study is to establish a simple and consistent method for the determination of the need for UV radiation protection in Serbia where UV radiation intensity can be approximated as uniform. Possible values of UV index during the year and the sun elevation during the day in periods throughout the year were used for the determination of maximal possible UV index values. These values were compared to UV index forecasts regarding UV radiation protection. Maximal possible values for UV index were used for producing the colour graph. Colours on the graph indicate the need for UV radiation protection. Green--protection is not needed, yellow--protection is needed, red--protection is obligatory. Comparisons with the need for protection based on forecasts showed congruence in 97% of cases. The use of the graph for the determination of the need for UV radiation protection gives nearly the same results as recommendations based on UV index forecasts. The advantages of the graph are that it gives recommendations for the whole year, for the time intervals during the day in every period of the year and for the whole territory of Serbia.

  15. Determination of the Protective Capacity of the Aquitard Stratum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at determining the protective capacity of the aquitard stratum in some coastline locations in Delta State, Nigeria. This was carried out using the electrical resistivity method. A total of 13 vertical electrical soundings were conducted and data obtained were interpreted by partial curve matching and ...

  16. Analysis of strain-specific genes in glutamic acid-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum AJ 1511.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Yousuke; Koseki, Chie; Tonouchi, Naoto; Matsui, Kazuhiko; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Usuda, Yoshihiro

    2017-07-11

    Strains of the bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, are widely used for the industrial production of L-glutamic acid and various other substances. C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum AJ 1511, formerly classified as Brevibacterium lactofermentum, and the closely related C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 have been used as industrial strains for more than 50 years. We determined the whole genome sequence of C. glutamicum AJ 1511 and performed genome-wide comparative analysis with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 to determine strain-specific genetic differences. This analysis revealed that the genomes of the two industrial strains are highly similar despite the phenotypic differences between the two strains. Both strains harbored unique genes but gene transpositions or inversions were not observed. The largest unique region, a 220-kb AT-rich region located between 1.78 and 2.00 Mb position in C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 genome, was missing in the genome of C. glutamicum AJ 1511. The next two largest unique regions were present in C. glutamicum AJ 1511. The first region (413-484 kb position) contains several predicted transport proteins, enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, and transposases. The second region (1.47-1.50 Mb position) encodes restriction modification systems. A gene predicted to encode NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, which is involved in L-glutamate biosynthesis, is present in C. glutamicum AJ 1511. Strain-specific genes identified in this study are likely to govern phenotypes unique to each strain.

  17. Rotaviruses: immunological determinants of protection against infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offit, P A

    1994-01-01

    against the challenge virus remains to be determined. Binding rotavirus-specific sIgA in feces detected by ELISA may only be a correlate of other events occurring at the intestinal mucosal surface. The presence of broadly cross-reactive, rotavirus-specific CTLs at the intestinal mucosal surface of mice acutely after infection is intriguing. It would be of interest to determine the degree to which the presence of cross-reactive, rotavirus-specific CTLs in the circulation is predictive of the presence of virus-specific CTLs among intestinal lymphocytes and protection against challenge. Unfortunately, studies of virus-specific CTLs are difficult to perform in children. 3. By what means is virus antigen best presented to the host to elicit a protective immune response? Oral inoculation may not be necessary to induce a protective, virus-specific immune response at the intestinal mucosal surface.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  18. Quantification of Azospirillum brasilense FP2 Bacteria in Wheat Roots by Strain-Specific Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Maria Isabel; Alqueres, Sylvia Maria Campbell; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães

    2015-10-01

    Azospirillum is a rhizobacterial genus containing plant growth-promoting species associated with different crops worldwide. Azospirillum brasilense strains exhibit a growth-promoting effect by means of phytohormone production and possibly by N2 fixation. However, one of the most important factors for achieving an increase in crop yield by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is the survival of the inoculant in the rhizosphere, which is not always achieved. The objective of this study was to develop quantitative PCR protocols for the strain-specific quantification of A. brasilense FP2. A novel approach was applied to identify strain-specific DNA sequences based on a comparison of the genomic sequences within the same species. The draft genome sequences of A. brasilense FP2 and Sp245 were aligned, and FP2-specific regions were filtered and checked for other possible matches in public databases. Strain-specific regions were then selected to design and evaluate strain-specific primer pairs. The primer pairs AzoR2.1, AzoR2.2, AzoR5.1, AzoR5.2, and AzoR5.3 were specific for the A. brasilense FP2 strain. These primer pairs were used to monitor quantitatively the population of A. brasilense in wheat roots under sterile and nonsterile growth conditions. In addition, coinoculations with other plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat were performed under nonsterile conditions. The results showed that A. brasilense FP2 inoculated into wheat roots is highly competitive and achieves high cell numbers (∼10(7) CFU/g [fresh weight] of root) in the rhizosphere even under nonsterile conditions and when coinoculated with other rhizobacteria, maintaining the population at rather stable levels for at least up to 13 days after inoculation. The strategy used here can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequences are available. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Small RNA pyrosequencing in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica reveals strain-specific small RNAs that target virulence genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Small RNA mediated gene silencing is a well-conserved regulatory pathway. In the parasite Entamoeba histolytica an endogenous RNAi pathway exists, however, the depth and diversity of the small RNA population remains unknown. Results To characterize the small RNA population that associates with E. histolytica Argonaute-2 (EhAGO2-2), we immunoprecipitated small RNAs that associate with it and performed one full pyrosequencing run. Data analysis revealed new features of the 27nt small RNAs including the 5′-G predominance, distinct small RNA distribution patterns on protein coding genes, small RNAs mapping to both introns and exon-exon junctions, and small RNA targeted genes that are clustered particularly in sections of genome duplication. Characterization of genomic loci to which both sense and antisense small RNAs mapped showed that both sets of small RNAs have 5′-polyphosphate termini; strand-specific RT-PCR detected transcripts in both directions at these loci suggesting that both transcripts may serve as template for small RNA generation. In order to determine whether small RNA abundance patterns account for strain-specific gene expression profiles of E. histolytica virulent and non-virulent strains, we sequenced small RNAs from a non-virulent strain and found that small RNAs mapped to genes in a manner consistent with their regulation of strain-specific virulence genes. Conclusions We provided a full spectrum analysis for E. histolytica AGO2-2 associated 27nt small RNAs. Additionally, comparative analysis of small RNA populations from virulent and non-virulent amebic strains indicates that small RNA populations may regulate virulence genes. PMID:23347563

  20. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the

  1. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat.

  2. Differential and strain-specific triggering of bovine alveolar macrophage effector functions by mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungi, T W; Krampe, M; Sileghem, M; Griot, C; Nicolet, J

    1996-12-01

    Mycoplasma strains being considered as pathogenic or non-pathogenic for cattle were tested on their capacity to activate bovine alveolar macrophages in vitro. Of particular interest was the behaviour of Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides small colony type (M.m.m. SC), the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Increases in procoagulant activity (PCA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha- (TNF-alpha) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) generation were tested. To minimize an influence of macrophage activation by mycoplasma growth media, mycoplasmas were cultured on embryonic calf nose epithelial cells. The three macrophage functions tested were not correlated, but were differentially induced in strain-specific manner. Four out of seven strains induced PCA, regardless of pathogenicity, and all strains promoted moderate NO generation at high concentrations. All tested M.m.m. SC strains (Afadé, L2 and PG1), and the pathogenic M. bovis, induced TNF-alpha production at low concentrations (10(6) colony forming units per ml). M.sp. serogroup 7 and the non-pathogenic M. bovirhinis and Acholeplasma laidlawii did not induce TNF-alpha up to 10(8) cfu/ml. Thus, strain-specific differences are reflected in differential macrophage activation patterns. The findings are consistent with an important role for TNF-alpha in pathogenesis of CBPP.

  3. Development of strain-specific PCR primers for the identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190(T) and subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwan Seon; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Hwa-Sook; Park, Soon-Nang; Kim, Do Kyung; Baek, Dong-Heon; Kim, Chan; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the strain-specific PCR primers for Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190(T) and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256(T) based on the nucleotide sequence of the Fs17 and Fv35 DNA probes, respectively. The strain specificity was tested against 10 type strains of Fusobacterium spp. or subsp., 21 clinical isolates of F. nucleatum from Koreans, and five type strains of distinct Fusobacterium species. Primer sensitivity was determined by testing serial dilutions (4 ng-4 fg) of the purified genomic DNA from each of the type strains. PCR showed that two pairs of PCR primers, Fs17-F14/Fs17-R14 and Fv35-F1/Fv35-R1 primers, could produce strain-specific amplicons from F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190(T) and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256(T), respectively. The two PCR primer sets could detect as little as 0.4 pg or 4 pg of the genomic DNA of each target strain. These results suggest that the two sets of PCR primers could be used to identify F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190(T) and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256(T), particularly for ascertaining the authenticity of the strain. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The route of infection determines Wolbachia antibacterial protection in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vanika; Vasanthakrishnan, Radhakrishnan B.; Siva-Jothy, Jonathon; Monteith, Katy M.; Brown, Sam P.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts are widespread among metazoans and provide a range of beneficial functions. Wolbachia-mediated protection against viral infection has been extensively demonstrated in Drosophila. In mosquitoes that are artificially transinfected with Drosophila melanogaster Wolbachia (wMel), protection from both viral and bacterial infections has been demonstrated. However, no evidence for Wolbachia-mediated antibacterial protection has been demonstrated in Drosophila to date. Here, we show that the route of infection is key for Wolbachia-mediated antibacterial protection. Drosophila melanogaster carrying Wolbachia showed reduced mortality during enteric—but not systemic—infection with the opportunist pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wolbachia-mediated protection was more pronounced in male flies and is associated with increased early expression of the antimicrobial peptide Attacin A, and also increased expression of a reactive oxygen species detoxification gene (Gst D8). These results highlight that the route of infection is important for symbiont-mediated protection from infection, that Wolbachia can protect hosts by eliciting a combination of resistance and disease tolerance mechanisms, and that these effects are sexually dimorphic. We discuss the importance of using ecologically relevant routes of infection to gain a better understanding of symbiont-mediated protection. PMID:28592678

  5. High-resolution transcriptome maps reveal strain-specific regulatory features of multiple Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dugar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is currently the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Comparison of multiple Campylobacter strains revealed a high genetic and phenotypic diversity. However, little is known about differences in transcriptome organization, gene expression, and small RNA (sRNA repertoires. Here we present the first comparative primary transcriptome analysis based on the differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq of four C. jejuni isolates. Our approach includes a novel, generic method for the automated annotation of transcriptional start sites (TSS, which allowed us to provide genome-wide promoter maps in the analyzed strains. These global TSS maps are refined through the integration of a SuperGenome approach that allows for a comparative TSS annotation by mapping RNA-seq data of multiple strains into a common coordinate system derived from a whole-genome alignment. Considering the steadily increasing amount of RNA-seq studies, our automated TSS annotation will not only facilitate transcriptome annotation for a wider range of pro- and eukaryotes but can also be adapted for the analysis among different growth or stress conditions. Our comparative dRNA-seq analysis revealed conservation of most TSS, but also single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP in promoter regions, which lead to strain-specific transcriptional output. Furthermore, we identified strain-specific sRNA repertoires that could contribute to differential gene regulation among strains. In addition, we identified a novel minimal CRISPR-system in Campylobacter of the type-II CRISPR subtype, which relies on the host factor RNase III and a trans-encoded sRNA for maturation of crRNAs. This minimal system of Campylobacter, which seems active in only some strains, employs a unique maturation pathway, since the crRNAs are transcribed from individual promoters in the upstream repeats and thereby minimize the requirements for the maturation machinery. Overall, our study provides new

  6. High-Resolution Transcriptome Maps Reveal Strain-Specific Regulatory Features of Multiple Campylobacter jejuni Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förstner, Konrad U.; Heidrich, Nadja; Reinhardt, Richard; Nieselt, Kay; Sharma, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is currently the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Comparison of multiple Campylobacter strains revealed a high genetic and phenotypic diversity. However, little is known about differences in transcriptome organization, gene expression, and small RNA (sRNA) repertoires. Here we present the first comparative primary transcriptome analysis based on the differential RNA–seq (dRNA–seq) of four C. jejuni isolates. Our approach includes a novel, generic method for the automated annotation of transcriptional start sites (TSS), which allowed us to provide genome-wide promoter maps in the analyzed strains. These global TSS maps are refined through the integration of a SuperGenome approach that allows for a comparative TSS annotation by mapping RNA–seq data of multiple strains into a common coordinate system derived from a whole-genome alignment. Considering the steadily increasing amount of RNA–seq studies, our automated TSS annotation will not only facilitate transcriptome annotation for a wider range of pro- and eukaryotes but can also be adapted for the analysis among different growth or stress conditions. Our comparative dRNA–seq analysis revealed conservation of most TSS, but also single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP) in promoter regions, which lead to strain-specific transcriptional output. Furthermore, we identified strain-specific sRNA repertoires that could contribute to differential gene regulation among strains. In addition, we identified a novel minimal CRISPR-system in Campylobacter of the type-II CRISPR subtype, which relies on the host factor RNase III and a trans-encoded sRNA for maturation of crRNAs. This minimal system of Campylobacter, which seems active in only some strains, employs a unique maturation pathway, since the crRNAs are transcribed from individual promoters in the upstream repeats and thereby minimize the requirements for the maturation machinery. Overall, our study provides new insights into

  7. Determining localized anode condition to maintain effective corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Thermal sprayed zinc anodes used for impressed current cathodic protection of reinforced concrete deteriorate over time. : Two different technologies, ultrasound and electrical circuit resistance combined with water permeability, were : investigated ...

  8. Strain-specific Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition among Malian children immunized with a blood-stage malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Matthew B; Kouriba, Bourema; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke; Angov, Evelina; Coulibaly, Drissa; Diarra, Issa; Daou, Modibo; Niangaly, Amadou; Blackwelder, William C; Wu, Yukun; Cohen, Joe; Ballou, W Ripley; Vekemans, Johan; Lanar, David E; Dutta, Sheetij; Diggs, Carter; Soisson, Lorraine; Heppner, D Gray; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Thera, Mahamadou A

    2017-01-01

    The blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A, comprised of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the adjuvant system AS02A, had strain-specific efficacy against clinical malaria caused by P. falciparum with the vaccine strain 3D7 AMA1 sequence. To evaluate a potential correlate of protection, we measured the ability of participant sera to inhibit growth of 3D7 and FVO strains in vitro using high-throughput growth inhibition assay (GIA) testing. Sera from 400 children randomized to receive either malaria vaccine or a control rabies vaccine were assessed at baseline and over two annual malaria transmission seasons after immunization. Baseline GIA against vaccine strain 3D7 and FVO strain was similar in both groups, but more children in the malaria vaccine group than in the control group had 3D7 and FVO GIA activity ≥15% 30 days after the last vaccination (day 90) (49% vs. 16%, pvaccine group was 7.4 times the mean increase in the control group (pvaccination (day 364) and did not correlate with efficacy in the extended efficacy time period to day 730. In Cox proportional hazards regression models with time-varying covariates, there was a slight suggestion of an association between 3D7 GIA activity and increased risk of clinical malaria between day 90 and day 240. We conclude that vaccination with this AMA1-based malaria vaccine increased inhibition of parasite growth, but this increase was not associated with allele-specific efficacy in the first malaria season. These results provide a framework for testing functional immune correlates of protection against clinical malaria in field trials, and will help to guide similar analyses for next-generation malaria vaccines. Clinical trials registry: This clinical trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov, registry number NCT00460525.

  9. Bifidobacterium adolescentis Exerts Strain-Specific Effects on Constipation Induced by Loperamide in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669 once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora. B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 relieved constipation symptoms by adhering to intestinal epithelial cells, growing quickly in vitro and increasing the concentrations of propionic and butyric acids. The effect of B. adolescentis on the gut microbiota in mice with constipation was investigated via 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased and the amount of Clostridium decreased in the B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 treatment groups. In conclusion, B. adolescentis exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of constipation, mostly due to the strains’ growth rates, adhesive capacity and effects on the gut microbiome and microenvironment.

  10. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. In consideration of the foregoing facts and for... a protected area within the meaning and for the purpose of Article 10 of the Delaware River Basin...

  11. Development of novel microsatellite markers for strain-specific identification of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Beom-Ho; Lee, Chang Soo; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2014-09-01

    A strain-specific identification method is required to secure Chlorella strains with useful genetic traits, such as a fast growth rate or high lipid productivity, for application in biofuels, functional foods, and pharmaceuticals. Microsatellite markers based on simple sequence repeats can be a useful tool for this purpose. Therefore, this study developed five novel microsatellite markers (mChl-001, mChl-002, mChl-005, mChl-011, and mChl-012) using specific loci along the chloroplast genome of Chlorella vulgaris. The microsatellite markers were characterized based on their allelic diversities among nine strains of C. vulgaris with the same 18S rRNA sequence similarity. Each microsatellite marker exhibited 2~5 polymorphic allele types, and their combinations allowed discrimination between seven of the C. vulgaris strains. The two remaining strains were distinguished using one specific interspace region between the mChl-001 and mChl-005 loci, which was composed of about 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 13~15 specific sequence sites, and (T)n repeat sites. Thus, the polymorphic combination of the five microsatellite markers and one specific locus facilitated a clear distinction of C. vulgaris at the strain level, suggesting that the proposed microsatellite marker system can be useful for the accurate identification and classification of C. vulgaris.

  12. Evaluation of strain-specific primers for identification of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Aakko, Juhani; Salminen, Seppo

    2012-12-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) is one of the most widely studied and commercialized probiotic strains, and thus strain-specific identification for the strain is highly valuable. In this study, two published PCR-based identification methods for strain GG, a transposase gene-targeting system and a phage-related gene-targeting system, were evaluated. The former produced amplicons from eight of the 41 strains tested and the phage-related system from five of the tested strains, including the strain GG. Fingerprinting analysis indicated that the strains LMG 18025, LMG 18030, and LMG 18038, which had an amplicon by the former system but none by the latter, were genetically distinguishable from L. rhamnosus GG at strain level. Strains LMG 23320, LMG 23325, LMG 23534, and LMG 25859 showed profiles very similar to that of the strain GG, suggesting that these strains might be identical to GG or derivative strains of it. The results here indicated that the phage-related gene-targeting system is a good tool for accurate identification of L. rhamnosus GG. This system would be able to detect both the original L. rhamnosus GG and its derivative strains. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 adhesins involved in strain-specific attachment to Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jane; Shokeen, Bhumika; Haake, Susan K; Lux, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial adherence is an essential virulence factor in pathogenesis and infection. Fusobacterium nucleatum has a central role in oral biofilm architecture by acting as a bridge between early Gram-positive and late Gram-negative colonizers that do not otherwise adhere to each other. In this study, we survey a key adherence interaction of F. nucleatum with Porphyromonas gingivalis, and present evidence that multiple fusobacterial adhesins have a role in the attachment of F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 to P. gingivalis in a highly strain-dependent manner. Interaction between these species displayed varying sensitivities to arginine, galactose and lactose. Arginine was found to hamper coaggregation by at least 62% and up to 89% with several P. gingivalis strains and galactose inhibition ranged from no inhibition up to 58% with the same P. gingivalis strains. Lactose consistently inhibited F. nucleatum interaction with these P. gingivalis strains ranging from 40% to 56% decrease in coaggregation. Among the adhesins involved are the previously described Fap2 and surprisingly, RadD, which was described in an earlier study for its function in attachment of F. nucleatum to Gram-positive species. We also provide evidence for the presence of at least one additional adhesin that is sensitive to arginine but unlike Fap2 and RadD, is not a member of the autotransporter family type of fusobacterial large outer membrane proteins. The strain-specific binding profile of multiple fusobacterial adhesins to P. gingivalis highlights the heterogeneity and complexity of interspecies interactions in the oral cavity.

  14. Strain-specific properties and T cells regulate the susceptibility to papilloma induction by Mus musculus papillomavirus 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Handisurya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The immunocytes that regulate papillomavirus infection and lesion development in humans and animals remain largely undefined. We found that immunocompetent mice with varying H-2 haplotypes displayed asymptomatic skin infection that produced L1 when challenged with 6×1010 MusPV1 virions, the recently identified domestic mouse papillomavirus (also designated "MmuPV1", but were uniformly resistant to MusPV1-induced papillomatosis. Broad immunosuppression with cyclosporin A resulted in variable induction of papillomas after experimental infection with a similar dose, from robust in Cr:ORL SENCAR to none in C57BL/6 mice, with lesional outgrowth correlating with early viral gene expression and partly with reported strain-specific susceptibility to chemical carcinogens, but not with H-2 haplotype. Challenge with 1×1012 virions in the absence of immunosuppression induced small transient papillomas in Cr:ORL SENCAR but not in C57BL/6 mice. Antibody-induced depletion of CD3+ T cells permitted efficient virus replication and papilloma formation in both strains, providing experimental proof for the crucial role of T cells in controlling papillomavirus infection and associated disease. In Cr:ORL SENCAR mice, immunodepletion of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells was sufficient for efficient infection and papillomatosis, although deletion of one subset did not inhibit the recruitment of the other subset to the infected epithelium. Thus, the functional cooperation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is required to protect this strain. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice required depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for infection and papillomatosis, and separate CD4 knock-out and CD8 knock-out C57BL/6 were also resistant. Thus, in C57BL/6 mice, either CD4+ or CD8+ T cell-independent mechanisms exist that can protect this particular strain from MusPV1-associated disease. These findings may help to explain the diversity of pathological outcomes in immunocompetent humans after infection

  15. Strain-specific Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition among Malian children immunized with a blood-stage malaria vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Laurens

    Full Text Available The blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A, comprised of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 and the adjuvant system AS02A, had strain-specific efficacy against clinical malaria caused by P. falciparum with the vaccine strain 3D7 AMA1 sequence. To evaluate a potential correlate of protection, we measured the ability of participant sera to inhibit growth of 3D7 and FVO strains in vitro using high-throughput growth inhibition assay (GIA testing. Sera from 400 children randomized to receive either malaria vaccine or a control rabies vaccine were assessed at baseline and over two annual malaria transmission seasons after immunization. Baseline GIA against vaccine strain 3D7 and FVO strain was similar in both groups, but more children in the malaria vaccine group than in the control group had 3D7 and FVO GIA activity ≥15% 30 days after the last vaccination (day 90 (49% vs. 16%, p<0.0001; and 71.8% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.02. From baseline to day 90, 3D7 GIA in the vaccine group was 7.4 times the mean increase in the control group (p<0.0001. In AMA1 vaccinees, 3D7 GIA activity subsequently returned to baseline one year after vaccination (day 364 and did not correlate with efficacy in the extended efficacy time period to day 730. In Cox proportional hazards regression models with time-varying covariates, there was a slight suggestion of an association between 3D7 GIA activity and increased risk of clinical malaria between day 90 and day 240. We conclude that vaccination with this AMA1-based malaria vaccine increased inhibition of parasite growth, but this increase was not associated with allele-specific efficacy in the first malaria season. These results provide a framework for testing functional immune correlates of protection against clinical malaria in field trials, and will help to guide similar analyses for next-generation malaria vaccines. Clinical trials registry: This clinical trial was registered on clinicaltrials

  16. Species and Strain-specific Typing of Cryptosporidium Parasites in Clinical and Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lihua

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis has recently attracted attention as an emerging waterborne and foodborne disease as well as an opportunistic infection in HIV infected individuals. The lack of genetic information, however, has resulted in confusion in the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium parasites and in the development of molecular tools for the identification and typing of oocysts in environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene has shown that the genus Cryptosporidium is comprised of several distinct species. Our data show the presence of at least four species: C. parvum, C. muris, C. baileyi and C. serpentis (C. meleagridis, C. nasorum and C. felis were not studied. Within each species, there is some sequence variation. Thus, various genotypes (genotype 1, genotype 2, guinea pig genotype, monkey genotype and koala genotype, etc. of C. parvum differ from each other in six regions of the SSU rRNA gene. Information on polymorphism in Cryptosporidium parasites has been used in the development of species and strain-specific diagnostic tools. Use of these tools in the characterization of oocysts various samples indicates that C. parvum genotype 1 is the strain responsible for most human Cryptosporidium infections. In contrast, genotype 2 is probably the major source for environmental contamination of environment, and has been found in most oysters examined from Chesapeake Bay that serve as biologic monitors of surface water. Parasites of Cryptosporidium species other than C. parvum have not been detected in HIV+ individuals, indicating that the disease in humans is caused only by C. parvum.

  17. Strain specificity and simultaneous transmission of closely related strains of a Potyvirus by Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Hall, Darren G; Cervantes, Felix A; Alvarez, Juan M; Whitworth, Jonathan L

    2012-06-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY), a Potyvirus, is transmitted by aphids in a nonpersistent manner. PVY severely affects potato production worldwide. Single and mixed infections of PVY strains, namely PVY(O), PVY(NTN), and PVY(N:O) are a common occurrence in potato systems. However, information available on the ability of aphids to simultaneously transmit multiple PVY strains, specificity associated with simultaneous transmission, and factors affecting specificity are limited. Aphid-mediated transmission experiments were conducted to test the ability of individual aphids to transmit multiple strains using a PVY indicator host. Preliminary results revealed that aphids can transmit at least two viral strains simultaneously. Subsequently, aphid-mediated transmission of three dual-strain combinations was tested using potato plants. Individual aphids transmitted two viral strains simultaneously for all three dual-strain combinations. In all aphid-mediated dual-strain infections involving PVY(NTN), the rate of PVY(NTN) infection was greater than the infection rates of the second strain and dual-strain combinations, indicating specificity associated with transmission of PVY strains. Results of aphid-mediated transmission experiments were compared with results obtained through mechanical transmission. In general, PVY infection rates from aphid-mediated transmission were lower than the rates obtained through mechanical transmission. Unlike aphid-mediated transmission, component strains in dual-strain inoculations were not eliminated during mechanical transmission. These results suggest that there may also be interference associated with aphid-mediated transmission of closely related PVY strains. Perhaps, the observed specificity and/or interference may explain the increase in the incidence of PVY(NTN) and other necrotic strains in recent years.

  18. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry.

  19. Strain specific and common pathogenic events in murine models of scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmézas, C I; Deslys, J P; Demaimay, R; Adjou, K T; Hauw, J J; Dormont, D

    1996-07-01

    The development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in experimental models depends on two major factors: the intracerebral accumulation of an abnormal, protease-resistant isoform of PrP (PrPres), which is a host protein mainly expressed in neurons; and the existence of different strains of agent. In order to make a distinction between pathogenic mechanisms depending upon the accumulation of host-derived PrPres and the strain-specific effects, we quantified and compared the sequence of molecular [PrPres and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) accumulation] and pathological events in the brains of syngeneic mice throughout the course of infection with two different strains of agent. The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent exhibits properties different from any known scrapie source and has been studied in comparison with a classical scrapie strain. Convergent kinetic data in both models confirmed the cause-effect relationship between PrPres and pathological changes and showed that PrPres accumulation is directly responsible for astrocyte activation in vivo. Moreover, we observed a threshold level of PrPres for this effect on astroglial cells. However, despite similar infectivity titres, the BSE model produced less PrPres than scrapie, and the relative importance of gliosis was higher. The comparison of the molecular and pathological features after intracerebral or intraperitoneal inoculation also revealed differences between the models. Therefore, the mechanisms leading to the targeting and the fine regulation of the molecular events seem to be independent of the host PrP and to depend upon the agent. The possible involvement of a regulatory molecule accounting for these specificities has to be considered.

  20. Representational difference analysis and real-time PCR for strain-specific quantification of Lactobacillus sobrius sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinov, S.R.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus sobrius sp. nov., which was recently isolated from the intestine of weaning piglets, has potential probiotic properties. To follow the fate of L. sobrius strain 001T in dietary interventions, a novel and strain-specific quantitative detection procedure was developed. This procedure was

  1. Total structure determination of thiolate-protected Au38 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Huifeng; Eckenhoff, William T; Zhu, Yan; Pintauer, Tomislav; Jin, Rongchao

    2010-06-23

    We report the total structure of Au(38)(SC(2)H(4)Ph)(24) nanoparticles determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. This nanoparticle is based upon a face-fused Au(23) biicosahedral core, which is further capped by three monomeric Au(SR)(2) staples at the waist of the Au(23) rod and six dimeric staples with three on the top icosahedron and other three on the bottom icosahedron. The six Au(2)(SR)(3) staples are arranged in a staggered configuration, and the Au(38)S(24) framework has a C(3) rotation axis.

  2. Analysis and Evaluation of Parameters Determining Maximum Efficiency of Fish Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetsuriani, E. D.; Kostyukov, V. P.; Khetsuriani, T. E.

    2017-11-01

    The article is concerned with experimental research findings. The efficiency of fish fry protection from entering water inlets is the main criterion of any fish protection facility or device. The research was aimed to determine an adequate mathematical model E = f(PCT, Vp, α), where PCT, Vp and α are controlled factors influencing the process of fish fry protection. The result of the processing of experimental data was an adequate regression model. We determined the maximum of fish protection Emax=94,21 and the minimum of optimization function Emin=44,41. As a result of the statistical processing of experimental data we obtained adequate dependences for determining an optimal rotational speed of tip and fish protection efficiency. The analysis of fish protection efficiency dependence E% = f(PCT, Vp, α) allowed the authors to recommend the following optimized operating modes for it: the maximum fish protection efficiency is achieved at the process pressure PCT=3 atm, stream velocity Vp=0,42 m/s and nozzle inclination angle α=47°49’. The stream velocity Vp has the most critical influence on fish protection efficiency. The maximum efficiency of fish protection is obtained at the tip rotational speed of 70.92 rpm.

  3. Discovering naturally processed antigenic determinants that confer protective T cell immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchuk, Pavlo; Spencer, Charles T; Conant, Stephanie B

    2013-01-01

    CD8+ T cells (TCD8) confer protective immunity against many infectious diseases, suggesting that microbial TCD8 determinants are promising vaccine targets. Nevertheless, current T cell antigen identification approaches do not discern which epitopes drive protective immunity during active infectio...

  4. Identifikasi Brucella abortus Isolat Lokal dengan Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (IDENTIFICATION OF LOCAL ISOLATES OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS USING BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN SPECIFIC-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY)

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor; Pratiwi Pujilestari Sudarmono; Asmarani Kusumawati; Anis Karuniawati

    2014-01-01

    Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (BaSS-PCR) is a single multiplex PCRtechnique which able to identify and differentiate between Brucella abortus field strains (biovar 1, 2, and4), B. abortus vaccine strains, Brucella species, and non-Brucella species. In this study, BaSS-PCR wasapplied to identify local isolates of B. abortus in order to investigate the B. abortus strains that infectedcattle in Indonesia. Fifty local strains of B.abortus isolated from infected cattle...

  5. Strain-specific variations in Toxoplasma gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryati, S.; Sari, Y.; Prasetyo, A. A.; Sariyatun, R.

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis and identification of the genetic group of T. gondii (Toxoplasma gondii) are important to control better the T. gondii infection, particularly in immunocompromised people as HIV patients. This study aimed to identify strain-specific variations in T. gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14 in order to help design such diagnostic tool to detect and characterize the parasite. Forty-three T. gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14 sequences deposited in GenBank were aligned. A number of positions in the gene sequences were highly conserved. All GRA sequences had strain-specific positions, however, only GRA1, GRA5, and GRA6, which contained specific variations for each T. gondii lineage. In conclusion, T. gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14 are predicted to contain highly conserved regions and positions with strain-specific variation, which might be useful for the design of diagnostic tools detecting and distinguishing T. gondiistrains.

  6. Determination of radionuclides. Fingerprint determination on protection clothing from the controlled areas in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholand, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    ENS (Euro Nuclear Services) in Coevorden, Netherlands, is decontaminating und providing protection clothing for the personnel in nuclear facilities. The capacity of the laundry is about 750 kg/h. The clean laundry section is cleaning non-contaminated or very low contaminated articles, i.e. socks or underwear. Fingerprint is defined as the activity of certain radionuclides that differs in the different nuclear facilities. For the reception inspection the dose rate measured with scintillation detectors is compared with the customer specific fingerprint. The total activity is usually 2000 Bq/g. The dose rate limit is 0.3 mSv/h.

  7. Determination of protective concrete thickness for medical application of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbanje, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out to determine the appropriate thickness of concrete block that would be sufficient to protect the radiation worker and the public from X-rays for medical purpose. The results obtained from four X-ray machines are discussed. However, a minimum thickness of 36.0cm of concrete block was found to be sufficient to protect the two groups mentioned here.

  8. Identification of H. pylori strain specific DNA sequences between two clinical isolates from NUD and gastric ulcer by SSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng-Chan; Gong, Min; Ng, Han-Chong; Ho, Bow

    2003-08-01

    The genomes of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) from different individuals are different. This project was to identify the strain specific DNA sequences between two clinical H. pylori isolates by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Two clinical H. pylori isolates, one from gastric ulcer (GU, tester) and the other from non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD, driver), were cultured and the genomic DNA was prepared and submitted to Alu I digestion. Then two different adaptors were ligated respectively to the 5'-end of two aliquots of the tester DNA fragments and SSH was made between the tester and driver DNA. The un-hybridized tester DNA sequences were amplified by two sequential PCR and cloned into pGEM-T-Easy Vector. The tester strain specific inserts were screened and disease related DNA sequences were identified by dot blotting. Among the 240 colonies randomly chosen, 50 contained the tester strain specific DNA sequences. Twenty three inserts were sequenced and the sizes ranged from 261 bp to 1 036 bp. Fifteen inserts belonged to the H.pylori plasmid pHPO100 that is about 3.5 kb and codes a replication protein A. Other inserts had patches of homologous to the genes of H.pylori in GenBank. Various patterns of dot blots were given and no GU strain unique DNA sequences were found when 4 inserts were used as probes to screen the genomic DNA from 27 clinical isolates, 8 from GU, 12 from duodenum ulcer (DU), 4 from GU-DU, 2 from NUD and 1 from gastric cancer (GC). But a 670 bp DNA fragment (GU198) that was a bit homologous to the 3'-end of the gene of thymidylate kinase was positive in 7 GU strains (7/8), 3 GU-DU strains (3/4) and 3 DU strains (3/12). A 384 bp fragment (GU79) of the replication gene A (repA) was positive only in 4 H.pylori isolates, 2 from GU and 2 from GU-DU. Differences exist in the genes of different H.pylori isolates. SSH is very effective to screen H.pylori strain specific DNA sequences between two clinical isolates, and some of these sequences may have

  9. Determining the Impact of Steady-State PV Fault Current Injections on Distribution Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seuss, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grijalva, Santiago [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report investigates the fault current contribution from a single large PV system and the impact it has on existing distribution overcurrent protection devices. Assumptions are made about the modeling of the PV system under fault to perform exhaustive steady - state fault analyses throughout distribution feeder models. Each PV interconnection location is tested to determine how the size of the PV system affects the fault current measured by each protection device. This data is then searched for logical conditions that indicate whether a protection device has operated in a manner that will cause more customer outages due to the addition of the PV system. This is referred to as a protection issue , and there are four unique types of issues that have been identified in the study. The PV system size at which any issues occur are recorded to determine the feeder's PV hosting capacity limitations due to interference with protection settings. The analysis is carried out on six feeder models. The report concludes with a discussion of the prevalence and cause of each protection issue caused by PV system fault current.

  10. 76 FR 63942 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... country of origin of a Surgical Mask with a Protective Eye Shield. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that Turkey is the country of origin of the Surgical Mask with a...

  11. Trauma, protection, and distress in late adolescence: a multi-determinant approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W Cody; Futch, Valerie A

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study investigated the multivariable relationship between psychological distress and the combination of a set of four trauma events (victim of violence, witness of violence, victim of accidents, and interpersonal loss) and a set of four protective factors (emotional social support, sense of personal efficacy, easygoing temperament, and gender) among a sample of 1,066 graduating high school seniors in a large urban community. Each of the eight independent variables had a statistically significant zero-order correlation with psychological distress. The set of eight variables (four trauma and four protective) had a multiple correlation of R = .61 with psychological distress accounting for 38% of the variance (considered a very large effect size by Cohen (1988)). The protective factors had a larger effect on psychological distress than did the trauma variables. The study demonstrates the desirability of using a multi-determinant approach rather than a single-determinant approach in the study of psychological distress.

  12. A reactor core/containment status evaluation flowchart for determining protective actions in emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissman, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of an emergency at a power reactor station, there might not be adequate time or sufficient data to fully assess radiological implications and make protective action recommendations based on projected population exposures. Thus, decision-making guidance is needed that is based on readily available plant indicators, not just on time-consuming dose calculations. In the United States, this guidance must be compatible with the recommended by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency, and it must include predetermined, measurable, site-specific parameters for assessing conditions in the reactor core and containment. The preparation of this real time guidance calls for the selection of suitable parameters and the determination of the values for these parameters that will correspond to different levels of protective action. This process is illustrated in this paper by selecting parameters and determining appropriate values for constructing a Core/Containment Status Evaluation Flowchart for an example power plant

  13. Sequence determination of protected oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing phosphotriester linkages by californium-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, C J; Narang, S A; Macfarlane, R D; Hsiung, H M; Brousseau, R

    1980-01-01

    A mass spectrometric method for determining the sequence and molecular weight of protected oligodeoxyribonucleotides is described. By using the method of 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry [Macfarlane, R. D. & Torgerson, D. F. (1976) Science 191, 920--925], positive-ion mass spectra were obtained for a series of protected oligonucleotides extending to a decanucleotide; the spectra were dominated by the presence of the oligonucleotide molecular ion. The negative-ion mass spectra were characterized by a nested set of fragment ions extending from the 3'- or 5'-terminal nucleotide to the opposite terminal nucleotide, thereby identifying the sequence. The utility of this method has been demonstrated by the sequence determination of protected tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotides synthesized by the improved phosphotriester method. PMID:6928675

  14. Strain-Specific Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance from an Environmental Plasmid to Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Van Meervenne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics are rapidly emerging, entailing important consequences for human health. This study investigated if the broad-host-range multiresistance plasmid pB10, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, harbouring amoxicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline resistance genes, was transferable to the foodborne pathogens Salmonella spp. or E. coli O157:H7 and how this transfer alters the phenotype of the recipients. The transfer ratio was determined by both plating and flow cytometry. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined for both recipients and transconjugants using the disk diffusion method. For 14 of the 15 recipient strains, transconjugants were detected. Based on plating, transfer ratios were between 6.8×10−9 and 3.0×10−2 while using flow cytometry, transfer ratios were between <1.0×10−5 and 1.9×10−2. With a few exceptions, the transconjugants showed phenotypically increased resistance, indicating that most of the transferred resistance genes were expressed. In summary, we showed that an environmental plasmid can be transferred into foodborne pathogenic bacteria at high transfer ratios. However, the transfer ratio seemed to be recipient strain dependent. Moreover, the newly acquired resistance genes could turn antibiotic susceptible strains into resistant ones, paving the way to compromise human health.

  15. Strain-specific Plasmodium falciparum multifunctional CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression in Malian children immunized with the FMP2.1/AS02A vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Shawna F; Kouriba, Bourema; Diarra, Issa; Daou, Modibo; Niangaly, Amadou; Coulibaly, Drissa; Keita, Yamoussa; Laurens, Matthew B; Berry, Andrea A; Vekemans, Johan; Ripley Ballou, W; Lanar, David E; Dutta, Sheetij; Gray Heppner, D; Soisson, Lorraine; Diggs, Carter L; Thera, Mahamadou A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Sztein, Marcelo B; Lyke, Kirsten E

    2016-05-17

    Based on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from strain 3D7, the malaria vaccine candidate FMP2.1/AS02A showed strain-specific efficacy in a Phase 2 clinical trial in 400 Malian children randomized to 3 doses of the AMA1 vaccine candidate or control rabies vaccine on days 0, 30 and 60. A subset of 10 Pf(-) (i.e., no clinical malaria episodes) AMA1 recipients, 11 Pf(+) (clinical malaria episodes with parasites with 3D7 or Fab9-type AMA1 cluster 1 loop [c1L]) AMA1 recipients, and 10 controls were randomly chosen for analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated on days 0, 90 and 150 were stimulated with full-length 3D7 AMA1 and c1L from strains 3D7 (c3D7) and Fab9 (cFab9). Production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and/or IL-17A was analyzed by flow cytometry. Among AMA1 recipients, 18/21 evaluable samples stimulated with AMA1 demonstrated increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 derived from CD4(+) T cells by day 150 compared to 0/10 in the control group (pvaccines, CD4(+) cells expressing both TNF-α and IL-2 were increased in Pf(-) children compared to Pf(+) children. When PBMCs were stimulated with c3D7 and cFab9 separately, 4/18 AMA1 recipients with an AMA1-specific CD4(+) response had a significant response to one or both c1L. This suggests that recognition of the AMA1 antigen is not dependent upon c1L alone. In summary, AMA1-specific T cell responses were notably increased in children immunized with an AMA1-based vaccine candidate. The role of CD4(+)TNF-α(+)IL-2(+)-expressing T cells in vaccine-induced strain-specific protection against clinical malaria requires further exploration. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00460525. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, P.T.; ter Meulen, V.; Fontana, A.

    1987-01-01

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain-in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)- the authors have compared the γ-interferon (IFN-γ) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. They focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggest that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain

  17. Strain-specific helper T cell profile in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljević, Suzana; Đedović, Neda; Vujičić, Milica; Saksida, Tamara; Jevtić, Bojan; Milovanović, Boško; Momčilović, Miljana; Miljković, Đorđe; Stojanović, Ivana

    2017-10-01

    C57BL/6, BALB/c and NOD mice are among the most frequently used strains in autoimmunity research. NOD mice spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) and they are prone to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Both diseases can be routinely induced in C57BL/6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice. Also, C57BL/6 mice are generally considered T helper (Th)1-biased and BALB/c Th2-biased mice. Having in mind increasingly appreciated role of gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells in autoimmunity, especially in relation to gut Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells, our aim was to determine if there are differences in proportion of CD4 + T cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches of these mouse strains. Lower proportion of Treg was observed in NOD PP, Th2 cells dominated in BALB/c mice in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP), while Th1 cells prevailed in C57BL/6 MLN. Intradermal immunization of mice with complete Freund's adjuvant resulted in significant difference in Th cell distribution in GALT of NOD mice. Differences were less pronounced in C57BL/6 mice, while GALT of BALB/c mice was almost unresponsive to the immunization. The observed strain- and tissue-dependent changes in Treg proportion after the immunization was probably a consequence of different CCR2 or CCR6-related migration patterns and/or in situ Treg proliferation. In conclusion, NOD, a highly autoimmunity-prone mouse strain, exhibits more profound GALT-related immune response upon immunization compared to the strains that are less prone to autoimmunity. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentiation of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus: Development of a strain-specific multiplex PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M.; Kabell, Susanne; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test and histopath......Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test...... and histopathology. Since these methods are laborious and have low specificity alternatives are needed. In the present study, we report the development of a strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR technique, which can detect and differentiate between field strains of IBDV and vaccine virus strains including a so-called hot...

  19. Strain specific variation of outer membrane proteins of wild Yersinia pestis strains subjected to different growth temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme Coutinho Abath

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Three Yersinia pestis strains isolated from humans and one laboratory strain (EV76 were grown in rich media at 28§C and 37§C and their outer membrane protein composition compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page. Several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 34 kDa to 7 kDa were observed to change in relative abundance in samples grown at different temperatures. At least seven Y. pestis outer membrane proteins showed a temperature-dependent and strain-specific behaviour. Some differences between the outer membrane proteins of full-pathogenic wild isolates and the EV76 strain could aldso be detected and the relevance of this finding on the use of laboratory strains as a reference to the study of Y. pestis biological properties is discuted.

  20. Differentiation of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus: Development of a strain-specific multiplex PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M.; Kabell, Susanne; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test...... and histopathology. Since these methods are laborious and have low specificity alternatives are needed. In the present study, we report the development of a strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR technique, which can detect and differentiate between field strains of IBDV and vaccine virus strains including a so-called hot...... vaccine strain widely used in the European poultry industry. The method, which is highly specific, fast and inexpensive, can be applied in all laboratories with basal PCR capabilities and equipment....

  1. The Impact of Lactobacillus casei on the Composition of the Cecal Microbiota and Innate Immune System Is Strain Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Busra; De Wolfe, Travis J; Safdar, Nasia; Darien, Benjamin J; Steele, James L

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic function to impact human health is thought to be related to their ability to alter the composition of the gut microbiota and modulate the human innate immune system. The ability to function as a probiotic is believed to be strain specific. Strains of Lactobacillus casei are commonly utilized as probiotics that when consumed alter the composition of the gut microbiota and modulate the host immune response. L. casei strains are known to differ significantly in gene content. The objective of this study was to investigate seven different L. casei strains for their ability to alter the murine gut microbiota and modulate the murine immune system. C57BL/6 mice were fed L. casei strains at a dose of 108 CFU/day/mouse for seven days and sacrificed 3.5h after the last administration. The cecal content and the ileum tissue were collected for microbiota analysis and immune profiling, respectively. While 5 of the L. casei strains altered the gut microbiota in a strain specific manner, two of the strains did not alter the overall cecal microbiota composition. The observed changes cluster into three groups containing between 1 and 2 strains. Two strains that did not affect the gut microbiota composition cluster together with the control in their impact on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expression, suggesting that the ability to alter the cecal microbiota correlates with the ability to alter PRR expression. They also cluster together in their impact on the expression of intestinal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This result suggests that a relationship exists between the capability of a L. casei strains to alter the composition of the gut microbiota, PRR regulation, and AMP regulation.

  2. Determination of settings in the protection system for Tokamak-15 superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, A.N.; Khvostenko, P.P.; Posadsky, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    The calculations results of the maximal temperature heating of Tokamak-15 superconducting magnet (T-15 SM) under energy removal dependent on the current through the coil are given in paper. The calculations of SM thermomechanical strength have shown that the maximal coil heating temperature should not exceed 150--160 K. The range of the settings level in SM protection system for currents 1 ≤ 4 kA has been determined

  3. Exploring suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) for discriminating Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris SK11 and ATCC 19257 in mixed culture based on the expression of strain-specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoye, B; Lessard, M-H; LaPointe, G; Roy, D

    2011-02-01

    An approach based on quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) was developed for monitoring two strains of lactococci in co-culture in milk by measuring the expression of specific genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). SSH was used to identify strain-specific genes of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris SK11 and ATCC 19257. RT-qPCR was then employed to validate gene specificity and compare the expression of selected specific genes (glycosyltransferase and amidase genes for L. lactis ssp. cremoris ATCC 19257 and a hypothetical protein for SK11) identified by SSH. The time profile of changes in gene expression relative to ldh transcription differed between pure and mixed cultures as well as between media. At the stationary phase, gene expression of mixed cultures in GM17 attained the highest proportion of ldh transcription while mixed cultures in milk peaked at the postexponential phase. Strain ratios expressed as RNA proportion appear to favour SK11 in GM17 medium, while ATCC 19257 dominated in milk co-cultures. This approach was useful to determine the contribution of strain SK11 in relation to strain ATCC 19257 during co-culture in milk compared to rich medium. The ability to track the metabolic contribution of each lactococcal strain during fermentation of milk or cheese ripening will extend our understanding of the impact of process parameters on the production performance of strains. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. The use of aldehyde indicators to determine glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde contamination in chemical protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Zhenzhen

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of aldehyde indicator pads for detection of glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde permeation through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions. The quantitative analysis of glutaraldehyde permeation through a glove material was determined for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde following a solvent-desorption process and gas chromatographic analysis. All glutaraldehyde solutions exhibited >99% adsorption (including both the glutaraldehyde oligomers of the reaction product and the excess glutaraldehyde) on the pads over the spiking range 0.05-5.0 microL. Breakthrough times for protective gloves were determined using the Thermo-Hand test method, and found to range from 76 to 150, from 170 to 230, and from 232 to 300 min for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde, respectively. Glutaraldehyde recovery was calculated and ranged from 61 to 80% for all glutaraldehyde solutions. The mass of glutaraldehyde in these solutions at the time of breakthrough detection ranged from 17 to 18, from 18 to 19, and from 19 to 20 microg/cm(2) for Wavicide, 50% glutaraldehyde solution, and Metricide, respectively. Aldehyde indicator pads and the Thermo-Hand test method together should find utility in detecting, collecting, and quantitatively analyzing glutaraldehyde permeation samples through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions.

  5. Identifikasi Brucella abortus Isolat Lokal dengan Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (IDENTIFICATION OF LOCAL ISOLATES OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS USING BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN SPECIFIC-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (BaSS-PCR is a single multiplex PCRtechnique which able to identify and differentiate between Brucella abortus field strains (biovar 1, 2, and4, B. abortus vaccine strains, Brucella species, and non-Brucella species. In this study, BaSS-PCR wasapplied to identify local isolates of B. abortus in order to investigate the B. abortus strains that infectedcattle in Indonesia. Fifty local strains of B.abortus isolated from infected cattle in Java (Jakarta andBandung, South Sulawesi (Maros, East Nusa Tenggara (Kupang and Belu were used in this study. TheDNA bands were observed by agarose gel in the presence of ethidium bromide. Identification was performedbased on the size and number of DNA products amplified by PCR from each isolates. The results showedthat the 50 isolates were of B. abortus field strains. This finding showed that the cause of bovine brucellosisin Indonesia is B. abortus field strains.

  6. Phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles involved in malarial peptide bonds determine sterile protective immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@gmail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Bermudez, Adriana [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles determine sterile protective immunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified peptide's tendency to assume a regular conformation related to a PPII{sub L}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural modifications in mHABPs induce Ab and protective immunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mHABP backbone atom's interaction with HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} is stabilised by H-bonds. -- Abstract: Modified HABP (mHABP) regions interacting with HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} molecules have a more restricted conformation and/or sequence than other mHABPs which do not fit perfectly into their peptide binding regions (PBR) and do not induce an acceptable immune response due to the critical role of their {Phi} and {Psi} torsion angles. These angle's critical role was determined in such highly immunogenic, protection-inducing response against experimental malaria using the conformers (mHABPs) obtained by {sup 1}H-NMR and superimposed into HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator }-like Aotus monkey molecules; their phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles were measured and the H-bond formation between these molecules was evaluated. The aforementioned mHABP propensity to assume a regular conformation similar to a left-handed polyproline type II helix (PPII{sub L}) led to suggesting that favouring these conformations according to their amino acid sequence would lead to high antibody titre production and sterile protective immunity induction against malaria, thereby adding new principles or rules for vaccine development, malaria being one of them.

  7. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus ferm...... that the probiotic characteristics were strain-specific and that the isolates L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 (cocoa) and L. brevis FFC199 (cauim) exhibited potential probiotics properties. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus...... fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199...

  8. PrP glycoforms are associated in a strain-specific ratio in native PrPSc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili-Shirazi, Azadeh; Summers, Linda; Linehan, Jacqueline; Mallinson, Gary; Anstee, David; Hawke, Simon; Jackson, Graham S; Collinge, John

    2005-09-01

    Prion diseases involve conversion of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC) to a disease-related isoform (PrPSc). Using recombinant human beta-PrP, a panel of monoclonal antibodies was produced that efficiently immunoprecipitated native PrPSc and recognized epitopes between residues 93-105, indicating for the first time that this region is exposed in both human vCJD and mouse RML prions. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies raised to human alpha-PrP were more efficient in immunoprecipitating PrPC than PrPSc, and some of them could also distinguish between different PrP glycoforms. Using these monoclonal antibodies, the physical association of PrP glycoforms was studied in normal brain and in the brains of humans and mice with prion disease. It was shown that while PrPC glycoforms can be selectively immunoprecipitated, the differentially glycosylated molecules of native PrPSc are closely associated and always immunoprecipitate together. Furthermore, the ratio of glycoforms comprising immunoprecipitated native PrPSc from diverse prion strains was similar to those observed on denaturing Western blots. These studies are consistent with the view that the proportion of each glycoform incorporated into PrPSc is probably controlled in a strain-specific manner and that each PrPSc particle contains a mixture of glycoforms.

  9. A novel Zika virus mouse model reveals strain specific differences in virus pathogenesis and host inflammatory immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Tripathi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS, gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms. Further, we exploit this model to compare ZIKV pathogenesis caused by a panel of ZIKV strains of a range of spatiotemporal history of isolation and representing African and Asian lineages. We observed that African ZIKV strains induce short episodes of severe neurological symptoms followed by lethality. In comparison, Asian strains manifest prolonged signs of neuronal malfunctions, occasionally causing death of the Stat2-/- mice. African ZIKV strains induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers associated with cellular infiltration in the infected brain in mice, which may explain exacerbated pathogenesis in comparison to those of the Asian lineage. Interestingly, viral RNA levels in different organs did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the different strains. Taken together, we have established a new murine model that supports ZIKV infection and demonstrate its utility in highlighting intrinsic differences in the inflammatory response induced by different ZIKV strains leading to severity of disease. This study paves the way for the future interrogation of strain-specific changes in the ZIKV genome and their contribution to viral pathogenesis.

  10. Differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses to single epicutaneous immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Hong, Chien-Hui; Liu, Ching-Yi; Ta, Yng-Cun; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-12-01

    Epicutaneous immunization with allergens is an important sensitization route for atopic dermatitis. We recently showed in addition to the Th2 response following single epicutaneous immunization, a remarkable Th1 response is induced in B6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice, mimicking the immune response to allergens in human non-atopics and atopics. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving this differential Th1 response between BALB/c and B6 mice. We characterized dermal dendritic cells by flow cytometric analysis. We measured the induced Th1/Th2 responses by measuring the IFN-γ/IL-13 contents of supernatants of antigen reactivation cultures of lymph node cells. We demonstrate that more dermal dendritic cells with higher activation status migrate into draining lymph nodes of B6 mice compared to BALB/c mice. Dermal dendritic cells of B6 mice have a greater ability to capture protein antigen than those of BALB/c mice. Moreover, increasing the activation status or amount of captured antigen in dermal dendritic cells induced a Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Further, differential activation behavior, but not antigen-capturing ability of dermal dendritic cells between BALB/c and B6 mice is dendritic cell-intrinsic. These results show that the differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses following single epicutaneous immunization. Furthermore, our findings highlight the potential differences between human atopics and non-atopics and provide useful information for the prediction and prevention of atopic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Ann Sattler

    Full Text Available A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350 in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 × 10(3 cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 ± 7.8 × 10(5 cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 ± 1.1×10(7 cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 ± 5.7 × 10(5 cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days. With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken.

  12. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Verity Ann; Mohnl, Michaela; Klose, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350) in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 × 10(3) cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 ± 7.8 × 10(5) cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 ± 1.1×10(7) cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 ± 5.7 × 10(5) cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days). With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken.

  13. Determination of the minimum protective dose for bluetongue virus serotype 2 and 8 vaccines in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Modumo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV serotypes 2 and 8 in many European countries provided an opportunity to investigate the possibility of improving the safety of the modified live vaccines administered mainly in South Africa. Modified live vaccines (MLV released at a titre of 5 x 104 PFU/mL, raised concerns and prompted the need to determine the minimum titre which will still be protective and also safe. The BTV serotypes 2 and 8 vaccines were produced at the following titres: 102 PFU/mL, 103 PFU/mL and 104 PFU/mL, and were injected into 24 sheep which were then monitored. Blood was collected on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 25, 28 and 4 months post vaccination, for seroconversion and viraemia studies. These sheep were later challenged at 4 months post vaccination using BTV infected cell culture material, they were then observed and bled and again tested for viraemia. There was no viraemia post vaccination, however, a febrile reaction did occur and seroconversion was demonstrated at low titres for both BTV 2 and 8. Although viraemia was demonstrated post challenge, sheep vaccinated with the low titre BTV 2 vaccine showed more than a 90% protection index at a lower titre of 103 PFU/mL, compared with BTV 8 that showed a protection index above 90% at all the titres used. It is recommended that for BTV 2 vaccine, sheep should be vaccinated at a titre of 103 PFU/mL and at a titre of 102 PFU/mL with BTV 8 vaccine.

  14. Determination of the minimum protective dose for bluetongue virus serotype 2 and 8 vaccines in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modumo, Jacob; Venter, Estelle H

    2012-08-03

    Recent outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 2 and 8 in many European countries provided an opportunity to investigate the possibility of improving the safety of the modified live vaccines administered mainly in South Africa. Modified live vaccines (MLV) released at a titre of 5 x 104 PFU/mL, raised concerns and prompted the need to determine the minimum titre which will still be protective and also safe. The BTV serotypes 2 and 8 vaccines were produced at the following titres: 102 PFU/mL, 103 PFU/mL and 104 PFU/mL, and were injected into 24 sheep which were then monitored. Blood was collected on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 25, 28 and 4 months post vaccination, for seroconversion and viraemia studies. These sheep were later challenged at 4 months post vaccination using BTV infected cell culture material, they were then observed and bled and again tested for viraemia. There was no viraemia post vaccination, however, a febrile reaction did occur and seroconversion was demonstrated at low titres for both BTV 2 and 8. Although viraemia was demonstrated post challenge, sheep vaccinated with the low titre BTV 2 vaccine showed more than a 90% protection index at a lower titre of 103 PFU/mL, compared with BTV 8 that showed a protection index above 90% at all the titres used. It is recommended that for BTV 2 vaccine, sheep should be vaccinated at a titre of 103 PFU/mL and at a titre of 102 PFU/mL with BTV 8 vaccine.

  15. Determination of the minimum protective dose for bluetongue virus serotype 2 and 8 vaccines in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Modumo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV serotypes 2 and 8 in many European countries provided an opportunity to investigate the possibility of improving the safety of the modified live vaccines administered mainly in South Africa. Modified live vaccines (MLV released at a titre of 5 x 104 PFU/mL, raised concerns and prompted the need to determine the minimum titre which will still be protective and also safe. The BTV serotypes 2 and 8 vaccines were produced at the following titres: 102 PFU/mL, 103 PFU/mL and 104 PFU/mL, and were injected into 24 sheep which were then monitored. Blood was collected on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 25, 28 and 4 months post vaccination, for seroconversion and viraemia studies. These sheep were later challenged at 4 months post vaccination using BTV infected cell culture material, they were then observed and bled and again tested for viraemia. There was no viraemia post vaccination, however, a febrile reaction did occur and seroconversion was demonstrated at low titres for both BTV 2 and 8. Although viraemia was demonstrated post challenge, sheep vaccinated with the low titre BTV 2 vaccine showed more than a 90% protection index at a lower titre of 103 PFU/mL, compared with BTV 8 that showed a protection index above 90% at all the titres used. It is recommended that for BTV 2 vaccine, sheep should be vaccinated at a titre of 103 PFU/mL and at a titre of 102 PFU/mL with BTV 8 vaccine.

  16. Determination of protective properties of Bardejovske Kuple spa curative waters by rotational viscometry and ABTS assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOPOLSKA Dominika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mineral waters from Bardejovske Kupele spa are natural, strongly mineralized, with healing effects. They are classified as hydrocarbonic - containing chloride and sodium - carbonic, cold, hypotonic, with a relatively high boric acid content. Potential anti-oxidative effects of curative waters from Bardejovske Kupele were investigated against the hyaluronan (HA degradation. High-molar-mass HA was exposed to the action of ascorbate and cupric ions, which initiate free-radical chain degradation. Time-dependent changes of dynamic viscosity (h of the HA solutions were monitored by rotational viscometry. The radical scavenging capacity of curative waters was determined by the ABTS assay. Despite a significantly high content of transition metal ions, especially iron, remarkable protective effects of the two curative spa waters were found, namely Alzbeta and Klara. Even though “Alzbeta´s“ iron content was 3.5-fold higher than “Klara´s“, “Alzbeta“ was shown to have better protective properties against the HA degradation compared to “Klara“. Bolus addition of ferric ions to the reaction system instead of the natural iron-containing curative water caused a significant HA degradation. The ABTS decolorization assay revealed that the curative spa waters were proven as poorly effective scavengers of the ABTS·+ cation radical.

  17. Genetically Determined MBL Deficiency Is Associated with Protection against Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Chagas Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rosa Luz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, whose sugar moieties are recognized by mannan binding lectin (MBL, a soluble pattern-recognition molecule that activates the lectin pathway of complement. MBL levels and protein activity are affected by polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. We sequenced the MBL2 promoter and exon 1 in 196 chronic CD patients and 202 controls. The MBL2*C allele, which causes MBL deficiency, was associated with protection against CD (P = 0.007, OR = 0.32. Compared with controls, genotypes with this allele were completely absent in patients with the cardiac form of the disease (P = 0.003. Furthermore, cardiac patients with genotypes causing MBL deficiency presented less heart damage (P = 0.003, OR = 0.23, compared with cardiac patients having the XA haplotype causing low MBL levels, but fully capable of activating complement (P = 0.005, OR = 7.07. Among the patients, those with alleles causing MBL deficiency presented lower levels of cytokines and chemokines possibly implicated in symptom development (IL9, p = 0.013; PDGFB, p = 0.036 and RANTES, p = 0.031. These findings suggest a protective effect of genetically determined MBL deficiency against the development and progression of chronic CD cardiomyopathy.

  18. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  19. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF SOUND INSULATION OF APARTMENTS’ ENCLOSING STRUCTURES TO MEET NOISE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: an important task in the design of internal enclosing structures of apartments is the establishment of their required soundproofing ability. At present, there is no reliable method for determining the required sound insulation and in this regard internal enclosures are designed without proper justification for noise protection. Research objectives: development of a technique for determining the required sound insulation of apartment’s internal enclosures to ensure an acceptable noise regime in the apartments’ rooms under the action of intra-apartment noise sources. Materials and methods: the methodology was developed on the basis of a statistical method for noise calculation in the apartments, treated as systems of acoustically coupled proportionate rooms, and with the help of a computer program that implements this method. Results: the technique makes it possible to generate, with the use of computer technologies, a targeted selection of internal enclosures of the apartment to meet their soundproofing requirements. Conclusions: the technique proposed in the article can be used at the design stage of apartments when determining the required soundproofing of partitions and doors. Using this technique, it is possible to harmonize the sound insulation ratio of individual elements among themselves and thereby guarantee a selection of internal structures for their acoustic and economic efficiency.

  20. Determination of solvents permeating through chemical protective clothing with a microsensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Zellers, E T

    2000-08-01

    The performance of a novel prototype instrument in determining solvents and solvent mixtures permeating through samples of chemical protective clothing (CPC) materials was evaluated. The instrument contains a mini-preconcentrator and an array of three polymer-coated surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) microsensors whose collective response patterns are used to discriminate among multiple permeants. Permeation tests were performed with a 2.54 cm diameter test cell in an open-loop configuration on samples of common glove materials challenged with four individual solvents, three binary mixtures, and two ternary mixtures. Breakthrough times, defined as the times required for the permeation rate to reach a value of 1 microg cm(-2) min(-1), determined by the instrument were within 3 min of those determined in parallel by manual sampling and gas chromatographic analysis. Permeating solvents were recognized (identified) from their response patterns in 59 out of 64 measurements (92%) and their vapor concentrations were quantified to an accuracy of +/- 31% (typically +/- 10%). These results demonstrate the potential for such instrumentation to provide semi-automated field or bench-top screening of CPC permeation resistance.

  1. LESPRO - an expert system for the decision support in determination and suggestion of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunova, J.; Duranova, T.; Hatar, E.

    2000-01-01

    A prototype expert system for advising emergency procedures for nuclear regulatory authority has been developed. The expert system ESPRO is known as goal oriented rule-based knowledge system. The system is based on emergency procedures developed in VUJE Trnava, Inc. for use by the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA). The operation interpretation module uses the knowledge base of emergency procedures for the evaluation of source term and determination and suggestion of protective measures which is represented in the form of a Petri net model. Its verification and validation was done on the basis of the results of two exercises: joint exercise of ERC staff with Slovak Army Headquarters and full scale Mochovce NPP emergency exercise with use of the Mochovce NPP simulator. (author)

  2. A novel system for tracking social preference dynamics in mice reveals sex- and strain-specific characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netser, Shai; Haskal, Shani; Magalnik, Hen; Wagner, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    employed our new experimental system to unravel previously unidentified sex- and strain-specific differences in the dynamics of social behavior in mice. Thus, the system presented here facilitates a more thorough and detailed analysis of social behavior in small rodent models, enabling a better comparison between strains and treatments.

  3. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Linnakoski

    2017-05-01

    to a limited body of empirical research on the effects of projected climate changes on forestry pathosystems, and is the first to investigate interactions between Norway spruce and E. polonica. The results indicate the potential for future climate changes to alter the impact of forest pathogens with implications for productivity, while highlighting the need for a strain-specific level of understanding of the disease agents.

  4. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Forbes, Kristian M; Wingfield, Michael J; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2017-01-01

    limited body of empirical research on the effects of projected climate changes on forestry pathosystems, and is the first to investigate interactions between Norway spruce and E. polonica . The results indicate the potential for future climate changes to alter the impact of forest pathogens with implications for productivity, while highlighting the need for a strain-specific level of understanding of the disease agents.

  5. Sovereignty, Protection and the Limits to Regional Refugee Status Determination Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dehm

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This case note explores the recent Australian High Court decision of Plaintiff M70/2011 v Minister for Immigration and Citizenship, which declared a proposed regional refugee status determination arrangement between Australia and Malaysia to be unlawful under Australian law. While the decision was determined by the specific statutory construction of Australian's migration legislation, it nonetheless draws attention to the legal character of what constitutes 'protection' under international refugee law and suggests the necessary legal and factual conditions that must exist in a 'third country' in order for any transfer of refugee processing and recognition procedures to be seen to satisfy Convention obligations. It thus represents a significant judicial challenge to the contemporary trend pursued by wealthy industrialised nations in the Global North towards erecting barriers for accessing domestic asylum regimes and adopting policies that in effect outsource and extraterritorialise asylum processing under the guise of 'burden sharing' or regional 'harmonisation'. This case note reads the decision as a particular re-articulation of sovereign authority, borders, belonging and place-making.

  6. Longevity and determinants of protective humoral immunity after pandemic influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya; Begom, Shaima; Hoschler, Katja; Bermingham, Alison; Adamson, Walt; Carman, William; Riley, Steven; Lalvani, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Antibodies to influenza hemagglutinin are the primary correlate of protection against infection. The strength and persistence of this immune response influences viral evolution and consequently the nature of influenza epidemics. However, the durability and immune determinants of induction of humoral immunity after primary influenza infection remain unclear. The spread of a novel H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) virus in 2009 through an unexposed population offered a natural experiment to assess the nature and longevity of humoral immunity after a single primary influenza infection. We followed A(H1N1)pdm09-seronegative adults through two influenza seasons (2009-2011) as they developed A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection or were vaccinated. Antibodies to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were measured by hemagglutination-inhibition assay in individuals with paired serum samples collected preinfection and postinfection or vaccination to assess durability of humoral immunity. Preexisting A(H1N1)pdm09-specific multicytokine-secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells were quantified by multiparameter flow cytometry to test the hypothesis that higher frequencies of CD4(+) T-cell responses predict stronger antibody induction after infection or vaccination. Antibodies induced by natural infection persisted at constant high titer for a minimum of approximately 15 months. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the fold increase in A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody titer after infection was inversely correlated to the frequency of preexisting circulating A(H1N1)pdm09-specific CD4(+)IL-2(+)IFN-γ(-)TNF-α(-) T cells (r = -0.4122; P = 0.03). The longevity of protective humoral immunity after influenza infection has important implications for influenza transmission dynamics and vaccination policy, and identification of its predictive cellular immune correlate could guide vaccine development and evaluation.

  7. Sun protection during snow sports: an analysis of behavior and psychosocial determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Kann, Dave; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated sun protective behavior during snow sports and its psychosocial determinants. A longitudinal study was conducted among 418 Dutch adults who planned to go on a ski holiday. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire before and after their ski trip. In the baseline questionnaire several psychosocial factors were measured (i.e. knowledge, risk perception, worry, attitude, social influence, self-efficacy and intention). At follow-up, sunscreen use and frequency of sunburns were measured. The results showed that, despite their generally high intention, a substantial part of the respondents (40%) did not use sunscreen adequately during their ski holiday. Furthermore, one-fourth of the respondents reported at least one sunburn during their ski holiday. Men and younger respondents used sunscreen less frequently and were sunburnt more often. Sunscreen use was predicted by a positive attitude, high self-efficacy levels, high intention, high knowledge and high perceived risk. The background and psychosocial variables explained 32% of the total variance of sunscreen use. Suggestions for future research and interventions are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Identification and quantification of viable Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult in human faeces by using strain-specific primers and propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, J; Tanigawa, K; Kudo, Y; Makino, H; Watanabe, K

    2011-01-01

    To develop a quick and accurate PCR-based method to evaluate viable Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BbrY) in human faeces. The number of BbrY in faeces was detected by using strain-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) derived from a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. And using propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment, which combined a DNA-intercalating dye for covalently linking DNA in dead cells and photoactivation, only viable BbrY in the faeces highly and significantly correlated with the number of viable BbrY added to faecal samples within the range of 10(5) -10(9) cells per g of faeces was enumerated. After 11 healthy subjects ingested 10·7 log CFU of BbrY daily for 10 days, 6·9 (± 1·5) log CFU g(-1) [mean (± SD)] of BbrY was detected in faeces by using strain-specific transgalactosylated oligosaccharide-carbenicillin (T-CBPC) selective agar medium. Viable BbrY detected by qPCR with PMA treatment was 7·5 (± 1·0) log cells per g and the total number (viable and dead) of BbrY detected by qPCR without PMA treatment was 8·1 (± 0·8) log cells per g. Strain-specific qPCR with PMA treatment evaluated viable BbrY in faeces quickly and accurately. Combination of strain-specific qPCR and PMA treatment is useful for evaluating viable probiotics and its availability in humans. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Determinants of the Rigor of State Protection Policies for Persons With Dementia in Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Matthew C; Kaskie, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Continued growth in the number of individuals with dementia residing in assisted living (AL) facilities raises concerns about their safety and protection. However, unlike federally regulated nursing facilities, AL facilities are state-regulated and there is a high degree of variation among policies designed to protect persons with dementia. Despite the important role these protection policies have in shaping the quality of life of persons with dementia residing in AL facilities, little is known about their formation. In this research, we examined the adoption of AL protection policies pertaining to staffing, the physical environment, and the use of chemical restraints. For each protection policy type, we modeled policy rigor using an innovative point-in-time approach, incorporating variables associated with state contextual, institutional, political, and external factors. We found that the rate of state AL protection policy adoptions remained steady over the study period, with staffing policies becoming less rigorous over time. Variables reflecting institutional policy making, including legislative professionalism and bureaucratic oversight, were associated with the rigor of state AL dementia protection policies. As we continue to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to the rigor of AL protection policies, it seems that organized advocacy efforts might expand their role in educating state policy makers about the importance of protecting persons with dementia residing in AL facilities and moving to advance appropriate policies.

  10. The Protection of the Fundamental Right to Informational Self-Determination in the Context of Labor Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hian Silva Colaço

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the information society context, which key feature is the elevation of information as an economic good. The right to privacy presents itself as extremely vulnerable ahead of advances in technology. It’s needed a more dynamic and plural protection of that, characterized in protecting the fundamental right to informational self-determination. Faced with the possibility of misuse of employee’s personal data by their employers, on admission and dismissal, it’s justified the need for actualize the right to informational self-determination in the context of labor relations, with the desideratum to prevent sensitive data from being used by employers.

  11. Functional Fit Evaluation to Determine Optimal Ease Requirements in Canadian Forces Chemical Protective Gloves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay-Lutter, Julie

    1995-01-01

    A functional fit evaluation of the Canadian Forces (CF) chemical protective lightweight glove was undertaken in order to quantify the amount of ease required within the glove for optimal functional fit...

  12. Evaluation of a passive method for determining particle penetration through protective clothing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Peter A; Portnoff, Lee

    2017-12-01

    The risk of workers' exposure to aerosolized particles has increased with the upsurge in the production of engineered nanomaterials. Currently, a whole-body standard test method for measuring particle penetration through protective clothing ensembles is not available. Those available for respirators neglect the most common challenges to ensembles, because they use active vacuum-based filtration, designed to simulate breathing, rather than the positive forces of wind experienced by workers. Thus, a passive method that measures wind-driven particle penetration through ensemble fabric has been developed and evaluated. The apparatus includes a multidomain magnetic passive aerosol sampler housed in a shrouded penetration cell. Performance evaluation was conducted in a recirculation aerosol wind tunnel using paramagnetic Fe 3 O 4 (i.e., iron (II, III) oxide) particles for the challenge aerosol. The particles were collected on a PVC substrate and quantified using a computer-controlled scanning electron microscope. Particle penetration levels were determined by taking the ratio of the particle number collected on the substrate with a fabric (sample) to that without a fabric (control). Results for each fabric obtained by this passive method were compared to previous results from an automated vacuum-based active fractional efficiency tester (TSI 3160), which used sodium chloride particles as the challenge aerosol. Four nonwoven fabrics with a range of thicknesses, porosities, and air permeabilities were evaluated. Smoke tests and flow modeling showed the passive sampler shroud provided smooth (non-turbulent) air flow along the exterior of the sampler, such that disturbance of flow stream lines and distortion of the particle size distribution were reduced. Differences between the active and passive approaches were as high as 5.5-fold for the fabric with the lowest air permeability (0.00067 m/sec-Pa), suggesting the active method overestimated penetration in dense fabrics

  13. Analysis of Clinical HIV-1 Strains with Resistance to Maraviroc Reveals Strain-Specific Resistance Mutations, Variable Degrees of Resistance, and Minimal Cross-Resistance to Other CCR5 Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jacqueline K; Ellenberg, Paula; Duncan, Renee; Ellett, Anne; Zhou, Jingling; Sterjovski, Jasminka; Cashin, Kieran; Borm, Katharina; Gray, Lachlan R; Lewis, Marilyn; Jubb, Becky; Westby, Mike; Lee, Benhur; Lewin, Sharon R; Churchill, Melissa; Roche, Michael; Gorry, Paul R

    2017-12-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is an allosteric inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and is the only CCR5 antagonist licensed for use as an anti-HIV-1 therapeutic. It acts by altering the conformation of the CCR5 extracellular loops, rendering CCR5 unrecognizable by the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins. This study aimed to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of MVC resistance in HIV-1-infected patients. To do this, we obtained longitudinal plasma samples from eight subjects who experienced treatment failure with phenotypically verified, CCR5-tropic MVC resistance. We then cloned and characterized HIV-1 Envs (n = 77) from plasma of pretreatment (n = 36) and treatment failure (n = 41) samples. Our results showed variation in the magnitude of MVC resistance as measured by reductions in maximal percent inhibition of Env-pseudotyped viruses, which was more pronounced in 293-Affinofile cells compared to other cells with similar levels of CCR5 expression. Amino acid determinants of MVC resistance localized to the V3 Env region and were strain specific. We also observed minimal cross-resistance to other CCR5 antagonists by MVC-resistant strains. We conclude that 293-Affinofile cells are highly sensitive for detecting and measuring MVC resistance through a mechanism that is CCR5-dependent yet independent of CCR5 expression levels. The strain-specific nature of resistance mutations suggests that sequence-based diagnostics and prognostics will need to be more sophisticated than simple position scoring to be useful for managing resistance in subjects taking MVC. Finally, the minimal levels of cross-resistance suggests that recognition of the MVC-modified form of CCR5 does not necessarily lead to recognition of other antagonist-modified forms of CCR5.

  14. Genome sequences of lower Great Lakes Microcystis sp. reveal strain-specific genes that are present and expressed in western Lake Erie blooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Anthony Meyer

    Full Text Available Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis are increasing worldwide. In the Laurentian Great Lakes they pose major socioeconomic, ecological, and human health threats, particularly in western Lake Erie. However, the interpretation of "omics" data is constrained by the highly variable genome of Microcystis and the small number of reference genome sequences from strains isolated from the Great Lakes. To address this, we sequenced two Microcystis isolates from Lake Erie (Microcystis aeruginosa LE3 and M. wesenbergii LE013-01 and one from upstream Lake St. Clair (M. cf aeruginosa LSC13-02, and compared these data to the genomes of seventeen Microcystis spp. from across the globe as well as one metagenome and seven metatranscriptomes from a 2014 Lake Erie Microcystis bloom. For the publically available strains analyzed, the core genome is ~1900 genes, representing ~11% of total genes in the pan-genome and ~45% of each strain's genome. The flexible genome content was related to Microcystis subclades defined by phylogenetic analysis of both housekeeping genes and total core genes. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that the flexible genome is linked to the core genome of the Microcystis species complex. The majority of strain-specific genes were present and expressed in bloom communities in Lake Erie. Roughly 8% of these genes from the lower Great Lakes are involved in genome plasticity (rapid gain, loss, or rearrangement of genes and resistance to foreign genetic elements (such as CRISPR-Cas systems. Intriguingly, strain-specific genes from Microcystis cultured from around the world were also present and expressed in the Lake Erie blooms, suggesting that the Microcystis pangenome is truly global. The presence and expression of flexible genes, including strain-specific genes, suggests that strain-level genomic diversity may be important in maintaining Microcystis abundance during bloom events.

  15. Determining the feasibility of establishing new multiple-use marine protected areas in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Simon, Jeanne W; Paz-Lerdón, Ximena

    2013-12-01

    This paper evaluates the feasibility of establishing a multiple-use marine protected area. The methodology was applied to evaluate three proposed sites in Chile with diverse conservation needs, social stress and poverty levels, and different economic activities (small-scale fishing, heavy industry, and mining activities). We use two broad categories for the evaluation: socio-economic and political-institutional. The methodology uses a combination of secondary data with personal interviews, workshops, and focus groups with stakeholders (e.g., fishermen, unions, politicians, social organizations) from different political, social, and economic backgrounds to characterize current and potential natural and social resources and to evaluate in an ordinal scale the feasibility of establishing the protected area. The methodology allows us to correctly identify the challenges faced in each site and can be used to develop appropriate strategies for balancing economic, social, and environmental objectives. This methodology can be replicated to evaluate the feasibility of other marine or terrestrial protected areas.

  16. Determinant capture as a possible mechanism of protection afforded by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules in autoimmune disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    How peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II complexes are naturally generated is still unknown, but accumulating evidence suggests that unfolding proteins or long peptides can become bound to class II molecules at the dominant determinant before proteolytic cleavage. We have compared the immunogenicity of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) in nonobese diabetic (NOD), (NOD x BALB/c)F1, and E(d) alpha transgenic NOD mice. We find that a response to the subdominant ANOD- restricted determinant disappears upon introduction of an E(d) molecule, and is restored when scission of HEL separates this determinant from its adjoining, competitively dominant, E(d)-restricted determinant. This suggests that the E(d) molecule binds and protects its dominant determinant on a long peptide while captured neighboring determinants are lost during proteolysis. These results provide clear evidence for "determinant capture" as a mechanism of determinant selection during antigen processing and a possible explanation for MHC- protective effects in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:8228814

  17. Size of the protected areas is the main determinant of species diversity in orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schödelbauerová, Iva; Roberts, D.L.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 10 (2009), s. 2329-2334 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : NDVI * Orchidaceae * Protected area * Species-area * Species richness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.167, year: 2009

  18. Determination of over current protection thresholds for class D audio amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Risbo, L; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Monolithic class-D audio amplifiers typically feature built-in over current protection circuitry that shuts down the amplifier in case of a short circuit on the output speaker terminals. To minimize cost, the threshold at which the device shuts down must be set just above the maximum current...

  19. Isolation and validation of a candidate Rsv3 gene from a soybean genotype that confers strain-specific resistance to soybean mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu-Tri; Widyasari, Kristin; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2018-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus, significantly reduces soybean production worldwide. Rsv3, which confers strain-specific resistance to SMV, was previously mapped between the markers A519F/R and M3Satt in chromosome 14 of the soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotype L29. Analysis of the soybean genome database revealed that five different NBS-LRR sequences exist between the flanking markers. Among these candidate Rsv3 genes, the full-length cDNA of the Glyma.14g204700 was successfully cloned from L29. Over-expression of Glyma.14g204700 in leaves inoculated with SMV inhibited viral infection in a soybean genotype lacking Rsv3. In addition, the transient silencing of the candidate gene caused a high accumulation of an avirulent strain in L29 carrying Rsv3. Our results therefore provide additional line of evidence to support that Glyma.14g204700 is likely Rsv3 gene that confers strain-specific resistance to SMV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DETERMINATION OF SUN PROTECTION FACTOR OF SUNSCREENS BY TWO DIFFERENT IN-VITRO METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GHARAVI SEYED

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sunscreens usually protect the skin against harmful effects of sunlight. These products contain two effective physical and chemical components, which protects the skin from sunlight. Sun protection factor (S.P.F is a critical factor indicating the effect of sunscreen against sunlight. Methods. To measure S.P.F of sunscreens, various in-vivo and in-vitro methods have been established. In this study, two in-vitro methods were used. In 'Transpore tape' method, sunscreen product was dispersed uniformly on the substrate to obtain a surface coverage of 2mg/cm2 of the product. Transmittance measured spectrophotometerically, and then S.P.F was calculated. In the second method (solvent method different concentrations of test products were prepared in methanol. The sample's transmittance were measured to evaluate S.P.F. Results. Results of the first method indicated a good linear relationship between measured S.P.F and the labled S.P.F (r=0.97. Results of the second method indicated that relatively a good relationship exisit between log of measured S.P.F and labled S.P.F (r=0.88. Discussion. The transport tape method is fairly simple, feasible and importantly the surface of the tape is similar to that of the skin. Although, transport method is not time consuming, it is less accurate than in-vivo methods.

  1. Determining infants' age for measles vaccination based on persistence of protective level of maternal measles antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpi, Tanjida; Sattar, Humayun; Miah, Md Ruhul Amin

    2009-12-01

    The present study was conducted over a period of one year to find the right time for measles vaccination when maternal antibody titer in infants was decayed rendering them susceptible to wild virus infection. Blood samples were collected from the cord of new born (147), 2-5 months (47) and 5 to 7.5 months (24) of age. The mean measles IgG antibody titer detected in cord blood at birth (0 months) was 348.8 mlU/mL which steeply decreased to 155.6 mlU/mL by the age of 2-3 months. After that the fall in antibody becomes relatively slower and decreased to 101.6 mIU/mL by the age of 3-5 months and 38.8 mlU/mL by the age of 5-6 months and to 19.2 mIU/mL between the age of 6 to 7.5 months. The fall in antibody level with the advance of age was statistically significant (p < 0.001 ). Majority of the subjects (97.6%) exhibited protective level of antibody at birth. But only a little above one-quarter (25.5%) of them persisted the protective level between the age of 2-5 months and none had protective level from 5 months onwards.

  2. Determination of the electrical characteristics of protective coatings and deposits on metals in media with low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharenko, V.I.; Koroleva, E.V.; Fedorova, A.N.; Sereda, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical analysis and experimental determination of the electrical and associated protective characteristics of poorly conducting layers on metals, modeling both oxide and hydroxide deposits on the inner surfaces of the equipment as well as films of protective coatings. The analysis is performed using the linear low-frequency ac current (10 -3 -10 -6 Hz) method, which is based on the determination of the impedance Z, the admittance Y = 1/Z, the complex capacitance C = Y/j omega, where omega is the circular frequency of the alternating current, the complex dielectric constant epsilon, the tangent of the dielectric-loss angle tan δ and other quantities associated with them

  3. On the methods of determination of x-ray sources protection quality in x-ray diagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, L.V.

    1973-01-01

    Existing procedures for assessing the quality of shielding of X-ray radiators are compared; these procedures are shown to have a number of shortcomings and to be very time-consuming. A procedure is offered in which shielding quality is tested in two stages: (1) X-ray tests aimed at determining the quality of protection of the X-ray tube unit; and (2) dosimeter tests proper. The results of measurements are compared with maximum permissible dosage rate

  4. The meaning and the principle of determination of the effective dose equivalent in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.; Williams, G.; Zankl, M.

    1985-01-01

    Since the introduction of the quantity ''effective dose equivalent'' within the framework of new radiation concepts, the meaning and interpretation of the quantity is often discussed and debated. Because of its adoption as a limiting quantity in many international and national laws, it is necessary to be able to interpret this main radiation protection quantity. Examples of organ doses and the related Hsub(E) values in occupational and medical exposures are presented and the meaning of the quantity is considered for whole body exposures to external and internal photon sources, as well as for partial body external exposures to photons. (author)

  5. Targeting of the Influenza A Virus Polymerase PB1-PB2 Interface Indicates Strain-Specific Assembly Differences ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, Peter; Mänz, Benjamin; Brunotte, Linda; Schwemmle, Martin; Wunderlich, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Assembly of the heterotrimeric influenza virus polymerase complex from the individual subunits PB1, PA, and PB2 is a prerequisite for viral replication. The conserved protein-protein interaction sites have been suggested as potential drug targets. To characterize the PB1-PB2 interface, we fused the PB1-binding domain of PB2 to green fluorescent protein (PB21-37-GFP) and determined its competitive inhibitory effect on the polymerase activity of influenza A virus strains. Coexpression of PB21-37-GFP in a polymerase reconstitution system led to substantial inhibition of the polymerase of A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Surprisingly, polymerases of other strains, including A/SC35M (H7N7), A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1), A/Hamburg/4/2009 (H1N1), and A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 (H5N1), showed various degrees of resistance. Individual exchange of polymerase subunits and the nucleoprotein between the sensitive WSN polymerase and the insensitive SC35M polymerase mapped the resistance to both PB1 and PA of SC35M polymerase. While PB21-37-GFP bound equally well to the PB1 subunits of both virus strains, PB1-PA dimers of SC35M polymerase showed impaired binding compared to PB1-PA dimers of WSN polymerase. The use of PASC35M/WSN chimeras revealed that the reduced affinity of the SC35M PB1-PA dimer was mediated by the N-terminal 277 amino acids of PA. Based on these observations, we speculate that the PB1-PA dimer formation of resistant polymerases shields the PB21-37 binding site, whereas sensitive polymerases allow this interaction, suggesting different assembly strategies of the trimeric polymerase complex between different influenza A virus strains. PMID:21957294

  6. Studies of plant colonisation by closely related Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol agents using strain specific quantitative PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna H; Bejai, Sarosh; Niazi, Adnan; Manzoor, Shahid; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Meijer, Johan

    2014-12-01

    Certain strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens can colonize plants and improve growth and stress management. In order to study these effects, bacterial growth dynamics on plants and in the rhizosphere are of interest calling for specific analytical tools. For that purpose, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays were developed in order to differentiate among three closely related B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains (UCMB5033, UCMB5036, UCMB5113) and to determine their levels with high accuracy. Oligonucleotide primers were designed for strain unique gene sequences and used for SYBR green based qPCR analysis. Standard curves covered a wide linear range (10(6)) of DNA amounts with the lowest detection level at 50 fg. Post-reaction melting curve analysis showed only a single product. Accurate threshold cycles were obtained, even in the presence of high excess of related Bacillus strains and total bacterial DNA from soil. Analysis of Bacillus colonisation after seed treatment of two oilseed rape cultivars (Oase and Ritz) grown on agar support showed a time dependent effect but that the bacteria mostly were found on root tissues and little on green tissues. The colonisation on plants grown in soil varied among the Bacillus strains where Oase seemed to house more bacteria than Ritz. Applied as a mixture, all three Bacillus strains co-existed on the roots of plants grown in soil. The qPCR assay in combination with other techniques will be a powerful tool to study plant interactions of these B. amyloliquefaciens biocontrol agents to further understand the requirements for successful interactions and improvement of plant properties.

  7. Informational Self-Determination and Data Protection: A Critical Analysis of the Brazilian Jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Copetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study, from the hypothetical-deductive method, aims to perform a rereading of the way that the Brazilian jurisprudence has been interpreting the concept of privacy in the storage and sharing of citizens information in the current technological stage of society. Initially, it is studied the origin of personal data protection and the definition of the term privacy. Next, it is conducted a case study based on two decisions of the Court of Justice of Rio Grande do Sul, as well as a decision of the Superior Court of Justice which served as the paradigm for issues related to credit scoring system. Then, are analyzed the foundations that served as motivation for the decisions in comparison to conceptions that give support for the protection of personal data. At the end, it is possible to realize that the Courts have a mistaken view concerning the possibility of storage and commercialization of consumers database, being necessary a review of the positions mentioned.

  8. Determination of the protection set-points lines for the Angra-1 reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furieri, E.B.

    1980-03-01

    In this work several thermo-hidraulic calculation were performed to obtain Protection set-points lines for the Angra-1 reactor core in order to compare with the values presented by the vendor in the FSAR. These lines are the locus of points where DNBR min = 1,3 and power = 1,18 x P nominal as a function of ΔT m and T m , the temperature difference and the average coolant temperature between hot and cold legs. A computation scheme was developed using COBRA-IIIF as a subroutine of a new main program and adding new subroutines in order to obtain the desired DNBR. The solution is obtained through a convergentce procedure using parameters estimated in a sensivity study. (author) [pt

  9. Determination of Acreage Thermal Protection Foam Loss From Ice and Foam Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Lawrence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to establish Thermal Protection System (TPS) loss from foam and ice impact conditions similar to what might occur on the Space Launch System. This study was based upon the large amount of testing and analysis that was conducted with both ice and foam debris impacts on TPS acreage foam for the Space Shuttle Project External Tank. Test verified material models and modeling techniques that resulted from Space Shuttle related testing were utilized for this parametric study. Parameters varied include projectile mass, impact velocity and impact angle (5 degree and 10 degree impacts). The amount of TPS acreage foam loss as a result of the various impact conditions is presented.

  10. About the approach to determining the indicator and constructing the scale of evaluating the protection of a dangerous production object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov A.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an approach to determining the values ​​of the protection index of hazardous industrial facilities exposed to shock-wave action. The approach is based on energy methods. A geometric interpretation of the definition of the values ​​of the protection index is given, for the main cases of destruction. The algorithm for grading the conditional security scale for a specific hazardous production facility is presented using a numerical experiment in the SolidWorks Simulation program. The obtained values ​​of the indicator are applicable to the development of engineering and technical measures of civil defense, with a quantitative evaluation of measures that increase the stability of the functioning of economic objects.

  11. Strain-specific variation of the decorin-binding adhesin DbpA influences the tissue tropism of the lyme disease spirochete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Pin Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease spirochetes demonstrate strain- and species-specific differences in tissue tropism. For example, the three major Lyme disease spirochete species, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, are each most commonly associated with overlapping but distinct spectra of clinical manifestations. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the most common Lyme spirochete in the U.S., is closely associated with arthritis. The attachment of microbial pathogens to cells or to the extracellular matrix of target tissues may promote colonization and disease, and the Lyme disease spirochete encodes several surface proteins, including the decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding adhesin DbpA, which vary among strains and have been postulated to contribute to strain-specific differences in tissue tropism. DbpA variants differ in their ability to bind to its host ligands and to cultured mammalian cells. To directly test whether variation in dbpA influences tissue tropism, we analyzed murine infection by isogenic B. burgdorferi strains that encode different dbpA alleles. Compared to dbpA alleles of B. afzelii strain VS461 or B. burgdorferi strain N40-D10/E9, dbpA of B. garinii strain PBr conferred the greatest decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding activity, promoted the greatest colonization at the inoculation site and heart, and caused the most severe carditis. The dbpA of strain N40-D10/E9 conferred the weakest decorin- and GAG-binding activity, but the most robust joint colonization and was the only dbpA allele capable of conferring significant joint disease. Thus, dbpA mediates colonization and disease by the Lyme disease spirochete in an allele-dependent manner and may contribute to the etiology of distinct clinical manifestations associated with different Lyme disease strains. This study provides important support for the long-postulated model that strain-specific variations of Borrelia surface proteins influence tissue tropism.

  12. Assessment of strain-specific PrP(Sc elongation rates revealed a transformation of PrP(Sc properties during protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Gonzalez-Montalban

    Full Text Available Prion replication is believed to consist of two components, a growth or elongation of infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc particles and their fragmentation, a process that provides new replication centers. The current study introduced an experimental approach that employs Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification with beads (PMCAb and relies on a series of kinetic experiments for assessing elongation rates of PrP(Sc particles. Four prion strains including two strains with short incubation times to disease (263K and Hyper and two strains with very long incubation times (SSLOW and LOTSS were tested. The elongation rate of brain-derived PrP(Sc was found to be strain-specific. Strains with short incubation times had higher rates than strains with long incubation times. Surprisingly, the strain-specific elongation rates increased substantially for all four strains after they were subjected to six rounds of serial PMCAb. In parallel to an increase in elongation rates, the percentages of diglycosylated PrP glycoforms increased in PMCAb-derived PrP(Sc comparing to those of brain-derived PrP(Sc. These results suggest that PMCAb selects the same molecular features regardless of strain initial characteristics and that convergent evolution of PrP(Sc properties occurred during in vitro amplification. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each prion strain is comprised of a variety of conformers or 'quasi-species' and that change in the prion replication environment gives selective advantage to those conformers that replicate most effectively under specific environment.

  13. Assessment of Strain-Specific PrPSc Elongation Rates Revealed a Transformation of PrPSc Properties during Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Montalban, Nuria; Baskakov, Ilia V.

    2012-01-01

    Prion replication is believed to consist of two components, a growth or elongation of infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) particles and their fragmentation, a process that provides new replication centers. The current study introduced an experimental approach that employs Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification with beads (PMCAb) and relies on a series of kinetic experiments for assessing elongation rates of PrPSc particles. Four prion strains including two strains with short incubation times to disease (263K and Hyper) and two strains with very long incubation times (SSLOW and LOTSS) were tested. The elongation rate of brain-derived PrPSc was found to be strain-specific. Strains with short incubation times had higher rates than strains with long incubation times. Surprisingly, the strain-specific elongation rates increased substantially for all four strains after they were subjected to six rounds of serial PMCAb. In parallel to an increase in elongation rates, the percentages of diglycosylated PrP glycoforms increased in PMCAb-derived PrPSc comparing to those of brain-derived PrPSc. These results suggest that PMCAb selects the same molecular features regardless of strain initial characteristics and that convergent evolution of PrPSc properties occurred during in vitro amplification. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each prion strain is comprised of a variety of conformers or ‘quasi-species’ and that change in the prion replication environment gives selective advantage to those conformers that replicate most effectively under specific environment. PMID:22815972

  14. Strain-specific variation of the decorin-binding adhesin DbpA influences the tissue tropism of the lyme disease spirochete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Pin; Benoit, Vivian; Yang, Xiuli; Martínez-Herranz, Raúl; Pal, Utpal; Leong, John M

    2014-07-01

    Lyme disease spirochetes demonstrate strain- and species-specific differences in tissue tropism. For example, the three major Lyme disease spirochete species, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, are each most commonly associated with overlapping but distinct spectra of clinical manifestations. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the most common Lyme spirochete in the U.S., is closely associated with arthritis. The attachment of microbial pathogens to cells or to the extracellular matrix of target tissues may promote colonization and disease, and the Lyme disease spirochete encodes several surface proteins, including the decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding adhesin DbpA, which vary among strains and have been postulated to contribute to strain-specific differences in tissue tropism. DbpA variants differ in their ability to bind to its host ligands and to cultured mammalian cells. To directly test whether variation in dbpA influences tissue tropism, we analyzed murine infection by isogenic B. burgdorferi strains that encode different dbpA alleles. Compared to dbpA alleles of B. afzelii strain VS461 or B. burgdorferi strain N40-D10/E9, dbpA of B. garinii strain PBr conferred the greatest decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding activity, promoted the greatest colonization at the inoculation site and heart, and caused the most severe carditis. The dbpA of strain N40-D10/E9 conferred the weakest decorin- and GAG-binding activity, but the most robust joint colonization and was the only dbpA allele capable of conferring significant joint disease. Thus, dbpA mediates colonization and disease by the Lyme disease spirochete in an allele-dependent manner and may contribute to the etiology of distinct clinical manifestations associated with different Lyme disease strains. This study provides important support for the long-postulated model that strain-specific variations of Borrelia surface proteins influence tissue tropism.

  15. A new approach for determination of break points for protection co-ordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarian Abyaneh, H.; Razavi, F.; Al-Dabbagh, M.; Kazemi; Kargar, H.; Jannatian, M.

    2003-01-01

    Interconnected power system networks are multi lop structured. Settings determination of all overcurrent and distance relays in such networks can be in different forms and complicated. The main problem is the determination of starting points i. e. the location of starting relays in the producer for settings, which is referred to as break points. In this paper, a new approach based on graph theory is introduced in which the relevant matrices dimensions are reduced. The method is flexible and achievement of the desired solution can obtained in a relatively short time

  16. Immission protection law aspects of the determination of limiting values for electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebentisch, M.

    1994-01-01

    The discussion on the effects of electromagnetic fields on human beings is mostly concentrated on the question of how low the binding limiting values for this should be set. This does not nearly cover the multi-layer legal problems which arise in determining the limiting value. The article tackles the width of the problems. (orig.) [de

  17. Generic assessment procedures for determining protective actions during a reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This manual provides the tools, procedures and data needed to evaluate the consequences of a nuclear accident occurring at a nuclear power plant throughout all phases of the emergency before, during and after a release of radioactive material. It is intended for use by on-site and off-site groups responsible for evaluating the accident consequences and making recommendations for the protection of the plant personnel, the emergency workers and the public. The scope of this manual is restricted to the technical assessment of radiological consequences. It does not address the emergency response infrastructure requirements, nor does it cover the emergency management aspects of accident assessment (e.g. reporting, staff qualification, shift replacement, and procedure implementation). The procedures and methods in this manual were developed based on a number of assumptions concerning the design and operation of the nuclear power plant and national practices. Therefore, this manual must be reviewed as part of the planning process to match the potential accidents, local conditions, national criteria and other unique characteristics of an area or nuclear reactor where it may be used. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Adaptation of the protocol for determining in vitro the sun protection factor of anti-solar sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquenet, B; Couteau, C; Paparis, E; Coiffard, L J M

    2008-10-01

    Apart from the protection offered by clothing, the application of sunscreen products suited to each type of skin constitutes one way for decreasing the frequency of skin cancers nowadays. After having adapted an in vitro method for determining the efficacy of sunscreens in emulsion form, we wished to transpose this technique by adapting it for the anti-solar sticks for the evaluation of sun protection factor (SPF) using a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. To do this, we tested 14 products in the market as well as sticks that we ourselves fabricated in the laboratory. In a base common to all of these sticks, we added organic (13 filters tested) and inorganic (two filters tested, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide) to their maximum permitted concentration in the European Union. In parallel, emulsions containing the same filters at the same percentage of use were studied; to be in keeping with the results on the products packaging on the one hand, and with the results obtained for the emulsion form on the other hand, we were able to determine the optimal mass which needed to be placed on the support used the in vitro test to determine the SPF.

  19. Neutron Protection Factor Determination and Validation for a Vehicle Surrogate Using a Californium Fission Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    FACTOR DETERMINATION AND VALIDATION FOR A VEHICLE SURROGATE USING A CALIFORNIUM FISSION SOURCE by Jacob D. Glesmann June 2017 Thesis...searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments...A VEHICLE SURROGATE USING A CALIFORNIUM FISSION SOURCE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jacob D. Glesmann 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  20. Social capital as a key determinant of perceived benefits of community-based marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Amy; Stoeckl, Natalie; Gurney, Georgina G; Esparon, Michelle; Pollnac, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Globally, marine protected areas (MPAs) have been relatively unsuccessful in meeting biodiversity objectives. To be effective, they require some alteration of people's use and access to marine resources, which they will resist if they do not perceive associated benefits. Stakeholders' support is crucial to ecological success of MPAs, and their support is likely to depend on their capacity to adapt to and benefit from MPAs. We examined the influence of social adaptive capacity (SAC) on perceived benefits of MPAs in Siquijor, Philippines, in the Coral Triangle. This region has substantial biodiversity and a population of over 120 million people, many of them dependent on marine resources for food and income. The region has many MPAs, most of which are managed under decentralized governance systems. We collected survey data from 540 households in 19 villages with associated MPAs. We evaluated the influence of multiple SAC variables (e.g., occupational multiplicity and social capital) on perceived benefits with decision trees (CHAID) and qualitatively analyzed this relationship with respect to types and recipients of benefits. Our models revealed the key role of social capital, particularly trust in leadership, in influencing perceptions of benefits (χ 2 = 14.762, p = 0.000). A path analysis revealed that perceptions of distributional equity were a key mechanism through which social capital affected perceived MPA benefits (root mean-square error of approximation = 0.050). Building social capital and equity within communities could lead to more effective management of MPAs and thus to expenditure of fewer resources relative to, for example, regulation enforcement. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. TCR-contacting residues orientation and HLA-DRβ* binding preference determine long-lasting protective immunity against malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, Martha P.; Suarez, Carlos F.; Varela, Yahson; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Bermudez, Adriana; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2016-01-01

    Fully-protective, long-lasting, immunological (FPLLI) memory against Plasmodium falciparum malaria regarding immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) vaccinated into monkeys previously challenged and re-challenged 60 days later with a lethal Aotus monkey-adapted P. falciparum strain was found to be associated with preferential high binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1* allelic molecules of the major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II), rather than HLA-DRβ3*, β4*, β5* alleles. Complete PPII L 3D structure, a longer distance (26.5 Å ± 1.5 Å) between residues perfectly fitting into HLA-DRβ1*PBR pockets 1 and 9, a gauche − rotamer orientation in p8 TCR-contacting polar residue and a larger volume of polar p2 residues was also found. This data, in association with previously-described p3 and p7 apolar residues having gauche + orientation to form a perfect MHC-II-peptide-TCR complex, determines the stereo-electronic and topochemical characteristics associated with FPLLI immunological memory. - Highlights: • Stereo-electronic and topochemical rules associated with FPLLI immunological memory. • Presence of very high long-lasting antibody titres against Plasmodium falciparum Spz. • Protective memory induction associated with a binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1*. • gauche − rotamer orientation in p8 polar residue is related to is related to immunological memory.

  2. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TCR-contacting residues orientation and HLA-DRβ* binding preference determine long-lasting protective immunity against malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Martha P.; Suarez, Carlos F. [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales (UDCA), Bogotá (Colombia); Varela, Yahson [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Bermudez, Adriana [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@gmail.com [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-09-02

    Fully-protective, long-lasting, immunological (FPLLI) memory against Plasmodium falciparum malaria regarding immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) vaccinated into monkeys previously challenged and re-challenged 60 days later with a lethal Aotus monkey-adapted P. falciparum strain was found to be associated with preferential high binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1* allelic molecules of the major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II), rather than HLA-DRβ3*, β4*, β5* alleles. Complete PPII{sub L} 3D structure, a longer distance (26.5 Å ± 1.5 Å) between residues perfectly fitting into HLA-DRβ1*PBR pockets 1 and 9, a gauche{sup −} rotamer orientation in p8 TCR-contacting polar residue and a larger volume of polar p2 residues was also found. This data, in association with previously-described p3 and p7 apolar residues having gauche{sup +} orientation to form a perfect MHC-II-peptide-TCR complex, determines the stereo-electronic and topochemical characteristics associated with FPLLI immunological memory. - Highlights: • Stereo-electronic and topochemical rules associated with FPLLI immunological memory. • Presence of very high long-lasting antibody titres against Plasmodium falciparum Spz. • Protective memory induction associated with a binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1*. • gauche{sup −} rotamer orientation in p8 polar residue is related to is related to immunological memory.

  4. C.a.t.r.a.y.o.n.: a software to assess optical radiation exposure and determinate protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlier-Salsi, A.; Salsi, S.

    2006-01-01

    A first version of C.a.t.R.a.y.o.n. was therefore developed with the aim of making available a set of general and technical data on optical radiation sources to users and prevention specialists. Its main aim is to provide knowledge of hazards inherent in an optical radiation source under conditions defined by users. A first version of C.a.t.R.a.y.o.n. with 5 data bases of approximately 400 optical radiation sources, allowed assessment of the hazards produced by one source at a workstation. The new version considers several sources and takes in account their spatial intensity distribution. It permits: assessment of exposure at fixed or moving workstations, performance of hazard mapping in a determined working area, definition or proposal of efficient personal protection or group protection by adding filters in front of sources, editing an analysis report containing all results. A database of around a hundred protective filters now complements the source database. (N.C.)

  5. Reliability determination of aluminium electrolytic capacitors by the mean of various methods application to the protection system of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perisse, F; Rojat, G

    2004-01-01

    The lifetime of power electronic components is often calculated from reliability reports, but this method can be discussed. We compare in this article the results of various reliability reports to an accelerated ageing test of component and introduced the load-strength concept. Large aluminium electrolytic capacitors are taken here in example in the context of the protection system of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) in CERN where the level of reliability is essential. We notice important differences of MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) according to the reliability report used. Accelerating ageing tests carried out prove that a Weibull law is more adapted to determinate failure rates of components. The load-strength concept associated with accelerated ageing tests can be a solution to determine the lifetime of power electronic components.

  6. Spatial Dependence and Determinants of Dairy Farmers' Adoption of Best Management Practices for Water Protection in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Sharp, Basil

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses spatial dependence and determinants of the New Zealand dairy farmers' adoption of best management practices to protect water quality. A Bayesian spatial durbin probit model is used to survey data collected from farmers in the Waikato region of New Zealand. The results show that farmers located near each other exhibit similar choice behaviour, indicating the importance of farmer interactions in adoption decisions. The results also address that information acquisition is the most important determinant of farmers' adoption of best management practices. Financial problems are considered a significant barrier to adopting best management practices. Overall, the existence of distance decay effect and spatial dependence in farmers' adoption decisions highlights the importance of accounting for spatial effects in farmers' decision-making, which emerges as crucial to the formulation of sustainable agriculture policy.

  7. Interspecific cooperation: enhanced growth, attachment and strain-specific distribution in biofilms through Azospirillum brasilense-Pseudomonas protegens co-cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Salcedo, Florencia; Maroniche, Guillermo; Keel, Christoph; Valverde, Claudio; Creus, Cecilia M

    2016-10-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria belonging to Azospirillum and Pseudomonas genera are major inhabitants of the rhizosphere. Both are increasingly commercialized as crops inoculants. Interspecific interaction in the rhizosphere is critical for inoculants aptness. The objective of this work was to evaluate Azospirillum and Pseudomonas interaction in mixed biofilms by co-cultivation of the model strains Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and Pseudomonas protegens CHA0. The results revealed enhanced growth of both strains when co-cultured in static conditions. Moreover, Sp245 biofilm formed in plastic surfaces was increased 2-fold in the presence of CHA0. Confocal microscopy revealed highly structured mixed biofilms showing Sp245 mainly on the bottom and CHA0 towards the biofilm surface. In addition, A. brasilense biofilm was thicker and denser when co-cultured with P. protegens. In a colony-colony interaction assay, Sp245 changed nearby CHA0 producing small colony phenotype, which accounts for a diffusible metabolite mediator; though CHA0 spent medium did not affect Sp245 colony phenotype. Altogether, these results point to a cooperative interaction between A. brasilense Sp245 and P. protegens CHA0 in which both strains increase their static growth and produce structured mixed biofilms with a strain-specific distribution. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Comparative Proteomics Reveals Strain-Specific β-TrCP Degradation via Rotavirus NSP1 Hijacking a Host Cullin-3-Rbx1 Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RVs are the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children, accounting for half a million deaths annually worldwide. RV encodes non-structural protein 1 (NSP1, a well-characterized interferon (IFN antagonist, which facilitates virus replication by mediating the degradation of host antiviral factors including IRF3 and β-TrCP. Here, we utilized six human and animal RV NSP1s as baits and performed tandem-affinity purification coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to comprehensively characterize NSP1-host protein interaction network. Multiple Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL complexes were identified. Importantly, inhibition of cullin-3 (Cul3 or RING-box protein 1 (Rbx1, by siRNA silencing or chemical perturbation, significantly impairs strain-specific NSP1-mediated β-TrCP degradation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that NSP1 localizes to the Golgi with the host Cul3-Rbx1 CRL complex, which targets β-TrCP and NSP1 for co-destruction at the proteasome. Our study uncovers a novel mechanism that RV employs to promote β-TrCP turnover and provides molecular insights into virus-mediated innate immunity inhibition.

  9. Determination of attenuation properties of massive ceramic bricks cladded with mortars containing barite used as protective barrier for radiodiagnostic rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Frieda S.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Tilly Junior, Joao G.; Costa, Paulo R.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Pereira, Marco A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the properties of attenuation of the walls built with massive ceramic bricks to be used as protection barriers in environments of Medicine and Dentistry, when submitted to X-ray diagnosis. Massive ceramic bricks are used thoroughly in constructions as a calking element. The properties of attenuation of these materials were obtained starting from the application of the model of Archer to a group of attenuation curves with wide beams generated in the tensions of 70, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 150 kVp. A radiological equipment of constant potential was used in the Laboratory of IEE/USP, two cameras of ionization of 6cm 3 , coupled to two radiation monitors. The results show that for a tension of 100kVp, the thickness of 10cm of wall made with massive ceramic bricks corresponds to 1mm of lead. (author)

  10. Determination of electron depth-dose curves for water, ICRU tissue, and PMMA and their application to radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosswendt, B.

    1994-01-01

    For monoenergetic electrons in the energy range between 60 keV and 10 MeV, normally incident on water, 4-element ICRU tissue and PMMA phantoms, depth-dose curves have been calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The phantoms' shape was that of a rectangular solid with a square front face of 30 cm x 30 cm and a thickness of 15 cm; it corresponds to that recommended by the ICRU for use in the procedure of calibrating radiation protection dosemeters. The depth-dose curves have been used to determine practical ranges, half-value depths, electron fluence to maximum absorbed dose conversion factors, and conversion factors between electron fluence and absorbed dose at depths d corresponding to 0.007 g.cm -2 , 0.3 g.cm -2 , and 1.0 g.cm -2 . The latter data can be used as fluence to dose equivalent conversion factors for extended parallel electron beams. (Author)

  11. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  12. A strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR for Australian rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses uncovers a new recombinant virus variant in rabbits and hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R N; Mahar, J E; Read, A J; Mourant, R; Piper, M; Huang, N; Strive, T

    2018-04-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, or GI.1) is a calicivirus in the genus Lagovirus that has been widely utilized in Australia as a biological control agent for the management of overabundant wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations since 1996. Recently, two exotic incursions of pathogenic lagoviruses have been reported in Australia; GI.1a-Aus, previously called RHDVa-Aus, is a GI.1a virus detected in January 2014, and the novel lagovirus GI.2 (previously known as RHDV2). Furthermore, an additional GI.1a strain, GI.1a-K5 (also known as 08Q712), was released nationwide in March 2017 as a supplementary tool for wild rabbit management. To discriminate between these lagoviruses, a highly sensitive strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed, which allows fast, cost-effective and sensitive detection of the four pathogenic lagoviruses currently known to be circulating in Australia. In addition, we developed a universal RT-qPCR assay to be used in conjunction with the multiplex assay that broadly detects all four viruses and facilitates quantification of viral RNA load in samples. These assays enable rapid detection, identification and quantification of pathogenic lagoviruses in the Australian context. Using these assays, a novel recombinant lagovirus was detected in rabbit tissue samples, which contained the non-structural genes of GI.1a-Aus and the structural genes of GI.2. This variant was also recovered from the liver of a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). The impact of this novel recombinant on Australian wild lagomorph populations and its competitiveness in relation to circulating field strains, particularly GI.2, requires further studies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. A pseudaminic acid or a legionaminic acid derivative transferase is strain-specifically implicated in the general protein O-glycosylation system of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Markus B; Janesch, Bettina; Maresch, Daniel; Windwarder, Markus; Altmann, Friedrich; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2017-06-01

    The occurrence of nonulosonic acids in bacteria is wide-spread and linked to pathogenicity. However, the knowledge of cognate nonulosonic acid transferases is scarce. In the periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, several proposed virulence factors carry strain-specifically either a pseudaminic or a legionaminic acid derivative as terminal sugar on an otherwise structurally identical, protein-bound oligosaccharide. This study aims to shed light on the transfer of either nonulosonic acid derivative on a proximal N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid residue within the O-glycan structure, exemplified with the bacterium's abundant S-layer glycoproteins. Bioinformatic analyses provided the candidate genes Tanf_01245 (strain ATCC 43037) and TFUB4_00887 (strain UB4), encoding a putative pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase, respectively. These transferases have identical C-termini and contain motifs typical of glycosyltransferases (DXD) and bacterial sialyltransferases (D/E-D/E-G and HP). They share homology to type B glycosyltransferases and TagB, an enzyme catalyzing glycerol transfer to an N-acetylmannosamine residue in teichoic acid biosynthesis. Analysis of a cellular pool of nucleotide-activated sugars confirmed the presence of the CMP-activated nonulosonic acid derivatives, which are most likely serving as substrates for the corresponding transferase. Single gene knock-out mutants targeted at either transferase were analyzed for S-layer O-glycan composition by ESI-MS, confirming the loss of the nonulosonic acid derivative. Cross-complementation of the mutants with the nonnative nonulosonic acid transferase was not successful indicating high stringency of the enzymes. This study identified plausible candidates for a pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase; these may serve as valuable tools for engineering of novel sialoglycoconjugates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Determination of the standards of the thermo-physiological tolerance for working in basic nuclear installation in TIVA protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, P.; Daret, J.L.; Besnard, Y.; Clerc, N.; Savourey, G.; Launay, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the duration limited exposure (DLE) for working in a contaminated zone in a basic nuclear installation using the new ventilated TIVA protective clothing. Five subjects underwent a treadmill exercise (3.5 km/h, 3% of slope) of up to 2 h in a climatic chamber at 25, 35, and 45 deg. C. Cardiac frequency, rectal temperature and skin temperature were continuously recorded. The dehydration level was measured by the loss of weight during the exercise. At 25 deg. C, thermal and cardiovascular thresholds are not reached; the risk is dehydration if the exercise is prolonged. In contrast, the thresholds for Tre at 39 deg. C (97 ± 29 and 69 ± 28 min for 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively) and for the increase in Tre (+1.5 deg. C) are reached earlier (84 ± 38 min and 57 ± 21 min at 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). This leads to a higher heat storage (42.2 ± 22.9 W/m 2 and 63.7 ± 29.4 W/m 2 , at 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively), which constitutes a higher risk of heat illnesses. The dehydration level is 2% of the weight for the tests at 35 and 45 deg. C. As a consequence, DLE for working in a contaminated zone in a basic nuclear installation in environmental conditions and using the new ventilated TIVA protective clothing, as encountered in our experiments, are proposed to avoid hyperthermic accidents. (authors)

  15. A piecewise regression approach for determining biologically relevant hydraulic thresholds for the protection of fish at river infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boys, Craig A.; Robinson, Wayne; Miller, Brett; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Navarro, Anna; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2016-05-13

    Barotrauma injury can occur when fish are exposed to rapid decompression during downstream passage through river infrastructure. A piecewise regression approach was used to objectively quantify barotrauma injury thresholds in two physoclistous species (Murray cod Maccullochella peelii and silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus) following simulated infrastructure passage in barometric chambers. The probability of injuries such as swim bladder rupture; exophthalmia; and haemorrhage and emphysema in various organs increased as the ratio between the lowest exposure pressure and the acclimation pressure (ratio of pressure change RPCE/A) fell. The relationship was typically non-linear and piecewise regression was able to quantify thresholds in RPCE/A that once exceeded resulted in a substantial increase in barotrauma injury. Thresholds differed among injury types and between species but by applying a multi-species precautionary principle, the maintenance of exposure pressures at river infrastructure above 70% of acclimation pressure (RPCE/A of 0.7) should sufficiently protect downstream migrating juveniles of these two physoclistous species. These findings have important implications for determining the risk posed by current infrastructures and informing the design and operation of new ones.

  16. A new method for the characterization of strain-specific conformational stability of protease-sensitive and protease-resistant PrPSc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirisinu

    Full Text Available Although proteinacious in nature, prions exist as strains with specific self-perpetuating biological properties. Prion strains are thought to be associated with different conformers of PrP(Sc, a disease-associated isoform of the host-encoded cellular protein (PrP(C. Molecular strain typing approaches have been developed which rely on the characterization of protease-resistant PrP(Sc. However, PrP(Sc is composed not only of protease-resistant but also of protease-sensitive isoforms. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for the molecular characterization of both, protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc aggregates. We first set up experimental conditions which allowed the most advantageous separation of PrP(C and PrP(Sc by means of differential centrifugation. The conformational solubility and stability assay (CSSA was then developed by measuring PrP(Sc solubility as a function of increased exposure to GdnHCl. Brain homogenates from voles infected with human and sheep prion isolates were analysed by CSSA and showed strain-specific conformational stabilities, with mean [GdnHCl](1/2 values ranging from 1.6 M for MM2 sCJD to 2.1 for scrapie and to 2.8 M for MM1/MV1 sCJD and E200K gCJD. Interestingly, the rank order of [GdnHCl](1/2 values observed in the human and sheep isolates used as inocula closely matched those found following transmission in voles, being MM1 sCJD the most resistant (3.3 M, followed by sheep scrapie (2.2 M and by MM2 sCJD (1.6 M. In order to test the ability of CSSA to characterise protease-sensitive PrP(Sc, we analysed sheep isolates of Nor98 and compared them to classical scrapie isolates. In Nor98, insoluble PrP(Sc aggregates were mainly protease-sensitive and showed a conformational stability much lower than in classical scrapie. Our results show that CSSA is able to reveal strain-specified PrP(Sc conformational stabilities of protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc and that it is a valuable tool

  17. Monitoring viable cells of the biological control agent Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 in aerial plant surfaces by means of a strain-specific viability quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Bonaterra, Anna; Francés, Jesús; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2018-03-09

    A viability qPCR (v-qPCR) assay was developed for the unambiguous detection and quantification of Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 viable cells in aerial plant surfaces. A 972 bp region of a PM411 predicted prophage with mosaic architecture enabled the identification of a PM411 strain-specific molecular marker. Three primer sets, with different amplicon lengths (92, 188, and 317 bp), and one TaqMan probe were designed. All the qPCR assays showed good linearity over a 4-log range and good efficiencies, but differed in sensitivity. The nucleic acid-binding dye PEMAX was used for selectively detecting and enumerating viable bacteria by v-qPCR. The primer set amplifying a 188 bp DNA fragment was selected as the most suitable for v-qPCR. The performance of the method was assessed on apple blossoms, pear, strawberry and kiwifruit leaves in potted plants under controlled environmental conditions, and pear and apple blossoms under field conditions, by comparing v-qPCR population estimation to those obtained by qPCR and specific plate counting on MRS-rifampicin. The population estimation did not differ significantly between methods when conditions were conducive to bacterial survival. However, under stressful conditions, differences between methods were observed due to cell death or viable but non-culturable state induction. While qPCR overestimated the population level, plate counting underestimated this value in comparison to v-qPCR. PM411 attained stable population levels of viable cells on flower environment under high relative humidity. However, the unfavourable conditions onto the leaf surface and the relatively dryness in the field caused an important decrease of viable population. IMPORTANCE The v-qPCR method in combination with plate counting and qPCR is a powerful tool for studies of colonization and survival in field conditions, to improve formulations and delivery strategies of PM411, or to optimize the dose and timing of spray schedules. It is expected that PEMAX

  18. A new method for the characterization of strain-specific conformational stability of protease-sensitive and protease-resistant PrPSc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirisinu, Laura; Di Bari, Michele; Marcon, Stefano; Vaccari, Gabriele; D'Agostino, Claudia; Fazzi, Paola; Esposito, Elena; Galeno, Roberta; Langeveld, Jan; Agrimi, Umberto; Nonno, Romolo

    2010-09-14

    Although proteinacious in nature, prions exist as strains with specific self-perpetuating biological properties. Prion strains are thought to be associated with different conformers of PrP(Sc), a disease-associated isoform of the host-encoded cellular protein (PrP(C)). Molecular strain typing approaches have been developed which rely on the characterization of protease-resistant PrP(Sc). However, PrP(Sc) is composed not only of protease-resistant but also of protease-sensitive isoforms. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for the molecular characterization of both, protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc) aggregates. We first set up experimental conditions which allowed the most advantageous separation of PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) by means of differential centrifugation. The conformational solubility and stability assay (CSSA) was then developed by measuring PrP(Sc) solubility as a function of increased exposure to GdnHCl. Brain homogenates from voles infected with human and sheep prion isolates were analysed by CSSA and showed strain-specific conformational stabilities, with mean [GdnHCl](1/2) values ranging from 1.6 M for MM2 sCJD to 2.1 for scrapie and to 2.8 M for MM1/MV1 sCJD and E200K gCJD. Interestingly, the rank order of [GdnHCl](1/2) values observed in the human and sheep isolates used as inocula closely matched those found following transmission in voles, being MM1 sCJD the most resistant (3.3 M), followed by sheep scrapie (2.2 M) and by MM2 sCJD (1.6 M). In order to test the ability of CSSA to characterise protease-sensitive PrP(Sc), we analysed sheep isolates of Nor98 and compared them to classical scrapie isolates. In Nor98, insoluble PrP(Sc) aggregates were mainly protease-sensitive and showed a conformational stability much lower than in classical scrapie. Our results show that CSSA is able to reveal strain-specified PrP(Sc) conformational stabilities of protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc) and that it is a valuable tool for

  19. The Trypanosoma cruzi vitamin C dependent peroxidase confers protection against oxidative stress but is not a determinant of virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Taylor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The neglected parasitic infection Chagas disease is rapidly becoming a globalised public health issue due to migration. There are only two anti-parasitic drugs available to treat this disease, benznidazole and nifurtimox. Thus it is important to identify and validate new drug targets in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent. T. cruzi expresses an ER-localised ascorbate-dependent peroxidase (TcAPx. This parasite-specific enzyme has attracted interest from the perspective of targeted chemotherapy.To assess the importance of TcAPx in protecting T. cruzi from oxidative stress and to determine if it is essential for virulence, we generated null mutants by targeted gene disruption. Loss of activity was associated with increased sensitivity to exogenous hydrogen peroxide, but had no effect on susceptibility to the front-line Chagas disease drug benznidazole. This suggests that increased oxidative stress in the ER does not play a significant role in its mechanism of action. Homozygous knockouts could proceed through the entire life-cycle in vitro, although they exhibited a significant decrease in their ability to infect mammalian cells. To investigate virulence, we exploited a highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging system which allows parasites to be monitored in real-time in the chronic stage of murine infections. This showed that depletion of enzyme activity had no effect on T. cruzi replication, dissemination or tissue tropism in vivo.TcAPx is not essential for parasite viability within the mammalian host, does not have a significant role in establishment or maintenance of chronic infections, and should therefore not be considered a priority for drug design.

  20. The Trypanosoma cruzi vitamin C dependent peroxidase confers protection against oxidative stress but is not a determinant of virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martin C; Lewis, Michael D; Fortes Francisco, Amanda; Wilkinson, Shane R; Kelly, John M

    2015-04-01

    The neglected parasitic infection Chagas disease is rapidly becoming a globalised public health issue due to migration. There are only two anti-parasitic drugs available to treat this disease, benznidazole and nifurtimox. Thus it is important to identify and validate new drug targets in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent. T. cruzi expresses an ER-localised ascorbate-dependent peroxidase (TcAPx). This parasite-specific enzyme has attracted interest from the perspective of targeted chemotherapy. To assess the importance of TcAPx in protecting T. cruzi from oxidative stress and to determine if it is essential for virulence, we generated null mutants by targeted gene disruption. Loss of activity was associated with increased sensitivity to exogenous hydrogen peroxide, but had no effect on susceptibility to the front-line Chagas disease drug benznidazole. This suggests that increased oxidative stress in the ER does not play a significant role in its mechanism of action. Homozygous knockouts could proceed through the entire life-cycle in vitro, although they exhibited a significant decrease in their ability to infect mammalian cells. To investigate virulence, we exploited a highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging system which allows parasites to be monitored in real-time in the chronic stage of murine infections. This showed that depletion of enzyme activity had no effect on T. cruzi replication, dissemination or tissue tropism in vivo. TcAPx is not essential for parasite viability within the mammalian host, does not have a significant role in establishment or maintenance of chronic infections, and should therefore not be considered a priority for drug design.

  1. Validation of three new methods for determination of metal emissions using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Method 301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine A. Yanca; Douglas C. Barth; Krag A. Petterson; Michael P. Nakanishi; John A. Cooper; Bruce E. Johnsen; Richard H. Lambert; Daniel G. Bivins [Cooper Environmental Services, LLC, Portland, OR (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Three new methods applicable to the determination of hazardous metal concentrations in stationary source emissions were developed and evaluated for use in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compliance applications. Two of the three independent methods, a continuous emissions monitor-based method (Xact) and an X-ray-based filter method (XFM), are used to measure metal emissions. The third method involves a quantitative aerosol generator (QAG), which produces a reference aerosol used to evaluate the measurement methods. A modification of EPA Method 301 was used to validate the three methods for As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Hg, representing three hazardous waste combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) metal categories (low volatile, semivolatile, and volatile). The measurement methods were evaluated at a hazardous waste combustor (HWC) by comparing measured with reference aerosol concentrations. The QAG, Xact, and XFM met the modified Method 301 validation criteria. All three of the methods demonstrated precisions and accuracies on the order of 5%. The measurement methods should be applicable to emissions from a wide range of sources, and the reference aerosol generator should be applicable to additional analytes. EPA recently approved an alternative monitoring petition for an HWC at Eli Lilly's Tippecanoe site in Lafayette, IN, in which the Xact is used for demonstrating compliance with the HWC MACT metal emissions (low volatile, semivolatile, and volatile). The QAG reference aerosol generator was approved as a method for providing a quantitative reference aerosol, which is required for certification and continuing quality assurance of the Xact. 30 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Determination of the interchange of air within the space under protective clothing, resulting from design looseness, using radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, V.L.; Rajkhman, S.P.; Cherednichenko, V.A.; Raginskij, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The technique providing the use of the clothes' model is proposed for the investigation of the principles of the interchange of air between the space under protective coating and environment. The model completely fitting the clothing design and its air permeability was made of filtering material practically impermeable for aerosols. In this case for those exposed to radioactive aerosols the contamination of the space under protective clothing measured with a radiometre, can be attributed only to the air penetrating the design looseness of the clothes

  3. Quantifying causal mechanisms to determine how protected areas affect poverty through changes in ecosystem services and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    To develop effective environmental policies, we must understand the mechanisms through which the policies affect social and environmental outcomes. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. We develop an approach to quantifying the mechanisms through which protected areas affect poverty. We focus on three mechanisms: changes in tourism and recreational services; changes in infrastructure in the form of road networks, health clinics, and schools; and changes in regulating and provisioning ecosystem services and foregone production activities that arise from land-use restrictions. The contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program have not yet been empirically estimated. Nearly two-thirds of the poverty reduction associated with the establishment of Costa Rican protected areas is causally attributable to opportunities afforded by tourism. Although protected areas reduced deforestation and increased regrowth, these land cover changes neither reduced nor exacerbated poverty, on average. Protected areas did not, on average, affect our measures of infrastructure and thus did not contribute to poverty reduction through this mechanism. We attribute the remaining poverty reduction to unobserved dimensions of our mechanisms or to other mechanisms. Our study empirically estimates previously unidentified contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program. We demonstrate that, with existing data and appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policymakers can begin to elucidate the mechanisms through which ecosystem conservation programs affect human welfare. PMID:24567397

  4. Quantifying causal mechanisms to determine how protected areas affect poverty through changes in ecosystem services and infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M

    2014-03-18

    To develop effective environmental policies, we must understand the mechanisms through which the policies affect social and environmental outcomes. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. We develop an approach to quantifying the mechanisms through which protected areas affect poverty. We focus on three mechanisms: changes in tourism and recreational services; changes in infrastructure in the form of road networks, health clinics, and schools; and changes in regulating and provisioning ecosystem services and foregone production activities that arise from land-use restrictions. The contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program have not yet been empirically estimated. Nearly two-thirds of the poverty reduction associated with the establishment of Costa Rican protected areas is causally attributable to opportunities afforded by tourism. Although protected areas reduced deforestation and increased regrowth, these land cover changes neither reduced nor exacerbated poverty, on average. Protected areas did not, on average, affect our measures of infrastructure and thus did not contribute to poverty reduction through this mechanism. We attribute the remaining poverty reduction to unobserved dimensions of our mechanisms or to other mechanisms. Our study empirically estimates previously unidentified contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program. We demonstrate that, with existing data and appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policymakers can begin to elucidate the mechanisms through which ecosystem conservation programs affect human welfare.

  5. Determination of radionuclides. Fingerprint determination on protection clothing from the controlled areas in nuclear facilities; Bestimmung von Radionukliden. Fingerprint Bestimmung der Schutzkleidung aus Kontrollbereichen von kerntechnischen Anlagen.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Soeren

    2014-07-01

    ENS (Euro Nuclear Services) in Coevorden, Netherlands, is decontaminating und providing protection clothing for the personnel in nuclear facilities. The capacity of the laundry is about 750 kg/h. The clean laundry section is cleaning non-contaminated or very low contaminated articles, i.e. socks or underwear. Fingerprint is defined as the activity of certain radionuclides that differs in the different nuclear facilities. For the reception inspection the dose rate measured with scintillation detectors is compared with the customer specific fingerprint. The total activity is usually 2000 Bq/g. The dose rate limit is 0.3 mSv/h.

  6. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Oviedo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006. Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA, where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este estudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés, donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local

  7. Advanced approach for determination of earthing characteristics of high voltage substations in terms of their optimal protection from lightning strike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talevski, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of this PhD thesis, retrospective history is given concerning the evolution of the methods for lightning protection. The conventional methods are presented concerning lighting protection, with a comparation with the newest achievement on this field. The process of thundercloud formation is presented. The foundation of the conventional method for lightning protection is given, using data from standard IEC 62305, made according Berger research documents [10], [47], [53].The basic of the 'charge transfer system' is presented, developed by Carpenter, and in addition to this theory is the recently published theory of Rizk and his conditions of not initiating an upward leader for an object that is protected by lightning strike. Also it is high-voltage substation according to [52] and [54]. In this PhD thesis, a method for computation of additional positive charge is established for protection against direct lightning strike by the charge transfer system, which is generated over spherical electrode (ionizator) in order to get 'ultra-corona' mode, condition in which the corona current over the ionizator is not generating an upward leader. The ionizator in this computation is concerned with constant radius of curvature. The influence of the voltage increase in a very small time interval is computed and this influence is concerned in the computation of the additional space charge on the object to be protected, according to Rizk [1]. The model of the electrical thundercloud is concerned with all the electrical charge in it with its corresponding heights above ground. At the end , the condition of having minimal electrostatic field at earth is used to get the result for the additional positive charge. The computation is established by special function in Matlab, which are programmed in order to simulate a large number of values for: the electrical model of the thundercloud (positive and negative charges in thundercloud and their respective height above ground

  8. Squalene-containing licensed adjuvants enhance strain-specific antibody responses against the influenza hemagglutinin and induce subtype-specific antibodies against the neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca; Holznagel, Edgar; Neumann, Britta; Alex, Nina; Sawatsky, Bevan; Enkirch, Theresa; Pfeffermann, Kristin; Kruip, Carina; von Messling, Veronika; Wagner, Ralf

    2016-10-17

    While seasonal influenza vaccines are usually non-adjuvanted, H1N1pdm09 vaccines were formulated with different squalene-containing adjuvants, to enable the reduction of antigen content thus increasing the number of doses available. To comparatively assess the effects of these adjuvants on antibody responses against matched and mismatched strains, and to correlate antibody levels with protection from disease, ferrets were immunized with 2μg of commercial H1N1pdm09 vaccine antigen alone or formulated with different licensed adjuvants. The use of squalene-containing adjuvants increased neutralizing antibody responses around 100-fold, and resulted in a significantly reduced viral load after challenge with a matched strain. While all animals mounted strong total antibody responses against the homologous H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) protein, which correlated with the respective neutralizing antibody titers, no reactivity with the divergent H3, H5, H7, and H9 proteins were detected. Only the adjuvanted vaccines also induced antibodies against the neuraminidase (NA) protein, which were able to also recognize NA proteins from other N1 carrying strains. These findings not only support the use of squalene-containing adjuvants in dose-sparing strategies but also support speculations that the induction of NA-specific responses associated with the use of these adjuvants may confer partial protection to heterologous strains carrying the same NA subtype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An analytical and experimental study for surface heat flux determination. [in Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical method by which data from a single embedded thermocouple can be used to predict the transient thermal environment for both high- and low-conductivity materials is described. The results of an investigation performed to verify the method clearly demonstrate that accurate transient surface heating conditions can be obtained from a thermocouple 1.016 cm from the surface in a low-conductivity material. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system materials having temperature- and pressure-dependent properties and typical Orbiter entry heating conditions were used to verify the accuracy of the analytical procedure. Analytically generated, as well as experimental, data were used to compare predicted and measured surface temperatures.

  10. Characterization of the mechanism of protection mediated by CS-D7, a monoclonal antibody to Staphylococcus aureus iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory ePancari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported the development of a human monoclonal antibody (CS-D7, IgG1 with specificity and affinity for the iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB of Staphylococcus aureus. CS-D7 mediates opsonophagocytic killing in vitro and protection in a murine sepsis model. In light of recent data indicating that IsdB specific T cells (CD4+, Th17, not Ab, mediate protection after vaccination with IsdB, it is important to investigate the mechanism of protection mediated by CS-D7. The mAb was examined to determine if it blocked heme binding to IsdB in vitro. The mAb was not found to have heme blocking activity, nor did it prevent bacterial growth under in vivo conditions, in an implanted growth chamber. To assess the role of the mAb Fc a point mutation was introduced at aa 297 (CS-D7●N297A. This point mutation removes Fc effector functions. In vitro analysis of the mutein confirmed that it lacked measurable binding to FcγR, and that it did not fix complement. The mutein had dramatically reduced in vitro opsonic OP activity compared to CS-D7. Nonetheless, the mutein conferred protection equivalent to the wild type mAb in the murine sepsis model. Both wild type and mutein mAbs were efficacious in FcγR deletion mice (including both FcγRII-/- mice and FcγRIII-/- mice, indicating that these receptors were not essential for mAb mediated protection in vivo. Protection mediated by CS-D7 was lost in Balb/c mice depleted of C3 with cobra venom factor (CFV, was lost in mice depleted of superoxide dismutase (SOD in P47phox deletion mice, and was absent in SCID mice. Enhanced clearance of S. aureus in the liver of CS-D7 treated mice and enhanced production of INF-γ, but not of IL17, may play a role in the mechanism of protection mediated by the mAb. CS-D7 apparently mediates survival in challenged mice through a mechanism involving complement, phagocytes, and lymphocytes, but which does not depend on interaction with FcγR, or on blocking heme

  11. Protection from lethal infection is determined by innate immune responses in a mouse model of Ebola virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Gupta, Manisha; Paragas, Jason; Bray, Mike; Ahmed, Rafi; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2003-01-01

    A mouse-adapted strain of Ebola Zaire virus produces a fatal infection when BALB/cj mice are infected intraperitoneally (ip) but subcutaneous (sc) infection with the same virus fails to produce illness and confers long-term protection from lethal ip rechallenge. To identify immune correlates of protection in this model, we compared viral replication and cytokine/chemokine responses to Ebola virus in mice infected ip (10 PFU/mouse), or sc (100 PFU/mouse) and sc 'immune' mice rechallenged ip (10 6 PFU/mouse) at several time points postinfection (pi). Ebola viral antigens were detected in the serum, liver, spleen, and kidneys of ip-infected mice by day 2 pi, increasing up to day 6. Sc-infected mice and immune mice rechallenged ip had no detectable viral antigens until day 6 pi, when low levels of viral antigens were detected in the livers of sc-infected mice only. TNF-α and MCP-1 were detected earlier and at significantly higher levels in the serum and tissues of ip-infected mice than in sc-infected or immune mice challenged ip. In contrast, high levels of IFN-α and IFN-γ were found in tissues within 2 days after challenge in sc-infected and immune mice but not in ip-infected mice. Mice became resistant to ip challenge within 48 h of sc infection, coinciding with the rise in tissue IFN-α levels. In this model of Ebola virus infection, the nonlethal sc route of infection is associated with an attenuated inflammatory response and early production of antiviral cytokines, particularly IFN-α, as compared with lethal ip infection

  12. 34 CFR 300.534 - Protections for children not determined eligible for special education and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... special education and related services. 300.534 Section 300.534 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES... children not determined eligible for special education and related services. (a) General. A child who has...

  13. 75 FR 47609 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... resilient, distributed network of media gateways and a wide range of analog, digital, and IP-based... whether a substantial transformation occurs when components of various origins are assembled to form... transformation has occurred; however, no one such factor is determinative. With respect to the product under...

  14. Determination of singlet oxygen quenching and protection of biological systems by various extracts from seed of Rumex crispus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Shin, Myoung-Ho; Park, Sanggyu; Park, Shin

    2011-02-07

    The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and total phenolic contents were evaluated for the screening of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quenching efficacy of various seed extracts from Rumex crispus L. The butanol and ethyl-acetate extracts displayed remarkable effect of DPPH as compared to positive control ascorbic acid. The concentrations (QC(50)) of butanol and ethyl-acetate extracts required to exert 50% reducing effect on (1)O(2) were found to be 116 and 82 μg mL(-1), respectively. Both extracts were also found to protect the in vitro biological system from the detrimental effect of (1)O(2) on type II photosensitization in Escherichia coli, red blood cell, lactate dehydrogenase and histidine. Among all the tested extracts, the ethyl-acetate and butanol extracts contained higher amount of total phenolic contents. The results suggest that our study may contribute to the development of new bioactive products with potential applications to reduce photo-produced oxidative stress involving reactive oxygen species in living organisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective determinants of sickness absence among employees with multisite pain-a 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Eija; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Leino-Arjas, Päivi

    2017-02-01

    We identified factors protective of all-cause sickness absence (SA) among subjects with multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP). The nationally representative source sample comprised 3420 actively working Finns aged 30 to 55 in year 2000 and alive at follow-up. Pain in 18 body locations was combined into four sites (neck, low back, upper limbs, and lower limbs). The baseline prevalence of MSP (pain in ≥ 2 sites) was 32%. Baseline data on sociodemographic factors, work ability, work, health, and lifestyle were gathered by questionnaire, interview, and clinical examination and linked with national registers on all-cause SA (periods lasting ≥10 workdays) for 2002 to 2008. Based on trajectory analysis, 74% of those with MSP had a low and 26% a high probability of SA. In logistic regression analysis, younger age, male sex, and professional occupational group were inversely associated with SA. Allowing for these, good physician-assessed work ability, physically light work, possibility to adjust workday length, encouraging workplace atmosphere, no problems with working community or mental stress, normal weight, and no sleep disorders were predictive of lower SA rates (odds ratios between 0.47 and 0.70). In a final stepwise model adjusted for age, sex, and occupational group, no exposure to lifting (odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.85) and to repetitive hand movements (0.57, 0.39-0.83), possibility to adjust workday length (0.73, 0.53-0.99), and normal weight (0.59, 0.40-0.87) were inversely associated with SA. In conclusion, several modifiable factors related to work and lifestyle were found as predictive of lower rates of longer SA among occupationally active subjects with MSP.

  16. Recombinant HA1 produced in E. coli forms functional oligomers and generates strain-specific SRID potency antibodies for pandemic influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Larkin, Christopher; Verma, Swati; Joshi, Manju B; Fontana, Juan; Steven, Alasdair C; King, Lisa R; Manischewitz, Jody; McCormick, William; Gupta, Rajesh K; Golding, Hana

    2011-08-05

    Vaccine production and initiation of mass vaccination is a key factor in rapid response to new influenza pandemic. During the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, several bottlenecks were identified, including the delayed availability of vaccine potency reagents. Currently, antisera for the single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID) potency assay are generated in sheep immunized repeatedly with HA released and purified after bromelain-treatment of influenza virus grown in eggs. This approach was a major bottleneck for pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) potency reagent development in 2009. Alternative approaches are needed to make HA immunogens for generation of SRID reagents in the shortest possible time. In this study, we found that properly folded recombinant HA1 globular domain (rHA1) from several type A viruses including H1N1pdm09 and two H5N1 viruses could be produced efficiently using a bacterial expression system and subsequent purification. The rHA1 proteins were shown to form functional oligomers of trimers, similar to virus derived HA, and elicited high titer of neutralizing antibodies in rabbits and sheep. Importantly, the immune sera formed precipitation rings with reference antigens in the SRID assay in a dose-dependent manner. The HA contents in multiple H1N1 vaccine products from different manufacturers (and in several lots) as determined with the rHA1-generated sheep sera were similar to the values obtained with a traditionally generated sheep serum from NIBSC. We conclude that bacterially expressed recombinant HA1 proteins can be produced rapidly and used to generate SRID potency reagents shortly after new influenza strains with pandemic potential are identified. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Analytical approach to determine vertical dynamics of a semi-trailer truck from the point of view of goods protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidl, Renáta

    2018-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of intercontinental long-haul transportations of goods are usually carried out on road by semi-trailer trucks. Vibration has a major effect regarding the safety of the transport, the load and the transported goods. This paper deals with the logistics goals from the point of view of vibration and summarizes the methods to predict or measure the vibration load in order to design a proper system. From these methods, the focus of this paper is on the computer simulation of the vibration. An analytical method is presented to calculate the vertical dynamics of a semi-trailer truck containing general viscous damping and exposed to harmonic base excitation. For the purpose of a better understanding, the method will be presented through a simplified four degrees-of-freedom (DOF) half-vehicle model, which neglects the stiffness and damping of the tires, thus the four degrees-of-freedom are the vertical and angular displacements of the truck and the trailer. From the vertical and angular accelerations of the trailer, the vertical acceleration of each point of the platform of the trailer can easily be determined, from which the forces acting on the transported goods are given. As a result of this paper the response of the full platform-load-packaging system to any kind of vehicle, any kind of load and any kind of road condition can be analyzed. The peak acceleration of any point on the platform can be determined by the presented analytical method.

  18. Industrial determinants of anti-dumping in Brazil – Protection, competition and performance: An analysis with binary dependent variable and panel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Avelino Sampaio Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how sectorial characteristics determine the probability of industries receiving an anti-dumping (AD duty, delving into the economic literature on the political economy of protection, market competition and trade reform in Brazil. By focusing on when the AD was granted, the article concentrates on the objective economic motivations for an industry to claim protection and which are instrumental to the decision of the trade defense authority. The empirical strategy involves a panel of 93 industrial sectors from 1996 to 2007 to create four groups of explanatory variables (collective action/competition, economic performance, factors of production, trade coefficients, reflecting their structural characteristics, market competition, economic performance and political mobilization. The econometric specifications apply binary dependent variable models (logit with cluster robust and population-averaged error correction. The results show that structure of trade (imports volume and tariffs, economic performance (productivity and investments, and factor content (labor and natural resources influence the probability of the AD. Political economy characteristics (captured by interactive terms are also influential in determining the measure.

  19. Relationship between growth behaviour, micro and macroscopic morphologies and freezing sensitivity of the ripening starter Geotrichum candidum is strain specific and mostly related to the morphotypes: the arthrospores/hyphae parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missous, Ghalia; Thammavongs, Bouachanh; Launay, Géraldine; Guéguen, Micheline; Dieuleveux, Virginie; Panoff, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    Microscopic conformation, growth behaviour and freezing sensitivity of seven strains of Geotrichum candidum, a ripening starter, were studied and compared according to their macroscopic morphotypes. It has been shown that the thallus forming units (TFU)×ml-1/OD600nm ratio as a function of time is an interesting parameter to follow G. candidum sporulation through the growth behaviour. Microscopic conformation, growth behaviour and freezing sensitivity are clearly strain specific and mostly related to their corresponding morphotypes "yeast", "mould" or "intermediate". The two "mould" strains that sporulate weakly (UCMA103, UCMA499) showed a low survival rate to freezing stress whereas the "yeast" strains expressed a significant resistance owing to the arthrospore abundance. Interestingly, one strain (UCMA96) which appeared on solid medium in accord with the "mould" morphotype respond similarly to freezing stress.

  20. Regulation of IgE antibody production by serum molecules. II. Strain-specificity of the suppressive activity of serum from complete Freund's adjuvant-immune low responder mouse donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, D.H.; Tung, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    IgE antibody production in mice of high and low IgE responder phenotypes, respectively, can be appreciably enhanced in magnitude after low-dose whole-body x irradiation. Such enhanced responses, as well as adoptive secondary IgE responses, can be markedly suppressed by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum in low responder strains, but not in high responder strains. The studies presented here demonstrate that the suppressive activity of CFA-immune serum on IgE antibody production is strain specific. This is true even in reciprocal combinations of low IgE responder SJL and C57BL/6 mice, in which it was shown that serum capable of suppressing mice of the isologous strain was ineffective in diminishing IgE antibody production in the other low responder strain. Absence of suppressive activity in CFA-immune sera obtained from H-2 haplotypes while sharing many similarities in the background genome and, conversely, effective suppressive activity of H-2 congenic donor sera when H-2-identities between donor and recipient mice existed, strongly suggested a role, at least in part, of H-2 genes in dictating the strain specificity of such suppressive activity. Additional experiments provided evidence for a possible role of macrophages in catabolism of the active molecules in CFA-immune sera. These observations, together with those presented in the preceding paper, may provide valuable insight toward successful development of appropriate manipulations that could ultimately convert high IgE responder individuals into low responders

  1. Determination of half-value layers and tenth-value layer to barite as shielding against X radiation in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, G.A.; Aragao Filho, G.L.; Almeida Junior, A.T.; Santos, M.A.P.; Araujo, F.G.S.; Nogueira, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The barium mortar has been widely used as radiation shielding material for X and gamma radiations in Brazil, by presenting some advantages as the high rate of efficiency in radiation shielding, the easy handling and application, the facility to be found in the national market and low cost. The determination of the half-value layers (HVL) and tenth-value layer (TVL) of different types of barite becomes the major factor to characterize the attenuation of these materials, in order to ensure the efficiency and quality of projects shielding, by ensuring the safety of workers occupationally exposed to radiation and of individuals to the public. Thus, plates of different thickness of mortar of barite were made for determination of their HVL and TVL. The plates were irradiated with X-ray qualities for radiological protection according to standard ISO 4037. A system of CdTe spectrometry was used to acquire spectra transmitted, in the presence of each plate, and their combinations. The areas of the spectra obtained, depending on the total thickness of the plates used in the arrangement were used to determine the attenuation curves. From these curves obtained in this work was to establish the HVL and TVL

  2. Ministerial Decree of 6 June 1968 determining the maximum permissible doses and concentrations for purposes of the health protection of workers in the field of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This Decree made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 forms an important part of regulations on occupational health protection. It adopts the criteria and values laid down by Euratom Directives on radiation protection. (NEA) [fr

  3. Strain-specific and recessive QTLs involved in the control of partial resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchepied, L; Dogimont, C; Pitrat, M

    2005-06-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) causes serious economic losses in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Two dominant resistance genes have been identified, Fom-1 and Fom-2, which provide resistance to races 0 and 2 and races 0 and 1, respectively, however FOM race 1.2 overcomes these resistance genes. A partial resistance to FOM race 1.2 that has been found in some Far East accessions is under polygenic control. A genetic map of melon was constructed to tag FOM race 1.2 resistance with DNA markers on a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between resistant (Isabelle) and susceptible (cv. Védrantais) lines. Artificial root inoculations on plantlets of this population using two strains, one that causes wilting (FOM 1.2w) and one that causes yellowing (FOM 1.2y), resulted in phenotypic and genotypic data that enabled the identification of nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These QTLs were detected on five linkage groups by composite interval mapping and explained between 41.9% and 66.4% of the total variation. Four digenic epistatic interactions involving seven loci were detected and increased the total phenotypic variation that was explained. Co-localizations between QTLs and resistance gene homologs or resistance genes, such as Fom-2 and Vat, were observed. A strain-specific QTL was detected, and some QTLs appeared to be recessive.

  4. Quantification of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113, CHA0 and Pf153 in the rhizosphere of maize by strain-specific real-time PCR unaffected by the variability of DNA extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Felten, Andreas; Défago, Geneviève; Maurhofer, Monika

    2010-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113 and CHA0 are well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) often used as model strains in biocontrol experiments. To monitor their persistence in large scale field experiments, culture-independent methods are needed. In this study, a strain-specific real-time PCR quantification tool was developed based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) for P. fluorescens strains F113, CHA0 and Pf153. Differences in DNA extraction efficiencies from rhizosphere samples were circumvented using plasmid APA9 as internal standard to normalize C(T) values after real-time amplification. The detection limits of the real-time PCR assays for all three strains were approximately 10 cells for genomic DNA and 10(4)cells/g rhizosphere for maize samples grown in different natural soils. Population sizes of the three strains in the rhizosphere of maize measured by the new real-time PCR approaches were similar to those measured by most probable number (MPN)-PCR. A persistence study of the three strains indicated that the strains persisted differently over a period of 5weeks. In conclusion the newly developed real-time PCR approach is a fast and resource efficient method for monitoring individual biocontrol strains in natural soil, which makes it an apt quantification tool for future large-scale field experiments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of the potential implementation impact of 2016 ministry of environmental protection generic assessment criteria for potentially contaminated sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Yu-Ting; Nathanail, C Paul

    2017-04-12

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection of China issued a 3rd draft edition of risk-based Generic Assessment Criteria (the MEP-GAC) in March 2016. Since these will be the first authoritative GAC in China, their implementation is likely to have a significant impact on China's growing contaminated land management sector. This study aims to determine the potential implementation impact of the MEP-GAC through an in-depth analysis of the management context, land use scenarios, health criteria values adopted and exposure pathways considered. The MEP-GAC have been proposed for two broad categories of land use scenarios for contaminated land risk assessment, and these two categories of land use scenarios need to be further delved, and a MEP-GAC for Chinese cultivated land scenario ought to be developed, to ensure human health protection of Chinese farmers. The MEP-GAC have adopted 10 -6 as the acceptable lifetime cancer risk, given the widespread extent and severe level of land contamination in China, consideration should be given to the decision on excess lifetime cancer risk of 10 -5 . During risk assessment process in practice, it is better to review the 20% TDI against local circumstances to determine their suitability before adopting it. The MEP-GAC are based on a SOM value of 1%, for regions with particularly high SOM, it might be necessary to develop regional GAC, due to SOM's significant impact on the GAC developed. An authoritative risk assessment model developed based on HJ25.3-2014 would help facilitate the DQRA process in practice. The MEP-GAC could better reflect the likely exposures of China's citizens due to vapour inhalation by using characteristics of Chinese exposure scenarios, including China-generic building stock, as inputs into the Johnson and Ettinger model as opposed to adoption of the US EPA parameters. The MEP-GAC once implemented will set the trajectory for the development of the investigation, assessment and remediation of land contamination

  6. To What Extent Do Protected Areas Determine the Conservation of Native Flora? A Case Study in the Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Traoré, Lassina; Ouédraogo, Amadé; Thiombiano, Adjima

    2012-01-01

    Natural vegetation contributes significantly to the daily needs of local people especially in the developing countries. This exerts a high pressure on freely accessible natural savannas and jeopardizes the conservation of protected areas. In Burkina Faso, conservation measures, such as the creation of protected forests, have been taken to safeguard the remaining indigenous vegetation. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these protected areas in conserving biodiversity. This st...

  7. A small antigenic determinant of the Chikungunya virus E2 protein is sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies which are partially protective in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Weber

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes high fever and severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe and has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change and vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle and, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses.E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells and a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 and consisting of linear and/or structural antigens were created, and were expressed in and purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins and the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L and surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B and a part of the β-ribbon (called B+ was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+ induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ and/or the recombinant protein sAB+ and were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice.The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice and its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine.

  8. TheListeria monocytogenesBile Stimulon under Acidic Conditions Is Characterized by Strain-Specific Patterns and the Upregulation of Motility, Cell Wall Modification Functions, and the PrfA Regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia-Oropeza, Veronica; Orsi, Renato H; Guldimann, Claudia; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes uses a variety of transcriptional regulation strategies to adapt to the extra-host environment, the gastrointestinal tract, and the intracellular host environment. While the alternative sigma factor SigB has been proposed to be a key transcriptional regulator that facilitates L. monocytogenes adaptation to the gastrointestinal environment, the L. monocytogenes ' transcriptional response to bile exposure is not well-understood. RNA-seq characterization of the bile stimulon was performed in two L. monocytogenes strains representing lineages I and II. Exposure to bile at pH 5.5 elicited a large transcriptomic response with ~16 and 23% of genes showing differential transcription in 10403S and H7858, respectively. The bile stimulon includes genes involved in motility and cell wall modification mechanisms, as well as genes in the PrfA regulon, which likely facilitate survival during the gastrointestinal stages of infection that follow bile exposure. The fact that bile exposure induced the PrfA regulon, but did not induce further upregulation of the SigB regulon (beyond that expected by exposure to pH 5.5), suggests a model where at the earlier stages of gastrointestinal infection (e.g., acid exposure in the stomach), SigB-dependent gene expression plays an important role. Subsequent exposure to bile induces the PrfA regulon, potentially priming L. monocytogenes for subsequent intracellular infection stages. Some members of the bile stimulon showed lineage- or strain-specific distribution when 27 Listeria genomes were analyzed. Even though sigB null mutants showed increased sensitivity to bile, the SigB regulon was not found to be upregulated in response to bile beyond levels expected by exposure to pH 5.5. Comparison of wildtype and corresponding Δ sigB strains newly identified 26 SigB-dependent genes, all with upstream putative SigB-dependent promoters.

  9. Delineation of a wellhead protection zone and determination of flowpaths from potential groundwater contaminant source areas at Camp Ripley, Little Falls, Minnesota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-12-22

    Groundwater at Camp Ripley, Minnesota, is recharged both on post and off site and discharged to rivers, wetlands, and pumping wells. The subsurface geologic materials have a wide range of permeabilities and are arranged in a complex fashion as a result of the region's multiple glacial advances. Correlation of individual glacial geologic units is difficult, even between nearby boreholes, because of the heterogeneities in the subsurface. This report documents the creation of a numerical model of groundwater flow for Camp Ripley and hydrologically related areas to the west and southwest. The model relies on a hydrogeological conceptual model built on the findings of a University of Minnesota-Duluth drilling and sampling program conducted in 2001. Because of the site's stratigraphic complexity, a geostatistical approach was taken to handle the uncertainty of the subsurface correlation. The U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW code was used to create the steady-state model, which includes input data from a variety of sources and is calibrated to water levels in monitoring wells across much of the site. This model was used for several applications. Wellhead protection zones were delineated for on-site production wells H, L, and N. The zones were determined on the basis of a probabilistic assessment of the groundwater captured by these wells; the assessment, in turn, had been based on multiple realizations of the study area's stratigraphy and groundwater flowfield. An additional application of the model was for estimating flowpaths and times of travel for groundwater at Camp Ripley's range areas and waste management facilities.

  10. Cloning and determination of biochemical properties of protective and broadly conserved vaccine antigens from the genome of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli into pET28a vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Kheirvari Khezerloo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are one of the most common infectious diseases that lead to significant health problems in the world. Urinary tract infections are referred to any infection in any part of the renal system. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella are main organisms that are involved in these infections. After identifying same protective and conserved virulence sequences in these microorganisms with similarity upper than 80%, sequences of synthetic gene was provided by bioinformatics techniques and ordered from Thermo Fisher Scientific Company. PCR amplification of this gene was performed by specific primers designed for this purpose. Construction of gene was performed by overlap PCR. The synthetic gene was cloned into pET28a vector. Our gene was amplified in E. coli Top10 tested. To confirm cloning, three methods including colony PCR, digestion and sequencing were used. First, two techniques were performed using horizontal electrophoresis, and also the synthetic gene showed significant homology with the sequence (99% Identified in sequencing. Sequencing of this gene showed that fusion was constructed correctly. Determination of biochemical properties such as 3D structure, Ramachandran and comparison of Non-redundant Set of PDB structure was done by bioinformatic software and had exact and expectable results. A large part of the health system in the world is occupied by a urinary tract infection and governments spend a huge amount of money for the treatment and recovery of patients with these infections. On the other hands, antibiotic resistance in the not-far future will be a disaster for medical societies. This is the most important reason for the emergence of vaccine production against urinary tract infections.

  11. Microneedle Array Design Determines the Induction of Protective Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses Induced by a Recombinant Live Malaria Vaccine in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John B.; Pearson, Frances E.; Vrdoljak, Anto; McGrath, Marie G.; Crean, Abina M.; Walsh, Patrick T.; Doody, Timothy; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Moore, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccine delivery into the skin has received renewed interest due to ease of access to the immune system and microvasculature, however the stratum corneum (SC), must be breached for successful vaccination. This has been achieved by removing the SC by abrasion or scarification or by delivering the vaccine intradermally (ID) with traditional needle-and-syringes or with long microneedle devices. Microneedle patch-based transdermal vaccine studies have predominantly focused on antibody induction by inactivated or subunit vaccines. Here, our principal aim is to determine if the design of a microneedle patch affects the CD8+ T cell responses to a malaria antigen induced by a live vaccine. Methodology and Findings Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing a malaria antigen was percutaneously administered to mice using a range of silicon microneedle patches, termed ImmuPatch, that differed in microneedle height, density, patch area and total pore volume. We demonstrate that microneedle arrays that have small total pore volumes induce a significantly greater proportion of central memory T cells that vigorously expand to secondary immunization. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming induced significantly greater T cell immunity post-boost and equivalent protection against malaria challenge compared to ID vaccination. Notably, unlike ID administration, ImmuPatch-mediated vaccination did not induce inflammatory responses at the site of immunization or in draining lymph nodes. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that the design of microneedle patches significantly influences the magnitude and memory of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses and can be optimised for the induction of desired immune responses. Furthermore, ImmuPatch-mediated delivery may be of benefit to reducing unwanted vaccine reactogenicity. In addition to the advantages of low cost and lack of pain, the development of optimised microneedle array designs for the induction

  12. Microneedle array design determines the induction of protective memory CD8+ T cell responses induced by a recombinant live malaria vaccine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B Carey

    Full Text Available Vaccine delivery into the skin has received renewed interest due to ease of access to the immune system and microvasculature, however the stratum corneum (SC, must be breached for successful vaccination. This has been achieved by removing the SC by abrasion or scarification or by delivering the vaccine intradermally (ID with traditional needle-and-syringes or with long microneedle devices. Microneedle patch-based transdermal vaccine studies have predominantly focused on antibody induction by inactivated or subunit vaccines. Here, our principal aim is to determine if the design of a microneedle patch affects the CD8(+ T cell responses to a malaria antigen induced by a live vaccine.Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA expressing a malaria antigen was percutaneously administered to mice using a range of silicon microneedle patches, termed ImmuPatch, that differed in microneedle height, density, patch area and total pore volume. We demonstrate that microneedle arrays that have small total pore volumes induce a significantly greater proportion of central memory T cells that vigorously expand to secondary immunization. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming induced significantly greater T cell immunity post-boost and equivalent protection against malaria challenge compared to ID vaccination. Notably, unlike ID administration, ImmuPatch-mediated vaccination did not induce inflammatory responses at the site of immunization or in draining lymph nodes.This study demonstrates that the design of microneedle patches significantly influences the magnitude and memory of vaccine-induced CD8(+ T cell responses and can be optimised for the induction of desired immune responses. Furthermore, ImmuPatch-mediated delivery may be of benefit to reducing unwanted vaccine reactogenicity. In addition to the advantages of low cost and lack of pain, the development of optimised microneedle array designs for the induction of T cell responses by live vaccines aids

  13. New insight into multifunctional role of peroxiredoxin family protein: Determination of DNA protection properties of bacterioferritin comigratory protein under hyperthermal and oxidative stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangmin, E-mail: taeinlee2011@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jeong Min [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hyung Joong; Won, Jonghan [Advanced Nano Surface Research Group, Korea Basic Science Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Suk, E-mail: hsjung@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, South Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-22

    Bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) is a monomeric conformer acting as a putative thiol-dependent bacterial peroxidase, however molecular basis of DNA-protection via DNA-binding has not been clearly understood. In this study, we characterized the DNA binding properties of BCP using various lengths and differently shaped architectures of DNA. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and electron microscopy analysis showed that recombinant TkBCP bound to DNA of a circular shape (double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA) and a linear shape (16–1000 bp) as well as various architectures of DNA. In addition, DNA protection experiments indicated that TkBCP can protect DNA against hyperthermal and oxidative stress by removing highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by protecting DNA from thermal degradation. Based on these results, we suggest that TkBCP is a multi-functional DNA-binding protein which has DNA chaperon and antioxidant functions. - Highlights: • Bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) protects DNA from oxidative stress by reducing ROS. • TkBCP does not only scavenge ROS, but also protect DNA from hyperthermal stress. • BCP potentially adopts the multi-functional role in DNA binding activities and anti-oxidant functions.

  14. Variation in DNA-Damage Responses to an Inhalational Carcinogen (1,3-Butadiene) in Relation to Strain-Specific Differences in Chromatin Accessibility and Gene Transcription Profiles in C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace A; Israel, Jennifer W; Simon, Jeremy M; Pott, Sebastian; Safi, Alexias; Eklund, Karl; Sexton, Kenneth G; Bodnar, Wanda; Lieb, Jason D; Crawford, Gregory E; Rusyn, Ivan; Furey, Terrence S

    2017-10-16

    The damaging effects of exposure to environmental toxicants differentially affect genetically distinct individuals, but the mechanisms contributing to these differences are poorly understood. Genetic variation affects the establishment of the gene regulatory landscape and thus gene expression, and we hypothesized that this contributes to the observed heterogeneity in individual responses to exogenous cellular insults. We performed an in vivo study of how genetic variation and chromatin organization may dictate susceptibility to DNA damage, and influence the cellular response to such damage, caused by an environmental toxicant. We measured DNA damage, messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) expression, and genome-wide chromatin accessibility in lung tissue from two genetically divergent inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ, both in unexposed mice and in mice exposed to a model DNA-damaging chemical, 1,3-butadiene. Our results showed that unexposed CAST/EiJ and C57BL/6J mice have very different chromatin organization and transcription profiles in the lung. Importantly, in unexposed CAST/EiJ mice, which acquired relatively less 1,3-butadiene-induced DNA damage, we observed increased transcription and a more accessible chromatin landscape around genes involved in detoxification pathways. Upon chemical exposure, chromatin was significantly remodeled in the lung of C57BL/6J mice, a strain that acquired higher levels of 1,3-butadiene-induced DNA damage, around the same genes, ultimately resembling the molecular profile of CAST/EiJ. These results suggest that strain-specific changes in chromatin and transcription in response to chemical exposure lead to a "compensation" for underlying genetic-driven interindividual differences in the baseline chromatin and transcriptional state. This work represents an example of how chemical and environmental exposures can be evaluated to better understand gene-by-environment interactions, and it demonstrates the important role

  15. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  16. Using a down-scaled bioclimate envelope model to determine long-term temporal connectivity of Garry oak (Quercus garryana) habitat in western North America: implications for protected area planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellatt, Marlow G; Goring, Simon J; Bodtker, Karin M; Cannon, Alex J

    2012-04-01

    Under the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA), Garry oak (Quercus garryana) ecosystems are listed as "at-risk" and act as an umbrella for over one hundred species that are endangered to some degree. Understanding Garry oak responses to future climate scenarios at scales relevant to protected area managers is essential to effectively manage existing protected area networks and to guide the selection of temporally connected migration corridors, additional protected areas, and to maintain Garry oak populations over the next century. We present Garry oak distribution scenarios using two random forest models calibrated with down-scaled bioclimatic data for British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon based on 1961-1990 climate normals. The suitability models are calibrated using either both precipitation and temperature variables or using only temperature variables. We compare suitability predictions from four General Circulation Models (GCMs) and present CGCM2 model results under two emissions scenarios. For each GCM and emissions scenario we apply the two Garry oak suitability models and use the suitability models to determine the extent and temporal connectivity of climatically suitable Garry oak habitat within protected areas from 2010 to 2099. The suitability models indicate that while 164 km(2) of the total protected area network in the region (47,990 km(2)) contains recorded Garry oak presence, 1635 and 1680 km(2) of climatically suitable Garry oak habitat is currently under some form of protection. Of this suitable protected area, only between 6.6 and 7.3% will be "temporally connected" between 2010 and 2099 based on the CGCM2 model. These results highlight the need for public and private protected area organizations to work cooperatively in the development of corridors to maintain temporal connectivity in climatically suitable areas for the future of Garry oak ecosystems.

  17. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  18. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    strategies are entangled in cultural, religious, and national identities. Using ethnographic methods, I investigate protection against selected risks: harm from evil eyes, violation of domestic sanctity, and cultural heritage dilapidation. Protection against these risks is examined through studies...

  19. [Protective eyeglasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, G

    1997-01-01

    Reminder of the materials used for the manufacture of corrective lenses. Belgian statistics concerning eye accidents at work and European legislation concerning the prevention of eye accidents, personal protective equipment, P.P.E. Eye protection for sports.

  20. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  1. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  2. Insider protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  3. Social-cognitive determinants of the tick check: a cross-sectional study on self-protective behavior in combatting Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Amy; Mulder, Bob C; Poortvliet, P Marijn; van Vliet, Arnold J H

    2017-11-25

    Performing a tick check after visiting nature is considered the most important preventive measure to avoid contracting Lyme disease. Checking the body for ticks after visiting nature is the only measure that can fully guarantee whether one has been bitten by a tick and provides the opportunity to remove the tick as soon as possible, thereby greatly reducing the chance of contracting Lyme disease. However, compliance to performing the tick check is low. In addition, most previous studies on determinants of preventive measures to avoid Lyme disease lack a clear definition and/or operationalization of the term "preventive measures". Those that do distinguish multiple behaviors including the tick check, fail to describe the systematic steps that should be followed in order to perform the tick check effectively. Hence, the purpose of this study was to identify determinants of systematically performing the tick check, based on social cognitive theory. A cross-sectional self-administered survey questionnaire was filled out online by 508 respondents (M age  = 51.7, SD = 16.0; 50.2% men; 86.4% daily or weekly nature visitors). Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between socio-cognitive determinants (i.e. concepts related to humans' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to perform certain behavior), and the tick check, and between socio-cognitive determinants and proximal goal to do the tick check. The full regression model explained 28% of the variance in doing the tick check. Results showed that performing the tick check was associated with proximal goal (β = .23, p social cognitive theory to identify determinants. Based on the results, a number of practical recommendations can be made to promote the performance of the tick check.

  4. Determination of geographical origin of olive oils using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. I - Classification of olive oils of the Puglia region with denomination of protected origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, Giovanna; Del Re, Paolo; Simone, Nicola

    2003-09-10

    13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to classify olive oils from the three production areas of the Puglia region labeled with the "denomination of protected origin" (DPO) Terra di Bari, Colline di Brindisi, and Dauno. High resolution (13)C spectra of 173 olive oil samples were measured, and the intensity data of triacylglycerol resonances were processed by using linear discriminant analysis, which was carried out stepwise for variable selection. The olive oil samples from the DPOs Colline di Brindisi and Terra di Bari were 90% correctly classified, whereas only 74% of "Dauno" DPO oils were classified in the true group. The performance of the discriminant model was verified by applying the cross-validation procedure based on the "leave one out" formalism. The discriminant model was evaluated against a blind test set of olive oils from the three DPO areas. All the oils used for the purpose were correctly assigned to their respective groups, with the exception of the Dauno oil samples based on the Coratina cv. They were misclassified as Terra di Bari oils because of a common monovarietal composition.

  5. Social-cognitive determinants of the tick check: a cross-sectional study on self-protective behavior in combatting Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy van der Heijden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performing a tick check after visiting nature is considered the most important preventive measure to avoid contracting Lyme disease. Checking the body for ticks after visiting nature is the only measure that can fully guarantee whether one has been bitten by a tick and provides the opportunity to remove the tick as soon as possible, thereby greatly reducing the chance of contracting Lyme disease. However, compliance to performing the tick check is low. In addition, most previous studies on determinants of preventive measures to avoid Lyme disease lack a clear definition and/or operationalization of the term “preventive measures”. Those that do distinguish multiple behaviors including the tick check, fail to describe the systematic steps that should be followed in order to perform the tick check effectively. Hence, the purpose of this study was to identify determinants of systematically performing the tick check, based on social cognitive theory. Methods A cross-sectional self-administered survey questionnaire was filled out online by 508 respondents (Mage = 51.7, SD = 16.0; 50.2% men; 86.4% daily or weekly nature visitors. Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between socio-cognitive determinants (i.e. concepts related to humans’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to perform certain behavior, and the tick check, and between socio-cognitive determinants and proximal goal to do the tick check. Results The full regression model explained 28% of the variance in doing the tick check. Results showed that performing the tick check was associated with proximal goal (β = .23, p < 0.01, self-efficacy (β = .22, p < 0.01, self-evaluative outcome expectations (β = .21, p < 0.01, descriptive norm (β = .16, p < 0.01, and experience (β = .13, p < 0.01. Conclusions Our study is among the first to examine the determinants of

  6. Eye Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is very important to read the product safety materials before using any new chemicals. The appropriate personal protective equipment for eye protection will be listed. This is particularly important for applying and handling pesticides, working with caustics such as lime fertilizer, ...

  7. Laser radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, D.; Muric, B.; Vasiljevic, D.

    2011-01-01

    We have presented the effects of laser radiation on human organism, with special emphasize on eye as the most sensitive organ. It was pointed-out that there are many parameters that should be taken into account when determining the level of protection from laser light. In that respect it is important to be aware of international standards that regulate this area. In addition, we have described a new material which efficiently protects human eye, by formation of microlens and carbonization. [sr

  8. Determination of natamycin in rabbit cornea by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with protective soaking extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianyang, Zhou; Ling, Zhu; Huiyun, Xia; Jijun, He; Junjie, Zhang

    2014-10-15

    A new selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of natamycin (NAT) in rabbit corneas with amphotericin B as the internal standard (IS). The cornea samples were processed by a simple and protective methanol soaking extraction technology. The NAT could be extracted completely from rabbit cornea after 24h of soaking with methanol under a mild condition. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 3.5μm) using mobile phase with ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5; 4.0mM):acetonitrile (40:60, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25ml/min. Quantification was performed using the transitions 666.2→503.2 m/z for NAT and 924.5→906.6 m/z for IS by positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The assay was validated over a concentration range of 8.64ng/ml to 843ng/ml with lower limit of detection of 4.32ng/ml. The method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, stability and extracting efficiency. The extraction recovery of NAT from cornea samples was approximately 100% with the new methanol soaking extraction procedure. The method has been successfully applied to the ocular pharmacokinetic studies of NAT eye drops in the cornea of Japanese white rabbit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determining the Molecular Pathways Underlying the Protective Effect of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Alzheimer's Disease: A Bioinformatics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo J Nevado-Holgado

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD represents a substantial unmet need, due to increasing prevalence in an ageing society and the absence of a disease modifying therapy. Epidemiological evidence shows a protective effect of non steroidal anti inflammatory (NSAID drugs, and genome wide association studies (GWAS show consistent linkage to inflammatory pathways; both observations suggesting anti-inflammatory compounds might be effective in AD therapy although clinical trials to date have not been positive.In this study, we use pathway enrichment and fuzzy logic to identify pathways (KEGG database simultaneously affected in both AD and by NSAIDs (Sulindac, Piroxicam, Paracetamol, Naproxen, Nabumetone, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac and Aspirin. Gene expression signatures were derived for disease from both blood (n = 344 and post-mortem brain (n = 690, and for drugs from immortalised human cell lines exposed to drugs of interest as part of the Connectivity Map platform. Using this novel approach to combine datasets we find striking overlap between AD gene expression in blood and NSAID induced changes in KEGG pathways of Ribosome and Oxidative Phosphorylation. No overlap was found in non NSAID comparison drugs. In brain we find little such overlap, although Oxidative Phosphorylation approaches our pre-specified significance level.These findings suggest that NSAIDs might have a mode of action beyond inflammation and moreover that their therapeutic effects might be mediated in particular by alteration of Oxidative Phosphorylation and possibly the Ribosome pathway. Mining of such datasets might prove increasingly productive as they increase in size and richness. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, NSAID, Inflammation, Fuzzy logic, Ribosome

  10. The protective role of general self-determination against 'thin ideal' media exposure on women's body image and eating-related concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M

    2011-04-01

    Women's responses to 'thin ideal' media pending their level of general self-determination (GSD) were examined. High and low GSD women (N = 99) viewed a 'thin physique salient' (TPS) video or a 'thin physique non-salient' (TPNS) video. Following exposure to the TPS video, perceptions of pressure from the media to be thin, body dissatisfaction, and concerns over quantity of food were greater for low but not high GSD women. However, high GSD women reported greater concerns over the quality of food they eat following exposure to the TPNS video. Prevention efforts aimed at enhancing GSD are discussed.

  11. The determination of radioactive contamination level in Korean food. Part of a coordinated programme on environmental monitoring for radiological protection in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.H.

    1979-03-01

    This study was performed from July, 1974 till May, 1978 to observe the Sr-90 concentration in Korean foodstuffs which were grown in Central district, Honam district, Youngnam district, and several islands (I.) districts; Ulnung I., Hucksan I. and Jeju I. The contamination levels in rice, barley, cultivated vegetables, and wild edible vegetables in Korea were studied. The results obtained were as follows; in the radiochemical determination of Sr-90 in rice and barley samples in 1977, it were estimated 14.7+-7.3 - 58.1+-20.9 pCi/gm-Ca, and 15.7+-3.5 - 90.9+-41.8 pCi/gm-Ca, respectively. The average values of the rice sample and the barley sample showed 34.2+-18.8 pCi/gm-Ca, and 52.5+-30.8 pCi/gm-Ca. In the radiochemical determination of Sr-90 in the cultivated vegetable samples and the wild edible vegetable samples, it were resulted that the cultivated vegetable samples showed 130.9+-2.1 pCi/gm-Ca and the wild edible vegetable sample showed 221.6+-2.2 pCi/gm-Ca. The contamination level by the part of plant were as followed; 153.4+-2.0 pCi/gm-Ca in leaf, 310.2+-3.3 pCi/gm-Ca in root and 131.4+-3.8 pCi/gm-Ca in fruit. (author)

  12. Protection of workers in radon-rich atmospheres: the mandate for quick determination of radon-daughter concentrations and a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreve, J.D. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The elementary observation of near-constancy of the sum of alpha and beta activity on a air sampling filter has led to a novel instrument. By exploiting this observation, a good working level determination can be made in a total time of 3.5 minutes. Second cycling and a total elapsed time of 7.5 minutes permits two determinations on the same filter, the second of which is more indifferent to daughter equilibration factors than either the 3.5 minute value or that defined by the Kusnetz method. This instrument and auxiliaries, designed by Kerr-McGee Corporation and licensed to MDA Scientific, Inc. for manufacturing and marketing, also permit estimates of external gamma radiation present at the uranium mine site, the equilibration factor of the radon daughters and the radon concentration itself. Its capacity to reduce exposure of underground workers via quicker detection and correction of high radiation areas is unmatched in a portable device. It has been found to at least double the efficiency of ventilation technicians. This sum of attributes is unobtainable in any other known instrument marketed in the world today

  13. Phenylacetic Acid Is ISR Determinant Produced by Bacillus fortis IAGS162, Which Involves Extensive Re-modulation in Metabolomics of Tomato to Protect against Fusarium Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Waheed; Anjum, Tehmina; Ali, Basharat

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus fortis IAGS162 has been previously shown to induce systemic resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium wilt disease. In the first phase of current study, the ISR determinant was isolated from extracellular metabolites of this bacterium. ISR bioassays combined with solvent extraction, column chromatography and GC/MS analysis proved that phenylacetic acid (PAA) was the potential ISR determinant that significantly ameliorated Fusarium wilt disease of tomato at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM. In the second phase, the biochemical basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR) under influence of PAA was elucidated by performing non-targeted whole metabolomics through GC/MS analysis. Tomato plants were treated with PAA and fungal pathogen in various combinations. Exposure to PAA and subsequent pathogen challenge extensively re-modulated tomato metabolic networks along with defense related pathways. In addition, various phenylpropanoid precursors were significantly up-regulated in treatments receiving PAA. This work suggests that ISR elicitor released from B. fortis IAGS162 contributes to resistance against fungal pathogens through dynamic reprogramming of plant pathways that are functionally correlated with defense responses.

  14. Radiological protection on interstitial brachytherapy and dose determination and exposure rate of an Ir-192 source through the MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales L, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the Neurological Sciences Institute having as objective to determine the dose and the rate of exhibition of the sources of Iridium 192, Iodine 125 and Palladium 103; which are used to carry out implant in the Interstitial Brachytherapy according to the TG43. For it we carry out a theoretical calculation, its are defined in the enter file: the geometry, materials of the problem and the radiation source, etc; in the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code, considering a punctual source and for the dose determination we simulate thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD): at 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 200 cm of the source. Our purpose is to analyze the radioprotection measures that should take into account in this Institute in which are carried out brain biopsies using a Micro mar stereotactic mark, and in a near future with the collaboration of a doctor and a cuban physique seeks to be carried out the Interstitial Brachytherapy technique with sources of Ir-192 for patient with tumors like glioblastoma, astrocytoma, etc. (Author)

  15. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  16. Discovery of Bioactive Metabolites in Biofuel Microalgae That Offer Protection against Predatory Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Christopher E; Abernathy, Amanda; Barnwell, Remy; Milliken, Charles E; Noble, Peter A; Dale, Taraka; Beauchesne, Kevin R; Moeller, Peter D R

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae could become an important resource for addressing increasing global demand for food, energy, and commodities while helping to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gasses. Even though Chlorophytes are generally regarded safe for human consumption, there is still much we do not understand about the metabolic and biochemical potential of microscopic algae. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofuel candidate strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus for the potential to produce bioactive metabolites when grown under nutrient depletion regimes intended to stimulate production of triacylglycerides. Strain specific combinations of macro- and micro-nutrient restricted growth media did stimulate neutral lipid accumulation by microalgal cultures. However, cultures that were restricted for iron consistently and reliably tested positive for cytotoxicity by in vivo bioassays. The addition of iron back to these cultures resulted in the disappearance of the bioactive components by LC/MS fingerprinting and loss of cytotoxicity by in vivo bioassay. Incomplete NMR characterization of the most abundant cytotoxic fractions suggested that small molecular weight peptides and glycosides could be responsible for Chlorella cytotoxicity. Experiments were conducted to determine if the bioactive metabolites induced by Fe-limitation in Chlorella sp. cultures would elicit protection against Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, an obligate predator of Chlorella. Introduction of V. chlorellavorus resulted in a 72% decrease in algal biomass in the experimental controls after 7 days. Conversely, only slight losses of algal biomass were measured for the iron limited Chlorella cultures (0-9%). This study demonstrates a causal linkage between iron bioavailability and bioactive metabolite production in strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus. Further study of this phenomenon could contribute to the development of new strategies to extend algal production cycles in open, outdoor systems while ensuring the

  17. Discovery of Bioactive Metabolites in Biofuel Microalgae That Offer Protection against Predatory Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eBagwell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae could become an important resource for addressing increasing global demand for food, energy, and commodities while helping to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Even though Chlorophytes are generally regarded safe for human consumption, there is still much we do not understand about the metabolic and biochemical potential of microscopic algae. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofuel candidate strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus for the potential to produce bioactive metabolites when grown under nutrient depletion regimes intended to stimulate production of triacylglycerides (TAG. Strain specific combinations of macro- and micro-nutrient restricted growth media did stimulate neutral lipid accumulation by microalgal cultures. However, cultures that were restricted for iron consistently and reliably tested positive for cytotoxicity by in vivo bioassays. The addition of iron back to these cultures resulted in the disappearance of the bioactive components by LC/MS fingerprinting and loss of cytotoxicity by in vivo bioassay. Incomplete NMR characterization of the most abundant cytotoxic fractions suggested that small molecular weight peptides and glycosides could be responsible for Chlorella cytotoxicity. Experiments were conducted to determine if the bioactive metabolites induced by Fe-limitation in Chlorella sp. cultures would elicit protection against Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, an obligate predator of Chlorella. Introduction of V. chlorellavorus resulted in a 72% decrease in algal biomass in the experimental controls after 7 days. Conversely, only slight losses of algal biomass were measured for the iron limited Chlorella cultures (0 - 9 %. This study demonstrates a causal linkage between iron bioavailability and bioactive metabolite production in strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus. Further study of this phenomenon could contribute to the development of new strategies to extend algal production cycles in open, outdoor

  18. Heterologous expression of taro cystatin protects transgenic tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex determination and suppressing gall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Li; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Chen, Jen-Tzu; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2010-03-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major pest of many plant species and cause global economic loss. A phytocystatin gene, Colocasia esculenta cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI), isolated from a local taro Kaosiang No. 1, and driven by a CaMV35S promoter was delivered into CLN2468D, a heat-tolerant cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). When infected with Meloidogyne incognita, one of root-knot nematode (RKN) species, transgenic T1 lines overexpressing CeCPI suppressed gall formation as evidenced by a pronounced reduction in gall numbers. In comparison with wild-type plants, a much lower proportion of female nematodes without growth retardation was observed in transgenic plants. A decrease of RKN egg mass in transgenic plants indicated seriously impaired fecundity. Overexpression of CeCPI in transgenic tomato has inhibitory functions not only in the early RKN infection stage but also in the production of offspring, which may result from intervention in sex determination.

  19. Pollinator Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    What the EPA is doing to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticides; including addressing the issue of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), risk assessment, decline in pollinator health in general, and why pollinators are important.

  20. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Regnier, J.

    1979-01-01

    The present operational and intervention suits are described. Research work is currently in progress to improve the performance of the existing suits and to develop more resistant protective clothing. (author)

  1. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  2. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  3. Protective Eyewear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether you’re on the basketball court, in chemistry class, or sitting by the pool, wearing protective ... remember to wear safety goggles. Using chemicals in chemistry class? Look like a real scientist by wearing ...

  4. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    of architecture, the social use of luminosity, prophylactic items, saint veneration, Qur'anic items, and heritage production. The thesis challenges the preoccupation with "meaning" in material culture studies, by focusing on conceptualizations of "presence" and "absence" as equally important to protective...... strategies are confirming their efficacy, and act as material anchors for negotiating Bedouin identities in response to a rapid transformation from nomadic pastoralists to sedentary wageworkers. The tensions surrounding the materiality of protection, along with the role of the past in the present is further...... investigated through the contested public representations of Ammarin culture, along with a detailed study of the process leading to the protection of Bedouin culture by UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. The overall conclusion of this research is that negotiating efficacious protection against perceived...

  5. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  6. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The lecture is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the physical and radiological terms, quantities and units. Then the basic principles of radiological protection are discussed. In the third section attention is paid to the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The fourth section deals with the objectives of practical radiological protection. Finally the emergency measures are discussed to be taken in radiation accidents. (HP) [de

  7. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2001-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported

  9. Strain-specific quantification of root colonization by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus firmus I-1582 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 in non-sterile soil and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Hajeewaka C.; Thomas, Varghese P.; Schwientek, Patrick; Salamzade, Rauf; Chien, Jung-Ting; Waidyarathne, Pramuditha; Kloepper, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 and B. firmus I-1582 are bacterial strains which are used as active ingredients of commercially-available soil application and seed treatment products Serenade® and VOTiVO®, respectively. These bacteria colonize plant roots promoting plant growth and offering protection against pathogens/pests. The objective of this study was to develop a qPCR protocol to quantitate the dynamics of root colonization by these two strains under field conditions. Primers and TaqMan® probes were designed based on genome comparisons of the two strains with publicly-available and unpublished bacterial genomes of the same species. An optimized qPCR protocol was developed to quantify bacterial colonization of corn roots after seed treatment. Treated corn seeds were planted in non-sterile soil in the greenhouse and grown for 28 days. Specific detection of bacteria was quantified weekly, and showed stable colonization between ~104–105 CFU/g during the experimental period for both bacteria, and the protocol detected as low as 103 CFU/g bacteria on roots. In a separate experiment, streptomycin-resistant QST713 and rifampicin-resistant I-1582 strains were used to compare dilution-plating on TSA with the newly developed qPCR method. Results also indicated that the presence of natural microflora and another inoculated strain does not affect root colonization of either one of these strains. The same qPCR protocol was used to quantitate root colonization by QST713 and I-1582 in two corn and two soybean varieties grown in the field. Both bacteria were quantitated up to two weeks after seeds were planted in the field and there were no significant differences in root colonization in either bacteria strain among varieties. Results presented here confirm that the developed qPCR protocol can be successfully used to understand dynamics of root colonization by these bacteria in plants growing in growth chamber, greenhouse and the field. PMID:29447287

  10. Strain-specific quantification of root colonization by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus firmus I-1582 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 in non-sterile soil and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Hajeewaka C; Thomas, Varghese P; Schwientek, Patrick; Salamzade, Rauf; Chien, Jung-Ting; Waidyarathne, Pramuditha; Kloepper, Joseph; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 and B. firmus I-1582 are bacterial strains which are used as active ingredients of commercially-available soil application and seed treatment products Serenade® and VOTiVO®, respectively. These bacteria colonize plant roots promoting plant growth and offering protection against pathogens/pests. The objective of this study was to develop a qPCR protocol to quantitate the dynamics of root colonization by these two strains under field conditions. Primers and TaqMan® probes were designed based on genome comparisons of the two strains with publicly-available and unpublished bacterial genomes of the same species. An optimized qPCR protocol was developed to quantify bacterial colonization of corn roots after seed treatment. Treated corn seeds were planted in non-sterile soil in the greenhouse and grown for 28 days. Specific detection of bacteria was quantified weekly, and showed stable colonization between ~104-105 CFU/g during the experimental period for both bacteria, and the protocol detected as low as 103 CFU/g bacteria on roots. In a separate experiment, streptomycin-resistant QST713 and rifampicin-resistant I-1582 strains were used to compare dilution-plating on TSA with the newly developed qPCR method. Results also indicated that the presence of natural microflora and another inoculated strain does not affect root colonization of either one of these strains. The same qPCR protocol was used to quantitate root colonization by QST713 and I-1582 in two corn and two soybean varieties grown in the field. Both bacteria were quantitated up to two weeks after seeds were planted in the field and there were no significant differences in root colonization in either bacteria strain among varieties. Results presented here confirm that the developed qPCR protocol can be successfully used to understand dynamics of root colonization by these bacteria in plants growing in growth chamber, greenhouse and the field.

  11. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  12. Strain-specific quantification of root colonization by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus firmus I-1582 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 in non-sterile soil and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajeewaka C Mendis

    Full Text Available Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 and B. firmus I-1582 are bacterial strains which are used as active ingredients of commercially-available soil application and seed treatment products Serenade® and VOTiVO®, respectively. These bacteria colonize plant roots promoting plant growth and offering protection against pathogens/pests. The objective of this study was to develop a qPCR protocol to quantitate the dynamics of root colonization by these two strains under field conditions. Primers and TaqMan® probes were designed based on genome comparisons of the two strains with publicly-available and unpublished bacterial genomes of the same species. An optimized qPCR protocol was developed to quantify bacterial colonization of corn roots after seed treatment. Treated corn seeds were planted in non-sterile soil in the greenhouse and grown for 28 days. Specific detection of bacteria was quantified weekly, and showed stable colonization between ~104-105 CFU/g during the experimental period for both bacteria, and the protocol detected as low as 103 CFU/g bacteria on roots. In a separate experiment, streptomycin-resistant QST713 and rifampicin-resistant I-1582 strains were used to compare dilution-plating on TSA with the newly developed qPCR method. Results also indicated that the presence of natural microflora and another inoculated strain does not affect root colonization of either one of these strains. The same qPCR protocol was used to quantitate root colonization by QST713 and I-1582 in two corn and two soybean varieties grown in the field. Both bacteria were quantitated up to two weeks after seeds were planted in the field and there were no significant differences in root colonization in either bacteria strain among varieties. Results presented here confirm that the developed qPCR protocol can be successfully used to understand dynamics of root colonization by these bacteria in plants growing in growth chamber, greenhouse and the field.

  13. The International Employment Protection Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Pavlo V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for corporate protection of staff in accordance with both the European and the International labor law. The author defines the essence of the category of «protection of staff», its constituent elements and the importance of function of this mechanism in terms of corporate security. The main methods used in the international practice to achieve a high degree of protection of staff have been systematized and presented. The main stages of development and tendencies concerning the formation of instruments for protection of staff have been analyzed, and the principal indices to assess the degree of protection of staff have been determined.

  14. Lightning Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  15. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  16. Noise Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  17. Recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments (VHH to rotavirus VP6 protect neonatal gnotobiotic piglets against human rotavirus-induced diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina G Vega

    Full Text Available Group A Rotavirus (RVA is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256 for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea.

  18. Recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments (VHH) to rotavirus VP6 protect neonatal gnotobiotic piglets against human rotavirus-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Celina G; Bok, Marina; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Nuñez, Carmen; Alvarado, Carmen; Lasa, Rodrigo; Escribano, José M; Garaicoechea, Lorena L; Fernandez, Fernando; Bok, Karin; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Saif, Linda J; Parreño, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs) against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH) to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea.

  19. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  20. Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  1. The –SH Protection Method for Determining Accurate Kd Values for Enzyme-Coenzyme Complexes of NAD+-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Engineered Mutants: Evidence for Nonproductive NADPH Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Griffin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation rates have been measured for clostridial glutamate dehydrogenase and several engineered mutants at various DTNB concentrations. Analysis of rate constants allowed determination of Kd for each non-covalent enzyme-DTNB complex and the rate constant for reaction to form the inactive enzyme-thionitrobenzoate adduct. Both parameters are sensitive to the mutations F238S, P262S, the double mutation F238S/P262S, and D263K, all in the coenzyme binding site. Study of the effects of NAD+, NADH and NADPH at various concentrations in protecting against inactivation by 200 μM DTNB allowed determination of Kd values for binding of these coenzymes to each protein, yielding surprising results. The mutations were originally devised to lessen discrimination against the disfavoured coenzyme NADP(H, and activity measurements showed this was achieved. However, the Kd determinations indicated that, although Kd values for NAD+ and NADH were increased considerably, Kd for NADPH was increased even more than for NADH, so that discrimination against binding of NADPH was not decreased. This apparent contradiction can only be explained if NADPH has a nonproductive binding mode that is not weakened by the mutations, and a catalytically productive mode that, though strengthened, is masked by the nonproductive binding. Awareness of the latter is important in planning further mutagenesis.

  2. Ministerial Decree of 24 June 1978 determining the sessions for the examination for inclusion for qualified experts and approved physicians authorized to be in charge of surveillance of radiation protection from the viewpoint of physics and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Decree by the Minister of Labour and Social Welfare was published in the Italian Official Gazette of 30 August 1978 and implements Section 7 of Presidential Decree no. 1150 of 12 December 1972 fixing the conditions for inclusion of qualified experts and approved physicians in the list of persons authorised to be in charge of surveillance of radiation protection from the viewpoint of physics and medicine. The 1978 Decree determines the frequency of sessions for examination of the qualification of experts and physicians who wish to be included in the list, the procedures for application, the documents required, and the time within which successful candidates are notified of their inclusion in the list. (NEA) [fr

  3. Decree n.06-488 /P-RM of 23 november 2006 determining the rules related to the protection against ionizing radiation, safety and security of ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This decree determine the r(ules of protection of workers, public, patients and environment against the risks of ionizing radiation. The scope of these rules is defined as well as the definitions of some terms and concepts used in the field such as raioelement, radiopactive waste, dose, level of intervention, etc. The responsability for Malian Agency for radioprotection and for different stakeholders are clarified and those of workers as well. The condition of declaration, obtaining authorization and exemption are set. Instructions related to radioprotection, safety and security ofn ionizing radiation are stated regarding occupational, madical and public exposure and in case of emergency. instructions related to inventory and inspec tion are also defined

  4. Protection Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon; Li, Cher

    from having an orientation towards legal appropriability, we conjecture that protection myopia may lead some firms to allocate too much attention to legal appropriability, in particular when the behavioral and structural contingencies are unfavorable. Examining a panel of three successive waves......The strategies firms use to protect their intellectual property and knowledge can strongly influence their ability to capture the benefits of their innovative efforts. Using the attention-based theory, we explore positive and negative sides of legal appropriability. While asserting the benefits...... of a large-scale survey data of UK manufacturing firms, we find that an orientation towards legal appropriability is curvilinearly (taking an inverted U-shape) related to innovative performance. However, this effect is only present when the firms? product innovations are radical or when they are involved...

  5. Protective articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This patent specification describes an article affording protection against radiation, and especially against X-rays comprising at least one flexible layer of lead filled material in an envelope of, or sandwiched between two layers of a knitted, woven or non-woven fabric preferably of synthetic fibrous material, carrying on its outer surface a coating of flexible polyurethane. The outer fabric provides a resilient, extremely tough and cut resistant covering for the relatively soft lead filled material. (author)

  6. Ribonuclease protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsen, J L; Bartolomei, M S

    2001-01-01

    The ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) is a sensitive technique for the analysis of total cellular RNA. It involves generating a specific antisense riboprobe, hybridizing the probe to total RNA, removing unprotected RNA by RNases, and finally isolating and analyzing the protected RNA on a denaturing gel. Although the RPA is somewhat more labor-intensive than Northern analysis, it has the advantage of being more sensitive (as little as 0.1 pg of target RNA can be detected with ideal hybridization conditions). RPAs are also more tolerant of partially degraded RNA (provided the area that is protected is intact). Although RPAs are not as sensitive as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based RNA analyses, the target RNA is analyzed directly; a reverse transcription step is not required. Finally, the RPA is quantitative as long as the probe is in excess. More important for the study of imprinted genes, the RPA can be designed to detect allele-specific expression of the target gene of interest.

  7. Determination of sun protection factor (SPF of sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry Determinação do fator de proteção solar (FPS de protetores solares por espectrofotometria no ultravioleta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Abreu Dutra

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the sun protection factor (SPF of sunscreens emulsions containing chemical and physical sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Ten different commercially available samples of sunscreen emulsions of various manufactures were evaluated. The SPF labeled values were in the range of 8 to 30. The SPF values of the 30% of the analyzed samples are in close agreement with the labeled SPF, 30% presented SPF values above the labeled amount and 40% presented SPF values under the labeled amount. The proposed spectrophotometric method is simple and rapid for the in vitro determination of SPF values of sunscreens emulsions.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar o Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS de emulsões contendo filtros solares físicos e químicos por espectrofotometria no ultravioleta. Foram analisadas dez amostras comerciais de emulsões de diferentes fabricantes. Os valores de FPS rotulados foram na faixa de 8 a 30. Das emulsões analisadas, 30% apresentaram valores de FPS próximos do valor rotulado, 30% apresentaram valores acima e 40% apresentaram valores abaixo do valor rotulado. O método espectrofotométrico proposto é simples e rápido para determinação preliminar in vitro do FPS de emulsões protetoras solar.

  8. Headspace hollow fiber protected liquid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy for speciation and determination of volatile organic compounds of selenium in environmental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Ensieh; Sillanpää, Mika; Najafi, Nahid Mashkouri

    2011-01-21

    A simple and novel speciation method for the determination of volatile organic compounds of selenium (dimethylselenide (DMSe) and dimethyldiselenide (DMDSe) has been developed using a headspace hollow fiber protected liquid-phase microextraction (HS-HF-LPME) combined with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic solvent impregnated in the pores and filled inside the porous hollow fiber membrane was used as an extraction interface in the HS-HF-LPME of the compounds. The effect of different variables on the extraction efficiency was studied simultaneously using an experimental design. The variables of interest in the HS-HF-LPME were sample volume, extraction time, temperature of sample solution, ionic strength, stirring rate and dwelling time. A Plackett-Burman design was performed for screening in order to determine the significant variables affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were optimized by a Box-Behnken design (BBD) and the response surface equations were derived. Under optimum conditions, preconcentration factors up to 1250 and 1170 were achieved for DMSe and DMDSe respectively. The detection limit and relative standard deviation (RSD) (n=5, c=50 μg L(-1)) for DMSe were 65 ng L(-1) and 4.8%, respectively. They were also obtained for DMDSe as 57 ng L(-1) and 3.9%, respectively. The developed technique was found to be applicable to spiked environmental and biological samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Does public health system provide adequate financial risk protection to its clients? Out of pocket expenditure on inpatient care at secondary level public health institutions: Causes and determinants in an eastern Indian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Sarit Kumar; Choudhury, Sarmistha

    2018-02-09

    This study is undertaken to estimate the out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) for various diseases and its determinants at secondary level public health facilities in Odisha. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the inpatients utilising secondary level public health facilities in the 2 districts of Odisha. More than 80% of the inpatients were selected conveniently, and data on OOPE and socioeconomic status of patients were collected. The OOPE was estimated separately on surgery, nonsurgery, and child birth conditions. Ordinary least square regression models were developed to explain the factors determining OOPE. The mean OOPE for the secondary care facility was Indian National Rupee 3136.14, (95% CI: 2869.08-3403.19), of which, Indian National Rupee 1622.79 (95% CI: 1462.70-1782.89) was on medicine constituting 79% of total medical expenditure. The mean OOPE on surgery was highest followed by nonsurgery and child birth conditions. The OOPE is mainly influenced by caste and educational status of patients as revealed by the regression results. With increase in social status, the OOPE increases and the results are statistically significant. This evidence should be used to design financial strategies to reduce OOPE at secondary care public health facilities, which is largely due to medicine, diagnostic services, and transport expenditure. Efforts should be made to protect the interest of the poor, who utilise public health facility in a low resource setting in India. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. VIP protection from CBRN hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszeta, D.

    2009-01-01

    Protection of heads of state/government from CBRN threats requires flexibility and advanced planning. The best approach to CBRN countermeasures in a close protection context combine traditional close protection techniques, sound security practices, and a good understanding of the technical nature of the threat. Poor general security practices make for poor CBRN protection. This paper addresses a methodology for assessing the viability of threats to protected persons/VIPs and provides an overview of close protection in the CBRN environment. It is important to define the scope of CBRN response in the close protection context. Some threat agents are more applicable to a military environment than to the type of attack consistent with assassination. By focussing the scope of CBRN close protection more specifically on the more technically viable threats, appropriate concepts of operation can be developed. Concepts of operation, developed with an understanding of the threat, determine the requirement for advanced preparation and the training and equipping of protective details. Most of the responses required in CBRN incidents are well served by tactically sound close protection procedures. The fundamental principles are: rapid identification of hazard, speed, use of protective technology, and medical interventions, including rapid decontamination and basic and advanced life support measures. This paper does not contain confidential or classified information and represents only the opinion of its author. It does not represent any official policy or opinion of the authors present or previous employers.(author)

  11. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  12. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137 Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  13. Protecting Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  14. Immobilization induced osteopenia is strain specific in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodberg, Andreas; Vegger, Jens Bay; Jensen, Michael Vinkel

    2015-01-01

    Immobilization causes rapid and massive bone loss. By comparing Botulinum Toxin A (BTX)-induced bone loss in mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds we investigated whether the genetic background had an influence on the severity of the osteopenia. Secondly, we investigated whether BTX had....... The present study shows that BTX-induced immobilization causes the greatest loss of cortical and trabecular bone in C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J mice. A smaller loss of bone microstructure and fracture strength was seen in BALB/cJ mice, while the bone microstructure and fracture strength of C3H/HeN mice were...

  15. Host strain specific sex pheromone variation in Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatos Ales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae consists of two distinct strains with different host plant preferences for corn and rice. To assess whether pheromonal-mediated behavioral isolation accompanies the habitat isolation on different host plants, we compared the sex pheromone composition among females of the two strains. Pheromone glands were extracted with or without injection of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN. To assess the mode of inheritance of this variation, we also analyzed the pheromone composition of F1 hybrid females. Results Relative to intra-strain variation, the pheromone composition of the two strains differed significantly. Corn strain females contained significantly more of the second most abundant pheromone compound Z11-16:Ac (m, and significantly less of most other compounds, than rice strain females. When females were injected with PBAN before their glands were extracted, the differences between the strains were less pronounced but still statistically significant. The pheromone composition of hybrid females showed a maternal inheritance of the major component Z9-14:Ac (M as well as of Z11-16:Ac (m. Most other compounds showed an inheritance indicating genetic dominance of the corn strain. The within-strain phenotypic correlations among the various components were consistent with their hypothesized biosynthetic pathway, and between-strain differences in the correlation structure suggested candidate genes that may explain the pheromone differences between the two strains. These include Δ9- and Δ11 desaturases, and possibly also a Δ7-desaturase, although the latter has not been identified in insects so far. Conclusion The two host strains of S. frugiperda produce systematically differing female sex pheromone blends. Previously-documented geographic variation in the sexual communication of this species did not take strain identity into account, and thus may be partly explained by different strain occurrence in different regions. The finding of pheromone differences reinforces the possibility of incipient reproductive isolation among these strains, previously shown to differ in the timing of nocturnal mating activity and host plant use. Finding the genetic basis of the pheromone differences, as well as these other biological traits, will help to elucidate the role of premating isolation in the continuing differentiation of these two strains that may eventually lead to speciation.

  16. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjana Devi Shrestha

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  17. Actualizing of calibration curves of 14C/C, 90Sr/Ca, 228Th/232Th in ivory for the determination of the post mortal interval of elephants and consequences of the radiation protection of non-human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupfner, R.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the activity concentration of the radionuclides 14 C/C and 90 Sr/Ca and 228 Th/ 232 Th applying combined radionuclide analyses methods has been proved to be a suitable tool for the purpose of an unambiguous age determination of elephant ivory [1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13]. Analysing representative and independently dated samples (N = 28) of ivory the curves fitting the post mortal interval (PMI) versus the activity concentration of the radionuclides mentioned above produced the data base enabling a more unambiguous age determination. Data from these studies origin [1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13] in analyses of ivory samples which were available up to the 2012. During the last five years there was a gap in information of the future trend of 14 C/C and 90 Sr/Ca. Up to this study it was not possible to assess whether the future level of 14 C/C as well as 90 Sr/Ca can analytically be distinguished from the level before 1954. At about 1954 the activity concentration of radionuclides from the atmospheric nuclear explosion, as 14 C and 90 Sr, increased in ivory significantly. This study aims in closing this information gap. The results of analyses of 14 C/C, 90 Sr/Ca, 228 Th/ 232 Th in ivory with PMI values ranging from 1 to 5 years are presented and interpreted. These data enable an actualization of the calibration curves of PMI versus specific activities. This is necessary for a better understanding of the effect of blindness of 14 C/C dating and its prevention. On the base of all available results form independent dated ivory sample available up to 2015 a suitable analytical procedure is suggested which aims in a more precise and reliable age determination of elephant tusks. Results of determining of radionuclides 14 C/C and 90 Sr/Ca and 228 Th/ 232 Th in ivory are shown from before 1950 to 2015. These results are discussed with respect the purposes of dating as well as their significance to the radiation protection of nonhuman species.

  18. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  19. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  20. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnett, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    A protective suit used for isolating its wearer from radioactively contaminated areas is described in three parts. The first part includes the covering for the wearer's head, arms and upper body and at the waist is releasably fitted around an opening into the contaminated area. The second part includes the legs of the suit and is releasably connectible to the first part of the suit to enclose the wearer who is then supplied with air through an umbilical pipe. A further part surrounds the second part and is releasably connectible to it, enclosing a space between the parts. This further part is also releasably connectible to the opening at the waist to prevent egress from the contaminated area. The releasable connections between the parts may be bayonet type fittings or may be rotating T-shaped projections which engage in T-shaped grooves. (author)

  1. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  2. Inflation Protected Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Mahlstedt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.

  3. Radiation protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.; Kletter, H.; Dudczak, R.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation burden of medical personnel is low in trained medical staff. Higher doses can occur with therapeutic application of unsealed or sealed sources, if adequate shielding is not possible or not cared for or if radiation protection measures are not observed in work with higher activities of radionuclides. More important than immoderate structural alterations for shielding purposes is individual inspection with advice on the working place and optimisation of working methods, also in regard to the radiation protection. This is possible only by cooperation and by discussing risks and problems between the radiation protection officer and the working personnel in an overt manner, assuring the mutual understanding. Radiation protection concerning medical uses of radiation in the whole population and in patients especially is determined by the necessity of indication for the medical application of radiation, by quality control and lastly by the correct interpretation of results or consequences. The latter necessitates a good collaboration between nuclear medicine specialists and clinicians because of the individual particularity of the patient which must be considered in the evaluation of results. (Author)

  4. Adjustable Robust Strategies for Flood Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, Krzysztof; den Hertog, Dick; Kind, J.; Pustjens, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection is of major importance to many flood-prone regions and involves substantial investment and maintenance costs. Modern flood risk management requires often to determine a cost-efficient protection strategy, i.e., one with lowest possible long run cost and satisfying flood protection

  5. Protecting health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann; Linetsky, Asya; Ashick, Donna

    2008-10-01

    Water-soluble heavy metal salts injure health when they leach into water supplies. It is important that students who may later be employed in industries generating aqueous solutions of such salts are aware of the methods that can be used to recover the metal salt or transform it to non-health threatening products. The research was in the management of small quantities of hazardous wastes, such as are generated in school, college, and university teaching laboratories; in research laboratories; in industrial quality control and testing laboratories; and in small industries. Methods for the recovery of silver, nickel, and cobalt salts from relatively small volumes of aqueous solutions of their soluble salts were developed and tested. Where it was not practical to recover the metal salt, the practice has been to convert it to a water-insoluble salt, often the sulfide. This requires the use of highly toxic reagents. It was found that a number of heavy metal salts can be precipitated as the silicates, returning them to the form in which they are found in the natural ore. These salts show similar solubility properties to the sulfides in neutral, acidic, and basic aqueous solutions. The work has determined the conditions, quantities, and solution acidity that result in the most effective precipitation of the heavy metal salt. The concentration of the metal ions remaining in solution was measured by AA and ICP spectrometry. Specific methods have been developed for the conversion of salts of mercury and chromium to nonsoluble products.

  6. Scour and Scour Protection for Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    A test programme has been performed to determine the necessary scour protection around a various types of foundation for an offshore windturbine. Furthermore the unprotected scour depths have been investigated.......A test programme has been performed to determine the necessary scour protection around a various types of foundation for an offshore windturbine. Furthermore the unprotected scour depths have been investigated....

  7. Radiation protection and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skryabin, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    determination of the strategy and tactics of radiological protection of the rural population. (authors)

  8. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contact Us Share It's Small Business ... WIFIA Tweets by @EPAScottPruitt View on Twitter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Video Highlights It's Small Business Week ...

  9. Source Water Protection Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defines drinking water sources (source water), identifies drinking water sources, and describes source water assessments and protection, roles of government and organizations in drinking water source protection

  10. Laser Protection TIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Protection TIL conducts research and analysis of laser protection materials along with integration schemes. The lab's objectives are to limit energy coming...

  11. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, design evaluation, and probably a redesign or refinement. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary's capabilities, and range of adversary's tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, open-quotes what to protect against whom.close quotes The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control elements, procedures, communication devices, and protective forces personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. This paper reviews the physical protection system design and methodology mentioned above. Examples of the steps required and a brief introduction to some of the technologies used in modem physical protections system are given

  12. Relay protection coordination with generator capability curve, excitation system limiters and power system relay protections settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relay protection settings performed in the largest thermal powerplant (TE "Nikola Tesla B" are reffered and explained in this paper. The first calculation step is related to the coordination of the maximum stator current limiter settings, the overcurrent protection with inverse characteristics settings and the permitted overload of the generator stator B1. In the second calculation step the settings of impedance generator protection are determined, and the methods and criteria according to which the calculations are done are described. Criteria used to provide the protection to fulfill the backup protection role in the event of malfunction of the main protection of the transmission system. are clarified. The calculation of all protection functions (32 functions of generator B1 were performed in the project "Coordination of relay protection blocks B1 and B2 with the system of excitation and power system protections -TENT B".

  13. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  14. A practical contribution to the dosimetry of fast neutrons in radio-protection - determination of the integrated dose in man using the 32S(n, p)32P reaction (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, J.; Chabidon, M.

    1963-01-01

    The problem of fast neutron dosimetry using activation is studied from the radio-protection point of view. The practical development of methods for analyzing phosphorus 32 produced by the activation of sulphur 32 in human hair by the reaction 32 S(n, p) 32 P is described. The sensitivity obtained is 5 rad. A preliminary study was made of the variations in the natural sulphur and phosphorus concentrations. (authors) [fr

  15. Focus radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebermann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  16. Protective eyewear selection for interventional fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Glenn M; Newcomb, Richard D; Molella, Robin; Varkey, Prathibha; Hagen, Philip T; Schueler, Beth A

    2013-02-01

    Three protective eyewear models were evaluated to determine effectiveness in reducing radiation dose to a fluoroscopist's eyes. The performance of the protective eyewear was measured using radiation dosimeters in a fluoroscopy suite. An Eyewear Protection Factor was determined for each model in each of three exposure orientations. The protection was strongly influenced by the location of the radiation source. When the source was in front of the fluoroscopist, the lead equivalence was important. When the source was to the side of the fluoroscopist, the cross section of the side shield had a significant influence on protection. Protective eyewear selection needs to include consideration of job task and head orientation to the radiation source as well as the possibility that face shape and eyewear fit may also impact the radiation dose to the eye.

  17. Convergence of Copyright and Trademark Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Holub, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Convergence of Copyright and Trademark Protection Key Words: Copyright, Trademark, Protection, Convergence Abstract: The thesis analyzes the concept of copyright and trademark protection in Czech law and the consequences of their simultaneous operation. The aim is to determine whether the existing legislation responds the current trends and demands in our society, where business and arts are becoming interconnected and where the boundaries between those disciplines are blurred. Both protectio...

  18. Nephelometric determination of fluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R.E.

    1936-01-01

    Fluorine in minerals may be determined with the nephelometer to about 1 per cent of the fluorine. The determination is made on an aliquot of the sodium chloride solution of the fluorine, obtained by the Berzelius method of extraction. The fluorine is precipitated as colloidal calcium fluoride in alcoholic solution, gelatin serving as a protective colloid. Arsenates, sulfates, and phosphates, which interfere with the determination, must be removed.

  19. 49 CFR 193.2625 - Corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion protection. 193.2625 Section 193.2625...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2625 Corrosion protection. (a) Each operator shall determine which metallic components could, unless corrosion is controlled, have their integrity or reliability...

  20. Determination of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction with in-situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoi Sim Nancy; Sng, Mui Tiang; Basheer, Chanbasha; Lee, Hian Kee

    2007-04-27

    Hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) together with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was investigated for the analysis of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water samples. The degradation products studied were those of nerve and blister agents, and a psychotomimetic agent. Extractions were successfully performed coupled with in-situ derivatisation using a mixture of solvent and derivatising agent. The protection of the moisture-sensitive derivatising agent was afforded by the hollow fibre. Parameters such as extraction solvent, pH, salt concentration, stirring speed and extraction time were optimised using spiked deionised water samples. The linear range established was between 0.005 and 5 microg ml(-1) depending on analyte, with squared regression coefficients ranging from 0.9929 to 1.0000. Relative standard deviations ranged from 9% to 22%. As compared to those of solid-phase microextraction, the limits of detection (0.01-0.54 microg l(-1)) of the newly-developed approach were significantly improved.

  1. 40 CFR 35.2103 - Priority determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority determination. 35.2103 Section 35.2103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2103 Priority determination...

  2. Identification of immune and viral correlates of norovirus protective immunity through comparative study of intra-cluster norovirus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhu

    Full Text Available Whether or not primary norovirus infections induce protective immunity has become a controversial issue, potentially confounded by the comparison of data from genetically distinct norovirus strains. Early human volunteer studies performed with a norovirus-positive inoculum initially led to the conclusion that primary infection does not generate long-term, protective immunity. More recently though, the epidemiological pattern of norovirus pandemics has led to the extrapolation that primary norovirus infection induces herd immunity. While these are seemingly discordant observations, they may in fact reflect virus strain-, cluster-, or genogroup-specific differences in protective immunity induction. Here, we report that highly genetically related intra-cluster murine norovirus strains differ dramatically in their ability to induce a protective immune response: Primary MNV-3 infection induced robust and cross-reactive protection, whereas primary MNV-1 infection induced modest homotypic and no heterotypic protection. In addition to this fundamental observation that intra-cluster norovirus strains display remarkable differences in protective immunity induction, we report three additional important observations relevant to norovirus:host interactions. First, antibody and CD4⁺ T cells are essential to controlling secondary norovirus infections. Second, the viral minor structural protein VP2 regulates the maturation of antigen presenting cells and protective immunity induction in a virus strain-specific manner, pointing to a mechanism by which MNV-1 may prevent the stimulation of memory immune responses. Third, VF1-mediated regulation of cytokine induction also correlates with protective immunity induction. Thus, two highly genetically-related norovirus strains displayed striking differences in induction of protective immune responses, strongly suggesting that the interpretation of norovirus immunity and vaccine studies must consider potential virus

  3. Decree of the President of the Republic No. 1150 of 12 December 1972 determining the procedure for inclusion in the list of qualified experts and authorized physicians charged with supervision of protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    This Decree was made under DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 and determines the procedure to be complied with concerning the technical and professional qualifications of qualified experts and approved physicians. (NEA) [fr

  4. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

  5. Antioxidants: Protecting Healthy Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrients Antioxidants - Protecting Healthy Cells Print Email Antioxidants - Protecting Healthy Cells Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... to cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Antioxidants — such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, ...

  6. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  7. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms on the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  8. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms at the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  9. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms at the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste

  10. Endangered Species Protection Bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endangered Species Protection Bulletins set forth geographically specific pesticide use limitations for the protection of threatened and endangered (listed) species and their designated critical habitat. Find out how to get and use Bulletins.

  11. Noise and Hearing Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Noise and Hearing Protection Noise and Hearing Protection Patient ... it is. How can I tell if a noise is dangerous? People differ in their sensitivity to ...

  12. Information protection playbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the Information Protection Playbook is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information protection (IP) professionals who must provide adequate information security at a reasonable cost. It emphasizes a holistic view of IP: one that protects the applications, systems, and networks that deliver business information from failures of confidentiality, integrity, availability, trust and accountability, and privacy. Using the guidelines provided in the Information Protection Playbook, security and information technology (IT) managers will learn how to

  13. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  14. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  15. Environmental Protection Agency, Protecting Children's Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Protecting Children's Environmental Health Children are often more vulnerable to pollutants ... during development. Learn more about children's health, the environment, and what you can do. Basic Information Children ...

  16. Introduction to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H. de; Troesch, G.

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are developed through the five chapters of the manual: radiation dosimetry, basic principles, dose units and radiation protection instrumentation; protection against external irradiation and internal contamination; safety of nuclear facilities, principles, regulations and organization; radiation protection into nuclear reactors; environmental monitoring of radioactive wastes and effluents [fr

  17. Radiation protection seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Seminar, was organized by the Argentina Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine, and Bacon Laboratory, the 20 june 2012, in the Buenos Aires city of Argentina. In this event were presented some papers on the following topics: methods of decontamination, radiation protection of patients; concepts of radiation protection and dosimetry.

  18. Determination of basic degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction with in-situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoi Sim Nancy; Sng, Mui Tiang; Basheer, Chanbasha; Lee, Hian Kee

    2008-07-04

    Hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was, for the first time, investigated for the in-situ derivatisation and analysis of basic degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water samples. The degradation products studied were those of nerve and blister agents, and a psychotomimetic agent. Extractions with in-situ derivatisation were successfully performed using a mixture of solvent and derivatising agent. The protection of the moisture-sensitive derivatising agent was afforded by the hydrophobic hollow fibre. Parameters such as type of derivatising agent, extraction solvent, pH, salt concentration, stirring speed and extraction time were optimised using spiked deionised water samples. The linear range established was between 0.05 and 25 microg ml(-1) depending on analyte, with squared regression coefficients ranging from 0.9959 to 0.9996. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 6% to 10%. As comparison, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was also evaluated and extraction conditions such as pH, salt concentration, stirring speed and extraction time were optimised. This work also represented the first report of such an in-situ derivatisation approach for SPME of basic analytes. The linear range established was between 0.5 and 25 microg ml(-1) depending on analyte, with squared regression coefficients ranging from 0.9946 to 0.9998. RSDs ranged from 5% to 22%. The limits of detection of HF-LPME (0.04-0.36 microg l(-1)) showed improvement over those of SPME (0.06-0.77 microg l(-1)).

  19. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  20. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  1. Numerical differential protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric lines.Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing.The emphasis is then pla

  2. Radiation protection in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, O.I.; Hajmusa, E.A.; Shaddad, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory framework as established by the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) Act, promulgated in 1996, is described in the report. Three levels of responsibility in meeting radiation protection requirements are established: the Board, the Radiation Protection Technical Committee as the competent authority in the field of radiation protection, and the SAEC Department of Radiation Protection and Environmental Monitoring as the implementing technical body. The report also refers to environmental activities, patient doses in diagnostic radiology, the management of disused sources, emergency preparedness and orphan sources, and the national training activities in the radiation protection field. (author)

  3. Personal protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert

  4. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  5. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  6. Relay protection coordination with generator capability curve, excitation system limiters and power system relay protections settings

    OpenAIRE

    Buha Danilo; Buha Boško; Jačić Dušan; Gligorov Saša; Božilov Marko; Marinković Savo; Milosavljević Srđan

    2016-01-01

    The relay protection settings performed in the largest thermal powerplant (TE "Nikola Tesla B") are reffered and explained in this paper. The first calculation step is related to the coordination of the maximum stator current limiter settings, the overcurrent protection with inverse characteristics settings and the permitted overload of the generator stator B1. In the second calculation step the settings of impedance generator protection are determined, and the methods and criteria according ...

  7. State duties of protection and fundamental rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Starck

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Duties of protection are duties of the state to protect certain legal interests of its citizens. They cover the interests of life, health, freedom and property and also protect some other interests and certain constitutionally recognised institutions. State duties of protection must be considered in connection with fundamental rights. The foundations of modern constitutionalism and attendant procedures are essential to develop guidelines for a constructive critique of the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court. This is done with reference to the recent history of France, Germany and England. The historical excursus reveals that a single theory underlies the variety of constitutional states. The development of the constitutional state gave rise to the significance of the preservation of freedom through the maintenance of law and the separation of powers. This has given rise to various legal devices, based also in part on experience with moderate rule and earlier theories of the imperium limitatum.A textual analysis of the German Basic Law is undertaken to determine whether and how the duties of protection are expressly created. Furthermore, the duties that have been discovered in the Basic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court are considered. These duties include the protection of human life and health, personal freedom, the right to autonomous development of one's personality, freedom of science, research and teaching, marriage and the family, children, mothers, professional freedom, property and the protection of German nationals against foreign states. Finally the justification of such duties and the constitutional control of the manner of protection are considered.In a final section a critique of relevant constitutional jurisprudence is undertaken. It is argued that claims to protection cannot be directly binding law. They presuppose legislation. If statutory protection is connected with infringements of third-party fundamental rights

  8. Protecting plutonium: physical safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, J.F.

    1975-10-01

    In the development of physical protection systems, objectives for improving overall performance include the following: (1) Increase the time required for the malefactor to achieve his goal; (2) decrease the time required for detection of malevolent activities; (3) reduce the time for adequate response force arrival; (4) increase the capability to neutralize the malefactor; (5) reduce the total protection system costs, while increasing the level of protection; (6) improve acceptance levels (social, environmental, legal, and institutional); and (7) increase nuclear fuel cycle safety. Fortunately, there is sufficient lead time and technical base to explore and develop new protection system concepts so that a completely integrated and tested protection system capable of providing unprecedented levels of security can be available when needed. Although it will be impossible to completely eliminate all risks, it should be both possible and economically feasible to install protection systems which will deter or prevent a malefactor from using the nuclear fuel cycle to disrupt society

  9. Training in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, F.

    1998-01-01

    Persons who are exposed to ionizing radiation at their workplace have to be trained in radiation protection. According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance the person with responsibility in radiation protection has to guarantee that the training is performed twice a year. Our training material was created especially for the persons defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Ordinance. It enables persons who teach (generally the radiation protection officer) to perform the training without tedious study and preparation of the documents. Our material is not just another textbook for radiation protection but rather a folder with colour transparencies and explanatory texts which make a difference in volume and price in comparison to other existing materials. (orig.) [de

  10. Protection using telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Deregulation in both the telecommunication and electric power industry, together with new telecommunication network technologies and advances in numerical protection, has resulted in the need to reconsider traditional methods of delivering tele-protection schemes and their associated bearer services. Fibre-optic technology is commonly deployed in new telecommunication networks for inter-station communication and utility-owned and public telecommunication networks from third parties are available for protection purposes. (author)

  11. Radiological protection act, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and dissolves An Bord Fuinnimh Nuicleigh (the Board), transferring its assets and liabilities to the Institute. It sets out a range of radiation protection measures to be taken by various Ministers in the event of a radiological emergency and gives effect at national level to the Assistance Convention, the Early Notification Convention and the Physical Protection Convention. The Institute is the competent Irish authority for the three Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  12. Emergency protection from aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-07-01

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved

  13. Refugee status determination: three challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Refugee status determination (RSD, which is vital to the protection of so many asylum seekers worldwide, is at best an imperfect, haphazard and challenging process. It merits greater attention and appropriate reform.

  14. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ascough

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell

  15. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Paterson, Suzanna; Chiu, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies) that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell generation and

  16. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Paterson, Suzanna; Chiu, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies) that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell generation and

  17. Cathodic Protection Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs Navy design and engineering of ship and submarine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for underwater hull corrosion control and...

  18. Radiation protection in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Cuadros, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection in Bolivia has gone through a number of stages. Initially, in the 1970s, the focus was mainly on the analysis of environmental sources resulting from the nuclear tests carried out by France in the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the focus switched somewhat to radiation protection in connection with the mining of uranium and in the area of public health. During the third stage, radiation protection in other areas became important as the use of radiation sources was introduced. Finally, during the present -- fourth -- stage, radiation protection regulations are being introduced and mechanisms for the control of radiation sources are being established. (author)

  19. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  20. Radiological protection report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    on the basis of international recommendations. ENSI uses inspections and comparative measurements to ensure that the necessary calibrated radiological protection measurement equipment is available and that it is used for its intended purpose in order to determine correct values. For this purpose, it operates a test centre accredited to ISO 17025. The network operated by ENSI for automatically monitoring the dose rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants measures dose rates in the vicinity of nuclear power stations all year round and 24 hours a day. The 10-minute, hourly and daily mean rates measured can be viewed on ENSI's web site in real time. This monitoring network serves to secure evidence for the authorities and in dealings with the public. No local increases in dose rates that could be attributed to discharges from nuclear power plants were detected in the reporting year. Sporadic, locally high measurements are due to fluctuations in natural background radiation, e.g. after rainfall. The programme JRODOS (Java-based Realtime Online DecisiOn Support system) has been used since the beginning of 2016 to model atmospheric spread and calculate the dose, should an event occur. JRODOS allows the direct use of 3D weather forecast data from the COSMO-1 model routinely used by MeteoSwiss with a grid size of 1 km. The COSMO-1 model supplies forecasts stretching up to 24 hours into the future with high spatial and temporal resolution. In order to reflect the small scale structure of the Swiss countryside and that of southern Germany, JRODOS uses the very high resolution elevation model from the Swiss Federal Office of Topography. This means that together with the aerial radiometric equipment, there are invaluable, precise instruments available at all times for making current assessments (diagnoses) as well as forecasts of the radiological situation. In the reporting year, all thresholds contained in the Federal Ordinance on radiation protection were met. There

  1. Porous-membrane-protected polyaniline-coated SBA-15 nanocomposite micro-solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of parabens in cosmetic products and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Pandidan, Sara; Aliakbari, Azam; Raofie, Farhad; Amini, Mostafa M

    2015-04-01

    A SBA-15/polyaniline para-toluenesulfonic acid nanocomposite supported micro-solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed for the extraction of parabens (methylparaben, ethylparaben, and propylparaben) from wastewater and cosmetic products. The variables of interest in the extraction process were pH of sample, sample and eluent volumes, sorbent amount, salting-out effect, extraction and desorption time, and stirring rate. A Plackett-Burman design was performed for the screening of variables in order to determine the significant variables affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were optimized by using a central composite design. The optimum experimental conditions found at 50 mL sample solution, extraction and desorption times of 40 and 20 min, respectively, 500 μL of 3% v/v acetic acid in methanol as eluent, 0.01 M salt addition, and 10 mg of the sorbent. Under the optimum conditions, the developed method provided detection limits in the range of 0.08-0.4 ng/mL with good repeatability (RSD% parabens. Finally, this fast and efficient method was employed for the determination of target analytes in cosmetic products and wastewater, and satisfactory results were obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  3. Regulations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

  4. Individual protections and ergonomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The object of this conference was the protective clothing against radioactive contamination. The regulatory frame, the physiological constraints and the human factor are the different aspects studied through the conference with a constant objective, the optimization of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  5. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    This ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities

  6. Radiation protection products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The basic terms of radiation protection means, these means and their parts are defined. Radiation protection products are classified into nine groups and their outer appearance and design are described. The standard also gives equivalent terms in Czech, Russian, Polish, Hungarian, German, Bulgarian and Romanian. (E.S.)

  7. Licensing and Patent Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Aniruddha Bagchi; Arijit Mukherjee

    2010-01-01

    We show the impact of technology licensing on optimal patent policy. Strong patent protection that eliminates imitation may not be the equilibrium outcome in the presence of licensing. Depending on the cost of innovation, licensing may either increase or reduce the strength of the patent protection.

  8. Respirators and protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The basic object in the use of protective clothing and equipment is to prevent contamination of the skin and to prevent inhalation and ingestion of radioactive isotopes or other toxic materials. This book is a guide to deciding the kind and quantity of protective equipment needed for a particular type of laboratory or operation.

  9. Protection of multimaterial assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, L. Zheludkevich; Silvar, Kallip; Maria, Serdechnova

    2016-01-01

    The light-weight design calls for broader utilization of multimaterial mixes (M3) in different engineering structures, especially in the transportation area. Together with joining technologies for hybrid structures, the optimization of the life cycle of such systems is an issue of prime importance. Multimaterial structures are often prone to faster degradation under service conditions because of galvanically forced electrochemical corrosion. The protection technologies traditionally used for single-material structures are not always applicable for multimaterial design because of compatibility issues and a stronger thermodynamic driving force for degradation. In this chapter different strategies for protection of multimaterials structures are briefly overviewed. The main focus is on new alternative protection systems based on combination of synergistic inhibiting mixtures introduced into protective coatings. A road map which can be followed in order to create an efficient active protection coating for hybrid structures is suggested.

  10. Optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Optimisation of radiation protection is one of the key elements in the current radiation protection philosophy. The present system of dose limitation was issued in 1977 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and includes, in addition to the requirements of justification of practices and limitation of individual doses, the requirement that all exposures be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking social and economic factors into account. This last principle is usually referred to as optimisation of radiation protection, or the ALARA principle. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised an ad hoc meeting, in liaison with the NEA committees on the safety of nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  11. Municipal climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alber, G. [Klima-Buendnis - Alianza Clima e.V., Climate Alliance of European Cities with Indigenous Rainforest Peoples (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    Municipal climate protection is not only an important contribution to protecting the Earth's climate, but also yields local benefits such as promoting industry, or reducing emissions and noise and, not least, provides incentives for innovation and new forms of cooperation. Nonetheless, climate protection remains a challenge, for there is still a long way to go until the necessary climate change policy targets are met. Therefore, the Climate Alliance has developed a methodology as a recommendation to local authorities for the strategic development of programs of action that encompass all activity areas of relevance to climate protection. It is to support local authorities from their initial decision to engage in climate protection right through to their monitoring of the performance of measures implemented. (orig.)

  12. Introduction to Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent, although there was one paper that discussed beam-induced damage for the SLAC linac (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) as early as in 1967. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and to the increase of energy stored in the beam. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping ...

  13. 40 CFR 61.23 - Determining compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) computer code COMPLY-R. An underground uranium mine owner or operator... 61.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.23 Determining compliance. (a) Compliance with the emission...

  14. Innovative protection cookbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A large portion of the international community relies on expert judgment and military expertise to form the protection strategy of weapons-grade nuclear materials. This approach can be less than effectual for two primary reasons. First, much of the nuclear material that needs the most protection is not in a static form and located in easily secured storage locations. Some of the most effective measures for protection of in-process material are administrative and procedural in nature. There are basic protection differences between countries just like there are differences in baking bread. However, the necessary steps to produce bread are basically the same around the world. Certain ingredients are required to give it flavor, make it rise, and have a certain texture. So it is in the development of protection systems. A measure of intrusion detection, some access controls and searches, a pinch of computerized accounting, a layer of delay barriers, and a smidgen of armed response--and the basis for a 'cookbook' is born. Any and all protection systems can begin with simple elements that can be just as effective as the most sophisticated modern components. This paper will describe some of those simple, but effective, innovative protection measures. (author)

  15. Optimization in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta Perez, Clarice de Freitas

    1996-01-01

    The optimization concept in radiation protection is, in its essence, practical. In each aspect that we deal with the man, it is necessary to take frequent decisions such as: what is the protection level to be pursued, since the protection levels under consideration provide doses lower than the appropriate annual limits. The optimization gives a basic framework of the minding that is appropriate to conduct to a balance kind of the resources available for the protection and protection level obtained against a multitude of factors and constrains in a manner to obtain the best result. In this work, was performed the optimization, from the radiation protection point of view, of a facility project who enclose two shielded hot cells where will be handled UO 2 small plate with 50% of U-235 burn-up, irradiated in the research swimming pool reactor, IEA-R1. To obtain this goal were specified the relevant factors and criteria, were applied the main techniques used in a decision-making in radiological protection, presently adopted and was performed a sensibility study of the factors and criteria used in this work. In order to obtain a greater agility in applying the techniques for decision-making was developed a micro computer program. (author)

  16. Radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A prerequisite for the safe use of ionizing radiation in a country is the availability of an adequate infrastructure to achieve the desired degree of protection. The extent of such an infrastructure, generally comprising regulatory mechanisms and technical capabilities for application and enforcement of regulations, has to be commensurate with the stage of technological development. The expanding application of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research calls for vigorous promotion of effective radiation protection efforts, not only to prevent any unsafe practices but also to assess correctly and provide authoritative information on the safety of adopted practices. Experience reveals that radiation protection practices vary considerably from one country to another. The regulatory structures and type of organization with regard to radiation protection are very different, depending on a number of factors such as the constitutional framework, the legal and administrative systems of the country concerned, the state of technical development, the status of application of radiation sources, the existence of research and associated institutions, and the technical skills and financial resources available. Radiation protection principles evolve with time as further experience is gained and as new research evidence becomes available. Regulation of radiation protection has to take account of such changes and adapt to changing conditions. Forty-eight papers from 29 Member States and two International Organizations were presented in nine scientific sessions. Topics included radiation protection regulation and licensing notification, registration, inspection and control programmes, education and training, the role of supporting institutions such as national laboratories and research institutes, the role of professional associations, the contribution of radiation protection services, and international activities. A concluding panel addressed development strategies to

  17. Protected areas and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  19. Ethics and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2007-01-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle

  20. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  1. POWER SUPPLY PROTECTIVE CIRCUITRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recommendation a corrective action plan was made as a solution to the high cost of common and protective circuitry in terms, of reliability of the power supply types A, B, C, D and E in the Minuteman system. (Author)

  2. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  3. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harvey became 'a landmark in the evolution of drone usage.' Learn more in NFPA Journal Storm stats ... YouTube GooglePlus Blogger Pinterest RSSFeeds Instagram Terms of Use Privacy Policy © National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2017

  4. Pollinator Protection Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developed by EPA, this ensures that pesticide risk assessments and risk management decisions use best available information and scientific methods, and full evaluation of pollinator protection when making registration decisions.

  5. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  6. Radiation protection in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1996-02-01

    It covers technical procedures in medical applications for cancer treatment. Radiation protection principles in brachytherapy. Medical uses in therapy for Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Ra-226, Ir-192, Au-198, Bi-214, Pb-214. (The author)

  7. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, J.

    1983-11-01

    Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

  8. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  9. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E

    2013-01-01

    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  10. Protection without Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Ricardo A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a Third World approach to transborder data flow. Suggests developing local capacities for computer power, confining data flow within borders, and providing protection for local development efforts. (PD)

  11. Power system protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata, S.S.; Damborg, M.J.; Jampala, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Power systems of the 21st century will be more modern, and complex, utilizing the latest available technologies. At the same time, generating plants will have to operate with minimal spinning margins and energy transportation has to take place at critical levels due to environmental and economical constraints. These factors dictate that the power systems be protected with optimum sensitivity, selectivity and time of operation to assure maximum reliability, and security at minimal cost. With an increasing role played by digital computers in every aspect of protection, it is important to take a critical and fresh look at the art and science of relaying and protection. The main objective of this paper is to review the past, present and future of power system protection from a software point of view

  12. High voltage protection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Circuit protects technical personnel and test equipment from hazardous currents conducted through safety barriers and into data acquisition equipment. Network isolates energy source, restricts arcing to remote area, and dissipates harmlessly residual energy transient.

  13. Asbestos: Protect Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics: Asbestos Contact Us Share Protect Your Family How to Identify Materials That May Contain Asbestos ... Improper removal may actually increase your and your family’s exposure to asbestos fibers. Top of Page Asbestos ...

  14. Protect Yourself: Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dust masks) can be used for dust, mists, welding fumes, etc. They do not provide protection from ... tion against most vapors, acid gases, dust or welding fumes. Cartridges/filters must match contaminant(s) and be ...

  15. Tritium protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions

  16. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  17. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  18. Radiation protection forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

  19. Energy and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filonenko, Yu.Ya.; Korobchanskij, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Translated version is reviewed of the book - Energy and Environmental Protection - edited by M.Kh.Pal and issued in Germany in the series ''Environmental Protection Practices''. The book written by well-known specialists gives the reader a comprehensive idea of environmentally friendly methods of lignite and coal mining, waste processing and utilization, as well as ecologically clean practices of electric power and heat production

  20. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  1. Manual of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.; Boisserie, G.

    1992-01-01

    This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

  2. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  3. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

  4. 14 CFR 314.16 - Final determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final determination. 314.16 Section 314.16... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.16 Final determination... determination and, within 3 business days after the determination, serve a copy of the order on the persons...

  5. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment

  6. Protection Coordination in Electrical Substation Part-2 Unit Protections (Differential and Distance Protection)

    OpenAIRE

    TÜR, Mehmet Rida; Shobole, Abdulfetah; Baysal, Mustafa; Wadi, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Power systemsmust be protected against faults to ensure quality and reliable generation,transmission and distribution of power systems. Power system protection is providedby the protection relays. This paper is the second part of the ProtectionCoordination study for the Siddik Kardesler Substation. The protection fortransmission lines, transformer, bus bars and customer feeders is provided byovercurrent protection, differential and distance protection schemes. In thispaper, issues related wit...

  7. Workstations studies and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahaye, T.; Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Paquet, F.; Beneli, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Vrigneaud, J.M.; Gauron, C.; Petrequin, A.; Frison, D.; Jeannin, B.; Charles, D.; Carballeda, G.; Crouail, P.; Valot, C.

    2006-01-01

    This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)

  8. Corrosion protection of low-carbon steel using exopolysaccharide coatings from Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenstadt, Victoria L; Côté, Gregory L; Willett, J L

    2011-06-01

    Corrosion of metals is a serious and challenging problem faced worldwide by industry. Purified Leuconostoc mesenteroides exopolysaccharide (EPS) coatings, cast from aqueous solution, inhibited the corrosion of low-carbon steel as determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). There were two different corrosion behaviors exhibited when EPS films from different strains were cast onto the steel. One EPS coating reacted immediately with the steel substrate to form an iron (III) oxide layer ("rust") during the drying process while another did not. The samples that did not flash corrode had higher corrosion inhibition and formed an iron (II) passivation layer during EIS testing that persisted after the cells were disassembled. Corrosion inhibition was strain-specific as polysaccharides with similar structure did not have the same corrosion potential.

  9. Determination of half-value layers and tenth-value layer to barite as shielding against X radiation in radiological protection; Determinacao de camadas semi-redutoras e deci-redutoras para barita como blindagem contra radiacao x em protecao radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, G.A.; Aragao Filho, G.L., E-mail: lopesgideon@gmail.com, E-mail: geraldo_lemos10@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Almeida Junior, A.T., E-mail: airton.almeilda@fundacentro.gov.br [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, M.A.P., E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Araujo, F.G.S., E-mail: fgabrielaraujo@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP /REDEMAT), MG (Brazil); Nogueira, M.S., E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The barium mortar has been widely used as radiation shielding material for X and gamma radiations in Brazil, by presenting some advantages as the high rate of efficiency in radiation shielding, the easy handling and application, the facility to be found in the national market and low cost. The determination of the half-value layers (HVL) and tenth-value layer (TVL) of different types of barite becomes the major factor to characterize the attenuation of these materials, in order to ensure the efficiency and quality of projects shielding, by ensuring the safety of workers occupationally exposed to radiation and of individuals to the public. Thus, plates of different thickness of mortar of barite were made for determination of their HVL and TVL. The plates were irradiated with X-ray qualities for radiological protection according to standard ISO 4037. A system of CdTe spectrometry was used to acquire spectra transmitted, in the presence of each plate, and their combinations. The areas of the spectra obtained, depending on the total thickness of the plates used in the arrangement were used to determine the attenuation curves. From these curves obtained in this work was to establish the HVL and TVL.

  10. Determination of attenuation properties of massive ceramic bricks cladded with mortars containing barite used as protective barrier for radiodiagnostic rooms; Determinacao das propriedades de atenuacao de tijolos ceramicos macicos revestidos com argamassa baritada em sua utilizacao como barreira de protecao em salas de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Frieda S.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Tilly Junior, Joao G. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Costa, Paulo R.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Pereira, Marco A.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the properties of attenuation of the walls built with massive ceramic bricks to be used as protection barriers in environments of Medicine and Dentistry, when submitted to X-ray diagnosis. Massive ceramic bricks are used thoroughly in constructions as a calking element. The properties of attenuation of these materials were obtained starting from the application of the model of Archer to a group of attenuation curves with wide beams generated in the tensions of 70, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 150 kVp. A radiological equipment of constant potential was used in the Laboratory of IEE/USP, two cameras of ionization of 6cm{sup 3}, coupled to two radiation monitors. The results show that for a tension of 100kVp, the thickness of 10cm of wall made with massive ceramic bricks corresponds to 1mm of lead. (author)

  11. Concepts in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncescu, M.

    1996-01-01

    This monograph provides basic notions and principles in dosimetry and radiation protection in compliance with two fundamental works: IAEA Safety Series No.115 - International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - and Publication no. 60 of International Commission on Radiological Protection. After the review of quantities and units necessary in radiation protection, the book presents the new values of dose limits as well as the values of 'radiation weighting factor', 'tissue weighting factor' and 'conversion factor intake-dose' (committed effective dose per unit intake) by ingestion and inhalation for 30 most important radionuclides. The new values of dose limits, lower than the old values, are a challenge for the radiation protection, especially of the 'public' where the dose limit diminished by a factor of five relative to the earlier edition. The new value of dose limit for public, 1 mSv per year (obviously over the natural exposure of 2.4 mSv per year), imposes new action ways and levels in radiation protection, especially in some cases of exacerbated natural radioactivity. The book provides the calculus of external exposure with the Gamma constant expressed in adequate units, to make the calculation easier. In the calculus of protection shield for gamma sources one uses a method, which while approximate helps save time. The calculus of internal exposure is made using the conversion factor intake-dose. Finally, the 'dosimetric watch' of the natural and artificial radioactivity of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is intended to comply with the International Basic Safety Standards. Each chapter ends with a set of illustrative problems which enhances the reader's understanding of underlying concepts and current methods used in the field

  12. Radiation protection optimization of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

  13. Protection of Marine Structures by Artificial Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Ottesen Hansen, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    protection of the bridge and of the grounding ships aspects like erosion of the islands and hydraulic resistance to the water flow through the belt must also be considered. The paper is focused on the design aspects related to ship grounding. It presents a theoretical model, which predicts the ship motions......The theoretical background for the ship protection islands for the Great Belt suspension bridge in Denmark is presented. The islands protect two anchor blocks and five approach bridge piers of the Great Belt Suspension Bridge in Denmark. The design is a complex multi-discipline task. Besides......, the loads and the deformations during a ship grounding event on a soft sea bed. The models applied to determine the shapes of the artificial islands, which most efficiently protect the bridge from ship impact while posing minimum risk of damage to the grounding ships, requiring the least amount of building...

  14. Second Ordinance amending the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance brings about the following changes: (1) Introduction of the concept of effective dose, reduction of limits for partial body dose, adoption of the radiotoxicity values of radionuclides as established by the EC Basis Standards; (2) introduction of a working-life-related dose limit of 400 mSv; (3) supplementing provisions for the protection of the population, particularly by the standard procedure for radioecological impact assessment and determination of dose factors; (4) supplementing provisions on the use of radioactive substances in medicine and medical research; (5) supplementing provisions on health physics monitoring; (6) provisions for improving the supervision and controls in the transport of radioactive substances; (7) definition of activities and their assignment to the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; (8) revision of the waste management provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (HP) [de

  15. Digital integrated protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, M.; Furet, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of technological progress it is now possible to achieve more elaborate protection functions able to follow more closely the phenomena to be supervised. For this reason the CEA, Framatome and Merlin/Gerin/CERCI have undertaken in commonn to develop a Digital Integrated Protection System (D.I.P.S.). This system is designed with the following aims: to improve the safety of the station, . to improve its availability, . to facilitate installation, . to facilitate tests and maintenance. The main characteristics adopted are: . possibilities of obtaining more elaborate monitoring and protection algorithm treatments, . order 4 redundancy of transducers, associated instruments and signal processing, . possibility of inhibiting part of the protection system, . standardisation of equipment, physical and electrical separation of redundant units, . use of multiplexed connections, . automation of tests. Four flow charts are presented: - DIPS with four APUP (Acquisition and Processing Unit for Protection) - APUP - LSU (Logic Safeguard Unit), number LSU corresponding to number fluidic safeguard circuits, - structure of a function unit, - main functions of the APUP [fr

  16. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  17. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  18. Special protective concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouniol, P.

    2001-01-01

    Concrete is the most convenient material when large-scale radiation protection is needed. Thus, special concretes for nuclear purposes are used in various facilities like reactors, reprocessing centers, storage sites, accelerators, hospitals with nuclear medicine equipment, food ionization centers etc.. The recent advances made in civil engineering for the improvement of concrete durability and compactness are for a large part transposable to protection concretes. This article presents the basic knowledge about protection concretes with the associated typological and technological aspects. A large part is devoted to the intrinsic properties of concretes and to their behaviour in irradiation and temperature conditions: 1 - definition and field of application of special protective concretes; 2 - evolution of concepts and technologies (durability of structures, techniques of formulation, new additives, market evolution); 3 - design of protective structures (preliminary study, radiation characteristics, thermal constraints, damping and dimensioning, mechanical criteria); 4 - formulation of special concretes (general principles, granulates, hydraulic binders, pulverulent additives, water/cement ratio, reference composition of some special concretes); 5 - properties of special concretes (damping and thermo-mechanical properties); 6 - induced-irradiation and temperature phenomena (activation, radiolysis, mineralogical transformations, drying, shrinking, creep, corrosion of reinforcement). (J.S.)

  19. System level ESD protection

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection.  It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD...

  20. Determination of ulcer protecting effect of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chi

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... total restoration due to a number of limitation (Akhtar et al., 1992; Calam and Baron, 2001; Singh et ... metallic cages, fed standard diet and water ad libitum and acclimatized for seven days before the study. .... ulceration causes severe damage to the system (Goulart et al., 2005) which can be alleviated by ...

  1. Laboratory Determination of Thermal Protection System Materials Surface Catalytic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Zalar, A., "Recombination of Neutral Hydrogen Atoms on AISI 304 Stainless Steel Surface," Applied Surface Science, Vol. 144-145, 1999, pp. 399-403. 57...and test environments. Typically, these fits contain only the temperature dependence of the loss probability, with no information on pressure or...generated in the MESOX test facility in the PROMES-CNRS laboratory on a variety of ceramic materials.47-50 The MESOX facility uses a flow tube

  2. Radiation Protection of New Lightweight Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials Determined

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Weight savings as high as 80 percent could be achieved by simply switching from aluminum electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding covers for spacecraft power systems to EMI covers made from intercalated graphite fiber composites. Because EMI covers typically make up about one-fifth of the power system mass, this change would decrease the mass of a spacecraft power system by more than 15 percent. Intercalated graphite fibers are made by diffusing guest atoms or molecules, such as bromine, between the carbon planes of the graphite fibers. The resulting bromine-intercalated fibers have mechanical and thermal properties nearly identical to pristine graphite fibers, but their resistivity is lower by a factor of 5, giving them better electrical conductivity than stainless steel and making these composites suitable for EMI shielding.

  3. Determination of ulcer protecting effect of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol extract of dietary vegetable, Gongronema latifolium, was evaluated for anti-ulcer activity. The extract was obtained from air-dried, pulverized leaves of the plant following its maceration in ethanol, filteration with Whatman No. 1 filter paper and drying at 110°C. Fractionation of the dry crude ethanol extract was ...

  4. Establishing an Information Security System related to Physical Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2009-01-01

    A physical protection system (PPS) integrates people, procedures and equipment for the protection of assets or facilities against theft, sabotage or other malevolent attacks. In the physical protection field, it is important the maintain confidentiality of PPS related information, such as the alarm system layout, detailed maps of buildings, and guard schedules. In this abstract, we suggest establishing a methodology for an information security system. The first step in this methodology is to determine the information to protect and possible adversaries. Next, system designers should draw all possible paths to the information and arrange appropriate protection elements. Finally he/she should analyze and upgrade their information security system

  5. Australia’s protected area network fails to adequately protect the world’s most threatened marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R. Devitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain ecosystems and biodiversity, Australia has long invested in the development of marine and terrestrial protected area networks. Within this land- and sea-scape, northern Australia represents a global population stronghold for four species of the world’s most threatened marine fish family, the sawfishes (family Pristidae. The distribution of sawfishes across northern Australia has previously only been coarsely estimated, and the adequacy of their representation in protected areas has not been evaluated. The calculated range of each species was intersected with Australia’s marine and terrestrial protected area datasets, and targets of 10% marine and 17% inland range protection were used to determine adequacy of sawfish range protection. Marine targets have been achieved for all species, but the inland range protection targets have not been met for any species. Results indicate that further protection of inland habitats is required in order to improve sawfish protection and habitat connectivity.

  6. Radiological protection report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (HSK) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2007. It provides comprehensive data on radiation protection activities in Switzerland during 2007. This is the fourth annual summary report on the radiological protection issues regulated by the Inspectorate. It provides comprehensive data on doses for the staff and for individual jobs. It also includes year-to-year comparisons and comments on the continuing decline in collective and average doses for persons exposed to radiation in the course of their work. Radiation doses are commented on. Radiation in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities is commented on. The Swiss radiation measurement network is commented on and the results obtained are discussed. The Inspectorate concludes that radiological protection in Swiss nuclear facilities is carried out consistently and in compliance with existing legislation

  7. Smart Machine Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.; Nelson, D.; Grillo, A.; Spencer, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Olsen, J.; Millsom, D.; White, G.; Gromme, T.; Allison, S.; Underwood, K.; Zelazny, M.; Kang, H.

    1991-11-01

    A Machine Protection System implemented on the SLC automatically controls the beam repetition rates in the accelerator so that radiation or temperature faults slow the repetition rate to bring the fault within tolerance without shutting down the machine. This process allows the accelerator to aid in the fault diagnostic process, and the protection system automatically restores the beams back to normal rates when the fault is diagnosed and corrected. The user interface includes facilities to monitor the performance of the system, and track rate limits, faults, and recoveries. There is an edit facility to define the devices to be included in the protection system, along with their set points, limits, and trip points. This set point and limit data is downloaded into the CAMAC modules, and the configuration data is compiled into a logical decision tree for the 68030 processor. 3 figs

  8. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  9. Radiation protecting clothing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Kotaro; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide radiation protecting clothing materials excellent in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and flexing strength. Constitution: The radiation protecting clothing materials according to this invention has pure lead sheets comprising a thin pure lead foil of 50 to 150 μm and radiation resistant organic materials, for example, polyethylene with high neutron shielding effect disposed to one or both surfaces thereof. The material are excellent in the repeating bending fatigue and mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and flexibility and, accordingly, radiation protecting clothings prepared by using them along or laminating them also possess these excellent characteristics. Further, they are excellent in the handlability, particularly, durability to the repeated holding and extension, as well as are preferable in the physical movability and feeling upon putting. The clothing materials may be cut into an appropriate size, or stitched into clothings made by radiation-resistant materials. In this case, pure lead sheets are used in lamination. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Smart machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.; Nelson, D.; Grillo, A.

    1992-01-01

    A Machine Protection System implemented on the SLC automatically controls the beam repetition rates in the accelerator so that radiation or temperature faults slow the repetition rate to bring the fault within tolerance without shutting down the machine. This process allows the accelerators to aid in the fault diagnostic process, and the protection system automatically restores the beams back to normal rates when the fault is diagnosed and corrected. The user interface includes facilities to monitor the performance of the system, and track rate limits, faults, and recoveries. There is an edit facility to define the devices to be included in the protection system, along with their set points, limits, and trip points. This set point and limit data is downloaded into the CAMAC modules, and the configuration data is complied into a logical decision tree for the 68030 processor. (author)

  11. Education in Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Kasal, B.; Tezak, S.; Poropat, M.; Kubelka, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This paper discussed the problem of the education in radiation protection. All aspects of education are included started with primary school and lasted with very specialised courses for the experts. In the last few years the lack of interest for education in radiation protection was recognised by many agencies included also IAEA and EU commission. In this paper the reasons for this situation will be presented and the way how to promote this subject again. It is not possible to prevent effects of radiation on environment and population if qualified and well educated experts do not exist. The situation in the field of education in radiation protection in Croatia will be presented, according to the new regulations in this field. (author)

  12. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system (PPS) includes the determination of the PPS objectives, the initial design of a PPS, the evaluation of the design, and probably, the redesign or refinement of the system. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary`s capabilities, and range of adversary`s tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the PPS, that is, ``what to protect against whom.`` The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control devices, communication devices, procedures, and protective force personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a PPS is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the PPS objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. After the system is installed, the threat and system parameters may change with time. If they do, the analysis must be performed periodically to ensure the system objectives are still being met.

  13. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system (PPS) includes the determination of the PPS objectives, the initial design of a PPS, the evaluation of the design, and probably, the redesign or refinement of the system. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary's capabilities, and range of adversary's tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the PPS, that is, ''what to protect against whom.'' The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control devices, communication devices, procedures, and protective force personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a PPS is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the PPS objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. After the system is installed, the threat and system parameters may change with time. If they do, the analysis must be performed periodically to ensure the system objectives are still being met

  14. Electrostatic protection of the solar power satellite and rectenna. Part 2: Lightning protection of the rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulations and laboratory tests were used to evaluate the hazard posed by lightning flashes to ground on the Solar Power Satellite rectenna and to make recommendations on a lightning protection system for the rectenna. The distribution of lightning over the lower 48 of the continental United States was determined, as were the interactions of lightning with the rectenna and the modes in which those interactions could damage the rectenna. Lightning protection was both required and feasible. Several systems of lightning protection were considered and evaluated. These included two systems that employed lightning rods of different lengths and placed on top of the rectenna's billboards and a third, distribution companies; it consists of short lightning rods all along the length of each billboard that are connected by a horizontal wire above the billboard. The distributed lightning protection system afforded greater protection than the other systems considered and was easier to integrate into the rectenna's structural design.

  15. Material for radioactive protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  16. Environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable

  17. Protection of personality rights

    OpenAIRE

    Strejcová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with the legal regulation of protection of personality rights. According to the certain changes in personality protection legal regulation caused by recent adoption of new Civil Code, Law no. 89/2012 Coll., the topic appears to be up to date. The aim of this thesis is to bring current legal regulation of this issue in its general terms. The thesis is divided into eight chapters. The first chapter explains basic terms such as personality and general right of personality. Secon...

  18. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  19. Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, H.M.; Schnuer, K.

    1992-01-01

    The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

  20. Photochromic ultraviolet protective shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudjil, Kamal

    2000-10-01

    Damage to the eye can result from unexpectedly low levels of light, particularly at the shorter wavelengths. UV emitting lasers such as Excimer (248 nm, 308 nm, 351 nm) and HeCd lasers (325 nm, 354 nm) are increasingly used in various applications including: medical, research (spectroscopy), stereolithography and semiconductor industries. Therefore, protection against harmful UV light is needed, but more importantly, development of a material that will react to detect the presence of UV light while completely protecting the wearer, is of great interest. Such materials have been developed with the use of lightweight clear plastics such as acrylics by incorporation of UV reactive photochromic compounds into a polymeric matrix.

  1. Radiation protection in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viragh, Elemer

    1985-01-01

    The education of secondary school students in the fields of nuclear sciences was strictly limited according to the 9th recommendations of the ICRP issued in 1966 saying that people under age 18 are not allowed to deal with ionizing radiations. Due to the changes concerning the concept of radiation protection, new opportunities for teaching nuclear technology even in the secondary schools were opened. The 36th recommendations of the ICRP published in 1983 dealing with the maximum permissible doses and the measures taken for radiation protection should be kept in mind while organizing the education of the pupils between age 16 and 18. (V.N.)

  2. Protecting patron privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Beckstrom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In a world where almost anyone with computer savvy can hack, track, and record the online activities of others, your library can serve as a protected haven for your visitors who rely on the Internet to conduct research-if you take the necessary steps to safeguard their privacy. This book shows you how to protect patrons' privacy while using the technology that your library provides, including public computers, Internet access, wireless networks, and other devices. Logically organized into two major sections, the first part of the book discusses why the privacy of your users is of paramount

  3. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  4. Radiation protection glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

  5. Infectivity ofPlasmodium falciparumsporozoites determines emerging parasitemia in infected volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Matthew B B; Wammes, Linda J; Langenberg, Marijke C C; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Walk, Jona; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Graumans, Wouter; Koelewijn, Rob; Franetich, Jean-François; Chishimba, Sandra; Gerdsen, Max; Lorthiois, Audrey; van de Vegte, Marga; Mazier, Dominique; Bijker, Else M; van Hellemond, Jaap J; van Genderen, Perry J J; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2017-06-21

    Malaria sporozoites must first undergo intrahepatic development before a pathogenic blood-stage infection is established. The success of infection depends on host and parasite factors. In healthy human volunteers undergoing controlled human malaria infection (CHMI), we directly compared three clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates for their ability to infect primary human hepatocytes in vitro and to drive the production of blood-stage parasites in vivo. Our data show a correlation between the efficiency of strain-specific sporozoite invasion of human hepatocytes and the dynamics of patent parasitemia in study subjects, highlighting intrinsic differences in infectivity among P. falciparum isolates from distinct geographical locales. The observed heterogeneity in infectivity among strains underscores the value of assessing the protective efficacy of candidate malaria vaccines against heterologous strains in the CHMI model. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  7. 78 FR 52832 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Management Agency, United States Department of Agriculture, Beacon Facility, Stop 0812, Room 421, P.O. Box... 12866 The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has determined that this rule is not-significant for the... is definite, and whether ACRSI will be implemented before the Catastrophic Risk Protection...

  8. Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Photo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Photo-Damage Induced by Ultraviolet A in Human Skin Fibroblasts. ... Protein concentration of the samples was determined using a PA102 Bradford protein assay kit. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide anion radicals were ...

  9. International radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghayev, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Today the recommendations of ICRP have a profound influence on radiation protection all over the world. The latest recommendations were issued as publication no 60 (ICRP 60 1991). This document elaborated a conceptual framework for radiation protection based on ethics, experimental work, and risk assessment. The justification principle prohibits practices involving additional radiation exposures unless they produce sufficient societal benefits. The three main principles of the ICRP for proposed or continuing radiation-protection practices are: 1) the justification principle; 2)the optimization principle; 3) the dose limitation principle.The optimization principle requires managers to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), taking into account economic and social factors. the dose-limitation principle limits exposure of individuals to radiation. The system of radiological protection recommended by CRP for intervention is based on two additional principles: the proposed intervention should do more good than harm; one should optimize the form, scale and duration of intervention. Although the ICRP does not employ the term precautionary principle it does use the concept, at least implicitly

  10. The responsibility to protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Matt

    2005-01-01

    The decision whether, if ever, to intervene in the affairs of a sovereign state with military force has become a critical issue of the post Cold War era. In 2000 the Canadian government launched the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), which in 2001 published its findings in The Responsibility to Protect. The Commission found broad support for the notion of sovereignty not only as a right, but also a responsibility, the responsibility of a state to provide protection for its people. The primary responsibility for protecting citizens rests with states. But when states are unable or unwilling to provide this protection, or are themselves the perpetrators of atrocities, the Commission argues that the international community has a responsibility temporarily to step in, forcefully if necessary. The Commission resisted the temptation to identify human rights violations falling short of outright killing or ethnic cleansing. This eliminates the possibility of intervening on the basis of systematic oppression of human rights or intervening to remove a military dictatorship. The intention of the report was to provoke debate; to strengthen the role of the United Nations and ensure that such interventions were multilateral and meeting the wider needs of a region and not the interests of major powers. There is an ongoing need to ensure that the Security Council is effective and that resources match the political will. These debates must continue within a UN framework.

  11. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  12. Computer Room Water Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bennett J.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the protection of computer rooms from water. Sources of water and potentially vulnerable areas in computer rooms are described. Water detection is then discussed, and several detection systems are detailed. Prices and manufacturers' telephone numbers for some of the systems are included. Water cleanup is also briefly considered. (MES)

  13. Radiation protection textbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.

    2007-01-01

    This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

  14. Radiation Protection in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carazo, N.

    1979-01-01

    The tasks connected with radiation protection are allocated to the National Institute for Nuclear Energy in Guatemala. Regulatory measures are further needed to identify the responsibilities of various authorities to ensure that all radiation workers are provided with personal dosemeters. (author)

  15. Armored garment for protecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D [Albuquerque, NM; Brazfield, Richard [Albuquerque, NM; Lawrie, Catherine [Tijeras, NM; Lawrie, David [Tijeras, NM; Preece, Dale S [Watkins, CO

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  16. Multifactorial antimicrobial wood protectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Coleman; Carol A. Clausen

    2008-01-01

    It is unlikely that a single antimicrobial compound, whether synthetic or natural, will provide the ‘magic bullet’ for eliminating multiple biological agents affecting wood products. Development of synergistic combinations of selected compounds, especially those derived from natural sources, is recognized as a promising approach to improved wood protection. Recent...

  17. Painting for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepto, G.G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the use of special alloys, paint is still the most economical and practical method of protecting steel. Chlorinated rubber resin based paint systems are shown to be satisfactory in areas requiring decontamination as well as for outside exposed areas of nuclear power plants. (author)

  18. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  19. Maternity Protection at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  20. Applied Crop Protection 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of gricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse ...

  1. Radiation protection to firemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.S. de.

    1985-01-01

    The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author)

  2. Solar collector overheating protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaman, M.J.; Griessen, R.P.

    Prismatic structures in a thermal solar collector are used as overheating protection. Such structures reflect incoming light efficiently back whenever less thermal power is extracted from the solar collector. Maximum thermal power is generated when the prismatic structure is surrounded by a

  3. Beyond Pain and Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2007-01-01

    discourse on homosexual youth in Korea, protection discourse and pain discourse, the notion of identity itself will be critically examined and the girls' agency in destabilizing heteronormativity will be discussed. This study also deals with the appropriation of popular culture by the girls, suggesting...

  4. Women Refugees: An Imbalance of Protecting and Being Protected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Yazid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent refugee crisis in Europe has become a prominent human security issues that continues to receive international attention. The main debate has been on the accommodation of refugees in European countries and the issues that arise from the sudden influx of people into those countries. Camps were established with limited time and information to prepare, leading to issues within these temporary living arrangements. Conditions are worse for women refugees, who suffer similarly to the men but have higher rates of insecurity. This paper attempts to argue for greater protection for women refugees. To do so, it will describe women refugees’ conditions and needs and relate them to an enforced moral responsibility. It argues for more attention to be given to women refugees with specific conditions, those who have been marginalized in most refugee policies. The main argument is that better protection for and empowerment of women refugees is urgently needed due to their own conditions and needs alongside the moral obligations to take care of children and the elderly. To do so, policies have to consult the specific needs of women. An important step towards this effort is to develop further and more detailed classification of women and their specific needs: women refugees’ needs are not merely determined by their own conditions but also the conditions of those they are responsible for.

  5. Radiation protection in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Maadheed, Khalid; Al Khatibeh, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The State of Qatar has become a member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) beam the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. In July, 2000 the Supreme Council was established and charged with all matters related to environmental protection. The Supreme Council joined the IAEA Projects on upgrading protection infrastructure in West Asia region. A preliminary research was initiated to discover where radiation sources are being used, and the legal framework, if any, to regulate their use. The research indicated that radiation sources were being used in the industrial practices (well logging, industrial radiography and nuclear gauges) and in medical practices (mainly diagnostic radiology). The research also indicated that there was virtually no legal framework to regulate them. In less than five years, the State of Qatar was able to issue the radiation protection law, three sets of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulations. In addition, several specific regulation work, dose limits and radiation protection officers were issued. A radiation Protection Department, comprising three sections was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have set up a proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. More recently, we established an early warning network for nuclear of radiological emergencies, consisting of 6 transplantable stations, five mobile stations and two navigating stations. This year, the network was augmented with five fixed station and an advanced early warning centre, which provides early warning via multiple means (MMS, Fax, E-mail and audio alarms). Last year we signed a nuclear

  6. Foundations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text; In 1996, the IAEA published the latest edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards or BSS) comprising basic requirements to be filled in all activities involving radiation exposure. The standards define internationally harmonized requirements and provide practical guidance for public authorities and services, employers and workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and health and safety communities. In the same year, the IAEA, through the technical cooperation programme, launched the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, a global initiative designed to help Member States establish the infrastructure needed to adhere to the BSS. To address the complexity of this task, the radiation protection team identified key elements, known as Thematic Safety Areas. These are: 1. Legislative Framework and Regulatory Infrastructure, Draft and put into effect radiation protection laws and regulations and establish and empower a national regulatory authority. 2. Occupational Exposure Control Protect the health and safety of each individual who faces the risk of radiation exposure in the workplace through individual and workplace monitoring programmes, including dose assessment, record keeping of doses and quality management. 3. Medical Exposure Control: Develop procedures and activities to control the exposure of patients undergoing diagnosis and/or treatment via diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine or radiotherapy through staff training, provision of basic quality control equipment, and the establishment of quality assurance programmes. 4. Public and Environmental Exposure Control: Develop means to protect both the public and the environment including: a) programmes to register, inventory and provide safe storage of unused radioactive sources and material; b) procedures to control and safely

  7. Protection study of a diagnostic system for electron beam at the output of an accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, Kaouther; Yaacoubi, Imen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the determination of the conception of a protection system dedicated to protect a diagnostic system in the CNSTN. According to this study, the suitable material for the protection against the electrons in the plexiglas and the supermalloy to protect the future diagnostic system against the magnetic field. (Author)

  8. 40 CFR 35.925-3 - Priority determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority determination. 35.925-3 Section 35.925-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Priority determination. That such works are entitled to priority in accordance with § 35.915, and that the...

  9. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, D.; Adlam, K.

    2000-01-01

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  10. Enhancing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    When a new radiotherapy center in Gezira, Sudan, delivers its first therapeutic dose to a cancer patient, two things happen: A young man begins to regain his health and looks forward to being better able to support his family and contribute to his community; and a developing nation realizes an important step toward deriving the social and economic benefits of nuclear science. The strategic application of nuclear technology in particular fields- human health, industry, food and agriculture, energy, water resources and environmental protection - has enormous potential to help shape the future of developing countries. But past radiological incidents, several of which involved high levels of exposure or death (Bolivia, Brazil, Cost Rica, Georgia, Ghana, Morocco, Panama and Thailand), underscore the inherent and very serious risks. For this reason, the IAEA's Departments of Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Safety and Security partner closely, particularly in the area of radiation protection. They strive to consider every minute detail in the equation that brings together radiation sources, modern technologies, people and the environment. Launched in 1996, the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (the Model Project) aimed to help Member States: achieve capacities that underpin the safe and secure application of nuclear technologies; establish a legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure; develop exposure control mechanisms to protect workers, medical patients, the public and the environment; and achieve preparedness and planned response to radiological emergencies. In fact, the hospital scenario above typically marks several years of intense collaboration amongst scientists, legislators, regulators, politicians and administrators from both Member States and the IAEA, orchestrated and aided by regional managers and technical experts from the IAEA. As radiation protection team members can attest, every application of nuclear technology

  11. 40 CFR 231.5 - Recommended determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended determination. 231.5... 404(c) PROCEDURES § 231.5 Recommended determination. (a) The Regional Administrator or his designee... public notice of the proposed determination, either withdraw the proposed determination or prepare a...

  12. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  13. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  14. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  15. Digital protection in power plants. Electrical unit and line protection. Digital protection systems for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the digital protection systems for nuclear power plants. The evolution of protection devices, protection concept for power plants, concept of functional redundancy, references for digital protection, benefits for the customer well as concept fault recorder are presented. (author)

  16. Protecting the anaesthetised brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaesthetized brain is vulnerable to ischaemic insults, which could result in neurological deficits ranging from neuropsychological disturbances to stroke and even death. The risk of perioperative brain injury is relatively high in cardiac, neurosurgical and major vascular surgery, although it has also rarely been reported in noncardiac nonneurosurgical operations. Besides underlying risk factors such as cerebrovascular disease, advanced age, and cardiovascular disease, anaesthesia and surgery per se could also be a contributory factor. The anaesthesiologist plays a pivotal role in protecting the anaesthetized brain, both by taking preventive measures and instituting brain protection strategies. Despite advances and breakthroughs in pharmacological neuroprotection in the laboratory, currently there is no drug, anaesthetic or non-anaesthetic, which is available for clinical use. The anaesthesiologist has to rely on non-pharmacological modalities and neuromonitoring to prevent intraoperative brain injury

  17. EMP protection technology interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigation and assessment of the potential degrading and destructive effects associated with the nuclear electromagnetic (EMP) phenomena has created a large technological base. This base is indeed quite broad owing to the unique and system-pervasive character of the EMP. One of the aims of an emerging discipline, such as that associated with EMP, is to provide for adequate transfer and integration of the developing technology into the overall engineering community. The needs of the community and how EMP hardening and protection information can be transferred or exchanged are reviewed. Many of the current and generally available sources of information are listed, examples of interchange methods are provided, and problems of developing specifications, standards, and suitable guidelines for design and incorporation of protection are also discussed

  18. Airway protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Cough and swallow are highly coordinated reflex behaviors whose common purpose is to protect the airway. The pharynx is the common tube for air and food/liquid movement from the mouth into the thorax, has been largely overlooked, and is potentially seen as just a passive space. The thyropharyngeus muscle responds to cough inducing stimuli to prepare a transient holding area for material that has been removed from the subglottic airway. The cricopharyngeus muscle participates with the larynx to ensure regulation of pressure when a bolus/air is moving from the upper airway through to the thorax (i.e., inspiration or swallow) or the reverse (i.e., expiration reflex or vomiting). These vital mechanisms have not been evaluated in clinical conditions but could be impaired in many neurodegenerative diseases, leading to aspiration pneumonia. These newly described airway protective mechanisms need further study, especially in healthy and pathologic human populations.

  19. Lectures on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.; Consentius, K.

    1981-01-01

    All important subjects of radiation protection are presented in concise form; the explanations may serve as lecture manuscripts. The lectures are divided into 16 to 19 teaching units. Each teaching unit is supplemented by a slide to be projected on a screen while the text is read. This method of visual teaching has already been tried with good results in medicine and medical engineering. Pictures of the slides are given in the text so that the book may also be used for self-studies. The main facts are summarized at the end of each lesson. The finished book will consist of 8 lessons; the first three of these discuss 1. Radiation effects and hazards 2. Dose definitions and units and their role in radiology and radiation protection 3. Dose limits and legal specifications. (orig.) [de

  20. Superconducting coil protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    The protection system is based on a two-phase construction program. Phase I is the development of a reliable hardwired relay control system with a digital loop utilizing firmware and a microprocessor controller. Phase II is an expansion of the digital loop to include many heretofore unmonitored coil variables. These new monitored variables will be utilized to establish early quench detection and to formulate confirmation techniques of the quench detection mechanism. Established quench detection methods are discussed and a new approach to quench detection is presented. The new circuit is insensitive to external pulsed magnetic fields and the associated induced voltages. Reliability aspects of the coil protection system are discussed with respect to shutdowns of superconducting coil systems. Redundance and digital system methods are presented as related topics

  1. Overvoltage protection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Electrical equipment to be protected from overvoltage is connected with a possible source of overvoltage via an input conductor. A fuse is connected in series with the input conductor. A spark gap is connected between the input conductor and ground for conducting the overvoltage current to ground and for blowing the fuse to open the circuit to the electrical equipment. A pulse attenuator network is provided between the spark gap and the electrical equipment to be protected for attenuating the pulse of energy passing through the fuse and spark gap prior to blowing of the fuse. The pulse attenuator network includes additional shunt spark gaps, series inductance, and a series connection of a twisted shielded pair of conductors having low-voltage insulation.

  2. Challenges of protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fanning

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Local protection committees in North and South Kivu are tackling – with some success – a range of protection challenges.Since June 2010, Mukungu1 village in Kalehe, South Kivu, has welcomed 1,150 displaced households fleeing FDLR2 attacks during military operations in the area. A battalion of the national army arrived recently; they have set up checkpoints demanding a fee, do not speak any local language and have moved in with local families unasked. Forced labour and arbitrary arrests are widespread. Meanwhile, locals cannot farm fields near the forest as FDLR soldiers rape women who try – and have killed men who accompany them. The local community takes in IDPs but they warn that resources are limited.

  3. Airway Protective Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Pitts, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Cough and swallow are highly coordinated reflex behaviors whose common purpose is to protect the airway. The pharynx is the common tube for air and food/liquid movement from the mouth into the thorax, has been largely overlooked, and is potentially seen as just a passive space. The thyropharyngeus muscle responds to cough inducing stimuli to prepare a transient holding area for material that has been removed from the subglottic airway. The cricopharyngeus muscle participates with the larynx t...

  4. Protective garment ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  5. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.

    1978-05-01

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  6. Ceramic protective coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbach, F.; Nicoll, A.

    1987-01-01

    The basic material of the above-mentioned layer consists of pure aluminium oxide or essentially aluminium oxide. To improve this protective layer metal oxides from the groups IIA, IIIA, IIIB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIII of the periodic system are added to its basic material before the said protective coating is applied. In this way a corundum structure is formed in the case of aluminium oxide. Gallium oxide, vanadium oxide, chromium oxide or iron oxide are particularly suited for the correlation of such a corundum structure. The formation of the corundum structure increases the resistance of the protective coating to the corrosive effects of vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulfate. By the addition of a specific quantity of magnesium oxide it is possible not only to stimulate the formation of corundum but also to reduce the increase in grain size in the case of the aluminium oxide. The other metallic oxides are especially favorable to the formation of the corundum structure, so that preferably magnesium oxide is to be added to these metallic oxides in order to reduce the increase in grain size. (author)

  7. Radiation Protection: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2007-01-01

    As a federal research Centre, SCK-CEN has the statutory assignment to give priority to research related to safety, radioactive waste management, protection of man and environment, management of fissile and other strategic materials and social implications as part of the pursuit of sustainable development and to develop and gather the necessary knowledge and spread this knowledge through formation and communication. At the Division of Radiation Protection at SCK-CEN we are therefore active to maintain and enhance knowledge and expertise in each aspect of radiation protection: we study the risk of exposure - the way that radioactive materials spread in the environment and the potential for human contact - and the risk from exposure - how radiation affects human health; we perform health physics measurements; we are involved in emergency planning and preparedness and support to risk governance and decision taking. These activities are supported by radiation specific analysis and measurement techniques. These activities are not performed in isolation but in context of national and international collaborations or demands

  8. Principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamourtzounis, J.N.

    1969-01-01

    In the rapidly developing areas of occupational and public health devoted to the protection of people from both immediate and delayed harmful (and sometimes Irreversible) effects of radiation exposure, industrial hygienists, radiological physicists and radiologists must now assume the additional responsibility of protection against radiation. Everyone during his life will have had one or more X-rays taken for diagnostic purposes. The doses received, depending upon the site, are not harmful to the individual, from the genetic aspect, however, the increasing use of X-ray examinations does present a danger,since almost the whole population is involved. Rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and the practical extension of its use in medicine, agriculture and industry are steadily increasing the potential danger of large groups of the population being exposed to radiation, and radiation hazards are becoming an important aspect of industrial and public hygiene. WHO is concerned with the overall evaluation of population exposure from peaceful uses of atomic energy and through medical practice, the evaluation of radiation risks,and the control of medical radiation exposure. WHO stimulates and provides technical assistance for the development of appropriate programs of radiation protection with respect to the agricultural, industrial and medical applications of radioisotopes. X-rays and radium. (author)

  9. Radiation protection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecher, L.; Langmueller, G.; Tuerschmann, G.

    1997-01-01

    The safety, the quality and efficiency of the radiological monitoring systems for block one and two of the NPP Mochovce, designed and delivered by the general designer, should be increased by EUCOM Siemens. Modern, accident resistant and/or more powerful monitoring systems have been designed by Siemens will be added to the existing systems. To achieve this radiation measuring units will be installed inside the hermetic zone, in the reactor hall, at the stack, at the release water system and in the environment in the vicinity of the NPP. The presentation, the storage distribution and the processing of all measuring results also will be optimised by installing a modern high-performance computer system, the so-called Central Radiological Computer System 'CRCS', featuring a high availability. The components will be installed in the relevant control rooms all over the plant. With this computer system it is easy to control the radiation level inside and outside the NPP during normal operation and during and after an accident. Special programs, developed by Siemens support the staff by interpreting the consequences of radioactive releases into the environment and by initiating protection procedures during and after an accident. All functions of the system are available for emergency protection drills and training the staff interruption of the normal control procedure. For the personal protection a digital personal dosimetry system completely considering with the requirements of ICRP 60 and several contamination monitors will be installed. (authors)

  10. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners.

  11. Protecting the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili, O

    1993-01-01

    The 1991 African charter and the 1990 UN convention on the rights of the child have had an impact on efforts by Nigeria to legally protect the welfare of children. The African Charter and the international community are particularly concerned about legally protecting the best interests of children accused or found guilty of breaking the law: recognizing a legal age of responsibility for infringements of the penal code, separating a child, deprived of liberty from imprisoned adults when it is in the child's interests, and applying separate laws, procedures, authorities, and institutions for children. The African charter also seeks to shield children from environmental adversity and exploitation in employment or jobs that interfere with health and formal education. It is illegal to use children for begging, to abduct children, or to traffic in the sale of children by any person, including parents or legal guardians. Children are to be protected from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse in prostitution, pornographic activities, and coercion to perform sexual acts. Declines in infant mortality, elimination of diseases and malnutrition, and provision of education, particularly for female children and the gifted and the disadvantaged, are recommended. Pregnant adolescents should have access to education during and after the pregnancy. Protection is also sought from narcotic drug production, use, and trafficking, child marriage, and child abuse and torture, and participation in armed conflicts. Children are to be protected upon dissolution of marriage and in adoption. Children need to be assured the right to play and recreation. Nigeria has taken steps to implement fully the provisions of the convention, and to integrate the provisions within the existing Children and Young Persons Laws. The provisions will be integrated by the Department of Social Welfare of the Federal Ministry of Health and Social Services. More punitive enforcement measures will be included in the new

  12. Ground Water Quality Protection. State and Local Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Using regional case studies, this document examines representative programs for dealing with ground water contamination. Section one describes the ground water protection strategy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); (2) discusses the limited data available for determining the extent of contamination; (3) provides a listing of the…

  13. A Case Against First Amendment Protections for Commercial Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kent R.

    Although extending constitutional protection to commercial expression might benefit the consumer, the First Amendment is the wrong instrument for carrying out what are basically economic policies. While in most First Amendment cases the nature of the content determines whether it is constitutionally protected, advertising is distinct in that it…

  14. Protection of industrial and business secrets in environmental protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author investigates the relation between environmental protection and data protection, especially concerning the protection of industrial and business secrets. For this kind of conflict there are only general administrative and procedural provisions with little systematic order. Special provisions of data protection covering all aspects of industrial and business secrets, as for example in social or tax law, do not exist in German law until now. (WG) [de

  15. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M.

    1993-01-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs

  16. Radiation protection and dosimetry: basis. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, Luiz; Salati, Ivan; Di Prinzio, Renato; Di Prinzio, Antonieta R.

    2013-11-01

    A revised book 'Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: Fundamentals , prepared to meet the training courses offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and people interested in the subject, is presented. Concepts have been updated, especially the chapter on Radiological Magnitudes, due to upgrade of Standard CNEN-NN-3.01-Basic Guidelines on Radiological Protection, published in the Diario Oficial da Uniao on September 1, 2011. A chapter related to Waste Management, another on the Transport of Radioactive Materials and three annexes on: Standards of CNEN, Ionizing Radiation and Personnel Legislation and Determination of shields in Radiotherapy were included. Were also added several tables for use in radiological protection, to facilitate consultation

  17. Radiation protection in a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    For the personnel that is occupied with operation, monitoring, maintenance and repair work, working in a nuclear power station inevitably means spending a certain amount of time in areas exposed to radiation and handling radio-active materials. Effective radiation protection of these persons starts with the planning and designing the nuclear power station. The most important aspects of radiation protection in a nuclear power station are thorough preparation of the work, that is connected with exposure to radiation, appropriate and effective application of technical and administrative measures during the work, reliable and complete determination of the existing radiation level. The main objective in this respect is to keep the radiation level as low as possible, while using all reasonable means. This summary gives a description of radiation protection in the nuclear power plant and the experiences and results of the 10-year operation of the Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN). (orig.) [de

  18. Joint Project Manager (JPM) Chemical Biological Individual and Collective Protection Industry Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-22

    determined to be socially or economically disadvantaged. The program provides for direct awards without competition to these selected, qualified firms...i da sorp on ncrease fragmentation protection AND Filtration? UNCLASSIFIED 52 Joint Project Management Office for Individual Protection Conclusion

  19. Philosophy of radiological protection and radiation hazard protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kawano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection and the human safety in radiation facilities are strictly controlled by law. There are rules on the radiation measurement, too. In the present review, philosophy of the radiological protection and the radiation hazard protection law is outlined with reference to ICRP recommendations. (J.P.N.)

  20. Water Resources Policies and Authorities: Federal Participation in Shore Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This Engineer Regulation (ER) provides policies and guidelines for determining the extent of Federal participation in potential Federal projects for protection from shore erosion, hurricanes, and abnormal tidal and lake flooding...

  1. Testing the protective efficiency of personal respiratory protection devices in radiologically contaminated environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić Dušan S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of ammunition primed with depleted uranium is one of the hallmarks of modern combat operations, resulting in environmental contamination by particles of depleted uranium and uranium oxide, scattered around in the form of submicron-scale aerosols. This paper examined the protective effectiveness of the Serbian military's M3 protective face mask in relation to the presence of airborne depleted uranium and its by-products. Sodium chloride in solid aerosol form was used as a test substance and adequate physical simulator of such radioactive aerosols because its granulometric (particle size distribution met the requirements of suitability as a simulator. Determination of aerosol concentration was carried out by flame photometry method, whilst granulometric distribution was determined by an electric particles analyzer. It was established that the total internal leakage of the M3 protective mask was as much a function of the penetration of particles through the combined M3 filter as of the leaks along the fitting line of the user's face mask and the inhalation valve. In terms of its protective effect against aerosols of depleted uranium and associated oxides, the Serbian M3 protective mask was determined to be of high efficiency and physiological suitability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34034

  2. Radiological protection report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This is the 7 th Annual Report of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) on radiological protection in Swiss nuclear facilities. Section A deals with doses for staff and individual jobs and Section B covers releases from nuclear facilities and the monitoring of environmental radioactivity in their immediate vicinity. The year under review was again marked by an event classified by ENSI as Level 2 on the INES Scale. During maintenance work in the fuel-assembly transfer system at the Leibstadt nuclear power station, a diver recovered a pipe-like object. The object, which was highly radioactive, was the end piece from a jacketed pipe previously removed from the in-core instrumentation. Subsequent investigations showed that the diver had been exposed to a hand dose of 7.5 Sv and a complete-body dose of 28 mSv, both in excess of the annual limits specified in the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance. As with the INES-2 event in 2009, this event showed that particular attention is required when working with high and variable radiation fields. In terms of radiological protection, a range of measures must be introduced as a matter of urgency, including for example, measures to ensure that acoustic alarms and warnings from electronic dosimeters are audible immediately even under difficult working conditions. In addition, there needs to be a systematic identification of radiation fields and this information must be made available to all concerned. Neither collective nor average individual doses have changed significantly in recent years. The average individual dose for personnel in nuclear facilities is now 0.7 mSv. This is significantly lower than both the maximum annual limit for persons exposed to radiation in the course of their work and the average annual rate of exposure to radon for the population in Switzerland as a whole (3.2 mSv). The maximum individual dose in the Leibstadt nuclear power plant was 28 mSv. The maximum dose rate at the Goesgen

  3. Training in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina G, E.

    2014-08-01

    In the Peru, according to the current regulations, people that work with ionizing radiations should have an authorization (individual license), which is granted by the Technical Office of the National Authority that is the technical body of the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) manager of the control of ionizing radiations in the country. The individual license is obtained after the applicant fulfills the requested requirements, as having safety knowledge and radiological protection. Since its founding in 1972, the Centro Superior de Estudios Nucleares (CSEN) of the IPEN has carried out diverse training courses in order to that people can work in a safe way with ionizing radiations in medicine, industry and research, until the year 2013 have been organized 2231 courses that have allowed the training of 26213 people. The courses are organized according to the specific work that is carried out with radiations (medical radio-diagnostic, dental radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, industrial radiography, nuclear meters, logging while drilling, etc.). In their majority the courses are directed to people that will make use of radiations for first time, but refresher courses are also granted in the topic. The CSEN also carries out the Master degree programs highlighting the Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection carried out from the year 2004 with the support of the National University of Engineering. To the present has been carried out 2 programs and there is other being developed. In this work is shown the historical evolution of the radiological protection courses as well as the important thing that they are to work in a safe way in the country. (Author)

  4. Radiological Protection in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valetin, J.

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to underpin the Commission's 2007 Recommendations with regard to the medical exposure of patients, including their comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research. It addresses the proper application of the fundamental principles (justification, optimisation of protection, and application of dose limits) of the Commission's 2007 Recommendations to these individuals. With regard to medical exposure of patients, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits or dose constraints, because such limits would often do more harm than good. Often, there are concurrent chronic, severe, or even life-threatening medical conditions that are more critical than the radiation exposure. The emphasis is then on justification of the medical procedures and on the optimisation of radiological protection. In diagnostic and interventional procedures, justification of procedures (for a defined purpose and for an individual patient), and management of the patient dose commensurate with the medical task, are the appropriate mechanisms to avoid unnecessary or unproductive radiation exposure. Equipment features that facilitate patient dose management, and diagnostic reference levels derived at the appropriate national, regional, or local level, are likely to be the most effective approaches. In radiation therapy, the avoidance of accidents is a predominant issue. With regard to comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research, dose constraints are appropriate. Over the last decade, the Commission has published a number of documents that provided detailed advice related to radiological protection and safety in the medical applications of ionising radiation. Each of the publications addressed a specific topic defined by the type of radiation source and the medical discipline in which the source is applied, and was written with the intent of communicating directly with the relevant medical practitioners and supporting medical staff. This report

  5. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.

    1978-04-01

    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  6. Designing radiation protection signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines

  7. RHIC prefire protection masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, A.; Biscardi, C.; Curcio, T.; Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Fu, W.; Liaw, C. J.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2015-01-01

    The protection of the RHIC experimental detectors from damage due to beam hitting close upstream elements in cases of abort kicker prefires requires some dedicated precautionary measures with two general options: to bring the beam close to a limiting aperture (i.e. the beam pipe wall), as far upstream of the detector components as possible or, alternatively, to bring a limiting aperture close to the circulating beam. Spontaneous and random prefires of abort kicker modules (Pulse Forming Network, PFN) have a history as long as RHIC is being operated. The abort system consist of 5 kickers in per ring, each of them equipped with its own dedicated PFN.

  8. Tornado protection by venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable

  9. Protecting yourself at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Machin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available You need to look after your body when you are at work. This not only prevents you from being injured but it also prevents you from living the remainder of your life with a long-term injury. If you do get injured at work, it may reduce your ability to continue to do that job – which means you might not be able to bring the same amount of money home to support your family. Therefore, anything you can do to protect yourself from injury is important and you must prioritise your health and safety at all times while at work.

  10. Epidemiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology aims at providing direct evidence of the long term health effects in humans due to potentially dangerous exposures to various nuisance agents, including ionising radiation. Inappropriate interpretation and use of the results of epidemiological studies may result in inaccurate assessments of the risks associated with radiation exposure. This report presents the proceedings of a Workshop organised by the NEA to create an opportunity for epidemiologists and radiation protection specialists to exchange their experiences and views on the problems of methodology in epidemiological research and on the application of its results to the assessment of radiation risks

  11. Australia's radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In Australia, public exposure to ionizing radiation above background is considered to be negligible. Average occupational exposures are about 0.5 millisievert per year, although there are some specialized industries and professions where they are much higher. The National Health and Medical Research Council has therefore adopted a position similar to that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For the moment, no revision of exposure limits is recommended, but users are remined of their responsibility to ensure that exposures are kept low, particularly in those workplaces where significant exposures take place

  12. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.

    1983-01-01

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  13. Integrating protection into food aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bizzarri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Food Programme (WFP does not have a specific protection mandate but its activities are increasingly shaped by awareness of the need to protect women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV.

  14. Radiological protection Program of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiological protection program of CDTN, its purposes and rules, responsabilities, physical control, monitoring, personnel radiation protection, radiation sources and radioactive wastes control, emergency and accidents and siting are described. (C.M.) [pt

  15. Helping Residents Protect Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.

  16. Pan-Influenza A Protection by Prime–Boost Vaccination with Cold-Adapted Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Han Jang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses. Using a mouse model, we tested different prime–boost combinations of CAIVs for their ability to induce humoral and T-cell responses, and protective efficacy against H1 and H5 (HA group 1 as well as H3 and H7 (HA group 2 influenza viruses. Notably, even in the absence of antibody-mediated neutralizing activity or HA inhibitory activity in vitro, CAIVs provided a potent protection against heterologous and heterosubtypic lethal challenges in vivo. Heterologous combination of prime (H1–boost (H5 vaccine strains showed the most potent cross-protection efficacy. In vivo depletion experiments demonstrated not only that T cells and natural killer cells contributed to the cross-protection, but also the involvement of antibody-dependent mechanisms for the cross-protection. Vaccination-induced antibodies did not enhance the infectivity of heterologous viruses, and prime vaccination did not interfere with neutralizing antibody generation by the boost vaccination, allaying vaccine safety concerns associated with heterogeneity between the vaccines and challenge strains. Our data show that CAIV-based strategy can serve as a simple but powerful option for developing a “truly” universal influenza vaccine providing pan-influenza A protection, which has not been achieved yet by other vaccine strategies. The

  17. The Value of Forest Conservation for Water Quality Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Kreye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests protect water quality by reducing soil erosion, sedimentation, and pollution; yet there is little information about the economic value of conserving forests for water quality protection in much of the United States. To assess this value, we conducted a meta-analysis of willingness-to-pay (WTP for protecting unimpaired waters, and econometrically determined several significant drivers of WTP: type of conservation instrument (tool, aquatic resource type, geographic context, spatial scale, time, and household income. Using a benefit transfer to two highly forested sites, we illustrate the importance of these factors on WTP for water quality protection programs, forest conservation and policy design.

  18. Lightning protection of PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Enrico; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning strikes can affect photovoltaic (PV) generators and their installations, involving also the inverter's electronics. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the risk connected to lightning strikes in order to adopt the correct protective measures for the system. The Standard IEC (EN) 62305-2 reports the procedures for the risk calculation and for the choice of proper lightning protection systems. Usually the technical guidelines suggest protecting with SPDs (surge protective devices) b...

  19. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works.......The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  20. The principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to avoid or to reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation. In order to reduce these risks, the radiation protection uses three great principles: justification, optimization and limitation of radiation doses. to apply these principles, the radiation protection has regulatory and technical means adapted to three different categories of people: public, patients and workers. The nuclear safety authority elaborates the regulation, and carries out monitoring of the reliable application of radiation protection system. (N.C.)

  1. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  2. Information booklet on personal protective equipment: protective clothing and coverall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Personnel protective clothing are meant to provide protection to the user normally against radiant heat, flames, corrosive and other chemicals, radioactive contaminants and X-rays. Various types of leather, plastics and coated fabrics are available to fabricate these clothing. The material of the clothing should be capable of offering protection against the specific hazard involved. This information booklet covers the following four categories of protective clothing and coverall (i) flame/heat resistant suits (ii) suits for radiation protection (iii) chemical resistant suits for corrosive chemicals (iv) lead-rubber aprons for X-rays. (M.K.V.). 3 annexures, 1 appendix

  3. Student Leadership Role for Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Isabel S. Ramirez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the role of student organizations in the promotion of environmental education and protection. It assessed the student organizations’ initiatives and activities that address the environmental issues and problems. It determined whether student leadership can be an effective tool in addressing environmental concerns and promote environmental education. Descriptiveevaluative methods of research were used in the study. Documentary analysis was used to determine the programs, projects and activities conducted by the different student organizations along environmental education and protection. Interview and focused group discussions were employed to validate the secondary data and identify problems and constraints encountered by the organization. Results of the study showed that the University supports student leadership through the student organizations. Student organizations are empowered and given rights and privileges’ as stipulated in the student handbook. There were more than forty accredited student organizations in CBSUA. All of them initiated programs/projects and activities that are environment related as required by the university. Student leadership through student organizations is an effective tool in promoting environmental education and protection. Student empowerment through student organizations can promote student involvement in the most pressing concerns of environment protection.

  4. External dosimetry - Applications to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussot, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry is the essential component of radiation protection. It allows to determine by calculation and measurement the absorbed dose value, i.e. the energy amounts deposited in matter by ionizing radiations. It deals also with the irradiation effects on living organisms and with their biological consequences. This reference book gathers all the necessary information to understand and master the external dosimetry and the metrology of ionizing radiations, from the effects of radiations to the calibration of radiation protection devices. The first part is devoted to physical dosimetry and allows to obtain in a rigorous manner the mathematical formalisms leading to the absorbed dose for different ionizing radiation fields. The second part presents the biological effects of ionizing radiations on living matter and the determination of a set of specific radiation protection concepts and data to express the 'risk' to develop a radio-induced cancer. The third part deals with the metrology of ionizing radiations through the standardized study of the methods used for the calibration of radiation protection equipments. Some practical exercises with their corrections are proposed at the end of each chapter

  5. National congress of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

  6. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  7. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  8. Radiation protection primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, R.; Melzer, E.; Seissler, H.

    1986-01-01

    This 'radiation protection primer' does not pretend to give absolute, final answers to the many questions that have been arising after the Chernobyl accident. What it is intended to supply, as a schematic overview of problems resulting from nuclear accidents, and a likewise systematic outline of possible solutions and sensible reactions to such an event. The book takes up questions such as: What has happened to the soil. Will future harvests be 'clean' again. What does radioactivity to our drinking water and other waters. What are the effects of a radioactive fallout on food. What may we eat or drink. What happens to the human body after intake of radioactive air, or - even only slightly - contaminated food or water. What can we do to protect our health, and the health of our children. Is there anything else we can do in order to avoid such a disaster in future, except from shutting-off all reactors. The book itself presents some answers and advice, along with a list of terms and explanations, and addresses to apply to for further advice and information. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Protecting Detectors in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Mateusz Lechman, Mateusz; Chochula, Peter; Di Mauro, Antonio; Jirden, Lennart Stig; Schindler, Heinrich; Rosinsky, Peter; Moreno, Alberto; Kurepin, Alexander; Pinazza, Ombretta; De Cataldo, Giacinto

    2011-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related...

  10. Providing protection for doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegan, T

    2003-03-01

    Over the last decade the number of negligence cases brought against doctors, dentists and other healthcare professional has increased significantly in many countries around the world. In addition, the proliferation of the pathways of accountability in many countries means that doctors are feeling undervalued and vulnerable and are therefore seeking assistance and protection more than ever. The effect of a claim or complaint on a doctor can be devastating both personally and professionally. The relationship with the patient is damaged and an increase in defensive practice ultimately causes an increase in healthcare costs. Patient expectations have increased. Patients are more knowledgeable than they were five years ago and the demands on the professions are increasing daily. Unfortunately because of the long delays that are seen between an incident and a claim it is very difficult to predict what reserves are required in the future. We have seen a number of organisations pull out of the business over the last year and it highlights the importance of having an understanding of the needs of the professions and the ability to track trends in litigation in order to set appropriate subscription rates. Doctors and other healthcare professionals require more than just financial protection. They need support from their colleagues and assistance from experienced lawyers in order to help restore their confidence and ensure that they can continue to practice for the benefit of their patients in the future.

  11. Radiological protection report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    Two years after the massive release of radiation from the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi, the repercussions continue to preoccupy the radiological and emergency protection community, both in Switzerland and internationally. In Switzerland the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) has initiated measures as part of the European Union Stress Tests and has its own Fukushima Action Plan. In this Annual Report, ENSI focuses on radiological protection in Swiss nuclear facilities. The average individual dose has changed little compared with previous years. At 0.7 mSv, it is significantly below the limit both for persons exposed to radiation during their work (20 mSv) and the annual average rate of exposure for the population in Switzerland as a whole (5.5 mSv). In terms of collective doses, the extensive maintenance work at the Leibstadt power plant (KKL) resulted in a doubling of rates compared with recent years. However, in the remaining nuclear facilities the rates have not changed significantly. The highest individual dose during the year under review was 13 mSv. Exposure rates in 2012 for all those exposed to radiation during work in facilities subject to ENSI surveillance were below the maximum limit. Greater attention is now being given to work in high and variable radiation fields and in difficult conditions. Swiss nuclear facilities continue to operate a consistent radiological protection approach. Measuring equipment plays an important role in radiological protection. Having conducted a range of inspections and comparative measurements of aerosol-iodine filters and waste water sampling together with measurements in the field of personal dosimetry, ENSI has concluded that the required measuring equipment for radiological protection exists, that this equipment is correctly used and provides reliable data. ENSI maintains a test laboratory that analyses samples from nuclear facilities and their immediate vicinity and also conducts field

  12. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-01-01

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  13. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  14. 40 CFR 13.39 - Agency determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency determination. 13.39 Section 13... Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 13.39 Agency determination. (a) Following review of the evidence, EPA will issue a written decision. (b) If EPA either sustains or amends its determination, it...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Baseline determination. 1042.825... Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.825 Baseline determination. (a) For the purpose of this... not valid. (f) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the baseline determination. We may...

  16. Electron accelerators for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide information suitable for electron accelerators implementation in facilities applying radiation technology for environmental protection. It should be noticed that radiation processing has been successfully used in the fields of crosslinking polymer curing and medical products sterilization for more than 40 years. Practical application of radiation technology today extends on SO 2 and NO x removal from the flue gas (one of major power intensive radiation processing), destruction and removal of organic chemicals from water, decreasing bacteria content in the irradiated sludge and waste water. On the other hand the increased awareness of environmental pollution hazards and more stringent waste regulations in many countries may open stronger support for environmentally oriented technologies. This publication provides an evaluation of electron accelerators capabilities in respect of environmental applications where technological and economical criteria are now well defined. In order to determine the potential of electron accelerators, the literature data were examined as well visits and meetings with various accelerator manufacturers were performed by the author. Experience of the author in accelerator facilities construction and exploitation including those which were used for environmental protection are significant part of this publication. The principle of accelerator action was described in Chapter 1. Early development, accelerator classification and fields of accelerators application were included to this chapter as well. Details of accelerator construction was described in Chapter 2 to illustrate physical capability of accelerators to perform the function of ionizing radiation source. Electron beam extraction devices, under beam equipment, electron beam parameters and measuring methods were characterized in this chapter as well. Present studies of accelerator technology was described in Chapter 3, where

  17. Final Determination - signed March 1, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Determination of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Assistant Administrator for Water pursuant to Section 404(c) of the Clean Water Act concerning the proposed Big River water supply impoundment in Kent county, RI.

  18. Radiation protection-culture. Culture improvement in radiation protection and ALARA behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    In order to that the optimization principle become an actual professional liable dynamical critter in the radiological protection topics, the hierarchic impulse and the personnel sensitiveness are determining. The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) in the firm cultivation modify the behaviour and act philosophy. 7 refs., 2 figs

  19. Evaluation of several corrosion protective coating systems on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of several protective coating systems for use on aluminum in seawater/seacoast environments was conducted to review the developments made on protective coatings since early in the Space Shuttle program and to perform comparative studies on these coatings to determine their effectiveness for providing corrosion protection during exposure to seawater/seacoast environments. Panels of 2219-T87 aluminum were coated with 21 different systems and exposed to a 5 percent salt spray for 4000 hr. Application properties, adhesion measurements, heat resistance and corrosion protection were evaluated. For comparative studies, the presently specified Bostik epoxy system used on the SRB structures was included. Results of these tests indicate four systems with outstanding performance and four additional systems with protection almost as good. These systems are based on a chromated pretreatment, a chromate epoxy primer, and a polyurethane topcoat. Consideration for one of these systems should be included for those applications where superior corrosion protection for aluminum surfaces is required.

  20. Data Protection from Insider Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bertino, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    As data represents a key asset, organizations increasingly face the problem of protecting data from theft and misuse. Even though several data security techniques are available to protect data and computing infrastructures, many techniques, such as firewalls and network security tools, are unable to protect data from attacks by an organizations� insiders. Insiders are usually users who have authorized access to the organization information systems and therefore protecting data from these users is challenging. This lecture discusses several techniques that can provide effective protection aga

  1. Protective Mechanisms of Respiratory Tract Streptococci against Streptococcus pyogenes Biofilm Formation and Epithelial Cell Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Tomas; Riani, Catur; Koczan, Dirk; Standar, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) encounter many streptococcal species of the physiological microbial biome when entering the upper respiratory tract of humans, leading to the question how GAS interact with these bacteria in order to establish themselves at this anatomic site and initiate infection. Here we show that S. oralis and S. salivarius in direct contact assays inhibit growth of GAS in a strain-specific manner and that S. salivarius, most likely via bacteriocin secretion, also exerts this effect in transwell experiments. Utilizing scanning electron microscopy documentation, we identified the tested strains as potent biofilm producers except for GAS M49. In mixed-species biofilms, S. salivarius dominated the GAS strains, while S. oralis acted as initial colonizer, building the bottom layer in mixed biofilms and thereby allowing even GAS M49 to form substantial biofilms on top. With the exception of S. oralis, artificial saliva reduced single-species biofilms and allowed GAS to dominate in mixed biofilms, although the overall two-layer structure was unchanged. When covered by S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms, epithelial cells were protected from GAS adherence, internalization, and cytotoxic effects. Apparently, these species can have probiotic effects. The use of Affymetrix array technology to assess HEp-2 cell transcription levels revealed modest changes after exposure to S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms which could explain some of the protective effects against GAS attack. In summary, our study revealed a protection effect of respiratory tract bacteria against an important airway pathogen and allowed a first in vitro insight into local environmental processes after GAS enter the respiratory tract. PMID:23241973

  2. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. Pt. E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Ha Anh

    1991-01-01

    Activities of radiation protection at Nuclear research Institute are performed in: a/personal dosimetry control of its staff and persons working with radiation in hospitals; b/environmental monitoring of radioactive level in Dalat region; c/low-activity waste management. To evaluate human radioactivity intake in Vietnam, we have determined the concentration of radionuclides in air, drinking water and foodstuffs. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  3. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  4. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-03-01

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

  5. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  6. Radiation protection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

  7. Hardware protection through obfuscation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Tehranipoor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various threats faced during design and fabrication by today’s integrated circuits (ICs) and systems. The authors discuss key issues, including illegal manufacturing of ICs or “IC Overproduction,” insertion of malicious circuits, referred as “Hardware Trojans”, which cause in-field chip/system malfunction, and reverse engineering and piracy of hardware intellectual property (IP). The authors provide a timely discussion of these threats, along with techniques for IC protection based on hardware obfuscation, which makes reverse-engineering an IC design infeasible for adversaries and untrusted parties with any reasonable amount of resources. This exhaustive study includes a review of the hardware obfuscation methods developed at each level of abstraction (RTL, gate, and layout) for conventional IC manufacturing, new forms of obfuscation for emerging integration strategies (split manufacturing, 2.5D ICs, and 3D ICs), and on-chip infrastructure needed for secure exchange o...

  8. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  9. Consumer Protection in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Gandy, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This critical essay introduces the problem of discrimination enabled through the use of transaction-generated-information derived from the analysis of user behaviors within the network environment. The essay begins by describing how segments of the population that are already vulnerable become further victimized through the strategic use of discriminatory algorithms in support of identification, classification, segmentation, and targeting. In response, it evaluates a set of policy options that might be used to limit the harm and compensate the victims of these inherently dangerous technologies. Traditional approaches that stress the protection of privacy through restrictions on the collection and use of personal information are compared with alternatives based on individual and class actions under tort law, as well as more traditional regulatory approaches developed in the area of consumer products safety and environmental regulation.

  10. Radiation protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised

  11. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  12. 77 FR 36533 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental... Environmental Protection Agency--New England Region, has determined that adequate facilities for the safe and...

  13. 75 FR 43979 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental... Environmental Protection Agency--New England Region, has determined that adequate facilities for the safe and...

  14. 75 FR 38516 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental... Environmental Protection Agency--New England Region, has determined that adequate facilities for the safe and...

  15. 76 FR 39395 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental... Environmental Protection Agency--New England Region, has determined that adequate facilities for the safe and...

  16. Cell surface-associated compounds of probiotic lactobacilli sustain the strain-specificity dogma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Tomita, S.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic lactobacilli can positively impact on the health status of targeted (diseased) populations but efficacy depends strongly on the strain employed and the molecular basis for this phenomenon is poorly understood. This review discusses the current state-of-the-art in the field of molecular

  17. Molecular epidemiology and strain-specific characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae at the herd and cow level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N

    2015-10-01

    Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Strain-specific response to anaesthetics and analgesics in rat and rabbit : A pharmacogenetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avsaroglu, H.

    2008-01-01

    The response of (laboratory) animals to anaesthetics and analgesics is known to show intraspecies variability. Apart from environmental influences, this may also be caused by genetic factors. In this thesis, rabbit and rat inbred strains were used to identify differences in response to anaesthetics

  19. Silencing Agrobacterium oncogenes in transgenic grapevine results in strain-specific crown gall resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, A; Zok, A; Kuczmog, A; Oláh, R; Putnoky, P; Ream, W; Szegedi, E

    2013-11-01

    Grapevine rootstock transformed with an Agrobacterium oncogene-silencing transgene was resistant to certain Agrobacterium strains but sensitive to others. Thus, genetic diversity of Agrobacterium oncogenes may limit engineering crown gall resistance. Crown gall disease of grapevine induced by Agrobacterium vitis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes serious economic losses in viticulture. To establish crown gall-resistant lines, somatic proembryos of Vitis berlandieri × V. rupestris cv. 'Richter 110' rootstock were transformed with an oncogene-silencing transgene based on iaaM and ipt oncogene sequences from octopine-type, tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid pTiA6. Twenty-one transgenic lines were selected, and their transgenic nature was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These lines were inoculated with two A. tumefaciens and three A. vitis strains. Eight lines showed resistance to octopine-type A. tumefaciens A348. Resistance correlated with the expression of the silencing genes. However, oncogene silencing was mostly sequence specific because these lines did not abolish tumorigenesis by A. vitis strains or nopaline-type A. tumefaciens C58.

  20. Strain-specific aggressive behavior of male mice submitted to different husbandry procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, P.L.P. van; Meer, E. van der; Kruitwagen, C.L.J.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Zutphen, L.F.M. van; Baumans, V.

    Severe aggression within groups of male laboratory mice can cause serious welfare problems. Previous experiments have shown that the transfer of specific olfactory cues during cage cleaning and the provision of nesting material decrease aggression and stress in group-housed male mice. In this study,