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Sample records for determination joint refinement

  1. Fluid bilayer structure determination: Joint refinement in composition space using X-ray and neutron diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.H. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Wiener, M.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Experimentally-determined structural models of fluid lipid bilayers are essential for verifying molecular dynamics simulations of bilayers and for understanding the structural consequences of peptide interactions. The extreme thermal motion of bilayers precludes the possibility of atomic-level structural models. Defining {open_quote}the structure{close_quote} of a bilayer as the time-averaged transbilayer distribution of the water and the principal lipid structural groups such as the carbonyls and double-bonds (quasimolecular fragments), one can represent the bilayer structure as a sum of Gaussian functions referred to collectively as the quasimolecular structure. One method of determining the structure is by neutron diffraction combined with exhaustive specific deuteration. This method is impractical because of the expense of the chemical syntheses and the limited amount of neutron beam time currently available. We have therefore developed the composition space refinement method for combining X-ray and minimal neutron diffraction data to arrive at remarkably detailed and accurate structures of fluid bilayers. The composition space representation of the bilayer describes the probability of occupancy per unit length across the width of the bilayer of each quasimolecular component and permits the joint refinement of X-ray and neutron lamellar diffraction data by means of a single quasimolecular structure that is fitted simultaneously to both data sets. Scaling of each component by the appropriate neutron or X-ray scattering length maps the composition-space profile to the appropriate scattering length space for comparison to experimental data. The difficulty with the method is that fluid bilayer structures are generally only marginally determined by the experimental data. This means that the space of possible solutions must be extensively explored in conjunction with a thorough analysis of errors.

  2. Fluid bilayer structure determination: Joint refinement in composition space using X-ray and neutron diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.H.; Wiener, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Experimentally-determined structural models of fluid lipid bilayers are essential for verifying molecular dynamics simulations of bilayers and for understanding the structural consequences of peptide interactions. The extreme thermal motion of bilayers precludes the possibility of atomic-level structural models. Defining open-quote the structure close-quote of a bilayer as the time-averaged transbilayer distribution of the water and the principal lipid structural groups such as the carbonyls and double-bonds (quasimolecular fragments), one can represent the bilayer structure as a sum of Gaussian functions referred to collectively as the quasimolecular structure. One method of determining the structure is by neutron diffraction combined with exhaustive specific deuteration. This method is impractical because of the expense of the chemical syntheses and the limited amount of neutron beam time currently available. We have therefore developed the composition space refinement method for combining X-ray and minimal neutron diffraction data to arrive at remarkably detailed and accurate structures of fluid bilayers. The composition space representation of the bilayer describes the probability of occupancy per unit length across the width of the bilayer of each quasimolecular component and permits the joint refinement of X-ray and neutron lamellar diffraction data by means of a single quasimolecular structure that is fitted simultaneously to both data sets. Scaling of each component by the appropriate neutron or X-ray scattering length maps the composition-space profile to the appropriate scattering length space for comparison to experimental data. The difficulty with the method is that fluid bilayer structures are generally only marginally determined by the experimental data. This means that the space of possible solutions must be extensively explored in conjunction with a thorough analysis of errors

  3. Experimental determination of spin-dependent electron density by joint refinement of X-ray and polarized neutron diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Maxime; Claiser, Nicolas; Pillet, Sébastien; Chumakov, Yurii; Becker, Pierre; Gillet, Jean Michel; Gillon, Béatrice; Lecomte, Claude; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    New crystallographic tools were developed to access a more precise description of the spin-dependent electron density of magnetic crystals. The method combines experimental information coming from high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized neutron diffraction (PND) in a unified model. A new algorithm that allows for a simultaneous refinement of the charge- and spin-density parameters against XRD and PND data is described. The resulting software MOLLYNX is based on the well known Hansen-Coppens multipolar model, and makes it possible to differentiate the electron spins. This algorithm is validated and demonstrated with a molecular crystal formed by a bimetallic chain, MnCu(pba)(H(2)O)(3)·2H(2)O, for which XRD and PND data are available. The joint refinement provides a more detailed description of the spin density than the refinement from PND data alone.

  4. Determination of Parachute Joint Factors using Seam and Joint Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the methodology for determining the joint factor for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint factor and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint factor is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint factor of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this factor and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint factor in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used interchangeably with joint factor in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint factor for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint factors can then be used to calculate the design factor and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.

  5. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination. This commen......Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  6. Structure of Insulin: Results of joint neutron and X-ray refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodawer, A; Savage, H; Dodson, G

    1989-02-01

    Neutron diffraction data for porcine 2Zn insulin were collected to 2.2 A resolution from a single crystal deuterated by slow exchange of mother liquor. A joint neutron/X-ray restrained-least-squares refinement was undertaken using the neutron data, as well as the 1.5 A resolution X-ray data collected previously. The final R factors were 0.182 for the X-ray data and 0.191 for the neutron data. Resulting atomic coordinates were compared with the initial X-ray model, showing a total r.m.s. shift of 0.36 A for the protein and 0.6 A for the solvent. Protonation of a number of individual amino acids was investigated by analysis of the neutron maps. No D atoms were found between the carboxylates of Glu B13 which make an intermolecular contact, suggesting nonbonded interaction rather than the predicted hydrogen bond. Amide hydrogen exchange was investigated in a refinement of their atomic occupancies. Regions of unexchanged amide groups were found in the center of the B helices. The results of this study emphasize the limited amount of information available in neutron diffraction studies of proteins at resolution lower than 2 A.

  7. Joint titrimetric determination of zirconium and hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Botbol, Moises; Bianco de Salas, G.N.; Cornell de Casas, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the joint titrimetric determination of zirconium and hafnium, which are elements of similar chemical behaviour, is described. The disodic salt of the ethylendiaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) is used for titration, while xilenol orange serves as final point indicator. Prior to titration it is important to evaporate with sulfuric acid, the solution resulting from the zirconium depolymerization process, to adjust the acidity and to eliminate any interferences. The method, that allows the quick and precise determination of zirconium and hafnium in quantities comprised between 0.01 and mg, was applied to the analysis of raw materials and of intermediate and final products in the fabrication of zirconium sponge and zircaloy. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. The Mechanism of Ultrasonic Vibration on Grain Refining and Degassing in GTA Spot Welding of Copper Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ezzi, Salih; Quan, Gaofeng; Elrayah, Adil

    2018-05-07

    This paper examines the effect of ultrasonic vibration (USV) on grain size and interrupted porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) spot-welded copper. Grain size was refined by perpendicularly attaching a transducer to the welded sheet and applying USV to the weld pool for a short time (0, 2, 4, and 6 s) in addition improvements to the degassing process. Results illustrate a significant reduction of grain size (57%). Notably, USV provided interaction between reformations (fragmentation) and provided nucleation points (detaching particles from the fusion line) for grains in the nugget zone and the elimination of porosity in the nugget zone. The GTA spot welding process, in conjunction with USV, demonstrated an improvement in the corrosion potential for a copper spot-welded joint in comparison to the joint welded without assistance of USV. Finally, welding of copper by GTA spot welding in conjunction with ultrasound for 2 s presented significant mechanical properties.

  9. Refining patterns of joint hypermobility, habitus, and orthopedic traits in joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlino, Silvia; Dordoni, Chiara; Sperduti, Isabella; Venturini, Marina; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Colombi, Marina; Castori, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two overlapping heritable disorders (JHS/EDS-HT) recognized by separated sets of diagnostic criteria and still lack a confirmatory test. This descriptive research was aimed at better characterizing the clinical phenotype of JHS/EDS-HT with focus on available diagnostic criteria, and in order to propose novel features and assessment strategies. One hundred and eighty-nine (163 females, 26 males; age: 2-73 years) patients from two Italian reference centers were investigated for Beighton score, range of motion in 21 additional joints, rate and sites of dislocations and sprains, recurrent soft-tissue injuries, tendon and muscle ruptures, body mass index, arm span/height ratio, wrist and thumb signs, and 12 additional orthopedic features. Rough rates were compared by age, sex, and handedness with a series of parametric and non-parametric tools. Multiple correspondence analysis was carried out for possible co-segregations of features. Beighton score and hypermobility at other joints were influenced by age at diagnosis. Rate and sites of joint instability complications did not vary according to age at diagnosis except for soft-tissue injuries. No major difference was registered by sex and dominant versus non-dominant body side. At multiple correspondence analysis, selected features tend to co-segregate in a dichotomous distribution. Dolichostenomelia and arachnodactyly segregated independently. This study pointed out a more protean musculoskeletal phenotype than previously considered according to available diagnostic criteria for JHS/EDS-HT. Our findings corroborated the need for a re-thinking of JHS/EDS-HT on clinical grounds in order to find better therapeutic and research strategies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  11. [Determination of joint contact area using MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Koichi; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tanabe, Yuji

    2009-10-20

    Elevated contact stress on the articular joints has been hypothesized to contribute to articular cartilage wear and joint pain. However, given the limitations of using contact stress and areas from human cadaver specimens to estimate articular joint stress, there is need for an in vivo method to obtain such data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be a valid method of quantifying the human joint contact area, indicating the potential for in vivo assessment. The purpose of this study was to describe a method of quantifying the tibiofemoral joint contact area using MRI. The validity of this technique was established in porcine cadaver specimens by comparing the contact area obtained from MRI with the contact area obtained using pressure-sensitive film (PSF). In particular, we assessed the actual condition of contact by using the ratio of signal intensity of MR images of cartilage surfaces. Two fresh porcine cadaver knees were used. A custom loading apparatus was designed to apply a compressive load to the tibiofemoral joint. We measured the contact area by using MRI and PSF methods. When the ratio of signal intensity of the cartilage surface was 0.9, the error of the contact area between the MR image and PSF was about 6%. These results suggest that this MRI method may be a valuable tool in quantifying joint contact area in vivo.

  12. Determination of joint contact area using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Koichi; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tanabe, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    Elevated contact stress on the articular joints has been hypothesized to contribute to articular cartilage wear and joint pain. However, given the limitations of using contact stress and areas from human cadaver specimens to estimate articular joint stress, there is need for an in vivo method to obtain such data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be a valid method of quantifying the human joint contact area, indicating the potential for in vivo assessment. The purpose of this study was to describe a method of quantifying the tibiofemoral joint contact area using MRI. The validity of this technique was established in porcine cadaver specimens by comparing the contact area obtained from MRI with the contact area obtained using pressure-sensitive film (PSF). In particular, we assessed the actual condition of contact by using the ratio of signal intensity of MR images of cartilage surfaces. Two fresh porcine cadaver knees were used. A custom loading apparatus was designed to apply a compressive load to the tibiofemoral joint. We measured the contact area by using MRI and PSF methods. When the ratio of signal intensity of the cartilage surface was 0.9, the error of the contact area between the MR image and PSF was about 6%. These results suggest that this MRI method may be a valuable tool in quantifying joint contact area in vivo. (author)

  13. A New Method for Determination of Joint Roughness Coefficient of Rock Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigui Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint roughness coefficient (JRC of rock joints has the characteristic of scale effect. JRC measured on small-size exposed rock joints should be evaluated by JRC scale effect in order to obtain the JRC of actual-scale rock joints, since field rock joints are hardly fully exposed or well saved. Based on the validity analysis of JRC scale effect, concepts of rate of JRC scale effect and effective length of JRC scale effect were proposed. Then, a graphic method for determination of the effective length of JRC scale effect was established. Study results show that the JRC of actual-scale rock joints can be obtained through a fractal model of JRC scale effect according to the statistically measured results of the JRC of small-size partial exposed rock joints and by the selection of fractal dimension of JRC scale effect and the determination of effective length of JRC scale effect.

  14. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  15. Estimating parameters of speciation models based on refined summaries of the joint site-frequency spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Tellier

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes and conditions under which populations diverge to give rise to distinct species is a central question in evolutionary biology. Since recently diverged populations have high levels of shared polymorphisms, it is challenging to distinguish between recent divergence with no (or very low inter-population gene flow and older splitting events with subsequent gene flow. Recently published methods to infer speciation parameters under the isolation-migration framework are based on summarizing polymorphism data at multiple loci in two species using the joint site-frequency spectrum (JSFS. We have developed two improvements of these methods based on a more extensive use of the JSFS classes of polymorphisms for species with high intra-locus recombination rates. First, using a likelihood based method, we demonstrate that taking into account low-frequency polymorphisms shared between species significantly improves the joint estimation of the divergence time and gene flow between species. Second, we introduce a local linear regression algorithm that considerably reduces the computational time and allows for the estimation of unequal rates of gene flow between species. We also investigate which summary statistics from the JSFS allow the greatest estimation accuracy for divergence time and migration rates for low (around 10 and high (around 100 numbers of loci. Focusing on cases with low numbers of loci and high intra-locus recombination rates we show that our methods for the estimation of divergence time and migration rates are more precise than existing approaches.

  16. Determination of brazed joint constitutive law by inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, G.; Moret, F.; Gallo, P. le; Cailletaud, G.; Pilvin, P.

    1993-01-01

    An important parameter often neglected for the calculation of residual stresses in brazed ceramic/metal assemblies is the joint constitutive law. In situ camber measurements on a model system (axisymmetric TZM/InCuSil ABA/316L samples) performed using a special vertical dilatometer during the whole brazing thermal cycle are compared with results of FEM calculations based on published filler metal constitutive laws. A strong disagreement is observed. Actual constitutive law of the joint is determined from these measurements using a numerical inverse method. Calculated displacements are fully consistent with experimental ones. True solidification temperature of the joint is determined. The identified constitutive law of the joint exhibits a low flow stress from solidification temperature to 320 C. (orig.)

  17. Joint refinement model for the spin resolved one-electron reduced density matrix of YTiO3 using magnetic structure factors and magnetic Compton profiles data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueddida, Saber; Yan, Zeyin; Kibalin, Iurii; Voufack, Ariste Bolivard; Claiser, Nicolas; Souhassou, Mohamed; Lecomte, Claude; Gillon, Béatrice; Gillet, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-28

    In this paper, we propose a simple cluster model with limited basis sets to reproduce the unpaired electron distributions in a YTiO 3 ferromagnetic crystal. The spin-resolved one-electron-reduced density matrix is reconstructed simultaneously from theoretical magnetic structure factors and directional magnetic Compton profiles using our joint refinement algorithm. This algorithm is guided by the rescaling of basis functions and the adjustment of the spin population matrix. The resulting spin electron density in both position and momentum spaces from the joint refinement model is in agreement with theoretical and experimental results. Benefits brought from magnetic Compton profiles to the entire spin density matrix are illustrated. We studied the magnetic properties of the YTiO 3 crystal along the Ti-O 1 -Ti bonding. We found that the basis functions are mostly rescaled by means of magnetic Compton profiles, while the molecular occupation numbers are mainly modified by the magnetic structure factors.

  18. Ab initio structure determination and refinement of a scorpion protein toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G D; Blessing, R H; Ealick, S E; Fontecilla-Camps, J C; Hauptman, H A; Housset, D; Langs, D A; Miller, R

    1997-09-01

    The structure of toxin II from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector has been determined ab initio by direct methods using SnB at 0.96 A resolution. For the purpose of this structure redetermination, undertaken as a test of the minimal function and the SnB program, the identity and sequence of the protein was withheld from part of the research team. A single solution obtained from 1 619 random atom trials was clearly revealed by the bimodal distribution of the final value of the minimal function associated with each individual trial. Five peptide fragments were identified from a conservative analysis of the initial E-map, and following several refinement cycles with X-PLOR, a model was built of the complete structure. At the end of the X-PLOR refinement, the sequence was compared with the published sequence and 57 of the 64 residues had been correctly identified. Two errors in sequence resulted from side chains with similar size while the rest of the errors were a result of severe disorder or high thermal motion in the side chains. Given the amino-acid sequence, it is estimated that the initial E-map could have produced a model containing 99% of all main-chain and 81% of side-chain atoms. The structure refinement was completed with PROFFT, including the contributions of protein H atoms, and converged at a residual of 0.158 for 30 609 data with F >or= 2sigma(F) in the resolution range 8.0-0.964 A. The final model consisted of 518 non-H protein atoms (36 disordered), 407 H atoms, and 129 water molecules (43 with occupancies less than unity). This total of 647 non-H atoms represents the largest light-atom structure solved to date.

  19. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  20. Determination of Ductile Tearing Resistance Curve in Weld Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Gilles, P.; Ould, P.

    2010-01-01

    Steels present in the ductile domain a tearing resistance which increase with the crack propagation up to the failure. This ductile tearing resistance is in general characterised with curves giving the variation of a global parameter (opening displacement at the crack tip delta, integral J) versus the crack extension Delta a. These global approaches depend more or less on the specimen geometry and on the type of the imposed loading. Local approaches based on the description of the ductile tearing mechanisms provide reliable solution to the transferability problem (from the lab specimen to the component) but are complex and costly to use and are not codified. These problems get worse in the case of a weld joint where no standard is available for the measurement of their ductile tearing resistance. But the welded joints are often the weak point of the structure because of greater risk of defects, the heterogeneity of the microstructure of the weld, deformation along the interface between two materials with different yield stress (mismatch).... After briefly recalling the problems of transferability of the ductile tearing resistance curves obtained on lab specimen to the case of components, this article identifies the factors complicating the determination of the toughness in the welded joints and gives recommendations for the experimental determination of ductile tearing resistance curves of welded joints

  1. REFINEMENT OF THE REVERSE EXTRUSION TEST TO DETERMINE THE TWO CONSISTENCY LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil KAYABALI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Liquid limit (LL and plastic limit (PL are the two most commonly used index proper- ties of fine-grained soils. They have been used in not only classification of soils but also in correlation with certain engineering properties. Therefore, they have been subjected to numerous researches since they were first introduced by Atterberg in 1911. While their me- chanisms were well defined in many codes and they have been in use for decades, criticisms often arose pertinent to the uncertainties inherent to them. Incredible amount of effort has been exerted to invent more rational testing methods in place of both the Casagrande’s cup and bead rolling methods. Part of those efforts has been on devicing a single tool to measure the two relative index properties together. Recently, the reverse extrusion test was brought into the use of geotechnical engineers. It was shown that this tool has a potential of measu- ring LL, PL, and even the shrinkage limit (SL. The aim of this investigation is to reassess the ability of the reverse extrusion test to determine LL and PL with further refinement. In this regard 70 fine-grained soils covering a large range of plasticity were employed. Fall-cone method and rolling-device method were employed to determine LL and PL, res- pectively. The reverse extrusion tests were carried out at least five different water contents per soil sample. Extrusion pressures were plotted against water content and a curve fitting was applied to data pairs, from which the y-intercept (the coefficient a and the slope (the coefficieent b of the curve were determined. Those reverse extrusion coefficients were utilized to determine the representative extrusion pressures corresponding to LL and PL, as was done by the earlier researchers; however, the degree of success for the prediction of LL and PL using the representative extrusion pressures was not encouraging. Different from the previously proposed approaches, the reverse extrusion

  2. Simultaneous use of solution NMR and X-ray data in REFMAC5 for joint refinement/detection of structural differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldelli, Mauro; Ravera, Enrico; Calderone, Vito; Parigi, Giacomo [University of Florence, Via L. Sacconi 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Murshudov, Garib N., E-mail: garib@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Luchinat, Claudio, E-mail: garib@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [University of Florence, Via L. Sacconi 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    Paramagnetic NMR data (pseudocontact shifts and self-orientation residual dipolar couplings) and diamagnetic residual dipolar couplings can now be used in the program REFMAC5 from CCP4 as structural restraints together with X-ray crystallographic data. These NMR restraints can reveal differences between solid state and solution conformations of molecules or, in their absence, can be used together with X-ray crystallographic data for structural refinement. The program REFMAC5 from CCP4 was modified to allow the simultaneous use of X-ray crystallographic data and paramagnetic NMR data (pseudocontact shifts and self-orientation residual dipolar couplings) and/or diamagnetic residual dipolar couplings. Incorporation of these long-range NMR restraints in REFMAC5 can reveal differences between solid-state and solution conformations of molecules or, in their absence, can be used together with X-ray crystallographic data for structural refinement. Since NMR and X-ray data are complementary, when a single structure is consistent with both sets of data and still maintains reasonably ‘ideal’ geometries, the reliability of the derived atomic model is expected to increase. The program was tested on five different proteins: the catalytic domain of matrix metalloproteinase 1, GB3, ubiquitin, free calmodulin and calmodulin complexed with a peptide. In some cases the joint refinement produced a single model consistent with both sets of observations, while in other cases it indicated, outside the experimental uncertainty, the presence of different protein conformations in solution and in the solid state.

  3. Simultaneous use of solution NMR and X-ray data in REFMAC5 for joint refinement/detection of structural differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldelli, Mauro; Ravera, Enrico; Calderone, Vito; Parigi, Giacomo; Murshudov, Garib N.; Luchinat, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Paramagnetic NMR data (pseudocontact shifts and self-orientation residual dipolar couplings) and diamagnetic residual dipolar couplings can now be used in the program REFMAC5 from CCP4 as structural restraints together with X-ray crystallographic data. These NMR restraints can reveal differences between solid state and solution conformations of molecules or, in their absence, can be used together with X-ray crystallographic data for structural refinement. The program REFMAC5 from CCP4 was modified to allow the simultaneous use of X-ray crystallographic data and paramagnetic NMR data (pseudocontact shifts and self-orientation residual dipolar couplings) and/or diamagnetic residual dipolar couplings. Incorporation of these long-range NMR restraints in REFMAC5 can reveal differences between solid-state and solution conformations of molecules or, in their absence, can be used together with X-ray crystallographic data for structural refinement. Since NMR and X-ray data are complementary, when a single structure is consistent with both sets of data and still maintains reasonably ‘ideal’ geometries, the reliability of the derived atomic model is expected to increase. The program was tested on five different proteins: the catalytic domain of matrix metalloproteinase 1, GB3, ubiquitin, free calmodulin and calmodulin complexed with a peptide. In some cases the joint refinement produced a single model consistent with both sets of observations, while in other cases it indicated, outside the experimental uncertainty, the presence of different protein conformations in solution and in the solid state

  4. Determination of Cation Distributions in Mineral Structures by use of the Rietveld Full-Profile Refinement Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Use of the Rietveld full-profile refinement technique with X-ray or neutron powder diffraction data for the determination of divalent-metal cation distributions in three mineral structure types (farringtonite, grafonite, sarcopside) is demonstrated. The accuracy of the conventional cation distribution coefficient Ksub(D) is about 5-10 percent with 24-46 parameters to be refined, and the averaged metal-oxygen distances are reliable and well correlated to the observed cation distribution pattern. In particular the usefulness of the Rietveld technique in combination with Moessbauer spectroscopy is stressed. Some concluding remarks are also given

  5. Latest Developments in Data Analysis and Structure Determination and Refinement: Software for Chemical Crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, I.; Adam, M.; Jacob, H. F.; Roter, A.

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of a two-dimensional CCD X-ray detector nearly 10 years ago by Bruker started a revolution in chemical crystallography. Since then, crystallographers can accomplish a complete data collection even of small and poorly scattering crystals in a few hours instead of days. The launch of the kappa geometry by Nonius a few years ago beforehand equally revolutionized the field of single crystal diffractometry. Currently Bruker Nonius has far more than 500 CCD systems installed. The latest development of Bruker Nonius, the X8 APEX, is the powerful combination of both: the APEX CCD detector and the unique Kappa four-circle goniometer. The APEX 4K CCD detector provides the utmost sensitivity, while the Kappa four-circle goniometer offers a very open geometry, granting all the flexibility to align any crystallographic axis. This provides a more efficient data collection for axial photographs to investigate e.g. diffuse scattering or incommensurate structures. Even the crystal-detector distance is computer-controlled for precise and superior data collection. The X8 APEX software suite gives a whole new look to the CCD users interface. It not only has improved data collection abilities, but also guides the chemist or mineralogist through gathering the raw crystal data to producing the final crystal structure. It provides context-dependent menus, which are well-known from business software packages such as Outlook. The tools for unit cell determination, views into reciprocal space, optimisation of the data collection strategy, data integration, scaling and correcting (SADABS) as well as tools for structure solving and refining (SHELXTL package) will be presented. Low temperature work has become an essential tool for challenging samples. The Bruker Nonius Kryo-Flex cryogenic device makes chemical crystallography at low temperatures a routine method in your laboratory. Of course, the Kryo-Flex is fully controlled by the new graphical user interface of the X8 APEX

  6. REFINED NEUTRON STAR MASS DETERMINATIONS FOR SIX ECLIPSING X-RAY PULSAR BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Torres, Manuel A. P.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Buxton, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an improved method for determining the mass of neutron stars in eclipsing X-ray pulsar binaries and apply the method to six systems, namely, Vela X-1, 4U 1538-52, SMC X-1, LMC X-4, Cen X-3, and Her X-1. In previous studies to determine neutron star mass, the X-ray eclipse duration has been approximated analytically by assuming that the companion star is spherical with an effective Roche lobe radius. We use a numerical code based on Roche geometry with various optimizers to analyze the published data for these systems, which we supplement with new spectroscopic and photometric data for 4U 1538-52. This allows us to model the eclipse duration more accurately and thus calculate an improved value for the neutron star mass. The derived neutron star mass also depends on the assumed Roche lobe filling factor β of the companion star, where β = 1 indicates a completely filled Roche lobe. In previous work a range of β between 0.9 and 1.0 was usually adopted. We use optical ellipsoidal light-curve data to constrain β. We find neutron star masses of 1.77 ± 0.08 M sun for Vela X-1, 0.87 ± 0.07 M sun for 4U 1538-52 (eccentric orbit), 1.00 ± 0.10 M sun for 4U 1538-52 (circular orbit), 1.04 ± 0.09 M sun for SMC X-1, 1.29 ± 0.05 M sun for LMC X-4, 1.49 ± 0.08 M sun for Cen X-3, and 1.07 ± 0.36 M sun for Her X-1. We discuss the limits of the approximations that were used to derive the earlier mass determinations, and we comment on the implications our new masses have for observationally refining the upper and lower bounds of the neutron star mass distribution.

  7. A survey of formal methods for determining functional joint axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrig, Rainald M; Taylor, William R; Duda, Georg N; Heller, Markus O

    2007-01-01

    Axes of rotation e.g. at the knee, are often generated from clinical gait analysis data to be used in the assessment of kinematic abnormalities, the diagnosis of disease, or the ongoing monitoring of a patient's condition. They are additionally used in musculoskeletal models to aid in the description of joint and segment kinematics for patient specific analyses. Currently available methods to describe joint axes from segment marker positions share the problem that when one segment is transformed into the coordinate system of another, artefacts associated with motion of the markers relative to the bone can become magnified. In an attempt to address this problem, a symmetrical axis of rotation approach (SARA) is presented here to determine a unique axis of rotation that can consider the movement of two dynamic body segments simultaneously, and then compared its performance in a survey against a number of previously proposed techniques. Using a generated virtual joint, with superimposed marker error conditions to represent skin movement artefacts, fitting methods (geometric axis fit, cylinder axis fit, algebraic axis fit) and transformation techniques (axis transformation technique, mean helical axis, Schwartz approach) were classified and compared with the SARA. Nearly all approaches were able to estimate the axis of rotation to within an RMS error of 0.1cm at large ranges of motion (90 degrees ). Although the geometric axis fit produced the least RMS error of approximately 1.2 cm at lower ranges of motion (5 degrees ) with a stationary axis, the SARA and Axis Transformation Technique outperformed all other approaches under the most demanding marker artefact conditions for all ranges of motion. The cylinder and algebraic axis fit approaches were unable to compute competitive AoR estimates. Whilst these initial results using the SARA are promising and are fast enough to be determined "on-line", the technique must now be proven in a clinical environment.

  8. Joint kinetic determinants of starting block performance in athletic sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Adam; Exell, Timothy; Wilson, Cassie; Willwacher, Steffen; Bezodis, Ian N; Irwin, Gareth

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between lower limb joint kinetics, external force production and starting block performance (normalised average horizontal power, NAHP). Seventeen male sprinters (100 m PB, 10.67 ± 0.32 s) performed maximal block starts from instrumented starting blocks (1000 Hz) whilst 3D kinematics (250 Hz) were also recorded during the block phase. Ankle, knee and hip resultant joint moment and power were calculated at the rear and front leg using inverse dynamics. Average horizontal force applied to the front (r = 0.46) and rear (r = 0.44) block explained 86% of the variance in NAHP. At the joint level, many "very likely" to "almost certain" relationships (r = 0.57 to 0.83) were found between joint kinetic data and the magnitude of horizontal force applied to each block although stepwise multiple regression revealed that 55% of the variance in NAHP was accounted for by rear ankle moment, front hip moment and front knee power. The current study provides novel insight into starting block performance and the relationships between lower limb joint kinetic and external kinetic data that can help inform physical and technical training practices for this skill.

  9. Strategy of arm movement control is determined by minimization of neural effort for joint coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounskaia, Natalia; Shimansky, Yury

    2016-06-01

    Optimality criteria underlying organization of arm movements are often validated by testing their ability to adequately predict hand trajectories. However, kinematic redundancy of the arm allows production of the same hand trajectory through different joint coordination patterns. We therefore consider movement optimality at the level of joint coordination patterns. A review of studies of multi-joint movement control suggests that a 'trailing' pattern of joint control is consistently observed during which a single ('leading') joint is rotated actively and interaction torque produced by this joint is the primary contributor to the motion of the other ('trailing') joints. A tendency to use the trailing pattern whenever the kinematic redundancy is sufficient and increased utilization of this pattern during skillful movements suggests optimality of the trailing pattern. The goal of this study is to determine the cost function minimization of which predicts the trailing pattern. We show that extensive experimental testing of many known cost functions cannot successfully explain optimality of the trailing pattern. We therefore propose a novel cost function that represents neural effort for joint coordination. That effort is quantified as the cost of neural information processing required for joint coordination. We show that a tendency to reduce this 'neurocomputational' cost predicts the trailing pattern and that the theoretically developed predictions fully agree with the experimental findings on control of multi-joint movements. Implications for future research of the suggested interpretation of the trailing joint control pattern and the theory of joint coordination underlying it are discussed.

  10. Determination of the spatial movement of the temporomandibular joints (tmj joint heads in patients with muscle and joint dysfunction according to computed tomography (ct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аркадий Максимович Боян

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is the one of most objective diagnostic methods of TMJ MJD it allows define amplitudes of joint heads movement in sagittal projections to detect an asymmetry of TMJ elements location.Aim of research. Assessment of location of mandibular joint heads and determination of its spatial position in patients with TMJ MJD before treatment and after it using CT.Materials and methods. 50 patients 28-62 years old, 37 women and 13 men who underwent computed tomography (CT of TMJ were under observation.The results of observation were analyzed in details.The studies were carried out using cone-radial computed tomographic scanner «Vatech Pax uni 3d». CT of TMJ was carried out in habitual occlusion before the start of treatment and after removal of TMJ MJD symptoms and complaints. At the study there were measured the width of joint fissure in front, upper and back segments according to N.A. Rabuhina methodology in N.E. Androsova and so-authors modification. Statistical analysis of the data received was carried out using «Statistics» (Statsoft, Inc program.Results. The results of TMJ CT in patients before the start of treatment demonstrated that the sizes of TMJ joint fissure were different. The width of the upper segment of TMJ joint fissure in patients before the start of treatment was reliably less (≤0,001 comparing with an analogous parameter in the group of patients after treatment that indicates the upper location of mandibular head in TMJ with reducing the height of the lower segment of face.So the data of study of the joint fissure width received using TMJ CT demonstrate formation of specific outlines of joint fissure at displacement of mandible and consequently joint head. Information about the joint fissure parameters allows rationally plan and realize orthopedic treatment and the necessary rehabilitation measures in patients with TMJ MJD.Conclusions. The studies demonstrated that the displacements of mandibular joint

  11. Automated determination of fibrillar structures by simultaneous model building and fiber diffraction refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrzebowski, Wojciech; André, Ingemar

    2015-07-01

    For highly oriented fibrillar molecules, three-dimensional structures can often be determined from X-ray fiber diffraction data. However, because of limited information content, structure determination and validation can be challenging. We demonstrate that automated structure determination of protein fibers can be achieved by guiding the building of macromolecular models with fiber diffraction data. We illustrate the power of our approach by determining the structures of six bacteriophage viruses de novo using fiber diffraction data alone and together with solid-state NMR data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of molecular replacement from monomeric and fibrillar templates by solving the structure of a plant virus using homology modeling and protein-protein docking. The generated models explain the experimental data to the same degree as deposited reference structures but with improved structural quality. We also developed a cross-validation method for model selection. The results highlight the power of fiber diffraction data as structural constraints.

  12. Determination of phases of {alpha} - Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}: SiO{sub 2} compound by the Rietveld refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares S, S.A. [Istituto Materiali Speciali per Elettronica e Magnetismo (MASPEC), Parco Area delle Scienze 37A-43010 Loc. Fontanni, Parma (Italy); Ponce C, S.; Martinez, J.R. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, F. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Av. V. Carranza 2025, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    We use a variation of the Rietveld refinement method to calculate the amorphous content of composites formed by a silica xerogel amorphous matrix and iron particles embedded into. In order to apply the Rietveld refinement to amorphous structures an initial crystalline model is assumed with the same composition as the material to be modelled. In this work we try to refine the structure of compounds using the program MAUD. It is shown how this program can be used to determine the amorphous and crystalline fractions in composites consisting of an amorphous matrix and incorporated iron oxide particles. The analysed compounds underwent different thermal treatments. (Author)

  13. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  14. Experimental Determinations on Kinematics of a Translational Joint of an Industrial Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a 6-DOF industrial robot and the driving system of its base translational joint. By imposing certain positions of the translational joint and determining the durations in which these positions are reached, average speed is computed. The paper shows how the clearances influence the average speed, depending on the displacement value.

  15. Sandwich Hologram Interferometry For Determination Of Sacroiliac Joint Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, S.; Vinter, I.; Vukicevic, D.

    1983-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on embalmed and fresh specimens of human pelvisis with preserved lumbar spines, hip joints and all the ligaments. Specimens were tested under static vertical loading by pulsed laser interferometry. The deformations and behaviour of particular pelvic parts were interpreted by providing computer interferogram models. Results indicate rotation and tilting of the sacrum in the dorso-ventral direction and small but significant movements in the cranio-caudal direction. Sandwich holography proved to be the only applicable method when there is a combination of translation and tilt in the range of 200 μm to 1.5 mm.

  16. Can abdominal bioelectrical impedance refine the determination of visceral fat from waist circumference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S; Blundell, H L; Evans, W D; Griffiths, H; Newcombe, R G; Rees, D A

    2009-01-01

    Ryo et al (2005 Diabetes Care 28 451–3) reported a new method for measuring the visceral fat area (VFA) by combining abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with measurement of waist circumference (WC), but very few methodological details were provided. Furthermore, the study did not test the use of WC alone as an indicator of VFA even though others had previously reported a strong correlation. We sought to determine the optimal measurement technique and analysis for measuring VFA by abdominal BIA and WC. 18 volunteers (age 23–64 years) underwent measurement of WC, abdominal impedance (Bodystat 500 four-electrode system) and a single cross-sectional CT scan at the umbilicus. VFA derived using WC 3 and measurements of abdominal impedance from electrode pairs sited at the flank predicted the value of VFA measured by CT with correlation r = 0.904 (p 1.9 alone, without involving BIA at all, provided a similar correlation (r = 0.923). Our small preliminary study shows that abdominal BIA is potentially a practicable non-invasive technique for measurement of VFA but casts doubt on whether it adds any value to the use of WC alone. Larger studies are now required to test this finding. (note)

  17. Refining revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Isaak, D.

    1984-01-01

    A review of changes in the oil refining industry since 1973 examines the drop in capacity use and its effect on profits of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries compared to world refining. OPEC countries used their new oil revenues to expand Gulf refineries, which put additional pressure on OECD refiners. OPEC involvement in global marketing, however, could help to secure supplies. Scrapping some older OECD refineries could improve the percentage of capacity in use if new construction is kept to a minimum. Other issues facing refiners are the changes in oil demand patterns and government responses to the market. 2 tables.

  18. A new approach to texture measurements: Orientation distribution function (ODF) determination by Rietveld refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondreele, R.; Larson, A.; Lawson, A.; Sheldon, R.; Wright, S.

    1996-01-01

    The preferred orientation of crystal grains within a manufactured part is described most fully by its orientation distribution function (ODF), which is a mapping of the probability of each of the possible grain orientations with respect to the exterior dimensions. Traditionally, an ODF is determined from pole figures for a relatively small number of reflections. These pole figures are measured with x-rays or neutrons using short detector scans over the center of an individual diffraction peak for a large number of different sample orientations. This is efficient if the selected diffraction peaks are reasonably strong (relative to background) and well separated, such as in pure fcc and bcc metals. It is also appropriate for constant wavelength sources where collection of individual diffraction peak intensities is a reasonably efficient use of the source. However, the traditional method is not very efficient for neutron diffraction at a spallation source such as LANSCE where the entire diffraction pattern is accessible for each sample setting. Moreover, a different approach is necessary for complicated diffraction patterns, such as from composite materials, intermetallic compounds, high T c ceramics, polyphasic minerals and polymers where there is expected to be heavy overlap of adjacent diffraction peaks. In addition, the large number of settings normally collected for an individual pole figure may not be necessary, since the entire pattern is obtained at each setting. Thus, a new method of ODF analysis needs to be developed to handle the more complex diffraction patterns obtained from modern technological materials as well as take advantage of the particular characteristics of spallation neutron sources. This project sought to develop the experimental procedures and the mathematical treatment needed to produce an orientation distribution function (ODF) directly from full diffraction patterns from a sample in a limited number of orientations

  19. In situ Neutron Diffraction during Casting: Determination of Rigidity Point in Grain Refined Al-Cu Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezet, Jean-Marie; Mireux, Bastien; Szaraz, Zoltan; Pirling, Thilo

    2014-02-12

    The rigidity temperature of a solidifying alloy is the temperature at which the solid plus liquid phases are sufficiently coalesced to transmit long range tensile strains and stresses. It determines the point at which thermally induced deformations start to generate internal stresses in a casting. As such, it is a key parameter in numerical modelling of solidification processes and in studying casting defects such as solidification cracking. This temperature has been determined in Al-Cu alloys using in situ neutron diffraction during casting in a dog bone shaped mould. In such a setup, the thermal contraction of the solidifying material is constrained and stresses develop at a hot spot that is irradiated by neutrons. Diffraction peaks are recorded every 11 s using a large detector, and their evolution allows for the determination of the rigidity temperatures. We measured rigidity temperatures equal to 557 °C and 548 °C, depending on cooling rate, for a grain refined Al-13 wt% Cu alloy. At high cooling rate, rigidity is reached during the formation of the eutectic phase and the solid phase is not sufficiently coalesced, i.e. , strong enough, to avoid hot tear formation.

  20. In situ Neutron Diffraction during Casting: Determination of Rigidity Point in Grain Refined Al-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Drezet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rigidity temperature of a solidifying alloy is the temperature at which the solid plus liquid phases are sufficiently coalesced to transmit long range tensile strains and stresses. It determines the point at which thermally induced deformations start to generate internal stresses in a casting. As such, it is a key parameter in numerical modelling of solidification processes and in studying casting defects such as solidification cracking. This temperature has been determined in Al-Cu alloys using in situ neutron diffraction during casting in a dog bone shaped mould. In such a setup, the thermal contraction of the solidifying material is constrained and stresses develop at a hot spot that is irradiated by neutrons. Diffraction peaks are recorded every 11 s using a large detector, and their evolution allows for the determination of the rigidity temperatures. We measured rigidity temperatures equal to 557 °C and 548 °C, depending on cooling rate, for a grain refined Al-13 wt% Cu alloy. At high cooling rate, rigidity is reached during the formation of the eutectic phase and the solid phase is not sufficiently coalesced, i.e., strong enough, to avoid hot tear formation.

  1. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods. phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  2. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Stone § 644.512 DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. Section 15 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C...

  3. Determination of ductile tearing resistance J-R curves in welded joints; Determination de courbes de resistance a la dechirure ductile dans les joints soudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, Ph.; Ould, P. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 92086 Paris La Defense (France); Marie, St. [CEA Saclay, DM2S, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The ductile tearing resistance of steels is generally characterized in terms of resistance curves giving the increase of a resistance parameter such as the crack driving force J or a crack opening displacement as a function of the crack extension {Delta}a. Welded joints are often the weakest part of structures because of greater risk of defects, heterogeneity of the microstructure of the weld, strain concentration along mismatched interfaces. This paper recalls the transferability issues common to all integrity assessments based on tearing resistance curves and points out the difficulties of characterization specific to welds. Several recommendations are proposed for the experimental determination of tearing resistance of welded joints. (authors)

  4. Joint determinants of fiscal policy, income inequality and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel Muinelo-Gallo; Oriol Roca-Sagalés

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between income inequality and economic growth through fiscal policy. To this end, we present and estimate two systems of structural equiation with error components through which gross income inequality determines different fiscal policy outcomes, which subsequently affects the evolution of economic growth and net income inequality. The empirical results, obtained using an unbalanced panel data of 21 high-income OCDE countries during the period 1972-2006, s...

  5. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  6. The Effects of Progressive Taxation on Labor Supply when Hours and Wages Are Jointly Determined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends a standard intertemporal labor supply model to account for progressive taxation as well as the joint determination of hourly wages and hours worked. We show that these two factors can have implications for both estimating labor supply elasticities as well as for using these elasticities in tax analysis. Failure to account for…

  7. Spanish Refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of petroleum refining in Spain is presented (by Repsol YPF) and some views on future trends are discussed. Spain depends heavily on imports. Sub-headings in the article cover: sources of crude imports, investments and logistics and marketing, -detailed data for each are shown diagrammatically. Tables show: (1) economic indicators (e.g. total GDP, vehicle numbers and inflation) for 1998-200; (2) crude oil imports for 1995-2000; (3) oil products balance for 1995-2000; (4) commodities demand, by product; (5) refining in Spain in terms of capacity per region; (6) outlets in Spain and other European countries in 2002 and (7) sales distribution channel by product

  8. The role of iron in tetrahedrite and tennantite determined by Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Makovicky, Emil; Lebech, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data on four samples of synthetic, iron-bearing tetrahedrite (Cu12-xFexSb4S13) with x = 0.28, 0.69, 0.91, 2.19 and four samples of synthetic tennantite (Cu12-xFexAs4S13) with x = 0.33, 0.38, 0.86, 1.5 indicate unambiguously that iron is incorporated...

  9. Joint Center Estimation Using Single-Frame Optimization: Part 1: Numerical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Frick; Salam Rahmatalla

    2018-01-01

    The biomechanical models used to refine and stabilize motion capture processes are almost invariably driven by joint center estimates, and any errors in joint center calculation carry over and can be compounded when calculating joint kinematics. Unfortunately, accurate determination of joint centers is a complex task, primarily due to measurements being contaminated by soft-tissue artifact (STA). This paper proposes a novel approach to joint center estimation implemented via sequential applic...

  10. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  11. Unambiguous Determination of Intermolecular Hydrogen Bond of NMR Structure by Molecular Dynamics Refinement Using All-Atom Force Field and Implicit Solvent Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Jun Goo

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that AMD refinement is very useful for defining an intermolecular hydrogen bond in NMR structure calculation. The refined structure also provides a clue for explaining the pH dependence in Ub and UIM complexes. As reported by Choi et al., serine-mediated hydrogen bonds are the third most populated hydrogen bonds found in protein-protein intermolecular interactions, after the backbone-backbone and backbone-aspartate ones. The abundance imposes the requirement of an method to determine the interface of protein-protein complexes. The precise geometry is particularly important in the complex structures between Ub and UBDs. Ub recognizes various targets with the same surface, where both hydrophobic and hydrophobic interactions are involved. Hence, the details of the hydrophilic interactions are necessary to find the common binding modes. The structure determination of a biomolecule by NMR depends heavily on the distance restraints derived by the NOE cross peaks that are observed between two protons within 6 A through space. Therefore, the existence of the NOE peaks and their correct assignments to two corresponding protons are essential for an accurate and precise structure determination. Recent developments of NOE assignment and calculation algorithms have enabled the determination of protein 3D structures without any manual interpretation, provided chemical shifts are assigned in most atoms and sufficient NOE peaks exist. Along with these advances, the necessity of determining complicated structures such as complexes is increasing

  12. The Determinants of National Funding in Trans-national Joint Research: Exploring the Proximity Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reale, E.; Spinello, A.; Zinilli, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates -using an explorative approach, why policy makers at national level engage in transnational joint research activities and mobilize dedicated financial resources. The research question is: why policy makers (either Governments or Research Funding Organisations-RFOs) in EU28 countries invest in transnational joint research activities beyond the European Framework Programmes, and what are the determinants of different levels of funding engagement? The question is relevant to understand the reasons that generate the existing imbalances within European countries as to the participation in transnational research, which are likely to create peripheries within the ERA, thus undermining the process of European integration. We assume that proximity linked to cognitive, institutional and organizational dimensions can affect the policy decisions about the level of funding (real engagement) joint European research programmes, because the closeness or distance in these dimensions generate similarities that are likely to influence the possibility of decision makers to collaborate in the implementation of research programmes. The paper also explores the existence of any effect of geographical proximity, although it is not supposed to play a role in policy decisions about investment in transnational research programmes. (Author)

  13. Radiographic study of the hip joint to determine anthropometric parameters for Indian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaria, Vaibhav; Deshpande, Shirish; Kuthe, Abhay; Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Paunipagar, Bhawan K.; Madhugiri, Tanushree Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Hip replacement surgeries are on the rise in India. However, for these surgeries, most of the implants used are imported and manufactured entirely to suit the geometrical considerations of the western population. Studies in the past have shown that there are anatomical variations in the hip joint for different ethnic backgrounds and geographical locations. There is paucity of anthropometric hip joint data related to Indian population and anthropometric variations in skeletal geometry between Asian and Western counterparts have not yet been thoroughly reviewed and considered for implant manufacturing. The purpose of this anthropometric study is to determine any anatomical variations in the normal hip joint among the Indian population and to statistically compare the mean values with the existing data on western population. 422 Hip radiographs of 211 individuals (141 males and 70 females) with normal and healthy hip joints were evaluated to obtain the horizontal offset, vertical offset and neck shaft angle. For males, mean neck shaft angle was 127.68° (SD = 3.94), horizontal offset was 34.60 mm (SD = 6.55) and vertical offset was 39.17 mm (SD = 5.86). For females, mean neck shaft angle was 125.92° (SD = 4.75), horizontal offset was 32.96 mm (SD = 7.04) and vertical offset was 36.38 mm (SD = 6.28). When these parameters were compared to the data available from western world, there were significant anatomical variations and it was evident that there is a need to evaluate existing implants in relation to this data and possibly design the implants suited and relevant to Indian population.

  14. Experimental determination of frequency response function estimates for flexible joint industrial manipulators with serial kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, Florian; Knoblach, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Two different approaches for the determination of frequency response functions (FRFs) are used for the non-parametric closed loop identification of a flexible joint industrial manipulator with serial kinematics. The two applied experiment designs are based on low power multisine and high power chirp excitations. The main challenge is to eliminate disturbances of the FRF estimates caused by the numerous nonlinearities of the robot. For the experiment design based on chirp excitations, a simple iterative procedure is proposed which allows exploiting the good crest factor of chirp signals in a closed loop setup. An interesting synergy of the two approaches, beyond validation purposes, is pointed out.

  15. Determination of the populations and structures of multiple conformers in an ensemble from NMR data: Multiple-copy refinement of nucleic acid structures using floating weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerler, Adrian; Ulyanov, Nikolai B.; James, Thomas L.

    2000-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for determination of structural conformers and their populations based on NMR data. Restrained Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations or restrained energy minimizations are performed for several copies of a molecule simultaneously. The calculations are restrained with dipolar relaxation rates derived from measured NOE intensities via complete relaxation matrix analysis. The novel feature of the algorithm is that the weights of individual conformers are determined in every refinement step, by the quadratic programming algorithm, in such a way that the restraint energy is minimized. Its design ensures that the calculated populations of the individual conformers are based only on experimental restraints. Presence of internally inconsistent restraints is the driving force for determination of distinct multiple conformers. The method is applied to various simulated test systems. Conformational calculations on nucleic acids are carried out using generalized helical parameters with the program DNAminiCarlo. From different mixtures of A- and B-DNA, minor fractions as low as 10% could be determined with restrained energy minimization. For B-DNA with three local conformers (C2'-endo, O4'-exo, C3'-endo), the minor O4'-exo conformer could not be reliably determined using NOE data typically measured for DNA. The other two conformers, C2'-endo and C3'-endo, could be reproduced by Metropolis Monte Carlo simulated annealing. The behavior of the algorithm in various situations is analyzed, and a number of refinement protocols are discussed. Prior to application of this algorithm to each experimental system, it is suggested that the presence of internal inconsistencies in experimental data be ascertained. In addition, because the performance of the algorithm depends on the type of conformers involved and experimental data available, it is advisable to carry out test calculations with simulated data modeling each experimental system studied

  16. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Yang, Hongchuan

    2010-01-01

    Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs

  17. 75 FR 60723 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Comment 4: Model Matching Hierarchy Comment 5: Nacobre's U.S. Date of Sale Comment 6: Treatment of Nacobre... suspension-of- liquidation instructions will remain in effect until further notice. Final Determination The...

  18. Determination of ASTM 1016 structural welded joints fracture toughness through J integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Geraldo de Paula; Villela, Jefferson Jose; Terra, Jose Lucio; Rabello, Emerson Giovani; Martins, Geraldo Antonio Scoralick; Carneiro, Jose Rubens Goncalves

    2009-01-01

    Fracture toughness is an important parameter for studies of materials behavior in nuclear and conventional industry. Crack propagation resistance is, in general, evaluate using one of the fracture mechanics parameters K IC , for the case of the materials that exhibits a linear elastic behavior, the CTOD (crack tip opening displacement) and J IC , the critical value of J Integral, for the case of materials with elastic-plastic behavior. On this work the fracture mechanics parameters of the ASTM 1016 structural steel welded joints were obtained, using the J Integral. Charpy V tests at several temperatures were also obtained, with the purpose to obtain the curves of ductile-brittle of the regions of the welded joints: Base Metal, (MB), and Melted Zone (MZ). The joints were welded by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) with V bevel for evaluation the MZ toughness properties. The tests were accomplished at temperatures varying from -100 deg C to 100 deg C using the technical of compliance variation for J IC determination, the critical value that defines the initial stable crack growth, that applies to brittle and ductile materials. The J Integral alternative specimens has square cross section 10mmX10mm, according ASTM E 1820, with notch localized respectively at the BM and MZ. After the tests, the specimens fractured were analyzed in a scanning microscopic electronic (SME) for verification of the fracture surface. The fractography of the specimens at elevated temperatures presented dimples at the region of stable crack growth, characteristic of ductile fracture. The results of J Integral and Charpy V presented a good correlation between these two parameters. From these correlations it can be concluded that in some applications, the use Charpy V energy to infer fracture toughness can be substitute the Integral J tests. (author)

  19. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  20. Determination of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by non-aqueous reversed phase liquid chromatography: Application and limitation in refining streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Saroj K; Muller, Hendrik; Al-Qunaysi, Thunayyan A; Koseoglu, Omer R

    2018-01-19

    The heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) cause detrimental effects to hydrocracker operations by deactivating the catalysts and depositing in the downstream of the reactor/ exchangers. Therefore, it is essential to continuously monitor the accumulation of HPAHs in a hydrocracker unit. To accurately measure the concentration of HPAHs, the development of a fast and reliable analytical method is inevitable. In this work, an analytical method based on non-aqueous reversed phase chromatography in combination with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was developed. As a first step, five different types of stationary phases were evaluated for the separation of HPAHs in non-aqueous mode and the best suited phase was further used for the fractionation of HPAHs in a fractionator bottom sample obtained from a refinery hydrocracker unit. The eight major fractions or peaks obtained from the separation were further characterized by UV spectroscopy and FT-ICR MS and the compounds in the fractions were tentatively confirmed as benzoperylene, coronene, methylcoronene, naphthenocoronene, benzocoronene, dibenzoperylene, naphthocoronene and ovalene. The developed liquid chromatography method can be easily adapted in a refinery laboratory for the quantitation of HPAHs in hydrocracking products. The method was further tested to check the interference of sulfur aromatics and/or large alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons on the determination of HPAHs in hydrocracking products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement is...

  2. Primary study on image addition technique in CT measuring used to determine the malalignment of patellofemoral joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huan Jian; Gong Jianping; Zhu Jianbing; Dong Qirong; Lu Zhian

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of image addition technique in the field of CT measuring on patellofemoral joints. Method: In contractive condition and relaxant condition of quadriceps, 60 knee joints of 30 patients (47 knee joints accompanied with peri-patellar pain) were examined by CT scanning, and the CT image addition and single technique. Results: In contractive and relaxant condition of quadriceps in the normal group, the difference between index measured by image addition technique were not significant and it was found that demonstrated measurement error of image addition was smaller, but there was significant difference between index measured by single technique, and it suggests that its replication was bad. Conclusion: Use of image addition technique can decrease measurement error and play a important role on accurately determining the malalignment of patellofemoral joints

  3. Application of the surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method to determine patterns of regional joint orientation in glacial tills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Joints within unconsolidated material such as glacial till can be primary avenues for the flow of electrical charge, water, and contaminants. To facilitate the siting and design of remediation programs, a need exists to map anisotropic distribution of such pathways within glacial tills by determining the azimuth of the dominant joint set. The azimuthal survey method uses standard resistivity equipment with a Wenner array rotated about a fixed center point at selected degree intervals that yields an apparent resistivity ellipse. From this ellipse, joint set orientation can be determined. Azimuthal surveys were conducted at 21 sites in a 500-km2 (193 mi2) area around Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and more specifically, at sites having more than 30 m (98 ft) of glacial till (to minimize the influence of underlying bedrock joints). The 26 azimuthal surveys revealed a systematic pattern to the trend of the dominant joint set within the tills, which is approximately parallel to ice flow direction during till deposition. The average orientation of the joint set parallel with the ice flow direction is N77??E and N37??E for the Oak Creek and Ozaukee tills, respectively. The mean difference between average direct observation of joint set orientations and average azimuthal resistivity results is 8??, which is one fifth of the difference of ice flow direction between the Ozaukee and Oak Creek tills. The results of this study suggest that the surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method used for local in situ studies can be a useful noninvasive method for delineating joint sets within shallow geologic material for regional studies. Copyright ?? 2010 The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  4. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  5. Application of analytical methods for determination of hardness distribution in welded joint made of S1100QL steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekarska Wiesława

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of hardness distribution in the cross section of welded join made of S1100QL steel is performed in this study on the basis of analytical methods. Analytical CCT diagram and volume fraction of each phases of S1100QL steel as a function of cooling time t8/5 are determined. A numerical simulation of welding process is performed in ABAQUS. Thermal cycles and temperature field in welded joints are determined. Prediction of hardness distribution in the cross section of the joint is performed on the basis of obtained cooling times t8/5. Results of numerical simulations are compared with experimentally obtained results.

  6. Determination of Aromatic Amines in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke - The CORESTA 2007 Joint Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intorp M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CORESTA joint experiment work in 2006 had compared data on a wide range of smoke constituents obtained from Kentucky reference cigarettes (1R5F and 2R4F, according to the existing methods used by participants. This work had identified that the methods used to determine aromatic amine yields in mainstream smoke would particularly benefit from further study to investigate the main weaknesses and influencing factors in their yield variability before progressing to full method standardisation. This report describes the output from a 2007 joint experiment to address these issues. Participating laboratories carried out experiments to investigate several factors that had been identified in the methodology as potential sources of variability. These were the amine derivative type, the derivatisation time and the point at which the addition of the internal standard for calibration occurred. A statistical assessment was made of their possible influence on aromatic amine smoke yields and yield reproducibility across different laboratories. Results showed that aromatic amines again had poor between-laboratory yield reproducibility. The stage at which the internal standard was added to the smoke sample had the most significant effect on yields. The least variable data were obtained when it was added directly after extraction from the filter pad rather than later in the process. It also appeared beneficial to use at least two calibration standards (i.e., an aminonaphthalene and an aminobiphenyl to minimise yield differences although this recommendation was not supported by statistically significant data. Large differences in yields were not found when comparing the two studied derivatising agents especially when compared against the greater overall between-laboratory variability. Any differences between laboratories in total particulate matter and puff count at the smoke collection stage did not appear to significantly contribute to betweenlaboratory

  7. Determination of withdrawal resistance of staple joints constructed with various members of upholstered furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid Kazemi Najafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of joints members type (oriented strand lumber, plywood and poplar wood (Populusdeltoides, penetration deeps of staple (12 and 17mm and adhesives (with and without adhesive on face and edge withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated with staple. Experimental specimens under withdrawal load test of face and edge consisted of two principal structural members, main member and a secondary member which were joined together by one staple. The results showed that joint member, penetration deeps and adhesive significantly influence on the withdrawal resistance. Staple withdrawal resistance in the face was higher than that in the edge. Staple holding resistance increased with the increase of penetration deep and the withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated by adhesive was higher than those without adhesive. The joints made by oriented strand lumber exhibited better performance than other two members and joints made with poplar wood had higher resistance than plywood joints. The highest face (2326N and edge (1265N withdrawal resistances were obtained from joints prepared from oriented strand lumber with adhesive and17mm penetration deeps.

  8. Determination of a safe INR for joint injections in patients taking warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M A; Ray, R; Sarda, P; Li, S; Corbett, S

    2015-11-01

    With an increase in life expectancy in 'developed' countries, the number of elderly patients receiving joint injections for arthritis is increasing. There are legitimate concerns about an increased risk of thromboembolism if anticoagulation is stopped or reversed for such an injection. Despite being a common dilemma, the literature on this issue is scarce. We undertook 2,084 joint injections of the knee and shoulder in 1,714 patients between August 2008 and December 2013. Within this cohort, we noted 41 patients who were taking warfarin and followed them immediately after joint injection in the clinic or radiology department, looking carefully for complications. Then, we sought clinical follow-up, correspondence, and imaging evidence for 4 weeks, looking for complications from these joint injections. We recorded International Normalised Ratio (INR) values before injection. No complications were associated with the procedure after any joint injection. The radiologists who undertook ultrasound-guided injections to shoulders re-scanned the joints looking for haemarthroses: they found none. A similar outcome was noted clinically after injections in the outpatient setting. With a mean INR of 2.77 (range, 1.7-5.5) and a maximum INR within this group of 5.5, joint injections to the shoulder and knee can be undertaken safely in primary or secondary care settings despite the patient taking warfarin.

  9. How mechanical context and feedback jointly determine the use of mechanical variables in length perception by dynamic touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, Rudmer; Withagen, Rob

    Earlier studies have revealed that both mechanical context and feedback determine what mechanical invariant is used to perceive length by dynamic touch. In the present article, the authors examined how these two factors jointly constrain the informational variable that is relied upon. Participants

  10. How mechanical context and feedback jointly determine the use of mechanical variables in length perception by dynamic touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, Rudmer; Withagen, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed that both mechanical context and feedback determine what mechanical invariant is used to perceive length by dynamic touch. In the present article, the authors examined how these two factors jointly constrain the informational variable that is relied upon. Participants

  11. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  12. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  13. Numerical analysis of laser welding with consideration analytical methods of determining phase transformations and mechanical properties of welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekarska Wiesława

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical analysis of laser welding process with consideration analytical methods determining phase transformations and mechanical properties of welded joints are presents in this paper. The analytical CCT diagram and final structural composition of S355 steel are presented. The empirical relations presents in paper are determined by chemical compositions investigated steel and cooling rate between temperatures 800-500°C (t8/5. Phase composition and mechanical properties each of structures of steel in weld and heat affected zone (HAZ are determined on the basis of analytical methods. Laser welded flat is used in numerical simulations in ABAQUS. Mathematical modes of volumetric welding source are used in the calculations. Temperature fields, shape and size of melting zone for selected points in the cross-section of the joint are determined on the basis of thermal cycles obtained numerical.

  14. Determination of effective university-industry joint research for photovoltaic technology transfer (UIJRPTT) in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhavanija, Pornpimol; Sukchai, Sukruedee; Ketjoy, Nipon; Klongboonjit, Sakol

    2011-01-01

    Most of the literatures related to university-industry (U-I) and technology transfer assume that the collaboration particularly the U-I joint research is beneficial to both university and industry which as a result underpins the sustainable development of economics and living standards of developed and developing countries. The U-I joint research for photovoltaic technology transfer in a developing country like Thailand should have been increased considering the fact that (i) the government implemented various strategies to support the renewable energy research and market development, (ii) the university aimed to be ''research-based university and (iii) the Thai photovoltaic industry struggle for competitiveness and survival in the global market. However, evidence revealed that the university and industry conducted little number of U-I joint projects. In this paper, we investigate the factors influencing the effective U-I joint research for photovoltaic technology transfer (UIJRPTT). In an attempt to better understand the influence of the factors, the path model with factors related to characteristics and perspectives of the university and the industry as well as joint research mechanism and their linkages to higher growth and improved economic and quality performance of the U-I joint research is developed and validated. The developed model empirically explains interaction between the factors and the outcome factors and can assist the government, the university and the industry to devise target strategies to improve the growth and performance of UIJRPTT. (author)

  15. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    In the design of a new space suit it is necessary to have requirements that define what mobility space suit joints should be capable of achieving in both a system and at the component level. NASA elected to divide mobility into its constituent parts-range of motion (ROM) and torque- in an effort to develop clean design requirements that limit subject performance bias and are easily verified. Unfortunately, the measurement of mobility can be difficult to obtain. Current technologies, such as the Vicon motion capture system, allow for the relatively easy benchmarking of range of motion (ROM) for a wide array of space suit systems. The ROM evaluations require subjects in the suit to accurately evaluate the ranges humans can achieve in the suit. However, when it comes to torque, there are significant challenges for both benchmarking current performance and writing requirements for future suits. This is reflected in the fact that torque definitions have been applied to very few types of space suits and with limited success in defining all the joints accurately. This paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages to historical joint torque evaluation methods, describes more recent efforts directed at benchmarking joint torques of prototype space suits, and provides an outline for how NASA intends to address joint torque in design requirements for the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS).

  16. Electrical resistance determination of actual contact area of cold welded metal joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordon, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    Method measures the area of the bonded zone of a compression weld by observing the electrical resistance of the weld zone while the load changes from full compression until the joint ruptures under tension. The ratio of bonding force to maximum tensile load varies considerably.

  17. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric pelvis and hip joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidenbusch, Michael C.; Schneider, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric X-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for pelvis and hip joint radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional pelvis and hip joint radiographs were calculated by performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models representing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of radiation field settings was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during pelvis and hip joint radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal beam projection and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented can be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during pelvis and hip joint radiographs of children and young adults with all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  18. A feasibility study for experimentally determining dynamic force distribution in a lap joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, Randall Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Developing constitutive models of the physics in mechanical joints is currently stymied by inability to measure forces and displacements within the joint. The current state of the art estimates whole joint stiffness and energy loss per cycle from external measured force input and one or two acceleration responses. To validate constitutive models beyond this state requires a measurement of the distributed forces and displacements at the joint interface. Unfortunately, introducing measurement devices at the interface completely disrupts the desired physics. A feasibility study is presented for a non-intrusive method of solving for the interface dynamic forces from an inverse problem using full field measured responses. The responses come from the viewable surface of a beam. The noise levels associated with digital image correlation and continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry are evaluated from typical beam experiments. Two inverse problems are simulated. One utilizes the extended Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). The second is a new approach dubbed the method of truncated orthogonal forces. These methods are much more robust if the contact patch geometry is well identified. Various approaches to identifying the contact patch are investigated, including ion marker tracking, Prussian blue and ultrasonic measurements. A typical experiment is conceived for a beam which has a lap joint at one end with a single bolt connecting it to another identical beam. In a virtual test using the beam finite element analysis, it appears that the SWAT inverse method requires evaluation of too many coefficients to adequately identify the force distribution to be viable. However, the method of truncated orthogonal forces appears viable with current digital image correlation (and probably other) imaging techniques.

  19. Creating value in refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on recent developments in the US refining industry and presents a model for improving the performance of refineries based on the analysis of the refining industry by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young. The identification of refineries in risk of failing, the construction of pipelines for refinery products from Gulf State refineries, mergers and acquisitions, and poor financial performance are discussed. Current challenges concerning the stagnant demand for refinery products, environmental regulations, and shareholder value are highlighted. The structure of the industry, the creation of value in refining, and the search for business models are examined. The top 25 US companies and US refining business groups are listed

  20. The power of joint application of LEED and DFT in quantitative surface structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, K; Hammer, L; Mueller, S

    2008-01-01

    It is demonstrated for several cases that the joint application of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and structural calculations using density functional theory (DFT) can retrieve the correct surface structure even though single application of both methods fails. On the experimental side (LEED) the failure can be due to the simultaneous presence of weak and very strong scatterers or to an insufficient data base leaving different structures with the same quality of fit between experimental data and calculated model intensities. On the theory side (DFT) it can be difficult to predict the coverage of an adsorbate or two different structures may own almost the same total energy, but only one of the structures is assumed in experiment due to formation kinetics. It is demonstrated how in the different cases the joint application of both methods-which yield about the same structural precision-offers a way out of the dilemma

  1. Ownership choices of Indian direct investors: Do FDI determinants differ between joint ventures and whollyowned subsidiaries?

    OpenAIRE

    Nunnenkamp, Peter; Sosa Andrés, Maximiliano

    2013-01-01

    Using count data on Indian joint ventures (JVs) and wholly owned subsidiaries (WOS), we present an empirical analysis of FDI-related ownership choices and their relation with host country characteristics and indicators of transaction costs. Our Negative Binomial regression models offer only weak support for the bargaining perspective, according to which JVs should be more likely if the host countries were particularly attractive in terms of market access or resource endowments. Geographical a...

  2. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join (⊔fuz, fuzzy demonic meet (⊓fuz, and fuzzy demonic composition (□fuz. Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using mathematica software (fuzzy logic.

  3. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2010-11-01

    Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs). With the proposed approach, we can systematically derive the joint statistics of any partial sums of ordered statistics, in terms of the moment generating function (MGF) and the probability density function (PDF). Our MGF-based approach applies not only when all the K ordered RVs are involved but also when only the Ks(Ks < K) best RVs are considered. In addition, we present the closed-form expressions for the exponential RV special case. These results apply to the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems over fading channels. © 2006 IEEE.

  4. Refining margins and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  5. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  6. Joint cartilage thickness and automated determination of bone age and bone health in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilt, Marinka; Pradsgaard, Dan; Spannow, Anne Helene; Horlyck, Arne; Heuck, Carsten; Herlin, Troels

    2017-08-10

    BoneXpert is an automated method to calculate bone maturation and bone health index (BHI) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Cartilage thickness can also be seen as an indicator for bone health and arthritis damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation between cartilage thickness, bone maturation and bone health in patients with JIA. Patients with JIA diagnosed according ILAR criteria included in a previous ultrasonography (US) study were eligible if hand radiographs were taken at the same time as the US examination. Of the 95 patients 67 met the inclusion criteria. Decreased cartilage thickness was seen in 27% of the examined joints. Decreased BHI was seen in half of the JIA patient, and delayed bone maturation was seen in 33% of patients. A combination of decreased BHI and bone age was seen in 1 out of 5 JIA patients. Decreased cartilage thickness in the knee, wrist and MCP joint was negatively correlated with delayed bone maturation but not with bone health index. Delayed bone maturation and decreased BHI were not related to a thinner cartilage, but a thicker cartilage. No relation with JADAS 10 was found. The rheumatologist should remain aware of delayed bone maturation and BHI in JIA patients with cartilage changes, even in the biologic era.

  7. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  8. Temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westesson, P.L.; Hatala, M.; Tallents, R.H.; Katzberg, R.W.; Musgrave, M.; Levitt, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the frequency of MR signs of abnormal temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in asymptomatic volunteers. Forty-two volunteers with 84 clinically normal TMJs were imaged in the sagittal and coronal planes with surface coil MR imaging. Sagittal closed and open and coronal closed views were obtained bilaterally in all volunteers. The images were classified as normal (superior disk position) or abnormal (disk displacement of degenerative joint disease). Eighteen joints in 11 volunteers were abnormal; 12 had disk displacement with reduction and six had disk displacement without reduction, with associated degenerative joint disease in three of the six. Asymptomatic internal derangement and degenerative joint disease occur in about one-fourth of asymptomatic volunteers

  9. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  10. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tchier, Fairouz

    2014-01-01

    We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join $({\\bigsqcup }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , fuzzy demonic meet $({\\sqcap }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , and fuzzy demonic composition $({\\square }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ . Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using ma...

  11. Design and characterization of a wearable macrobending fiber optic sensor for human joint angle determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana S.; Catarino, André; Correia, Miguel V.; Frazão, Orlando

    2013-12-01

    The work presented here describes the development and characterization of intensity fiber optic sensor integrated in a specifically designed piece of garment to measure elbow flexion. The sensing head is based on macrobending incorporated in the garment, and the increase of curvature number was studied in order to investigate which scheme provided a good result in terms of sensitivity and repeatability. Results showed the configuration that assured a higher sensitivity (0.644 dBm/deg) and better repeatability was the one with four loops. Ultimately, this sensor can be used for rehabilitation purposes to monitor human joint angles, namely, elbow flexion on stroke survivors while performing the reach functional task, which is the most common upper-limb human gesture.

  12. Determinants of the quality of brazed joints of nickel-based superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Strzelczak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace industry, passenger safety depends on proper quality control at each production stage. The main responsibility for the correct operation of the aircraft lies within a gas turbine. A proper and rigorous selection of the gas turbine construction material is required, and in a further step, the method of joining the construction parts. Nickel superalloys due to the high heat resistance, strength and creep resistance at high temperatures, toughness and corrosion resistance, are very often used for the construction of a gas turbine engine. In the next step, the selection of joining method is necessary. This method must be able to achieve high-quality connections, resistant to work at high temperatures and corrosive environments. The most effective bonding method that meets the above conditions is brazing. In this study non-destructive (visual test and destructive (metallographic test of brazed joint of Inconel 718 and Inconel 625 were conducted.

  13. Joint cartilage thickness and automated determination of bone age and bone health in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twilt, Marinka; Pradsgaard, Dan; Spannow, Anne Helene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BoneXpert is an automated method to calculate bone maturation and bone health index (BHI) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Cartilage thickness can also be seen as an indicator for bone health and arthritis damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate...... the relation between cartilage thickness, bone maturation and bone health in patients with JIA. METHODS: Patients with JIA diagnosed according ILAR criteria included in a previous ultrasonography (US) study were eligible if hand radiographs were taken at the same time as the US examination. Of the 95 patients...... 67 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Decreased cartilage thickness was seen in 27% of the examined joints. Decreased BHI was seen in half of the JIA patient, and delayed bone maturation was seen in 33% of patients. A combination of decreased BHI and bone age was seen in 1 out of 5 JIA patients...

  14. Optimal parameters determination of the orbital weld technique using microstructural and chemical properties of welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, A.; Echevarria, J.F.; Rondon, S.; Leiva, P.; Sendoya, F.A.; Amalfi, J.; Lopez, M.; Dominguez, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of the main parameters of thermal cycle in Orbital Automatic Weld, as a particular process of the GTAW Weld technique. Also is concerned with the investigation of microstructural and mechanical properties of welded joints made with Orbital Technique in SA 210 Steel, a particular alloy widely use during the construction of Economizers of Power Plants. A number of PC software were used in this sense in order to anticipate the main mechanical and structural characteristics of Weld metal and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). The papers also might be of great value during selection of optimal Weld parameters to produce sound and high quality Welds during the construction / assembling of structural components in high requirements industrial sectors and also to make a reliable prediction of weld properties

  15. Inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly determine the expenditure of effort in project teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojie Han

    Full Text Available The literature on team cooperation has neglected the effects of relative kindness intention on cooperation, which we measure by comparing the kindness intentions of an agent to her group members to the kindness shown by other members to this same agent. We argue that the agent's emotional reaction to material payoff inequity is not constant, but rather affected by her relative kindness intention. Then, we apply the model to team projects with multiple partners and investigate how inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly influence team cooperation. We first consider the case of homogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are the same, and then consider the case of heterogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are not the same. Our results show that inequity-aversion has no effect on effort expenditure in the former case, but does affect it in the latter case. The consideration of relative kindness intention may impact the agents' optimal cooperative effort expenditure when their technical capacities are different. In addition, it is beneficial for team cooperation, and might not only reduce the negative impact but also enhance the positive impact of inequity-aversion on the agents' effort expenditures.

  16. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  17. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  18. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  19. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  20. Refining - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable

  1. Determination of MMP-2 and -9 activities in synovial fluid of horses with osteoarthritic and arthritic joint diseases using gelatin zymography and immunocapture activity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, S; Einspanier, R; Hoppner, S; Hertsch, B; Bondzio, A

    2008-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 activities have been found elevated in synovial fluid from various joint diseases in man. However, in the horse few data are available. To explore the clinical significance of MMP-2 and -9 activities in synovial fluid of horses with different forms of joint diseases. Gelatin zymography and MMP-2 and -9 immunocapture activity assays were applied on synovial fluids from control joints and joints with aseptic joint disease (AJD) and septic arthritis (SA). Additionally, MMP-2 and -9 activities were measured in samples from SA to monitor the disease process. Zymographic analysis revealed that samples from AJD and SA contained significantly increased latent MMP-2 activity compared to controls. Samples from SA showed significantly increased monomeric latent MMP-9 activity compared with all other affected joints and controls. Trace amounts of MMP-9 activity, due to the active and dimer form, were detected in samples from SA; however, these bands were absent in samples from AJD and controls. Using immunocapture activity assays, MMP-2 and -9 activities were found to be significantly elevated in joints from SA compared to controls and AJD samples. MMP-2 activity in samples from AJD was significantly increased compared to controls. Both MMP activities decreased in the joints from SA in the course of successful therapy. Data from zymographic analysis confirmed that MMP-2 and -9 were elevated in equine joint diseases. Immunocapture activity assays have been shown to be suitable for the quantitative determination of MMP-2 and -9 activities in synovial fluid of horses. Both MMP-2 and -9 activities seem to be useful to indicate SA, and MMP-2 activity might be a suitable marker for AJD. These findings encourage the potential use of MMP-2 and -9 as additional aids to clinical investigation. Further work is required to validate the clinical significance of MMP activities in the progress of different joint diseases in horses.

  2. Panorama 2012 - Refining 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    The major uncertainty characterizing the global energy landscape impacts particularly on transport, which remains the virtually-exclusive bastion of the oil industry. The industry must therefore respond to increasing demand for mobility against a background marked by the emergence of alternatives to oil-based fuels and the need to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). It is in this context that the 'Refining 2030' study conducted by IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) forecasts what the global supply and demand balance for oil products could be, and highlights the type and geographical location of the refinery investment required. Our study shows that the bulk of the refining investment will be concentrated in the emerging countries (mainly those in Asia), whilst the areas historically strong in refining (Europe and North America) face reductions in capacity. In this context, the drastic reduction in the sulphur specification of bunker oil emerges as a structural issue for European refining, in the same way as increasingly restrictive regulation of refinery CO 2 emissions (quotas/taxation) and the persistent imbalance between gasoline and diesel fuels. (authors)

  3. Joint determination of the concentrations of the 222Rn and 220Rn decay products in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a modification of the Kuznets and Markov methods normally employed for the determination of radon 220 and 222 daughter alpha product concentration in air in which an air sample is taken for 10 minutes on a filter at a flow rate of 10-40 liters per minute. After the conclusion of sampling the filter activity is measured for another 10 minutes. In order to then determine the latent energy of the radon 222 daughter products and to bring into account the radon 220 daughter products in the total activity measurements of the filter are taken for a second time for 30 minutes five hours after initial sampling. The level of latent energy of the combined daughter products are calculated by an equation which incorporates alpha particle detection efficiency, aerosol retention efficiency in the filter, and the Kuznets coefficients, and analyzes the separate and combined contributions of both daughter products from both sampling periods. A statistical analysis employing the Markov method is also depicted in modified form and is recommended when a more rapid analysis of air radioactivity is mandated

  4. US refining reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the history, present position and future prospects of the petroleum industry in the USA. The main focus is on supply and demand, the high quality of the products, refinery capacity and product trade balances. Diagrams show historical trends in output, product demand, demand for transport fuels and oil, refinery capacity, refinery closures, and imports and exports. Some particularly salient points brought out were (i) production of US crude shows a marked downward trend but imports of crude will continue to increase, (ii) product demand will continue to grow even though the levels are already high, (iii) the demand is dominated by those products that typically yield the highest income for the refiner, (i.e. high quality transport fuels for environmental compliance), (iv) refinery capacity has decreased since 1980 and (v) refining will continue to have financial problems but will still be profitable. (UK)

  5. Outlook for Canadian refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boje, G.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum supply and demand balance was discussed and a comparison between Canadian and U.S. refineries was provided. The impact of changing product specifications on the petroleum industry was also discussed. The major changes include sulphur reductions in gasoline, benzene and MMT additives. These changes have been made in an effort to satisfy environmental needs. Geographic margin variations in refineries between east and west were reviewed. An overview of findings from the Solomon Refining Study of Canadian and American refineries, which has been very complimentary of the Canadian refining industry, was provided. From this writer's point of view refinery utilization has improved but there is a threat from increasing efficiency of US competitors. Environmental issues will continue to impact upon the industry and while the chances for making economic returns on investment are good for the years ahead, it will be a challenge to maintain profitability

  6. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  7. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  8. Panorama 2009 - refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For oil companies to invest in new refining and conversion capacity, favorable conditions over time are required. In other words, refining margins must remain high and demand sustained over a long period. That was the situation prevailing before the onset of the financial crisis in the second half of 2008. The economic conjuncture has taken a substantial turn for the worse since then and the forecasts for 2009 do not look bright. Oil demand is expected to decrease in the OECD countries and to grow much more slowly in the emerging countries. It is anticipated that refining margins will fall in 2009 - in 2008, they slipped significantly in the United States - as a result of increasingly sluggish demand, especially for light products. The next few months will probably be unfavorable to investment. In addition to a gloomy business outlook, there may also be a problem of access to sources of financing. As for investment projects, a mainstream trend has emerged in the last few years: a shift away from the regions that have historically been most active (the OECD countries) towards certain emerging countries, mostly in Asia or the Middle East. The new conjuncture will probably not change this trend

  9. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  10. A Multimodal Approach for Determining Brain Networks by Jointly Modeling Functional and Structural Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiong eXue

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent innovations in neuroimaging technology have provided opportunities for researchers to investigate connectivity in the human brain by examining the anatomical circuitry as well as functional relationships between brain regions. Existing statistical approaches for connectivity generally examine resting-state or task-related functional connectivity (FC between brain regions or separately examine structural linkages. As a means to determine brain networks, we present a unified Bayesian framework for analyzing FC utilizing the knowledge of associated structural connections, which extends an approach by Patel et al.(2006a that considers only functional data. We introduce an FC measure that rests upon assessments of functional coherence between regional brain activity identified from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Our structural connectivity (SC information is drawn from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data, which is used to quantify probabilities of SC between brain regions. We formulate a prior distribution for FC that depends upon the probability of SC between brain regions, with this dependence adhering to structural-functional links revealed by our fMRI and DTI data. We further characterize the functional hierarchy of functionally connected brain regions by defining an ascendancy measure that compares the marginal probabilities of elevated activity between regions. In addition, we describe topological properties of the network, which is composed of connected region pairs, by performing graph theoretic analyses. We demonstrate the use of our Bayesian model using fMRI and DTI data from a study of auditory processing. We further illustrate the advantages of our method by comparisons to methods that only incorporate functional information.

  11. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    OpenAIRE

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Zwart, Peter H.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An i...

  12. A method for refining oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruskin, Yu.A.; Gorokhov, V.V.; Kotler, L.D.; Kovalenko, N.F.; Spasskiy, Yu.B.; Titov, A.M.; Vlasenko, V.Ye.; Vytnov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for refining oil through its distillation with the isolation of directly distilled gases and a benzine fraction (BS) with the use of a benzine fraction pyrolysis, in order to increase the output of the lower olefines and to reduce the energy expenditures, the distillation is conducted with the isolation of 10 to 40 percent of the benzine fraction from its potential content along with the directly distilled gases. The obtained mixture of the remaining part of the benzine fraction is absorbed at a pressure of 1.5 to 6 atmospheres with the feeding of the obtained saturated absorbent to pyrolysis and subsequent mixing of the obtained pyrolysis gas with the unabsorbed product and their joint gas division. As compared to the known method, the proposed method makes it possible to reduce the energy expenditures which is achieved through a reduction in the volume of irrigation in the tower, and to increase the output of the olefines through processing of the steam and gas mixture of the benzine and the directly distilled gases.

  13. HLA-B27 and gender independently determine the likelihood of a positive MRI of the sacroiliac joints in patients with early inflammatory back pain: a 2-year MRI follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, M.; Jurik, A. G.; van der Heijde, D.; van Tubergen, A.; Heuft-Dorenbosch, L.; Landewé, R.

    2011-01-01

    To describe how inflammation on MRI of the sacroiliac joints in patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain (IBP) evolves over time, and to study determinants of activity on MRI of the sacroiliac joint. A 2-year follow-up study with annual MRI of the sacroiliac joints was conducted in patients

  14. The Application of the SCT and the ANP Model to Refine the Most Critical ICT Determinants in Minimizing the Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research cross-employed the social cognition theory (SCT and the analytical network process (ANP model in qualitative analyses and the multiple criteria decision making (MCDM methodology in quantitative measurements to comprehensively re-identify the most critical information communication technology (ICT determinants in minimizing the digital divide (DD. After measuring the complete importance of related priority weight w (eigenvector from the survey results given to various experts, the complete synthetically comparative index numbers (SCIN from the evaluation model used conveyed two distinct consequences. First, the highest SCIN scores for the ANP, F-ANP, and G-ANP models are 0.5516, 0.3771, and 0.4791, respectively, and are located in the “ICT can positively minimize the level of DD” (ICTCPMDD column in the summarized results table. Secondly, the highest evaluated weighted score of assessed criteria of 0.5801 is located in the Diversified Mobile Applications (DMAPP column. From these results, there are two contributive findings that can be deduced. First, ICT indeed proved the determinative influences and interplays in the level of DD which means that the undeveloped, developing, and emerging regions are apparently able to minimize the level of DD by means of the ICT development. Second, the Diversified Mobile Applications (DMAPP is the most critical determinant of ICT in minimizing the level of digital divide.

  15. Note: Additionally refined new possibilities of plasma probe diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaby, V. A.; Savinov, V. P.; Masherov, P. E.; Yakunin, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    In two previous Notes published in this journal, a method of measuring probe sheath thickness and ion mass was described using Langmuir probe diagnostics in low pressure xenon plasma close to Maxwellian substance. According to the first Note, this method includes two stages: (i) in a special experiment with known ion mass, the Bohm and Child-Langmuir-Boguslavsky (CLB) equations for cylindrical Langmuir probes used in this xenon plasma were solved jointly to determine the probe sheath thicknesses and Bohm coefficient CBCyl ≈ 1.13; and (ii) in a general experiment, with known CBCyl, the same equations could be solved to obtain the probe sheath thicknesses and the mean ion mass. In the second Note, the (i) stage of this method was refined: the results of the CLB probe sheath model application, which were termed "evaluations," were corrected using the step-front probe sheath model, which was closer to reality in the special experiment with the xenon plasma. This process resulted in a Bohm coefficient of CBCyl ≈ 1.23 for the cylindrical probe. In the present Note, corrected xenon plasma parameters without the influence of the bare probe protective shield were used for the (i) stage of this diagnostic method. This action also refined the Bohm coefficient, lowering it to CBCyl ≈ 0.745 for cylindrical probes. This advance makes the new diagnostics method more objective and reliable.

  16. Refining intra-protein contact prediction by graph analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Eran

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate prediction of intra-protein residue contacts from sequence information will allow the prediction of protein structures. Basic predictions of such specific contacts can be further refined by jointly analyzing predicted contacts, and by adding information on the relative positions of contacts in the protein primary sequence. Results We introduce a method for graph analysis refinement of intra-protein contacts, termed GARP. Our previously presented intra-contact prediction method by means of pair-to-pair substitution matrix (P2PConPred was used to test the GARP method. In our approach, the top contact predictions obtained by a basic prediction method were used as edges to create a weighted graph. The edges were scored by a mutual clustering coefficient that identifies highly connected graph regions, and by the density of edges between the sequence regions of the edge nodes. A test set of 57 proteins with known structures was used to determine contacts. GARP improves the accuracy of the P2PConPred basic prediction method in whole proteins from 12% to 18%. Conclusion Using a simple approach we increased the contact prediction accuracy of a basic method by 1.5 times. Our graph approach is simple to implement, can be used with various basic prediction methods, and can provide input for further downstream analyses.

  17. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  18. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  19. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  20. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kim, Dongin

    2014-01-01

    framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. RVs. Our mathematical formalism is illustrated with an application on the exact performance analysis of the capture probability of generalized selection combining (GSC)-based RAKE

  1. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  2. Local reinforcement of magnesium components by friction processing. Determination of bonding mechanisms and assessment of joint properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, G.A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2008-07-01

    The development of new creep-resistant and cost effective die casting magnesium alloys, such as AE, MRI, MEZ, ACM, AXJ, AJ, WE, have emerged as an alternative, to fulfil the modern demands in structurally relevant applications, such as engine blocks, gears and converter boxes. However, in most cases, magnesium components are screwed with aluminium and steel bolts, which lead the screwed joints to lose the preload force, due to relaxation. This barrier thereby limits the broad use of magnesium within this segment and should somehow find an adequate solution to help overcome this limitation. Furthermore, together with alloy development and the addition of reinforcement (MMCs), local material engineering processes have been conceived and are considered a method to improve the properties and therefore expand the number of potential applications for magnesium alloys. In this context, Friction Welding (FW) and particularly Friction Hydro Pillar Processing (FHPP), which can be described as a drill and fill process, appear to be an alternative to make the use of magnesium more widespread. For this reason, FHPP is intended to be used, to locally reinforce the mechanically fastened magnesium components. With this approach, regions submitted to the stresses imposed by tightening forces can be compensated by the use of a material with superior properties. It is not required to fabricate the whole structure from an expensive material, thus saving costs and thereby satisfying the economic pressures of an increasingly competitive global market. In the present work, a preliminary experimental matrix was defined and used to determine the optimal welding conditions for each specific material combination selected. Further, elaborate experimental techniques are used to describe the process parameters-microstructure-properties relationships and the consequent mechanisms leading to bonding in FHPP welds in similar and dissimilar configurations. The welds were performed using a hydraulic

  3. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Løvgreen-Nielsen, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and macroscopic and microscopic synovial pathologic findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Synovial biopsies...... were performed, and macroscopic grades of synovitis assigned, at preselected knee sites during arthroscopy or arthrotomy in 17 knees with RA and 25 with OA. Synovial inflammation and 9 separate tissue characteristics were graded histologically. Synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes were...... membrane and effusion volumes may be sensitive markers and/or predictors of disease activity and treatment outcome in RA....

  5. The Niguarda MEWS, a new and refined tool to determine criticality and instability in Internal Medicine Ward and Emergency Medicine Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Colombo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of the modified early warning score (MEWS versus a new early warning system (Niguarda MEWS for detecting instability and criticality in hospital medical departments. A retrospective observational study was conducted in the Internal Medicine ward of Niguarda Ca’ Granda Hospital in Milan between November 2013 and October 2014. MEWS and Niguarda-MEWS were gathered using: systolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency, heart rate, temperature, level of consciousness, oxygen saturation, creatinine level, hematocrit level and age. In order to determine if the patient was critical or not the MEWS criticality cut-off value chosen was 3, while in the Niguarda MEWS it was 6. The primary outcome was the correlation between the critical level of the two scores and in-hospital mortality. The secondary endpoint was the correlation between a specific disease and the two scores. In the study, 471 patients were included, using both the MEWS and the Niguarda MEWS score at admittance: 33.4% of patients turned out to be critically ill using the former, 40.98% when using the latter. Therefore, the specificity of scores was 70% for MEWS and 73% for Niguarda MEWS, the sensitivity 58% for MEWS and 63% for Niguarda MEWS, Niguarda MEWS area under the curve (AUC: 0.736, MEWS AUC: 0.670. For the secondary outcome, the new score is higher for genitourinary and respiratory diseases. Niguarda-MEWS could be an optimal tool to detect criticality and instability in order to address the patient to the right level of care.

  6. The accuracy of MRI-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in arthritis. A comparison of pre- and post-aspiration volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Henriksen, O

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 18 knees of patients with arthritis was performed before and immediately after arthrocentesis. Pre- and post-aspiration volumes were calculated by adding the outlined areas of synovium/effusion from a continuous series of gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced 5 mm transversal...... T1-weighted MR-images. The difference between MRI-determined and syringe-determined volumes of aspirated joint fluid was 0-7 ml, median 2 ml, corresponding to 0-18%, median 7%, of the pre-aspiration effusion volume. Synovial membrane volumes, determined before and after arthrocentesis varied 0-10 ml......, median 3 ml (0-17%, median 7%). No significant systematic misinterpretation of the borderline between joint fluid and synovium was found. We conclude that effusion volumes and in all probability also synovial membrane volumes, can be determined by MRI with a maximal analytical error of approximately 20...

  7. Development of a Method to Determine Abnormal Joint Torque Coupling Patterns During Walking In Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fricke, S.S.; Dragunas, Andrew C.; Gordon, Keith E.; van der Kooij, H.; van Asseldonk, E.H.F.; Dewald, Julius P. A.

    Motor impairments following stroke may lead to a reduced walking ability, however, no reliable assessments to quantify these impairments during walking are available [1]. For example, abnormal joint torque coupling between hip extension and hip adduction, previously reported under isometric

  8. Structure determinations for Ca3Ti2O7, Ca4Ti3O10, Ca3.6Sr0.4Ti3O10 and a refinement of Sr3Ti2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcombe, M.M.; Kisi, E.H.; Hawkins, K.D.; White, T.J.; Goodman, P.; Matheson, S.

    1991-01-01

    The structures of the orthorhombic Ruddlesden-Popper (A n+1 B n X 3n+1 ) phases Ca 3 Ti 2 O 7 (n=2) refined from neutron powder diffraction data at λ=1.893 A. They consist of coherent intergrowths of perovskite (CaTiO 3 ) blocks, n TiO 6 octahedra thick, with single layers of CaO having a distorted NaCl configuration. TiO 6 octahedra are tilted and distorted in a very similar fashion to those in CaTiO 3 (n=∞). This fact was used to determine the space groups of the layered structures. Convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns are best matched by calculations in the above space groups which are thus confirmed. Octahedral tilt angles increase slightly in the sequence n=2, 3, ∞. Strontium addition reduces the octahedral tilt angles because of preferential substitution of Sr on the Ca sites within the perovskite blocks of Ca 4 Ti 3 O 10 . The algorithm used to produce starting models for structure refinements is thought to be generally applicable to Ruddlesden-Popper and possibly other layered perovskite structures. It furnishes the predictions: (a) all n-even compounds in the Ca n+1 Ti n O 3n+1 series will have space group Ccm2 1 , (b) all n-odd compounds in this series will have space group Pcab, (c) all A n+1 B n X 3n+1 series for which the n=∞ end member (ABX 3 ) is isostructural with CaTiO 3 will be isostructural with the compounds reported above (e.g. Ca n+1 Zr n O 3n+1 ). (orig./WL)

  9. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  10. Determination of characteristics of degenerative joint disease using optical coherence tomography and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Guo, Shuguang; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping; Peavy, George M

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that optical coherence tomography (OCT) could be used to delineate alterations in the microstructure of cartilage, and have suggested that changes in the polarization state of light as detected by OCT could provide information on the birefringence properties of articular cartilage as influenced by disease. In this study we have used both OCT and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) technologies to evaluate normal and abnormal bovine articular cartilage according to established structural, organizational, and birefringent characteristics of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in order to determine if this technology can be used to differentiate various stages of DJD as a minimally invasive imaging tool. Fresh bovine femoral-tibial joints were obtained from an abattoir, and 45 cartilage specimens were harvested from 8 tibial plateaus. Whole ex vivo specimens of normal and degenerative articular cartilage were imaged by both OCT and PS-OCT, then fixed and processed for histological evaluation. OCT/PS-OCT images and corresponding histology sections of each specimen were scored according to a modified Mankin structural grading scale and compared. OCT and PS-OCT imaging allowed structural evaluation of intact articular cartilage along a 6 mm surface length to a depth of 2 mm with a transverse resolution of 12 microm and an axial resolution of 10 microm. The OCT and PS-OCT images demonstrated characteristic alterations in the structure of articular cartilage with a high correlation to histological evaluation (kappa = 0.776). The OCT images were able to demonstrate early to advanced structural changes of articular cartilage while the optical phase retardation images obtained by PS-OCT imaging were able to discriminate areas where disorganization of the cartilage matrix was present, however, these characteristics are much different than those reported where OCT images alone were used to characterize tissue

  11. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters

  12. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  13. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  14. Joint application of neutron and X-ray scattering for determination of atomic and electronic structures of molecules and crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozerov, R.P.; Tsirel'son, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the main principles of methods based on the joint neutron and x-ray diffraction studies. The methods allow one to obtain the information on the charge distribution in molecules in detail. Neutron scattering makes it possible to locate very closely the nucleus of atom or, more precisely, the gravity center of the ellipsoid of nuclear thermal oscillations. X-ray diffraction gives the distribution of electronic density at some distance from the shell gravity center. The joint diffraction method holds the promise and importance for solving physical-chemical problems

  15. Refining of raw materials, lignite present economic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G.

    1985-06-01

    East Germany seeks an economic intensification program that involves refining raw materials to a higher level. Lignite briquetting prior to liquefaction and gasification illustrates both the theoretical and practical aspects of that goal and also introduces questions of secure supplies. The author describes the special labor processes, use of technology, recycling of waste materials, and other new problems that the approach entails as the refined raw materials become new materials or energy sources. Economics based on the value of the refined product and the cost of the materials determine the degree of refinement. The concept also involves the relationship of producer and user as profits increase.

  16. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...

  17. National oil companies' presence to hike US refining competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the downstream segment of the U.S. petroleum business is virtually certain to become more competitive because of the growing presence of national oil companies in the country's refining industry. That's a forecast by New York investment firm Kidder Peabody. It cites a plan by Mexico's Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) to form a joint venture with Shell Oil Co. covering Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery as the latest example of national oil companies' movement into U.S. refining

  18. Joint Inversion of 1-Hz GPS Data and Strong Motion Records for the Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake: Objectively Determining Relative Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Kato, T.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal fault slip history of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan, is obtained by the joint inversion of 1-Hz GPS waveforms and near-field strong motion records. 1-Hz GPS data from GEONET is processed by GAMIT/GLOBK and then a low-pass filter of 0.05 Hz is applied. The ground surface strong motion records from stations of K-NET and Kik-Net are band-pass filtered for the range of 0.05 ~ 0.3 Hz and integrated once to obtain velocity. The joint inversion exploits a broader frequency band for near-field ground motions, which provides excellent constraints for both the detailed slip history and slip distribution. A fully Bayesian inversion method is performed to simultaneously and objectively determine the rupture model, the unknown relative weighting of multiple data sets and the unknown smoothing hyperparameters. The preferred rupture model is stable for different choices of velocity structure model and station distribution, with maximum slip of ~ 8.0 m and seismic moment of 2.9 × 1019 Nm (Mw 6.9). By comparison with the single inversion of strong motion records, the cumulative slip distribution of joint inversion shows sparser slip distribution with two slip asperities. One common slip asperity extends from the hypocenter southeastward to the ground surface of breakage; another slip asperity, which is unique for joint inversion contributed by 1-Hz GPS waveforms, appears in the deep part of fault where very few aftershocks are occurring. The differential moment rate function of joint and single inversions obviously indicates that rich high frequency waves are radiated in the first three seconds but few low frequency waves.

  19. (Na,□)5[MnO2]13 nanorods: a new tunnel structure for electrode materials determined ab initio and refined through a combination of electron and synchrotron diffraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaioli, Enrico; Gemmi, Mauro; Merlini, Marco; Gregorkiewitz, Michele

    2016-01-01

    (Nax□1 − x)5[MnO2]13 has been synthesized with x = 0.80 (4), corresponding to Na0.31[MnO2]. This well known material is usually cited as Na0.4[MnO2] and is believed to have a romanèchite-like framework. Here, its true structure is determined, ab initio, by single-crystal electron diffraction tomography (EDT) and refined both by EDT data applying dynamical scattering theory and by the Rietveld method based on synchrotron powder diffraction data (χ2 = 0.690, R wp = 0.051, R p = 0.037, R F2 = 0.035). The unit cell is monoclinic C2/m, a = 22.5199 (6), b = 2.83987 (6), c = 14.8815 (4) Å, β = 105.0925 (16)°, V = 918.90 (4) Å3, Z = 2. A hitherto unknown [MnO2] framework is found, which is mainly based on edge- and corner-sharing octahedra and comprises three types of tunnels: per unit cell, two are defined by S-shaped 10-rings, four by egg-shaped 8-rings, and two by slightly oval 6-rings of Mn polyhedra. Na occupies all tunnels. The so-determined structure excellently explains previous reports on the electrochemistry of (Na,□)5[MnO2]13. The trivalent Mn3+ ions concentrate at two of the seven Mn sites where larger Mn—O distances and Jahn–Teller distortion are observed. One of the Mn3+ sites is five-coordinated in a square pyramid which, on oxidation to Mn4+, may easily undergo topotactic transformation to an octahedron suggesting a possible pathway for the transition among different tunnel structures. PMID:27910840

  20. Application of the continuously-yielding joint model for studying disposal of high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Johansson, E.; Simonen, A.

    1993-04-01

    The non-linear Continuously-Yielding (CY) joint model and its use in numerical analyses of a nuclear waste repository are studied in the report. On major advantage of using CY-model is that laboratory test results, if available, can directly be used in analyses thus reducing uncertainties about joint input parameters. The new testing machine MTS-815 of Helsinki University of Technology was used to determine the joint behaviour of some granitic joints from the depth of 400-600 m below the ground surface. The procedure for triaxial joint tests was refined during this work. Two programs called NormFit and SherFit were developed and tested to determine the best fit parameter values for CY-model from laboratory test results

  1. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2014-08-01

    The joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs) are often needed for the accurate performance characterization of a wide variety of wireless communication systems. A unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables was recently presented. However, the identical distribution assumption may not be valid in several real-world applications. With this motivation in mind, we consider in this paper the more general case in which the random variables are independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.d.). More specifically, we extend the previous analysis and introduce a new more general unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. RVs. Our mathematical formalism is illustrated with an application on the exact performance analysis of the capture probability of generalized selection combining (GSC)-based RAKE receivers operating over frequency-selective fading channels with a non-uniform power delay profile. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

  2. Refinement of the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, J

    2001-04-01

    To analyse the conceptual maturity of uncertainty; to develop an expanded theoretical definition of uncertainty; to advance the concept using methods of concept refinement; and to analyse congruency with the conceptualization of uncertainty presented in the theory of hope, enduring, and suffering. Uncertainty is of concern in nursing as people experience complex life events surrounding health. In an earlier nursing study that linked the concepts of hope, enduring, and suffering into a single theoretical scheme, a state best described as 'uncertainty' arose. This study was undertaken to explore how this conceptualization fit with the scientific literature on uncertainty and to refine the concept. Initially, a concept analysis using advanced methods described by Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham and colleagues was completed. The concept was determined to be partially mature. A theoretical definition was derived and techniques of concept refinement using the literature as data were applied. The refined concept was found to be congruent with the concept of uncertainty that had emerged in the model of hope, enduring and suffering. Further investigation is needed to explore the extent of probabilistic reasoning and the effects of confidence and control on feelings of uncertainty and certainty.

  3. Development and validation of a multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus insecticides and their toxic metabolites in sugarcane juice and refined sugar by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Thirumalaiandi; Paramasivam, Mariappan

    2016-06-01

    A multiresidue method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus insecticides and their toxic metabolites in sugarcane juice and refined sugar by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Limits of quantification of the method varied between 0.007 and 0.01 μg/g. Ethyl acetate based extraction followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup with primary secondary amine yielded internationally acceptable recoveries of acephate, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, monocrotophos, malathion, malaoxon, phorate, phorate-sulfoxide, phorate-oxon, phorate-sulfone, and quinalphos from selected matrices. The recoveries of target analytes from cane juice were 75.55 ± 0.5-102.57 ± 4.2, 77.45 ± 4.7-103.33 ± 3.3, and 80.55 ± 6.6-105.82 ± 9.8% at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.1 μg/g levels of fortification, respectively. The recoveries from cane sugar were 73.24 ± 3.5-104.47 ± 1.9, 75.23 ± 1.5-116.10 ± 3.7, and 70.75 ± 5.7-110.15 ± 2.7%, respectively at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.1 μg/g levels of fortification. Matrix effect and measurement uncertainty were within the permissible limit (less than 20%) as prescribed for pesticide residue analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  5. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  6. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  7. Modification of the method of Figgie for determination of joint line shifting in total knee arthroplasty; Modifizierung der Messmethode nach Figgie zur Bestimmung der Gelenklinienverschiebung in der Knieendoprothetik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, T.; Wegner, A.; Knoch, M. von [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Orthopaedie, Essen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    An important factor for a good result after total knee arthroplasty is the position of the patella in relation to the tibiofemoral joint line. The position of the patella itself is not influenced by arthroplasty, therefore any changes in the position of the tibiofemoral joint line are of special interest. The Figgie method to describe patella height delivers only absolute measurements, which makes it difficult to compare different radiographs. For this reason we developed a new JL/P quotient (JL: distance from the tibial plateau to the tibial tubercle, P: distance from the inferior pole of the patella to the tibial plateau) to enable better comparison. Furthermore, we modified the JL/P quotient and instead of taking the tibial plateau as the reference line, we constructed a tangent on the femoral condyle. With this modification, problems such as tibial inlays of different heights which have to be taken into account in the measurements, the slope of the tibial component or difficult assessment of the tibial joint surface in osteoarthritic knees do not arise. The JL/P quotient shows massive shift to cranialisation of the tibiofemoral joint line which does not correspond to reality. The modified method also shows cranialisation of the tibiofemoral joint line, but in a realistic way. Both methods show a minimal interobserver variability. The modified JL/P quotient seems to be a good method for determining the shift in the tibiofemoral joint line after total knee arthroplasty. (orig.) [German] Ein bedeutender Faktor fuer ein gutes postoperatives Ergebnis nach einer Knieendoprothesenimplantation ist die Stellung der Patella in Relation zur tibiofemoralen Gelenklinie. Da die Stellung der Patella durch den operativen Eingriff primaer nicht beeinflusst wird, liegt besonderes Augenmerk auf den Veraenderungen der Gelenklinie des Tibiofemoralgelenks. Die Messmethode zur Bestimmung der Patellahoehe nach Figgie liefert dafuer nur absolute Werte, was eine Vergleichbarkeit von

  8. Production and refining. Increase of Chinese petroleum imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    China produced 156.5 Mt of petroleum in 1996, from which 56 Mt were extracted from the Daqing oil field, exploited since 1960. About 10% of the crude oil comes from offshore fields. Over the 100 Mt refined in 1996, 20 Mt were imported. The Chinese petroleum products demand should increase to 200 Mt/y by the end of the century with respect to 150 Mt/y in 1997. The Dalian refinery, the first Chinese-foreign joint venture, started to work in November 1996 and should reached its full capacity of 100000 b/day in the first quarter of 1997. The Chinese refining activity has now an excess capacity of 206 Mt/y. Several other joint venture projects in petrochemistry are planned in China. Short paper. (J.S.)

  9. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  10. Refinement of Parallel and Reactive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Back, R. J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We show how to apply the refinement calculus to stepwise refinement of parallel and reactive programs. We use action systems as our basic program model. Action systems are sequential programs which can be implemented in a parallel fashion. Hence refinement calculus methods, originally developed for sequential programs, carry over to the derivation of parallel programs. Refinement of reactive programs is handled by data refinement techniques originally developed for the sequential refinement c...

  11. Refining glass structure in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Bhattarai, Bishal; Drabold, D. A.; Thorpe, M. F.; Wilson, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Recently determined atomistic scale structures of near-two dimensional bilayers of vitreous silica (using scanning probe and electron microscopy) allow us to refine the experimentally determined coordinates to incorporate the known local chemistry more precisely. Further refinement is achieved by using classical potentials of varying complexity: one using harmonic potentials and the second employing an electrostatic description incorporating polarization effects. These are benchmarked against density functional calculations. Our main findings are that (a) there is a symmetry plane between the two disordered layers, a nice example of an emergent phenomena, (b) the layers are slightly tilted so that the Si-O-Si angle between the two layers is not 180∘ as originally thought but rather 175 ±2∘ , and (c) while interior areas that are not completely imagined can be reliably reconstructed, surface areas are more problematic. It is shown that small crystallites that appear are just as expected statistically in a continuous random network. This provides a good example of the value that can be added to disordered structures imaged at the atomic level by implementing computer refinement.

  12. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  13. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  14. Joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret......Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret...

  15. 30 CFR 208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. 208.4... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.4 Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. (a... and defense. The Secretary will review these items and will determine whether eligible refiners have...

  16. Coracoclavicular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Chan Il; Ahn, Jae Doo; Lim, Chong Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-10-15

    The coracoclvicular joint, a rear abnormality which may be the cause of pain in the shoulder and limitation of motion of the shoulder joint, is discussed. A case of coracoclvicular joint with shoulder pain was observed in 65 yrs old Korean male.

  17. Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Yanlai; Tang, Shuze [Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yuanfa [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214112 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A ceramic membrane separation process for biodiesel refining was developed to reduce the considerable usage of water needed in the conventional water washing process. Crude biodiesel produced by refined palm oil was micro-filtered by ceramic membranes of the pore size of 0.6, 0.2 and 0.1 {mu}m to remove the residual soap and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 0.15 MPa and temperature of 60 C. The flux through membrane maintained at 300 L m{sup -} {sup 2} h{sup -} {sup 1} when the volumetric concentrated ratio reached 4. The content of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the whole permeate was 1.40, 1.78, 0.81 and 0.20 mg/kg respectively, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. These values are lower than the EN 14538 specifications. The residual free glycerol in the permeate was estimated by water extraction, its value was 0.0108 wt.%. This ceramic membrane technology was a potential environmental process for the refining of biodiesel. (author)

  18. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  19. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  20. Panorama 2007: Refining and Petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2005 saw a new improvement in refining margins that continued during the first three quarters of 2006. The restoration of margins in the last three years has allowed the refining sector to regain its profitability. In this context, the oil companies reported earnings for fiscal year 2005 that were up significantly compared to 2004, and the figures for the first half-year 2006 confirm this trend. Despite this favorable business environment, investments only saw a minimal increase in 2005 and the improvement expected for 2006 should remain fairly limited. Looking to 2010-2015, it would appear that the planned investment projects with the highest probability of reaching completion will be barely adequate to cover the increase in demand. Refining sector should continue to find itself under pressure. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady up-trend in the naphtha price, the restoration of margins consolidated a comeback that started in 2005. All in all, capital expenditure remained fairly low in both the refining and petrochemicals sectors, but many projects are planned for the next ten years. (author)

  1. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane volume as a marker of disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in the wrists of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Hansen, M; Stoltenberg, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the synovial membrane volume, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a marker of joint disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with RA, randomized to receive disease-modifying a......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the synovial membrane volume, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a marker of joint disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with RA, randomized to receive disease......-Pratt analysis). The rate of erosive progression on MRI was highly correlated with baseline scores and, particularly, with area under the curve (AUC) values of synovial membrane volume (Spearman's sigma = 0.69, P

  3. Reintroducing Electrostatics into Macromolecular Crystallographic Refinement: Application to Neutron Crystallography and DNA Hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Fenn, Timothy D.; Schnieders, Michael J.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Wu, Chuanjie; Langan, Paul; Pande, Vijay S.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2011-01-01

    Most current crystallographic structure refinements augment the diffraction data with a priori information consisting of bond, angle, dihedral, planarity restraints and atomic repulsion based on the Pauli exclusion principle. Yet, electrostatics and van der Waals attraction are physical forces that provide additional a priori information. Here we assess the inclusion of electrostatics for the force field used for all-atom (including hydrogen) joint neutron/X-ray refinement. Two DNA and a prot...

  4. Biomolecular structure refinement using the GROMOS simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Nathan; Allison, Jane R.; Dolenc, Jožica; Eichenberger, Andreas P.; Kunz, Anna-Pitschna E.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van

    2011-01-01

    For the understanding of cellular processes the molecular structure of biomolecules has to be accurately determined. Initial models can be significantly improved by structure refinement techniques. Here, we present the refinement methods and analysis techniques implemented in the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation. The methodology and some implementation details of the computation of NMR NOE data, 3 J-couplings and residual dipolar couplings, X-ray scattering intensities from crystals and solutions and neutron scattering intensities used in GROMOS is described and refinement strategies and concepts are discussed using example applications. The GROMOS software allows structure refinement combining different types of experimental data with different types of restraining functions, while using a variety of methods to enhance conformational searching and sampling and the thermodynamically calibrated GROMOS force field for biomolecular simulation.

  5. Biomolecular structure refinement using the GROMOS simulation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Nathan; Allison, Jane R.; Dolenc, Jozica; Eichenberger, Andreas P.; Kunz, Anna-Pitschna E.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van, E-mail: wfvgn@igc.phys.chem.ethz.ch [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    For the understanding of cellular processes the molecular structure of biomolecules has to be accurately determined. Initial models can be significantly improved by structure refinement techniques. Here, we present the refinement methods and analysis techniques implemented in the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation. The methodology and some implementation details of the computation of NMR NOE data, {sup 3}J-couplings and residual dipolar couplings, X-ray scattering intensities from crystals and solutions and neutron scattering intensities used in GROMOS is described and refinement strategies and concepts are discussed using example applications. The GROMOS software allows structure refinement combining different types of experimental data with different types of restraining functions, while using a variety of methods to enhance conformational searching and sampling and the thermodynamically calibrated GROMOS force field for biomolecular simulation.

  6. Determining the Threshold for HbA1c as a Predictor for Adverse Outcomes After Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Multicenter, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabichi, Majd; Shohat, Noam; Kheir, Michael M; Adelani, Muyibat; Brigati, David; Kearns, Sean M; Patel, Pankajkumar; Clohisy, John C; Higuera, Carlos A; Levine, Brett R; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Parvizi, Javad; Jiranek, William A

    2017-09-01

    Although HbA1c is commonly used for assessing glycemic control before surgery, there is no consensus regarding its role and the appropriate threshold in predicting adverse outcomes. This study was designed to evaluate the potential link between HbA1c and subsequent periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), with the intention of determining the optimal threshold for HbA1c. This is a multicenter retrospective study, which identified 1645 diabetic patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasty (1004 knees and 641 hips) between 2001 and 2015. All patients had an HbA1c measured within 3 months of surgery. The primary outcome of interest was a PJI at 1 year based on the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Secondary outcomes included orthopedic (wound and mechanical complications) and nonorthopedic complications (sepsis, thromboembolism, genitourinary, and cardiovascular complications). A regression analysis was performed to determine the independent influence of HbA1c for predicting PJI. Overall 22 cases of PJI occurred at 1 year (1.3%). HbA1c at a threshold of 7.7 was distinct for predicting PJI (area under the curve, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.78). Using this threshold, PJI rates increased from 0.8% (11 of 1441) to 5.4% (11 of 204). In the stepwise logistic regression analysis, PJI remained the only variable associated with higher HbA1c (odds ratio, 1.5; confidence interval, 1.2-2.0; P = .0001). There was no association between high HbA1c levels and other complications assessed. High HbA1c levels are associated with an increased risk for PJI. A threshold of 7.7% seems to be more indicative of infection than the commonly used 7% and should perhaps be the goal in preoperative patient optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of lab, pilot, and industrial scale low consistency mechanical refining for improvements in enzymatic digestibility of pretreated hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brandon W; Venditti, Richard; Park, Sunkyu; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical refining has been shown to improve biomass enzymatic digestibility. In this study industrial high-yield sodium carbonate hardwood pulp was subjected to lab, pilot and industrial refining to determine if the mechanical refining improves the enzymatic hydrolysis sugar conversion efficiency differently at different refining scales. Lab, pilot and industrial refining increased the biomass digestibility for lignocellulosic biomass relative to the unrefined material. The sugar conversion was increased from 36% to 65% at 5 FPU/g of biomass with industrial refining at 67.0 kWh/t, which was more energy efficient than lab and pilot scale refining. There is a maximum in the sugar conversion with respect to the amount of refining energy. Water retention value is a good predictor of improvements in sugar conversion for a given fiber source and composition. Improvements in biomass digestibility with refining due to lab, pilot plant and industrial refining were similar with respect to water retention value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  9. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  10. Preparation of refined oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-02-03

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of refined sulfur-containing oils from sulfur-containing crude oils obtained by distillation of bituminous limestone, characterized by this crude oil being first subjected to a purification by distillation with steam in the known way, then treated with lime and chloride of lime and distilled preferably in the presence of zinc powder, whereby in this purification a rectification can be added for the purpose of recovering definite fractions.

  11. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, A. Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust,...

  12. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  13. A Macdonald refined topological vertex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Omar; Wu, Jian-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We consider the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP10(2009)069), as a function of two parameters ≤ft\\lgroup x, y \\right\\rgroup , and deform it by introducing the Macdonald parameters ≤ft\\lgroup q, t \\right\\rgroup , as in the work of Vuletić on plane partitions (Vuletić M 2009 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361 2789-804), to obtain ‘a Macdonald refined topological vertex’. In the limit q → t , we recover the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al and in the limit x → y , we obtain a qt-deformation of the original topological vertex of Aganagic et al (2005 Commun. Math. Phys. 25 425-78). Copies of the vertex can be glued to obtain qt-deformed 5D instanton partition functions that have well-defined 4D limits and, for generic values of ≤ft\\lgroup q, t\\right\\rgroup , contain infinite-towers of poles for every pole present in the limit q → t .

  14. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  15. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  16. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  17. JOINT DETERMINATION OF PRICE, WAR RANTY LENGTH AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY FOR NEW PRODUCTS UNDER FREE RENEWAL WARRANTY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyakumar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An optimal business strategy which integrates the decisions, such as pricing, production quantity, and custom er service, in or der to maximize profit is vital for any manufacturing industry. Post sale factors like warranty, spare parts availability, maintenance, service and cost play an important role in the sale of a product. As better warranty signals higher product quality which provides greater assurance to customers, warranty is an important factor in marketing new products. In this paper, a decision model with the price, warranty length and production quantity of a product as decision variables to maximize profit based on the pre-determined product life cycle is presented. The study considers free renewal warranty policy for producers in the static sales market. The expected number of renewals based on the warranty length is derived for lognormally distributed products. The effect of model parameters on the profit is studied.

  18. Simultaneous refinement of two components of an exsolution intergrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Petricek, Vaclav; Dusek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Crystal structures of intergrown lindstromite and krupkaite were determined in two distinct samples by a simultaneous crystal-structure refinement using a modified JANA program package. The exsolution intergrowths have a bulk composition, determined by means of electron microprobe, equal to bd(60...

  19. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  20. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  1. Adaptive temporal refinement in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyofylli, Violeta; Schmitz, Mauritius; Hopmann, Christian; Behr, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Mold filling is an injection molding stage of great significance, because many defects of the plastic components (e.g. weld lines, burrs or insufficient filling) can occur during this process step. Therefore, it plays an important role in determining the quality of the produced parts. Our goal is the temporal refinement in the vicinity of the evolving melt front, in the context of 4D simplex-type space-time grids [1, 2]. This novel discretization method has an inherent flexibility to employ completely unstructured meshes with varying levels of resolution both in spatial dimensions and in the time dimension, thus allowing the use of local time-stepping during the simulations. This can lead to a higher simulation precision, while preserving calculation efficiency. A 3D benchmark case, which concerns the filling of a plate-shaped geometry, is used for verifying our numerical approach [3]. The simulation results obtained with the fully unstructured space-time discretization are compared to those obtained with the standard space-time method and to Moldflow simulation results. This example also serves for providing reliable timing measurements and the efficiency aspects of the filling simulation of complex 3D molds while applying adaptive temporal refinement.

  2. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  3. Joint Center Estimation Using Single-Frame Optimization: Part 1: Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Eric; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2018-04-04

    The biomechanical models used to refine and stabilize motion capture processes are almost invariably driven by joint center estimates, and any errors in joint center calculation carry over and can be compounded when calculating joint kinematics. Unfortunately, accurate determination of joint centers is a complex task, primarily due to measurements being contaminated by soft-tissue artifact (STA). This paper proposes a novel approach to joint center estimation implemented via sequential application of single-frame optimization (SFO). First, the method minimizes the variance of individual time frames’ joint center estimations via the developed variance minimization method to obtain accurate overall initial conditions. These initial conditions are used to stabilize an optimization-based linearization of human motion that determines a time-varying joint center estimation. In this manner, the complex and nonlinear behavior of human motion contaminated by STA can be captured as a continuous series of unique rigid-body realizations without requiring a complex analytical model to describe the behavior of STA. This article intends to offer proof of concept, and the presented method must be further developed before it can be reasonably applied to human motion. Numerical simulations were introduced to verify and substantiate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. When directly compared with a state-of-the-art inertial method, SFO reduced the error due to soft-tissue artifact in all cases by more than 45%. Instead of producing a single vector value to describe the joint center location during a motion capture trial as existing methods often do, the proposed method produced time-varying solutions that were highly correlated ( r > 0.82) with the true, time-varying joint center solution.

  4. Joint Center Estimation Using Single-Frame Optimization: Part 1: Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Frick

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical models used to refine and stabilize motion capture processes are almost invariably driven by joint center estimates, and any errors in joint center calculation carry over and can be compounded when calculating joint kinematics. Unfortunately, accurate determination of joint centers is a complex task, primarily due to measurements being contaminated by soft-tissue artifact (STA. This paper proposes a novel approach to joint center estimation implemented via sequential application of single-frame optimization (SFO. First, the method minimizes the variance of individual time frames’ joint center estimations via the developed variance minimization method to obtain accurate overall initial conditions. These initial conditions are used to stabilize an optimization-based linearization of human motion that determines a time-varying joint center estimation. In this manner, the complex and nonlinear behavior of human motion contaminated by STA can be captured as a continuous series of unique rigid-body realizations without requiring a complex analytical model to describe the behavior of STA. This article intends to offer proof of concept, and the presented method must be further developed before it can be reasonably applied to human motion. Numerical simulations were introduced to verify and substantiate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. When directly compared with a state-of-the-art inertial method, SFO reduced the error due to soft-tissue artifact in all cases by more than 45%. Instead of producing a single vector value to describe the joint center location during a motion capture trial as existing methods often do, the proposed method produced time-varying solutions that were highly correlated (r > 0.82 with the true, time-varying joint center solution.

  5. Reintroducing electrostatics into macromolecular crystallographic refinement: application to neutron crystallography and DNA hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Timothy D; Schnieders, Michael J; Mustyakimov, Marat; Wu, Chuanjie; Langan, Paul; Pande, Vijay S; Brunger, Axel T

    2011-04-13

    Most current crystallographic structure refinements augment the diffraction data with a priori information consisting of bond, angle, dihedral, planarity restraints, and atomic repulsion based on the Pauli exclusion principle. Yet, electrostatics and van der Waals attraction are physical forces that provide additional a priori information. Here, we assess the inclusion of electrostatics for the force field used for all-atom (including hydrogen) joint neutron/X-ray refinement. Two DNA and a protein crystal structure were refined against joint neutron/X-ray diffraction data sets using force fields without electrostatics or with electrostatics. Hydrogen-bond orientation/geometry favors the inclusion of electrostatics. Refinement of Z-DNA with electrostatics leads to a hypothesis for the entropic stabilization of Z-DNA that may partly explain the thermodynamics of converting the B form of DNA to its Z form. Thus, inclusion of electrostatics assists joint neutron/X-ray refinements, especially for placing and orienting hydrogen atoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how x-ray examination is essential in the diagnosis and evaluation of the arthritides. Most arthritides are first suspected by the clinician, and x-ray evaluation of these entities along with laboratory testing is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and in staging of the disease process. Several arthritides are often diagnosed first by the podiatrist on x-ray evaluation, including pseudogout, ankylosing spondylitis, early rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease, and tuberculosis of bone. The joint responds to insult in only a limited number of ways that become apparent on x-ray. The soft tissues surrounding the joint, the articulating bones, and alignment of the joint space may all be involved by the arthritic process. On roentgenographic examination, the soft tissues must be examined for edema, masses, calcifications, and atrophy. The articulating bones must be examined for demineralization, erosions, osteophytes, periosteal reaction, cysts and sclerosis

  7. Joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  8. Joint Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the latest publication of The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (JQPS). . How We Work Process improvement program breeds quality culture, empowers staff An article in Quality Progress, June ...

  9. China's refiners face massive overhaul, expansion to meet demand growth, new crude slate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    China's refining industry has embarked on a massive overhaul and expansion to accommodate soaring domestic growth in refined products demand. Currently that growth in demand is being met by increasing imports of refined products, in recent years attaining triple digit growth rates and squeezing direly needed foreign exchange. The focus is on adding refining capacity of about 1.4 million b/d to the current capacity of about 3.2 million b/d by 2000. Priority for increasing capacity is being given to expanding existing refineries and participating in foreign joint venture grassroots refineries along China's booming coastal regions as well as hiking output. A major challenge for China's refineries is that country's reentry into the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), recently signed in Morocco by more than 100 nations. The accompanying reduction of tariffs on imported refined products will make it more difficult for China's marginal refineries to compete in the domestic market. The paper discusses imports and exports, LPG outlook, refining capacity, revamps needed, third party processing, China's first joint venture refinery, industry plans, and GATT challenges

  10. Materials refining on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  11. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  12. The effect of refining step on the changes in viscosity values of vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergonul, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the viscosity values of chemically refined vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, soybean and rapeseed) and physically refined vegetable oils (olive and palm) were determined during refining processes. At this point of view, fatty acid compositions and viscosity values of oil samples were determined. The edible vegetable oils presented Newtonian behavior in shear rates at ranges 6.28-20.93 s/sup -1/. It was observed that palm oil is more viscous than the others. During physical refining, the effect of both oil type and refining steps were significantly important, whereas in chemical refining only the effect of oil type was found statistically important (p<0.01). It was observed that correlation among fatty acid compositions and viscosity values of the samples showed differences according to oil type. (author)

  13. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A.

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed

  14. Refined functional relations for the elliptic SOS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galleas, W., E-mail: w.galleas@uu.nl [ARC Centre of Excellence for the Mathematics and Statistics of Complex Systems, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2013-02-21

    In this work we refine the method presented in Galleas (2012) [1] and obtain a novel kind of functional equation determining the partition function of the elliptic SOS model with domain wall boundaries. This functional relation arises from the dynamical Yang-Baxter relation and its solution is given in terms of multiple contour integrals.

  15. Orthogonal bases of radial functions for charge density refinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restori, R.

    1990-01-01

    Charge density determination from X-ray measurements necessitates the evaluation of the Fourier-Bessel transforms of the radial functions used to expand the charge density. Analytical expressions are given here for four sets of orthogonal functions which can substitute for the 'traditional exponential functions' set in least-squares refinements. (orig.)

  16. Refined functional relations for the elliptic SOS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galleas, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we refine the method presented in Galleas (2012) [1] and obtain a novel kind of functional equation determining the partition function of the elliptic SOS model with domain wall boundaries. This functional relation arises from the dynamical Yang–Baxter relation and its solution is given in terms of multiple contour integrals.

  17. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its conse...

  18. Rising costs call for new European refining strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.N.C.

    1993-01-01

    The outlook for the global refining industry is for increased spending and reduced margins, largely because of efforts to improve the environment. A look at these trends through the end of the decade is thus in order. Three major industry thrusts are proposed to see refiners through this uncertain period. Three main thrusts are necessary: fixed costs must be reduced by re-engineering business processes and reexamining noncore business units against total and marginal costs. In this respect the best refiners are well ahead of the good ones. New cooperative ways of meeting regulations must be sought, to avoid wasteful over capacity. Joint ventures and alliances with competitors will be needed. The cooperative principle upstream must be extended and new strategies must be sought to meet product demand changes and reduce feedstock costs. The picture that is presented is tough, largely because of the wish to improve the environment. The question that must be continually reviewed is ''Have governments got the right balance in these regulations between the environment and the downstream industry?''

  19. Joint Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koreň Ladislav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the shared intentionality hypothesis proposed by Michael Tomasello, two cognitive upgrades – joint and collective intentionality, respectively – make human thinking unique. Joint intentionality, in particular, is a mindset supposed to account for our early, species-specific capacity to participate in collaborative activities involving two (or a few agents. In order to elucidate such activities and their proximate cognitive-motivational mechanism, Tomasello draws on philosophical accounts of shared intentionality. I argue that his deference to such cognitively demanding accounts of shared intentional activities is problematic if his theoretical ambition is in part to show that and how early (prelinguistic and precultural capacities for joint action contribute to the development of higher cognitive capacities.

  20. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  1. Medical Doctrine - Are We Really Joint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siniscalchi, Kimberly

    1997-01-01

    ... 4.02, Doctrine for Health Service Support in Joint Operations, is analyzed to determine if it provides adequate guidance for seamless health service support in joint operations for war and contingencies other than war...

  2. Macromolecular refinement by model morphing using non-atomic parameterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowtan, Kevin; Agirre, Jon

    2018-02-01

    Refinement is a critical step in the determination of a model which explains the crystallographic observations and thus best accounts for the missing phase components. The scattering density is usually described in terms of atomic parameters; however, in macromolecular crystallography the resolution of the data is generally insufficient to determine the values of these parameters for individual atoms. Stereochemical and geometric restraints are used to provide additional information, but produce interrelationships between parameters which slow convergence, resulting in longer refinement times. An alternative approach is proposed in which parameters are not attached to atoms, but to regions of the electron-density map. These parameters can move the density or change the local temperature factor to better explain the structure factors. Varying the size of the region which determines the parameters at a particular position in the map allows the method to be applied at different resolutions without the use of restraints. Potential applications include initial refinement of molecular-replacement models with domain motions, and potentially the use of electron density from other sources such as electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) as the refinement model.

  3. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  4. Joint imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengst, W.

    1984-01-01

    Joint imaging is a proven diagnostic procedure which has become indispensable to the detection and treatment of different joint diseases in almost all disciplines. The method is suited for early diagnosis of joint affections both in soft tissue and bone which cannot be detected by X-ray or other procedures. The local activity accumulation depends on the rate of metabolism and is visualized in the scan, which in turn enables the extension and floridity of focal lesions to be evaluated and followed-up. Although joint scans may often give hints to probabilities relevant to differential diagnosis, the method is non-specific and only useful if based on the underlying clinical picture and X-ray finding, if possible. The radiation exposure is very low and does not represent a hazard in cases of adequate assessment of indication. In pregnant women and children the assessment of indication has to be based on very strict principles. The method is suited for out-patient diagnosis and can be applied in all installations equipped with a gamma camera and a technetium generator. (orig.) [de

  5. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Crenshaw´s point that antiracism often fails to interrogate patriarchy and that feminism often reproduces racist practices (1991: 1252), this paper asks: What are the theoretical reasons for believing that feminism and anti-racism can be regarded as fighting for the joint purpose...

  6. Production of Al-Ti-C grain refiners with the addition of elemental carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezer, Berke Turgay; Toptan, Fatih; Daglilar, Sibel; Kerti, Isil

    2010-01-01

    Grain refining process used in aluminium alloys, has an important role for preventing columnar, coarse grains and encouraging fine, equiaxed grain formation. Al-Ti-B grain refiners are widely used as aluminium grain refiners despite the problems in application Al-Ti-C refiners have an increasing demand in recent years. In the present work, Al-Ti-C grain refiners with different Ti:C ratios were produced by insitu method with the addition of elemental carbon. Microstructures were characterised by optic microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The effects of temperature, holding time and Ti:C ratio on the grain refinement process were investigated and optimum conditions were determined.

  7. Relocation of the 2010-2013 near the north coast of Papua earthquake sequence using Modified Joint Hypocenter Determination (MJHD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomo, Dimas; Daryono,; Subakti, Hendri

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of earthquake hypocenter position is necessary to analyze the tectonic conditions. This study aims to: (1) relocate the mainshock and aftershocks of the large earthquakes in Papua region i.e. June 16, 2010, April 21, 2012 and April 06, 2013 earthquake (2) determine the true fault plane, (3) estimate the area of the fracture, and (4) analyze the advantages and disadvantages of relocation with MJHD method in benefits for tectonic studies. This study used Modified Joint Hypocenter Determination (MJHD) method. Using P arrival phase data reported by the BMKG and openly available from website repogempa.bmkg.go.id, we relocated the mainshock of this large significant earthquake and its aftershocks. Then we identified the prefered fault planes from the candidate fault planes provided by the global CMT catalogue. The position of earthquakes was successfully relocated. The earthquakes mostly were clustered around the mainshock. Earthquakes that not clustered around mainshock are considered to be different mechanism from the mainshock. Relocation results indicate that the mainshock fault plane of June 16, 2010 earthquake is a field with strike 332o, dip 80o and −172o slip, the mainshock fault plane of April 21, 2012 earthquake is a field with strike 82o, dip 84o and 2o slip, the mainshock fault plane of April 06, 2013 earthquake is a field with strike 339o, dip 56o and −137o slip. Fault plane area estimated by cross section graphical method is an area of 2816.0 km2 (June 16, 2010), 906.2 km2 (April 21, 2012) and 1984.3 km2 (April 06, 2013). MJHD method has the advantage that it can calculate a lot of earthquakes simultaneously and has a station correction to account for lateral heterogeneity of the earth. This method successfully provides significant changes to improve the position of the depth of earthquakes that most of the hypocenter depth manually specified as a fixed depth (± 10 km). But this method cannot be sure that the hypocenters derived from the

  8. Determining the Extent of Hydrothermal Interaction on the Southern Costa Rica Rift Ridge Flank During the Past 8 Ma from Joint Inversion of Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. J.; Moorkamp, M.; Hobbs, R. W.; Peirce, C.; Harris, R. N.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Advective hydrothermal systems preferentially develop in zones of high porosity and permeability, driven by a local heat source. Associated chemical reactions lead to changes in the bulk physical properties, so variations in velocity and density, and the relationship connecting them, may provide a record of alteration by hydrothermal fluids. Oceanic crust accreted at intermediate rate ridges displays a range of characteristics between those typical for fast and slow spreading rates so changes in crustal porosity and permeability are sensitive to the interplay between tectonic stretching, magmatic supply and plate motions. Hence, changes in spreading style and sediment cover will influence the extent of the hydrothermal interaction that occurs and the mode of heat loss as evidenced by heat flow measurements. Using a variety of geophysical data we determine where hydrothermal circulation has been active in young oceanic crust that was accreted at an intermediate spreading rate. Results from traveltime tomography along a 300 km profile across the southern flank of the Costa Rica Rift reveal several variations in the P-wave velocity structure of the upper crust (layer 2). Following an initial increase in P-wave velocity near the ridge axis there is a section of the model 80 km in length that has lower P-wave velocity (up to 0.5 km s-1) compared to adjacent crust. This section has shallower bathymetry, by up to 500 m, than predicted by the subsidence curve and the top basement surface is rougher with a greater amount of faulting and larger throws. This zone is preceded by crust with significantly faster P-wave velocities (up to 1.0 km s-1) that was sampled by DSDP/ODP 504B. We characterise these changes in the shallow crustal structure by jointly inverting travel-time data and gravity data with deeper control from coincident magnetotelluric data. Using a cross-gradient approach allows us to search for models with a structural match, thus determining the relationship

  9. 40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volume of gasoline produced by a small refiner's refinery up to the lesser of: (i) 105% of the baseline gasoline volume as determined under § 80.250(a)(1); or (ii) The volume of gasoline produced at that... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the small refiner gasoline...

  10. 40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a toxics baseline? 80.910 Section 80.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.910 How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? (a)(1) A refiner or importer...

  11. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil

  12. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  13. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  14. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  15. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert, E-mail: gerrit.vriend@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved.

  16. Refined large N duality for knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  17. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert

    2014-01-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ 1 and χ 2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ 1 and χ 2 values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved

  18. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  20. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  1. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  2. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  3. Temporomandibular joint examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guarda Nardini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ it’s a joint closely related to the skull base, the spine, and the jaws; all these anatomical structures must be taken in consideration when evaluating pain involving the tmj. In order to detect patients affected by pathology or dysfunctions of the tmj, physical examination is of great value in orienting the diagnosis. Inspection must consider the symmetry of the body, the dental status and the type of occlusion. Palpation is a way to assess contractiont involving the muscles of the masticatory system and of the neck. Auscultation, based on articular noise provides means to determine whether we are dealing with degeneration of the joint or a dislocation of the intrarticular disc. In order to confirm the diagnosis obtained with the clinical evaluation, it’s useful to perform imaging techniques as opt, tomography and TC of the tmj and electromyokineosiography – index of the mandibular functionality and of the muscles status. MRI and dynamic MRI are among the non invasive exams which give the greatest amount of information, regarding the disc position and the joint degeneration. Arthroscopy is an invasive technique that allows early diagnosis of degeneration and is helpful to reveal early inflammatory processes of the joint.

  4. Inter-tester reproducibility and inter-method agreement of two variations of the Beighton test for determining Generalised Joint Hypermobility in primary school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Jespersen, Eva; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is usually based on the Beighton tests, which consist of a series of nine tests. Possible methodological shortcomings can arise, as the tests do not include detailed descriptions of performance, interpretation nor classification of GJH. The ...

  5. Joint Operation Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the joint operation planning activities and performance of the Armed Forces of the United States in joint operations, and provides the joint doctrinal basis...

  6. The Generation of AlmFe in Dilute Aluminium Alloys with Different Grain Refining Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, M. W.; Greer, A. L.; Evans, P. V.; Hamerton, R. G.

    Al13Fe4, Al6Fe and AlmFe are common intermetallics in commercial AA1XXX series Al alloys. Grain-refining additions (based on either Al-Ti-B or Al-Ti-C) are usually added to such alloys during solidification processing to aid the grain structure development. They also influence the favoured intermetallic and, hence, can affect the materials' properties. This work simulates commercial casting practices in an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which one intermetallic phase is favoured over another by the introduction of grain-refining additions. Directional solidification experiments on Al-0.3wt.%Fe-0.15wt.%Si with and without grain refiner are conducted using Bridgman apparatus. The type, amount and effectiveness of the grain-refining additions are altered and the resulting intermetallic phase selection followed. The materials are characterised using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. AlmFe is seen to form when Al-Ti-B grain-refiner is introduced but only when the refinement is successful; reducing the effectiveness of the refiner led to Al6Fe forming under all conditions. Al-Ti-C refiners are seen to promote AlmFe at lower solidification velocities than when Al-Ti-B was used even though the grain structure was not as refined. These trends can be explained within existing eutectic theory, by considering growth undercooling.

  7. The use of Fourier reverse transforms in crystallographic phase refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringrose, Sharon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Often a crystallographer obtains an electron density map which shows only part of the structure. In such cases, the phasing of the trial model is poor enough that the electron density map may show peaks in some of the atomic positions, but other atomic positions are not visible. There may also be extraneous peaks present which are not due to atomic positions. A method for determination of crystal structures that have resisted solution through normal crystallographic methods has been developed. PHASER is a series of FORTRAN programs which aids in the structure solution of poorly phased electron density maps by refining the crystallographic phases. It facilitates the refinement of such poorly phased electron density maps for difficult structures which might otherwise not be solvable. The trial model, which serves as the starting point for the phase refinement, may be acquired by several routes such as direct methods or Patterson methods. Modifications are made to the reverse transform process based on several assumptions. First, the starting electron density map is modified based on the fact that physically the electron density map must be non-negative at all points. In practice a small positive cutoff is used. A reverse Fourier transform is computed based on the modified electron density map. Secondly, the authors assume that a better electron density map will result by using the observed magnitudes of the structure factors combined with the phases calculated in the reverse transform. After convergence has been reached, more atomic positions and less extraneous peaks are observed in the refined electron density map. The starting model need not be very large to achieve success with PHASER; successful phase refinement has been achieved with a starting model that consists of only 5% of the total scattering power of the full molecule. The second part of the thesis discusses three crystal structure determinations.

  8. Optimizing refiner operation with statistical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The impact of refining conditions on the energy efficiency of the process and on the handsheet quality of a chemi-mechanical pulp was studied as part of a series of pilot scale refining trials. Statistical models of refiner performance were constructed from these results and non-linear optimization of process conditions were conducted. Optimization results indicated that increasing the ratio of specific energy applied in the first stage led to a reduction of some 15 per cent in the total energy requirement. The strategy can also be used to obtain significant increases in pulp quality for a given energy input. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  10. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, Eugene M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  11. Structural refinement of vitreous silica bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Wilson, Mark; Thorpe, M. F.

    The importance of glasses resides not only in their applications but in fundamental questions that they put forth. The continuous random network model can successfully describe the glass structure, but determining details, like ring statistics, has always been difficult using only diffraction data. But recent atomic images of 2D vitreous silica bilayers can offer valuable new insights which are hard to be observed directly in 3D silica models/experiments (for references see). However, the experimental results are prone to uncertainty in atomic positions, systematic errors, and being finite. We employ special boundary conditions developed for such networks to refine the experimental structures. We show the best structure can be found by using various potentials to maximize information gained from the experimental samples. We find a range of densities, the so-called flexibility window, in which tetrahedra are perfect. We compare results from simulations using harmonic potentials, MD with atomic polarizabilities included and DFT. We should thank David Drabold and Bishal Bhattarai for useful discussions. Support through NSF Grant # DMS 1564468 is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  13. Taiwan: refined need for consuming population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the oil and gas industry in Taiwan. Topics covered include the possibility of privatization, refineries and refining contracts overseas, plans for a new petrochemical complex and an offshore submarine transmission pipeline. (UK)

  14. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  15. Development of a Refined Staff Group Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quensel, Susan

    1999-01-01

    .... As a follow-on effort to the previous SGT project, the goal was to refine a brigade-level staff training program to more effectively and efficiently coordinate the activities within and between the...

  16. Game Refinement Relations and Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Scott, D.S.; Pierce, B.J.; Majumdar, Rupak; Plotkin, G.J.; Raman, Viswanath; Vardi, M.Y.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Adámek, J.

    We consider two-player games played over finite state spaces for an infinite number of rounds. At each state, the players simultaneously choose moves; the moves determine a successor state. It is often advantageous for players to choose probability distributions over moves, rather than single moves.

  17. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  18. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  19. Induction brazing of complex joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    , or if the hottest area is located outside the joint interface, a number of defects may appear: the braze metal may flow away from the joint, the flux may burn off, poor binding of the braze metal may appear or the braze metal may be overheated. Joint geometry as well as electro-magnetic properties of the work piece...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for fast determination of appropriate coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper. The method has...... proven to give successful results in brazing tube-plate joints of copper-brass, copper-stainless steel, stainless steel-brass, and stainless steel-stainless steel....

  20. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  1. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  2. Creativity: a refinement of the concept for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasnacht, Patsy H

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of creativity using techniques of concept refinement to advance the concept. Creativity is an essential component of nursing practice that occurs daily in nurse's interactions with clients, families and other nurses. Failure to acknowledge and encourage creativity in beginning nurses may hinder future development and innovations in nursing practice and in nursing science. In order to promote the development of creativity it is first necessary to clarify and refine the concept as it applies to nursing. A comprehensive review of a variety of computer and online databases resulted in thousands of articles on creativity between the years 1966 and 1999. The final sample (n = 48) was obtained using both stratified random and purposive sampling techniques. A content analysis of the literature was conducted using methods identified by Morse and illustrated in the work of Hupcey et al. Having determined the concept to be partially mature, the concept was advanced using techniques of concept refinement. Content analysis of the literature yielded three differing definitions for creativity: revelation, birth and reincarnation. Creativity occurs in the presence of intrinsic motivation and a nurturing environment. While value is often used to identify whether a product is creative, the value of the product cannot determine whether the process has occurred. The product produced determines evidence of the process of creativity. Limitations of this investigation are the use of secondary sources and the relatively small sample size (n = 48). Refinement of the concept of creativity indicates that it is a process that may be developed and influenced by the environment and is recognized by the product produced. Further investigation is needed to explore methods and techniques for developing creativity in nursing.

  3. Nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Due to a great combination of physical and mechanical properties, beta titanium alloys have become promising candidates in the field of chemical industry, aerospace and biomedical materials. The microstructure of beta titanium alloys is the governing factor that determines their properties and performances, especially the size scale, distribution and volume fraction of precipitate phase in parent phase matrix. Therefore in order to enhance the performance of beta titanium alloys, it is critical to obtain a thorough understanding of microstructural evolution in beta titanium alloys upon various thermal and/or mechanical processes. The present work is focusing on the study of nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure and super-refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys in order to study the influence of instabilities within parent phase matrix on precipitates nucleation, including compositional instabilities and/or structural instabilities. The current study is primarily conducted in Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (wt%, Ti-5553), a commercial material for aerospace application. Refined and super-refined precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553 are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The characteristics of either microstructure are investigated in details using various characterization techniques, such as SEM, TEM, STEM, HRSTEM and 3D atom probe to describe the features of microstructure in the aspect of morphology, distribution, structure and composition. Nucleation mechanisms of refined and super-refined precipitates are proposed in order to fully explain the features of different precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553. The necessary thermodynamic conditions and detailed process of phase transformations are introduced. In order to verify the reliability of proposed nucleation mechanisms, thermodynamic calculation and phase field modeling simulation are accomplished using the database of simple binary Ti-Mo system

  4. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly

  5. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  6. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  7. Grain refinement mechanism in A3003 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hoon; Shin, Je-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Hyung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, in order to find out an grain refinement mechanism, 0.1wt.% Al-10wt.%Ti master alloy was added into A3003 alloy melt contained in graphite crucible and in alumina crucible, and then the melt holding time at 750 deg. C was systematically changed from 1 min up to 120 min. It is interesting to note that the grain refinement and fading phenomena remarkably depend on the crucible material. The fading effect in the specimens using alumina crucible can be explained as the result of TiAl 3 phase dissolution into molten aluminium matrix. In the specimens using graphite crucible, the grain refinement was occurred gradually with increasing holding time. It was suggest that the continuous grain refinement is due to transition of refinement mechanism from TiAl 3 phase to TiC phase. It can be mentioned that the TiC formed from titanium and carbon solute in the aluminium melt, which came from the Al-10Ti alloy and the graphite crucible.

  8. Validating neural-network refinements of nuclear mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, R.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Nuclear astrophysics centers on the role of nuclear physics in the cosmos. In particular, nuclear masses at the limits of stability are critical in the development of stellar structure and the origin of the elements. Purpose: We aim to test and validate the predictions of recently refined nuclear mass models against the newly published AME2016 compilation. Methods: The basic paradigm underlining the recently refined nuclear mass models is based on existing state-of-the-art models that are subsequently refined through the training of an artificial neural network. Bayesian inference is used to determine the parameters of the neural network so that statistical uncertainties are provided for all model predictions. Results: We observe a significant improvement in the Bayesian neural network (BNN) predictions relative to the corresponding "bare" models when compared to the nearly 50 new masses reported in the AME2016 compilation. Further, AME2016 estimates for the handful of impactful isotopes in the determination of r -process abundances are found to be in fairly good agreement with our theoretical predictions. Indeed, the BNN-improved Duflo-Zuker model predicts a root-mean-square deviation relative to experiment of σrms≃400 keV. Conclusions: Given the excellent performance of the BNN refinement in confronting the recently published AME2016 compilation, we are confident of its critical role in our quest for mass models of the highest quality. Moreover, as uncertainty quantification is at the core of the BNN approach, the improved mass models are in a unique position to identify those nuclei that will have the strongest impact in resolving some of the outstanding questions in nuclear astrophysics.

  9. India's refining prospects linked to economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.

    1996-01-01

    International investors assess refining ventures in India the same way they do comparable projects elsewhere in the world: according to their expectations about investment returns. By that standard, India's appeal is mixed, although its need for some measure of additional refining capacity seems certain. The success of future refinery investments will depend heavily on the government's commitment to policies allowing the economy to grow faster than the population. Unless accompanied by economic growth, expected increases in the population will not automatically raise demand for petroleum products. Decisions about investments in India's refining sector, therefore, must carefully weigh market fundamentals, the business environment, and likely investment performance. This paper reviews the market for the various products and predicts new economic trends

  10. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  11. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns

  12. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Blalock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  13. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  14. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  15. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  17. India beckons participants in burgeoning refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that India has opened its refining sector to full private investment for the first time in more than 2 decades. The government again gave a green light to construction of three 120,000 b/d grassroots refineries in East, West, and Central India. The projects had won various governmental approvals in the past few years, but never moved off high center for a variety of economic and regulatory reasons. The difference this time is that the government is offering interests in the projects to private foreign and domestic investors. It's part of India's push to boost overall refining capacity by more than 80% this century

  18. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  20. Russian refining - an industry in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E [CentreInvest, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    In the old Soviet Union (now called the CIS), the refining industry is undergoing much modernisation, although the process is far from complete. Eventually, the CIS is expected to have a market-responsive competitive refining business. The expected transformation is discussed according to a five-stage plan. The stages are (i) the change from horizontally integrated entity to vertically integrated global concerns, (ii) the change from over-manned dinosaurs to modern efficient businesses, (iii) the move towards smaller, more advanced market-orientated processes, (iv) improving the transport and storage infrastructures and (v) improving accountability and profitability. The predictions for 2005 onwards are for sustained profitability. (UK)

  1. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  2. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  3. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  4. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  5. The volume of the human knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziolis, Georg; Roehner, Eric; Windisch, Christoph; Wagner, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Despite its clinical relevance, particularly in septic knee surgery, the volume of the human knee joint has not been established to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine knee joint volume and whether or not it is dependent on sex or body height. Sixty-one consecutive patients (joints) who were due to undergo endoprosthetic joint replacement were enrolled in this prospective study. During the operation, the joint volume was determined by injecting saline solution until a pressure of 200 mmHg was achieved in the joint. The average volume of all knee joints was 131 ± 53 (40-290) ml. The volume was not found to be dependent on sex, but it was dependent on the patients' height (R = 0.312, p = 0.014). This enabled an estimation of the joint volume according to V = 1.6 height - 135. The considerable inter-individual variance of the knee joint volume would suggest that it should be determined or at least estimated according to body height if the joint volume has consequences for the diagnostics or therapy of knee disorders.

  6. Refining the Eye: Dermatology and Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corinne; Huang, Jennifer T.; Buzney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard Medical School began a partnership focused on building visual literacy skills for dermatology residents in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. "Refining the Eye: Art and Dermatology", a four session workshop, took place in the museum's galleries and utilized the Visual…

  7. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  8. Structure refinement of polycrystalline orthorhombic yttrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The perovskite ceramic phases with composition Ca1−YTiO3+ (where = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; hereafter CYT-10, CYT-20 and CYT-30) have been synthesized by solid state reaction at 1050°C. The structure refinement using general structure analysis system (GSAS) software converges to satisfactory profile indicators ...

  9. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  10. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  11. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  12. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, K.R.M.; Vriend, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles chi1 and chi2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers

  14. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  15. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...

  16. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P

    2010-01-01

    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  17. Quantum Geometry of Refined Topological Strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aganagic, M.; Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Kreft, D.; Vafa, C.

    2012-01-01

    We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wavefunctions satisfy a Schrödinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant

  18. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  19. Synthesis of Al-5Ti-1B Refiner by Melt Reaction Method

    OpenAIRE

    LI He; CHAI Li-hua; MA Teng-fei; CHEN Zi-yong

    2017-01-01

    Al-5Ti-1B refiner was successfully prepared by melt reaction method. Through the thermodynamics calculation, the initial reaction temperature was determined. The influence of reaction temperature on microstructure and absorption rate of the alloy was investigated. The phase and microstructure of the alloy were observed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The Al-5Ti-1B refiner was extruded at high temperature to wire with the diameter of 9.5mm...

  20. The Influence of Grain Refiners on the Efficiency of Ceramic Foam Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towsey, Nicholas; Schneider, Wolfgang; Krug, Hans-Peter; Hardman, Angela; Keegan, Neil J.

    An extensive program of work has been carried out to evaluate the efficiency of ceramic foam filters under carefully controlled conditions. Work reported at previous TMS meetings showed that in the absence of grain refiners, ceramic foam filters have the capacity for high filtration efficiency and consistent, reliable performance. The current phase of the investigation focuses on the impact grain refiner additions have on filter performance. The high filtration efficiencies obtained using 50 or 80ppi CFF's in the absence of grain refiners diminish when Al-3%Ti-1%B grain refiners are added. This, together with the impact of incoming inclusion loading on filter performance and the level of grain refiner addition are considered in detail. The new generation Al-3%Ti-0.15%C grain refiner has also been included. At typical addition levels (1kg/tonne) the effect on filter efficiency is similar to that for TiB2based grain refiners. The work was again conducted on a production scale using AA1050 alloy. Metal quality was determined using LiMCA and PoDFA. Spent filters were also analysed.

  1. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  2. The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum by Al-Ti-B refiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lina [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2006-11-30

    The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum with the addition of Al-Ti-B master alloy was studied in this paper. The experimental results show that when the grain size of solidified sample is finer the viscosity of the melt is higher after the addition of different Al-Ti-B master alloys. This indicates that viscosity can be used to approximately estimate the refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-B refiners in production to a certain extent. The main reason was also discussed in this paper by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiment.

  3. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  4. Force field refinement from NMR scalar couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jing [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Meuwly, Markus, E-mail: m.meuwly@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: We show that two classes of H-bonds are sufficient to quantitatively describe scalar NMR coupling constants in small proteins. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present force field refinements based on explicit MD simulations using scalar couplings across hydrogen bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This leads to {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.03 Hz at best compared to experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A classification of H-bonds according to secondary structure is not sufficiently robust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grouping H-bonds into two classes and reparametrization yields an RMSD of 0.07 Hz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is an improvement of 50. - Abstract: NMR observables contain valuable information about the protein dynamics sampling a high-dimensional potential energy surface. Depending on the observable, the dynamics is sensitive to different time-windows. Scalar coupling constants {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} reflect the pico- to nanosecond motions associated with the intermolecular hydrogen bond network. Including an explicit H-bond in the molecular mechanics with proton transfer (MMPT) potential allows us to reproduce experimentally determined {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.02 Hz at best for ubiquitin and protein G. This is based on taking account of the chemically changing environment by grouping the H-bonds into up to seven classes. However, grouping them into two classes already reduces the RMSD between computed and observed {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings by almost 50%. Thus, using ensemble-averaged data with two classes of H-bonds leads to substantially improved scalar couplings from simulations with accurate force fields.

  5. View from the market : the refiners' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earnest, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    The western Canadian crude market area is vast, ranging from Puget Sound to Oklahoma to western Pennsylvania. The three main challenges facing western Canadian crude oil producers are high crude production volumes of heavy sour grades, strong competition for market share from the United States and offshore crudes, and the inability to access offshore global crude markets in meaningful volumes. The paper includes a map depicting core markets which have historically processed most of the crude produced in western Canada. The map also includes extended market areas where western Canadian crude sales are expected to increase as production increases. These regions will become the price setting areas for Canadian crude. Currently more than 40 per cent of the total crude produced in western Canada flows into the upper Midwest market. This paper summarized Canadian crude pricing mechanisms, noting that more than half of the oil consumed in North America is imported, linking North America with the pricing dynamics and supply/demand considerations of the global crude markets. The two key points that have to be considered in the Canadian crude pricing mechanisms is the economics of refining and parity point location. Crude grades such as light sweet or medium sour, are priced relative to one another depending on their differing values as a feedstock. The greatest determinant of relative crude grade value is the proportion produced of high value, light transportation fuels compared to low value, heavy products such as asphalt and heavy fuel oil. The value of crude oil is also influenced by the level of sulphur and metal content. A section of the paper was devoted to the pricing of heavy sour conventional and bitumen blend crudes, which is different than for lighter crude grades because of the near lack of competition from similar imported crude grades. A market optimization model used to analyze the future price relationships for Canadian crudes showed that the Canadian crude

  6. International joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    The article analysis problems connected with corporate joint ventures. Among others the possible conflicts between the joint venture agreement and the statutes of the companies is examined, as well as certain problems connected to the fact that the joint venture partners have created commen control...... over their joint company....

  7. Local-field refinement of neutron scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, V F

    1985-06-01

    We examine the way in which local field effects in the neutron refractive index affect the values of coherent scattering lengths determined by various kinds of neutron optical measurements. We find that under typical experimental conditions these effects are negligible for interferometry measurements but that they are significant for gravity refractometry measurements, producing changes in the effective scattering length of as much as two or three standard deviations in some cases. Refined values of the scattering length are obtained for the thirteen elements for which data are presently available. The special role of local field effects in neutron transmission is also discussed.

  8. Local-field refinement of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1985-01-01

    We examine the way in which local field effects in the neutron refractive index affect the values of coherent scattering lengths determined by various kinds of neutron optical measurements. We find that under typical experimental conditions these effects are negligible for interferometry measurements but that they are significant for gravity refractometry measurements, producing changes in the effective scattering length of as much as two or three standard deviations in some cases. Refined values of the scattering length are obtained for the thirteen elements for which data are presently available. The special role of local field effects in neutron transmission is also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Rietveld refinement of Y2O3 using the pearson VII profile shape function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcok, L.

    1989-01-01

    Very good agreement between the observed and the calculated intensities was obtained using the Pearson VII profile shape function. The variable exponent m could be refined only in the damped iterations involving exclusively the profile parameters. Simultaneous refinement of the m with the positional and/or thermal parameters has led to large oscillations of the shifts of almost all parameters. Precision of the refined atomic coordinates is better than those from previously published Rietveld refinement and is comparable with single crystal results. The degree of serial correlation in residuals has been determined by the use of the Durbin-Watson d statistic. Normal probability plot based on δR i has been almost linear with the slope greater than one. The weighting scheme with w i = 1/y oi has proved to be good first approximation. (author)

  10. Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco

    2012-01-01

    to a small set of abstract events that can be handled by automata learning tools. In this article, we show how such abstractions can be constructed fully automatically for a restricted class of extended finite state machines in which one can test for equality of data parameters, but no operations on data...... are allowed. Our approach uses counterexample-guided abstraction refinement: whenever the current abstraction is too coarse and induces nondeterministic behavior, the abstraction is refined automatically. Using Tomte, a prototype tool implementing our algorithm, we have succeeded to learn – fully......Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete events...

  11. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  12. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  13. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth van Hooland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank cells, duplicates, spelling inconsistencies, etc. OpenRefine not only allows you to quickly diagnose the accuracy of your data, but also to act upon certain errors in an automated manner.

  14. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  15. Government will shape China's refining boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.

    1995-01-01

    China's refining system is undergoing a major overhaul. New refineries are being built as existing ones are upgraded and expanded. The success of refineries funded completely or partially by non-chinese companies will depend in part on Chinese government policy. There will be demand for products from third-party processing facilities, but hard current is necessary for the investors to repatriate profits and for china Petrochemical Corp. (Sinopec) to bid on the products from such facilities. The limited convertibility of chinese current constitutes a major central control over the country's entire economy. This control can be affected by limiting product exchange participants and the volumes to be traded. Such a limitation, however, will reduce access of non-Chinese companies to China's markets, and is not likely to occur in the next 10 years. The paper discusses the current situation in capacity and in refining, capacity, expansion, refinery planning, construction projects, third-party processing, and the prospects for change

  16. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence...... in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...... proposed edge. The currently best algorithm for computing the refined Buneman tree from a given distance measure has a running time of O(n 5) and a space consumption of O(n 4). In this paper, we present an algorithm with running time O(n 3) and space consumption O(n 2). The improved complexity of our...

  17. Panorama 2016 - Refining outlook for 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    The rising influence of objectives intended to address the energy transition in global industry helps to perpetuate a high degree of uncertainty about changes in the transportation sector, currently a bastion of the oil industry. How can the growing need for individual mobility be met while reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in a world of open international competition? The refining sector is gaining strength in Asia and the Middle East to the detriment of Europe and North America, reflecting demand and the intrinsic competitiveness of various geographic regions. The 2025 worldwide roll-out (2020 in Europe) of a bunker fuel grade below 0.5 wt% (percentage by weight) in sulphur could experience delays, given the number of installations to be completed. Finally, the reversal of the 'all diesel' trend in the European transport market is a positive change for the European refining industry. (authors)

  18. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-01-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments

  19. The big shedding of the European refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Everywhere in Europe the oil companies are selling their refineries. Even if they work at full capacity, the interest of the European market is far below the one of Asia where demand is in full expansion and Middle-East where the raw matter is abundant. The world refining capacity is of 86 million barrel per day and should reach 106 million barrel per day in 2020. (J.S.)

  20. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  1. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    OpenAIRE

    Seth van Hooland; Ruben Verborgh; Max De Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank...

  2. Rare earths refining by vacuum sublimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytus, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    The process of rare earths refining by the sUblimation; method in high and superhigh oil-free vacuum, is investigated. The method is effective for rare earths obtaining and permits to prepare metal samples with a high value of electric resistance ratio γ=RsUb(298 K)/Rsub(4.2 K). The estimation of general purity is performed for Sm, Eu, Yb, Tm, Dy, Ho, Er and Se

  3. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  4. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  5. Problems persist for French refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively

  6. Formal refinement of extended state machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fayolle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional formal development process, e.g. using the B method, the informal user requirements are (manually translated into a global abstract formal specification. This translation is especially difficult to achieve. The Event-B method was developed to incrementally and formally construct such a specification using stepwise refinement. Each increment takes into account new properties and system aspects. In this paper, we propose to couple a graphical notation called Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD with an Event-B specification in order to provide a better understanding of the software behaviour. The dynamic behaviour is captured by the ASTD, which is based on automata and process algebra operators, while the data model is described by means of an Event-B specification. We propose a methodology to incrementally refine such specification couplings, taking into account new refinement relations and consistency conditions between the control specification and the data specification. We compare the specifications obtained using each approach for readability and proof complexity. The advantages and drawbacks of the traditional approach and of our methodology are discussed. The whole process is illustrated by a railway CBTC-like case study. Our approach is supported by tools for translating ASTD's into B and Event-B into B.

  7. Chromatography Analysis of Jatropha Curcas L Oil Raw and Refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitue de Assuncao Nascimento, Juliano; Lafargue Perez, Francisco; Diaz Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The chromatography of gases is one of the most versatile methods utilized in the chemical laboratory, which permits the determinations of the percentages and types of fatty acids present in vegetable oils. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study of the composition of the fatty acids, of the mechanically extracted oil from the seed of the Jatropha curcas L plant in the raw and refined state, using the data obtained by gas chromatography. The fatty acids of the oil were determined as methylic esteres. The analyst was carried out in a gas chromatographer, with a detector of ionization by way of flame (FID), Agilent 7890A (Agilent, USA) coupled to HP Pentium 4 computer, with a data processing program. The temperatures of the injector and of the detector were 250 °C and 260 °C respectively. The data obtained chromatographically of the oil of Jatropha curcas L, raw and refined indicates that the refinery process did not vary the composition of the fatty acid, because there are no significant differences between them. Also, the results obtained by other investigators, showed that the predominant fatty acids obtained from the oil of the Jatropha curcas L were palmitic and stearic in the saturated fatty acids, and oleic and linoleic in the unsaturated fatty acids

  8. Chromatography analysis of Jatropha Curcas L oil raw and refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitue de Assuncao Nascimento, Juliano; Lafargue Perez, Francisco; Diaz Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The chromatography of gases is one of the most versatile methods utilized in the chemical laboratory, which permits the determinations of the percentages and types of fatty acids present in vegetable oils. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study of the composition of the fatty acids, of the mechanically extracted oil from the seed of the Jatropha curcas L plant in the raw and refined state, using the data obtained by gas chromatography. The fatty acids of the oil were determined as methylic esteres. The analyst was carried out in a gas chromatographer, with a detector of ionization by way of flame (FID), Agilent 7890A (Agilent, USA) coupled to HP Pentium 4 computer, with a data processing program. The temperatures of the injector and of the detector were 250℃ and 260℃ respectively. The data obtained chromatographically of the oil of Jatropha curcas L, raw and refined indicates that the refinery process did not vary the composition of the fatty acid, because there are no significant differences between them. Also, the results obtained by other investigators, showed that the predominant fatty acids obtained from the oil of the Jatropha curcas L were palmitic and stearic in the saturated fatty acids, and oleic and linoleic in the unsaturated fatty acids

  9. Recruitment of knee joint ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankevoort, L.; Huiskes, H.W.J.; Lange, de A.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of earlier reported data on the in vitro kinematics of passive knee-joint motions of four knee specimens, the length changes of ligament fiber bundles were determined by using the points of insertion on the tibia and femur. The kinematic data and the insertions of the ligaments were

  10. Water flow in single rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Eva

    1989-05-01

    To study the hydromechanical properties of single rock joints a technique to make transparent replicas of natural joint surfaces has been developed. Five different joint samples were replicated and studied. The aperture distribution of the joints were obtained through a measurement method provided by the transparent replicas. The principle behind the method is that a water drop with a known volume, which is placed inside a joint, will cover a certain area of the surface depending on the average size of aperture at the actual point. Flow tests were performed on the same joint replicas. The tortuousity of the flow and the velocity along single stream lines were measured using colour injections into the water flow through the joints. The equivalent hydraulic apertures determined from the flow tests where shown to be smaller than the average mechanical apertures. The velocity of the flow varies strongly between different paths over the joint depending on the spatial distribution of the apertures. The degree of matedness between the joint surfaces is an important factor influencing the channeling character of the joints. (author) (38 refs.)

  11. Determination of P, Cu, Cr, Va and Ti in samples of welded joint No.4 of Kozloduy-1 reactor pressure vessel; Opredelenie soderzhanya fosfora, medi, nikelya, khroma, vanadya i titana v struzhkakh 4 shva 1 bloka AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskaev, E [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria); Penev, I; Taskaeva, M [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika; Aleksieva, L [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria); Tsokov, P [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of reactor steel composition has been carried out in 1989 in order to determine metal embrittlement. The samples consist of shavings taken at 3-4 mm depth from the 4-th welded joint of Unit 1 of the Kozloduy NPP. The shavings have been gradually dissolved in a mixture of acids and the solution evaporated. Quantitative analysis has been carried out by spectrophotometry and by ICP emission spectroscopy. The following element concentrations have been found: P - from 0.0462 to 0.052% by weight; Ni - 0.25 - 0.26% (passport data 0.29%); Cr - 1.47 - 1.54 (passport 1.58%); V - 0.1% (passport 0.15%); Cu - 0.11-0.13% (passport 0.12); Ti - 0.002. The data have been used to calculate metal embrittlement. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. Neutron powder diffraction and theory-aided structure refinement of rubidium and cesium ureate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterri, Kjersti B.; Deringer, Volker L.; Houben, Andreas; Jacobs, Philipp [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Kumar, Chogondahalli M.N. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Outstation at SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Div.; Dronskowski, Richard [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA-HPC)

    2016-08-01

    Urea (CN{sub 2}H{sub 4}O) is a fundamental biomolecule whose derivatives are abundant throughout chemistry. Among the latter, rubidium ureate (RbCN{sub 2}H{sub 3}O) and its cesium analog (CsCN{sub 2}H{sub 3}O) have been described only very recently and form the first structurally characterized salts of deprotonated urea. Here, we report on a neutron diffraction study on the aforementioned alkaline-metal ureates, which affords the positions for all hydrogen atoms (including full anisotropic displacement tensors) and thus allows us to gain fundamental insights into the hydrogen-bonding networks in the title compounds. The structure refinements of the experimental neutron data proceeded successfully using starting parameters from ab initio simulations of atomic positions and anisotropic displacement parameters. Such joint experimental-theoretical refinement procedures promise significant practical potential in cases where complex solids (organic, organometallic, framework materials) are studied by powder diffraction.

  13. A case study: Residue reduction at Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geehan, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    With input from Shell Synthetic Fuels Inc. (SSFI), Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership (DPRLP) analyzed options for managing the bottom of the barrel to extinction, with an objective of high return on investment. DPRLP is a joint venture of PEMEX and Shell Oil Company. This Gulf Coast refiner processes 227M BBL/D of heavy, high sulfur crude. This paper discusses the process options considered, their advantages and disadvantages, and the option selected as well as the options still open. Recent modernization projects at DPRLP are now on stream with high yield of clean products.There remains one by-product, petroleum coke, which presents opportunity as a low cost feed for one or more process options yielding attractive products. The Shell Coke (or Coal) Gasification Process is one of the options now being considered

  14. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel; Kuester, Falko

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual

  15. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  16. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Joint Replacement Email to a friend * required fields ...

  17. Use of the azimuthal resistivity technique for determination of regional azimuth of transmissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many bedrock units contain joint sets that commonly act as preferred paths for the movement of water, electrical charge, and possible contaminants associated with production or transit of crude oil or refined products. To facilitate the development of remediation programs, a need exists to reliably determine regional-scale properties of these joint sets: azimuth of transmissivity ellipse, dominant set, and trend(s). The surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method used for local in situ studies can be a noninvasive, reliable, efficient, and relatively cost-effective method for regional studies. The azimuthal resistivity survey method combines the use of standard resistivity equipment with a Wenner array rotated about a fixed center point, at selected degree intervals, which yields an apparent resistivity ellipse from which joint-set orientation can be determined. Regional application of the azimuthal survey method was tested at 17 sites in an approximately 500 km2 (193 mi2) area around Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with less than 15m (50 ft) overburden above the dolomite. Results of 26 azimuthal surveys were compared and determined to be consistent with the results of two other methods: direct observation of joint-set orientation and transmissivity ellipses from multiple-well-aquifer tests. The average of joint-set trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 2.5?? of the average of joint-set trend determined by direct observation of major joint sets at 24 sites. The average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 5.7?? of the average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined for 14 multiple-well-aquifer tests. Copyright ?? 2010 The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  19. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource

  20. Repetitive Identification of Structural Systems Using a Nonlinear Model Parameter Refinement Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Wen Lin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a statistical confidence interval based nonlinear model parameter refinement approach for the health monitoring of structural systems subjected to seismic excitations. The developed model refinement approach uses the 95% confidence interval of the estimated structural parameters to determine their statistical significance in a least-squares regression setting. When the parameters' confidence interval covers the zero value, it is statistically sustainable to truncate such parameters. The remaining parameters will repetitively undergo such parameter sifting process for model refinement until all the parameters' statistical significance cannot be further improved. This newly developed model refinement approach is implemented for the series models of multivariable polynomial expansions: the linear, the Taylor series, and the power series model, leading to a more accurate identification as well as a more controllable design for system vibration control. Because the statistical regression based model refinement approach is intrinsically used to process a “batch” of data and obtain an ensemble average estimation such as the structural stiffness, the Kalman filter and one of its extended versions is introduced to the refined power series model for structural health monitoring.

  1. Optimal algebraic multilevel preconditioning for local refinement along a line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margenov, S.D.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The application of some recently proposed algebraic multilevel methods for the solution of two-dimensional finite element problems on nonuniform meshes is studied. The locally refined meshes are created by the newest vertex mesh refinement method. After the introduction of this refinement technique

  2. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-frequency electromagnetic field; AZ31 magnesium alloy; Al4C3; grain refinement. Abstract. The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an ...

  3. Neutrosophic Refined Similarity Measure Based on Cosine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined (multi- sets is proposed and its properties are studied. The concept of this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of improved cosine similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic. Finally, using this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set, the application of medical diagnosis is presented.

  4. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  5. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000610.htm Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe ...

  6. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose...... of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...... by experimental test results. Therefore, there is a need for performing experimental tests in this area....

  7. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  8. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  9. Local adaptive mesh refinement for shock hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.J.; Colella, P.; Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, 94550 California)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of an automatic, adaptive mesh refinement strategy for solving hyperbolic conservation laws in two dimensions. There are two main difficulties in doing this. The first problem is due to the presence of discontinuities in the solution and the effect on them of discontinuities in the mesh. The second problem is how to organize the algorithm to minimize memory and CPU overhead. This is an important consideration and will continue to be important as more sophisticated algorithms that use data structures other than arrays are developed for use on vector and parallel computers. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  10. Leaving a joint audit system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    2014-01-01

    determinants model and an audit fee change model and include interaction terms. Findings: The authors find short-term fee reductions in companies switching to single audits, but only where the former joint audit contained a dominant auditor. The authors argue that in this situation bargaining power is more...... with the auditors than in a equally shared joint audit, and that the auditors' incentives to offer an initial fee discount are bigger. Research limitations/implications: The number of observations is constrained by the small Danish capital market. Future research could take a more qualitative research approach......, to examine whether the use of a single audit firm rather than two has an effect on audit quality. The area calls for further theory development covering audit fee and audit quality in joint audit settings. Practical implications: Comapnies should consider their relationship with their auditors before...

  11. MHI - Westinghouse joint FBR tank plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.H.; Vijuk, R.M.; Aoki, I.; Messhil, T.

    1988-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division have combined their experience and capabilities to design a tank type fast breeder reactor plant. This tank type reactor has been refined and improved during the last three years to better compete in cost, safety, and operation with alternative power plants. This Mitsubishi/Westinghouse joint design offers economic advantages due to the use of steel structures, modular construction, nitrogen cells for the intermediate loops, reactor cavity air cooling and the use of the guard vessel as the containment vessel. Inherent characteristics in the reactor design provide protection to the public and the plant investment

  12. Design of mechanical joints

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    A cornerstone publication that covers the basic principles and practical considerations of design methodology for joints held by rivets, bolts, weld seams, and adhesive materials, Design of Mechanical Joints gives engineers the practical results and formulas they need for the preliminary design of mechanical joints, combining the essential topics of joint mechanics...strength of materials...and fracture control to provide a complete treatment of problems pertinent to the field of mechanical connections.

  13. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  14. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  15. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  16. Adaptive hybrid mesh refinement for multiphysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamayseh, Ahmed; Almeida, Valmor de

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy and convergence of computational solutions of mesh-based methods is strongly dependent on the quality of the mesh used. We have developed methods for optimizing meshes that are comprised of elements of arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral type. We present in this research the development of r-h hybrid adaptive meshing technology tailored to application areas relevant to multi-physics modeling and simulation. Solution-based adaptation methods are used to reposition mesh nodes (r-adaptation) or to refine the mesh cells (h-adaptation) to minimize solution error. The numerical methods perform either the r-adaptive mesh optimization or the h-adaptive mesh refinement method on the initial isotropic or anisotropic meshes to equidistribute weighted geometric and/or solution error function. We have successfully introduced r-h adaptivity to a least-squares method with spherical harmonics basis functions for the solution of the spherical shallow atmosphere model used in climate modeling. In addition, application of this technology also covers a wide range of disciplines in computational sciences, most notably, time-dependent multi-physics, multi-scale modeling and simulation

  17. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  18. The European refining and distribution industry at the 2010 vista

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, J.J.; Tessmer, G.; Ward, I.

    1998-01-01

    Oil company chairmen belonging to the AFTP, DGMK and IP associations met together to debate about the future of the European refining industry. The following topics were discussed: is it the end of the refining crisis? Which uncertainties will have to be met? What is the situation of petroleum products supply and demand? What are the consumers' expectations? How to face the environmental constraints? Which future for the refining activities in Europe? Seven round-tables took place with the following themes: the factors of uncertainty in the future of refining activities, the petroleum products supply and demand (automotive fuels, fuel oils, lubricants), the refining activities and the supply of consumers (service stations and supermarkets), the situation of the European petroleum policy, the European refining industry and the public regulations (development of more efficient environmental approaches), the impact of environmental constraints and the technical solutions, and the future of the refining industry. (J.S.)

  19. Technological studies on uranium refining at nuclear materials authority, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 nuclear materials authority (NMA) took a decision to establish yellow cake refining. Unit so as to study refining of El-Atshan yellow cake which recently produced by ion-exchange pilot plant, production sector. The research studies followed the conventional refining rout to produce nuclear grade UO 3 . This implies investigations on some common solvents to refine the cake viz. tri alkyl phosphates, tri alkyl phosphine oxides, dialkyl phosphoric acid as well as high-molecular weight long-chain tertiary amines. Moreover, non-conventional refining process has also been presented depending on the selectivity of uranyl ion to be dissolved by carbonate and to be precipitated by hydrogen peroxide. Most of the proposed processes were found feasible to refine El-Atshan yellow cake. however, the non- conventional refining process appears to be the most promising, owing to its superior performance and economy

  20. Joint hypermobility: incidence and some clinical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Isaev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study joint mobility range among urban population aged 18 to 30 years and to assess association of joint and other connective tissue structures disorders clinical signs with hypermobility. Material and methods. 769 randomly selected individuals aged 18 to 30 (mean - 25,56 years (419 female and 350 male were examined. Hypermobility was assessed with 9-point Beighton scale. Examination included skin stretchability evaluation at elbow back surface, determination of flat feet, high palate, joint pain and deformities of knee joints, joint luxation and subluxation, hand and feet vasospastic disturbances, cardiac pain, oculist examination. Methods of variational statistics were used (x2, Student's test, Spirmen's correlation. Results. Hypermobility incidence and joint mobility in population aged 18 to 30 years in Orenburg largely comply with data received in Moscow. Joint mobility up to 5 points in women and up to 4 points in men is usual for persons of this age and in absence of additional clinical symptoms cannot be considered as pathological. Knee joint deformities, presence of high palate, cardiac pain accompanied by signs of vegetative dysfunction, hand and feet vasospastic disturbances are significantly connected with degree of joint mobility and in some cases can help in hypermobility syndrome diagnosis.

  1. The burden and determinants of neck pain in workers: results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Pierre; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Cassidy, J David; Carroll, Linda J; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Holm, Lena W; Carragee, Eugene J; Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Hurwitz, Eric L; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M

    2009-02-01

    Systematic review and best evidence synthesis. To describe the prevalence and incidence of neck pain and disability in workers; to identify risk factors for neck pain in workers; to propose an etiological diagram; and to make recommendations for future research. Previous reviews of the etiology of neck pain in workers relied on cross-sectional evidence. Recently published cohorts and randomized trials warrant a re-analysis of this body of research. We systematically searched Medline for literature published from 1980-2006. Retrieved articles were reviewed for relevance. Relevant articles were critically appraised. Articles judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. One hundred and nine papers on the burden and determinants of neck pain in workers were scientifically admissible. The annual prevalence of neck pain varied from 27.1% in Norway to 47.8% in Québec, Canada. Each year, between 11% and 14.1% of workers were limited in their activities because of neck pain. Risk factors associated with neck pain in workers include age, previous musculoskeletal pain, high quantitative job demands, low social support at work, job insecurity, low physical capacity, poor computer workstation design and work posture, sedentary work position, repetitive work and precision work. We found preliminary evidence that gender, occupation, headaches, emotional problems, smoking, poor job satisfaction, awkward work postures, poor physical work environment, and workers' ethnicity may be associated with neck pain. There is evidence that interventions aimed at modifying workstations and worker posture are not effective in reducing the incidence of neck pain in workers. Neck disorders are a significant source of pain and activity limitations in workers. Most neck pain results from complex relationships between individual and workplace risk factors. No prevention strategies have been shown to reduce the incidence of neck pain in workers.

  2. Creep behavior evaluation of welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susei, Shuzo; Matsui, Shigetomo; Mori, Eisuke; Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke.

    1980-01-01

    In the creep design of high temperature structural elements, it is necessary to grasp the creep performance of joints as a whole, paying attention to the essential lack of uniformity between the material qualities of parent metals and welds. In this study, the factors controlling the creep performance of butt welded joints were investigated theoretically, when they were subjected to lateral tension and longitudinal tension. It was clarified that the rupture time in the case of laterally pulled joints was determined by the ratio of the creep rupture times of weld metals and parent metals, and the rupture time in the case of longitudinally pulled joints was determined by the ratio of the creep rupture times and the ratio of the creep strain rates of weld metals and parent metals. Moreover, when the joints of the former ratio less than 1 and the latter ratio larger than 1 were investigated experimentally, the rupture time in the case of laterally pulled joints was affected by the relative thickness, and when the relative thickness was large, the theoretical and the experimental values coincided, but the relative thickness was small, the theoretical values gave the evaluation on safe side as compared with the experimental values due to the effect of restricting deformation. In the case of longitudinally pulled joints, the theoretical and the experimental values coincided relatively well. The diagram of classifying the creep performance of welded joints was proposed. (Kako, I.)

  3. 40 CFR 80.560 - How can a refiner seek temporary relief from the requirements of this subpart in case of extreme...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., include the bond rating of the joint venture entity and the bond ratings of all partners; in the case of... or chief executive officer of the company, or his/her designee, stating that the information... § 80.510(a), (b), and (c) as applicable. (l) If EPA finds that a refiner provided false or inaccurate...

  4. Effect of strontium on the grain refining efficiency of Mg-3Al alloy refined by carbon inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jun; Yang Jian; Kuwabara, Mamoru; Li Wenfang; Peng Jihua

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Sr on the grain refining efficiency of the Mg-3Al alloy refined by carbon inoculation has been investigated in the present study. A significant grain refinement was obtained for the Mg-3Al alloy treated with either 0.2% C or 0.2% Sr. The Al-C-O particles were found in the sample refined by 0.2% C, and the element O should come from reaction between Al 4 C 3 nuclei of Mg grains and water during the process of sample preparation. The grain size of the sample refined by carbon inoculation was further decreased after the combined addition of Sr. The grain size decreased with increasing Sr content. Much higher refining efficiency was obtained when the Sr addition was increased to 0.5%. Sr is an effective element to improve the grain refining efficiency for the Mg-Al alloys refined by carbon inoculation. The number of Al 4 C 3 particles in the sample refined by the combination of carbon and Sr was more than that in the sample refined by only carbon. No Al-C-O-Sr-rich particles were obviously found in the sample refined by the combination of carbon and a little (<0.5%) Sr addition

  5. Refining the ideas of "ethnic" skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vicente; Herane, Maria Isabel; Costa, Adilson; Martin, Jaime Piquero; Troielli, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Skin disease occur worldwide, affecting people of all nationalities and all skin types. These diseases may have a genetic component and may manifest differently in specific population groups; however, there has been little study on this aspect. If population-based differences exist, it is reasonable to assume that understanding these differences may optimize treatment. While there is a relative paucity of information about similarities and differences in skin diseases around the world, the knowledge-base is expanding. One challenge in understanding population-based variations is posed by terminology used in the literature: including ethnic skin, Hispanic skin, Asian skin, and skin of color. As will be discussed in this article, we recommend that the first three descriptors are no longer used in dermatology because they refer to nonspecific groups of people. In contrast, "skin of color" may be used - perhaps with further refinements in the future - as a term that relates to skin biology and provides relevant information to dermatologists.

  6. China's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Fridley, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article assesses the future for China's oil industry as the country makes the transition from a command economy to an international market. China has one of the world's biggest oil industries and recent years have seen much growth in exploration and development, refining capacity and trade. China is more and more dependent on oil imports and is now a major international player; it has attracted much outside investment. Diagrams show (i) how coal dominates other sources of energy in China; (ii) crude production 1977-1998; (iii) how Middle East crudes now dominate Chinese crude imports; (iv) the growth of petroleum demand in China; (v) the Chinese demand for petroleum products; (vi) the growth in transport fuels; (vii) Chinese product imports: import ban targeted diesel; (viii) crude imports favoured over product imports and (ix) refinery capacity and throughput. The changes are expected to result in further integration into international markets, increased transparency and a healthier oil business

  7. Japan's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The present economic situation in Japan is discussed. In particular, the focus is on fluctuations in oil product demand, imports of crude oil, and the refining industry. Throughout the 1990s, Japan was plagued by a volatile economy and the new millennium has shown no improvement. A prolonged recession means that the country now has little confidence in its leaders and its institutions, consumer confidence is low and asset values have deflated. Due to a low birth rate and long life expectancy, the population is aging and this means lower savings rates. The contrast between the present situation and the so-called economic miracle once enjoyed by the Japanese is hard to accept, but despite all this, the Japanese lifestyle and economy are to be envied

  8. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  9. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... is bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs...

  10. Biomaterials Evaluation: Conceptual Refinements and Practical Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaeli, Reza; Zandsalimi, Kavosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-01-01

    Regarding the widespread and ever-increasing applications of biomaterials in different medical fields, their accurate assessment is of great importance. Hence the safety and efficacy of biomaterials is confirmed only through the evaluation process, the way it is done has direct effects on public health. Although every biomaterial undergoes rigorous premarket evaluation, the regulatory agencies receive a considerable number of complications and adverse event reports annually. The main factors that challenge the process of biomaterials evaluation are dissimilar regulations, asynchrony of biomaterials evaluation and biomaterials development, inherent biases of postmarketing data, and cost and timing issues. Several pieces of evidence indicate that current medical device regulations need to be improved so that they can be used more effectively in the evaluation of biomaterials. This article provides suggested conceptual refinements and practical reforms to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the existing regulations. The main focus of the article is on strategies for evaluating biomaterials in US, and then in EU.

  11. The evolution and refinements of varicocele surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L Marmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicoceles had been recognized in clinical practice for over a century. Originally, these procedures were utilized for the management of pain but, since 1952, the repairs had been mostly for the treatment of male infertility. However, the diagnosis and treatment of varicoceles were controversial, because the pathophysiology was not clear, the entry criteria of the studies varied among centers, and there were few randomized clinical trials. Nevertheless, clinicians continued developing techniques for the correction of varicoceles, basic scientists continued investigations on the pathophysiology of varicoceles, and new outcome data from prospective randomized trials have appeared in the world′s literature. Therefore, this special edition of the Asian Journal of Andrology was proposed to report much of the new information related to varicoceles and, as a specific part of this project, the present article was developed as a comprehensive review of the evolution and refinements of the corrective procedures.

  12. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  13. Panorama 2011: Refining: varying conditions by region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis has further weakened a sector that was already facing difficulties, if we look beyond the flush period (2005-2008) when, buoyed by strong demand, margins remained high and refiners could generate profits while maintaining a healthy level of activity. Falling demand and increased over-capacity in some regions - the immediate consequences of the deteriorating economic conditions over the past two years - have led to declining margins and to financial accounts being in the red. The adoption of increasingly stringent emissions standards and product specifications, burdensome regulatory requirements for refineries (for combating local pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions), stiffer competition from new fuels: all of these structural factors are weakening the sector, especially in industrialized nations with their more rigorous regulatory compliance. In this generally gloomy climate, numerous new projects are still being envisaged - although many have recently been postponed and tend to be concentrated in developing countries. (author)

  14. Refining prices and margins in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.; Baudoin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia

  15. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  16. Non-perturbative effects and the refined topological string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Marino, Marcos [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Section de Mathematiques; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst.; Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-06-15

    The partition function of ABJM theory on the three-sphere has non-perturbative corrections due to membrane instantons in the M-theory dual. We show that the full series of membrane instanton corrections is completely determined by the refined topological string on the Calabi-Yau manifold known as local P{sup 1} x P{sup 1}, in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit. Our result can be interpreted as a first-principles derivation of the full series of non-perturbative effects for the closed topological string on this Calabi-Yau background. Based on this, we make a proposal for the non-perturbative free energy of topological strings on general, local Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  17. Grain Refinement of Low Carbon Martensitic Steel by Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolebina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-carbon steels have good corrosion and technological properties. Hot deformation is the main operation in manufacturing the parts from these steels. So one of the important properties of the material is a property of plasticity. The grain size significantly influences on the ductility properties of steel. The grain size of steel depends on the chemical composition of the crystallization process, heat treatment, and steel machining. There are plenty methods to have grain refinement. However, taking into account the large size of the blanks for the hydro turbine parts, the thermal cycling is an advanced method of the grain refinement adaptable to streamlined production. This work experimentally studies the heat treatment influence on the microstructure of the low-carbon 01X13N04 alloy steel and proposes the optimal regime of the heat treatment to provide a significantly reduced grain size. L.M. Kleiner, N.P. Melnikov and I.N. Bogachyova’s works focused both on the microstructure of these steels and on the influence of its parameters on the mechanical properties. The paper focuses mainly on defining an optimal regime of the heat treatment for grain refinement. The phase composition of steel and temperature of phase transformation were defined by the theoretical analysis. The dilatometric experiment was done to determine the precise temperature of the phase transformations. The analysis and comparison of the experimental data with theoretical data and earlier studies have shown that the initial sample has residual stress and chemical heterogeneity. The influence of the heat treatment on the grain size was studied in detail. It is found that at temperatures above 950 ° C there is a high grain growth. It is determined that the optimal number of cycles is two. The postincreasing number of cycles does not cause further reducing grain size because of the accumulative recrystallization process. Based on the results obtained, the thermal cycling

  18. Refining mass formulas for astrophysical applications: A Bayesian neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, R.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2017-10-01

    Background: Exotic nuclei, particularly those near the drip lines, are at the core of one of the fundamental questions driving nuclear structure and astrophysics today: What are the limits of nuclear binding? Exotic nuclei play a critical role in both informing theoretical models as well as in our understanding of the origin of the heavy elements. Purpose: Our aim is to refine existing mass models through the training of an artificial neural network that will mitigate the large model discrepancies far away from stability. Methods: The basic paradigm of our two-pronged approach is an existing mass model that captures as much as possible of the underlying physics followed by the implementation of a Bayesian neural network (BNN) refinement to account for the missing physics. Bayesian inference is employed to determine the parameters of the neural network so that model predictions may be accompanied by theoretical uncertainties. Results: Despite the undeniable quality of the mass models adopted in this work, we observe a significant improvement (of about 40%) after the BNN refinement is implemented. Indeed, in the specific case of the Duflo-Zuker mass formula, we find that the rms deviation relative to experiment is reduced from σrms=0.503 MeV to σrms=0.286 MeV. These newly refined mass tables are used to map the neutron drip lines (or rather "drip bands") and to study a few critical r -process nuclei. Conclusions: The BNN approach is highly successful in refining the predictions of existing mass models. In particular, the large discrepancy displayed by the original "bare" models in regions where experimental data are unavailable is considerably quenched after the BNN refinement. This lends credence to our approach and has motivated us to publish refined mass tables that we trust will be helpful for future astrophysical applications.

  19. Characteristics of fermentation of refined cane sugar syrup for alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raev, Z A; Bazilevich, K K

    1956-01-01

    Technological properties of cane sugar syrup, obtained on refining of raw cane sugar, were investigated. Its poor fermentation is caused by the lack of nitrous substances (1/10 as much as in sugar beet) necessary for the nutrition of yeast. It is necessary to introduce into the mixture of yeast and must 0.8% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ based on weight of syrup (at a permanent aeration the assimilability of N from (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ by the yeast will be higher and the dosage has to be increased), 1% of superphosphate or 0.12% of a 70% phosphoric acid solution, and 0.5% of a yeast autolyst. For the fermentation of cane sugar syrup the mixture of yeast and must has to be prepared with a concentration of 10 to 11/sup 0/ by the saccharometer scale, but the average initial concentration of the fermentive must has to be 17 to 18/sup 0/ with the intention to keep the alcohol content of the ripe must at 8.7 to 8.8% by volume. Considering the low buffer ability of the syrup from cane sugar, the acidity of the must, mixed with yeast, has to be kept less than or equal to 0.4 to 0.5/sup 0/, the pH at 4.6 to 4.8; on a higher acidity the pH drops to a value which inhibits the fission of the yeast cells. On a joint fermentation of syrup from sugar cane and sugar beets 1% of superphosphate in the form of an aqueous extract and an autolyst of yeast in an amount of 0.5% of the weight of syrup was introduced into the must; the yield of alcohol from cane sugar syrup increased compared with the yield on separate processing.

  20. Percutaneous biopsy of the synovial membrane of large joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begule, V.

    1989-01-01

    Using flouroscopy, the authors have developed new techniques of percutaneous synovial biopsy (PSB) of large joints of limbs (other than the knee). PSB was performed on outpatients under local anesthesia. They have performed 84 biopsies (hips: 57), shoulders: 10, elbows: six, wrists: five, ankles: six). The PSB technique was gradually improved. Main technical refinements were use of a Tru-Cut needle introduced through a Jamshidi trephine needle, placement of the cutting window parallel to the anterior aspect of the joint, and selection of an optimal approach and biopsy site. With these improvements, the success rate of attaining synovial membrane was raised from 49% to 81%. No complications were encountered

  1. Refinement of NMR structures using implicit solvent and advanced sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhan; Im, Wonpil; Brooks, Charles L

    2004-12-15

    NMR biomolecular structure calculations exploit simulated annealing methods for conformational sampling and require a relatively high level of redundancy in the experimental restraints to determine quality three-dimensional structures. Recent advances in generalized Born (GB) implicit solvent models should make it possible to combine information from both experimental measurements and accurate empirical force fields to improve the quality of NMR-derived structures. In this paper, we study the influence of implicit solvent on the refinement of protein NMR structures and identify an optimal protocol of utilizing these improved force fields. To do so, we carry out structure refinement experiments for model proteins with published NMR structures using full NMR restraints and subsets of them. We also investigate the application of advanced sampling techniques to NMR structure refinement. Similar to the observations of Xia et al. (J.Biomol. NMR 2002, 22, 317-331), we find that the impact of implicit solvent is rather small when there is a sufficient number of experimental restraints (such as in the final stage of NMR structure determination), whether implicit solvent is used throughout the calculation or only in the final refinement step. The application of advanced sampling techniques also seems to have minimal impact in this case. However, when the experimental data are limited, we demonstrate that refinement with implicit solvent can substantially improve the quality of the structures. In particular, when combined with an advanced sampling technique, the replica exchange (REX) method, near-native structures can be rapidly moved toward the native basin. The REX method provides both enhanced sampling and automatic selection of the most native-like (lowest energy) structures. An optimal protocol based on our studies first generates an ensemble of initial structures that maximally satisfy the available experimental data with conventional NMR software using a simplified

  2. Penetuan Bilangan Iodin pada Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) dan Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Monica Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Have been conducted Determination of Iodin Value by method titration to some Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) and Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO). The result of analysis obtained the Iodin Value in Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 0,16 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (B) = 0,20 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (C) = 0,24 gr I2/100gr. And in Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 17,51 gr I2/100gr, Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel ...

  3. Mechanics of Suture Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaning; Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary; Ortiz Group/DMSE/MIT Team; Boyce Group/ME/MIT Team

    2011-03-01

    Biological sutures are joints which connect two stiff skeletal or skeletal-like components. These joints possess a wavy geometry with a thin organic layer providing adhesion. Examples of biological sutures include mammalian skulls, the pelvic assembly of the armored fish Gasterosteus aculeatus (the three-spined stickleback), and the suture joints in the shell of the red-eared slider turtle. Biological sutures allow for movement and compliance, control stress concentrations, transmit loads, reduce fatigue stress and absorb energy. In this investigation, the mechanics of the role of suture geometry in providing a naturally optimized joint is explored. In particular, analytical and numerical micromechanical models of the suture joint are constructed. The anisotropic mechanical stiffness and strength are studied as a function of suture wavelength, amplitude and the material properties of the skeletal and organic components, revealing key insights into the optimized nature of these ubiquitous natural joints.

  4. Joint determination of biological encephalization, economic specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horan, R.D.; Shogren, J.F.; Bulte, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a paleoeconomic model of the co-evolution of economic specialization and encephalization-the common physiological measure of intelligence as reflected by brain mass relative to total body mass. Our economic analysis links ecological and social intelligence theories of

  5. Synthesis of Al-5Ti-1B Refiner by Melt Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Al-5Ti-1B refiner was successfully prepared by melt reaction method. Through the thermodynamics calculation, the initial reaction temperature was determined. The influence of reaction temperature on microstructure and absorption rate of the alloy was investigated. The phase and microstructure of the alloy were observed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The Al-5Ti-1B refiner was extruded at high temperature to wire with the diameter of 9.5mm, and then the refinement experiment was carried out on pure aluminium. The results indicate that the refiner consists of TiB2, TiAl3 and α-Al, and the microstructure prepared at 850℃ is the optimum and the absorption rate of Ti and B matches the best. The TiAl3 and TiB2 phases distribute homogeneously in the matrix after extrusion. When adding 0.2%(mass fraction of Al-5Ti-1B refiner, the grain size of pure aluminium reduces from 3.99mm to 0.45mm.

  6. Effect of grain refinement on the microstructure and tensile properties of thin 319 Al castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, M.J.; Emamy, M.; Nemati, N.

    2011-01-01

    The structural examinations and tensile properties of thin-section Al castings (319 Al alloy) have been investigated by applying a pattern with different cross sections (2-12 mm). Al-5Ti-1B and Al-5Zr grain refiners were added to the molten Al alloy to produce different levels of Ti (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15%) and Zr (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5%) in the castings. From macrostructural studies, it was found that Al-5Zr is less effective in grain refining of 319 alloy in comparison with Al-5Ti-1B master alloy. The optimum levels of grain refiners were selected for determination of tensile properties. T6 heat treatment was applied for selected specimens before tensile testing. Further structural results also showed that thinner sections are less affected by grain refiners. This observation was found to be in a good agreement with tensile test results, where tensile properties of the base and grain refined alloys did not show considerable differences in thinner sections (<6 mm).

  7. A simple nodal force distribution method in refined finite element meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    In finite element analyses, mesh refinement is frequently performed to obtain accurate stress or strain values or to accurately define the geometry. After mesh refinement, equivalent nodal forces should be calculated at the nodes in the refined mesh. If field variables and material properties are available at the integration points in each element, then the accurate equivalent nodal forces can be calculated using an adequate numerical integration. However, in certain circumstances, equivalent nodal forces cannot be calculated because field variable data are not available. In this study, a very simple nodal force distribution method was proposed. Nodal forces of the original finite element mesh are distributed to the nodes of refined meshes to satisfy the equilibrium conditions. The effect of element size should also be considered in determining the magnitude of the distributing nodal forces. A program was developed based on the proposed method, and several example problems were solved to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method. From the results, accurate stress field can be recognized to be obtained from refined meshes using the proposed nodal force distribution method. In example problems, the difference between the obtained maximum stress and target stress value was less than 6 % in models with 8-node hexahedral elements and less than 1 % in models with 20-node hexahedral elements or 10-node tetrahedral elements.

  8. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  9. Automating crystallographic structure solution and refinement of protein–ligand complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echols, Nathaniel; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Klei, Herbert E.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Headd, Jeffrey J.; McCoy, Airlie J.; Oeffner, Robert D.; Read, Randy J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    A software system for automated protein–ligand crystallography has been implemented in the Phenix suite. This significantly reduces the manual effort required in high-throughput crystallographic studies. High-throughput drug-discovery and mechanistic studies often require the determination of multiple related crystal structures that only differ in the bound ligands, point mutations in the protein sequence and minor conformational changes. If performed manually, solution and refinement requires extensive repetition of the same tasks for each structure. To accelerate this process and minimize manual effort, a pipeline encompassing all stages of ligand building and refinement, starting from integrated and scaled diffraction intensities, has been implemented in Phenix. The resulting system is able to successfully solve and refine large collections of structures in parallel without extensive user intervention prior to the final stages of model completion and validation

  10. Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B

    2011-01-01

    We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

  11. A refinement methodology for object-oriented programs

    OpenAIRE

    Tafat , Asma; Boulmé , Sylvain; Marché , Claude

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Refinement is a well-known approach for developing correct-byconstruction software. It has been very successful for producing high quality code e.g., as implemented in the B tool. Yet, such refinement techniques are restricted in the sense that they forbid aliasing (and more generally sharing of data-structures), which often happens in usual programming languages. We propose a sound approach for refinement in presence of aliases. Suitable abstractions of programs are d...

  12. Solving the Sophistication-Population Paradox of Game Refinement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong , Shuo; Tiwary , Parth ,; Iida , Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; A mathematical model of game refinement was proposed based on uncertainty of game outcome. This model has been shown to be useful in measuring the entertainment element in the domains such as boardgames and sport games. However, game refinement theory has not been able to explain the correlation between the popularity of a game and the game refinement value. This paper introduces another aspect in the study of game entertainment, the concept of “a...

  13. Refining clean fuels for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courty, P.; Gruson, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    To which extent transportation fuels will reasonably be changed in the coming years? LPG and natural gas are expected to challenge conventional fuels, hydrogen and methanol are bounded to possible fuel cells development. Among others, security of supply, competitive economics and environmental protection issues will be the key to the changes in the coming years. But taking into account expected transportation development, liquid fuels from oil should prevail as the reference energy. Though most of technologies and catalysts needed for the future are still existing or under marketing plans, the industry has to cope with the growing share of middle distillates. Indeed future zero heavy fuel-oil refineries are technically feasible through many existing and recent technologies. However their potential profitability is weighed down deeply by the very high investments and operating costs which are tied up. Tomorrow's main gasoline challenges deal with sulfur in FCC gasoline, aromatics and olefins contents together with a possible ban of ethers, hampering future octane demand and its technical feasibility. In a similar way diesel oil issues for the future imply a very deep desulfurization with possible aromatics hydrogenation and rings opening in order to comply with cetane and poly-aromatics ratings. Natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry is still expected to open the way to clean fuels for the future via improved and integrated FT's GTL technologies which could as a matter provide most of future increases in clean fuels demand without decreasing the related fatal carbon losses as CO 2 . As an overall view, clean fuels production for the future is technically feasible. Advanced hydro-refining and hydro-conversion technologies open the way to clean fuels and allow the best flexibility in the gasoline/middle distillates ratio. However cost reduction remains a key issue since the huge investments needed are faced with low and volatile refining margins. In addition, CO 2

  14. An analysis of the combination frequencies of constituent medicinal herbs in prescriptions for the treatment of bone and joint disorder in Korean medicine: determination of a group of candidate prescriptions for universal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Kyoung Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to select prescriptions (mixtures of medicinal herbs used in the treatment of bone and joint disorders in Korean medicine, and through the analysis of medicinal herb combination frequencies, select a high-frequency medicinal herb combination group for further experimental and clinical research. Methods: We systematically searched for terms related to bone and joint disorder in the “Dongeuibogam (Dong yibaojian”, a seminal Korean medicine book. We reviewed the results of published papers regarding the effects in bone and joint disorders (especially in osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteopenia, rheumatoid arthritis, and degenerative arthritis. Results: In total, 34 candidates of a medicinal herb combination for the treatment of bone and joint disorders(CMHCTBJDs and nine candidates of a medicinal herb for the treatment of bone and joint disorders(CMHTBJDs were selected. Conclusion: : The candidates of a medicinal herb combination for the treatment of bone and joint disorders (CMHCTBJDs and candidates of a medicinal herb for the treatment of bone and joint disorders(CMHTBJDs proposed in this study can be useful material for text mining to develop natural products with the effects in BJDs and also it has the potential to reduce the experimental and developmental time period. Keywords: Dongeuibogam (Dong yi bao gian, Text mining, Bone disorder

  15. Method of optimization of the natural gas refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykh-Zade, E.S.; Bagirov, A.A.; Mardakhayev, I.M.; Razamat, M.S.; Tagiyev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The SATUM (automatic control system of technical operations) system introduced at the Shatlyk field should assure good quality of gas refining. In order to optimize the natural gas refining processes and experimental-analytical method is used in compiling the mathematical descriptions. The program, compiled in Fortran language, in addition to parameters of optimal conditions gives information on the yield of concentrate and water, concentration and consumption of DEG, composition and characteristics of the gas and condensate. The algorithm for calculating optimum engineering conditions of gas refining is proposed to be used in ''advice'' mode, and also for monitoring progress of the gas refining process.

  16. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  17. Architectural Refinement for the Design of Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellison, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a process for systematically refining an enterprise system architecture to resist recognize and recover from deliberate, malicious attacks by applying reusable design primitives...

  18. Radiological assessment for bauxite mining and alumina refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brian H; Donoghue, A Michael; Manning, Timothy J H; Chesson, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    Two international benchmarks assess whether the mining and processing of ores containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) require management under radiological regulations set by local jurisdictions. First, the 1 Bq/g benchmark for radionuclide head of chain activity concentration determines whether materials may be excluded from radiological regulation. Second, processes may be exempted from radiological regulation where occupational above-background exposures for members of the workforce do not exceed 1 mSv/year. This is also the upper-limit of exposure prescribed for members of the public. Alcoa of Australia Limited (Alcoa) has undertaken radiological evaluations of the mining and processing of bauxite from the Darling Range of Western Australia since the 1980s. Short-term monitoring projects have demonstrated that above-background exposures for workers do not exceed 1 mSv/year. A whole-of-year evaluation of above-background, occupational radiological doses for bauxite mining, alumina refining and residue operations was conducted during 2008/2009 as part of the Alcoa NORM Quality Assurance System (NQAS). The NQAS has been guided by publications from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The NQAS has been developed specifically in response to implementation of the Australian National Directory on Radiation Protection (NDRP). Positional monitoring was undertaken to increase the accuracy of natural background levels required for correction of occupational exposures. This is important in view of the small increments in exposure that occur in bauxite mining, alumina refining and residue operations relative to natural background. Positional monitoring was also undertaken to assess the potential for exposure in operating locations. Personal monitoring was undertaken to characterise exposures in Similar

  19. Refining the ischemic penumbra with topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanachandran, Tharani; Ma, Henry; Singhal, Shaloo; Slater, Lee-Anne; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Phan, Thanh

    2018-04-01

    It has been 40 years since the ischemic penumbra was first conceptualized through work on animal models. The topography of penumbra has been portrayed as an infarcted core surrounded by penumbral tissue and an extreme rim of oligemic tissue. This picture has been used in many review articles and textbooks before the advent of modern imaging. In this paper, we review our understanding of the topography of the ischemic penumbra from the initial experimental animal models to current developments with neuroimaging which have helped to further define the temporal and spatial evolution of the penumbra and refine our knowledge. The concept of the penumbra has been successfully applied in clinical trials of endovascular therapies with a time window as long as 24 h from onset. Further, there are reports of "good" outcome even in patients with a large ischemic core. This latter observation of good outcome despite having a large core requires an understanding of the topography of the penumbra and the function of the infarcted regions. It is proposed that future research in this area takes departure from a time-dependent approach to a more individualized tissue and location-based approach.

  20. Oil Production, Refining and Transportation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal A. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with fuel and energy complex of Canada as one of the largest manufacturers of primary energy in the world, which provides up to 6 percent of the world energy supply. Only the Russian Federation, PRC, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have larger production volumes. However, oil plays the most significant role in Canada's energy exports. It is estimated that its proven reserves are sufficient to meet the demand for 140 years at current production rate. The relevance of the study, including the analysis of fuel and energy complex of Canada, is due to the fact that such comparison and synthesis of data on the amount of recoverable oil reserves, the volume of its production, imports, exports and transit of oil and oil products, the distribution of oil for transportation (via pipelines, rail, sea, road, strategic oil field, refining and transportation of oil and oil products development projects, as well as implementation of Canada's best practices in the Russian Federation, is being developed for the first time. In addition, the data given in previously published articles on the subject, due to the dynamic development of the industry, are obsolete and do not reflect the real situation.

  1. Linear Prediction Using Refined Autocorrelation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahidur Rahman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for improving the performance of linear prediction analysis by utilizing a refined version of the autocorrelation function. Problems in analyzing voiced speech using linear prediction occur often due to the harmonic structure of the excitation source, which causes the autocorrelation function to be an aliased version of that of the vocal tract impulse response. To estimate the vocal tract characteristics accurately, however, the effect of aliasing must be eliminated. In this paper, we employ homomorphic deconvolution technique in the autocorrelation domain to eliminate the aliasing effect occurred due to periodicity. The resulted autocorrelation function of the vocal tract impulse response is found to produce significant improvement in estimating formant frequencies. The accuracy of formant estimation is verified on synthetic vowels for a wide range of pitch frequencies typical for male and female speakers. The validity of the proposed method is also illustrated by inspecting the spectral envelopes of natural speech spoken by high-pitched female speaker. The synthesis filter obtained by the current method is guaranteed to be stable, which makes the method superior to many of its alternatives.

  2. Refined phase diagram of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solozhenko, V.; Turkevich, V.Z.

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium phase diagram of boron nitride thermodynamically calculated by Solozhenko in 1988 has been now refined on the basis of new experimental data on BN melting and extrapolation of heat capacities of BN polymorphs into high-temperature region using the adapted pseudo-Debye model. As compared with the above diagram, the hBN left-reversible cBN equilibrium line is displaced by 60 K toward higher temperatures. The hBN-cBN-L triple point has been calculated to be at 3480 ± 10 K and 5.9 ± 0.1 GPa, while the hBN-L-V triple point is at T = 3400 ± 20 K and p = 400 ± 20 Pa, which indicates that the region of thermodynamic stability of vapor in the BN phase diagram is extremely small. It has been found that the slope of the cBN melting curve is positive whereas the slope of hBN melting curve varies from positive between ambient pressure and 3.4 GPa to negative at higher pressures

  3. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  4. FPGA Congestion-Driven Placement Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente de, J.

    2005-07-01

    The routing congestion usually limits the complete proficiency of the FPGA logic resources. A key question can be formulated regarding the benefits of estimating the congestion at placement stage. In the last years, it is gaining acceptance the idea of a detailed placement taking into account congestion. In this paper, we resort to the Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) algorithm to perform a congestion-driven placement refinement on the top of the common Bounding-Box pre optimized solution. The adaptive properties of TSA allow the search to preserve the solution quality of the pre optimized solution while improving other fine-grain objectives. Regarding the cost function two approaches have been considered. In the first one Expected Occupation (EO), a detailed probabilistic model to account for channel congestion is evaluated. We show that in spite of the minute detail of EO, the inherent uncertainty of this probabilistic model impedes to relieve congestion beyond the sole application of the Bounding-Box cost function. In the second approach we resort to the fast Rectilinear Steiner Regions algorithm to perform not an estimation but a measurement of the global routing congestion. This second strategy allows us to successfully reduce the requested channel width for a set of benchmark circuits with respect to the widespread Versatile Place and Route (VPR) tool. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. Radiological evaluation of the acromioclavicular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeaetaeinen, U.; Maekelae, A.; Pirinen, A.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray measurement of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint may cause difficulties because of different projections and the lack of a reproducible measurement. In order to find the ideal measurement to estimate the state of the AC joint, 28 healthy adult volunteers were X-rayed. The least vulnerable measurement for errors in projection was the distance between the coracoid process and the upper part of the clavicle. The effect of stress was evaluated; the range of normal AC joint laxity was determined as 3 mm. (orig.)

  6. Radiological evaluation of the acromioclavicular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeaetaeinen, U.; Maekelae, A. (Kuopio Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Surgery); Pirinen, A. (Kuopio Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-02-01

    X-ray measurement of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint may cause difficulties because of different projections and the lack of a reproducible measurement. In order to find the ideal measurement to estimate the state of the AC joint, 28 healthy adult volunteers were X-rayed. The least vulnerable measurement for errors in projection was the distance between the coracoid process and the upper part of the clavicle. The effect of stress was evaluated; the range of normal AC joint laxity was determined as 3 mm. (orig.).

  7. Effect of grain refiner on the tensile and impact properties of Al–Si–Mg cast alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E.; Golbahar, B.; Samuel, A.M.; Doty, H.W.; Valtierra, S.; Samuel, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of the addition of Ti and B in the form of five different grain refiners/aluminium master alloys (Al–10%Ti, Al–5%Ti–1%B, Al–2.5%Ti–2.5%B, Al–1.7%Ti–1.4%B and Al–4%B) in conjunction with that of Sr (as modifier) added in the form of Al–10%Sr master alloy to A356.2 alloy. Grain refinement of an A356.2 alloy with Ti and B additions in the ranges of 0.02–0.5% and 0.01–0.5%, respectively, was examined using these different types of grain refiners. Strontium additions of 30 and 200 ppm were made. All alloys were T6-heat treated before mechanical testing. Tensile and impact tests were conducted to evaluate the influence of the interaction between grain refiner and modifier on the mechanical properties. The properties were determined for both the as-cast and heat-treated conditions. - Highlights: • Grain refining of 356 alloys using five types of grain refiners. • Interaction between the added grain refiner and amount of modifier used (i.e. 30 or 200ppm Sr). • Role of the added amount of Ti and/or B on the eutectic Si particle characteristics. • Role of Ti/B on the impact toughness of 356 alloys modified with Sr (30 or 200ppm)

  8. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  9. 13. Sacroiliac joint pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanelderen, P.; Szadek, K.M.; Cohen, S.P.; Witte, J.; Lataster, A.; Patijn, J.; Mekhail, N.; van Kleef, M.; van Zundert, J.

    2010-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint accounts for approximately 16% to 30% of cases of chronic mechanical low back pain. Pain originating in the sacroiliac joint is predominantly perceived in the gluteal region, although pain is often referred into the lower and upper lumbar region, groin, abdomen, and/ or lower

  10. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...

  11. Joint Newspaper Operating Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Marie

    The number of competing daily newspapers in American cities has dwindled until only about 50 cities boast two papers. Of the newspapers in those cities, 23 now maintain separate editorial operations but have joint printing, advertising, and circulation departments. The concept of joint operation is 50 years old, dating from the Depression years…

  12. Joint Hub Network Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once.

  13. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...

  14. Bistable Articulated Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graighead, Norwood D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    Joint with four-bar-linkage geometry has following attributes: Springs to fully extended fully folded positions. Automatically locks in its extended position. Joint combines zero backlash, positive locking, and centerline pivoting. Used in folding tool handles, portable antenna booms, and many other deployable structures.

  15. MP Joint Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy MP Joint Arthritis Email to a friend * required ...

  16. Creep of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    2008-01-01

    A creep analysis has been performed on nailed, toothed-plates and split-ring joints in a varying uncontrolled climate. The load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average ultimate short term strength of these joints, tested in accordance with ISO 6891. The climate in which the tests were

  17. MR diagnosis of temporomandibular joint. A study of joint effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Takashi; Yamashiro, Mitsuaki; Ozawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between correlation of MR joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint and disk position, to evaluate the relationship between joint effusion and aging, and to assess the frequency of MR joint effusion of bilateral temporomandibular joints. The temporomandibular joints of 192 patients with clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders were imaged bilaterally using high field, surface-coil MR imaging. Oblique sagittal and coronal proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. Imaging findings of joint effusion were correlated with disk position, aging, and bilateral temporomandibular joints. MR showed effusion in 4% of the joints with normal superior disk position, 36% of the joints with disk displacement with reduction, and 45% of the joints with disk displacement without reduction. There were significant differences in the incidence of joint effusion between normal disk position and anterior disk displacement with or without reduction. Younger patients less than 40 years were significant higher the incidence of joint effusion than those of older patients. A significant association was seen between joint effusion and aging. MR showed effusion in 17% of the unilateral temporomandibular joint, 24% of the bilateral temporomandibular joints. There was no significant difference between unilateral and bilateral case. These results indicated that joint effusion using MR imaging was associated with varied temporomandibular joint pathologic states. (author)

  18. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility and anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsun, M.; Dumlu, K.; Erbas, M.; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Pinar, M.; Tonbul, M.; Celik, C.; Ozdemir, B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder and joint hypermobility. The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton score of subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in males subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. (author)

  19. Generalised joint hypermobility and knee joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Henriksen, Peter; Hansen, Sebrina

    2018-01-01

    . Respondents with GJHk and KJH reported lower HRQoL. CONCLUSION: GJHk and KJH were frequently reported in the Danish adult population, mostly in women. Respondents with GJHk and KJH were two times more likely to report knee joint-related symptoms such as pain, reduced performance of usual activity and lower...

  20. APPLICATION PROSPECTS OF THREADED JOINT OF ARMATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Radkevych

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the main technological operations of buildings construction on the basis of monolithic frame systems is the production of mesh reinforcement. The current interest is the new ways specification of advanced bonding armature techniques without reliability weakness and design of the building in whole, as well as the finding of use prospects of screw-threaded joint of armature as the most technological and economic method of re-bars joints. Methodology. Advantages and disadvantages analysis of existing rebar compound technologies was implemented by couplings of different types and constructions. The most promising vertical constructions for the vertical bars joints in frameworks were determined. Findings. Researches of existing technologies of rebar joints by the couplings of different construction were carried out. The installation method of mesh reinforcement of vertical structural elements with the use of the special catching devices was developed. It allows considerably accelerating installation of mesh reinforcement. Originality. Regularity of labor intensiveness change of mesh reinforcement installation of columns at armature joint in vertical position by threaded couplings with the help of catching devices using special construction was determined. This allows substantially reducing the labor expenditures during installation of these elements. Dependency of labor intensiveness and cost of lap welding armature joints, by tub-seam welding and by thread coupling depending on its diameter was designated. Regularity of labor intensiveness changes of installation at armature joints by different methods taking into account preparatory works was defined. Practical value. The analysis of mechanical armature joints techniques was conducted. It will allow selecting methods of armature joints to increase the speed of construction works more economical and effective.

  1. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  2. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.; Hureau, G.; Serbutoviez, S.; Silva, C.

    2016-01-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2015 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Changes in oil and gas prices; - Investment in Exploration/Production: the end of an upward cycle; - Drilling and the global drilling market, upstream activities and markets; - 2015, a breath of fresh air for refining

  3. Effect of Chemical Refining on Citrullus Colocynthis and Pongamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil from the both plant seeds was evaluated (both before and after refining) for different physico-chemical parameters like free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. Oil yield (30-35 %) in both plants was found average. After refining, per cent reduction ...

  4. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  5. The Analysis of the Refined Financial Management of Modern Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces the concept of the refined financial management, elaborates on its characteristics and puts forward some main points about it. It also comes up with some personal suggestions for reference on effective ways of refining financial management.

  6. Local grid refinement for free-surface flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The principal goal of the current study is to explore and investigate the potential of local grid refinement for increasing the numerical efficiency of free-surface flow simulations in a practical context. In this thesis we propose a method for local grid refinement in the free-surface flow model

  7. Using atomic energy in the oil refining and petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigin, E.A.; Barashkov, R.Ia.; Raud, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A short description of the basic large scale processes for oil refining and petrochemistry in which nuclear reactors can be used is given. The possible industrial plans for using nuclear reactors are examined together with the problems in using the advances in atomic technology in oil refining and petrochemical processes.

  8. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the

  9. RBT—A Tool for Building Refined Buneman Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, Søren; Mailund; Westh-Nielsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a tool implementing an efficient algorithm for refined Buneman tree reconstruction. The algorithm—which has the same complexity as the neighbour-joining method and the (plain) Buneman tree construction—enables refined Buneman tree reconstruction on large taxa sets....

  10. Grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birol, Yuecel

    2006-01-01

    The problems associated with boride agglomeration and the poisoning effect of Zr in Zr-bearing alloys have created a big demand for boron-free grain refiners. The potential benefits of TiC as a direct nucleant for aluminium grains have thus generated a great deal of interest in TiC-bearing alloys in recent years. In Al-Ti-C grain refiners commercially available today, Al 3 Ti particles are introduced into the melt along with the TiC particles. Since the latter are claimed to nucleate α-Al directly, it is of great technological interest to see if reducing the Ti:C ratio further, i.e., increasing the C content of the grain refiner, will produce an increase in the grain refining efficiency of these alloys. A series of grain refiner samples with the Ti concentration fixed at 3% and a range of C contents between 0 and 0.75 were obtained by appropriately mixing an experimental Al-3Ti-0.75C alloy with Al-10Ti alloy and commercial purity aluminium. The grain refining efficiency of these grain refiners was assessed to investigate the role of the insoluble TiC and the soluble Al 3 Ti particles. The optimum chemistry for the Al-Ti-C grain refiners was also identified

  11. Grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Yuecel [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)]. E-mail: yucel.birol@mam.gov.tr

    2006-09-28

    The problems associated with boride agglomeration and the poisoning effect of Zr in Zr-bearing alloys have created a big demand for boron-free grain refiners. The potential benefits of TiC as a direct nucleant for aluminium grains have thus generated a great deal of interest in TiC-bearing alloys in recent years. In Al-Ti-C grain refiners commercially available today, Al{sub 3}Ti particles are introduced into the melt along with the TiC particles. Since the latter are claimed to nucleate {alpha}-Al directly, it is of great technological interest to see if reducing the Ti:C ratio further, i.e., increasing the C content of the grain refiner, will produce an increase in the grain refining efficiency of these alloys. A series of grain refiner samples with the Ti concentration fixed at 3% and a range of C contents between 0 and 0.75 were obtained by appropriately mixing an experimental Al-3Ti-0.75C alloy with Al-10Ti alloy and commercial purity aluminium. The grain refining efficiency of these grain refiners was assessed to investigate the role of the insoluble TiC and the soluble Al{sub 3}Ti particles. The optimum chemistry for the Al-Ti-C grain refiners was also identified.

  12. Neuromuscular properties of different spastic human joints vary systematically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, M M; Settle, K

    2010-01-01

    We quantified the mechanical abnormalities of the spastic wrist in chronic stroke survivors, and determined whether these findings were representative of those recorded at the elbow and ankle joints. System identification techniques were used to characterize the mechanical abnormalities of these joints and to identify the contribution of intrinsic and reflex stiffness to these abnormalities. Modulation of intrinsic and reflex stiffness with the joint angle was studied by applying PRBS perturbations to the joints at different joint angles over the range of motion. Age-matched healthy subjects were used as control.

  13. Characteristics of welded joints of nuclear reactor interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The main propose of this work, was the determination of the optical conditions for obtaining welded joints of stainless steel, the quality control of joints obtained by destructive and non-destructive essays, as well as, the first specific essays of fluence and fatigue of the base metals employed. All tests performed in the base metals are very important from the joint of view that the comparison between results obtained with base metals and welded joints allows a the evaluation of the efficiency of the welded joints. (author) [pt

  14. Integration with U.S. refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslett, T.

    2007-01-01

    The production of crude in western Canada is expected to increase significantly in the next 10 to 15 years as the development of oil sands leases continues. In particular, large-scale investments by major oil sands producers have focused on upgrading bitumen to light synthetic crude oil. Major refinery projects in the United States will take advantage of substantially lower capital costs to increase bitumen processing capabilities. In addition, by 2008, new pipeline projects will provide western Canada with more export capacity. The BP Energy Company is investing US$3 billion to increase the refining capacity of Canadian heavy crude at its refinery in Whiting, Indiana, which already has pipeline connectivity and long-term product placement capabilities. The project, which is scheduled to begin in 2011, will increase heavy blend processing capability to 260 thousand barrels per day and produce more than 1.7 million gallons of motor fuel per day. BP's investment has focused on the hydrogen unit, gas oil hydrotreater, hydrotreater revamps, a coker, a modular sulfur recovery unit, a sour water stripper complex, and 62 miles of piping. The refinery in Indiana has an experienced workforce and a greater availability of labor than in western Canada. Production forecasts indicate varying levels of heavy and light production, depending on the amount of condensate imports available. The project team will ensure that the refinery can handle the various levels of total acid number (TAN), sulfur and solids contained in Canadian heavy oils. The project risks are associated with uncertainties regarding production growth and quality; inflation risk as developments costs continue to rise for projects in Alberta; and regulatory risk that can impact bitumen cost. tabs., figs

  15. Brief Report: Longitudinal Improvements in the Quality of Joint Attention in Preschool Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Kathy; Kasari, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism exhibit deficits in their quantity and quality of joint attention. Early autism intervention studies rarely document improvement in joint attention quality. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a change in joint attention quality for preschoolers with autism who were randomized to a joint attention…

  16. The refining of soybean oil to optimum quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusell, J.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the American Soybean Association is to improve the quality of soybean and related products in Turkey. In order to achieve this, a number of extraction plants and refineries were visited to enable first hand information to be obtained on the type of equipment used in all unit processes, the methodology employed, quality standards and levels of efficiency. The culmination of the visit was a seminar organised jointly by the American Soybean Association and the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association in Istanbul on 22nd September 1989, at which a paper with the above title was presented. A reproduction of this paper is attached which briefly describes the critical areas of soybean oil processing and includes recommendations for quality improvements. It concludes with the comment that provided proper care is taken and optimum refining processes employed, including hydrogenation where appropriate, an impressive range of oils, margarines and shortenings of high quality can ben produced. The author would like to record his grateful thanks to Dr. R. Leysen of the American Soybean Association for all his help and guidance, to Mr. Kenon Marasoglu, Chairman of the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association and to the management and staff of all the factories visited. Acknowledgement is also made to Dr. D. R. Arickson and Mr. L. H. Wiedermann of the American Soybean Association for the use of some technical information from a paper entitled «Soybean Oil-Modern Processing and Utilisation» which is to be published shortly.

    Uno de los objetivos de la Asociación Americana de Soja en Turquía es mejorar la calidad de la soja y de los productos relacionados. En orden a conseguir esto, diversas plantas de extracción y refinerías fueron visitadas para permitir obtener de primera mano información sobre el tipo de equipo usado en todas las unidades de proceso, la metodología empleada, los estándar de calidad y los niveles de eficacia. La

  17. Investigation of corrosion behavior of Mg-steel laser-TIG hybrid lap joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Liming, E-mail: liulm@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liaoning Advanced Welding and Joining Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xu Rongzheng [Key Laboratory of Liaoning Advanced Welding and Joining Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Galvanic corrosion increases the corrosion rate of the Mg-steel joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe splashes lower the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of grain refinement on the corrosion behavior of the joint is slight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni or Cu interlayer could not improve the corrosion resistance of fusion zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The arc-sprayed coating could enhance the reliability of weld joint. - Abstract: The paper investigates the corrosion behavior of the lap joint of AZ31 magnesium alloy to Q235 steel with salt solution immersion testing and electrochemical testing. It is demonstrated that grain refinement resulting from the welding process has little effect on the corrosion behavior of the lap joint. However, the cathodic phases formed in the welding process and the galvanic corrosion between magnesium alloy and steel decrease the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. Besides, neither Cu nor Ni, as filler material, could improve the corrosion resistance of the joint, but the arc-sprayed Al coating acting as a protective layer could.

  18. Knee joint passive stiffness and moment in sagittal and frontal planes markedly increase with compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, H; Shirazi-Adl, A; Adouni, M

    2015-01-01

    Knee joints are subject to large compression forces in daily activities. Due to artefact moments and instability under large compression loads, biomechanical studies impose additional constraints to circumvent the compression position-dependency in response. To quantify the effect of compression on passive knee moment resistance and stiffness, two validated finite element models of the tibiofemoral (TF) joint, one refined with depth-dependent fibril-reinforced cartilage and the other less refined with homogeneous isotropic cartilage, are used. The unconstrained TF joint response in sagittal and frontal planes is investigated at different flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30° and 45°) up to 1800 N compression preloads. The compression is applied at a novel joint mechanical balance point (MBP) identified as a point at which the compression does not cause any coupled rotations in sagittal and frontal planes. The MBP of the unconstrained joint is located at the lateral plateau in small compressions and shifts medially towards the inter-compartmental area at larger compression forces. The compression force substantially increases the joint moment-bearing capacities and instantaneous angular rigidities in both frontal and sagittal planes. The varus-valgus laxities diminish with compression preloads despite concomitant substantial reductions in collateral ligament forces. While the angular rigidity would enhance the joint stability, the augmented passive moment resistance under compression preloads plays a role in supporting external moments and should as such be considered in the knee joint musculoskeletal models.

  19. Investigation of corrosion behavior of Mg-steel laser-TIG hybrid lap joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liming; Xu Rongzheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Galvanic corrosion increases the corrosion rate of the Mg-steel joint. ► Fe splashes lower the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. ► The effect of grain refinement on the corrosion behavior of the joint is slight. ► Ni or Cu interlayer could not improve the corrosion resistance of fusion zone. ► The arc-sprayed coating could enhance the reliability of weld joint. - Abstract: The paper investigates the corrosion behavior of the lap joint of AZ31 magnesium alloy to Q235 steel with salt solution immersion testing and electrochemical testing. It is demonstrated that grain refinement resulting from the welding process has little effect on the corrosion behavior of the lap joint. However, the cathodic phases formed in the welding process and the galvanic corrosion between magnesium alloy and steel decrease the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. Besides, neither Cu nor Ni, as filler material, could improve the corrosion resistance of the joint, but the arc-sprayed Al coating acting as a protective layer could.

  20. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    promulgate command-specific policy and guidance for EMS use, the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL) process, the joint communications–electronics...joint communications–electronics operating instructions (JCEOI) and joint restricted frequency list (JRFL). Examples of FM include providing the...joint restricted frequency list Figure III-4. Joint Frequency Management Office Spectrum Management Process Chapter III III-10 JP 6-01 assignments

  1. Protein NMR Structures Refined with Rosetta Have Higher Accuracy Relative to Corresponding X-ray Crystal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We have found that refinement of protein NMR structures using Rosetta with experimental NMR restraints yields more accurate protein NMR structures than those that have been deposited in the PDB using standard refinement protocols. Using 40 pairs of NMR and X-ray crystal structures determined by the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, for proteins ranging in size from 5–22 kDa, restrained Rosetta refined structures fit better to the raw experimental data, are in better agreement with their X-ray counterparts, and have better phasing power compared to conventionally determined NMR structures. For 37 proteins for which NMR ensembles were available and which had similar structures in solution and in the crystal, all of the restrained Rosetta refined NMR structures were sufficiently accurate to be used for solving the corresponding X-ray crystal structures by molecular replacement. The protocol for restrained refinement of protein NMR structures was also compared with restrained CS-Rosetta calculations. For proteins smaller than 10 kDa, restrained CS-Rosetta, starting from extended conformations, provides slightly more accurate structures, while for proteins in the size range of 10–25 kDa the less CPU intensive restrained Rosetta refinement protocols provided equally or more accurate structures. The restrained Rosetta protocols described here can improve the accuracy of protein NMR structures and should find broad and general for studies of protein structure and function. PMID:24392845

  2. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Order Finite-Volume Schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Alan Michael

    For computational fluid dynamics, the governing equations are solved on a discretized domain of nodes, faces, and cells. The quality of the grid or mesh can be a driving source for error in the results. While refinement studies can help guide the creation of a mesh, grid quality is largely determined by user expertise and understanding of the flow physics. Adaptive mesh refinement is a technique for enriching the mesh during a simulation based on metrics for error, impact on important parameters, or location of important flow features. This can offload from the user some of the difficult and ambiguous decisions necessary when discretizing the domain. This work explores the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in an implicit, unstructured, finite-volume solver. Consideration is made for applying modern computational techniques in the presence of hanging nodes and refined cells. The approach is developed to be independent of the flow solver in order to provide a path for augmenting existing codes. It is designed to be applicable for unsteady simulations and refinement and coarsening of the grid does not impact the conservatism of the underlying numerics. The effect on high-order numerical fluxes of fourth- and sixth-order are explored. Provided the criteria for refinement is appropriately selected, solutions obtained using adapted meshes have no additional error when compared to results obtained on traditional, unadapted meshes. In order to leverage large-scale computational resources common today, the methods are parallelized using MPI. Parallel performance is considered for several test problems in order to assess scalability of both adapted and unadapted grids. Dynamic repartitioning of the mesh during refinement is crucial for load balancing an evolving grid. Development of the methods outlined here depend on a dual-memory approach that is described in detail. Validation of the solver developed here against a number of motivating problems shows favorable

  3. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  4. Directions in refining and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, B.; Parker, R. J.; Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    The expansion of heavy oil transportation, marketing and refining facilities over the past two decades have been reviewed to show the strides that several Canadian refiners have taken to build up the facilities required to process synthetic crude oil (SCO). Key points made at a conference, convened by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT), held in Edmonton during September 1997 to discuss current and future directions in the refining and marketing of heavy oil, bitumen and SCO, were summarized. Among the key points mentioned were: (1) the high entry barriers faced by centralized upgraders, (2) the advantages of integrating SCO or heavy oil production with downstream refining, (3) the stiff competition from Venezuela and Mexico that both SCO and heavy oil will face in the U.S. PADD II market, (4) the differences between Canadian refiners who have profited from hydrocracking and are better able to handle coker-based SCO, and American refiners who rely chiefly on catalytic cracking and are less able to process the highly aromatic SCO, and (5) the disproportionate cost in the upgrading process represented by the conversion of asphaltenes. Challenges and opportunities for key stakeholders, i.e. producers, refiners, marketers and technology licensors also received much attention at the Edmonton conference

  5. Joint Quantum Institute

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  6. Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive Effects What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Learn what those dental words mean. Check out how your teeth and mouth ...

  7. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  8. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make everyday tasks easier. Practice using a cane, walker , crutches , or a wheelchair correctly. On the ... ask your doctor Knee joint replacement - discharge Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Surgical ...

  9. Concrete pavement joint deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  10. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Arslan, Ahmet; Koç, Omer Nadir; Dalkiliç, Turker; Naderi, Sait

    2010-07-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a disorder presenting with low back and groin pain. It should be taken into consideration during the preoperative differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis and facet syndrome. Four cases with sacroiliac dysfunction are presented. The clinical and radiological signs supported the evidence of sacroiliac dysfunction, and exact diagnosis was made after positive response to sacroiliac joint block. A percutaneous sacroiliac fixation provided pain relief in all cases. The mean VAS scores reduced from 8.2 to 2.2. It is concluded that sacroiliac joint dysfunction diagnosis requires a careful physical examination of the sacroiliac joints in all cases with low back and groin pain. The diagnosis is made based on positive response to the sacroiliac block. Sacroiliac fixation was found to be effective in carefully selected cases.

  11. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  12. Joint Hub Network Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once. Rather, the partners will have a more cautious attitude and build the hub facilities one-by-one. In the proposed framework, every time a new hub is introduced, partners will have the opportunity to dec...

  13. Prosthetic Joint Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032

  14. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.; Brown, Jed; Knepley, Matt; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  15. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  16. Oil refining in U.S. foreign-trade zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, S.J.; Potter, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the crude-oil import supply being as inexpensive as it is today, relative to domestic supply, many independents have been sourcing their crude-oil needs from abroad and have found it an opportune time to step up their level of refining activity. To further enhance their competitive position with respect to foreign refineries, certain domestic refiners have discovered the operational benefits and savings that result from having a refinery designated as a foreign-trade zone (FTZ) under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of 1934, as amended. This paper examines the history and use of foreign-trade subzones for refining activities

  17. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.

    2016-08-04

    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  18. Benign joint hypermobility syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Słowińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS, commonly known as loose ligament syndrome, is a non-inflammatory rheumatic condition. It is characterised by a greater than normal range of motion of the joints of the limbs and spine. The prevalence of the syndrome in preschool-age children is estimated to be between 2% and 30%, depending on ethnic background (with higher prevalence in Asian and African populations, occurring most often in families with a history of the condition and more frequently in girls. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old girl. A broad differential diagnostic approach to recurrent joint inflammation with joint effusion and pain made it possible to establish a diagnosis of benign joint hypermobility syndrome. The child met the Brighton criteria; her Beighton score was 7 out of 9. Patient education aimed at eliminating abnormal joint movement and an appropriate rehabilitation programme play key roles in the treatment of BJHS.

  19. Refinement of protein termini in template-based modeling using conformational space annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Julian; Seok, Chaok; Lee, Jooyoung

    2011-09-01

    The rapid increase in the number of experimentally determined protein structures in recent years enables us to obtain more reliable protein tertiary structure models than ever by template-based modeling. However, refinement of template-based models beyond the limit available from the best templates is still needed for understanding protein function in atomic detail. In this work, we develop a new method for protein terminus modeling that can be applied to refinement of models with unreliable terminus structures. The energy function for terminus modeling consists of both physics-based and knowledge-based potential terms with carefully optimized relative weights. Effective sampling of both the framework and terminus is performed using the conformational space annealing technique. This method has been tested on a set of termini derived from a nonredundant structure database and two sets of termini from the CASP8 targets. The performance of the terminus modeling method is significantly improved over our previous method that does not employ terminus refinement. It is also comparable or superior to the best server methods tested in CASP8. The success of the current approach suggests that similar strategy may be applied to other types of refinement problems such as loop modeling or secondary structure rearrangement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hawkins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as welfare, because experimental confounds due to physiological and psychological stress will be minimised.

  1. Realization of the Zone Length Measurement during Zone Refining Process via Implementation of an Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo C. Curtolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zone refining, as the currently most common industrial process to attain ultrapure metals, is influenced by a variety of factors. One of these parameters, the so-called “zone length”, affects not only the ultimate concentration distribution of impurities, but also the rate at which this distribution is approached. This important parameter has however neither been investigated experimentally, nor ever varied for the purpose of optimization. This lack of detections may be due to the difficult temperature measurement of a moving molten area in a vacuum system, of which the zone refining methodology is comprised. Up to now, numerical simulation as a combination of complex mathematical calculations, as well as many assumptions has been the only way to reveal it. This paper aims to propose an experimental method to accurately measure the molten zone length and to extract helpful information on the thermal gradient, temperature profile and real growth rate in the zone refining of an exemplary metal, in this case aluminum. This thermographic method is based on the measurement of the molten surface temperature via an infrared camera, as well as further data analysis through the mathematical software MATLAB. The obtained results show great correlation with the visual observations of zone length and provide helpful information to determine the thermal gradient and real growth rate during the whole process. The investigations in this paper approved the application of an infrared camera for this purpose as a promising technique to automatically control the zone length during a zone refining process.

  2. Refined localization of the Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac receptor locus on pig chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joller, D.; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Bertschinger, H.U.

    2009-01-01

    Diarrhoea in newborn and weaned pigs caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing F4 fimbriae leads to considerable losses in pig production. In this study, we refined the mapping of the receptor locus for ETEC F4ab/F4ac adhesion (F4bcR) by joint analysis of Nordic and Swiss data...... (MUC4-8227) were used to create the linkage map. The region for F4bcR was refined to the interval SW207-S0075 on pig chromosome 13. The most probable position of F4bcR was in the SW207-MUC4 region. The order of six markers was supported by physical mapping on the BAC fingerprint contig from...

  3. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    transferred to the Joint Staff. 13 DOD’s instinct to “overly centralize planning, organization, and management.”20 The authors contend that this...2. 3 John F. Schank and others, Who is Joint? Reevaluating the Joint Duty Assignment List : A Study Prepared for the Joint Staff, by the RAND...and code those billets as such. Once identified, DOD must expand the Joint Duty Assignment List (JDAL) to include billets that offer enlisted personnel

  4. Refining enamel thickness measurements from B-mode ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jeremy; Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Kim, Yongmin

    2009-01-01

    Dental erosion has been growing increasingly prevalent with the rise in consumption of heavy starches, sugars, coffee, and acidic beverages. In addition, various disorders, such as Gastroenterological Reflux Disease (GERD), have symptoms of rapid rates of tooth erosion. The measurement of enamel thickness would be important for dentists to assess the progression of enamel loss from all forms of erosion, attrition, and abrasion. Characterizing enamel loss is currently done with various subjective indexes that can be interpreted in different ways by different dentists. Ultrasound has been utilized since the 1960s to determine internal tooth structure, but with mixed results. Via image processing and enhancement, we were able to refine B-mode dental ultrasound images for more accurate enamel thickness measurements. The mean difference between the measured thickness of the occlusal enamel from ultrasound images and corresponding gold standard CT images improved from 0.55 mm to 0.32 mm with image processing (p = 0.033). The difference also improved from 0.62 to 0.53 mm at the buccal/lingual enamel surfaces, but not significantly (p = 0.38).

  5. Assessing corrosion in oil refining and petrochemical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. John

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the development of an information system used to manage corrosion of metals and alloys by high temperature gases found in many different oil refining, petrochemical, power generation, and chemical processes. The database currently represents about 7.9 million h of exposure time for about 5,500 tests with 89 commercial alloys for a temperature range of 200 - 1,200°C. The system manages corrosion data from well-defined exposures and determines corrosion product stabilities. New models used in the analysis of thermochemical data for the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co-C-O-S-N-H system are being compiled. All known phases based upon combinations of the elements have been analyzed to allow complete assessments of corrosion product stabilities. Use of these data allows prediction of stable corrosion products and hence identification of the possible dominant corrosion mechanisms. The system has the potential to be used in corrosion research, alloy development, failure analysis, lifetime prediction, and process operations evaluations. The corrosion mechanisms emphasized are oxidation, sulfidation, sulfidation/oxidation, and carburization.

  6. Refining a brief decision aid in stable CAD: cognitive interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Blake, Karen; Clark, Stacie; Dontje, Katherine; Olomu, Adesuwa; Henry, Rebecca C; Rovner, David R; Rothert, Marilyn L; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

    2014-02-13

    We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the "Making Choices©" Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the "think aloud" interview technique to assess the clarity, usefulness, and design of each page of the DA. Participants identified three main messages: 1) patients have multiple options based on stress tests and they should be discussed with a physician, 2) take care of yourself, 3) the stress test is the gold standard for determining the severity of your heart disease. Revisions corrected the inaccurate assumption of item number three. Cognitive interviews proved critical for engaging patients in the development process and highlighted the necessity of clear message development and use of design principles that make decision materials easy to read and easy to use. Cognitive interviews appear to contribute critical information from the patient perspective to the overall systematic development process for designing decision aids.

  7. A melt refining method for uranium-contaminated aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, T.; Iba, H.; Hanawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    Melt refining of uranium-contaminated aluminum which has been difficult to decontaminate because of the high reactivity of aluminum, was experimentally studied. Samples of contaminated aluminum and its alloys were melted after adding various halide fluxes at various melting temperatures and various melting times. Uranium concentration in the resulting ingots was determined. Effective flux compositions were mixtures of chlorides and fluorides, such as LiF, KCl, and BaCl 2 , at a fluoride/chloride mole ratio of 1 to 1.5. The removal of uranium from aluminum (the ''decontamination effect'') increased with decreasing melting temperature, but the time allowed for reaction had little influence. Pure aluminum was difficult to decontaminate from uranium; however, uranium could be removed from alloys containing magnesium. This was because the activity of the aluminum was decreased by formation of the intermetallic compound Al-Mg. With a flux of LiF-KCl-BaCl 2 and a temperature of 800 0 C, uranium added to give an initial concentration of 500 ppm was removed from a commercial alloy of aluminum, A5056, which contains 5% magnesium, to a final concentration of 0.6 ppm, which is near that in the initial aluminum alloy

  8. An overview of the regulation of uranium mining, milling, refining and fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, W.D.

    1980-07-01

    The mining, milling, refining and fabrication of uranium into nuclear fuel are activities that have in common the handling of natural uranium. The occupational and environmental hazards resulting from these activities vary widely. Uranium presents a radiological hazard throughout, but the principal culprit is radium which creates an occupational hazard in the mine and mill and an environmental hazard in the waste products produced in both the mill and the refinery. The chemicals used in both these latter processes also present hazards. Fuel fabrication presents the least potential for occupational and environmental hazards. The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board licenses eight plants, and one plant for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid. The licensing process is characterised by approval in stages, the placing of the burden of proof on the applicant, inspection at all stages, and joint review by all regulatory agencies involved

  9. Odor management in petroleum refining units; Gerenciamento de odores em refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Evangelho, Mauro Rocha; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Odor emissions can cause serious annoyance in the neighbourhood of the emissions sources related to industrial processes and effluent and wastewater treatments. Jointly with the industrial control for reducing the odor, the emissions monitoring becomes convenient for identification and quantification of compounds responsible for the odors. To reach this objective, they are proposed analytical and olfactometric methodologies. The analytical procedures are based on the application of methods of sampling and analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, accepted for environmental agencies. The olfactometric methodology is based on the use of procedures that consider the subjective manner with that the odors are felt and evaluated by the people. This work describes as these methodologies can be applied in petroleum refining units. (author)

  10. Acromioclavicular joint separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Pandya, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department as a trauma activation after a motorcycle accident. The patient was the helmeted rider of a motorcycle traveling at an unknown speed when he lost control and was thrown off his vehicle. He denied loss of consciousness, nausea, or vomiting. The patient’s vital signs were stable and his only complaint was pain around his left shoulder. On exam, the patient had a prominent left clavicle without skin compromise. He had adequate range of motion in the left shoulder with moderate pain, and his left upper extremity was neurovascularly intact. Significant findings: Plain films of the left shoulder showed elevation of the left clavicle above the acromion. There was an increase in the acromioclavicular (AC and coracoclavicular (CC distances (increased joint distances marked with red and blue arrows, respectively. A normal AC joint measures 1-3 mm whereas a normal CC distance measures 11-13 mm.1 The injury was classified as a Rockwood type III AC joint separation. Discussion: The AC joint is a synovial joint between an oval facet on the acromion and a similar facet on the distal end of the clavicle. Horizontal stability is provided by the AC joint while axial stability is provided by the CC joint.2,3 AC joint injuries account for about 9%-12% of shoulder girdle injuries, and the most common mechanism is direct trauma.4,5 Initial evaluation with imaging includes plain films with three views: the anterior-posterior (AP view with the shoulder in internal and external rotation as well as an axillary, or scapula-Y view (sensitivity 40%, specificity 90% for all films.6,7 AC joint injuries are classified by the Rockwood system.8 Type I involves a sprain or incomplete tear of the AC ligaments with an intact CC ligament. The AC joint appears normal on X-ray, but can become widened with stress, achieved by having the patient hold a 10-15 pound weight from each

  11. A new process of electron beam refining of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A review of thermodynamic equilibrium, the kinetic theory and experimental results of the metal-gas interaction in refractory metals is presented. N 2 , H 2 and CO absorption and desorption take place by a reversible process while O 2 takes place by a irreversible process with atom absorption and metal oxide desorption. A new technology of electron beam refining of Niobium is proposed based on four points: 1) preparation of the aluminothermic reduced electrode, 2) zone refining in the first melt, 3) kinetic theory of refining in the following melts and 4) design of a compact furnace. Experimental results in a pilot plant of 300 KW have shown complete agreement with the proposed technology yielding a productivity 2.4 times larger than the value predicted by the conventional technology of electron beam refining of Niobium. (Author) [pt

  12. Modified process for refining niobium by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Takano, C.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental results, thermodynamic equilibrium and kinetic theory of the metal/gas interaction in refractory metals are reviewed. The adsorption and desorption of nitrogen, hydrogen and CO are reversible, whereas those of oxygen are irreversible, with adsorption of an oxygen atom and volatilisation of the metal oxide. Based upon this fact, a new electron beam refining technology is proposed for niobium, consisting of four points: preparation of an electrode by aluminothermic reduction; zone refining in the first melt; kinetic refining in subsequent melts and compact design of the refining plant. Experimental results from a 300 kW pilot plant were in complete agreement with the technology proposed, giving 2.4 times the productivity predicted by the conventional technology. (Author) [pt

  13. Refined isogeometric analysis for a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia, Daniel; Pardo, D.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.

    2018-01-01

    Starting from a highly continuous Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) discretization, refined Isogeometric Analysis (rIGA) introduces C0 hyperplanes that act as separators for the direct LU factorization solver. As a result, the total computational cost

  14. Japan's refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country's refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry

  15. Mathematical aspects of Rietveld refinement and crystal structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The core mathematics, goodness-of-fit parameters of Rietveld refinement technique is introduced for structural ... transducers in medical and solar applications (Obmann ..... Prince 1985 in Structure and statistics in crystallography (ed.).

  16. P-Refinement and P-Threads (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Steven; Karniadakis, George E

    2002-01-01

    ...]) in d dimensions, which is higher than lower-order methods. In this paper, we demonstrate that by employing multi-threading within MPI processes we manage to counter- balance the cost increase associated with P-refinement...

  17. Optimization bitumen-based upgrading and refining schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, M.; Chen, J. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study in which the entire refining scheme for Canadian bitumen as feedstocks was modelled and simulated under different process configurations, operating conditions and product structures. The aim of the study was to optimize the economic benefits, product quality and energy use under a range of operational scenarios. Optimal refining schemes were proposed along with process conditions for existing refinery configurations and objectives. The goal was to provide guidelines and information for upgrading and refining process design and retrofitting. Critical steps were identified with regards to the upgrading process. It was concluded that the information obtained from this study would lead to significant improvement in process performance and operations, and in reducing the capital cost for building new upgraders and refineries. The simulation results provided valuable information for increasing the marketability of bitumen, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts associated with bitumen upgrading and refining. tabs., figs.

  18. Architectural Refinement for the Design of Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellison, Robert

    2001-01-01

    ...; that is, have no central administration and no unified security policy. The survivable architecture refinement is an iterative risk-driven process which adopts the structure of Boehm's Spiral Model Boehm 88...

  19. Flanking region sequence information to refine microRNA target ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    (SVM)-based target prediction refinement approach has been introduced through .... are kernel-based statistical learning machines, where a discriminant ...... Cox T and Cuff J 2002 The Ensembl genome database project;. Nucleic Acids Res.

  20. Significance of Kaduna River to Kaduna Refining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    River through the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals Company (KRPC) plants and .... Other less-common process involves filtering heated crude using diatomaceous earth ..... Water is polluted by the fallout from air pollution and by refinery.

  1. CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC (collectively, CITGO) have agreed to pay a $1,955,000 civil penalty, perform environmental projects totaling more than $2 million, and spend an estimated $42 million in injunctive relief to resolve.

  2. Refining a Tool for the Selection of Experts in Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cruz Ramírez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a research study geared toward refining an empirical instrument for the selection of experts for educational research, according to its reliability and internal consistency. To this end we used a three-round Delphi technique and subjected the results to a factor analysis. Latent variables were determined that explain the nature of the sources of argumentation necessary for ensuring an adequate level of competence on the part of the experts.

  3. Is early osteoarthritis associated with differences in joint congruence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conconi, Michele; Halilaj, Eni; Parenti Castelli, Vincenzo; Crisco, Joseph J

    2014-12-18

    Previous studies suggest that osteoarthritis (OA) is related to abnormal or excessive articular contact stress. The peak pressure resulting from an applied load is determined by many factors, among which is shape and relative position and orientation of the articulating surfaces or, referring to a more common nomenclature, joint congruence. It has been hypothesized that anatomical differences may be among the causes of OA. Individuals with less congruent joints would likely develop higher peak pressure and thus would be more exposed to the risk of OA onset. The aim of this work was to determine if the congruence of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint differs with the early onset of OA or with sex, as the female population has a higher incidence of OA. 59 without and 38 with early OA were CT-scanned with their dominant or arthritic hand in a neutral configuration. The proposed measure of joint congruence is both shape and size dependent. The correlation of joint congruence with pathology and sex was analyzed both before and after normalization for joint size. We found a significant correlation between joint congruence and sex due to the sex-related differences in size. The observed correlation disappeared after normalization. Although joint congruence increased with size, it did not correlate significantly with the onset of early OA. Differences in joint congruence in this population may not be a primary cause of OA onset or predisposition, at least for the CMC joint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Melt refining of uranium contaminated copper, nickel, and mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xinwen; Liu Wencang; Zhang Yuan

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experiment results on melt refining of uranium contaminated metallic discards such as copper, nickel, and mild steel. Based on recommended processes, uranium contents in ingots shall decrease below 1 ppm; metal recovery is higher than 96%; and slag production is below 5% in weight of the metal to be refined. The uranium in the slag is homogeneously distributed. The slag seems to be hard ceramics, insoluble in water, and can be directly disposed of after proper packaging

  5. Refined Fuchs inequalities for systems of linear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontsov, R R

    2004-01-01

    We refine the Fuchs inequalities obtained by Corel for systems of linear meromorphic differential equations given on the Riemann sphere. Fuchs inequalities enable one to estimate the sum of exponents of the system over all its singular points. We refine these well-known inequalities by considering the Jordan structure of the leading coefficient of the Laurent series for the matrix of the right-hand side of the system in the neighbourhood of a singular point

  6. English-Chinese oil refining dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, P; Zing, Z [eds.

    1979-01-01

    The dictionary is a collection of many disciplines but specialized in the terminology related to petroleum refining. It contains terms in areas such as refining, factory equipment and installation, petroleum products and test analysis, and instrument automation. It also contains terms in areas of petrochemistry, oil storage and transport, computer technology, and environmental protection. The total number of terms collected was approximately 53,000.

  7. A State Space Model for the Wood Chip Refining Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed dynamic model of the fibre size distribution between the refiner discs, distributed along the refiner radius, is presented. Both one- and two-dimensional descriptions for the fibre or shive geometry are given. It is shown that this model may be simplified and that analytic solutions exist under non-restrictive assumptions. A direct method for the recursive estimation of unknown parameters is presented. This method is applicable to linear or linearized systems which have a triangular structure.

  8. Asian oil refining. Demand growth and deregulation - an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameer Nawaz.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the most important features of the oil refining industry in Asia. Major developments in consumption patterns changes in regional importance of countries are discussed, highlighting potential future developments. The first chapter introduces the various refining processes and presents a simple model for the analysis of complex refineries. Chapter 2 examines the development of the Asian refining industry against a background of economic growth and analyses trends in consumption of all products in Asian countries. In Chapter 3, the key issues concerning the refining industry are examined, among them the forces driving consumption, including the importance of economic development, and electricity and transport demand. The importance of product imports and international trade is discussed, and the extent of government involvement and the effects of changing retail and market prices are analysed. Chapter 4 looks at the strategies that oil and gas companies are following in the Asian refining industry. Particular significance is attached to the vertical integration of the oil majors, Japanese and Middle Eastern oil companies. A brief overview of the importance of the petrochemical industry is presented. The countries of Asia that are involved in the refining industry are profiled in Chapter 5. The future trend in oil consumption is examined in Chapter 6. There follows a brief discussion of the plans to expand crude refining capacity in the various countries and a forecast of the state of overcapacity which will result. In the final chapter, brief profiles of some of the most important companies in the Asian refining industry are presented, discussing their major activities and future plans. (Author)

  9. Reverse mechanical after effect during hydrogenation of zone refined iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, L.V.; Skryabina, N.E.; Kurmaeva, L.D.; Smirnov, L.V. (Permskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR); AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1984-12-01

    The relationship between the process of hydrogenation and the reverse mechanical after effect (RMA) microplastic deformation in the zone refined iron has been studied. Metallographic investigations and mechanical testing of the samples hydrogenated under torsional strain have been performed. It is shown that in the zone refined iron the formation of voids responsible for irreversible hydrogen embrittlement does not occur, but the hydrogen-initiated RMA strain is conserved, i. e. the RMA effects are independent of the presence of discontinuities.

  10. Investment in Exploration-Production and Refining - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio

    2017-03-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2016 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Trends in oil and gas prices; - Investment in exploration/production: in sharp decline for the second consecutive year - the first time this has happened since 1986; - The global drilling market; - Geophysical: global activity and markets; - Offshore construction: market and business; - A significant reduction in refining projects (atmospheric distillation and conversion)

  11. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A. [Montana Tech of the Univ., of Montana (United States); Mizia, R.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

  12. Pros and cons of the ambulatory surgery center joint venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    If a physician group has determined that it has a realistic patient base to establish an ambulatory surgery center, it may be beneficial to consider a partner to share the costs and risks of this new joint venture. Joint ventures can be a benefit or liability in the establishment of an ambulatory surgery center. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of a hospital physician-group joint venture.

  13. On macromolecular refinement at subatomic resolution with interatomic scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lunin, Vladimir Y. [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290 (Russian Federation); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [IGMBC, 1 Rue L. Fries, 67404 Illkirch and IBMC, 15 Rue R. Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Faculty of Sciences, Nancy University, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Modelling deformation electron density using interatomic scatters is simpler than multipolar methods, produces comparable results at subatomic resolution and can easily be applied to macromolecules. A study of the accurate electron-density distribution in molecular crystals at subatomic resolution (better than ∼1.0 Å) requires more detailed models than those based on independent spherical atoms. A tool that is conventionally used in small-molecule crystallography is the multipolar model. Even at upper resolution limits of 0.8–1.0 Å, the number of experimental data is insufficient for full multipolar model refinement. As an alternative, a simpler model composed of conventional independent spherical atoms augmented by additional scatterers to model bonding effects has been proposed. Refinement of these mixed models for several benchmark data sets gave results that were comparable in quality with the results of multipolar refinement and superior to those for conventional models. Applications to several data sets of both small molecules and macromolecules are shown. These refinements were performed using the general-purpose macromolecular refinement module phenix.refine of the PHENIX package.

  14. Strategic issues and implications for the refining and marketing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffe, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Refiners have faced a challenging business environment for the past decade. During this period, the industry has made approximately $25 billion of capital expenditures primarily to comply with increased governmental mandates, faced highly volatile petroleum product prices and garnered a return to equity of only 5%. While worldwide and US refining capacity has been flat in recent years, demand for refined petroleum products has been on the upswing and domestic supplies have also increased due to improved US capacity utilization rates (76% in 1984 and 93% in 1994) and increased imports (gasoline sales up 11% since 1984). The result has been highly volatile and generally weak refining margins (net Gulf Coast crack spread ranging from ($.95)/bbl in 1984 to $1.84/bbl in 1990 and averaging $.81/bbl since 1984). In response to the sustained difficulties in the marketplace, one has recently witnessed some strategic realignment in the industry. Several of the integrated companies, frustrated with the required capital expenditures and meager returns, have decided to shed non-core, non-strategic refining assets. For the most part, these assets have been bought by independents at, by historical measures, very attractive terms. This paper will provide an overview of the economics of the refining business, discuss the recent trends in refinery M and A activity and summarize possible implications of the recent strategic realignment

  15. Forming a multinational joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, N.K.; Garb, R.H.; Statton, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the basis and mechanics for forming a multinational joint venture. The topics of the paper include the motivations for a joint venture, selection of the appropriate co-venturer, management of the multinational joint venture, and the joint venture agreement. The authors state that a joint venture is not applicable or desirable in all instances and to be successful, must be carefully planned

  16. Modulation wave approach to the structural parameterization and Rietveld refinement of low carnegieite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, R.L.; Thompson, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The crystal structure of low carnegieite, NaAlSiO 4 [M r =142.05, orthorhombic, Pb2 1 a, a=10.261(1), b=14.030(2), c=5.1566(6) A, D x =2.542 g cm -3 , Z=4, Cu Kα 1 , λ=1.5406 A, μ=77.52 cm -1 , F(000)=559.85], is determined via Rietveld refinement from powder data, R p =0.057, R wp =0.076, R Bragg =0.050. Given that there are far too many parameters to be determined via unconstrained Rietveld refinement, a group theoretical or modulation wave approach is used in order to parameterize the structural deviation of low carnegieite from its underlying C9 aristotype. Appropriate crystal chemical constraints are applied in order to provide two distinct plausible starting models for the structure of the aluminosilicate framework. The correct starting model for the aluminosilicate framework as well as the ordering and positions of the non-framework Na atoms are then determined via Rietveld refinement. At all stages, chemical plausibility is checked via the use of the bond-length-bond-valence formalism. The JCPDS file number for low carnegieite is 44-1496. (orig.)

  17. pH-zone-refining elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography: Separation of hydroxyanthraquinones from Cassiae semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhisi; Lv, Liqiong; Li, Xingnuo; Chu, Chu; Tong, Shengqiang

    2017-11-01

    Seven hydroxyanthraquinones were successfully separated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Cassiae semen by conventional and pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography with an environmentally friendly biphasic solvent system, in which elution-extrusion mode was investigated for pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography for the first time. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (5:3:4:4, v/v/v/v) was used for the conventional countercurrent chromatography while the same system with a different volume ratio n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (3:5:2:6, v/v/v/v) was used for pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography, in which 20 mmol/L of trifluoroacetic acid was added in the organic phase as a retainer and 15 mmol/L of ammonia was added to the aqueous phase as an eluter. A 400 mg crude sample could be well separated by pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography, yielding 53 mg of aurantio-obtusin, 40 mg of chryso-obtusin, 18 mg of obtusin, 24 mg of obtusifolin, 10 mg of emodin, and 105 mg of the mixture of chrysophanol and physcion with a purity of over 95.8, 95.7, 96.9, 93.5, 97.4, 77.1, and 19.8%, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the difference in elution sequence between conventional and pH-zone-refining mode was observed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Facet joint syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigrai, M.; Zakovic, J.; Brezinova, M.; Pavlovicova, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is the purpose of the study to demonstrate the clinical relevance of degenerative changes in the facet joint of patients with low back pain irradiating to the lower extremities, and discuss some problems relating to diagnosis and different diagnosis. 119 patients presenting the listed bellow syndromes are covered by the study: scoliosis, polytopic pain vertebral syndrome, paresis and history of trauma. all patients undergo comprehensive neurological examination with special attention focused on the spine: CT and plain x-rays are taken of the lumbosacral segment to assess the condition of the facet joints. The neurological examination demonstrates in all cases pain syndrome in the lumbar spine referred to one or both lower extremities. In 56% it is a matter of persisting pain, and in 44% - recurrent. More than half of the patients complain of sacroiliac (SI) dislocation and palpatory pain. Unilateral or bilateral degenerative changes are documented by imaging studies in all patients, including: subchondral thickening, osteopathy narrowing the lateral or central part of the spinal canal with ensuing nerve root compression. The lumbosacral zygoapophyseal joints are source of pseudoradicular pain. A correlation between clinical picture and GT changes is noted in all patients with facet joint syndrome. CT is an indispensable method in diagnosing facet joint syndrome. (authors)

  19. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

  20. Formation of Exfoliation Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth's internal stresses interact with the topographic surface to affect many phenomena. Exfoliation joints, or sheeting joints, are widespread manifestations of this interaction. These opening-mode fractures form subparallel to the Earth's surface, bounding roughly concentric slabs of rock that resemble the layers of an onion. They occur worldwide in all major bedrock types, attain in-plane dimensions of hundreds of meters, exert a strong influence on groundwater flow, and help produce spectacular scenery, as in Yosemite National Park. The mechanism that causes them has been enigmatic. They are widely regarded as forming in response to "removal of overburden", but large fractures do not open in rocks merely by relieving a compressive stress. High fluid pressures, thermal effects, rock heterogeneity, and weathering also are rejected as primary causes of these fractures. Tensile stresses normal to the surface are required for large exfoliation fractures to open. Intriguingly, high surface-parallel compressive stresses are widely documented where exfoliation joints occur. Both numerical and analytical solutions for two-dimensional elastic bodies show that localized tensile stresses perpendicular to the ground surface must develop beneath certain topographies subject to strong compressive stresses parallel to the surface. This highly non-intuitive effect reflects the profound influence that topography can have on stresses near the surface of the Earth, and it can explain how exfoliation joints open. The theoretical results also indicate that exfoliation joint distributions could be used to infer the horizontal stresses near the Earth's surface.

  1. The temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.

    1984-01-01

    Whilst the temporomandibular joint is in many ways unique, it is subject to all the diseases and disorders found in joints in other parts of the human skeleton. By far the most common disorder is injury, followed by arthropathy, acute and chronic dislocations, ankylosis, and in rare instances, neoplasms. The diagnosis and management of the temporomandibular joint are the primary responsibility of the oral surgeon. Nevertheless, this anatomical region is an area in which the cooperation of medical and dental disciplines may be required for the satisfactory conclusion of treatment. The more so when the disease process involves either associated psychosomatic illness or malignancy. The mainstay of the diagnosis is a careful radiological examination of the joint. There exists a delicate relationship between the dentition, the muscles of mastication, and the temporomandibular articulation, which is controlled by arthrokinetic reflex activity of the branches of the 5th cranial nerve. Imbalance between one or more of the components of this integrated system frequently leads to disturbances in function. Pain-dysfunction disorders constitute the larger part of temporomandibular joint disturbances generally encountered

  2. Detection of Arthritis by Joint Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, W. S. [Dept, of Radiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Weiss, T. E.; Tutton, R. H.; Hidalgo, J. U. [Ochsner Clinic and Ochsner Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1969-05-15

    Detection and identification of early arthritis is frequently difficult with routine methods. Several tracers, {sup 131}I human serum albumin (25 {mu}Ci/10 lb), {sup 99m}Tc human serum albumin (1-3 mCi), {sup 131}I iodipamide (40 {mu}Ci/10 lb), and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate (10 mCi), have been employed for joint scanning to detect synovitis produced by arthritis in joints of the extremities. When administered intravenously, the 25% increase in localization of these tracers in the synovial membrane, if there is active synovitis, can be demonstrated by scintillation scanning. This ability to detect synovitis at an early stage enables the joint scan to show areas of active synovitis not demonstrated on roentgenograms. The scan may objectively confirm or disprove questionable physical findings. From this standpoint the technique has been useful in determining whether joint pain is functional or due to arthritis as a negative localization tends to rule out active synovitis as the cause of the pain. The scan demonstration of a positive localization of the tracer in several joints when only one area is symptomatic is evidence that joint pain is due to systemic disease. The short half-life tracera permit serial studies to follow the course of an arthritis process. Use of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate and an Anger camera have made joint scanning a practical technique for clinical use. A review of the accuracy of joint scanning in 130 cases as compared to roentgenograms is presented. (author)

  3. Association of Gastrocnemius Muscle Stiffness With Passive Ankle Joint Stiffness and Sex-Related Difference in the Joint Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kintaro; Takashi, Hideyuki

    2017-11-15

    Passive ankle joint stiffness is affected by all structures located within and over the joint, and is greater in men than in women. Localized muscle stiffness can be assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography, and muscle architecture such as fascicle length and pennation angle can be measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Thus, we assessed localized muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) with consideration of individual variability in the muscle architecture, and examined the association of the muscle stiffness with passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness. Localized muscle stiffness of the MG in 16 men and 17 women was assessed at 10° and 20° plantar flexion, neutral anatomical position, 10° and 20° dorsiflexion. Fascicle length and pennation angle of the MG were measured at these joint positions. Passive ankle joint stiffness was determined by the ankle joint angle-torque relationship. Localized MG muscle stiffness was not significantly correlated with passive ankle joint stiffness, and did not show significant sex-related difference, even when considering the muscle architecture. This finding suggest that muscle stiffness of the MG would not be a prominent factor to determine passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness.

  4. Variance analysis refines overhead cost control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J C; Suver, J D

    1992-02-01

    Many healthcare organizations may not fully realize the benefits of standard cost accounting techniques because they fail to routinely report volume variances in their internal reports. If overhead allocation is routinely reported on internal reports, managers can determine whether billing remains current or lost charges occur. Healthcare organizations' use of standard costing techniques can lead to more realistic performance measurements and information system improvements that alert management to losses from unrecovered overhead in time for corrective action.

  5. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Refinement of RAIM via Implementation of Implicit Euler Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Han-Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The first approach is a mechanistic approach which is used in LIRIC in which more than 200 reactions are modeled in detail. This approach enables to perform the detailed analysis. However, it requires huge computation burden. The other approach is a simplified model approach which is used in the IMOD, ASTEC/IODE, and etc. Recently, KINS has developed RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) based on the simplified model approach. Since the numerical analysis module in RAIM is based on the explicit Euler method, there are major issues on the stability of the module. Therefore, implementation of a stable numerical method becomes essential. In this study, RAIM is refined via implementation of implicit Euler method in which the Newton method is used to find the solutions at each time step. The refined RAIM is tested by comparing to RAIM based on the explicit Euler method. In this paper, RAIM was refined by implementing the implicit Euler method. At each time step of the method in the refined RAIM, the reaction kinetics equations are solved by the Newton method in which elements of the Jacobian matrix are expressed analytically. With the results of OECD-BIP P10T2 test, the refined RAIM was compared to RAIM with the explicit Euler method. The refined RAIM shows better agreement with the experimental data than those from the explicit Euler method. For the rapid change of pH during the experiment, the refined RAIM gives more realistic changes in the concentrations of chemical species than those from the explicit Euler method. In addition, in terms of computing time, the refined RAIM shows comparable computing time to that with explicit Euler method. These comparisons are attributed to ⁓10 times larger time step size used in the implicit Euler method, even though computation burden at each time step in the refined RAIM is much higher than that of the explicit Euler method. Compared to the experimental data, the refined RAIM still shows discrepancy, which are attributed

  7. Refinement of RAIM via Implementation of Implicit Euler Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Han-Chul

    2016-01-01

    The first approach is a mechanistic approach which is used in LIRIC in which more than 200 reactions are modeled in detail. This approach enables to perform the detailed analysis. However, it requires huge computation burden. The other approach is a simplified model approach which is used in the IMOD, ASTEC/IODE, and etc. Recently, KINS has developed RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) based on the simplified model approach. Since the numerical analysis module in RAIM is based on the explicit Euler method, there are major issues on the stability of the module. Therefore, implementation of a stable numerical method becomes essential. In this study, RAIM is refined via implementation of implicit Euler method in which the Newton method is used to find the solutions at each time step. The refined RAIM is tested by comparing to RAIM based on the explicit Euler method. In this paper, RAIM was refined by implementing the implicit Euler method. At each time step of the method in the refined RAIM, the reaction kinetics equations are solved by the Newton method in which elements of the Jacobian matrix are expressed analytically. With the results of OECD-BIP P10T2 test, the refined RAIM was compared to RAIM with the explicit Euler method. The refined RAIM shows better agreement with the experimental data than those from the explicit Euler method. For the rapid change of pH during the experiment, the refined RAIM gives more realistic changes in the concentrations of chemical species than those from the explicit Euler method. In addition, in terms of computing time, the refined RAIM shows comparable computing time to that with explicit Euler method. These comparisons are attributed to ⁓10 times larger time step size used in the implicit Euler method, even though computation burden at each time step in the refined RAIM is much higher than that of the explicit Euler method. Compared to the experimental data, the refined RAIM still shows discrepancy, which are attributed

  8. Calculating corrections in F-theory from refined BPS invariants and backreacted geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poretschkin, Maximilian

    2015-07-01

    -String which are counted in the dual F-theory compactification. Using the refined BPS invariants we can count these states and explain their space-time spin content. In addition, we explain that they fall into representations of E8 which can be explicitly determined. The second application is given by a proposal how to count [p,q]-strings within F-theory which is based on the D3 probe-brane picture and the dual Seiberg-Witten description. As a third contribution to F-theory which is independent of the results obtained in the first part, we consider the backreaction of G{sub 4}-flux onto the geometry of a local model of a Calabi-Yau fourfold geometry. This induces a non-trivial warp-factor and modifies the Kaluza-Klein reduction ansatz. Taking this into account we demonstrate how corrections to the 7-brane gauge coupling function can be computed within F-theory.

  9. JOINT INVOLVEMENT IN SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zlobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement in syphilis has been considered as casuistry in recent years. At the same time, the high incidence of primary syphilis and the notified cases of late neurosyphilis may suggest that joint involvement in this disease is by no means always verified. Traditionally there are two forms of syphilitic arthritis: primary synovial (involving the articular membranes and sac and primary bone (involving the articular bones and cartilages ones. The paper describes the authors' clinical case of the primary bone form of articular syphilis in a 34-year-old man. 

  10. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  11. Sacroiliac Joint Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Quijano, David A; Otero Loperena, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain is an important cause of lower back problems. Multiple SIJ injection techniques have been proposed over the years to help in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. However, the SIJ innervation is complex and variable, and truly intra-articular injections are sometimes difficult to obtain. Different sacroiliac joint injections have shown to provide pain relief in patients suffering this ailment. Various techniques for intraarticular injections, sacral branch blocks and radiofrequency ablation, both fluoroscopy guided and ultrasound guided are discussed in this paper. Less common techniques like prolotherapy, platelet rich plasma injections and botulism toxin injections are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  13. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  14. Electromyogram refinement using muscle synergy based regulation of uncertain information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyuengbo; Shin, Duk; Lee, Jongho; Kakei, Shinji

    2018-04-27

    Electromyogram signal (EMG) measurement frequently experiences uncertainty attributed to issues caused by technical constraints such as cross talk and maximum voluntary contraction. Due to these problems, individual EMGs exhibit uncertainty in representing their corresponding muscle activations. To regulate this uncertainty, we proposed an EMG refinement, which refines EMGs with regulating the contribution redundancy of the signals from EMGs to approximating torques through EMG-driven torque estimation (EDTE) using the muscular skeletal forward dynamic model. To regulate this redundancy, we must consider the synergistic contribution redundancy of muscles, including "unmeasured" muscles, to approximating torques, which primarily causes redundancy of EDTE. To suppress this redundancy, we used the concept of muscle synergy, which is a key concept of analyzing the neurophysiological regulation of contribution redundancy of muscles to exerting torques. Based on this concept, we designed a muscle-synergy-based EDTE as a framework for EMG refinement, which regulates the abovementioned uncertainty of individual EMGs in consideration of unmeasured muscles. In achieving the proposed EMG refinement, the most considerable point is to suppress a large change such as overestimation attributed to enhancement of the contribution of particular muscles to estimating torques. Therefore it is reasonable to refine EMGs by minimizing the change in EMGs. To evaluate this model, we used a Bland-Altman plot, which quantitatively evaluates the proportional bias of refined signals to EMGs. Through this evaluation, we showed that the proposed EDTE minimizes the bias while approximating torques. Therefore this minimization optimally regulates the uncertainty of EMGs and thereby leads to optimal EMG refinement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging findings of charcot joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Quanfei; Zhou Chunxiang; Chen Yingming; Jiang Bo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI characters of Charcot joint, and to evaluate the diagnostic value of X-ray, CT, and MRI on Charcot joint. Methods: Eight patients with 8 Charcot joints underwent X-ray, CT, and MR examinations. 6 of them had syringomyelia, 1 patient had injury of the spinal cord, and 1 case had diabetes. All 8 patients had sensory reduction or deficit in the sick extremities. Results: There were two types of Charcot joint, hypertrophic and atrophic. Radiographic and CT features of hypertrophic joint (n=3) showed hyperostotic osteosclerosis and mammoth osteophytes in the sick bones, periarticular ossification, and articular disorganization. Radiographic and CT features of atrophic joint (n=5) showed extensive bone resorption (destruction), periarticular debris, and articular disorganization. Main MRI features of Charcot joint included hydrarthrosis within joint capsule, thickened, loose, and elongated joint capsule with para-joint, peri-diaphysis, and inter-muscular extension in a pseudopodia pattern. The irregular joint capsule wall was presented as mild hypointensity on T 1 WI, slight hyper-intensity on T 2 WI, and was markedly enhanced after Gd-DTPA was administrated, which was considered as a characteristic manifestation of the lesion. Soft tissue mass containing hypo-intense stripes on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI was commonly noted adjacent to the involved joint. Conclusion: X-rays plain film is the first choice for the diagnosis of Charcot joint, and MRI is pretty useful in the diagnosis of Charcot joint

  16. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 30, Spring 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Clemmons , USA ■ National War College A. Denis Clift ■ Joint Military Intelligence College RADM David R. Ellison, USN ■ Naval Postgraduate School BG Mark P...to determine the main axis of the German advance [General Maurice ] Gamelin dislocated his strategic reserves by committing the French Seventh Army to

  17. Molecular dynamics-based refinement and validation for sub-5 Å cryo-electron microscopy maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singharoy, Abhishek; Teo, Ivan; McGreevy, Ryan; Stone, John E; Zhao, Jianhua; Schulten, Klaus

    2016-07-07

    Two structure determination methods, based on the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) paradigm, are presented that resolve sub-5 Å cryo-electron microscopy (EM) maps with either single structures or ensembles of such structures. The methods, denoted cascade MDFF and resolution exchange MDFF, sequentially re-refine a search model against a series of maps of progressively higher resolutions, which ends with the original experimental resolution. Application of sequential re-refinement enables MDFF to achieve a radius of convergence of ~25 Å demonstrated with the accurate modeling of β-galactosidase and TRPV1 proteins at 3.2 Å and 3.4 Å resolution, respectively. The MDFF refinements uniquely offer map-model validation and B-factor determination criteria based on the inherent dynamics of the macromolecules studied, captured by means of local root mean square fluctuations. The MDFF tools described are available to researchers through an easy-to-use and cost-effective cloud computing resource on Amazon Web Services.

  18. Stiffness of the ligaments of the human wrist joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelberg, H.H.C.M.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Huiskes, H.W.J.; Kauer, J.M.G.

    1992-01-01

    The stiffnesses of the superficial ligaments of 14 human cadaver wrist joints have been determined. In these experiments the tested, fresh-frozen carpal joints are divided into a number of bone-ligament-bone complexes, which are loaded in a tensile testing machine at a rate of 66% of the ligaments'

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on development of technology to evaluate reliability of petroleum refining facilities; 2000 nendo sekiyu seisei setsubi shinraisei hyoka nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 2000 in development of a technology to evaluate reliability of petroleum refining facilities. The development efforts were made mainly on analyses by simulation and neural net (NN) that utilize computers. In the high-temperature system facilities, the creep damage generation is governed by different factors including impurities. The evaluation on joint life requires simultaneous use of low temperature zone long-time test. Verification was made on application of non-destructive inspection, such as use of ultrasonic waves in the accelerated creep zone. Defect detecting capability was identified when an ultrasonic wave flaw detection model is used for buried piping. In the pulse eddy current flaw detection, a coil most superb in totality was selected by means of simulation, by which corrosion and wall thickness of piping and devices were detected from outside the sheathing materials. Development was made on a technology to diagnose and evaluate corrosion of tank in operation by using the AE method. The remaining life of transformers is determined by how seriously the coil insulating paper has been deteriorated, and furfural in the oil was found effective for the parameters. Particularly, application of the NN was revealed to be effective in estimating electric motor deterioration. A high-temperature sulfide corrosion rate estimating model was developed from the operation and measurement data of the facilities by applying the NN and TCBM. (NEDO)

  20. Refining the statistical model for quantitative immunostaining of surface-functionalized nanoparticles by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCuspie, Robert I; Gorka, Danielle E

    2013-10-01

    Recently, an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based approach for quantifying the number of biological molecules conjugated to a nanoparticle surface at low number densities was reported. The number of target molecules conjugated to the analyte nanoparticle can be determined with single nanoparticle fidelity using antibody-mediated self-assembly to decorate the analyte nanoparticles with probe nanoparticles (i.e., quantitative immunostaining). This work refines the statistical models used to quantitatively interpret the observations when AFM is used to image the resulting structures. The refinements add terms to the previous statistical models to account for the physical sizes of the analyte nanoparticles, conjugated molecules, antibodies, and probe nanoparticles. Thus, a more physically realistic statistical computation can be implemented for a given sample of known qualitative composition, using the software scripts provided. Example AFM data sets, using horseradish peroxidase conjugated to gold nanoparticles, are presented to illustrate how to implement this method successfully.