WorldWideScience

Sample records for detector instrument design

  1. Simulation tools for detector and instrument design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Cai, Xiao Xiao

    2018-01-01

    The high performance requirements at the European Spallation Source have been driving the technological advances on the neutron detector front. Now more than ever is it important to optimize the design of detectors and instruments, to fully exploit the ESS source brilliance. Most of the simulation...... a powerful set of tools to tailor the detector and instrument design to the instrument application....

  2. Design of startup neutron detector handling mechanism instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Chandra Kant; Sivaramakrishna, M.; Nagaraj, C.P.; Madhusoodanan, K.

    2010-01-01

    In PFBR, to monitor the reactor during first fuel loading and low power operation, special provision is made in the central fuel subassembly to accommodate the neutron detectors. During fuel handling operations, these detectors need to be lifted up to facilitate plug rotation. These detectors are also need to be lifted from the core to save their life, during intermediate and high power operations. Towards this, a mobile assembly containing these detectors is made with lowering and retracting provision. To control this operation, constant speed motor, torque limiter, proximity switch, wire drawn potentiometer, magnetic reed switches are provided. To ensure a smooth and safe handling of this assembly, control logic with necessary interlocks is developed. (author)

  3. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  4. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, Halina; Abusleme, Angel; Afanaciev, Konstantin

    2010-09-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10 -3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  5. Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-01-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

  6. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, Halina [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Abusleme, Angel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (BY)] (and others)

    2010-09-15

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10{sup -3} and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  7. Conceptual design of wearpack with physiology detector feature based on wearable instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Melani; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo; Priadythama, Ilham; Susmartini, Susy; Suhardi, Bambang

    2017-11-01

    Every company in Indonesia is responsible for their worker health and safety condition as mentioned in UU No I year 1970. In manufacturing industries, there are many manual tasks dealing with high work load and risk, so that they require excellent concentration and physical condition. There is no ideal way to guarantee worker safety without a real time physiological monitoring. This paper reports our ongoing study in conceptual design development of worker's clothing which is equipped with a wearable instrumentation system. The system is designed to detect and measure body temperature and pulse in real time. Some electrical components such as, LCD (liquid crystal display), LEDs (light emitting diode), batteries, and physiological sensors were assembled. All components are controlled by a wearable on board controller. LEDs is used as alert which can indicate abnormal physical conditions. The LCD was added to provide more detail information. TMP 36 and XD-58C were selected as the physiological sensors. Finally, an Arduino Lilypad was chosen for the controller. This instrumentation system was verified by accurately detected and inform physiological condition of 3 subjects. Further we are going to attach the system to a worker's clothing which was specifically designed to simplify and comfortable usage.

  8. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 4 - Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Jaros, John; Miyamoto, Akiya; Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; Amann, John; Amirikas, Ramila; An, Qi; Anami, Shozo; Ananthanarayan, B.; Anderson, Terry; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Anerella, Michael; Anfimov, Nikolai; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Antipov, Sergei; Antoine, Claire; Aoki, Mayumi; Aoza, Atsushi; Aplin, Steve; Appleby, Rob; Arai, Yasuo; Araki, Sakae; Arkan, Tug; Arnold, Ned; Arnold, Ray; Arnowitt, Richard; Artru, Xavier; Arya, Kunal; Aryshev, Alexander; Asakawa, Eri; Asiri, Fred; Asner, David; Atac, Muzaffer; Atoian, Grigor; Attié, David; Augustin, Jean-Eudes; Augustine, David B.; Ayres, Bradley; Aziz, Tariq; Baars, Derek; Badaud, Frederique; Baddams, Nigel; Bagger, Jonathan; Bai, Sha; Bailey, David; Bailey, Ian R.; Baker, David; Balalykin, Nikolai I.; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Ball, Markus; Ball, Maurice; Ballestrero, Alessandro; Ballin, Jamie; Baltay, Charles; Bambade, Philip; Ban, Syuichi; Band, Henry; Bane, Karl; Banerjee, Bakul; Barbanotti, Serena; Barbareschi, Daniele; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Desmond P.; Barbi, Mauricio; Bardin, Dmitri Y.; Barish, Barry; Barklow, Timothy L.; Barlow, Roger; Barnes, Virgil E.; Barone, Maura; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Basu, Rahul; Battaglia, Marco; Batygin, Yuri; Baudot, Jerome; Baur, Ulrich; Elwyn Baynham, D.; Beard, Carl; Bebek, Chris; Bechtle, Philip; Becker, Ulrich J.; Bedeschi, Franco; Bedjidian, Marc; Behera, Prafulla; Bellantoni, Leo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Paul; Bentson, Lynn D.; Benyamna, Mustapha; Bergauer, Thomas; Berger, Edmond; Bergholz, Matthias; Beri, Suman; Berndt, Martin; Bernreuther, Werner; Bertolini, Alessandro; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Beteille, Andre; Bettoni, Simona; Beyer, Michael; Bhandari, R.K.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Bhuyan, Ruchika; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Biagini, Marica; Bialowons, Wilhelm; Biebel, Otmar; Bieler, Thomas; Bierwagen, John; Birch, Alison; Bisset, Mike; Biswal, S.S.; Blackmore, Victoria; Blair, Grahame; Blanchard, Guillaume; Blazey, Gerald; Blue, Andrew; Blümlein, Johannes; Boffo, Christian; Bohn, Courtlandt; Boiko, V.I.; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondarchuk, Eduard N.; Boni, Roberto; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boogert, Stewart; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Borras, Kerstin; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bosco, Alessio; Bosio, Carlo; Bosland, Pierre; Bosotti, Angelo; Boudry, Vincent; Boumediene, Djamel-Eddine; Bouquet, Bernard; Bourov, Serguei; Bowden, Gordon; Bower, Gary; Boyarski, Adam; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bozzi, Concezio; Brachmann, Axel; Bradshaw, Tom W.; Brandt, Andrew; Brasser, Hans Peter; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James E.; Breidenbach, Martin; Bricker, Steve; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brodsky, Stanley; Brooksby, Craig; Broome, Timothy A.; Brown, David; Brown, David; Brownell, James H.; Bruchon, Mélanie; Brueck, Heiner; Brummitt, Amanda J.; Brun, Nicole; Buchholz, Peter; Budagov, Yulian A.; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Bulyak, Eugene; Bungau, Adriana; Bürger, Jochen; Burke, Dan; Burkhart, Craig; Burrows, Philip; Burt, Graeme; Burton, David; Büsser, Karsten; Butler, John; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buzulutskov, Alexei; Cabruja, Enric; Caccia, Massimo; Cai, Yunhai; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caliier, Stephane; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cao, Jun-Jie; Cao, J.S.; Capatina, Ofelia; Cappellini, Chiara; Carcagno, Ruben; Carena, Marcela; Carloganu, Cristina; Carosi, Roberto; Stephen Carr, F.; Carrion, Francisco; Carter, Harry F.; Carter, John; Carwardine, John; Cassel, Richard; Cassell, Ronald; Cavallari, Giorgio; Cavallo, Emanuela; Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chandez, Frederic; Charles, Matthew; Chase, Brian; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chauveau, Jacques; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chehab, Robert; Chel, Stéphane; Chelkov, Georgy; Chen, Chiping; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Huai Bi; Chen, Jia Er; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chevallier, M.; Chi, Yun Long; Chickering, William; Cho, Gi-Chol; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Hyuk; Choi, Jong Bum; Choi, Seong Youl; Choi, Young-Il; Choudhary, Brajesh; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Rai Choudhury, S.; Christian, David; Christian, Glenn; Christophe, Grojean; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Church, Mike; Ciborowski, Jacek; Cihangir, Selcuk; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clarke, Christine; Clarke, Don G.; Clarke, James A.; Clements, Elizabeth; Coca, Cornelia; Coe, Paul; Cogan, John; Colas, Paul; Collard, Caroline; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Comerma, Albert; Compton, Chris; Constance, Ben; Conway, John; Cook, Ed; Cooke, Peter; Cooper, William; Corcoran, Sean; Cornat, Rémi; Corner, Laura; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; Clay Corvin, W.; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cowan, Ray; Crawford, Curtis; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Crittenden, James A.; Cussans, David; Cvach, Jaroslav; da Silva, Wilfrid; Dabiri Khah, Hamid; Dabrowski, Anne; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dadoun, Olivier; Dai, Jian Ping; Dainton, John; Daly, Colin; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daram, Sarojini; Datta, Anindya; Dauncey, Paul; David, Jacques; Davier, Michel; Davies, Ken P.; Dawson, Sally; De Boer, Wim; De Curtis, Stefania; De Groot, Nicolo; de la Taille, Christophe; de Lira, Antonio; De Roeck, Albert; de Sangro, Riccardo; De Santis,Stefano; Deacon, Laurence; Deandrea, Aldo; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Delebecque, Pierre; Delerue, Nicholas; Delferriere, Olivier; Demarteau, Marcel; Deng, Zhi; Denisov, Yu.N.; Densham, Christopher J.; Desch, Klaus; Deshpande, Nilendra; Devanz, Guillaume; Devetak, Erik; Dexter, Amos; Di benedetto, Vito; Diéguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dinh, Nguyen Dinh; Dixit, Madhu; Dixit, Sudhir; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dollan, Ralph; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Dorfan, Jonathan; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doucas, George; Downing, Robert; Doyle, Eric; Doziere, Guy; Drago, Alessandro; Dragt, Alex; Drake, Gary; Drásal, Zbynek; Dreiner, Herbert; Drell, Persis; Driouichi, Chafik; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drugakov, Vladimir; Du, Shuxian; Dugan, Gerald; Duginov, Viktor; Dulinski, Wojciech; Dulucq, Frederic; Dutta, Sukanta; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Dychkant, Alexandre; Dzahini, Daniel; Eckerlin, Guenter; Edwards, Helen; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrlichman, Michael; Ehrlichmann, Heiko; Eigen, Gerald; Elagin, Andrey; Elementi, Luciano; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John; Ellwood, George; Elsen, Eckhard; Emery, Louis; Enami, Kazuhiro; Endo, Kuninori; Enomoto, Atsushi; Eozénou, Fabien; Erbacher, Robin; Erickson, Roger; Oleg Eyser, K.; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fang, Shou Xian; Fant, Karen; Fasso, Alberto; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Fehlberg, John; Feld, Lutz; Feng, Jonathan L.; Ferguson, John; Fernandez-Garcia, Marcos; Luis Fernandez-Hernando, J.; Fiala, Pavel; Fieguth, Ted; Finch, Alexander; Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Peter; Eugene Fisk, H.; Fitton, Mike D.; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleury, Julien; Flood, Kevin; Foley, Mike; Ford, Richard; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Francis, Kurt; Frey, Ariane; Frey, Raymond; Friedsam, Horst; Frisch, Josef; Frishman, Anatoli; Fuerst, Joel; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fukuda, Shigeki; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Funk, Warren; Furletova, Julia; Furukawa, Kazuro; Furuta, Fumio; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gadow, Karsten; Gaede, Frank; Gaglione, Renaud; Gai, Wei; Gajewski, Jan; Galik, Richard; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gannaway, Fred; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yuanning; Garbincius, Peter; Garcia-Tabares, Luis; Garren, Lynn; Garrido, Luís; Garutti, Erika; Garvey, Terry; Garwin, Edward; Gascón, David; Gastal, Martin; Gatto, Corrado; Gatto, Raoul; Gay, Pascal; Ge, Lixin; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geiser, Achim; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Gibbons, Lawrence; Giganon, Arnaud; Gillespie, Allan; Gillman, Tony; Ginzburg, Ilya; Giomataris, Ioannis; Giunta, Michele; Gladkikh, Peter; Gluza, Janusz; Godbole, Rohini; Godfrey, Stephen; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goldstein, Joel; Gollin, George D.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Goodrick, Maurice; Gornushkin, Yuri; Gostkin, Mikhail; Gottschalk, Erik; Goudket, Philippe; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gournaris, Filimon; Graciani, Ricardo; Graf, Norman; Grah, Christian; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grandjean, Damien; Grannis, Paul; Grassellino, Anna; Graugés, Eugeni; Gray, Stephen; Green, Michael; Greenhalgh, Justin; Greenshaw, Timothy; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald; Grimes, Mark; Grimm, Terry; Gris, Philippe; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groll, Marius; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Grondin, Denis; Groom, Donald; Gross, Eilam; Grunewald, Martin; Grupen, Claus; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gu, Jun; Gu, Yun-Ting; Guchait, Monoranjan; Guiducci, Susanna; Guler, Ali Murat; Guler, Hayg; Gulmez, Erhan; Gunion, John; Guo, Zhi Yu; Gurtu, Atul; Ha, Huy Bang; Haas, Tobias; Haase, Andy; Haba, Naoyuki; Haber, Howard; Haensel, Stephan; Hagge, Lars; Hagura, Hiroyuki; Hajdu, Csaba; Haller, Gunther; Haller, Johannes; Hallermann, Lea; Halyo, Valerie; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Hammond, Larry; Han, Liang; Han, Tao; Hand, Louis; Handu, Virender K.; Hano, Hitoshi; Hansen, Christian; Hansen, Jørn Dines; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hara, Kazufumi; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Hartung, Walter; Hast, Carsten; Hauptman, John; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Chris; Hawkings, Richard; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hazumi, Masashi; He, An; He, Hong Jian; Hearty, Christopher; Heath, Helen; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heifets, Samuel; Heinemeyer, Sven; Heini, Sebastien; Helebrant, Christian; Helms, Richard; Heltsley, Brian; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hermel, Richard; Herms, Atilà; Herten, Gregor; Hesselbach, Stefan; Heuer, Rolf-Dieter; Heusch, Clemens A.; Hewett, Joanne; Higashi, Norio; Higashi, Takatoshi; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshiyasu; Hildreth, Michael D.; Hiller, Karlheinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen James; Himel, Thomas; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hioki, Zenro; Hirano, Koichiro; Hirose, Tachishige; Hisamatsu, Hiromi; Hisano, Junji; Hlaing, Chit Thu; Hock, Kai Meng; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hohlfeld, Mark; Honda, Yousuke; Hong, Juho; Hong, Tae Min; Honma, Hiroyuki; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hosoyama, Kenji; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Mi; Hou, Wei-Shu; Howell, David; Hronek, Maxine; Hsiung, Yee B.; Hu, Bo; Hu, Tao; Huang, Jung-Yun; Huang, Tong Ming; Huang, Wen Hui; Huedem, Emil; Huggard, Peter; Hugonie, Cyril; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huitu, Katri; Hwang, Youngseok; Idzik, Marek; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Ignatov, Fedor; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ilicheva, Tatiana; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Incagli, Marco; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Hitoshi; Inoue, Youichi; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioakeimidi, Katerina; Ishihara, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Issakov, Vladimir; Ito, Kazutoshi; Ivanov, V.V.; Ivanov, Valentin; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Iwasaki, Masako; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Jackson, David; Jackson, Frank; Jacobsen, Bob; Jaganathan, Ramaswamy; Jamison, Steven; Janssen, Matthias Enno; Jaramillo-Echeverria, Richard; Jauffret, Clement; Jawale, Suresh B.; Jeans, Daniel; Jedziniak, Ron; Jeffery, Ben; Jehanno, Didier; Jenner, Leo J.; Jensen, Chris; Jensen, David R.; Jiang, Hairong; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jimbo, Masato; Jin, Shan; Keith Jobe, R.; Johnson, Anthony; Johnson, Erik; Johnson, Matt; Johnston, Michael; Joireman, Paul; Jokic, Stevan; Jones, James; Jones, Roger M.; Jongewaard, Erik; Jönsson, Leif; Joshi, Gopal; Joshi, Satish C.; Jung, Jin-Young; Junk, Thomas; Juste, Aurelio; Kado, Marumi; Kadyk, John; Käfer, Daniela; Kako, Eiji; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kalinin, Alexander; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamitani, Takuya; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kamiya, Yukihide; Kamoshita, Jun-ichi; Kananov, Sergey; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Kanemura, Shinya; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kang, Wen; Kanjial, D.; Kapusta, Frédéric; Karataev, Pavel; Karchin, Paul E.; Karlen, Dean; Karyotakis, Yannis; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kasley, Paul; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Kato, Takashi; Kato, Yukihiro; Katzy, Judith; Kaukher, Alexander; Kaur, Manjit; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kazakov, Sergei; Kekelidze, V.D.; Keller, Lewis; Kelley, Michael; Kelly, Marc; Kelly, Michael; Kennedy, Kurt; Kephart, Robert; Keung, Justin; Khainovski, Oleg; Khan, Sameen Ahmed; Khare, Prashant; Khovansky, Nikolai; Kiesling, Christian; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kilian, Wolfgang; Killenberg, Martin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Hyun-Chui; Kim, Jonghoon; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Peter; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Sun Kee; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Youngim; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimmitt, Maurice; Kirby, Robert; Kircher, François; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittel, Olaf; Klanner, Robert; Klebaner, Arkadiy L.; Kleinwort, Claus; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klinkby, Esben; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Marc; Kneisel, Peter; Ko, In Soo; Ko, Kwok; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Kobel, Michael; Koch, Manuel; Kodys, Peter; Koetz, Uli; Kohrs, Robert; Kojima, Yuuji; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolodziej, Karol; Kolomensky, Yury G.; Komamiya, Sachio; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korbel, Volker; Koscielniak, Shane; Kostromin, Sergey; Kowalewski, Robert; Kraml, Sabine; Krammer, Manfred; Krasnykh, Anatoly; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Krawczyk, Maria; James Krebs, H.; Krempetz, Kurt; Kribs, Graham; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Kriske, Richard; Kronfeld, Andreas; Kroseberg, Jürgen; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruecker, Dirk; Krüger, Hans; Krumpa, Nicholas A.; Krumshtein, Zinovii; Kuang, Yu Ping; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Vic; Kudoh, Noboru; Kulis, Szymon; Kumada, Masayuki; Kumar, Abhay; Kume, Tatsuya; Kundu, Anirban; Kurevlev, German; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Kuriki, Masao; Kuroda, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Kusano, Tomonori; Kush, Pradeep K.; Kutschke, Robert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Kvasnicka, Peter; Kwon, Youngjoon; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lackey, Sharon; Lackowski, Thomas W.; Lafaye, Remi; Lafferty, George; Lagorio, Eric; Laktineh, Imad; Lal, Shankar; Laloum, Maurice; Lam, Briant; Lancaster, Mark; Lander, Richard; Lange, Wolfgang; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Langeveld, Willem; Larbalestier, David; Larsen, Ray; Lastovicka, Tomas; Lastovicka-Medin, Gordana; Latina, Andrea; Latour, Emmanuel; Laurent, Lisa; Le, Ba Nam; Le, Duc Ninh; Le Diberder, Francois; Dû, Patrick Le; Lebbolo, Hervé; Lebrun, Paul; Lecoq, Jacques; Lee, Sung-Won; Lehner, Frank; Leibfritz, Jerry; Lenkszus, Frank; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Levy, Aharon; Lewandowski, Jim; Leyh, Greg; Li, Cheng; Li, Chong Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Jin; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Wei Ming; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yuanjing; Li, Yulan; Li, Zenghai; Li, Zhong Quan; Liang, Jian Tao; Liao, Yi; Lilje, Lutz; Guilherme Lima, J.; Lintern, Andrew J.; Lipton, Ronald; List, Benno; List, Jenny; Liu, Chun; Liu, Jian Fei; Liu, Ke Xin; Liu, Li Qiang; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Sheng Guang; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Wanming; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lockyer, Nigel; Logan, Heather E.; Logatchev, Pavel V.; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lohse, Thomas; Lola, Smaragda; Lopez-Virto, Amparo; Loveridge, Peter; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lu, Changguo; Lu, Gong-Lu; Lu, Wen Hui; Lubatti, Henry; Lucotte, Arnaud; Lundberg, Björn; Lundin, Tracy; Luo, Mingxing; Luong, Michel; Luth, Vera; Lutz, Benjamin; Lutz, Pierre; Lux, Thorsten; Luzniak, Pawel; Lyapin, Alexey; Lykken, Joseph; Lynch, Clare; Ma, Li; Ma, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Wen-Gan; Macfarlane, David; Maciel, Arthur; MacLeod, Allan; MacNair, David; Mader, Wolfgang; Magill, Stephen; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Maiheu, Bino; Maity, Manas; Majchrzak, Millicent; Majumder, Gobinda; Makarov, Roman; Makowski, Dariusz; Malaescu, Bogdan; Mallik, C.; Mallik, Usha; Malton, Stephen; Malyshev, Oleg B.; Malysheva, Larisa I.; Mammosser, John; Mamta; Mamuzic, Judita; Manen, Samuel; Manghisoni, Massimo; Manly, Steven; Marcellini, Fabio; Marcisovsky, Michal; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Marks, Steve; Marone, Andrew; Marti, Felix; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Victoria; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Martinez, Manel; Martinez-Rivero, Celso; Martsch, Dennis; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Maruyama, Takashi; Masuzawa, Mika; Mathez, Hervé; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Mättig, Peter; Mattison, Thomas; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mawatari, Kentarou; Mazzacane, Anna; McBride, Patricia; McCormick, Douglas; McCormick, Jeremy; McDonald, Kirk T.; McGee, Mike; McIntosh, Peter; McKee, Bobby; McPherson, Robert A.; Meidlinger, Mandi; Meier, Karlheinz; Mele, Barbara; Meller, Bob; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Mendez, Hector; Mercer, Adam; Merkin, Mikhail; Meshkov, I.N.; Messner, Robert; Metcalfe, Jessica; Meyer, Chris; Meyer, Hendrik; Meyer, Joachim; Meyer, Niels; Meyners, Norbert; Michelato, Paolo; Michizono, Shinichiro; Mihalcea, Daniel; Mihara, Satoshi; Mihara, Takanori; Mikami, Yoshinari; Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.; Milardi, Catia; Miller, David J.; Miller, Owen; Miller, Roger J.; Milstene, Caroline; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Minashvili, Irakli; Miquel, Ramon; Mishra, Shekhar; Mitaroff, Winfried; Mitchell, Chad; Miura, Takako; Miyata, Hitoshi; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Mnich, Joachim; Moenig, Klaus; Moffeit, Kenneth; Mokhov, Nikolai; Molloy, Stephen; Monaco, Laura; Monasterio, Paul R.; Montanari, Alessandro; Moon, Sung Ik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Mora de Freitas, Paulo; Morel, Federic; Moretti, Stefano; Morgunov, Vasily; Mori, Toshinori; Morin, Laurent; Morisseau, François; Morita, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Youhei; Morita, Yuichi; Morozov, Nikolai; Morozumi, Yuichi; Morse, William; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Moultaka, Gilbert; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Alex; Mueller, Wolfgang; Muennich, Astrid; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Müller, Thomas; Munro, Morrison; Murayama, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nagamine, Tadashi; Nagano, Ai; Naito, Takashi; Nakai, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Isamu; Nakamura, Tomoya; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Nakao, Katsumi; Nakao, Noriaki; Nakayoshi, Kazuo; Nam, Sang; Namito, Yoshihito; Namkung, Won; Nantista, Chris; Napoly, Olivier; Narain, Meenakshi; Naroska, Beate; Nauenberg, Uriel; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nelson, Charles; Nelson, Janice; Nelson, Timothy; Nemecek, Stanislav; Neubauer, Michael; Neuffer, David; Newman, Myriam Q.; Nezhevenko, Oleg; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nguyen, Anh Ky; Nguyen, Minh; Van Nguyen Thi,Hong; Niebuhr, Carsten; Niehoff, Jim; Niezurawski, Piotr; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Nitoh, Osamu; Noguchi, Shuichi; Nomerotski, Andrei; Noonan, John; Norbeck, Edward; Nosochkov, Yuri; Notz, Dieter; Nowak, Grazyna; Nowak, Hannelies; Noy, Matthew; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nyffeler, Andreas; Nygren, David; Oddone, Piermaria; O'Dell, Joseph; Oh, Jong-Seok; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohkuma, Kazumasa; Ohlerich, Martin; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Norihito; Oide, Katsunobu; Okada, Nobuchika; Okada, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Takahiro; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Okumi, Shoji; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliver, William; Olivier, Bob; Olsen, James; Olsen, Jeff; Olsen, Stephen; Olshevsky, A.G.; Olsson, Jan; Omori, Tsunehiko; Onel, Yasar; Onengut, Gulsen; Ono, Hiroaki; Onoprienko, Dmitry; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Will; Orimoto, Toyoko J.; Oriunno, Marco; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Oroku, Masahiro; Orr, Lynne H.; Orr, Robert S.; Oshea, Val; Oskarsson, Anders; Osland, Per; Ossetski, Dmitri; Österman, Lennart; Ostiguy, Francois; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottewell, Brian; Ouyang, Qun; Padamsee, Hasan; Padilla, Cristobal; Pagani, Carlo; Palmer, Mark A.; Pam, Wei Min; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Pandit, V.S.; Pandita, P.N.; Pandurovic, Mila; Pankov, Alexander; Panzeri, Nicola; Papandreou, Zisis; Paparella, Rocco; Para, Adam; Park, Hwanbae; Parker, Brett; Parkes, Chris; Parma, Vittorio; Parsa, Zohreh; Parsons, Justin; Partridge, Richard; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Pásztor, Gabriella; Paterson, Ewan; Patrick, Jim; Patteri, Piero; Ritchie Patterson, J.; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paver, Nello; Pavlicek, Vince; Pawlik, Bogdan; Payet, Jacques; Pchalek, Norbert; Pedersen, John; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Pelka, Jerzy; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pellett, David; Peng, G.X.; Penn, Gregory; Penzo, Aldo; Perry, Colin; Peskin, Michael; Peters, Franz; Petersen, Troels Christian; Peterson, Daniel; Peterson, Thomas; Petterson, Maureen; Pfeffer, Howard; Pfund, Phil; Phelps, Alan; Van Phi, Quang; Phillips, Jonathan; Phinney, Nan; Piccolo, Marcello; Piemontese, Livio; Pierini, Paolo; Thomas Piggott, W.; Pike, Gary; Pillet, Nicolas; Jayawardena, Talini Pinto; Piot, Phillippe; Pitts, Kevin; Pivi, Mauro; Plate, Dave; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poehler, Michael; Poelker, Matthew; Poffenberger, Paul; Pogorelsky, Igor; Poirier, Freddy; Poling, Ronald; Poole, Mike; Popescu, Sorina; Popielarski, John; Pöschl, Roman; Postranecky, Martin; Potukochi, Prakash N.; Prast, Julie; Prat, Serge; Preger, Miro; Prepost, Richard; Price, Michael; Proch, Dieter; Puntambekar, Avinash; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Quadt, Arnulf; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Radeka, Veljko; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Ramberg, Erik; Ranjan, Kirti; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Raspereza, Alexei; Ratti, Alessandro; Ratti, Lodovico; Raubenheimer, Tor; Raux, Ludovic; Ravindran, V.; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Re, Valerio; Rease, Bill; Reece, Charles E.; Regler, Meinhard; Rehlich, Kay; Reichel, Ina; Reichold, Armin; Reid, John; Reid, Ron; Reidy, James; Reinhard, Marcel; Renz, Uwe; Repond, Jose; Resta-Lopez, Javier; Reuen, Lars; Ribnik, Jacob; Rice, Tyler; Richard, François; Riemann, Sabine; Riemann, Tord; Riles, Keith; Riley, Daniel; Rimbault, Cécile; Rindani, Saurabh; Rinolfi, Louis; Risigo, Fabio; Riu, Imma; Rizhikov, Dmitri; Rizzo, Thomas; Rochford, James H.; Rodriguez, Ponciano; Roeben, Martin; Rolandi, Gigi; Roodman, Aaron; Rosenberg, Eli; Roser, Robert; Ross, Marc; Rossel, François; Rossmanith, Robert; Roth, Stefan; Rougé, André; Rowe, Allan; Roy, Amit; Roy, Sendhunil B.; Roy, Sourov; Royer, Laurent; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; Royon, Christophe; Ruan, Manqi; Rubin, David; Ruehl, Ingo; Jimeno, Alberto Ruiz; Ruland, Robert; Rusnak, Brian; Ryu, Sun-Young; Sabbi, Gian Luca; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadygov, Ziraddin Y; Saeki, Takayuki; Sagan, David; Sahni, Vinod C.; Saini, Arun; Saito, Kenji; Saito, Kiwamu; Sajot, Gerard; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Salata, Zen; Salih, Sabah; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Samson, Joergen; Sanami, Toshiya; Levi Sanchez, Allister; Sands, William; Santic, John; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Sapronov, Andrey; Sarkar, Utpal; Sasao, Noboru; Satoh, Kotaro; Sauli, Fabio; Saunders, Claude; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, Lee; Saxton, Laura; Schäfer, Oliver; Schälicke, Andreas; Schade, Peter; Schaetzel, Sebastien; Scheitrum, Glenn; Schibler, Emilie; Schindler, Rafe; Schlösser, Markus; Schlueter, Ross D.; Schmid, Peter; Schmidt, Ringo Sebastian; Schneekloth, Uwe; Schreiber, Heinz Juergen; Schreiber, Siegfried; Schroeder, Henning; Peter Schüler, K.; Schulte, Daniel; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumann, Steffen; Schumm, Bruce A.; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Scott, Duncan J.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Sefkow, Felix; Sefri, Rachid; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Seidel, Sally; Seidman, David; Sekmen, Sezen; Seletskiy, Sergei; Senaha, Eibun; Senanayake, Rohan; Sendai, Hiroshi; Sertore, Daniele; Seryi, Andrei; Settles, Ronald; Sever, Ramazan; Shales, Nicholas; Shao, Ming; Shelkov, G.A.; Shepard, Ken; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Sheppard, John C.; Shi, Cai Tu; Shidara, Tetsuo; Shim, Yeo-Jeong; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Yuuki; Shimogawa, Tetsushi; Shin, Seunghwan; Shioden, Masaomi; Shipsey, Ian; Shirkov, Grigori; Shishido, Toshio; Shivpuri, Ram K.; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Shulga, Sergey; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Shuvalov, Sergey; Si, Zongguo; Siddiqui, Azher Majid; Siegrist, James; Simon, Claire; Simrock, Stefan; Sinev, Nikolai; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Pitamber; Singh, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Singini, Monito; Sinha, Anil K.; Sinha, Nita; Sinha, Rahul; Sinram, Klaus; Sissakian, A.N.; Skachkov, N.B.; Skrinsky, Alexander; Slater, Mark; Slominski, Wojciech; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smith, A J Stewart; Smith, Alex; Smith, Brian J.; Smith, Jeff; Smith, Jonathan; Smith, Steve; Smith, Susan; Smith, Tonee; Neville Snodgrass, W.; Sobloher, Blanka; Sohn, Young-Uk; Solidum, Ruelson; Solyak, Nikolai; Son, Dongchul; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sopczak, Andre; Soskov, V.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Speziali, Valeria; Spira, Michael; Sprehn, Daryl; Sridhar, K.; Srivastava, Asutosh; St. Lorant, Steve; Stahl, Achim; Stanek, Richard P.; Stanitzki, Marcel; Stanley, Jacob; Stefanov, Konstantin; Stein, Werner; Steiner, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert; Stern, Amir; Sternberg, Matt; Stockinger, Dominik; Stockton, Mark; Stoeck, Holger; Strachan, John; Strakhovenko, V.; Strauss, Michael; Striganov, Sergei I.; Strologas, John; Strom, David; Strube, Jan; Stupakov, Gennady; Su, Dong; Sudo, Yuji; Suehara, Taikan; Suehiro, Toru; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Suh, Jun Suhk; Sukovic, Goran; Sun, Hong; Sun, Stephen; Sun, Werner; Sun, Yi; Sun, Yipeng; Suszycki, Leszek; Sutcliffe, Peter; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsuto; Suzuki, Chihiro; Suzuki, Shiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Swent, Richard; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swinson, Christina; Syresin, Evgeny; Szleper, Michal; Tadday, Alexander; Takahashi, Rika; Takahashi, Tohru; Takano, Mikio; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Takeda, Seishi; Takenaka, Tateru; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Masami; Tang, Chuan Xiang; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tantawi, Sami; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tartaglia, Michael A.; Tassielli, Giovanni Francesco; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Tavian, Laurent; Tawara, Hiroko; Taylor, Geoffrey; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Telnov, Valery; Tenenbaum, Peter; Teodorescu, Eliza; Terashima, Akio; Terracciano, Giuseppina; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Teubner, Thomas; Teuscher, Richard; Theilacker, Jay; Thomson, Mark; Tice, Jeff; Tigner, Maury; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maxim; Toge, Nobukazu; Tokareva, N.A.; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomovic, Savo; Tompkins, John; Tonutti, Manfred; Topkar, Anita; Toprek, Dragan; Toral, Fernando; Torrence, Eric; Traversi, Gianluca; Trimpl, Marcel; Mani Tripathi, S.; Trischuk, William; Trodden, Mark; Trubnikov, G.V.; Tschirhart, Robert; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Tsukamoto, Toshifumi; Tsunemi, Akira; Tucker, Robin; Turchetta, Renato; Tyndel, Mike; Uekusa, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Kenji; Umemori, Kensei; Ummenhofer, Martin; Underwood, David; Uozumi, Satoru; Urakawa, Junji; Urban, Jeremy; Uriot, Didier; Urner, David; Ushakov, Andrei; Usher, Tracy; Uzunyan, Sergey; Vachon, Brigitte; Valerio, Linda; Valin, Isabelle; Valishev, Alex; Vamra, Raghava; Van der Graaf, Harry; Van Kooten, Rick; Van Zandbergen, Gary; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Variola, Alessandro; Varner, Gary; Velasco, Mayda; Velte, Ulrich; Velthuis, Jaap; Vempati, Sundir K.; Venturini, Marco; Vescovi, Christophe; Videau, Henri; Vila, Ivan; Vincent, Pascal; Virey, Jean-Marc; Visentin, Bernard; Viti, Michele; Vo, Thanh Cuong; Vogel, Adrian; Vogt, Harald; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vos, Marcel; Votava, Margaret; Vrba, Vaclav; Wackeroth, Doreen; Wagner, Albrecht; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Wagner, Stephen; Wake, Masayoshi; Walczak, Roman; Walker, Nicholas J.; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallon, Samuel; Walsh, Roberval; Walston, Sean; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walz, Dieter; Wang, Chao En; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Faya; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Juwen; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Lei; Wang, Min-Zu; Wang, Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Xiaolian; Wang, Xue-Lei; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Ward, Bennie; Ward, David; Warmbein, Barbara; Warner, David W.; Warren, Matthew; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Isamu; Watanabe, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Watanabe, Yuichi; Watson, Nigel; Wattimena, Nanda; Wayne, Mitchell; Weber, Marc; Weerts, Harry; Weiglein, Georg; Weiland, Thomas; Weinzierl, Stefan; Weise, Hans; Weisend, John; Wendt, Manfred; Wendt, Oliver; Wenzel, Hans; Wenzel, William A.; Wermes, Norbert; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wesseln, Steve; Wester, William; White, Andy; White, Glen R.; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wienemann, Peter; Wierba, Wojciech; Wilksen, Tim; Willis, William; Wilson, Graham W.; Wilson, John A.; Wilson, Robert; Wing, Matthew; Winter, Marc; Wirth, Brian D.; Wolbers, Stephen A.; Wolff, Dan; Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.; Woods, Michael; Woodward, Michael L.; Woolliscroft, Timothy; Worm, Steven; Wormser, Guy; Wright, Dennis; Wright, Douglas; Wu, Andy; Wu, Tao; Wu, Yue Liang; Xella, Stefania; Xia, Guoxing; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Xiao, Liling; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xiong, Lian You; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jing; Yajnik, Urjit A.; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yamada, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naoto; Yamamoto, Richard; Yamamoto, Yasuchika; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Yamazaki, Hideki; Yan, Wenbiao; Yang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Jin Min; Yang, Jongmann; Yang, Zhenwei; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yazgan, Efe; Yeh, G.P.; Yilmaz, Hakan; Yock, Philip; Yoda, Hakutaro; Yoh, John; Yokoya, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; York, Richard C.; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Takuo; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Young, Andrew; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Changzheng; Yue, Chong-Xing; Yue, Jun Hui; Zacek, Josef; Zagorodnov, Igor; Zalesak, Jaroslav; Zalikhanov, Boris; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zerwas, Dirk; Zerwas, Peter; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Bao Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Zhige; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Ziping; Zhao, Haiwen; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Ming Hua; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Tong Xian; Zhao, Zhen Tang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Shou Hua; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zhukov, Valery; Zimmermann, Frank; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zisman, Michael S.; Zomer, Fabian; Zong, Zhang Guo; Zorba, Osman; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2007-01-01

    This report, Volume IV of the International Linear Collider Reference Design Report, describes the detectors which will record and measure the charged and neutral particles produced in the ILC's high energy e+e- collisions. The physics of the ILC, and the environment of the machine-detector interface, pose new challenges for detector design. Several conceptual designs for the detector promise the needed performance, and ongoing detector R&D is addressing the outstanding technological issues. Two such detectors, operating in push-pull mode, perfectly instrument the ILC interaction region, and access the full potential of ILC physics.

  9. A Thermal Imaging Instrument with Uncooled Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed work, we will perform an instrument concept study for sustainable thermal imaging over land with uncooled detectors. We will define the science and...

  10. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

  11. Recent developments in radiation detectors and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Radiation detector is the key component in precise and accurate measurement of the nuclear radiations. The detectors deployed for radiation measurements in broadly classified sectors of Energy, Security, Discovery Science and Health and Environments are in general specific to their applications. The nuclear reactors as well as the fuel processing including waste management in energy sector require wide range/variety of detectors and the instruments for safe and precise generation of power. The security sector has gained importance in radiation monitoring in the present security perspective and there are many challenges in development of detector technology. The Discovery Science or the mega science projects viz CERN, Fermilab, GANIL, INO, MACE telescope, ITER etc have continuously generated new demand on detector related technologies that have been also found to be useful in other applications. Similarly, the health and environment monitoring have been also evolving with new technologies and techniques to address the requirement's arising in projects of new nuclear programs

  12. Instrumentation of the forward region of the TESLA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesser, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    The expected beam-beam interaction at the proposed TESLA electron-positron linear collider has a significant impact on the design of the TESLA detector. Especially the instrumentation of the very forward region down to polar angles below 5 mrad will have to handle an immense background of electrons and positrons adding up to TeVs of energy deposition per bunch crossing. Instrumentation down to small angles is crucial not only for the measurement of the luminosity through Bhabha scattering, but also to maximize the hermeticity of the detector. Additionally these charged particles from beamstrahlung have to be measured as part of the feedback system of the TESLA accelerator and could also be used for beam diagnostics. The present design of the TESLA detector foresees two calorimeters in the forward region whose technologies have to meet the requirements regarding detector resolutions and radiation hardness. (orig.)

  13. A Thermal Imaging Instrument with Uncooled Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; Barrentine, E. M.; Brown, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we perform an instrument concept study for sustainable thermal imaging over land with uncooled detectors. The National Research Council's Committee on Implementation of a Sustained Land Imaging Program has identified the inclusion of a thermal imager as critical for both current and future land imaging missions. Such an imaging instrument operating in two bands located at approximately 11 and 12 microns (for example, in Landsat 8, and also Landsat 9 when launched) will provide essential information for furthering our hydrologic understanding at scales of human influence, and produce field-scale moisture information through accurate retrievals of evapotranspiration (ET). Landsat 9 is slated to recycle the TIRS-2 instrument launched with Landsat 8 that uses cooled quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), hence requiring expensive and massive cryocooler technology to achieve its required spectral and spatial accuracies. Our goal is to conceptualize and develop a thermal imaging instrument which leverages recent and imminent technology advances in uncooled detectors. Such detector technology will offer the benefit of greatly reduced instrument cost, mass, and power at the expense of some acceptable loss in detector sensitivity. It would also allow a thermal imaging instrument to be fielded on board a low-cost platform, e.g., a CubeSat. Sustained and enhanced land imaging is crucial for providing high-quality science data on change in land use, forest health, crop status, environment, and climate. Accurate satellite mapping of ET at the agricultural field scale (the finest spatial scale of the environmental processes of interest) requires high-quality thermal data to produce the corresponding accurate land surface temperature (LST) retrievals used to drive an ET model. Such an imaging instrument would provide important information on the following: 1) the relationship between land-use and land/water management practices and water use dynamics; 2) the

  14. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  15. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  16. Instrument performance and simulation verification of the POLAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, M.; Li, Z. H.; Produit, N.; Tymieniecka, T.; Zhang, J.; Zwolinska, A.; Bao, T. W.; Bernasconi, T.; Cadoux, F.; Feng, M. Z.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kong, S. W.; Li, H. C.; Li, L.; Liu, X.; Marcinkowski, R.; Orsi, S.; Pohl, M.; Rybka, D.; Sun, J. C.; Song, L. M.; Szabelski, J.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wen, X.; Wu, B. B.; Wu, X.; Xiao, H. L.; Xiong, S. L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, X. F.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-11-01

    POLAR is a new satellite-born detector aiming to measure the polarization of an unprecedented number of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the 50-500 keV energy range. The instrument, launched on-board the Tiangong-2 Chinese Space lab on the 15th of September 2016, is designed to measure the polarization of the hard X-ray flux by measuring the distribution of the azimuthal scattering angles of the incoming photons. A detailed understanding of the polarimeter and specifically of the systematic effects induced by the instrument's non-uniformity are required for this purpose. In order to study the instrument's response to polarization, POLAR underwent a beam test at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France. In this paper both the beam test and the instrument performance will be described. This is followed by an overview of the Monte Carlo simulation tools developed for the instrument. Finally a comparison of the measured and simulated instrument performance will be provided and the instrument response to polarization will be presented.

  17. Instrument Performance and Simulation Verification of the POLAR Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Kole, M.; Li, Z. H.; Produit, N.; Tymieniecka, T.; Zhang, J.; Zwolinska, A.; Bao, T. W.; Bernasconi, T.; Cadoux, F.; Feng, M. Z.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kong, S. W.; Li, H. C.; Li, L.

    2017-01-01

    POLAR is a new satellite-born detector aiming to measure the polarization of an unprecedented number of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the 50-500 keV energy range. The instrument, launched on-board the Tiangong-2 Chinese Space lab on the 15th of September 2016, is designed to measure the polarization of the hard X-ray flux by measuring the distribution of the azimuthal scattering angles of the incoming photons. A detailed understanding of the polarimeter and specifically of the systematic effects induce...

  18. STAR PIXEL detector mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieman, H H; Anderssen, E; Greiner, L; Matis, H S; Ritter, H G; Sun, X; Szelezniak, M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: hhwieman@lbl.gov

    2009-05-15

    A high resolution pixel detector is being designed for the STAR [1] experiment at RHIC. This device will use MAPS as the detector element and will have a pointing accuracy of {approx}25 microns. We will be reporting on the mechanical design required to support this resolution. The radiation length of the first layer ({approx}0.3% X{sub 0}) and its distance from the interaction point (2.5 cm) determines the resolution. The design makes use of air cooling and thin carbon composite structures to limit the radiation length. The mechanics are being developed to achieve spatial calibrations and stability to 20 microns and to permit rapid detector replacement in event of radiation damage or other potential failures from operation near the beam.

  19. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  20. Instrument design and automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernlund, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The ion mobility spectrometer-mass spectrometer (IMS-MS) is described and consists of two separate instruments coupled in tandem: an ion mobility spectrometer coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The two insturments operate at different pressures in a synergistic manner, supplying both drift time and mass information about ions which are formed at atmospheric pressure in the ion mobility spectrometer tube. Two types of ion intensity signals are presented to the data processor. The IMS produces an analog voltage with major components from dc to 5 KHz. The mass spectrometer signal output resides in the pulse count rate derived from a series of TTL level pulses where each pulse represents the arrival of a single ion. The hardware, software, interfacing capabilities and basic data acquisition program are described in detail

  1. Sources, instrumentation and detectors for protein crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Nave, C

    2001-01-01

    Some of the requirements for protein crystallography experiments on a synchrotron are described. Although data from different types of crystal are often collected without changing the X-ray beam properties, there are benefits if the incident beam is matched to a particular crystal and its diffraction pattern. These benefits are described with some examples. Radiation damage and other effects impose limits on the dose and dose rate on a protein crystal if the maximum amount of data is to be obtained. These limitations have possible consequences for the X-ray source required. Presently available commercial detector systems provide excellent data for protein crystallography but do not quite reach the specifications of the 'ideal' detector. In order to collect the most accurate data (e.g. for very weak anomalous scattering applications) detectors that produce near photon counting statistics over a wide dynamic range are required. It is possible that developments in 'pixel' detectors will allow these demanding exp...

  2. Kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) for the SAFARI instrument on SPICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, L.; Baryshev, A M; Baselmans, J. J. A.; de Lange, G.; Diener, P.; Kooi, J. W.; Lankwarden, J. J.; Yates, S. J. C.; Oschmann, Jacobus M.; Clampin, Mark C.; MacEwen, Howard A.

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) with frequency domain read-out are intrinsically very suitable to use as building blocks for very large arrays. KIDs therefore are an attractive detector option for the SAFARI instrument on SPICA, Millimetron and also for large scale ground based imaging arrays.

  3. Design, instrumentation and response characteristics of a 2 pi multi-detector of CsI(Tl) scintillators mounted inside the Plastic Ball spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joulaeizadeh, L.; Gasparic, I.; Bacelar, J.; Caplar, R.; Löhner, H.

    2010-01-01

    A 2 pi hemispherical detector consisting of 64 CsI(Tl) scintillator modules covering the angular range of 80 degrees -160 degrees has been constructed. This detector is employed as the Inner Shell of the Plastic Ball detector and was used in two experimental programs concerning the study of pionic

  4. Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ran

    A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property of such instruments and is the subject of the current study. Future telescopes will require as many as hundreds of thousands of detectors to meet the necessary requirements in terms of the field of view, scan speed, and resolution. A large pixel count is one benefit of the development of multiplexable detectors that use kinetic inductance detector (KID) technology. This dissertation presents the development of a KID-based instrument including a portion of the millimeter-wave bandpass filters and all aspects of the readout electronics, which together enabled one of the largest detector counts achieved to date in submillimeter-/millimeter-wavelength imaging arrays: a total of 2304 detectors. The work presented in this dissertation has been implemented in the MUltiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  5. The development of neutron detectors for the GEM instrument at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, N.J.; Johnson, M.W.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    GEM is a new General Materials diffractometer now being commissioned at ISIS. To meet its broad based scientific programme GEM requires a large area position sensitive detector which covers a wide range of scattering angles and exhibits a high neutron count rate stability. This paper discusses the design of a ZnS/ 6 Li fibre coupled detector array that meets the GEM requirements. Typical detector characteristics are documented together with the current status of the project. Two thirds of the detector array are operational and from the results obtained to date it is already obvious that the impact of this instrument on neutron scattering studies will be profound. (author)

  6. Design of nuclear instruments for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    Following an introduction to the atomic structure and the radioactive desintegration, the applications of radioisotopic sealed sources are described. The laws that govern the interaction of radiation with matter and the statistics applied to the radioactive measurements are presented. Different measurement techniques, basic equations of design, the way to provide the activity calculation of a source and the detector's characteristics are given, according to the parameters to be measured and the conditions imposed. Finally, the principles of operation and the most important characteristics of different nuclear instruments to be used in industrial measurements are described. (Author) [es

  7. A new design of neutron survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R.J.; Eakins, J.S.; Hager, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    A novel design of neutron survey instrument has been developed. The moderator has been modified via the use of 'neutron guides', which help thermal neutrons reach the central proportional counter. This innovation has allowed the variations in the energy dependence of ambient dose equivalent response to be reduced compared to prior single-detector designs, whilst maintaining a relatively light moderator and simple construction. In particular, the design has a relatively small over-response to neutrons with energies around 5 keV, when compared to prior designs. The final optimized design has been verified using MCNP5 calculations to ensure that the response is relatively independent of the energy and direction of the incident neutron. This has required the ends of the guides to be structured so that unidirectional and isotropic neutron fields have closely matched responses, as is necessary in the workplace. The reading of the instrument in workplace fields is calculated via folding and the suitability of the design for use in the workplace discussed.

  8. Design and construction of the POLAR detector

    OpenAIRE

    Produit, N.; Bao, T. W.; Batsch, T.; Bernasconi, T.; Britvich, I.; Cadoux, F.; Cernuda, I.; Chai, J. Y.; Dong, Y. W.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kole, M.; Kong, M. N.; Kramert, R.; Li, L.

    2017-01-01

    The POLAR detector is a space based Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) polarimeter with a wide field of view, which covers almost half the sky. The instrument uses Compton scattering of gamma rays on a plastic scintillator hodoscope to measure the polarization of the incoming photons. The instrument has been successfully launched on board of the Chinese space laboratory Tiangong~2 on September 15, 2016. The construction of the instrument components is described in this article. Details are provided on pro...

  9. Design of an ionization diffusion chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto, S.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of an Ionization Diffusion Chamber detector has been made. It is a silindrical glass, 20 cm in diameter, 13,5 cm in height, air gas filled, operated at room pressure and room temperature at the top of this instrument while for the box temperature dry ice (CO 2 solid) temperature is used. This detector is ready for seeing alpha and beta particle tracks. (author)

  10. Design and construction of the POLAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Produit, N.; Bao, T. W.; Batsch, T.; Bernasconi, T.; Britvich, I.; Cadoux, F.; Cernuda, I.; Chai, J. Y.; Dong, Y. W.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kole, M.; Kong, M. N.; Kramert, R.; Li, L.; Liu, J. T.; Liu, X.; Marcinkowski, R.; Orsi, S.; Pohl, M.; Rapin, D.; Rybka, D.; Rutczynska, A.; Shi, H. L.; Socha, P.; Sun, J. C.; Song, L. M.; Szabelski, J.; Traseira, I.; Xiao, H. L.; Wang, R. J.; Wen, X.; Wu, B. B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zwolinska, A.

    2018-01-01

    The POLAR detector is a space based Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) polarimeter with a wide field of view, which covers almost half the sky. The instrument uses Compton scattering of gamma rays on a plastic scintillator hodoscope to measure the polarization of the incoming photons. The instrument has been successfully launched on board of the Chinese space laboratory Tiangong 2 on September 15, 2016. The construction of the instrument components is described in this article. Details are provided on problems encountered during the construction phase and their solutions. Initial performance of the instrument in orbit is as expected from ground tests and Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. Instrumentation for characterizing materials and composed semiconductors for ionizing radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, Arquimedes J.A.; Leite, Adolfo M.B.; Nazzre, Fabio V.B.; Santos, Luiz A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of instrumentation for characterizing some type of ionizing radiation detectors. Those detectors are being manufactured by the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory at CRCN/Recife and can be used both on photon beam and with particles. Such detectors consist of semiconductor material in the form of films generated by oxide growing or by means of semiconductor material deposition in a substrate. Those materials can be made of metals, semi-metals, composites or semiconductor polymers. Prior to expose those detectors to ionizing radiation, it must be physically and electrically characterized. In this intention it was developed an electromechanical system. An electrical circuit was built to measure the signal from the detector and another circuit to control the movement of four probes (4-points technique) by using a stepper motor and the micro stepping technique avoiding damage to the detector. This system can be of interest to researchers that work with a sort of semiconductor materials in the form of thin film and in nanotechnological processes aiming the design of radiation ionizing detectors. (author)

  12. Design of a lepton detector for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnstein, R.; Carithers, W.C.; Duong-van, M.

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical background is given for a proposed experiment to detect W mesons using their leptonic decay mode. A lepton detector was designed for use at the planned ISABELLE proton--proton colliding beam storage rings. The general configuration of the detector is shown, and an electron identification module, an electron-hadron calorimeter, methods of muon identification, and an optional central detector (magnetic solenoid spectrometer) are discussed

  13. Mechanical engineers' handbook, design, instrumentation, and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Kutz, Myer

    2015-01-01

    Full coverage of electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation andcontrol in mechanical engineering This second volume of Mechanical Engineers' Handbookcovers electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation and control, givingyou accessible and in-depth access to the topics you'll encounterin the discipline: computer-aided design, product design formanufacturing and assembly, design optimization, total qualitymanagement in mechanical system design, reliability in themechanical design process for sustainability, life-cycle design,design for remanufacturing processes, signal processing, dataacquisition and dis

  14. SCASim: A Flexible and Reusable Detector Simulator for the MIRI instrument of the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, S.; Morin, J.; Gastaud, R.; Azzollini, R.; Bouchet, P.; Chaintreuil, S.; Lahuis, F.; Littlejohns, O.; Nehme, C.; Pye, J.

    2012-09-01

    The JWST Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) operates in the 5-28μm wavelength range and can be configured for imaging, coronographic imaging, long-slit, low-resolution spectroscopy or medium resolution spectroscopy with an integral field unit. SCASim is one of a suite of simulators which operate together to simulate all the different modes of the instrument. These simulators are essential for the efficient operation of MIRI; allowing more accurate planning of MIRI observations on sky or during the pre-launch testing of the instrument. The data generated by the simulators are essential for testing the data pipeline software. The simulators not only need to reproduce the behaviour of the instrument faithfully, they also need to be adaptable so that information learned about the instrument during the pre-launch testing and in-orbit commissioning can be fed back into the simulation. SCASim simulates the behaviour of the MIRI detectors, taking into account cosmetic effects, quantum efficiency, shot noise, dark current, read noise, amplifier layout, cosmic ray hits, etc... The software has benefited from three major design choices. First, the development of a suite of MIRI simulators, rather than single simulator, has allowed MIRI simulators to be developed in parallel by different teams, with each simulator able to concentrate on one particular area. SCASim provides a facility common to all the other simulators and saves duplication of effort. Second, SCASim has a Python-based object-oriented design which makes it easier to adapt as new information about the instrument is learned during testing. Third, all simulator parameters are maintained in external files, rather than being hard coded in the software. These design choices have made SCASim highly reusable. In its present form it can be used to simulate any JWST detector, and it can be adapted for future instruments with similar, photon-counting detectors.

  15. Instruments for calibration and monitoring of the LHCb Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Deplano, C; Lai, A

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this Ph. D. thesis is the study and the development of the instruments needed to monitor and calibrate the Muon Detector of the LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment. LHCb is currently under installation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will start to take data during 2007. The experiment will study B mesons decays to achieve a profound understanding of favour physics in the Standard Model framework and to search signs of new physics beyond. Muons can be found in the final states of many B-decays which are sensitive to CP violation. The Muon Detector has the crucial role to identify the muon particles generated by the b-hadron decays through a measurement of their transverse momentum, already at the first trigger level (Level-0). A 95% effciency in events selection is required for the Muon Trigger, which operates at the Level-0. 1380 detectors are used to equip the whole Muon System and the corresponding 122,112 readout channels must be time aligned and monitored with a resol...

  16. Preliminary A ampersand PCT multiple detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Camp, D.C.; Decman, D.J.; Johansson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation, multi-detector active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand PCT) scanner will be optimized for speed and accuracy. At the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) we have demonstrated the trade-offs between different A ampersand PCT design parameters that affect the speed and quality of the assay results. These fundamental parameters govern the optimum system design. Although the multi-detector scanner design has priority put on speed to increase waste drum throughput, higher speed should not compromise assay accuracy. One way to increase the speed of the A ampersand PCT technology is to use multiple detectors. This yields a linear speedup by a factor approximately equal to the number of detectors used without a compromise in system accuracy. There are many different design scenarios that can be developed using multiple detectors. Here we describe four different scenarios and discuss the trade-offs between them. Also, some considerations are given in this design description for the implementation of a multiple detector technology in a field- deployable mobile trailer system

  17. Design and validation of portable optical instrument for crop diagnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Zheng, Wengang; Huang, Wengjiang; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Liangyun

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a portable diagnostic instrument was designed and tested, which can measure the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structure insensitive pigment index (SIPI) of crop canopy in field. The instrument have a valid survey area of 1 m*1 m when the height between instrument and the ground was fixed to 1.3 meter The crop growth condition can be assessed based on their NDVI and SIPI values, so it will be very important for crop management to get these values. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. There are six special different photoelectrical detectors within red, blue and near infrared bands, which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and reflex light from the canopy of crop. This optical instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process and A/D convert module, the data storing and transmission module and human-machine interface module. The detector is the core of the instrument which measures the spectrums at special bands. The microprocessor calculates the NDVI and SIPI value based on the A/D value. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's RS232 serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field at different view directions. This paper also provided the method of calibration, the results showed that the average measurement error to SIPI value of instrument was 5.25% and the average measurement error to NDVI value in vegetation-covered region is 6.40%. It reveals the on-site and non-sampling mode of crop growth monitoring by fixed on the agricultural machine traveling in the field.

  18. Conceptual design of safety instrumentation for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralikrishna, G.; Seshadri, U.; Raghavan, K.

    1996-01-01

    Instrumentation systems enable monitoring of the process which in turn enables control and shutdown of the process as per the requirements. Safety Instrumentation due to its vital importance has a stringent role and this needs to be designed methodically. This paper presents the details of the conceptual design for PFBR. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Design Report for Low Power Acoustic Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    high speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) hardware description language ( VHDL ) implementation of both the HED and DCD detectors. Figures 4 and 5 show the...the hardware design, target detection algorithm design in both MATLAB and VHDL , and typical performance results. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Acoustic low...5 2.4 Algorithm Implementation ..............................................................................................6 3. Testing

  20. Design requirements for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies (SWIFT) instrument is a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument that employs the method of Doppler Michelson interferometry to measure stratospheric wind velocities and ozone densities in the altitude range of 15–45 km. The values of the main instrument parameters including filter system parameters and Michelson interferometer parameters are derived using simulations and analyses. The system design requirements for the instrument and spacecraft are presented and discussed. Some of the retrieval-imposed design requirements are also discussed. Critical design issues are identified. The design optimization process is described. The sensitivity of wind measurements to instrument characteristics is investigated including the impact on critical design issues. Using sensitivity analyses, the instrument parameters were iteratively optimized in order to meet the science objectives. It is shown that wind measurements are sensitive to the thermal sensitivity of the instrument components, especially the narrow filter and the Michelson interferometer. The optimized values of the main system parameters including Michelson interferometer optical path difference, instrument visibility, instrument responsivity and knowledge of spacecraft velocity are reported. This work also shows that the filter thermal drift and the Michelson thermal drift are two main technical risks. (paper)

  1. Design of neutron detectors utilising luminescent glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spowart, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Impetus for the development of new neutron detector designs has derived from the worldwide commissioning of neutron spallation sources. The design concepts, and principal methods of utilisation of these major installations, have been recently reviewed. Their principal feature of interest is their broadband neutron emission allowing neutron investigations of all types of structure in materials from biological molecules to steels. Conventional neutron detectors are gas-filled devices, based on BF/sub 3/ or /sup 3/He gas. Their major advantage is their intrinsically low background count. Their principal disadvantage is their slow response time (10-100 μs), high cost and relative lack of flexibility in design to cope with large areas or complex geometry detection. They are, however, long established and the research facilities around the world have a heavy investment in the interpretative hardware for gas detectors

  2. Design of GRM phoswich detector readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiangtao; Dong Yongwei; Song Liming; Wu Bobing; Zhang Yongjie; Xu He

    2014-01-01

    A set of mixed-signal read out system was designed for the phoswich detectors of the γ-ray burst monitor in the SVOM satellite, which was used to obtain the amplitude and the width of the voltage pulse that came from the GRM phoswich detector, and classify the signals. The FPGA was used to control the timing in the system, high-speed peak holding circuit was used to get the peak of voltage pulse, and the RS232 interface was used to complete the data exchange between the system and the PC. The test results show that this design can achieve the data acquisition and the discrimination. (authors)

  3. The system of the designing for PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zongliang

    2006-01-01

    PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography, a new nuclear medicine imaging device. PET detector is the key of PET. This paper introduces a system of the designing for PET detector. The system can be used to design various PET detector. A PET detector BLOCK with 8 x 8 crystals has been designed and built by this system. (authors)

  4. Design innovations in neutron and gamma detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, K.R.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and gamma radiation needs to be monitored in most nuclear installations since it is highly penetrating. On-line monitoring of these radiations is very important for the safe and controlled operation of nuclear reactors, accelerators etc. Several design innovations have been carried out on gas ionisation detectors such as boron-lined proportional counters and ion chambers, fission detectors, gamma ion chambers as well as self-powered detectors. The use of additional structures within boron-lined detectors has enhanced their neutron sensitivity without a corresponding increase in the unwanted gamma sensitivity. The neutron sensitivity of fission counters can be enhanced by designing them as transmission line devices. Ion chambers with two and six pairs of electrodes have been developed for monitoring pulsed x-ray background at accelerator areas. Ion chambers have been employed at gamma fields up to 80 kR/h by deriving the exposure levels on-line using microcontroller devices programmed on the basis of theoretical and empirical formulas. The use of gas electron multiplier foils is proposed for charge multiplication in ion chambers. Self-powered detectors with new emitter materials like Hi, Ni and Inconel have been developed. (author)

  5. Norm based design of fault detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well...

  6. An instrumentation amplifier based readout circuit for a dual element microbolometer infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, D. J.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    The infrared band is widely used in many applications to solve problems stretching over very diverse fields, ranging from medical applications like inflammation detection to military, security and safety applications employing thermal imaging in low light conditions. At the heart of these optoelectrical systems lies a sensor used to detect incident infrared radiation, and in the case of this work our focus is on uncooled microbolometers as thermal detectors. Microbolometer based thermal detectors are limited in sensitivity by various parameters, including the detector layout and design, operating temperature, air pressure and biasing that causes self heating. Traditional microbolometers use the entire membrane surface for a single detector material. This work presents the design of a readout circuit amplifier where a dual detector element microbolometer is used, rather than the traditional single element. The concept to be investigated is based on the principle that both elements will be stimulated with a similar incoming IR signal and experience the same resistive change, thus creating a common mode signal. However, such a common mode signal will be rejected by a differential amplifier, thus one element is placed within a negative resistance converter to create a differential mode signal that is twice the magnitude of the comparable single mode signal of traditional detector designs. An instrumentation amplifier is used for the final stage of the readout amplifier circuit, as it allows for very high common mode rejection with proper trimming of the Wheatstone bridge to compensate for manufacturing tolerance. It was found that by implementing the above, improved sensitivity can be achieved.

  7. Burnout detector design for heat transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, H.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an burnout detector for heat transfer experiments, applied during tests for optimization of fuel elements for PWR reactors. The burnout detector avoids the fuel rods destruction during the experiments at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear. The detector evaluates the temperature changes over the fuel rods in the temperature changes over the fuel rods in the area where the burnout phenomenon could be anticipated. As soon as the phenomenon appears, the system power supply is turned off. The thermal Circuit No. 1, during the experiments, had been composed by nine fuel rods feed parallelly by the same power supply. Fine copper wires had been attached at the centre and at the ends of the fuel rod to take two Wheat stone bridge arms. The detector had been applied across the bridge diagonals, which must be balanced the burnout excursion can be detected as a small but fast increase of the signal over the detector. Large scale experiments had been carried out to compare the resistance bridge performance against a thermocouple attached through the fuel rod wall. These experiments had been showed us the advantages of the first method over the last, because the bridge evaluates the whole fuel rod, while the thermocouple evaluates only the area where it had been attached. (author)

  8. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of 'nonstandard' magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods

  9. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of "nonstandard" magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods.

  10. VLT instruments: industrial solutions for non-scientific detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, P.; Knudstrup, J.; Lilley, P.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Mannetta, M.

    2014-07-01

    Recent improvements in industrial vision technology and products together with the increasing need for high performance, cost efficient technical detectors for astronomical instrumentation have led ESO with the contribution of INAF to evaluate this trend and elaborate ad-hoc solutions which are interoperable and compatible with the evolution of VLT standards. The ESPRESSO spectrograph shall be the first instrument deploying this technology. ESO's Technical CCD (hereafter TCCD) requirements are extensive and demanding. A lightweight, low maintenance, rugged and high performance TCCD camera product or family of products is required which can operate in the extreme environmental conditions present at ESO's observatories with minimum maintenance and minimal downtime. In addition the camera solution needs to be interchangeable between different technical roles e.g. slit viewing, pupil and field stabilization, with excellent performance characteristics under a wide range of observing conditions together with ease of use for the end user. Interoperability is enhanced by conformance to recognized electrical, mechanical and software standards. Technical requirements and evaluation criteria for the TCCD solution are discussed in more detail. A software architecture has been adopted which facilitates easy integration with TCCD's from different vendors. The communication with the devices is implemented by means of dedicated adapters allowing usage of the same core framework (business logic). The preference has been given to cameras with an Ethernet interface, using standard TCP/IP based communication. While the preferred protocol is the industrial standard GigE Vision, not all vendors supply cameras with this interface, hence proprietary socket-based protocols are also acceptable with the provision of a validated Linux compliant API. A fundamental requirement of the TCCD software is that it shall allow for a seamless integration with the existing VLT software framework

  11. Field-portable high-resolution EDXRF analysis with HgI2-detector-based instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, P.F.; Little, S.R.; Voots, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis is well known for its efficient use of x-ray detector technology for simultaneous multielement determination. Low-intensity excitation, such as from a radioisotope source, can thus be employed and has enabled the design of many types of truly portable EDXRF instrumentation. Portable design, however, has not been without significant compromise in analytical performance because of the limited x-ray resolving power of prior detection methods, except by the use of a cryogenically operated detector. The developments we refer to stem from the use of a comparatively new x-ray detection device fabricated from mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ). For this detector, only a modest degree of cooling is required to achieve an energy resolution of > 300 eV. Two field-portable instrument designs of different hand-held measurement probe configurations are available that have applications for industrial quality assurance and environmental screening

  12. ASIC and HMC designs for portable nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the seed activity done so far for realizing the goal of compact portable nuclear instruments and related instrumentation that can be designed, developed and manufactured without external constraints. This important activity requires critical components to be made in the country by tapping and gearing the established industrial units for this activity. A good deal of ground work has been carried out over a period of time in setting up IC design facility and CAD-FAB interface. There has been a close interaction with the production and semiconductor facilities to design and develop ASIC, hybrids, display devices, detectors/sensors etc. Efforts are also undertaken to develop the critical technologies that are required to fulfill the requirement. A status report on various technologies, ASIC, hybrids and their application development done in the face of out-standing challenges is being presented here. (author)

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  14. Design of readout drivers for ATLAS pixel detectors using field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sivasubramaniyan, Sriram

    Microstrip detectors are an integral patt of high energy physics research . Special protocols are used to transmit the data from these detectors . To readout the data from such detectors specialized instrumentation have to be designed . To achieve this task, creative and innovative high speed algorithms were designed simulated and implemented in Field Programmable gate arrays, using CAD/CAE tools. The simulation results indicated that these algorithms would be able to perform all the required tasks quickly and efficiently. This thesis describes the design of data acquisition system called the Readout Drivers (ROD) . It focuses on the ROD data path for ATLAS Pixel detectors. The data path will be an integrated part of Readout Drivers setup to decode the data from the silicon micro strip detectors and pixel detectors. This research also includes the design of Readout Driver controller. This Module is used to control the operation of the ROD. This module is responsible for the operation of the Pixel decoders bas...

  15. Design and construction of the SAPHIR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwille, W.J.; Bockhorst, M.; Burbach, G.; Burgwinkel, R.; Empt, J.; Guse, B.; Haas, K.M.; Hannappel, J.; Heinloth, K.; Hey, T.; Honscheid, K.; Jahnen, T.; Jakob, H.P.; Joepen, N.; Juengst, H.; Kirch, U.; Klein, F.J.; Kostrewa, D.; Lindemann, L.; Link, J.; Manns, J.; Menze, D.; Merkel, H.; Merkel, R.; Neuerburg, W.; Paul, E.; Ploetzke, R.; Schenk, U.; Schmidt, S.; Scholmann, J.; Schuetz, P.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schweitzer, M.; Tran, M.Q.; Vogl, W.; Wedemeyer, R.; Wehnes, F.; Wisskirchen, J.; Wolf, A.

    1994-01-01

    The design, construction, and performance of the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer SAPHIR is described. It was built for the investigation of photon-induced reactions on nucleous and light nuclei with mulit-particle final states up to photon energies of 3.1 GeV. The detector is equipped with a tagged photon beam facility and is operated at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn. (orig.)

  16. Design and construction of the SAPHIR detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwille, W.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Bockhorst, M. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Burbach, G. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Burgwinkel, R. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Empt, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Guse, B. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Haas, K.M. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Hannappel, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Heinloth, K. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Hey, T. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Honscheid, K. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Jahnen, T. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Jakob, H.P. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Joepen, N. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Juengst, H. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Kirch, U. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Klein, F.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.)

    1994-05-15

    The design, construction, and performance of the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer SAPHIR is described. It was built for the investigation of photon-induced reactions on nucleous and light nuclei with mulit-particle final states up to photon energies of 3.1 GeV. The detector is equipped with a tagged photon beam facility and is operated at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn. (orig.)

  17. The ZEUS vertex detector: Design and prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvisi, C.; Anzivino, G.; Arzarello, F.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Camerini, U.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Ciralli, F.; Contin, A.; Costa, M.; D'Auria, S.; Del Papa, C.; De Pasquale, S.; Fiori, F.; Forte, A.; Frasconi, F.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lisowski, B.; Maccarrone, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; O'Shea, V.; Palmonari, F.; Pelfer, P.; Pilastrini, R.; Qian, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Timellini, R.; Zichichi, A.; Bologna Univ.; Cosenza Univ.; Florence Univ.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence

    1991-01-01

    A gas vertex detector, operated with dimethylether (DME) at atmospheric pressure, is presently being built for the ZEUS experiment at HERA. Its main design features, together with the performances of a prototype measured at various operating voltages, particle rates and geometrical conditions on a CERN Proton Synchrotron test beam, are presented. A spatial resolution down to 35 μm and an average wire efficiency of 96% have been achieved, for a 3 mm gas gap relative to each sense wire. (orig.)

  18. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  19. Detectors and flux instrumentation for future neutrino facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Ankowski, A.; Badertscher, A.; Battistoni, G.; Blondel, A.; Bouchez, J.; Bross, A.; Bueno, A.; Camilleri, L.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Cazes, A.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Capua, F.; Ellis, Malcolm; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Fukushima, C.; Gschwendtner, E.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Iwasaki, M.; Kaneyuki, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kashikhin, V.; Kawai, Y.; Komatsu, M.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Kudenko, Y.; Kusaka, A.; Kyushima, H.; Longhin, A.; Marchionni, A.; Marotta, A.; McGrew, C.; Menary, S.; Meregaglia, A.; Mezzeto, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mondal, N.K.; Montanari, C.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakumo, H.; Nakayama, H.; Nelson, J.; Nowak, J.; Ogawa, S.; Peltoniemi, J.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Rubbia, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Sato, O.; Selvi, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shozawa, M.; Sobczyk, J.; Soler, F.J.P.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Suyama, M.; Tanak, M.; Terranova, F.; Tsenov, R.; Uchida, Y.; Weber, A.; Zlobin, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the conclusions from the detector group of the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and Super-Beam neutrino facility. The baseline detector options for each possible neutrino beam are defined as follows: 1. A very massive (Megaton) water Cherenkov detector is the baseline option for a sub-GeV Beta Beam and Super Beam facility. 2. There are a number of possibilities for either a Beta Beam or Super Beam (SB) medium energy facility between 1-5 GeV. These include a totally active scintillating detector (TASD), a liquid argon TPC or a water Cherenkov detector. 3. A 100 kton magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) is the baseline to detect the wrong sign muon final states (golden channel) at a high energy (20-50 GeV) neutrino factory from muon decay. A 10 kton hybrid neutrino magnetic emulsion cloud chamber detector for wrong sign tau detection (silver channel) is a possible complement to MIND, if one needs to resolve degeneracies that appear in the $\\delta$-$\\theta_{13}$...

  20. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Detector design for a Future Electron-Positron Collider (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    In this lecture I will discuss the issues related to the overall design and optimization of a detector for ILC and CLIC energies. I will concentrate on the two main detector concepts which are being developed in the context of the ILC. Here there has been much recent progress in developing realistic detector models and in understanding the physics performance of the overall detector concept. In addition, I will discuss the how the differences in the detector requirements for the ILC and CLIC impact the overall detector design.

  1. Optical modeling of waveguide coupled TES detectors towards the SAFARI instrument for SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, N.; Bracken, C.; Doherty, S.; Gao, J. R.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Griffin, D.; Hijmering, R.; Jackson, B.; Khosropanah, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Murphy, A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Ridder, M.; Withington, S.

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of space missions targeting far-infrared wavelengths will require large-format arrays of extremely sensitive detectors. The development of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array technology is being developed for future Far-Infrared (FIR) space applications such as the SAFARI instrument for SPICA where low-noise and high sensitivity is required to achieve ambitious science goals. In this paper we describe a modal analysis of multi-moded horn antennas feeding integrating cavities housing TES detectors with superconducting film absorbers. In high sensitivity TES detector technology the ability to control the electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical environment of the detector is critical. Simulating and understanding optical behaviour of such detectors at far IR wavelengths is difficult and requires development of existing analysis tools. The proposed modal approach offers a computationally efficient technique to describe the partial coherent response of the full pixel in terms of optical efficiency and power leakage between pixels. Initial wok carried out as part of an ESA technical research project on optical analysis is described and a prototype SAFARI pixel design is analyzed where the optical coupling between the incoming field and the pixel containing horn, cavity with an air gap, and thin absorber layer are all included in the model to allow a comprehensive optical characterization. The modal approach described is based on the mode matching technique where the horn and cavity are described in the traditional way while a technique to include the absorber was developed. Radiation leakage between pixels is also included making this a powerful analysis tool.

  2. Resistive gaseous detectors designs, performance, and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Peskov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    This first book to critically summarize the latest achievements and emerging applications within this interdisciplinary topic focuses on one of the most important types of detectors for elementary particles and photons: resistive plate chambers (RPCs). In the first part, the outstanding, international team of authors comprehensively describes and presents the features and design of single and double-layer RPCs before covering more advanced multi-layer RPCs. The second part then focuses on the application of RPCs in high energy physics, materials science, medicine and security. Throughout, the experienced authors adopt a didactic approach, with each subject presented in a simple way, increasing in complexity step by step.

  3. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, 3 He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using 3 He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m 2 . As a result of the so-called ' 3 He shortage crisis , the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B 4 C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard equipment. Prototypes of

  4. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerard, Bruno [ILL-ESS-LiU collaboration, CRISP project, Institut Laue Langevin - ILL, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, {sup 3}He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using {sup 3}He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m{sup 2}. As a result of the so-called '{sup 3}He shortage crisis{sup ,} the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B{sub 4}C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard

  5. A Light-Weight Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidner, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    To meet challenging constraints on telemetry system weight and volume, a custom Light-Weight Instrumentation System was developed to collect vehicle environment and dynamics on a short-duration exo-atmospheric flight test vehicle. The total telemetry system, including electronics, sensors, batteries, and a 1 watt transmitter weighs about 1 kg. Over 80 channels of measurement, housekeeping, and telemetry system diagnostic data are transmitted at 128 kbps. The microcontroller-based design uses the automotive industry standard Controller Area Network to interface with and support in-flight control fimctions. Operational parameters are downloaded via a standard asynchronous serial communications intefiace. The basic design philosophy and functionality is described here

  6. Design principles for radiological protection instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    This Code of Practice takes the form of recommendations intended for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation, and should also be of value to the newcomer to the R.P.I. field. Topics are discussed under the following headings: outline of R.P.I. requirements, specifying the requirement, satisfying the requirements, (overall design, availability and reliability, information display, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, and cost analysis), supply, location and operation of the equipment, importance of documentation. (U.K.)

  7. Design of autotrack detecting instrument for solar UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangtao; Mao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In order to autotrack the object and detect the solar UV index, a reliable real-time high-precise instrument is proposed in this paper. This instrument involves two subsystems: the autotrack and detecting modules. The autotrack module consists of four-quadrant photo detector, multi-channel signal processing circuit and precise stepping system. The detecting module designed for dada measurement and acquisition is made up of the ultraviolet sensor UV460 and high precision A/D converter MAX1162. The key component of the entire instrument is ultralow-power microprocessor MSP430 which is used for entire system controlling and data processing. The lower system of autotracking and measurement is communicated with upper PC computer by RS232 module. In the experiment, the tracking precision of two-dimensional motion revolving stage is calibrated to be less than 0.05°. Experimental results indicate that the system designed could realize the precise autotracking and detecting function well, and the measure precision of system has reached the desirable target.

  8. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  9. Reference Design of the Mu2e Detector Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Feher, S; Brandt,, J; Cheban, S; Coleman, R; Dhanaraj, N; Fang, I; Lamm, M; Lombardo, V; Lopes, M; Miller, J; Ostojic, R ,; Orris, D; Page, T; Peterson, T; Tang, Z; Wands, R

    2014-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab has been approved by the Department of Energy to proceed developing the preliminary design. Integral to the success of Mu2e is the superconducting solenoid system. One of the three major solenoids is the Detector Solenoid that houses the stopping target and the detectors. The goal of the Detector Solenoid team is to produce detailed design specifications that are sufficient for vendors to produce the final design drawings, tooling and fabrication procedures and proceed to production. In this paper we summarize the Reference Design of the Detector Solenoid.

  10. Performance of fully instrumented detector planes of the forward calorimeter of a Linear Collider detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H.; Afanaciev, K.; Aguilar, J.; Alvarez, E.; Avila, D.; Benhammou, Y.; Bortko, L.; Borysov, O.; Bergholz, M.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Castro, E.; Chelkov, G.; Coca, C.; Daniluk, W.; Dumitru, L.; Elsener, K.; Fadeyev, V.; Firlej, M.; Firu, E.; Fiutowski, T.; Ghenescu, V.; Gostkin, M.; Henschel, H.; Idzik, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Kananov, S.; Kollowa, S.; Kotov, S.; Kotula, J.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonok, V.; Krupa, B.; Kulis, Sz.; Lange, W.; Lesiak, T.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Lohmann, W.; Lukic, S.; Milke, C.; Moron, J.; Moszczynski, A.; Neagu, A.T.; Novgorodova, O.; Oliwa, K.; Orlandea, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Pawlik, B.; Preda, T.; Przyborowski, D.; Rosenblat, O.; Sailer, A.; Sato, Y.; Schumm, B.; Schuwalow, S.; Smiljanic, I.; Smolyanskiy, P.; Swientek, K.; Teodorescu, E.; Terlecki, P.; Wierba, W.; Wojton, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Zawiejski, L.; Zgura, I.S.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Detector-plane prototypes of the very forward calorimetry of a future detector at an $e^+e^-$ collider have been built and their performance was measured in an electron beam. The detector plane comprises silicon or GaAs pad sensors, dedicated front-end and ADC ASICs, and an FPGA for data concentration. Measurements of the signal-to-noise ratio for different feedback schemes and the response as a function of the position of the sensor are presented. A deconvolution method is successfully applied, and a comparison of the measured shower shape as a function of the absorber depth with a Monte-Carlo simulation is given.

  11. Designer's handbook of instrumentation and control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph J

    1991-01-01

    Here is a comprehensive, practical guide to the entire process of analog instrumentation and control, from sensor input to data conversion circuitry and final output. This readable handbook avoids complex mathematical treatments, instead taking an applications-oriented approach and presenting many sample circuits and concrete examples. It is an essential reference for engineers and high-level technicians in a variety of scientific and engineering fields--anywhere data is collected electronically and where such data is used to control physical processes.Key Features* Covers design o

  12. Muon System Design Studies for Detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    van der Kraaij, E

    2011-01-01

    The two concepts for CLIC detectors inherited their design of the muon systems from the ILC community. In this note the outcome of a reevaluation of the design for the CLIC environment is presented. Based on a full detector simulation, the muon identification performance is analysed for different detector layouts and different cellsizes. As a result, nine layers are suggested for the muon systems of the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detectors, which are arranged in three groups of three layers. The cellsizes have been kept at 30×30 mm2. These layouts are used for the performance studies of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report (CDR).

  13. Numerical optimisation in spot detector design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Apperloo, W.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    1997-01-01

    Spots are image details resulting from objects, the projections of which are so small that the inner structure of these objects cannot be resolved from their image. Spot detectors are image operators aiming at the detection and localisation of spots in the image. Most spot detectors can be tuned

  14. Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications: Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hillemanns, H

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications in 'Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications' of Chapter '7 Applications of Detectors in Technology; Medicine and Other Fields' with the content: 7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications 7.3.1 Applications of HEP Detectors 7.3.2 Fast Micro- and Nanoelectronics for Particle Detector Readout 7.3.2.1 Fast Counting Mode Front End Electronics 7.3.2.2 NINO,...

  15. Tank SY-101 void fraction instrument functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the functional design criteria for design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and installation of a void fraction instrument for Tank SY-101. This instrument will measure the void fraction in the waste in Tank SY-101 at various elevations

  16. Fabrication and Testing of a Modular Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Instrumentation System for Test Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Roberts, Jeremy A.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2018-01-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Measurement of the neutron-flux distribution within the reactor core provides a more complete understanding of the operating conditions in the reactor than typical ex-core sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors have been developed and tested previously but have been limited to single-node operation and have utilized highly specialized designs. The development of a widely deployable, multi-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector assembly will enhance nuclear research capabilities. A modular, four-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was designed, fabricated, and tested at Kansas State University. The array was constructed from materials that do not significantly perturb the neutron flux in the reactor core. All four sensor nodes were equally spaced axially in the array to span the fuel-region of the reactor core. The array was filled with neon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors. The modular design of the instrument facilitates the testing and deployment of numerous sensor arrays. The unified design drastically improved device ruggedness and simplified construction from previous designs. Five 8-mm penetrations in the upper grid plate of the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor were utilized to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been specially developed to support pulse-mode operation. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array composed of four sensors was used to monitor local neutron flux at a constant reactor power of 100 kWth at different axial locations simultaneously. The array was positioned at five different radial locations within the core to emulate the deployment of multiple arrays and develop a 2-dimensional measurement of

  17. Optimization of a neutron detector design using adjoint transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, C.; Manalo, K.; Huang, M.; Chin, M.; Edgar, C.; Applegate, S.; Sjoden, G.

    2012-01-01

    A synthetic aperture approach has been developed and investigated for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) detection in vehicles passing a checkpoint at highway speeds. SNM is postulated to be stored in a moving vehicle and detector assemblies are placed on the road-side or in chambers embedded below the road surface. Neutron and gamma spectral awareness is important for the detector assembly design besides high efficiencies, so that different SNMs can be detected and identified with various possible shielding settings. The detector assembly design is composed of a CsI gamma-ray detector block and five neutron detector blocks, with peak efficiencies targeting different energy ranges determined by adjoint simulations. In this study, formulations are derived using adjoint transport simulations to estimate detector efficiencies. The formulations is applied to investigate several neutron detector designs for Block IV, which has its peak efficiency in the thermal range, and Block V, designed to maximize the total neutron counts over the entire energy spectrum. Other Blocks detect different neutron energies. All five neutron detector blocks and the gamma-ray block are assembled in both MCNP and deterministic simulation models, with detector responses calculated to validate the fully assembled design using a 30-group library. The simulation results show that the 30-group library, collapsed from an 80-group library using an adjoint-weighting approach with the YGROUP code, significantly reduced the computational cost while maintaining accuracy. (authors)

  18. Design and Implementation of the ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Boterenbrood, H; Cook, J; Filimonov, V; Hallgren, B I; Heubers, W P J; Khomoutnikov, V; Ryabov, Yu; Varela, F

    2004-01-01

    The overall dimensions of the ATLAS experiment and its harsh environment, due to radiation and magnetic field, represent new challenges for the implementation of the Detector Control System. It supervises all hardware of the ATLAS detector, monitors the infrastructure of the experiment, and provides information exchange with the LHC accelerator. The system must allow for the operation of the different ATLAS sub-detectors in stand-alone mode, as required for calibration and debugging, as well as the coherent and integrated operation of all sub-detectors for physics data taking. For this reason, the Detector Control System is logically arranged to map the hierarchical organization of the ATLAS detector. Special requirements are placed onto the ATLAS Detector Control System because of the large number of distributed I/O channels and of the inaccessibility of the equipment during operation. Standardization is a crucial issue for the design and implementation of the control system because of the large variety of e...

  19. Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making

  20. Design, calibration, and performance of the MINERvA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, L. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Sección Física, Departamento de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Apartado 1761, Lima, Perú (Peru); Bagby, L.; Baldin, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Baumbaugh, A. [Sección Física, Departamento de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Apartado 1761, Lima, Perú (Peru); Bodek, A.; Bradford, R. [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14610 (United States); Brooks, W.K. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avda. España 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Boehnlein, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Boyd, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Budd, H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14610 (United States); Butkevich, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Castromonte, C.M. [Hampton University, Department of Physics, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Christy, M.E. [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota – Duluth, Duluth, MN 55812 (United States); Chvojka, J. [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14610 (United States); Motta, H. da [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-180 (Brazil); and others

    2014-04-11

    The MINERvA experiment is designed to perform precision studies of neutrino-nucleus scattering using ν{sub μ} and ν{sup ¯}{sub μ} neutrinos incident at 1–20 GeV in the NuMI beam at Fermilab. This article presents a detailed description of the MINERvA detector and describes the ex situ and in situ techniques employed to characterize the detector and monitor its performance. The detector is composed of a finely segmented scintillator-based inner tracking region surrounded by electromagnetic and hadronic sampling calorimetry. The upstream portion of the detector includes planes of graphite, iron and lead interleaved between tracking planes to facilitate the study of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. Observations concerning the detector response over sustained periods of running are reported. The detector design and methods of operation have relevance to future neutrino experiments in which segmented scintillator tracking is utilized.

  1. Mechanical design of the CDF SVX II silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarha, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    A next generation silicon vertex detector is planned at CDF for the 1998 Tevatron collider run with the Main Injector. The SVX II silicon vertex detector will allow high luminosity data-taking, enable online triggering of secondary vertex production, and greatly increase the acceptance for heavy flavor physics at CDF. The design specifications, geometric layout, and early mechanical prototyping work for this detector are discussed

  2. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; hide

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  3. Water NSTF Design, Instrumentation, and Test Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, Darius D.; Gerardi, Craig D.; Hu, Rui; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Bremer, Nathan C.; Lomperski, Stephen W.; Kraus, Adam R.; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Lv, Qiuping; Farmer, Mitchell T.

    2017-08-01

    variations and off-normal configurations. The facility design follows, including as-built dimensions and specifications of the various mechanical and liquid systems, design choices for the test section, water storage tank, and network piping. Specifications of the instrumentation suite are then presented, along with specific information on performance windows, measurement uncertainties, and installation locations. Finally, descriptions of the control systems and heat removal networks are provided, which have been engineered to support precise quantification of energy balances and facilitate well-controlled test operations.

  4. Instrumentation for Position Sensitive Detector-Powder diffractometer at CENM-Maamora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messous, M.-Y.; Belhorma, B.; Labrim, H.; El-Bakkari, B.; Jabri, H.

    2013-06-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors are widely used to configure neutron diffractometer and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and data acquisition system was developed to fulfil such instruments built around the research reactor. In this paper, the front-end electronics dedicated to the neutron powder diffractometer which will be installed in the axial beam port of the Triga Mark II research reactor (Center of Nuclear Studies of Maamora) is described. It consists of High voltage power supply, a Position-decoder and a Multichannel analyzer and data acquisition software. The 3 He-PSD detector response exposed to the neutron flow emitted by 252 Cf source held in paraffin spheres with distinct thicknesses for moderation effect, is shown. Monte-Carlo N Particles code (MCNP) simulations were also performed to study both the detector performance and the paraffin efficiency. (authors)

  5. The MIDAS Instrument Design and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honniball, C. I.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.

    2016-10-01

    The Miniaturized Infrared detector of Atmospheric Species (MIDAS) utilizes an uncooled microbolometer coupled with a Sagnac interferometer. MIDAS will be used to detect and quantify atmospheric constituents for a variety of science applications.

  6. UVSiPM: A light detector instrument based on a SiPM sensor working in single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sottile, G.; Russo, F.; Agnetta, G. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Belluso, M.; Billotta, S. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Biondo, B. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Bonanno, G. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Grillo, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Mangano, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Marano, D. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Mineo, T.; Segreto, A.; Strazzeri, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Timpanaro, M.C. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    UVSiPM is a light detector designed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the 320–900 nm wavelength range. It has been developed in the framework of the ASTRI project whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end Small Size class Telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The UVSiPM instrument is composed by a multipixel Silicon Photo-Multiplier detector unit coupled to an electronic chain working in single photon counting mode with 10 nanosecond double pulse resolution, and by a disk emulator interface card for computer connection. The detector unit of UVSiPM is of the same kind as the ones forming the camera at the focal plane of the ASTRI prototype. Eventually, the UVSiPM instrument can be equipped with a collimator to regulate its angular aperture. UVSiPM, with its peculiar characteristics, will permit to perform several measurements both in lab and on field, allowing the absolute calibration of the ASTRI prototype.

  7. LOFT instrumented fuel design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A summary description of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) system instrumented core construction details and operating experience through reactor startup and loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE) operations performed to date are discussed. The discussion includes details of the test instrumentation attachment to the fuel assembly, the structural response of the fuel modules to the forces generated by a double-ended break of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant pipe at the inlet to the reactor vessel, the durability of the LOFT fuel and test instrumentation, and the plans for incorporation of improved fuel assembly test instrumentation features in the LOFT core

  8. Instrument design optimization with computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael H. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Using Finite Element Analysis to approximate the solution of differential equations, two different instruments in experimental Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are analyzed. The time dependence of density uctuations from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak experiment (2011-2012) are studied with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the simulation results compared to data from the experiment. The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen target was the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. The first complete magnetic field simulation of the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented with a focus on primary electron beam deflection downstream of the target. The SHMS consists of a superconducting horizontal bending magnet (HB) and three superconducting quadrupole magnets. The HB allows particles scattered at an angle of 5:5 deg to the beam line to be steered into the quadrupole magnets which make up the optics of the spectrometer. Without mitigation, remnant fields from the SHMS may steer the unscattered beam outside of the acceptable envelope on the beam dump and limit beam operations at small scattering angles. A solution is proposed using optimal placement of a minimal amount of shielding iron around the beam line.

  9. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  10. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  11. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lin; Wang, Houjun; Zhou, Xue; Zhou, Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful.

  12. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Lin; Wang Houjun; Zhou Xue; Zhou Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful

  13. Design and performance of a cesium iodide detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; Bishop, J.M.; Cady, R. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    The design, construction, and performance of a 198-element CsI detector built for Brookhaven experiment E852 is described. Design considerations for the array included such factors as rate, magnetic field, sensitivity and acceptance. Signals were obtained with a photodiode/preamplifier combination using PIN photodiodes. Data were taken over the course of two runs during the summers of 1993 and 1994. A calibration procedure using halo muons is described. The gain, energy resolution, and position resolution of the detector are discussed. Finally, the ability of the detector to be used as a low energy photon veto is illustrated using the data. (orig.).

  14. Construction of a radiometer for pyroelectric detector and presentation of a model for detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, C.A. de.

    1987-01-01

    An expression has been developed for the pyroelectric voltage as a function of electric and thermal parameters of the detector. It has also been developed expressions for determination of unknown parameters from the experimentally obtained pyroelectric voltage curve as function of time and some other known information. It has also been shown figures of merit for characterization of the detectors, a study showing the detector performance dependence on each electric and thermal parameter and some illustrative experimental results. The radiometer designed and built for this work, is described. (author) [pt

  15. Modeling and design of X-rays bidimensional detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quisbert, Elmer Paz Alcon

    2000-03-01

    In this work has been developed the scintillating fiber optic and semiconductor devices based 2-D detector design, modeling and performance evaluation using Monte Carlo methods, for high X-ray energy range (10-140 kV) radiography and tomography applications. These processes allowed us, also, the imaging system parameters and components optimization and appropriate detector design. The model estimated the detectors performance parameters (DQE, MTF and SNR), and radiation risk (in terms of mean absorbed dose in the patient) and to show up how the sequence of physical processes in X-ray detection influence the performance of this imaging PFOC detectors. In this way, the modeling of the detector includes the statistics of the spatial distribution of absorbed X-rays and of X-ray to light conversion, its transmission, and the light quanta conversion into electrons. Also contributions to noise from the detection system chain is included, mainly the CCD detector ambient noise. Performance prediction, based on calculation taken from simulations, illustrates how such detectors meet the exacting requirements of some medical and industrial applications. Also, it is envisaged that our modeling procedure of the imaging system will be suitable not only for investigating how the system components should be best designed but for CT and RD system performance prediction. The powerful techniques would enable us to give advice for future development, in this field, in search of more dose-efficient imaging systems. (author)

  16. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline. High-eta particles will therefore hit these sensors at shallow angles, leaving elongated charge clusters. The length of such a charge cluster can be used to estimate the angle of the passing particle. This information can then be used in track reconstruction to improve tracking efficiency and reduce fake rates. Inclined designs ...

  17. Physics and Detectors at CLIC CLIC Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Akiya; Stanitzki,Marcel; Weerts, Harry

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the physics potential and experiments at a future multi- TeV e+e− collider based on the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) technology. The physics scenarios considered include precision measurements of known quantities as well as the discovery potential of physics beyond the Standard Model. The report describes the detector performance required at CLIC, taking into account the interaction point environment and especially beaminduced backgrounds. Two detector concepts, designed around highly granular calorimeters and based on concepts studied for the International Linear Collider (ILC), are described and used to study the physics reach and potential of such a collider. Detector subsystems and the principal engineering challenges are illustrated. The overall performance of these CLIC detector concepts is demonstrated by studies of the performance of individual subdetector systems as well as complete simulation studies of six benchmark physics processes. These full detector simulation and rec...

  18. Design criteria for a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Attix, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    A detector for the direct measurement of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in cylindrical geometry was developed by Brandan and DeLuca. The detector successfully measured the LET of protons and a fraction of the heavy charged particles generated in cylindrical A150 plastic and graphite walls by 14.8 MeV neutrons. In this report, we present design tests for the hemispherical LET detector which will measure the LET of charged particles in spherical geometry and allow comparison with calculated LET spectra. The hemispherical LET detector will also provide a data base for radiobiological predictions with the Track Structure Model by Katz. A comparison of predictions of radiobiological effects by the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and the Track Structure Model by Edwards and the authors indicate that the Track Structure Model predicts cell survival as a function of dose more accurately and hence an additional motivation for the present construction of the hemispherical LET detector

  19. Design and Construction of Prototype Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Fisher

    2012-03-23

    The Lepton Quark Studies (LQS) group is engaged in searching for dark matter using the Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (Carlsbad, NM). DMTPC is a direction-sensitive dark matter detector designed to measure the recoil direction and energy deposited by fluorine nuclei recoiling from the interaction with incident WIMPs. In the past year, the major areas of progress have been: to publish the first dark matter search results from a surface run of the DMTPC prototype detector, to build and install the 10L prototype in the underground laboratory at WIPP which will house the 1 m{sup 3} detector, and to demonstrate charge and PMT readout of the TPC using prototype detectors, which allow triggering and {Delta}z measurement to be used in the 1 m{sup 3} detector under development.

  20. Two new portable survey instruments: the field phoswich detector and the Wee Pee Pee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a continuing program to upgrade the health physics survey instrumentation at Los Alamos, we have recently developed two new portable instruments. The first is a fully portable phoswich detector for low energy photons from small amounts of plutonium and americium in the field. The instrument has a background that is 2 to 3 times lower than an equivalent thin NaI detector. The instrument features an aural popper, analogue rate meter, and timer/scaler with liquid crystal display. The second instrument, called the ''Wee Pee Wee,'' is an alpha air proportional probe with complete electronics and readout package mounted on the probe itself. The entire package has a mass of 0.66 kg (1.45 lb) and is carried and operated in one hand. For monitoring shoes and other places where it is difficult to read the count-rate meter, the meter is made detachable for clipping to a shirt pocket, etc. An audio popper, range scales to 100 K cpm, and visual checks for high voltage and battery levels are also included

  1. The Basic Design Report of the 40M SANS Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Hee; Hwang, Dong Gil; Kim, Hak Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Sung Min [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    The HANARO cold neutron research facility project was launched on July 1, 2003. A state of the art SANS instrument was selected as a top-priority instrument by an instrument selection committee, which consisted of domestic users and HANARO personnel. An instrument development team and an international and domestic instrument advisory team were formulated. The guide and the instrument simulation were performed using Vitess software and the optimum basic design was completed based on the simulation results and the international advisory team reviews. The optimum design of the guide for the 40M SANS instrument was completed and the optimum basic design of the 40M the SANS instrument was also completed based on the Vitess simulation results. The Q range of the instrument will cover from 0.0008 to 1.0 A-1 and the maximum flux at a sample position can reach about 5.5x10 7 n/cm2sec. The simulation results and the basic design product will be used for the detailed design and the construction of the SANS instrument. The simulation results could be applied to the development of the other instrument.

  2. The design and performance of the ZEUS micro vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polini, A.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.

    2007-08-01

    In order to extend the tracking acceptance, to improve the primary and secondary vertex reconstruction and thus enhancing the tagging capabilities for short lived particles, the ZEUS experiment at the HERA Collider at DESY installed a silicon strip vertex detector. The barrel part of the detector is a 63 cm long cylinder with silicon sensors arranged around an elliptical beampipe. The forward part consists of four circular shaped disks. In total just over 200k channels are read out using 2.9 m 2 of silicon. In this report a detailed overview of the design and construction of the detector is given and the performance of the completed system is reviewed. (orig.)

  3. Design of the flame detector based on pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yu, Benhua; Dong, Lei; Li, Kai

    2017-10-01

    As a fire detection device, flame detector has the advantages of short reaction time and long distance. Based on pyroelectric infrared sensor working principle, the passive pyroelectric infrared alarm system is designed, which is mainly used for safety of tunnel to detect whether fire occurred or not. Modelling and Simulation of the pyroelectric Detector Using Labview. An attempt was made to obtain a simple test platform of a pyroelectric detector which would make an excellent basis for the analysis of its dynamic behaviour. After many experiments, This system has sensitive response, high anti-interference ability and safe and reliable performance.

  4. Configuration Design of Detector Shielding for Gamma Prompt Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elin-Nuraini; Darsono; Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    Configuration on design of detector shielding for gamma prompt analysishas been performed. The aim of this design is to obtain effective shieldingmaterial and configuration that able to protect the detector for fastneutron. The result shown that detector shielding configuration that obtainedby configuration of water and concrete, would be able to absorb fast neutronup to 99.5 %. The neutron flux that passed through shielding configuration is2.4 x 10 3 n/cm 2 dt, in the detector position of 60 cm (forward neutron beamdirection) on the X axis and 30 cm (side ward neutron beam direction) on theZ axis of target. On this position (60,30) counting result was 104358 for Pbcollimator and 246652 for PVC collimator. From examination result shown thatthe weight of silicon is in order 175 gram. (author)

  5. Technical Design Report for the: PANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Erni, W; Krusche, B; Steinacher, M; Heng, Y; Liu, Z; Liu, H; Shen, X; Wang, Q; Xu, H; Albrecht, M; Becker, J; Eickel, K; Feldbauer, F; Fink, M; Friedel, P; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Koch, H; Kopf, B; Leyhe, M; Motzko, C; Pelizäus, M; Pychy, J; Roth, B; Schröder, T; Schulze, J; Steinke, M; Trifterer, T; Wiedner, U; Zhong, J; Beck, R; Becker, M; Bianco, S; Brinkmann, K -Th; Hammann, C; Hinterberger, F; Jäkel, R; Kaiser, D; Kliemt, R; Koop, K; Schmidt, C; Schnell, R; Thoma, U; Vlasov, P; Wendel, C; Winnebeck, A; Würschig, Th; Zaunick, H -G; Bianconi, A; Bragadireanu, M; Caprini, M; Ciubancan, M; Pantea, D; Tarta, P -D; De Napoli, M; Giacoppo, F; Rapisarda, E; Sfienti, C; Fiutowski, T; Idzik, N; Mindur, B; Przyborowski, D; Swientek, K; Bialkowski, E; Budzanowski, A; Czech, B; Kliczewski, S; Kozela, A; Kulessa, P; Lebiedowicz, P; Malgorzata, K; Pysz, K; Schäfer, W; Siudak, R; Szczurek, A; Brandys, P; Czyzewski, T; Czyzycki, W; Domagala, M; Hawryluk, M; Filo, G; Kwiatkowski, D; Lisowski, E; Lisowski, F; Bardan, W; Gil, D; Kamys, B; Kistryn, St; Korcyl, K; Krzemieñ, W; Magiera, A; Moskal, P; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Smyrski, J; Wroñska, A; Al-Turany, M; Arora, R; Augustin, I; Deppe, H; Dutta, D; Flemming, H; Götzen, K; Hohler, G; Karabowicz, R; Lehmann, D; Lewandowski, B; Lühning, J; Maas, F; Orth, H; Peters, K; Saito, T; Schepers, G; Schmidt, C J; Schmitt, L; Schwarz, C; Schwiening, J; Voss, B; Wieczorek, P; Wilms, A; Abazov, V M; Alexeev, G D; Arefiev, V A; Astakhov, V I; Barabanov, M Yu; Batyunya, B V; Davydov, Yu I; Dodokhov, V Kh; Efremov, A A; Fedunov, A G; Feshchenko, A A; Galoyan, A S; Grigoryan, S; Karmokov, A; Koshurnikov, E K; Lobanov, V I; Lobanov, Yu Yu; Makarov, A F; Malinina, L V; Malyshev, V L; Mustafaev, G A; Olshevski, A G; Pasyuk, M A; Perevalova, E A; Piskun, A A; Pocheptsov, T A; Pontecorvo, G; Rodionov, V K; Rogov, Yu N; Salmin, R A; Samartsev, A G; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shabratova, G S; Skachkova, A N; Skachkov, N B; Strokovsky, E A; Suleimanov, M K; Teshev, R Sh; Tokmenin, V V; Uzhinsky, V V; Vodopyanov, A S; Zaporozhets, S A; Zhuravlev, N I; Zorin, A G; Branford, D; Glazier, D; Watts, D; Woods, P; Britting, A; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Uhlig, F; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K; Tann, B; Tomaradze, A; Bettoni, D; Carassiti, V; Dalpiaz, P; Drago, A; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Negrini, M; Savriè, M; Stancari, G; Dulach, B; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lucherini, V; Pace, E; Bersani, A; Macri, M; Marinelli, M; Parodi, R F; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Düren, M; Eisner, T; Foehl, K; Hayrapetyan, A; Koch, P; Krïoch, B; Kühn, W; Lange, S; Liang, Y; Liu, M; Merle, O; Metag, V; Moritz, M; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Spruck, B; Stenzel, H; Strackbein, C; Thiel, M; Wang, Q; Clarkson, T; Euan, C; Hill, G; Hoek, M; Ireland, D; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Lehmann, I; Livingston, K; Lumsden, P; MacGregor, D; McKinnon, B; Montgomery, R; Murray, M; Protopopescu, D; Rosner, G; Seitz, B; Yang, G; Babai, M; Biegun, A K; Glazenborg-Kluttig, A; Guliyev, E; Jothi, V S; Kavatsyuk, M; Lemmens, P; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J; Poelman, T; Smit, H; van der Weele, J C; Sohlbach, H; Büscher, M; Dosdall, R; Dzhygadlo, R; Esch, S; Gillitzer, A; Goldenbaum, F; Grunwald, D; Jha, V; Kemmerling, G; Kleines, H; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Mertens, M; Ohm, H; Pohl, D L; Prasuhn, D; Randriamalala, T; Ritman, J; Roeder, M; Sterzenbach, G; Stockmanns, T; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P; Xu, H; Kisiel, J; Li, S; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Xu, H; Fissum, K; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Lundin, M; Schröder, B; Achenbach, P; Denig, A; Distler, M; Fritsch, M; Kangh, D; Karavdina, A; Lauth, W; Michel, M; Espi, M C Mora; Pochodzalla, J; Sanchez, S; Sanchez-Lorente, A; Sfienti, C; Weber, T; Dormenev, V I; Fedorov, A A; Korzhik, M V; Missevitch, O V; Boukharov, A; Malyshev, O; Marishev, I; Semenov, A; Varma, R; Höppner, C; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Mann, A; Neubert, S; Paul, S; Vandenbroucke, M; Zhang, Q; Khoukaz, A; Rausmann, T; Täschner, A; Wessels, J; Baldin, E; Kotov, K; Peleganchuk, S; Tikhonov, Yu; Hennino, T; Imre, M; Kunne, R; Galliard, C Le; Normand, J P Le; Marchand, D; Maroni, A; Ong, S; Pouthas, J; Ramstein, B; Rosier, P; Sudol, M; Theneau, C; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Van de Wiele, J; Zerguerras, T; Boca, G; Braghieri, A; Costanza, S; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Lavezzi, L; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Buda, V; Abramov, V V; Davidenko, A M; Derevschikov, A A; Goncharenko, Y M; Grishin, V N; Kachanov, V A; Konstantinov, D A; Kormilitsin, V A; Matulenko, Y A; Melnik, Y M; Meschanin, A P; Minaev, N G; Mochalov, V V; Morozov, D A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Ryazantsev, A V; Semenov, P A; Soloviev, L F; Uzunian, A V; Vasiliev, A N; Yakutin, A E; Belostotski, S; Gavrilov, G; Itzotov, A; Kisselev, A; Kravchenko, P; Manaenkov, S; Miklukho, O; Naryshkin, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Zhadanov, A; Bäck, T; Cederwall, B; Bargholtz, C; Gerén, L; Tegnér, P E; Thørngren, P; von Würtemberg, K M; Fava, L; Alberto, D; Amoroso, A; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; De Mori, F; Destefanis, M; Ferrero, L; Greco, M; Kugathasan, T; Maggiora, M; Marcello, S; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Calvo, D; Coli, S; De Remigis, P; Filippi, A; Giraudo, G; Lusso, S; Mazza, G; Mignone, M; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R; Zotti, L; Morra, O; Iazzi, F; Lavagno, A; Quarati, P; Szymanska, K; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Martin, A; Clement, H; Galnander, B; Calén, H; Fransson, K; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Thomé, E; Wolke, M; Zlomanczuk, J; Díaz, J; Ortiz, A; Buda, P; Dmowski, K; Korzeniewski, R; Przemyslaw, D; Slowinski, B; Borsuk, S; Chlopik, A; Guzik, Z; Kopec, J; Kozlowski, T; Melnychuk, D; Plominski, M; Szewinski, J; Traczyk, K; Zwieglinski, B; Bühler, P; Gruber, A; Kienle, P; Marton, J; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2012-01-01

    This document illustrates the technical layout and the expected performance of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. The MVD will detect charged particles as close as possible to the interaction zone. Design criteria and the optimisation process as well as the technical solutions chosen are discussed and the results of this process are subjected to extensive Monte Carlo physics studies. The route towards realisation of the detector is outlined.

  6. The design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, B.; Malos, J.; Saxon, D.H.; Clark, D.E.; Jamdagni, A.K.; Markou, C.; Miller, D.B.; Miller, D.G.; Toudup, L.W.; Auty, C.G.; Blair, G.A.; Brooks, C.B.; Cashmore, R.J.; Hanford, A.T.; Harnew, N.; Holmes, A.R.; Linford, W.; Martin, N.C.; McArthur, I.C.; Nash, J.; Nobbs, K.N.; Wastie, R.L.; Williams, M.T.; Wilson, F.F.; Wilson, R.D.; Hart, J.C.; Hatley, R.W.; Hiddleston, J.W.; Gibson, M.D.; McCubbin, N.A.; Middleton, A.; Morrissey, M.C.; Morrow, D.; O' Brien, P.; Payne, B.T.; Roberts, J.C.H.; Shaw, T.B.; Sinclair, C.K.; Wallis, E.W.G.; White, D.J.; Yeo, K.L.; Bullock, F.W.; Dumper, J.; Fraser, T.J.; Hayes, D.; Jones, T.W.; Strachan, D.E.; Vine, I.A. (H.H. Wills Physics Lab., Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom) Blackett Lab., Physics Dept., Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics, Nuclear Physics Lab., Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom) Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics an

    1994-01-15

    The mechanical, electrical and electronic design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector are described, together with the chamber monitoring and environmental control. This cylindrical drift chamber is designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and fast event triggering in a high beam-crossing rate, high magnetic field application. (orig.)

  7. EUV high resolution imager on-board solar orbiter: optical design and detector performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halain, J. P.; Mazzoli, A.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Stockman, Y.; Berghmans, D.; BenMoussa, A.; Auchère, F.

    2017-11-01

    The EUV high resolution imager (HRI) channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board Solar Orbiter will observe the solar atmospheric layers at 17.4 nm wavelength with a 200 km resolution. The HRI channel is based on a compact two mirrors off-axis design. The spectral selection is obtained by a multilayer coating deposited on the mirrors and by redundant Aluminum filters rejecting the visible and infrared light. The detector is a 2k x 2k array back-thinned silicon CMOS-APS with 10 μm pixel pitch, sensitive in the EUV wavelength range. Due to the instrument compactness and the constraints on the optical design, the channel performance is very sensitive to the manufacturing, alignments and settling errors. A trade-off between two optical layouts was therefore performed to select the final optical design and to improve the mirror mounts. The effect of diffraction by the filter mesh support and by the mirror diffusion has been included in the overall error budget. Manufacturing of mirror and mounts has started and will result in thermo-mechanical validation on the EUI instrument structural and thermal model (STM). Because of the limited channel entrance aperture and consequently the low input flux, the channel performance also relies on the detector EUV sensitivity, readout noise and dynamic range. Based on the characterization of a CMOS-APS back-side detector prototype, showing promising results, the EUI detector has been specified and is under development. These detectors will undergo a qualification program before being tested and integrated on the EUI instrument.

  8. Design and fabrication of a self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Garcia, Florencio.

    1979-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors are becoming more and more popular in reactor instrumentation. A fast response detector of this type was made at the Reactor Division, La Reina Nuclear Center in Santiago. Cobalt wire was the emitter, teflon the insulator and a stainless steel tubing was the collector. The overall dimensions of the detector are 6 mms diameter and 700 mms length. The irradiation tests, carried out at the Center's 5 Mw research reactor showed a very reasonably linear relation between current supplied by the detector and thermal neutron flux, over a range extending from 10 10 to 10 13 n/cm 2 x seg. These tests also showed a good agreement between calculated and measured current. The models used for the calculation of current are fully explained and they include some improvements over those that have been published recently. An important conclusion for the case of the cobalt detectors is that the wire's diameter must be at least 1 mm. in order to have a neutron induced current bigger than the parasitic components generated by indirect processes. Calculations for other emitters such as vanadium, silver and rhodum are also included. (EC)

  9. A Components Database Design and Implementation for Accelerators and Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.; Meyer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Many accelerator and detector systems being fabricated for the PEP-II Accelerator and BABAR Detector needed configuration control and calibration measurements tracked for their components. Instead of building a database for each distinct system, a Components Database was designed and implemented that can encompass any type of component and any type of measurement. In this paper we describe this database design that is especially suited for the engineering and fabrication processes of the accelerator and detector environments where there are thousands of unique component types. We give examples of information stored in the Components Database, which includes accelerator configuration, calibration measurements, fabrication history, design specifications, inventory, etc. The World Wide Web interface is used to access the data, and templates are available for international collaborations to collect data off-line.

  10. The DCU: the detector control unit of the SAFARI instrument onboard SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénet, A.; Ravera, L.; Bertrand, B.; Cros, A.; Hou, R.; Jackson, B. D.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; Van Loon, D.; Parot, Y.; Pointecouteau, E.; Sournac, A.; Ta, N.

    2012-09-01

    The SpicA FAR infrared Instrument (SAFARI) is a European instrument for the infrared domain telescope SPICA, a JAXA space mission. The SAFARI detectors are Transistor Edge Sensors (TES) arranged in 3 matrixes. The TES front end electronic is based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) and it does the readout of the 3500 detectors with Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) type architecture. The Detector Control Unit (DCU), contributed by IRAP, manages the readout of the TES by computing and providing the AC-bias signals (1 - 3 MHz) to the TES and by computing the demodulation of the returning signals. The SQUID being highly non-linear, the DCU has also to provide a feedback signal to increase the SQUID dynamic. Because of the propagation delay in the cables and the processing time, a classic feedback will not be stable for AC-bias frequencies up to 3 MHz. The DCU uses a specific technique to compensate for those delays: the BaseBand FeedBack (BBFB). This digital data processing is done for the 3500 pixels in parallel. Thus, to keep the DCU power budget within its allocation we have to specifically optimize the architecture of the digital circuit with respect to the power consumption. In this paper we will mainly present the DCU architecture. We will particularly focus on the BBFB technique used to linearize the SQUID and on the optimization done to reduce the power consumption of the digital processing circuit.

  11. FMIT test-end instrumentation conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    FMIT test-end measurement techniques and instrumentation concepts for deuteron beam control, test-end device protection, test cell radiation field characterization, lithium jet performance monitoring, and in-situ off-line target testing and examination are described. The test-end refers to the beam line-target-test assembly interface area inside the test cell, but TEI includes measurements inside and outside the cell. The measurement requirements are briefly reviewed and referenced. The sometimes severe environmental limitations are discussed. Where feasible, multifunctional systems have been configured. Special facility features have been minimized

  12. Musical Instrument Design Process for Mobile Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Barraclough, Timothy J.; Carnegie, Dale A.; Kapur, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the iterative design process based upon multiple rounds of user studies that guided the the design of a novel social music application, Pyxis Minor. The application was designed based on the concept of democratising electronic music creation and performance. This required the development to be based upon user studies to inform and drive the development process in order to create a novel musical interface that can be enjoyed by users of any prior musicianship training.

  13. Die Casting Mold Design for Aluminum Alloy Shell of Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about die casting mold design for aluminum alloy shell of instrument. Three-dimensional model of the casting and mold are designed by using Pro/Engineer and AutoCad which can analyze forming quality. Digital design and theoretical calculation can greatly shorten product development cycle and mold design cycle, improve the accuracy of product design and mold design, and reduce the cost of mold design.

  14. Upgrade of detectors of neutron instruments at Neutron Physics Laboratory in Řež

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, E.I., E-mail: litvin@nf.jinr.ru [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 14980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ryukhtin, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Bogdzel, A.A.; Churakov, A.V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 14980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Farkas, G. [Charles University in Prague, Department of Physics of Material, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Hervoches, Ch.; Lukas, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Pilch, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 1992/2, 1822 Prague (Czech Republic); Saroun, J.; Strunz, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Zhuravlev, V.V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 14980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-01

    Three neutron instruments at the Neutron Physics Laboratory (NPL) in Řež near Prague — small-angle scattering (SANS) MAUD, strain scanner SPN-100 and strain diffractometer TKSN-400 — have been modernized recently with new 2D position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) from JINR, Dubna. Here we report on the progress made in relation to the possibilities of the diffractometers due to the improved performance of the detectors. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a detailed description of the hardware and software of the PSDs, as well as its integration with the in-house experimental control software. Then practical examples of neutron scattering experiments for each of the upgraded facilities are presented.

  15. Characterisation results of the CMOS VISNIR spectral band detector for the METimage instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratlong, Jérôme; Schmuelling, Frank; Benitez, Victor; Breart De Boisanger, Michel; Skegg, Michael; Simpson, Robert; Bowring, Steve; Krzizok, Natalie

    2017-09-01

    The METimage instrument is part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System Second Generation) program. It will be situated on the MetOp-SG platform which in operation has an objective of collecting data for meteorology and climate monitoring as well as their forecasting. Teledyne e2v has developed and characterised the CMOS VISNIR detector flight module part of the METimage instrument. This paper will focus on the silicon results obtained from the CMOS VISNIR detector flight model. The detector is a large multi-linear device composed of 7 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 428 nm to 923 nm (some bands are placed twice and added together to enhance the signal-to-noise performance). This detector uses a 4T pixel, with a size of 250μm square, presenting challenges to achieve good charge transfer efficiency with high conversion factor and good linearity for signal levels up to 2M electrons and with high line rates. Low noise has been achieved using correlated double sampling to suppress the read-out noise and give a maximum dynamic range that is significantly larger than in standard commercial devices. The photodiode occupies a significant fraction of the large pixel area. This makes it possible to meet the detection efficiency when front illuminated. A thicker than standard epitaxial silicon is used to improve NIR response. However, the dielectric stack on top of the sensor produces Fabry-Perot étalon effects, which are problematic for narrow band illumination as this causes the detection efficiency to vary significantly over a small wavelength range. In order to reduce this effect and to meet the specification, the silicon manufacturing process has been modified. The flight model will have black coating deposited between each spectral channel, onto the active silicon regions.

  16. An engineering design network for SSC detector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiacomo, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    The detector systems that are being proposed to exploit the capabilities of the SSC are of a scale and scope that will make them among the most complex devices ever built. To successfully design and build these systems over the next decade, the authors must make use of integrated state of the art computer aided engineering and design (CAE/CAD) tools that have been developed and employed in industry. The challenge is to made these tools and associated engineering resources available to the spectrum of institutions - large and small universities, industries and national labs - involved in SSC detector development in such a way that each may contribute and participate in the most effective manner. The authors believe that powerful workstations running sophisticated modeling, analysis and simulation software, linked by high speed data networks and governed by modern configuration management methods offer the ideal means of arriving at the optimum detector configuration for physics at the SSC

  17. A new numerical technique to design satellite energetic electron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tuszewski, M G; Ingraham, J C

    2002-01-01

    Energetic charged particles trapped in the magnetosphere are routinely detected by satellite instruments. However, it is generally difficult to extract quantitative energy and angular information from such measurements because the interaction of energetic electrons with matter is rather complex. Beam calibrations and Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations are often used to evaluate a flight instrument once it is built. However, rules of thumb and past experience are common tools to design the instrument in the first place. Hence, we have developed a simple numerical procedure, based on analytical probabilities, suitable for instrumental design and evaluation. In addition to the geometrical response, the contributions of surface backscattering, edge penetration, and bremsstrahlung radiation are estimated. The new results are benchmarked against MC calculations for a simple test case. Complicated effects, such as the contribution of the satellite to the instrumental response, can be estimated with the new formalism.

  18. Optimal Design of Large Dimensional Adaptive Subspace Detectors

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Atitallah, Ismail

    2016-05-27

    This paper addresses the design of Adaptive Subspace Matched Filter (ASMF) detectors in the presence of a mismatch in the steering vector. These detectors are coined as adaptive in reference to the step of utilizing an estimate of the clutter covariance matrix using training data of signalfree observations. To estimate the clutter covariance matrix, we employ regularized covariance estimators that, by construction, force the eigenvalues of the covariance estimates to be greater than a positive scalar . While this feature is likely to increase the bias of the covariance estimate, it presents the advantage of improving its conditioning, thus making the regularization suitable for handling high dimensional regimes. In this paper, we consider the setting of the regularization parameter and the threshold for ASMF detectors in both Gaussian and Compound Gaussian clutters. In order to allow for a proper selection of these parameters, it is essential to analyze the false alarm and detection probabilities. For tractability, such a task is carried out under the asymptotic regime in which the number of observations and their dimensions grow simultaneously large, thereby allowing us to leverage existing results from random matrix theory. Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the relevance of the proposed design strategy and to compare the performances of the proposed ASMF detectors versus Adaptive normalized Matched Filter (ANMF) detectors under mismatch scenarios.

  19. Optimal Design of Large Dimensional Adaptive Subspace Detectors

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Atitallah, Ismail; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Alnaffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of Adaptive Subspace Matched Filter (ASMF) detectors in the presence of a mismatch in the steering vector. These detectors are coined as adaptive in reference to the step of utilizing an estimate of the clutter covariance matrix using training data of signalfree observations. To estimate the clutter covariance matrix, we employ regularized covariance estimators that, by construction, force the eigenvalues of the covariance estimates to be greater than a positive scalar . While this feature is likely to increase the bias of the covariance estimate, it presents the advantage of improving its conditioning, thus making the regularization suitable for handling high dimensional regimes. In this paper, we consider the setting of the regularization parameter and the threshold for ASMF detectors in both Gaussian and Compound Gaussian clutters. In order to allow for a proper selection of these parameters, it is essential to analyze the false alarm and detection probabilities. For tractability, such a task is carried out under the asymptotic regime in which the number of observations and their dimensions grow simultaneously large, thereby allowing us to leverage existing results from random matrix theory. Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the relevance of the proposed design strategy and to compare the performances of the proposed ASMF detectors versus Adaptive normalized Matched Filter (ANMF) detectors under mismatch scenarios.

  20. Instrumental basis utilizing a sodium iodide detector for radioactive soil evaluations for site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.I.

    1996-07-01

    This document provides the design rational for using a 5.08 by 5.08 cm (2 by 2 in.) sodium iodide detector to aid in boundary mapping of the radioactive contaminated soils at the Hanford Site. The detector can provide adequate response to a homogeneously contaminated soil volume of at least 1.22 to 1.52 m in diameter and up to 45.7 cm deep. The gamma activity basis is described by a soil column in a right circular cylinder that is uniformly isotopic. The detection techniques and characteristics are used to define contaminated areas requiring excavation by locating regions where gamma activities exceed cleanup standards. To determine the areas and boundary of contamination, the boundary and adjacent surfaces will be mapped using the detector operated in a windowed gross-gamma mode

  1. Neutron detector array at IUAC: Design features and instrumentation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... multi-wire proportional counters mounted inside a 1 m diameter SS target chamber. ... a powerful tool to study the dynamics of the fissioning system and a ... neutron multiplicity for three isotopes across a major closed shell, .... voltage by connecting to the control pin of the chip via a 0–5V programmable volt-.

  2. Design and operation of dust measuring instrumentation based on the beta-radiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienfeld, P.

    1975-01-01

    The theory, instrument design aspects and applications of beta-radiation attenuation for the measurement of the mass concentration of airborne particulates are reviewed. Applicable methods of particle collection, beta sensing configurations, source ( 63 Ni, 14 C, 147 Pr, 85 Kr) and detector design criteria, electronic signal processing, digital control and instrument programming techniques are treated. Advantages, limitations and error sources of beta-attenuation instrumentation are analyzed. Applications to industrial dust measurements, source testing, ambient monitoring, and particle size analysis are the major areas of practical utilization of this technique, and its inherent capability for automated and unattended operation provides compatibility with process control synchronization and alarm, telemetry, and incorporation into pollution monitoring network sensing stations. (orig.) [de

  3. Micro vertex detector design for collider geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, M.; Crennell, D.; Fisher, C.M.; Hughes, P.; Kurtz, N.

    1984-05-01

    Previously the analysis of fixed target jet events using a scintillating optical fibre target to provide a projection of the topology on the plane transverse to the event axis has been considered. It was argued that this transverse plane projection is optimal for the detection of charm or beauty particle decay vertices. The idea is generalised to a jet analysis in a collider geometry particularly when associated with a high Psub(perpendicular to) or missing Esub(T) trigger. This report proposes a simple arrangement of fibres to give high precision track elements in the transverse plane projection coupled with a fast read-out capability. The principle physics aim of the design is to provide a tag for selecting top quark jets by detecting a beauty flavoured particle in the jet. (U.K.)

  4. Design and implementation of a wireless instrument adapter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laino, Kaori V.; Saathoff, Thore; Savarimuthu, Thiusius R.

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation of new methods for control and manipulation in minimally invasive robotic surgery requires a realistic setup. To decouple the evaluation of methods from overall clinical systems, we propose an instrument adapter for the S line EndoWrist\\c{opyright} instruments of the da Vinci...... surgical system. The adapter is small and lightweight and can be mounted to any robot to mimic motion. We describe its design and implementation, as well as a setup to calibrate instruments to study precise motion control. Our results indicate that each instrument requires individual calibration...

  5. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  6. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, A.; Maringer, F.J.; Michai, P.; Kreuziger, M.

    2006-01-01

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  7. Key issues in the thermal design of spaceborne cryogenic infrared instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schember, Helene R.; Rapp, Donald

    1992-12-01

    Thermal design and analysis play an integral role in the development of spaceborne cryogenic infrared (IR) instruments. From conceptual sketches to final testing, both direct and derived thermal requirements place significant constraints on the instrument design. Although in practice these thermal requirements are interdependent, the sources of most thermal constraints may be grouped into six distinct categories. These are: (1) Detector temperatures, (2) Optics temperatures, (3) Pointing or alignment stability, (4) Mission lifetime, (5) Orbit, and (6) Test and Integration. In this paper, we discuss these six sources of thermal requirements with particular regard to development of instrument packages for low background infrared astronomical observatories. In the end, the thermal performance of these instruments must meet a set of thermal requirements. The development of these requirements is typically an ongoing and interactive process, however, and the thermal design must maintain flexibility and robustness throughout the process. The thermal (or cryogenic) engineer must understand the constraints imposed by the science requirements, the specific hardware, the observing environment, the mission design, and the testing program. By balancing these often competing factors, the system-oriented thermal engineer can work together with the experiment team to produce an effective overall design of the instrument.

  8. Design of data acquisition system for GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianliang; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji; Jin Xi

    2011-01-01

    It describes the design and realization of the USB 2.0 high speed data acquisition devise which is used in the readout electronics of the GEM (gas electron multiplier) detector. By using of the USB Microcontroller EZ-USB FX2 CY7C68013A, high speed ADC and FPGA, high-speed data rate of data acquisition and transmission was realized. The data rate reaches to 20 MByte/s, meeting the requirements of data acquisition and transmission of the detector. (authors)

  9. SPECT detector system design based on embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weizheng; Zhao Shujun; Zhang Lei; Sun Yuanling

    2007-01-01

    A single-photon emission computed tomography detector system based on embedded Linux designed. This system is composed of detector module, data acquisition module, ARM MPU module, network interface communication module and human machine interface module. Its software uses multithreading technology based on embedded Linux. It can achieve high speed data acquisition, real-time data correction and network data communication. It can accelerate the data acquisition and decrease the dead time. The accuracy and the stability of the system can be improved. (authors)

  10. Design of a wire imaging synchrotron radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, J.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hogan, A.; King, M.; Rowe, W.; Watson, S.; Von Zanthier, C.; Briggs, D.D.; Levi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper documents the design of a detector invented to measure the positions of synchrotron radiation beams for the precision energy spectrometers of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The energy measurements involve the determination, on a pulse-by-pulse basis, of the separation of pairs of intense beams of synchrotron photons in the MeV energy range. The detector intercepts the beams with arrays of fine wires. The ejection of Compton recoil electrons results in charges being developed in the wires, thus enabling a determination of beam positions. 10 refs., 4 figs

  11. The BaBar LST Detector High Voltage System: Design And Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benelli, G.; Honscheid, K.; Lewis, E.A.; Regensburger, J.J.; Smith, D.S.; Ohio State U.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the first two sextants of the new Limited Streamer Tube (LST) detector were installed in the BABAR experiment to replace the ageing Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detectors for the BABAR Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) muon system. Each streamer tube of the new detector consists of 8 cells. The cell walls are coated with graphite paint and a 100 (micro)m wire forms the anode. These wires are coupled in pairs inside the tubes resulting in 4 independent two-cell segments per LST. High voltage (HV) is applied to the 4 segments through a custom connector that also provides the decoupling capacitor to pick up the detector signals from the anode wires. The BABAR LST detector is operated at 5.5 kV. The high voltage system for the LST detector was designed and built at The Ohio State University (OSU HVPS). Each of the 25 supplies built for BaBar provides 80 output channels with individual current monitoring and overcurrent protection. For each group of 20 channels the HV can be adjusted between 0 and 6 kV. A 4-fold fan-out is integrated in the power supplies to provide a total of 320 outputs. The power supplies are controlled through built-in CANbus and Ethernet (TCP/IP) interfaces. In this presentation we will discuss the design and novel features of the OSU HVPS system and its integration into the BABAR EPICS detector control framework. Experience with the supplies operation during the LST extensive quality control program and their performance during the initial data taking period will be discussed

  12. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, P. [Electronics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: swamy@igcar.ernet.in

    2005-07-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  13. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, P.

    2005-01-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  14. Conceptual design of the ITER fast-ion loss detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Galdon, J.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Jimenez-Ramos, M. C.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J. F.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Kocan, M.; Bertalot, L.; Bonnet, Y.; Casal, N.; Giacomin, T.; Pinches, S. D.; Reichle, R.; Vayakis, G.; Veshchev, E.; Vorpahl, Ch.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    A conceptual design of a reciprocating fast-ion loss detector for ITER has been developed and is presented here. Fast-ion orbit simulations in a 3D magnetic equilibrium and up-to-date first wall have been carried out to revise the measurement requirements for the lost alpha monitor in ITER. In agreement with recent observations, the simulations presented here suggest that a pitch-angle resolution of ∼5° might be necessary to identify the loss mechanisms. Synthetic measurements including realistic lost alpha-particle as well as neutron and gamma fluxes predict scintillator signal-to-noise levels measurable with standard light acquisition systems with the detector aperture at ∼11 cm outside of the diagnostic first wall. At measurement position, heat load on detector head is comparable to that in present devices.

  15. The design and performance of the ZEUS micro vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, A. [Bologna Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN Bologna (Italy); Brock, I.; Goers, S. [Bonn Univ. (DE). Physikalisches Institut] (and others)

    2007-08-15

    In order to extend the tracking acceptance, to improve the primary and secondary vertex reconstruction and thus enhancing the tagging capabilities for short lived particles, the ZEUS experiment at the HERA Collider at DESY installed a silicon strip vertex detector. The barrel part of the detector is a 63 cm long cylinder with silicon sensors arranged around an elliptical beampipe. The forward part consists of four circular shaped disks. In total just over 200k channels are read out using 2.9 m{sup 2} of silicon. In this report a detailed overview of the design and construction of the detector is given and the performance of the completed system is reviewed. (orig.)

  16. A new event detector designed for the Seismic Research Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, James N.; Hutt, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    A new short-period event detector has been implemented on the Seismic Research Observatories. For each signal detected, a printed output gives estimates of the time of onset of the signal, direction of the first break, quality of onset, period and maximum amplitude of the signal, and an estimate of the variability of the background noise. On the SRO system, the new algorithm runs ~2.5x faster than the former (power level) detector. This increase in speed is due to the design of the algorithm: all operations can be performed by simple shifts, additions, and comparisons (floating point operations are not required). Even though a narrow-band recursive filter is not used, the algorithm appears to detect events competitively with those algorithms that employ such filters. Tests at Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory on data supplied by Blandford suggest performance commensurate with the on-line detector of the Seismic Data Analysis Center, Alexandria, Virginia.

  17. Conceptual design of the ITER fast-ion loss detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Munoz, M., E-mail: mgm@us.es; Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Galdon, J.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Jimenez-Ramos, M. C.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J. F.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain); CNA (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), Seville (Spain); Kocan, M.; Bertalot, L.; Bonnet, Y.; Casal, N.; Giacomin, T.; Pinches, S. D.; Reichle, R.; Vayakis, G.; Veshchev, E.; Vorpahl, Ch.; Walsh, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); and others

    2016-11-15

    A conceptual design of a reciprocating fast-ion loss detector for ITER has been developed and is presented here. Fast-ion orbit simulations in a 3D magnetic equilibrium and up-to-date first wall have been carried out to revise the measurement requirements for the lost alpha monitor in ITER. In agreement with recent observations, the simulations presented here suggest that a pitch-angle resolution of ∼5° might be necessary to identify the loss mechanisms. Synthetic measurements including realistic lost alpha-particle as well as neutron and gamma fluxes predict scintillator signal-to-noise levels measurable with standard light acquisition systems with the detector aperture at ∼11 cm outside of the diagnostic first wall. At measurement position, heat load on detector head is comparable to that in present devices.

  18. The design of nuclear radiation measuring instrument of embedded network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaiqiang; Ge Liangquan; Xiong Shengqing

    2009-01-01

    The design and realization of nuclear radiation measuring instrument is introduced. Due to the current nuclear instrument often used serial interface to communicate the PC, it is widely used for simple design and easy operation. However, as the demand of remote data acquisition and the call of sharing resources, the design of embedded the TCP/IP protocol stack into MCU, it may send the nuclear signal in Internet. Some devices that link each other with the network can be networked. The design is not only realizing remote data acquisition and sharing resources, but also reducing costs and improving the maintainability of the system. (authors)

  19. Design of MPU based process monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Qamar, R.; Majid, B.

    1995-03-01

    A display sub-system (DSS) for a process variable like flow is designed around Intel 8088 microprocessor. It displays the current value of a process variable but average and accumulated value display is manually selectable. The display consists of 6 units of seven segment display and accuracy up to 2 nd place of decimal is achieved. The engineering units are indicated by the LEDs. The control software is developed in assembler and burnt in a EPROM. The maximum value of the display is 9999.99 K. liter and that of time is 99 days 23 hours and 59 minutes. Sampling period is 1 second. Data acquisition is done using Polling technique. (author)

  20. Design and manufacture NCS instruments for cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuy; Nguyen Tien Dung; Dang Nguyet Anh; Nguyen Phuc; Khuong Thanh Tuan; Luong Duc Long; Pham Trong Quyen

    2003-01-01

    The ministry project 'Design and manufacture some of NCS instruments for cement factories' is a part of instrumentation for cement production in Vietnam. The objectives of the project include: 1/Design and manufacture the automatic control system for cement raw material mixing, connected to components X-ray analyzer through serial port of PC; 2/Design and manufacture the automatic discharge control system using gamma rays. The instruments, made by the project , for controlling the conveyor belt weighing machine can be easily improved for various types of conveyor belt weighing machines. Their mobility and software equipped can be adapted for requirement of modern cement production technology. The instruments are operating well in some cement factories and they are helping in quality control. (NHA)

  1. Design type testing for digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Mohns, G.

    1997-01-01

    The design type qualification of digital safety instrumentation and control is outlined. Experience shows that the concepts discussed, derived from codes, guidelines and standards, achieve useful results. It has likewise become clear that the systematics of design type qualification of the hardware components is also applicable to the software components. Design type qualification of the software, a premiere, could be performed unexpectedly smoothly. The hardware design type qualification proved that the hardware as a substrate of functionality and reliability is an issue that demands full attention, as compared to conventional systems. Another insight is that design qualification of digital instrumentation and control systems must include plant-independent systems tests. Digital instrumentation and control systems simply work very differently from conventional control systems, so that this testing modality is inevitable. (Orig./CB) [de

  2. Modular beam diagnostics instrument design for Cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaddha, N.; Bhole, R.B.; Sahoo, S.; Nandy, P.P.; Pal, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Cyclotrons at VECC, Kolkata i.e. Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) and Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC) comprise of internal and external Beam Diagnostic systems. These systems provide the beam developer with position, intensity, beam profile, a visual impression of the size and shape of ion beam, and operational control over diagnostic components like 3-finger probe, Beam Viewer probe, Deflector probe, Faraday cup, X-Y slit, Beam viewer etc. Automation of these components was initially done using customised modules for individual sub-system. An expansion of this facility and various levels of complexity demand modular design to cater easy modification and upgradation. The overall requirements are analysed and modular cards are developed based on basic functionalities like valve operation, probe/slit/viewer control, position read-out, Interlock, aperture control of beam line and communication. A 32-bit Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) based card with embedded EPICS is chosen as the master controller and FPGA/microcontroller is used for functional modules. The paper gives a comprehensive description of all modules and their integration with the control system. (author)

  3. Design and performance of vacuum capable detector electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, R.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Funk, L.L.; Clonts, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors. The eight tube assembly requires 10 W of power and can be controlled via digital communication links. The electronics can be used without modification in vacuum. Using a transimpedance amplifier and gated integration, we achieve a highly linear system with coefficient of determinations of 0.9999 or better. Typical resolution is one percent of tube length.

  4. Design and performance of vacuum capable detector electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, R.A., E-mail: riedelra@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Cooper, R.G.; Funk, L.L.; Clonts, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We describe the design and performance of electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors. The eight tube assembly requires 10 W of power and can be controlled via digital communication links. The electronics can be used without modification in vacuum. Using a transimpedance amplifier and gated integration, we achieve a highly linear system with coefficient of determinations of 0.9999 or better. Typical resolution is one percent of tube length.

  5. Calculation of track and vertex errors for detector design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harr, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Kalman Filter technique has come into wide use for charged track reconstruction in high-energy physics experiments. It is also well suited for detector design studies, allowing for the efficient estimation of optimal track covariance matrices without the need of a hit level Monte Carlo simulation. Although much has been published about the Kalman filter equations, there is a lack of previous literature explaining how to implement the equations. In this paper, the operators necessary to implement the Kalman filter equations for two common detector configurations are worked out: a central detector in a uniform solenoidal magnetic field, and a fixed-target detector with no magnetic field in the region of the interactions. With the track covariance matrices in hand, vertex and invariant mass errors are readily calculable. These quantities are particularly interesting for evaluating experiments designed to study weakly decaying particles which give rise to displaced vertices. The optimal vertex errors are obtained via a constrained vertex fit. Solutions are presented to the constrained vertex problem with and without kinematic constraints. Invariant mass errors are obtained via propagation of errors; the use of vertex constrained track parameters is discussed. Many of the derivations are new or previously unpublished

  6. Portable nucleonics instrument design: The PortaCAT example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.; Pohl, P.; Hutchinson, E.

    2000-01-01

    Portable nucleonic gauges prototypes are designed and manufactured in New Zealand for niche applications. Considerable development in hardware and software provide new opportunity in design of relatively low cost portable nucleonic gauges. In this paper are illustrated principles, and specific factors to be consider when designing portable nucleonic instrumentation, using an example called PortaCAT, which is a portable computed tomography scanner designed for imaging wooden power poles. (author)

  7. Design of cost effective antennas for instrumentation radars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cost of antennas for instrumentation radars are determined by the development cost. By re-use of the reflector system cost effective antennas can be designed. The factors governing the design of such antennas are described here....

  8. Design aid system for nuclear power plant instrumentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Ito, Toshiichiro; Fujii, Makoto; Shimada, Nobuhide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to provide design aid for the nuclear power plant instrumentation of high reliability with the minimum cost while eliminating unrequired condition even if there are no data for the ground of the instrumentation design. Constitution: The information data base for the design of process radiation ray monitors are administrated by a data base administration device. The conditions to be satisfied in the process radiation monitors designed based on the data for the circumstances where particular predetermined process radiation monitors are installed, are derived by deduction using information obtained from the data base by way of the data base administration device. The derived design conditions are displayed and the optimum conditions are again reduced and displayed. In this way, the designers are assisted such that optimum designs can be obtained while sufficiently satisfying the safety and also in view of the cost. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Software for simulation and design of neutron scattering instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads

    designed using the software. The Union components uses a new approach to simulation of samples in McStas. The properties of a sample are split into geometrical and material, simplifying user input, and allowing the construction of complicated geometries such as sample environments. Multiple scattering...... from conventional choices. Simulation of neutron scattering instrumentation is used when designing instrumentation, but also to understand instrumental effects on the measured scattering data. The Monte Carlo ray-tracing package McStas is among the most popular, capable of simulating the path of each...... neutron through the instrument using an easy to learn language. The subject of the defended thesis is contributions to the McStas language in the form of the software package guide_bot and the Union components.The guide_bot package simplifies the process of optimizing neutron guides by writing the Mc...

  10. Design and manufacturing of instrumented capsule(03F-05K) for nuclear fuel irradiation in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T. [and others

    2004-06-01

    An instrumented capsule is being developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in HANARO. The instrumented capsule(02F-11K) for measuring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. The instrumented capsule includes three test fuel rods installed thermocouple to measure fuel centerline temperature and three SPNDs (self-powered neutron detector) to monitor the neutron flux. Its stability was verified by out-of-pile performance test, and its safety evaluation was also shown that the safety requirements were satisfied. And then, to verify the design of the instrumented capsule in the test hole, it was successfully irradiated in the test hole of HANARO from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.8 full power days at 24 MWth). During irradiation, the centerline temperature of PWR UO{sub 2} fuel pellets fabricated by KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Company and the neutron flux were continuously measured and monitored. In the year of 2004, 3 test fuel rods and the instrumented capsule(03F-05K) were designed and fabricated to measure fuel centerline temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, and fuel axial deformation during irradiation test. This capsule is being irradiated in the test hole OR5 of HANARO reactor from April 26, 2004.

  11. Image reconstruction design of industrial CT instrument for teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yongning; Cai Yufang

    2009-01-01

    Industrial CT instrument for teaching is applied to teaching and study in field of physics and radiology major, image reconstruction is an important part of software on CT instrument. The paper expatiate on CT physical theory and first generation CT reconstruction algorithm, describe scan process of industrial CT instrument for teaching; analyze image artifact as result of displacement of rotation center, implement method of center displacement correcting, design and complete image reconstruction software, application shows that reconstructed image is very clear and qualitatively high. (authors)

  12. Design of instrumentation and software for precise laser machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, D.; Grabowski, Marcin; Lipiec, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns the design of instrumentation and software for precise laser machining. Application of advanced laser beam manipulation instrumentation enables noticeable improvement of cut quality and material loss. This factors have significant impact on process efficiency and cutting edge quality by means of machined part size and shape accuracy, wall taper, material loss reduction (e.g. diamond) and time effectiveness. The goal can be reached by integration of laser drive, observation and optical measurement system, beam manipulation system and five axis mechanical instrumentation with use of advanced tailored software enabling full laser cutting process control and monitoring.

  13. Design studies on sensors for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hügging, F G

    2002-01-01

    For the ATLAS Pixel Detector, prototype sensors have been successfully developed. For the sensors design, attention was given to survivability of the harsh LHC radiation environment leading to the need to operate them at several hundreds of volts, while maintaining a good charge collection efficiency, small cell size and minimal multiple scattering. For a cost effective mass production, a bias grid is implemented to test the sensors before assembly under full bias. (6 refs).

  14. Focal plane mechanical design of the NISP/Euclid instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoi, Anne; Bon, William; Niclas, Mathieu; Solheim, Bjarte G. B.; Torvanger, Oyvind; Schistad, Robert; Foulon, Benjamin; Garcia, José; Vives, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    Currently in phase C, the Euclid mission selected by ESA in the Cosmic Vision program is dedicated to understand dark energy and dark matter. NISP (standing for Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer) is one of the two instruments of the mission. NISP will combine a photometer and a spectrometer working in the near-IR (0.9-2 microns). Its detection subsystem (called NI-DS) is based on a mosaic of 16 IR detectors cooled down to 90K which are supported by a molybdenum plate. The front-end readout electronics (working at 130K) are supported by another structure in Aluminum. The NI-DS is mounted on the rest of the instrument thanks to a panel in Silicon Carbide (SiC). Finally an optical baffle in Titanium will prevent the rogue light to reach the detectors. On top of the complexity due to the wide range of temperatures and the various materials imposed at the interfaces; the NI-DS has also to incorporate an internal adjustment capability of the position of the focal plane in tip/tilt and focus. This article will present current status of the development of the detection system of NISP.

  15. Thermal design and performance of the REgolith x-ray imaging spectrometer (REXIS) instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Kevin D.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument is a student collaboration instrument on the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission scheduled for launch in September 2016. The REXIS science mission is to characterize the elemental abundances of the asteroid Bennu on a global scale and to search for regions of enhanced elemental abundance. The thermal design of the REXIS instrument is challenging due to both the science requirements and the thermal environment in which it will operate. The REXIS instrument consists of two assemblies: the spectrometer and the solar X-ray monitor (SXM). The spectrometer houses a 2x2 array of back illuminated CCDs that are protected from the radiation environment by a one-time deployable cover and a collimator assembly with coded aperture mask. Cooling the CCDs during operation is the driving thermal design challenge on the spectrometer. The CCDs operate in the vicinity of the electronics box, but a 130 °C thermal gradient is required between the two components to cool the CCDs to -60 °C in order to reduce noise and obtain science data. This large thermal gradient is achieved passively through the use of a copper thermal strap, a large radiator facing deep space, and a two-stage thermal isolation layer between the electronics box and the DAM. The SXM is mechanically mounted to the sun-facing side of the spacecraft separately from the spectrometer and characterizes the highly variable solar X-ray spectrum to properly interpret the data from the asteroid. The driving thermal design challenge on the SXM is cooling the silicon drift detector (SDD) to below -30 °C when operating. A two-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is located directly beneath the detector to provide active cooling, and spacecraft MLI blankets cover all of the SXM except the detector aperture to radiatively decouple the SXM from the flight thermal environment. This paper describes the REXIS thermal system requirements, thermal design, and analyses, with

  16. Instrumentation of a Level-1 Track Trigger in the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Boisvert, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider will be upgraded in order to reach an instantaneous luminosity of $L=5 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. A challenge for the detectors will be to cope with the excessive rate of events coming into the trigger system. In order to maintain the capability of triggering on single lepton objects with momentum thresholds of $p_T 25$ GeV, the ATLAS detector is planning to use tracking information at the Level-1 (hardware) stage of the trigger system. Two options are currently being studied: a L0/L1 trigger design using a double buffer front-end architecture and a single hardware trigger level which uses trigger layers in the new tracker system. Both options are presented as well as results from simulation studies.

  17. Design of reactor alarm instrument based on SOPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Lu Yi; Rong Ru

    2008-01-01

    The design of embedded alarm instrument in reactors based on Nios II CPU is introduced in this paper. This design uses the SOPC technology based on the Cyclone series FPGA as a digital bench, and connects the MPU and drivers and interface of times, RS232, sdram,and etc. into a FPGA chip. It is proved that the system achieves the design goals in primary experimentation. (authors)

  18. A phoswich detector design for improved spatial sampling in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Jonathan D.; Koschan, Merry A.; Melcher, Charles L.; Meng, Fang; Schellenberg, Graham; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2018-02-01

    Block detector designs, utilizing a pixelated scintillator array coupled to a photosensor array in a light-sharing design, are commonly used for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging applications. In practice, the spatial sampling of these designs is limited by the crystal pitch, which must be large enough for individual crystals to be resolved in the detector flood image. Replacing the conventional 2D scintillator array with an array of phoswich elements, each consisting of an optically coupled side-by-side scintillator pair, may improve spatial sampling in one direction of the array without requiring resolving smaller crystal elements. To test the feasibility of this design, a 4 × 4 phoswich array was constructed, with each phoswich element consisting of two optically coupled, 3 . 17 × 1 . 58 × 10mm3 LSO crystals co-doped with cerium and calcium. The amount of calcium doping was varied to create a 'fast' LSO crystal with decay time of 32.9 ns and a 'slow' LSO crystal with decay time of 41.2 ns. Using a Hamamatsu R8900U-00-C12 position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT) and a CAEN V1720 250 MS/s waveform digitizer, we were able to show effective discrimination of the fast and slow LSO crystals in the phoswich array. Although a side-by-side phoswich array is feasible, reflections at the crystal boundary due to a mismatch between the refractive index of the optical adhesive (n = 1 . 5) and LSO (n = 1 . 82) caused it to behave optically as an 8 × 4 array rather than a 4 × 4 array. Direct coupling of each phoswich element to individual photodetector elements may be necessary with the current phoswich array design. Alternatively, in order to implement this phoswich design with a conventional light sharing PET block detector, a high refractive index optical adhesive is necessary to closely match the refractive index of LSO.

  19. System 80+ instrumentation and controls - certification of a reliable design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Scarola, K.; Turk, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering's (ABB) System 80+ advanced light water plant design includes a modern, fully digitized instrumentation and controls complex, Nuplex 80+. This complex incorporates an evolutionary advanced control room, replacing conventional analog instruments with more capable computer driven components. As a result, Nuplex 80+ results in significant improvements in operator information handling and control to enhance plant safety and availability. The design implements features which the U.S. NRC has determined to be acceptable for addressing the potential for common mode failure in software implemented for protective functions. (author)

  20. Admittance detector for high impedance systems: design and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-12-02

    We describe an admittance detector for high impedance systems (small capillary bore and/or low solution specific conductance). Operation in the low frequency range (≤1 kHz, much lower than most relevant publications) provides optimum response to conductance changes in capillaries ≤20 μm in bore. The detector design was based on studies described in a preceding companion paper ( Zhang, M.; Stamos, B. N.; Amornthammarong, N.; Dasgupta, P. K. Anal. Chem. 2014, 8 , DOI 10.1021/ac503245a.). The highest S/N for detecting 100 μM KCl (5.5 μM peak concentration, ∼0.8 μS/cm) injected into water flowing through a capillary of 7.5 μm inner radius (r) was observed at 500-750 Hz. A low bias current operational amplifier in the transimpedance configuration permitted high gain (1 V/nA) to measure pA-nA level currents in the detection cell. Aside from an oscillator, an offset-capable RMS-DC converter formed the complete detection circuitry. Limits of detection (LODs) of KCl scaled inversely with the capillary cross section and were 2.1 and 0.32 μM injected KCl for r = 1 and 2.5 μm capillaries, respectively. When used as a detector on an r = 8 μm bore poly(methyl methacrylate) capillary in a split effluent stream from a suppressed ion chromatograph, the LOD was 27 nM bromide (Vex 22 V p-p), compared to 14 nM observed with a commercial bipolar pulse macroscale conductivity detector with an actively thermostated cell. We also show applications of the detector in electrophoresis in capillaries with r = 1 and 2.5 μm. Efficient heat dissipation permits high concentrations of the background electrolyte and sensitive detection because of efficient electrostacking.

  1. Design of a Dry Dilution Refrigerator for MMC Gamma Detector Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boyd, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cantor, Robin

    2017-04-03

    The goal of this LCP is to develop an ultra-high resolution gamma detector based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material to replace current Au:Er sensors. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers. MMC detectors require operating temperatures of ~15 mK and thus the use of a dilution refrigerator, and the desire for user-friendly operation without cryogenic liquids requires that this refrigerator use pulse-tube pre-cooling to ~4 K. For long-term reliability, we intend to re-design the heat switch that is needed to apply the magnetizing current to the Ag:Er sensor and that used to fail in earlier designs after months of operation. A cryogenic Compton veto will be installed to reduce the spectral background of the MMC, especially at low energies where ultra-high energy resolution is most important. The goals for FY16 were 1) to purchase a liquid-cryogen-free dilution refrigerator and adapt it for MMC operation, and 2) to fabricate Ag:Er-based MMC γ-detectors with improved performance and optimize their response. This report discusses the design of the instruments, and progress in MMC detector fabrication. Details of the MMC fabrication have been discussed in an April 2016 report to DOE.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description (SYS 12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-05

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed & Instrument Air P&ID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility.

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description. System 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-01-01

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed and Instrument Air PandID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid PandID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility

  4. Detector design and evaluation for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, H.; Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    There are two components to this research, both at the high-η ends of the STAR detector to be built in Brookhaven in 1997. The first project is to design the start counters to be placed along the incident beam-pipe. These detectors will be used to determine the starting time for the TOF layer, which, in conjunction with the main low-η TPC detectors, will determine particle identification. The TOF system will need a time resolution of 100 ps, which must be reflected in the start counter design. The start counter will detect particles emitted with pseudorapidities of η-4.5-5.5, and the size of the counter is dependent on the placement of the counter along the beam pipe. The authors will also explore start counter segmentation and light collection from the scintillator. Second, they are using computer simulation to try to calculate the initial momentum of particles, given their crossing points through the high-η TPCs. A computer model can give one such track through the TPCs. By modelling the track of the particle back through an ideal magnetic field, the authors can estimate the initial momentum. Then, based on this momentum, they project the particle through a complex magnetic field corresponding to the actual field generated and determine where that particle strikes the TPCs. By then varying the initial momentum slightly, they can minimize the difference between such tracks and the original track and, thus, accurately calculate the initial momentum

  5. Acoustic Sensor Design for Dark Matter Bubble Chamber Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, Ivan; Martínez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Ardid, Miguel

    2016-06-10

    Dark matter bubble chamber detectors use piezoelectric sensors in order to detect and discriminate the acoustic signals emitted by the bubbles grown within the superheated fluid from a nuclear recoil produced by a particle interaction. These sensors are attached to the outside walls of the vessel containing the fluid. The acoustic discrimination depends strongly on the properties of the sensor attached to the outer wall of the vessel that has to meet the requirements of radiopurity and size. With the aim of optimizing the sensor system, a test bench for the characterization of the sensors has been developed. The sensor response for different piezoelectric materials, geometries, matching layers, and backing layers have been measured and contrasted with FEM simulations and analytical models. The results of these studies lead us to have a design criterion for the construction of specific sensors for the next generation of dark matter bubble chamber detectors (250 L).

  6. Acoustic Sensor Design for Dark Matter Bubble Chamber Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Felis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark matter bubble chamber detectors use piezoelectric sensors in order to detect and discriminate the acoustic signals emitted by the bubbles grown within the superheated fluid from a nuclear recoil produced by a particle interaction. These sensors are attached to the outside walls of the vessel containing the fluid. The acoustic discrimination depends strongly on the properties of the sensor attached to the outer wall of the vessel that has to meet the requirements of radiopurity and size. With the aim of optimizing the sensor system, a test bench for the characterization of the sensors has been developed. The sensor response for different piezoelectric materials, geometries, matching layers, and backing layers have been measured and contrasted with FEM simulations and analytical models. The results of these studies lead us to have a design criterion for the construction of specific sensors for the next generation of dark matter bubble chamber detectors (250 L.

  7. Designing means and specifications for model FT-619 kidney function instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongding

    1988-04-01

    In this paper, it is pointed out that the model FT-619 Kidney Function Equipment is a new cost-effective nuclear medicine instrument, which takes the leading position in China. The performance of the model FT-619,especially the lead collimated scintillation detector has reached the same level as the advanced equipment in the world market. It is also described in this article in detail that the design of the lead collimator and the shielding as well as the detection efficiency have achieved the optimum level and that a comparison has been made with foreign products

  8. Design and application of a continuous, digital-output, environmental radon measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A radon measuring instrument has been developed which can continuously measure environmental concentrations of radon in the atmosphere without employing any air movers or pumps. The unit is entirely passive in design and relies upon the diffusion of radon for sample collection. Since radon is an inert noble gas it will follow the classical theory of motion and diffuse in a direction dependent upon the concentration gradient existing between the atmosphere and the sensitive portion of the detector. A porous foam filter allows radon, but not its daughters, to enter the detector where an electrostatic field is maintained to facilitate collection of the decay products of radon, i.e., initially the positive ions of RaA (Po-218). Alpha particles from RaA and RaC' (Po-214) within the sensitive volume are detected using a ZnS scintillator and photomultiplier tube with the usual complement of electronics

  9. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 4. Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Burrows, Philip; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The Si Vertex detectors, the main tracker, calorimetry, muon detectors, the superconducting spectrometer magnet, the detector electronics and data acquisition, simulation and reconstruction, benchmarking, costs. (HSI)

  10. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 4. Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Burrows, Philip; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi [eds.

    2013-10-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The Si Vertex detectors, the main tracker, calorimetry, muon detectors, the superconducting spectrometer magnet, the detector electronics and data acquisition, simulation and reconstruction, benchmarking, costs. (HSI)

  11. The design of intelligentized nuclear radiation monitoring detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yan; Fang Zongliang; Wen Qilin; Li Lirong; Hu Jiewei; Peng Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduced an intelligentized nuclear radiation monitoring detector. The detector contains GM tubes, high voltage power supply and MCU circuit. The detector connect terminal via reformative serial port to provide power, accept the data and sent the command. (authors)

  12. Conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, D.; Oliaro, G.; Roney, P.; Sichta, P.; Tindall, K.

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction phase for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under way at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Operation is scheduled to begin on April 30, 1999. This paper describes the conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System. Major elements of the Central I and C System include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System to support the NSTX experimental device

  13. Design of virtual three-dimensional instruments for sound control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Axel Gezienus Elith

    An environment for designing virtual instruments with 3D geometry has been prototyped and applied to real-time sound control and design. It enables a sound artist, musical performer or composer to design an instrument according to preferred or required gestural and musical constraints instead of constraints based only on physical laws as they apply to an instrument with a particular geometry. Sounds can be created, edited or performed in real-time by changing parameters like position, orientation and shape of a virtual 3D input device. The virtual instrument can only be perceived through a visualization and acoustic representation, or sonification, of the control surface. No haptic representation is available. This environment was implemented using CyberGloves, Polhemus sensors, an SGI Onyx and by extending a real- time, visual programming language called Max/FTS, which was originally designed for sound synthesis. The extension involves software objects that interface the sensors and software objects that compute human movement and virtual object features. Two pilot studies have been performed, involving virtual input devices with the behaviours of a rubber balloon and a rubber sheet for the control of sound spatialization and timbre parameters. Both manipulation and sonification methods affect the naturalness of the interaction. Informal evaluation showed that a sonification inspired by the physical world appears natural and effective. More research is required for a natural sonification of virtual input device features such as shape, taking into account possible co- articulation of these features. While both hands can be used for manipulation, left-hand-only interaction with a virtual instrument may be a useful replacement for and extension of the standard keyboard modulation wheel. More research is needed to identify and apply manipulation pragmatics and movement features, and to investigate how they are co-articulated, in the mapping of virtual object

  14. Design and implementation of an expert system for the detector control systems of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henss, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    In the framework of this thesis an expert system ''Pixel-Advisor'' for the control system of the pixel detector was designed and implemented. This supports the operational personnel in the diagnosis and removal of possible problems, which are in connection with the detector control system and unburdens the few available DCS experts

  15. Safety Evaluation of Kartini Reactor Based on Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipta Suhaemi; Djen Djen Dj; Itjeu K; Johnny S; Setyono

    2003-01-01

    The safety of Kartini reactor has been evaluated based on instrumentation system aspect. The Kartini reactor is designed by BATAN. Design power of the reactor is 250 kW, but it is currently operated at 100 kW. Instrumentation and control system function is to monitor and control the reactor operation. Instrumentation and control system consists of safety system, start-up and automatic power control, and process information system. The linear power channel and logarithmic power channel are used for measuring power. There are 3 types of control rod for controlling the power, i.e. safety rod, shim rod, and regulating rod. The trip and interlock system are used for safety. There are instrumentation equipment used for measuring radiation exposure, flow rate, temperature and conductivity of fluid The system of Kartini reactor has been developed by introducing a process information system, start-up system, and automatic power control. It is concluded that the instrumentation of Kartini reactor has followed the requirement and standard of IAEA. (author)

  16. Electron identification and implications in SSC detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensinger, J.; Wang, E.M.; Yamamoto, H.

    1990-05-01

    In the context of Heavy Higgs searches in the decay mode H → ZZ → 4e, electron identification issues and their implications on detector design are discussed (though many of the issues are valid for muon modes as well). The backgrounds considered seem manageable (a net rejection of 100 for combined electron ID and isolation cut is needed and seems fairly straightforward). A detector must have wide electron rapidity coverage η T > GeV; be hermetic (in the sense of minimizing regions where electrons can disappear through cracks, dead spaces, or poorly placed walls); and have high efficiency electron ID (∼ 0.90) since we are trying to be sensitive to a feeble signal and we need 4 electrons. The product of a number of fairly high acceptances based on optimistic estimates still yields in the end a net Higgs acceptance about 0.15 to 0.25 depending on how hermetic a detector is assumed. For M Higgs < 500 GeV, this may be tolerable; whereas, for higher Higgs masses, the situation is much less clear

  17. Design and Implementation of Data Collection Instruments for Neonatology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica G. HĂŞMĂŞANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available im: The aim of our research was to design and implement data collection instruments to be use in context of an observational prospective clinical study with follow-up conducted on new born with intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: The structure of the data collection forms (paper based and electronic based was first identified and for each variable the best type to accomplish the research aim was established. The code for categorical variables has also been decided as well as the units of measurements for quantitative variables. In respect of good practice, a set of confounding factors (as gender, date of birth, etc. have also been identified and integrated in data collection instruments. Data-entry validation rules were implemented for each variable to reduce data input errors when the electronic data collection instrument was created. Results: Two data collection instruments have been developed and successfully implemented: a paper-based form and an electronic data collection instrument. The developed forms included demographics, neonatal complications (as hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, etc., biochemical data at birth and follow-up, immunological data, as well as basal and follow-up echocardiographic data. Data-entry validation criteria have been implemented in electronic data collection instrument to assure validity and precision when paper-based data are translated in electronic form. Furthermore, to assure subject’s confidentiality a careful attention was given to HIPPA identifiers when electronic data collection instrument was developed. Conclusion: Data collection instruments were successfully developed and implemented as an a priori step in a clinical research for assisting data collection and management in a case of an observational prospective study with follow-up visits.

  18. Applications of optical links to the protective instrumentation of nuclear power stations and to stabilisation of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuze, G.

    1979-01-01

    The description is given of a system of transmission by optical fibre opto-electronic links capable of carrying out many point by point transmissions of logical signals: between acquisition and protection processing units, between acquisition and protection processing units and the control room, between acquisition and protection processing units and logical safety units, and between logical safety units and control room. A short description is also given of an optical fibre signal transmission system constituting a new instrumentation for stabilising spectra coming from NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors. In addition to the remote control of the detectors such an instrumentation is capable of improving the stability performance of gamma ray cameras (a beam of monofibres is then necessary) as well as that of any detector placed in an inaccessible or hostile environment (fuel reprocessing plant, for example) [fr

  19. Remote sensing technology research and instrumentation platform design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An instrumented pallet concept and definition of an aircraft with performance and payload capability to meet NASA's airborne turbulent flux measurement needs for advanced multiple global climate research and field experiments is presented. The report addresses airborne measurement requirements for general circulation model sub-scale parameterization research, specifies instrumentation capable of making these measurements, and describes a preliminary support pallet design. Also, a review of aircraft types and a recommendation of a manned and an unmanned aircraft capable of meeting flux parameterization research needs is given.

  20. Design of the digitizing beam position limit detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Digitizing Beam Position Limit Detector (DBPLD) is designed to identify and react to beam missteering conditions in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The high power of the insertion devices requires these missteering conditions to result in a beam abort in less than 2 milliseconds. Commercially available beam position monitors provide a voltage proportional to beam position immediately upstream and downstream of insertion devices. The DBPLD is a custom VME board that digitizes these voltages and interrupts the heartbeat of the APS machine protection system when the beam position exceeds its trip limits

  1. Design verification test of instrumented capsule (02F-11K) for nuclear fuel irradiation in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Sohn, J. M.; Oh, J. M. [and others

    2004-01-01

    An instrumented capsule is being developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in HANARO. The instrumented capsule for measuring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. The instrumented capsule includes three test fuel rods installed thermocouple to measure fuel centerline temperature and three SPNDs (Self-Powered Neutron Detector) to monitor the neutron flux. Its stability was verified by out-of-pile performance test, and its safety evaluation was also shown that the safety requirements were satisfied. And then, to verify the design of the instrumented capsule in the test hole, it was successfully irradiated in the test hole of HANARO from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.8 full power days at 24 MWth). During irradiation, the centerline temperature of PWR UO{sub 2} fuel pellets fabricated by KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Company and the neutron flux were continuously measured and monitored. The test fuel rods were irradiated at less than 350 W/cm to 5.13 GWD/MTU with fuel centerline peak temperature below 1,375 .deg. C. The structural stability of the capsule was satisfied by the naked eye in service pool of HANARO. The capsule and test fuel rods were dismantled and test fuel rods were examined at the hot cell of IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility)

  2. Design and performance of the focusing DIRC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, B. [University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Borsato, M.; Arnaud, N. [Laboratoire de l' Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Leith, D.W.G.S.; Nishimura, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Roberts, D.A. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. (United States); Ratcliff, B.N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Varner, G. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. (United States); Va' vra, J., E-mail: jjv@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present the final results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). This detector was designed as a full-scale prototype of the particle identification system for the SuperB experiment [1], and comprises 1/12 of the SuperB barrel azimuthal coverage, with partial photodetector and electronics implementation. The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope which provided 3D tracking of cosmic muons with an angular resolution of ~1.5 mrad, a position resolution of 4–5 mm, a start time resolution of 70 ps, and muon tracks above ~2 GeV tagged using an iron range stack. The fused silica focusing photon camera was coupled to a full-size BaBar DIRC bar box and was read out, over part of the full coverage, by 12 Hamamatsu H8500 multi-anode photomultipliers (MaPMTs) providing 768 pixels. We used waveform digitizing electronics to read out the MaPMTs. We give a detailed description of our data analysis methods and point out limitations on the present performance. We present results that demonstrate some basic performance characteristics of this design, including (a) single photon Cherenkov angle resolutions with and without chromatic corrections, (b) signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio between the Cherenkov peak and background, which primarily consists of ambiguities of the possible photon paths from emission along the track to a given pixel, (c) dTOP=TOP{sub measured} – TOP{sub expected} resolutions (with TOP being the photon Time-of-Propagation in fused silica), and (d) performance of the detector in the presence of high-rate backgrounds.

  3. CLIC CDR - physics and detectors: CLIC conceptual design report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Demarteau, M.; Repond, J.; Xia, L.; Weerts, H. (High Energy Physics); (Many)

    2012-02-10

    This report forms part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC). The CLIC accelerator complex is described in a separate CDR volume. A third document, to appear later, will assess strategic scenarios for building and operating CLIC in successive center-of-mass energy stages. It is anticipated that CLIC will commence with operation at a few hundred GeV, giving access to precision standard-model physics like Higgs and top-quark physics. Then, depending on the physics landscape, CLIC operation would be staged in a few steps ultimately reaching the maximum 3 TeV center-of-mass energy. Such a scenario would maximize the physics potential of CLIC providing new physics discovery potential over a wide range of energies and the ability to make precision measurements of possible new states previously discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main purpose of this document is to address the physics potential of a future multi-TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider based on CLIC technology and to describe the essential features of a detector that are required to deliver the full physics potential of this machine. The experimental conditions at CLIC are significantly more challenging than those at previous electron-positron colliders due to the much higher levels of beam-induced backgrounds and the 0.5 ns bunch-spacing. Consequently, a large part of this report is devoted to understanding the impact of the machine environment on the detector with the aim of demonstrating, with the example of realistic detector concepts, that high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC. Since the impact of background increases with energy, this document concentrates on the detector requirements and physics measurements at the highest CLIC center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. One essential output of this report is the clear demonstration that a wide range of high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC with detectors which are challenging, but

  4. Technical Design Report for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Collaboration, ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    This is the first of two Technical Design Report documents that describe the upgrade of the central tracking system for the ATLAS experiment for the operation at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) starting in the middle of 2026. At this time the LHC will have been upgraded to reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5x10^34 cm^[-2]s^[-1], which corresponds to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. The new Inner Tracker (ITk) will be operational for more than ten years, during which ATLAS aims to accumulate a total data set of 3,000 fb^[-1]. Meeting these requirements presents a unique challenge for the design of an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large-area strip tracking detector surrounding it. This document presents in detail the requirements of the new tracker, its layout and expected performance including the results of several benchmark physics studies at the highest numbers of collisions per beam...

  5. Design of Ka-band antipodal finline mixer and detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Changfei; Xu Jinping; Chen Mo

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the analysis and design of a finline single-ended mixer and detector. In the circuit, for the purpose of eliminating high-order resonant modes and improving transition loss, metallic via holes are implemented along the mounting edge of the substrate embedded in the split-block of the WG-finline-microstrip transition. Meanwhile, a Ka band slow-wave and bandstop filter, which represents a reactive termination, is designed for the utilization of idle frequencies and operation frequencies energy. Full-wave analysis is carried out to optimize the input matching network of the mixer and the detector circuit using lumped elements to model the nonlinear diode. The exported S-matrix of the optimized circuit is used for conversion loss and voltage sensitivity analysis. The lowest measured conversion loss is 3.52 dB at 32.2 GHz; the conversion loss is flat and less than 5.68 dB in the frequency band of 29-34 GHz. The highest measured zero-bias voltage sensitivity is 1450 mV/mW at 38.6 GHz, and the sensitivity is better than 1000 mV/mW in the frequency band of 38-40 GHz.

  6. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Burrows, Philip N.; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  7. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Af'idah, Dwi Intan; Widianto, Eko Didik; Setyawan, Budi

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  8. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF NEXT-GENERATION DETECTORS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, DIFFRACTION AND HOLOGRAPHY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles S. Fadley, Principal Investigator

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a new multichannel detector for use in photoelectron spectroscopy (as well as other types of high-count-rate spectroscopy) that will operate at rates of up to 1 GHz. Such detectors are crucial to the full utilization of the high-brightness radiation generated by third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. In addition, new software and hardware has been developed to permit rapidly and accurately scanning photoelectron spectra that will be accumulated in as little as a 200 micros. A versatile next-generation sample goniometer permitting equally rapid scanning of specimen angles or photon energies for angle-resolved photoemission studies, photoelectron diffraction, and photoelectron holography measurements, and cooling to below 10K has also been designed and constructed. These capabilities have been incorporated into a unique photoelectron spectrometer/diffractometer at the Advanced Light Source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; this experimental system includes ultrahigh energy resolution, in situ rotation, variable polarization, and optional spin detection. This overall system is now being used in studies of a variety of problems including magnetic metals and oxides; metal/metal, metal/metal oxide, and metal-oxide/metal-oxide multilayers; and systems exhibiting giant and colossal magnetoresistance

  10. Design of an intelligent flight instrumentation unit using embedded RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Marmolejo, R.; García-Torales, G.; Torres-Ortega, H. H.; Flores, J. L.

    2011-09-01

    Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAV) must calculate its spatial position to control the flight dynamics, which is done by Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). MEMS Inertial sensors have made possible to reduce the size and power consumption of such units. Commonly the flight instrumentation operates independently of the main processor. This work presents an instrumentation block design, which reduces size and power consumption of the complete system of a MUAV. This is done by coupling the inertial sensors to the main processor without considering any intermediate level of processing aside. Using Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) reduces the number of intermediate components, increasing MUAV reliability. One advantage is the possibility to control several different sensors with a single communication bus. This feature of the MEMS sensors makes a smaller and less complex MUAV design possible.

  11. Thermal architecture design tests for the Planck/HFI instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piat, M.; Leriche, B.; Torre, J.-P.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Benoit, A.; Crussaire, J.-P

    2000-04-07

    The ESA satellite project Planck is designed to survey the sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths in a drift scan mode. The High-Frequency Instrument (HFI) will use 48 bolometers cooled to 100 mK by a dilution cooler. In this paper, we describe how the scan strategy leads to requirements on the 0.1 K stage temperature stability and how a combination of a passive and an active system can be used to approach this specification.

  12. Modeling and design of X-rays bidimensional detectors; Modelagem e projeto de detectores bidimensionais para radiacao-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisbert, Elmer Paz Alcon

    2000-03-01

    In this work has been developed the scintillating fiber optic and semiconductor devices based 2-D detector design, modeling and performance evaluation using Monte Carlo methods, for high X-ray energy range (10-140 kV) radiography and tomography applications. These processes allowed us, also, the imaging system parameters and components optimization and appropriate detector design. The model estimated the detectors performance parameters (DQE, MTF and SNR), and radiation risk (in terms of mean absorbed dose in the patient) and to show up how the sequence of physical processes in X-ray detection influence the performance of this imaging PFOC detectors. In this way, the modeling of the detector includes the statistics of the spatial distribution of absorbed X-rays and of X-ray to light conversion, its transmission, and the light quanta conversion into electrons. Also contributions to noise from the detection system chain is included, mainly the CCD detector ambient noise. Performance prediction, based on calculation taken from simulations, illustrates how such detectors meet the exacting requirements of some medical and industrial applications. Also, it is envisaged that our modeling procedure of the imaging system will be suitable not only for investigating how the system components should be best designed but for CT and RD system performance prediction. The powerful techniques would enable us to give advice for future development, in this field, in search of more dose-efficient imaging systems. (author)

  13. Positional glow curve simulation for thermoluminescent detector (TLD) system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, C.J.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Multi- and thin element dosimeters, variable heating rate schemes, and glow-curve analysis have been employed to improve environmental and personnel dosimetry using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Detailed analysis of the effects of errors and optimization of techniques would be highly desirable. However, an understanding of the relationship between TL light production, light attenuation, and precise heating schemes is made difficult because of experimental challenges involved in measuring positional TL light production and temperature variations as a function of time. This work reports the development of a general-purpose computer code, thermoluminescent detector simulator, TLD-SIM, to simulate the heating of any TLD type using a variety of conventional and experimental heating methods including pulsed focused or unfocused lasers with Gaussian or uniform cross sections, planchet, hot gas, hot finger, optical, infrared, or electrical heating. TLD-SIM has been used to study the impact on the TL light production of varying the input parameters which include: detector composition, heat capacity, heat conductivity, physical size, and density; trapped electron density, the frequency factor of oscillation of electrons in the traps, and trap-conduction band potential energy difference; heating scheme source terms and heat transfer boundary conditions; and TL light scatter and attenuation coefficients. Temperature profiles and glow curves as a function of position time, as well as the corresponding temporally and/or spatially integrated glow values, may be plotted while varying any of the input parameters. Examples illustrating TLD system functions, including glow curve variability, will be presented. The flexible capabilities of TLD-SIM promises to enable improved TLD system design

  14. Spectroscopic CZT detectors development for x- and gamma-ray imaging instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Egidio M.; Uslenghi, Michela; Alderighi, Monica; Casini, Fabio; D'Angelo, Sergio; Fiorini, Mauro; La Palombara, Nicola; Mancini, Marcello; Monti, Serena; Bazzano, Angela; Di Cosimo, Sergio; Frutti, Massimo; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro; Guadalupi, Giuseppe M.; Sassi, Matteo; Negri, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    In the context of R&D studies financed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), a feasibility study to evaluate the Italian Industry interest in medium-large scale production of enhanced CZT detectors has been performed by an Italian Consortium. The R&D investment aims at providing in-house source of high quality solid state spectrometers for Space Astrophysics applications. As a possible spin-off industrial applications to Gamma-ray devices for non-destructive inspections in medical, commercial and security fields have been considered by ASI. The short term programme mainly consists of developing proprietary procedures for 2-3" CZT crystals growth, including bonding and contact philosophy, and a newly designed low-power electronics readout chain. The prototype design and breadboarding is based on a fast signal AD conversion with the target in order to perform a new run for an already existing low-power (digital photon energy reconstruction with particular care for multiple events and polarimetry evaluations. Scientific requirement evaluations for Space Astrophysics Satellite applications have been carried out in parallel, targeted to contribute to the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Announcement of Opportunity. Detailed accommodation studies are undergoing, as part of this programme, to size a "Large area arcsecond angular resolution Imager" for the Gamma Ray Imager satellite (Knödlseder et al., this conference).and a new Gamma-ray Wide Field Camera for the "EDGE" proposal (Piro et al., this conference). Finally, an extended market study for cost analysis evaluation in view of the foreseen massive detector production has been performed.

  15. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph (LUMOS): instrument definition and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian; West, Garrett; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Harris, Walter; Moustakas, Leonidas; O'Meara, John M.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Rigby, Jane; Schiminovich, David; Tumlinson, Jason

    2017-08-01

    The Large Ultraviolet/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) is one of four large mission concepts currently undergoing community study for consideration by the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR is being designed to pursue an ambitious program of exoplanetary discovery and characterization, cosmic origins astrophysics, and planetary science. The LUVOIR study team is investigating two large telescope apertures (9- and 15-meter primary mirror diameters) and a host of science instruments to carry out the primary mission goals. Many of the exoplanet, cosmic origins, and planetary science goals of LUVOIR require high-throughput, imaging spectroscopy at ultraviolet (100 - 400 nm) wavelengths. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph, LUMOS, is being designed to support all of the UV science requirements of LUVOIR, from exoplanet host star characterization to tomography of circumgalactic halos to water plumes on outer solar system satellites. LUMOS offers point source and multi-object spectroscopy across the UV bandpass, with multiple resolution modes to support different science goals. The instrument will provide low (R = 8,000 - 18,000) and medium (R = 30,000 - 65,000) resolution modes across the far-ultraviolet (FUV: 100 - 200 nm) and nearultraviolet (NUV: 200 - 400 nm) windows, and a very low resolution mode (R = 500) for spectroscopic investigations of extremely faint objects in the FUV. Imaging spectroscopy will be accomplished over a 3 × 1.6 arcminute field-of-view by employing holographically-ruled diffraction gratings to control optical aberrations, microshutter arrays (MSA) built on the heritage of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), advanced optical coatings for high-throughput in the FUV, and next generation large-format photon-counting detectors. The spectroscopic capabilities of LUMOS are augmented by an FUV imaging channel (100 - 200nm, 13 milliarcsecond angular resolution, 2 × 2

  16. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  17. Design and construction of the prototype synchrotron radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhub, H; Baetzner, D; Baumgartner, S; Biland, A; Camps, C; Capell, M; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Fanchiang, Y J; Flügge, G; Fritschi, M; Grimm, O; Hangarter, K; Hofer, H; Horisberger, Urs; Kan, R; Kaestli, W; Kenney, G P; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Kuipers, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, M W; Lee, S C; Lewis, R; Lustermann, W; Pauss, Felicitas; Rauber, T; Ren, D; Ren, Z L; Röser, U; Son, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Tiwari, A N; Viertel, Gert M; Gunten, H V; Wicki, S W; Wang, T S; Yang, J; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD) is a small-scale experiment designed to measure the rate of low-energy charged particles and photons in near the Earth's orbit. It is a precursor to the Synchrotron Radiation Detector (SRD), a proposed addition to the upgraded version of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). The SRD will use the Earth's magnetic field to identify the charge sign of electrons and positrons with energies above 1 TeV by detecting the synchrotron radiation they emit in this field. The differential energy spectrum of these particles is astrophysically interesting and not well covered by the remaining components of AMS-02. Precise measurements of this spectrum offer the possibility to gain information on the acceleration mechanism and characteristics of all cosmic rays in our galactic neighbourhood. The SRD will discriminate against protons as they radiate only weakly. Both the number and energy of the synchrotron photons that the SRD needs to detect are small. The identificat...

  18. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility.

  19. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility

  20. Design of a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor using an InSb detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shu-Cheng; Wang, Jian; Tang, Qi-Jie; Jiang, Feng-Xin; Chen, Jin-Ting; Zhang, Yi-Hao; Wang, Zhi-Yue; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Jiang, Hai-Jiao; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo

    2018-02-01

    Infrared sky background level is an important parameter of infrared astronomy observations from the ground, particularly for a candidate site of an infrared capable observatory since low background level is required for such a site. The Chinese astronomical community is looking for a suitable site for a future 12 m telescope, which is designed for working in both optical and infrared wavelengths. However, none of the proposed sites has been tested for infrared observations. Nevertheless, infrared sky background measurements are also important during the design of infrared observing instruments. Based on the requirement, in order to supplement the current site survey data and guide the design of future infrared instruments, a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor (MNISBM) based on an InSb sensor is designed in this paper. The MNISBM consists of an optical system, mechanical structure and control system, detector and cooler, high gain readout electronics, and operational software. It is completed and tested in the laboratory. The results show that the sensitivity of the MNISBM meets the requirements of the measurement of near-infrared sky background level of several well-known astronomical infrared observing sites.

  1. Design of a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor using an InSb detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shu-cheng; Wang, Jian; Tang, Qi-jie; Jiang, Feng-xin; Chen, Jin-ting; Zhang, Yi-hao; Wang, Zhi-yue; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hong-fei; Jiang, Hai-jiao; Zhu, Qing-feng; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo

    2018-02-01

    Infrared sky background level is an important parameter of infrared astronomy observations from the ground, particularly for a candidate site of an infrared capable observatory since low background level is required for such a site. The Chinese astronomical community is looking for a suitable site for a future 12 m telescope, which is designed for working in both optical and infrared wavelengths. However, none of the proposed sites has been tested for infrared observations. Nevertheless, infrared sky background measurements are also important during the design of infrared observing instruments. Based on the requirement, in order to supplement the current site survey data and guide the design of future infrared instruments, a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor (MNISBM) based on an InSb sensor is designed in this paper. The MNISBM consists of an optical system, mechanical structure and control system, detector and cooler, high gain readout electronics, and operational software. It is completed and tested in the laboratory. The results show that the sensitivity of the MNISBM meets the requirements of the measurement of near-infrared sky background level of several well-known astronomical infrared observing sites.

  2. Design of New Complex Detector Used for Gross Beta Measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junmin

    2010-01-01

    The level of gross β for radioactive aerosol in the containment of nuclear plants can indicate how serious the radioactive pollution is in the shell, and it can provide evidence which shows whether there is the phenomenon of leak in the boundaries of confined aquifer of the primary coolant circuit equipment.In the process of measuring, the counting of gross β is influenced by γ. In order to avoid the influence of γ, a new method was introduced and a new detector was designed using plastic scintillator as the major detecting component and BGO as the sub-component. Based on distinctive difference of light attenuation time, signal induced in them can be discriminated. γ background in plastic scintillator was subtracted according to the counting of γ in BGO. The functions of absolute detection efficiency were obtained. The simulation for Monte-Carlo method shows that the influence of γ background is decreased about one order of magnitude. (authors)

  3. System software design for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkaczyk, S. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Bailey, M. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1991-11-01

    An automated system for testing and performance evaluation of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) data acquisition electronics is described. The SVX data acquisition chain includes the Fastbus Sequencer and the Rabbit Crate Controller and Digitizers. The Sequencer is a programmable device for which we developed a high level assembly language. Diagnostic, calibration and data acquisition programs have been developed. A distributed software package was developed in order to operate the modules. The package includes programs written in assembly and Fortran languages that are executed concurrently on the SVX Sequencer modules and either a microvax or an SSP. Test software was included to assist technical personnel during the production and maintenance of the modules. Details of the design of different components of the package are reported.

  4. System software design for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, S.; Bailey, M.

    1991-11-01

    An automated system for testing and performance evaluation of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) data acquisition electronics is described. The SVX data acquisition chain includes the Fastbus Sequencer and the Rabbit Crate Controller and Digitizers. The Sequencer is a programmable device for which we developed a high level assembly language. Diagnostic, calibration and data acquisition programs have been developed. A distributed software package was developed in order to operate the modules. The package includes programs written in assembly and Fortran languages that are executed concurrently on the SVX Sequencer modules and either a microvax or an SSP. Test software was included to assist technical personnel during the production and maintenance of the modules. Details of the design of different components of the package are reported

  5. Design of a software for gamma detector efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopy with highly-pure-germanium detector is one of the most used method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. Nevertheless Gamma spectroscopy results require to be corrected, first for taking into account the self-shielding effect that represents the absorption of the photons by the sample itself and secondly for correcting the fact that 2 photons emitted simultaneously with energy E 1 and E 2 are likely to be simultaneously detected and then counted as a single photon with an energy E 1 +E 2 . This effect is called gamma-gamma coincidence. A software has been designed to simulate both effect and produce correcting factors in the case of cylindrical geometries. This software has been validated on Americium 241 for the self-shielding effect and on Cesium 134 for gamma-gamma coincidence. (A.C.)

  6. Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): Instrument Design and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Christoph R.; Harlander, John M.; Brown, Charles M.; Marr, Kenneth D.; Miller, Ian J.; Stump, J. Eloise; Hancock, Jed; Peterson, James Q.; Kumler, Jay; Morrow, William H.; Mooney, Thomas A.; Ellis, Scott; Mende, Stephen B.; Harris, Stewart E.; Stevens, Michael H.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian J.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) instrument was built for launch and operation on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission. The instrument was designed to measure thermospheric horizontal wind velocity profiles and thermospheric temperature in altitude regions between 90 km and 300 km, during day and night. For the wind measurements it uses two perpendicular fields of view pointed at the Earth's limb, observing the Doppler shift of the atomic oxygen red and green lines at 630.0 nm and 557.7 nm wavelength. The wavelength shift is measured using field-widened, temperature compensated Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectrometers, employing low order échelle gratings operating at two different orders for the different atmospheric lines. The temperature measurement is accomplished by a multichannel photometric measurement of the spectral shape of the molecular oxygen A-band around 762 nm wavelength. For each field of view, the signals of the two oxygen lines and the A-band are detected on different regions of a single, cooled, frame transfer charge coupled device (CCD) detector. On-board calibration sources are used to periodically quantify thermal drifts, simultaneously with observing the atmosphere. The MIGHTI requirements, the resulting instrument design and the calibration are described.

  7. VIMOS Instrument Control Software Design: an Object Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brau-Nogué, Sylvie; Lucuix, Christian

    2002-12-01

    The Franco-Italian VIMOS instrument is a VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph with outstanding multiplex capabilities, allowing to take spectra of more than 800 objects simultaneously, or integral field spectroscopy mode in a 54x54 arcsec area. VIMOS is being installed at the Nasmyth focus of the third Unit Telescope of the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Mount Paranal in Chile. This paper will describe the analysis, the design and the implementation of the VIMOS Instrument Control System, using UML notation. Our Control group followed an Object Oriented software process while keeping in mind the ESO VLT standard control concepts. At ESO VLT a complete software library is available. Rather than applying waterfall lifecycle, ICS project used iterative development, a lifecycle consisting of several iterations. Each iteration consisted in : capture and evaluate the requirements, visual modeling for analysis and design, implementation, test, and deployment. Depending of the project phases, iterations focused more or less on specific activity. The result is an object model (the design model), including use-case realizations. An implementation view and a deployment view complement this product. An extract of VIMOS ICS UML model will be presented and some implementation, integration and test issues will be discussed.

  8. A design study of a cast lead electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal detector collaboration at SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, N.F.; Guarino, V.; Nasiatka, J.; Burke, M.; Swensrud, R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to achieve the physics goals for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC), it is necessary to design and construct a scintillating calorimeter which measures both position and energy of particles originating at the intersection of colliding beams from the SSC. As part of this design, the electromagnetic section of the calorimeter, which is the front end of the calorimeter, was the first priority. Our design goal was to build as an initial phase, two small prototype test sections of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC), within the constraint that the physics goal is to achieve 100% instrumentation of this section of the calorimeter. We based our design on minimization of ineffective structural mass to provide maximum calorimeter volume. We will present the design phases of this construction, including mechanical design, structural analysis, and fabrication of the structural frame ready for casting into test sections for test beam analysis. These test sections will be evaluated for mechanical feasibility and physics performance. The results of these evaluations will be incorporated into the detailed design of the calorimeter. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  9. Novel silicon stripixel detector: concept, simulation, design, and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.

    2004-01-01

    A novel detector concept has been developed in this work that has the necessary properties to provide two-dimensional (2-D) position sensitivity with a moderate number of readout electronic channels and single-sided detector fabrication process. The concept is based on interleaved pixel electrodes arranged in a projective X-Y readout, which makes possible position encoding with minimum number of channels. In further discussions, we refer to this concept as 'stripixel' detector, as it combines the 2-D position resolution of a pixel electrode geometry with the simplicity of the projective readout of a double-sided strip detector. For DC coupled detectors with large pitches (>20 μm), individual pixels are divided into X- and Y-cell that can be interleaved by many different schemes that ensure the charge sharing between them. This type of stripixel detectors is called interleaved stripixel detectors. When the detector pitch goes down (<20 μm), the X and Y-pixel may not have to be interleaved, and they can be connected in an alternating way to X-Y strip readout. This type of stripixel detectors is called alternating stripixel detectors (ASD). For ASD, a position resolution better than 1 μm in two dimensions can be achieved by determining the centroid of the charge collected on pixel electrodes with a granularity in the range of 5-6 μm. For AC coupled detectors, no interleaving scheme may be needed, and there may be no limit on the pitch size, i.e. it may go from pitches in the order of microns, to hundreds of microns or even mm's. This electrode granularity does not pose difficult demands on the lithography and the fabrication technology. This novel detector concept can be applied to any semiconductor detectors/sensors, such as Si, Ge, GaAs, SiC, diamond, etc

  10. Sentinel-5 instrument: status of design, performance, and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gühne, T.; Keim, C.; Bartsch, P.; Weiß, S.; Melf, M.; Seefelder, W.

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel-5 instrument is currently under development by a consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space in the frame of the European Union Copernicus program. It is a customer furnished item to the MetOp Second Generation satellite platform, which will provide operational meteorological data for the coming decades. Mission objective of the Sentinel-5 is to monitor the composition of the Earth atmosphere for Copernicus Atmosphere Services by taking measurements of trace gases and aerosols impacting air quality and climate with high resolution and daily global coverage. Therefore the Sentinel-5 provides five dispersive spectrometers covering the UV-VIS (270…500 nm), NIR (685 …773 nm) and SWIR (1590…1675 and 2305…2385 nm) spectral bands with resolutions <=1nm. Spatially the Sentinel-5 provides a 108° field of view with a ground sampling of 7.5 x 7 km2 at Nadir. The development program is post PDR and the build-up of the industrial team is finalised. We report on the instrument architecture and design derived from the driving requirements, the predicted instrument performance, and the general status of the program.

  11. Note: Detector collimators for the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Weber, J. K. R., E-mail: rweber@anl.gov; Alderman, O. L. G. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Neuefeind, J. C.; Carruth, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Skinner, L. B. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Five neutron collimator designs were constructed and tested at the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) instrument. Collimators were made from High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) or 5% borated HDPE. In all cases, collimators improved the signal to background ratio and reduced detection of secondary scattering. In the Q-range 10-20 Å{sup −1}, signal to background ratio improved by factors of approximately 1.6 and 2.0 for 50 and 100 mm deep collimators, respectively. In the Q-range 40-50 Å{sup −1}, the improvement factors were 1.8 and 2.7. Secondary scattering as measured at Q ∼ 9.5 Å{sup −1} was significantly decreased when the collimators were installed.

  12. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatherley, V. E., E-mail: vef@lanl.gov; Bingham, D. A.; Cartelli, M. D.; Griego, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); DiDomizio, R. A.; Pollack, M. J. [EnvirOptics, Inc., Colmar, Pennsylvania 18915 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  13. Older drivers' attitudes about instrument cluster designs in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Seder, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Little is known about older drivers' preferences and attitudes about instrumentation design in vehicles. Yet visual processing impairments are common among older adults and could impact their ability to interface with a vehicle's dashboard. The purpose of this study is to obtain information from them about this topic, using focus groups and content analysis methodology. A trained facilitator led 8 focus groups of older adults. Discussion was stimulated by an outline relevant to dashboard interfaces, audiotaped, and transcribed. Using multi-step content analysis, a trained coder placed comments into thematic categories and coded comments as positive, negative, or neutral in meaning. Comments were coded into these categories: gauges, knobs/switches, interior lighting, color, lettering, symbols, location, entertainment, GPS, cost, uniformity, and getting information. Comments on gauges and knobs/switches represented half the comments. Women made more comments about getting information; men made more comments about uniformity. Positive and negative comments were made in each category; individual differences in preferences were broad. The results of this study will be used to guide the design of a population-based survey of older drivers about instrument cluster format, which will also examine how their responses are related to their visual processing capabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and installation of advanced computer safety related instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.; Andolina, K.; Ruether, J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly developing area of computer systems creates new opportunities for commercial utilities operating nuclear reactors to improve plant operation and efficiency. Two of the main obstacles to utilizing the new technology in safety-related applications is the current policy of the licensing agencies and the fear of decision making managers to introduce new technologies. Once these obstacles are overcome, advanced diagnostic systems, CRT-based displays, and advanced communication channels can improve plant operation considerably. The article discusses outstanding issues in the area of designing, qualifying, and licensing of computer-based instrumentation and control systems. The authors describe the experience gained in designing three safety-related systems, that include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based Safeguard Load Sequencer for NSP Prairie Island, a digital Containment Isolation monitoring system for TVA Browns Ferry, and a study that was conducted for EPRI/NSP regarding a PLC-based Reactor Protection system. This article presents the benefits to be gained in replacing existing, outdated equipment with new advanced instrumentation

  15. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  16. Design report for a cryostable 3m diameter superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.; Leung, E.; Mruzek, M.; Theriot, D.; Wands, R.; Yamada, R.

    1981-10-01

    The Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF) is a large detector system designed td study anti pp collisions at very high center of mass energies. The central detector for the CDF employs a large axial magnetic field volume instrumented with a central tracking chamber composed of multiple layers of cylindrical drift chambers and a pair of intermediate tracking chambers. The purpose of this system is to determine the trajectories, sign of electric charge, and momenta of charged particles produced with polar angles between 10 and 170 degrees. The magnetic field volume required for tracking is approximately 4 m long and 3 m in diameter. To provide the desired Δp/sub T//p/sub T/ less than or equal to 15% at 50 GeV/c using drift chambers with approx. 200μ resolution the field inside this volume should be 1.5 T. This field should be as uniform as is practical to simplify both track finding and the reconstruction of particle trajectories with the drift chambers. Such a field can be produced by a cylindrical current sheet solenoid with a uniform current density of 1.2 x 10 6 A/m (1200 A/mm) surrounded by an iron return yoke. For practical coils and return yokes, both central electromagnetic and central hadronic calorimetry must be located outside the coil of the magnet. This geometry requires that the coil and cryostat be thin both in physical thickness and in radiation and absorption lengths. This dual requirement of high linear current density and minimal coil thickness can only be satisfied using superconducting technology. In this report we describe a design for a cryostable superconducting solenoid intended to meet the requirements of the Fermilab ies TDF

  17. Digital instrumentation and management of dead time: first results on a NaI well-type detector setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J; Aubineau-Lanièce, I

    2010-01-01

    The LNE-LNHB is engaged in a development program on digital instrumentation, the first step being the instrumentation of a NaI well-type detector set-up. The prototype acquisition card and its technical specifications are presented together with the first comparison with the classical NIM-based acquisition chain, for counting rates up to 100 kcps. The digital instrumentation is shown to be counting-loss free in this range. This validates the main option adopted in this project, namely the implementation of an extending dead time with live-time measurement already successfully used in the MTR2 NIM module developed at LNE-LNHB. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Design of analytical instrumentation with D-T sealed neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yahua; Wu Jizong; Zheng Weiming; Liu Quanwei; Zhang Min

    2008-01-01

    Analytical instrumentation with D-T sealed neutron generators source activation, The 14 MeV D-T sealed neutron tube with 10 9 n · s -1 neutron yield is used as generator source. The optimal structure of moderator and shield was achieved by MC computing.The instrumentation's configuration is showed. The instrumentation is made up of the SMY-DT50.8-2.1 sealed neutron tube and the high-voltage power supply system, which center is the sealed neutron generators. 6 cm Pb and 20 cm polythene is chosen as moderator, Pb, polythene and 10 cm boron-PE was chosen as shield .The sample box is far the source from 9 cm, the measurement system were made up of HPGe detector and the sample transforming system. After moderator and shield, the thermal neutron fluence rate at the point of sample is 0.93 × 10 6 n · s -1 cm -2 , which is accorded with design demand, and the laboratory and surroundings reaches the safety standard of the dose levels. (authors)

  19. Modelling physics detectors in a computer aided design system for simulation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahvenainen, J.; Oksakivi, T.; Vuoskoski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of transferring physics detector models from computer aided design systems into physics simulation packages like GEANT is receiving increasing attention. The problem of exporting detector models constructed in CAD systems into GEANT is well known. We discuss the problem and describe an application, called DDT, which allows one to design detector models in a CAD system and then transfer the models into GEANT for simulation purposes. (orig.)

  20. Design and construction of a Cherenkov detector for Compton polarimetry at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a Cherenkov detector conceived with regard to high energy Compton polarimeters for the International Linear Collider, where beam diagnostic systems of unprecedented precision must complement the interaction region detectors to pursue an ambitious physics programme. Besides the design of the Cherenkov detector, detailed simulation studies and first testbeam results are presented. Good agreement of beam data with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations is observed. (orig.)

  1. Design and construction of a Cherenkov detector for Compton polarimetry at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Christoph [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Ebert, Joachim; Hartin, Anthony; Helebrant, Christian; Kaefer, Daniela; List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    This paper describes the design and construction of a Cherenkov detector conceived with regard to high energy Compton polarimeters for the International Linear Collider, where beam diagnostic systems of unprecedented precision must complement the interaction region detectors to pursue an ambitious physics programme. Besides the design of the Cherenkov detector, detailed simulation studies and first testbeam results are presented. Good agreement of beam data with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations is observed. (orig.)

  2. The RS-485 communication system design of the waste steel radioactivity detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongli

    2014-01-01

    The importance and schematic structure of the waste steel radioactivity detector system is given firstly in this paper, and then the RS-485 communication system design including the circuit and program of the waste steel radioactivity detector system is provided. The test result of RS-485 communication system is also introduced, that shows the design completely meets the requirements of the waste steel radioactivity detector system. (author)

  3. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal's photo multiplier tube (PMT)

  4. Design and realisation of an audiovisual speech activity detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bree, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    For many speech telecommunication technologies a robust speech activity detector is important. An audio-only speech detector will givefalse positives when the interfering signal is speech or has speech characteristics. The modality video is suitable to solve this problem. In this report the approach

  5. Detectors for the superconducting super collider, design concepts, and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    The physics of compensation calorimetry is reviewed in the light of the needs of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors. The four major detector types: liquid argon, scintillator, room temperature liquids, and silicon, are analyzed with respect to some of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, general comments are presented which reflect the reliability of simulation code systems.

  6. Detectors for the superconducting super collider, design concepts, and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    The physics of compensation calorimetry is reviewed in the light of the needs of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors. The four major detector types: liquid argon, scintillator, room temperature liquids, and silicon, are analyzed with respect to some of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, general comments are presented which reflect the reliability of simulation code systems

  7. Detectors for the Superconducting Super Collider, design concepts, and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    The physics of compensation calorimetry is reviewed in the light of the need of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors. The four major detector types: liquid argon, scintillator, room temperature liquids, and silicon, are analyzed with respect to some of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, general comments are presented which reflect the reliability of simulation code systems. 29 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  8. A Study of the Operation of Especially Designed Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Lund-Jensen, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F

    2006-01-01

    In some experiments and applications there is need for large-area photosensitive detectors to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Nowadays, vacuum PMs are usually used for this purpose. We have developed special designs of planar photosensitive gaseous detectors able to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Such detectors are much cheaper PMs and are almost insensitive to magnetic fields. Results of systematic measurements of their quantum efficiencies, the maximum achievable gains and long-term stabilities will be presented. The successful operation of these detectors open realistic possibilities in replacing PMs by photosensitive gaseous detectors in some applications dealing with cryogenic liquids; for example in experiments using noble liquid TPCs or noble liquid scintillating calorimeters.

  9. Development of indigenous technology at CNEN in the fields of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra, O.

    1990-01-01

    The main objectives of the program developed at CNEN in the field of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear technique are described. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Development of a detector-counter for teaching purposes in nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Fabio E. da; Hamada, Margarida M.; Pereira, Maria Conceicao C. Pereira; Mesquita, Carlos H.

    2000-01-01

    A detector system constituted of a monochannel analyzer with digital counter, amplifier, charge sensitive preamplifier and CsI(Tl) scintillator detector coupled to photodiode PIN was developed to gamma radiation detection. The crystal was grown by Bridgman Method. The crystal luminescence spectra has good match with the photodiode efficiency spectrum. The combination CsI(Tl)- photodiode made at possible to obtain a compact and rugged detector, insensitive to magnetic fields and may be operated at low voltages. This detector system has a baseline for 1 MeV and 2 MeV selected by the use, with two discriminators (inferior and superior) for advancements 10 or 20 KeV division. The system showed good energy linearity in the range from 122 to 1440 KeV. (author)

  11. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  12. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajanana, D; Gromov, V; Timmer, P

    2013-01-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ∼ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( 2 C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  13. Embedded design based virtual instrument program for positron beam automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayapandian, J.; Gururaj, K.; Abhaya, S.; Parimala, J.; Amarendra, G.

    2008-01-01

    Automation of positron beam experiment with a single chip embedded design using a programmable system on chip (PSoC) which provides easy interfacing of the high-voltage DC power supply is reported. Virtual Instrument (VI) control program written in Visual Basic 6.0 ensures the following functions (i) adjusting of sample high voltage by interacting with the programmed PSoC hardware, (ii) control of personal computer (PC) based multi channel analyzer (MCA) card for energy spectroscopy, (iii) analysis of the obtained spectrum to extract the relevant line shape parameters, (iv) plotting of relevant parameters and (v) saving the file in the appropriate format. The present study highlights the hardware features of the PSoC hardware module as well as the control of MCA and other units through programming in Visual Basic

  14. Ready to use detector modules for the NEAT spectrometer: Concept, design, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Ádám; Harmat, Péter; Russina, Margarita; Günther, Gerrit; Mezei, Ferenc

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the detector system developed by Datalist Systems, Ltd. (previously ANTE Innovative Technologies) for the NEAT-II spectrometer at HZB. We present initial concept, design and implementation highlights as well as the first results of measurements such as position resolution. The initial concept called for modular architecture with 416 3He detector tubes organized into thirteen 32-tube modules that can be independently installed and removed to and from the detector vacuum chamber for ease of maintenance. The unalloyed aluminum mechanical support modules for four 8-tube units each also house the air-boxes that contain the front-end electronics (preamplifiers) that need to be on atmospheric pressure. The modules have been manufactured and partly assembled in Hungary and then fully assembled and installed on site by Datalist Systems crew. The signal processing and data acquisition solution is based on low time constant (˜60 ns) preamplifier electronics and sampling ADC's running at 50 MS/s (i.e. a sample every 20 ns) for all 832 data channels. The preamplifiers are proprietary, developed specifically for the NEAT spectrometer, while the ADC's and the FPGA's that further process the data are based on National Instruments products. The data acquisition system comprises 26 FPGA modules each serving 16 tubes (providing for up to 50 kHz count rate per individual tube) and it is organized into two PXI chassis and two data acquisition computers that perform post-processing, event classification and provide appropriate preview of the collected data. The data acquisition software based on Event Recording principles provides a single point of contact for the scientific software with an Event Record List with absolute timestamps of 100ns resolution, timing data of 100 ns resolution for the seven discs chopper system as well as classification data that can be used for flexible data filtering in off-line analysis of the gathered data. A unique 3-tier system of

  15. USE OF LEAN PRODUCTION INSTRUMENTS IN DESIGNING THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elietta P. Burnasheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the concept of lean production seeks not a reduction of costs but complete elimination of losses that do not bring added value to the product or service. In any system, in all processes – from production and assembly, to hospitality, education, health, transport and social services – there are hidden losses. Teaching itself is a kind of production process in which a certain “product” (student acquires the added value (knowledge and skills, that is why it has become topical in educational institution to establish the working group on introduction of lean production into the learning process. The article presents the factors that are to be taken into account while designing the educational process based on the lean production principles. Materials and Methods: methods of analysis of existing system of vocational training in higher school, monitoring of the results of educational practice, modeling and experimental work in the process of analytical work were used. Results: important direction for eliminating losses in the educational process is the development of the interlinked curricula, allowing to avoid repeated study of a number of didactic units in the organization of continuous training in the system “Vocational education – Higher education”. In order to eliminate the possibility of incompetent graduate one should focus on the organisation of objective final control. Losses in education are caused by to the mismatch between labour market demand and the spectrum of areas of training in educational institutions. Discussion and Conclusions: the lean production possibilities are defined as instrumental in ensuring the organisation of “the process of lean learning”: by applying some lean production instruments such as the designing of the educational process, preventing of “faulty work” while training students, the attuning of the training system to employers’ requests, the visualisation of the education

  16. Upgrading instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants. Design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, M.C.; Alvarez Menendez, A.

    1997-01-01

    The use of programmed digital technology in Protection, Control, Monitoring and Information Systems in new generation nuclear power plants, or the use of this technology to replace or upgrade existing systems based on wired analog instrumentation and electromechanical relays, has led to new international standards which establish new design requirements or adapt existing requirements to this technology. Additionally, both regulatory organisations and the industry are discussing the reliability of this technology, regarding common mode failures that may occur in redundant protection channels, due to the use of equipment and software with the same characteristics. The first part of this paper addresses the most important aspects of new international standards regarding classification criteria for I and C systems, equipment and functions, depending on their importance to safety and the design criteria applicable to each category. Special attention is drawn to requirements concerning software quality assurance and the design of new control rooms. The paper then goes on to discuss the different technical solutions being implemented, using equipment and software diversification, in order to prevent the possibility of common mode failures affecting the protection function. (Author)

  17. Conceptual design of a 2 tesla superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab D{O} detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezniak, J.; Fast, R.W.; Krempetz, K.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid to be part of a proposed upgrade for the D0 detector. This detector was completed in 1992, and has been taking data since then. The Fermilab Tevatron had scheduled a series of luminosity enhancements prior to the startup of this detector. In response to this accelerator upgrade, efforts have been underway to design upgrades for D0 to take advantage of the new luminosity, and improvements in detector technology. This magnet is conceived as part of the new central tracking system for D0, providing a radiation-hard high-precision magnetic tracking system with excellent electron identification.

  18. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  19. Computer-aided design and construction of an antineutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutz, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Bugey group is setting-up a new detector for another neutrino oscillation experiment. This thesis reports on the different steps concerning its realisation. Light yield, light transmission and pulse shape discrimination properties of NE 320 a new liquid scintillator loaded with 0.15% of Lithium 6 allow to realise a large volume detector (3 x 600 l) with an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity. The benefit of the neutron capture on Lithium 6 has been conserved owing to the segmentation of the whole detector volume in 98 cells and to energy resolution and pulse shape discrimination properties of the liquid. The efficiency is expected to be 0.5 and the essential component of the background is the natural activity of the scintillator. This makes this detector the most performant for neutrino oscillation experiment at reactor [fr

  20. Primary Cosmic Rays Composition: Simulations and Detector Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supanitsky, D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector system for the detection of very high energy cosmic rays. A most difficult and important problem in these studies is the determination of the primary cosmic ray composition for which muon content in air showers appears to be one of the best parameters to discriminate between different composition types.Although the Pierre Auger surface detectors, which consist of water Cherenkov tanks, are sensitive to muon content they are not able to measure the number of muons directly. In this work we study using simulations the information that can be gained by adding muon detectors to the Auger surface detectors. We consider muon counters with two alternative areas

  1. Design of the Local Instrument for KSTAR Gravity Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her, N. I.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. O.; Sa, J. W.; Kim, G. H.; Kim, K. M.; Park, Y. M.; Hong, G. H.; Choi, C. H.; Bak, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    The gravity support installed between the lower toroidal field (TF) coil cooled by 4.5 K supercritical helium and the cryostat base is the main support structure for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) superconducting magnet system. This structure should be flexible to absorb thermal shrink of the magnet and also should be rigid to support the magnet weight and the plasma disruptions loads. The gravity support was designed with stainless steel 316LN and Carbon fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) that has low thermal conductivity and high structural strength at low temperature. The fabrication of the support has been completed after engineering design. The gravity support is composed of one toroidal ring and eight supporting posts as shown in Figure 1. The toroidal ring and post are cooled by 4.5 K supercritical helium and 77 K gaseous helium, respectively. The overall dimension of the post is 1 m height and 0.8 m width and depth, respectively. The post is composed of upper block, inner CFRP plate, lower block, flexible plate, thermal anchor block, outer CFRP plate, base block, and strengthen plate. Inner CFRP plate is connected to the upper and lower block using the pin. And the outer CFRP plate is connected to the thermal anchor block and the base block. Inner and outer CFRP plates consist of four and two 20 mm thin plates, respectively. Flexible plates consist of four 8 mm thin stainless steel plates to absorb the magnet shrinkage. These plates are assembled into the thermal anchor block and lower block. The fabrication of the gravity support initiated October 2002 has been completed in October 2003. The supporting post and toroidal ring were fabricated at shop individually and assembled at site. Various of static and dynamic loads will increase the stress level of the structure during the cool-down and plasma operation. After fabrication of the structure, we designed an instrumentation system to monitoring the structural safety. This system

  2. Correction of rhodium detector signals for comparison to design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, J.L.; Chang, R.Y.; Gabel, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Rhodium detectors are used in many commercial pressurized water reactors PWRs [pressurized water reactor] as in-core neutron detectors. The signals from the detectors are the result of neutron absorption in 103 Rh and the subsequent beta decay of 104 Rh to 104 Pd. The rhodium depletes ∼1% per full-power month, so corrections are necessary to the detector signal to account for the effects of the rhodium depletion. These corrections result from the change in detector self-shielding with rhodium burnup and the change in rhodium concentration itself. Correction for the change in rhodium concentration is done by multiplication of the factor N(t)/N 0 , where N(t) is the rhodium concentration at time t and N 0 is the initial rhodium concentration. The calculation of the self-shielding factor is more complicated and is presented. A self-shielding factor based on the fraction of rhodium remaining was calculated with the CASMO-3 code. The results obtained from our comparisons of predicted and measured in-core detector signals show that the CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 code package is an effective tool for estimating pin peaking and power distributions

  3. Improvement of the instrumental line shape of X-ray spectrometers with Si(Li) - detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdikov, V.V.; Zajtsev, E.A.; Iokhin, B.S.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of decreasing the background of the X-ray spectrometer detector using the rise-time pulse selection method was investigated. Si(Li)-detectors of 10 and 25 mm 2 square were investigated. Spectrometer channel was composed of ORTEC-472 amplifier and ULTIMA/2 multichannel analyzer on the base of NOVA-3 minicomputer. The energy resolution was equal to 300 eV on 14 KeV line. The pulses of detection allowing were transmitted to analog-to-digital converter. The detection was allowed if front photopeak square) were measured at 17.4, 20.3 and 59.6 keV. 4-6-fold decrease of X-factor was obtained without any loss of detection efficiency. The combination of the method with collimation of radiation in the centre of the detector gives an extremely low value of X-factor which agress with theretical estimations

  4. Design of instrument for monitoring nuclear radiation and baneful gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jianping; Chen Jun; Zhu Wenkai

    2006-01-01

    Counters and ionization chambers are applied to sensors, and microprocessor based on ARM IP is applied to center controller in the instrument. It is achieved to monitor nuclear radiation and baneful gas in an instrument. The instrument is capable of LCD displaying, menu operating and speech alarming. (authors)

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  6. Design of FPGA-based radiation tolerant quench detectors for LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckert, J.; Skoczen, A.

    2017-04-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comprises many superconducting circuits. Most elements of these circuits require active protection. The functionality of the quench detectors was initially implemented as microcontroller based equipment. After the initial stage of the LHC operation with beams the introduction of a new type of quench detector began. This article presents briefly the main ideas and architectures applied to the design and the validation of FPGA-based quench detectors.

  7. Design of FPGA-based radiation tolerant quench detectors for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckert, J.; Skoczen, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comprises many superconducting circuits. Most elements of these circuits require active protection. The functionality of the quench detectors was initially implemented as microcontroller based equipment. After the initial stage of the LHC operation with beams the introduction of a new type of quench detector began. This article presents briefly the main ideas and architectures applied to the design and the validation of FPGA-based quench detectors.

  8. Mechanical design and material budget of the CMS barrel pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsler, C; Boesiger, K; Chiochia, V; Maier, R; Meyer, Hp; Robmann, P; Scherr, S; Schmidt, A; Steiner, S [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Koenig, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Streuli, S [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Rizzi, A [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: Alexander.Schmidt@cern.ch

    2009-05-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN includes a silicon pixel detector as its innermost component. Its main task is the precise reconstruction of charged particles close to the primary interaction vertex. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical requirements and design choices for the barrel pixel detector. The distribution of material in the detector as well as its description in the Monte Carlo simulation are discussed in detail.

  9. Mechanical Design and Material Budget of the CMS Barrel Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Maier, R; Meyer, H; Meier, B; Meyer, Hp; Rizzi, A; Robmann, P; Scherr, S; Schmidt, A; Steiner, S; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Streuli, S; Rizzi, A

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN includes a silicon pixel detector as its innermost component. Its main task is the precise reconstruction of charged particles close to the primary interaction vertex. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical requirements and design choices for the barrel pixel detector. The distribution of material in the detector as well as its description in the Monte Carlo simulation are discussed in detail.

  10. Design and Test of an Event Detector and Locator for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinson, Brad J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive(trademark) Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  11. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, A. [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Atominstitut, Wien (Austria); Maringer, F.J.; Michai, P.; Kreuziger, M. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying, Wien (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  12. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  13. Design of a muonic tomographic detector to scan travelling containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliatti, C; Bandieramonte, M; Blancato, A A; Bonanno, D L; Indelicato, V; Rocca, P La; Presti, D Lo; Antonuccio, V; Becciani, U; Belluso, M; Billotta, S; Bonanno, G; Costa, A; Garozzo, S; Massimino, P; Belluomo, F; Fallica, G; Leonora, E; Longhitano, F; Longo, S

    2014-01-01

    The Muon Portal Project aims at the construction of a large volume detector to inspect the content of travelling containers for the identification of high-Z hidden materials (U, Pu or other fissile samples), exploiting the secondary cosmic-ray muon radiation. An image of these materials is achieved reconstructing the deviations of the muons from their original trajectories inside the detector volume, by means of two particle trackers, placed one below and one above the container. The scan is performed without adding any external radiation, in a few minutes and with a high spatial and angular resolution. The detector consists of 4800 scintillating strips with two wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers inside each strip, coupled to Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). A smart strategy for the read out system allows a considerable reduction of the number of the read-out channels. Actually, an intense measurement campaign is in progress to carefully characterize any single component of the detector. A prototype of one of the 48 detection modules (1 × 3 m 2 ) is actually under construction. This paper presents the detector architecture and the preliminary results

  14. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  16. Design of the high resolution optical instrument for the Pleiades HR Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamard, Jean-Luc; Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Valentini, David; Renard, Christophe; Tournier, Thierry; Laherrere, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-01

    As part of its contribution to Earth observation from space, ALCATEL SPACE designed, built and tested the High Resolution cameras for the European intelligence satellites HELIOS I and II. Through these programmes, ALCATEL SPACE enjoys an international reputation. Its capability and experience in High Resolution instrumentation is recognised by the most customers. Coming after the SPOT program, it was decided to go ahead with the PLEIADES HR program. PLEIADES HR is the optical high resolution component of a larger optical and radar multi-sensors system : ORFEO, which is developed in cooperation between France and Italy for dual Civilian and Defense use. ALCATEL SPACE has been entrusted by CNES with the development of the high resolution camera of the Earth observation satellites PLEIADES HR. The first optical satellite of the PLEIADES HR constellation will be launched in mid-2008, the second will follow in 2009. To minimize the development costs, a mini satellite approach has been selected, leading to a compact concept for the camera design. The paper describes the design and performance budgets of this novel high resolution and large field of view optical instrument with emphasis on the technological features. This new generation of camera represents a breakthrough in comparison with the previous SPOT cameras owing to a significant step in on-ground resolution, which approaches the capabilities of aerial photography. Recent advances in detector technology, optical fabrication and electronics make it possible for the PLEIADES HR camera to achieve their image quality performance goals while staying within weight and size restrictions normally considered suitable only for much lower performance systems. This camera design delivers superior performance using an innovative low power, low mass, scalable architecture, which provides a versatile approach for a variety of imaging requirements and allows for a wide number of possibilities of accommodation with a mini

  17. Design of Simple Instrumentation System for the Quality Analysis of Milk (Casein Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sangam

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a simple instrumentation system for the analysis of casein concentration in the milk. Casein is one of the major constituent of milk and its concentration describes the quality of the milk. Normally casein is analyzed by conventional analytical methods or by using Spectrophotometric methods. Here an attempt has been made to develop a simple portable system using optical instrumentation technique. The objective of the developed system is the real time analysis of the casein concentration of the milk at the field. The system involves UV light source, UV filter, cuvette, photo detector, display unit, data Acquisition Card (DAC as peripheral with USB port. Appropriate program has been developed in visual studio 6 and turbo C. Repeated number of real time analysis was carried out for different samples of milk; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with the amount determined by standard conventional methods with an accuracy of ±1.5 %, and the response time is within 100 seconds. This system can be used in the field for the quality analysis of milk as an independent unit and can also be interfaced to PC with USB port. The system has good accuracy, less response time and low cost.

  18. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanto, D; Ula, R K

    2017-01-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor. (paper)

  19. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanto, D.; Ula, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor.

  20. Design and realization of a fast low noise electronics for a hybrid pixel X-ray detector dedicated to small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantepie, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    Since the invention of computerized tomography (CT), charge integration detector were widely employed for X-ray biomedical imaging applications. Nevertheless, other options exist. A new technology of direct detection using semiconductors has been developed for high energy physics instrumentation. This new technology, called hybrid pixel detector, works in photon counting mode and allows for selecting the minimum energy of the counted photons. The imXgam research team at CPPM develops the PIXSCAN demonstrator, a CT-scanner using the hybrid pixel detector XPAD. The aim of this project is to evaluate the improvement on image quality and on dose delivered during X-ray examinations of a small animal. After a first prototype of hybrid pixel detector XPAD1 proving the feasibility of the project, a complete imager XPAD2 was designed and integrated in the PIXSCAN demonstrator. Since then, with the evolution of microelectronic industry, important improvements are conceivable. To reducing the size of pixels and to improving the energy resolution of detectors, a third design XPAD3 was conceived and will be soon integrated in a second generation of PIXSCAN demonstrator. In this project, my thesis's work consisted in taking part to the design of the detector readout electronics, to the characterization of the chips and of the hybrid pixel detectors, and also to the definition of an auto-zeroing architecture for pixels. (author) [fr

  1. An engineering design study of the transfer bridge for the SSC SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, J.L.; Tulk, G.W.; Dittert, L.I.

    1993-05-01

    The transfer bridge is a major structural installation component for the large detector proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). The transfer bridge is the structural device that allows for installation of the Muon Forward Toroid (MFT) and calorimeter components into the Muon Barrel Toroid (MBT). This paper summarizes the design and construction of the SDC transfer bridge

  2. Design and Performance of the CMS Pixel Detector Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, R P; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Hoermann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The readout chip for the CMS pixel detector has to deal with an enormous data rate. On-chip zero suppression is inevitable and hit data must be buffered locally during the latency of the first level trigger. Dead-time must be kept at a minimum. It is dominated by contributions coming from the readout. To keep it low an analog readout scheme has been adopted where pixel addresses are analog coded. We present the architecture of the final CMS pixel detector readout chip with special emphasis on the analog readout chain. Measurements of its performance are discussed.

  3. Engineering design of the Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument: an OSIRIS-REx student collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew J.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-07-01

    OSIRIS-REx is a NASA New Frontiers mission scheduled for launch in 2016 that will travel to the asteroid Bennu and return a pristine sample of the asteroid to Earth. The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is a student collaboration instrument on-board the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. REXIS is a NASA risk Class D instrument, and its design and development is largely student led. The engineering team consists of MIT graduate and undergraduate students and staff at the MIT Space Systems Laboratory. The primary goal of REXIS is the education of science and engineering students through participation in the development of light hardware. In light, REXIS will contribute to the mission by providing an elemental abundance map of the asteroid and by characterizing Bennu among the known meteorite groups. REXIS is sensitive to X-rays between 0.5 and 7 keV, and uses coded aperture imaging to map the distribution of iron with 50 m spatial resolution. This paper describes the science goals, concept of operations, and overall engineering design of the REXIS instrument. Each subsystem of the instrument is addressed with a high-level description of the design. Critical design elements such as the Thermal Isolation Layer (TIL), radiation cover, coded-aperture mask, and Detector Assembly Mount (DAM) are discussed in further detail.

  4. SU-E-I-51: Quantitative Assessment of X-Ray Imaging Detector Performance in a Clinical Setting - a Simple Approach Using a Commercial Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, J; Bujila, R; Omar, A; Nowik, P; Mobini-Kesheh, S; Lindstroem, J [Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To measure and compare the performance of X-ray imaging detectors in a clinical setting using a dedicated instrument for the quantitative determination of detector performance. Methods: The DQEPro (DQE Instruments Inc., London, Ontario Canada) was used to determine the MTF, NPS and DQE using an IEC compliant methodology for three different imaging modalities: conventional radiography (CsI-based detector), general-purpose radioscopy (CsI-based detector), and mammography (a-Se based detector). The radiation qualities (IEC) RQA-5 and RQA-M-2 were used for the CsI-based and a-Se-based detectors, respectively. The DQEPro alleviates some of the difficulties associated with DQE measurements by automatically positioning test devices over the detector, guiding the user through the image acquisition process and providing software for calculations. Results: A comparison of the NPS showed that the image noise of the a-Se detector was less correlated than the CsI detectors. A consistently higher performance was observed for the a-Se detector at all spatial frequencies (MTF: 0.97@0.25 cy/mm, DQE: 0.72@0.25 cy/mm) and the DQE drops off slower than for the CsI detectors. The CsI detector used for conventional radiography displayed a higher performance at low spatial frequencies compared to the CsI detector used for radioscopy (DQE: 0.65 vs 0.60@0.25 cy/mm). However, at spatial frequencies above 1.3 cy/mm, the radioscopy detector displayed better performance than the conventional radiography detector (DQE: 0.35 vs 0.24@2.00 cy/mm). Conclusion: The difference in the MTF, NPS and DQE that was observed for the two different CsI detectors and the a-Se detector reflect the imaging tasks that the different detector types are intended for. The DQEPro has made the determination and calculation of quantitative metrics of X-ray imaging detector performance substantially more convenient and accessible to undertake in a clinical setting.

  5. A mechanical design for positioning of gm detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat; Budi Santoso; Krismawan; Abdul Jalil

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  6. Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat; Budi Santoso; Krismawan; Abdul Jalil

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  7. The design, construction and performance of the ALEPH silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mours, B.

    1996-03-01

    The ALEPH silicon vertex detector is the first detector operating in a colliding beam environment that uses silicon strip detectors which provide readout on both sides and hence a three-dimensional point measurement for the trajectory of charged particles. The detector system was commissioned successfully at the e + e - collider LEP at the research centre CERN, Switzerland, during the year 1991 while taking data at the Z 0 resonance. The achieved spatial resolution of the complete 73 728 channel device (intrinsic plus alignment) in 12 μm in the r.φ view and 12 μm in the z view. The design and construction of the entire detector system are discussed in detail and the experience gained in running the detector is described with special emphasis on the uses of this novel tracking device for the physics of short-lived heavy particles produced in the decays of the Z 0 resonance. (orig.)

  8. A comparison of the performance of compact neutrino detector designs for nuclear reactor safeguards and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyna, D. E.; McKeown, R. W.

    2006-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the monitoring of nuclear fuel for power reactors by detecting the anti-neutrinos produced during operation. Small liquid scintillator detectors have already demonstrated sensitivity to operational power levels, but more sensitive monitoring requires improvements in the efficiency and uniformity of these detectors. In this work, we use a montecarlo simulation to investigate the detector performance of four different detector configurations. Based on the analysis of neutron detection efficiency and positron energy response, we find that the optimal detector design will depend on the goals and restrictions of the specific installation or application. We have attempted to present the relevant information so that future detector development can proceed in a profitable direction

  9. Performance simulation and structure design of Binode CdZnTe gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Libo; Li Yulan; Fu Jianqiang; Jiang Hao; Zhang Lan; He Bin; Li Yuanjing

    2014-01-01

    A new electrode structure CdZnTe (Cadmium Zinc Telluride) detector named Binode CdZnTe has been pro- posed in this paper. Together with the softwares of MAXWELL, GEANT4, and ROOT, the charge collection process and its gamma spectrum of the detector have been simulated and the detector structure has been optimized. In order to improve its performance further, Compton scattering effect correction has been used. The simulation results demonstrate that with refined design and Compton scattering effect correction, Binode CdZnTe detectors is capable of achieving 3.92% FWHM at 122 keV, and 1.27% FWHM at 662 keV. Com- pared with other single-polarity (electron-only) detector configurations, Binode CdZnTe detector offers a cost effective and simple structure alternative with comparable energy resolution. (authors)

  10. Design of an advanced positron emission tomography detector system and algorithms for imaging small animal models of human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudray, Angela Marie Klohs

    Detecting, quantifying and visualizing biochemical mechanism in a living system without perturbing function is the goal of the instrument and algorithms designed in this thesis. Biochemical mechanisms of cells have long been known to be dependent on the signals they receive from their environment. Studying biological processes of cells in-vitro can vastly distort their function, since you are removing them from their natural chemical signaling environment. Mice have become the biological system of choice for various areas of biomedical research due to their genetic and physiological similarities with humans, the relatively low cost of their care, and their quick breeding cycle. Drug development and efficacy assessment along with disease detection, management, and mechanism research all have benefited from the use of small animal models of human disease. A high resolution, high sensitivity, three-dimensional (3D) positioning positron emission tomography (PET) detector system was designed through device characterization and Monte Carlo simulation. Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) were characterized in various packaging configurations; coupled to various configurations of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystals. Forty novelly packaged final design devices were constructed and characterized, each providing characteristics superior to commercially available scintillation detectors used in small animal imaging systems: ˜1mm crystal identification, 14-15% of 511 keV energy resolution, and averaging 1.9 to 5.6 ns coincidence time resolution. A closed-cornered box-shaped detector configuration was found to provide optimal photon sensitivity (˜10.5% in the central plane) using dual LSO-PSAPD scintillation detector modules and Monte Carlo simulation. Standard figures of merit were used to determine optimal system acquisition parameters. A realistic model for constituent devices was developed for understanding the signals reported by the

  11. Hardware design for new instrumentation and control system of RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2010-01-01

    The design for New Instrumentation and Control system of RTP are proposed. Physical system is modular-based, comprise of several cabinets such as Reactor Protection System 1 and 2, Control Console, Information Console 1 and 2 as well as Communication Console. Reactor Protection System automatically will shut-down reactor whenever safety limit setting was approach. Control console is where the reactor operator actually controls the reactor with control the movement of control rods. Information Consoles using Liquid Crystal Display to monitor the reactor parameters. Communication Console is where the communication tools such as telephone and intercom are located. This new system will incorporated analog, digital and computer-based. Reactor Protection System will use all analog system. Reactor Control System and Reactor Monitoring System will use analog as well as computer-based system. Wide-range channel will use digital signal processor as a main component. Controlling control rod movement is using control rod button via microprocessor-based control rod controller. Automatic Flux Controller is using embedded computer for flexibility of programming. Data Acquisition System is using Programmable Logic Controller and Industrial Computer. The main software for this system will be developed using WinCC software. (author)

  12. Influence of instrument design on neutron lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.; Hopkinson, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Commercially available logging services provide a measurement of the lifetime of thermal neutrons in formations adjacent to a borehole. This lifetime provides a measure of the macroscopic thermal neutron-capture cross-section Σ of the formation, which in turn is functionally related to the abundance and constituency of the rock matrix and contained fluids. Because the measurement is extremely sensitive to an abundance of trace elements like boron and gadolinium, it is very difficult to find rock formations with an accurately known value of Σ, which is required for the accuracy of the measuring system to be experimentally tested. Various theoretical studies published suggest that errors in the determination of Σ may occur because of the influence of borehole parameters and the effects of neutron diffusion. Experimental results are reported that demonstrate that the design of the instrument is crucial to the validity of any theoretical treatment of the subject. The influence of neutron diffusion and borehole effects can be overcome by optimal selection of spacing and shielding parameters

  13. CZT Detector Development for New Generation Hard-X Astronomical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslenghi, Michela; Conti, Giancarlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Fiorini, Mauro; Quadrini, Egidio M.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro

    2006-04-01

    In the context of the definition of a future European gamma-ray mission, following the now on-orbit INTEGRAL observatory, we are carrying out a feasibility study on a Gamma Ray Wide Field Camera (5-500 KeV) for transient event detection. Recent achievements in high energy astronomy have validated the CZT detectors performances in terms of good spatial resolution, detection efficiency, energy resolution and low noise at room temperature. We started a development program aimed to explore the possibilities to improve and optimize the performance of this kind of detectors, acting at the level of both the readout system and crystal quality. Preliminary results of characterization of pixelated crystals provided by IMARAD (now Orbotech) are presented, along with their analysis and interpretation based on an analytical model of signal formation.

  14. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A pixelated luminosity detector counts coincidences in several three layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to measure the luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point.The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background.A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cerenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fused quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules...

  15. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Sensor Fish Design and Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall C. Richmond

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish passing through dams may be injured or killed despite advances in turbinedesign, project operations and other fish bypass systems. The six-degree-of-freedom (6DOFSensor Fish device is an autonomous sensor package that characterizes the physical conditionsand physical stresses to which fish are exposed when they pass through complex hydraulicenvironments. It has been used to identify the locations and operations where conditions aresevere enough to injure or kill fish. During the design process, a set of governing equationsof motion for the Sensor Fish was derived and simulated to understand the design implica-tions of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. The Sensor Fishpackage includes three rotation sensors, three acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, and atemperature sensor with a sampling frequency of 2,000 Hz. Its housing is constructed of clearpolycarbonate plastic. It is 24.5 mm in diameter and 90 mm in length and weighs about 43 g,similar to the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt. The accuracy of the pressure sensorwas determined to be within 0.2 psi. In laboratory acceptance tests, the relative errors of boththe linear acceleration and angular velocity measurements were determined to be less than5%. An exposure is defined as a significant event when the acceleration reaches predefinedthresholds. Based on the different characteristic of acceleration and rotation velocities, theexposure event is categorized as either a collision between the Sensor Fish and a solid struc-ture or shear caused by turbulence. Since its development in 2005, the 6DOF Sensor Fish hasbeen deployed successfully at many major dams in the United States.

  16. Instrumentations in x-ray plasma polarization spectroscopy. Crystal spectrometer, polarimeter and detectors for astronomical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baronova, Elena O.; Stepanenko, Mikhail M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jakubowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tsunemi, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Science, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    This report discusses the various problems which are encountered when a crystal spectrometer is used for the purpose of observing polarized x-ray lines. A polarimeter is proposed based on the novel idea of using two series of equivalent atomic planes in a single crystal. The present status of the astronomical x-ray detection techniques are described with emphasis on two dimensional detectors which are polarization sensitive. (author)

  17. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2017-02-11

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixelated luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two-pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cherenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fuzed quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All new and upgraded sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Results on their commissioning and essential characteristics using data since the start-up of LHC will be presented.

  18. Instrumentation development for an array of water Cherenkov detectors for extensive air shower experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaei, F.; Bahmanabadi, M.; Keivani, A.; Samimi, J.

    2009-11-01

    A new small array of Cherenkov detectors has been deployed in Tehran, 1200 m above sea level. This array contains four tanks of distilled water with a diameter of 64 cm and a height of 130 cm. The effective area of each tank is about 1382 cm2. They are used to detect air showers and to record the arrival time of the secondary particles. We have collected about 640 000 extensive air showers (EAS) in 8298 h of observation time from November 2006 to October 2007. The distribution of air showers in zenith and azimuth angles has been studied and a cosnθ distribution with n = 6.02 ± 0.01 was obtained for the zenith angle distribution. An asymmetry has been observed in the azimuthal distribution of EAS of cosmic rays due to geomagnetic field. The first and second amplitudes of the asymmetry are AI = 0.183 ± 0.001 and AII = 0.038 ± 0.001. Since the recent results are in good agreement with our previous results of scintillation detectors, and tanks of distilled water are cheaper, we prefer to use them instead of scintillators in a future larger array. By simulation, we have improved the size of the detectors to yield the highest efficiency. The best dimensions for each tank with a photomultiplier tube in the center of its lid are 40 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height.

  19. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  20. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  1. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  2. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  3. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  4. Design and test results of the AMS RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Casadei, D.

    2002-01-01

    The AMS-02 detector will operate for at least 3 years on the International Space Station, measuring cosmic ray spectra at about 400 km above sea level over a wide range of geomagnetic latitude. The proximity focusing ring imaging \\v{C}erenkov counter of AMS-02 will measure the particle velocity $\\beta$ with $\\approx 0.1%$ uncertainty, making possible to discriminate Beryllium isotopes up to about 15 GeV/nucl. In addition its charge measurement will allow to study the elemental composition of cosmic rays up to Iron. A prototype of the RICH detector was tested with cosmic rays and on a ion beam accelerated by SPS, at CERN (October 2002).

  5. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described

  6. Upgrade of detectors of neutron instruments at Neutron Physics Laboratory in Rez

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Litvinenko, E. I.; Ryukhtin, Vasyl; Bogdzel, A. A.; Churakov, A. V.; Farkas, G.; Hervoches, Charles; Lukáš, Petr; Pilch, Jan; Šaroun, Jan; Strunz, Pavel; Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 841, JAN (2017), s. 5-11 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004; GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron scattering * gaseous position-sensitive detector * delay line readout Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Materials engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  7. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  8. A Polyethylene Moderator Design for Auxiliary Ex-core Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Soo; Shin, Ho Cheol; Bae, Seong Man

    2012-01-01

    The moderator of detector assembly in ENFMS (Excore Neutron Flux Monitoring System) plays a key role for slowing down from fast neutron to thermal neutron at outside of reactor vessel. Since neutron monitoring detector such as BF3, fission chamber detectors mostly responds to thermal neutron, moderator should be included to neutron detector assembly to detect more efficiently. Generally, resin has been used for moderator of detector in ENFMS of OPR1000 and APR1400, because resin has stable thermal resistance, availability and high neutron moderation characteristics due to the light atomic materials. In case of an auxiliary ex-core neutron detector, the polyethylene is suggested that polyethylene has a better moderator rather than resin, then, the amounts of moderator are reduced. This is important thing for auxiliary ex-core detector equipment at reactor, because the auxiliary equipment should affect minimally to another system. In this study, polyethylene moderator is designed for auxiliary ex-core neutron detector. To find out the optimal thickness of polyethylene moderator, preliminary simulation and experiments are performed. And sensitivity simulation for detector moderator at actual reactor is performed by DORT code

  9. A simple Bragg detector design for AMS and IBA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Arnold Milenko; Döbeli, Max; Seiler, Martin; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-08-01

    A new compact Bragg type gas ionization chamber (GIC) has been built for use as particle counter in AMS and IBA applications. The detector stands out due to its simple concept, which does not include a Frisch grid. Test experiments have been performed with ions in the mass range from He to Th and energies ranging from 30 keV to 2.5 MeV, in order to find optimal measurement conditions and to characterize the detector performance. For projectiles heavier than Al at energies below 2.5 MeV the obtained energy resolution is comparable with that of a state-of-the-art GIC with Frisch grid and clearly outperforms solid state detectors. Additionally the operation of this simplified Bragg GIC in the electron multiplication mode was investigated for the first time, which allows the detection of radiocarbon ions at energies below 50 keV with an energy resolution of the order of 10 keV.

  10. Design and development of an anthropomorphic phantom equipped with detectors in order to evaluate the effective dose E at workplaces: feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furstoss, Ch.

    2006-11-01

    My PhD study aims to determine the feasibility to design and develop, for photon fields, an anthropomorphic phantom equipped with detectors in order to evaluate the effective dose E at workplaces. First of all, the energy losses within the organs are calculated using the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code, in order to determine the detection positions within the different organs. Then, to decrease the number of detection positions, the organ contribution to the effective dose is studied. Finally, the characteristics of the detectors to insert and the characteristics of the phantom to use are deduced. The results show that 24 or 23 detection positions, according to the wT values (publication 60 or new recommendations of the ICRP), give a E estimation with an uncertainty of ±15 % from 50 keV to 4 MeV. Moreover, the interest of such an instrument is underlined while comparing the E estimation by the personal dose equivalent Hp to the E estimation by the instrumented phantom when the phantom is irradiated by point sources (worker in front of a glove box for example). Last, after the detector and phantom characteristic determination, two types of detectors and one type of phantom are selected. However, for the detectors mainly, developments are necessary. Follow up this study, the characterization and the adaptation of the detectors to the project would be interesting. Furthermore, the study to mixed photon-neutrons would be required the needs of the radiological protection community. (author)

  11. GEO-CAPE Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (COEDI) Instrument Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal of this study is to build a breadboard instrument and prove the functionality of the optical-mechanical assembly for the Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics...

  12. Mathematical calibration of Ge detectors, and the instruments that use them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, F.L.; Young, B. [Canberra Industries, Meriden, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Efficiency calibrations for Ge detectors are typically done with the use of multiple energy calibrations sources which are added to a bulk matrix intended to simulate the measurement sample, and then deposited in the sample container. This is rather easy for common laboratory samples. Bu, even there, for many environmental samples, waste assay samples, and operational health physics samples, accurate calibrations are difficult. For these situations, various mathematical corrections or direct calibration techniques are used at Canberra. EML has pioneered the use of mathematical calibrations following source-based detector characterization measurements for in situ measurements of environmental fallout. Canberra has expanded this by the use of MCNP for the source measurements required in EML. For other calibration situations, MCNP was used directly, as the primary calibration method. This is demonstrated to be at least as accurate as source based measurements, and probably better. Recently, a new method [ISOCS] has been developed and is nearing completion. This promises to be an easy to use calibration software that can be used by the customer for in situ gamma spectroscopy to accurately measure many large sized samples, such as boxes, drums, pipes, or to calibrate small laboratory-type samples. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Mathematical calibration of Ge detectors, and the instruments that use them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, F.L.; Young, B.

    1997-01-01

    Efficiency calibrations for Ge detectors are typically done with the use of multiple energy calibrations sources which are added to a bulk matrix intended to simulate the measurement sample, and then deposited in the sample container. This is rather easy for common laboratory samples. Bu, even there, for many environmental samples, waste assay samples, and operational health physics samples, accurate calibrations are difficult. For these situations, various mathematical corrections or direct calibration techniques are used at Canberra. EML has pioneered the use of mathematical calibrations following source-based detector characterization measurements for in situ measurements of environmental fallout. Canberra has expanded this by the use of MCNP for the source measurements required in EML. For other calibration situations, MCNP was used directly, as the primary calibration method. This is demonstrated to be at least as accurate as source based measurements, and probably better. Recently, a new method [ISOCS] has been developed and is nearing completion. This promises to be an easy to use calibration software that can be used by the customer for in situ gamma spectroscopy to accurately measure many large sized samples, such as boxes, drums, pipes, or to calibrate small laboratory-type samples. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Instrumentation of a Level-1 Track Trigger in the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Boisvert, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges in particle physics experiments at hadron colliders is to build detector systems that can take advantage of the future luminosity increase that will take place during the next decade. More than 200 simultaneous collisions will be recorded in a single event which will make the task to extract the interesting physics signatures harder than ever before. Not all events can be recorded hence a fast trigger system is required to select events that will be stored for further analysis. In the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) two different architectures for accommodating a level-1 track trigger are being investigated. The tracker has more readout channels than can be readout in time for the trigger decision. Both architectures aim for a data reduction of 10-100 in order to make readout of data possible in time for a level-1 trigger decision. In the first architecture the data reduction is achieved by reading out only parts of the detector seeded by a high rate pre-trigger ...

  15. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2 k experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2 3 and the 2 4 , depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

  16. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves, E-mail: uandapaula@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2{sup k} experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2{sup 3} and the 2{sup 4}, depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

  17. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  18. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  19. A novel design of a personal nuclear track detector for ambient Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaliot, M.; Even, O.; Herman, R.

    1997-01-01

    In some occupations, workers spend a part of their time underground, in closed and unventilated spaces, while most of their time is spent in the open air. The case in hand is a group of the 'Bezek' telephone technicians, whose work includes spending a few hours daily in small, coarsely finished and unventilated tunnels in which telephone branching boxes are located. The rest of their time they work outdoors, and a small part of it is spent in offices. The Rn levels in a few telephone branching tunnels were measured and were found to be rather high (levels of 3000 - 5000 Bq/m 3 are common). The average exposure of the workers is however much lower, due to short time spent in the tunnels, versus the longer time spent outdoors, and the low Rn level there. To obtain a well founded estimation of their actual commutative Rn exposure, a new integrative Rn detector was designed, which is attached to the workers clothing during the whole working day, and serves as a personal Rn detector, rather than as the a conventional area monitor. The detector element itself consists of a Nuclear Track Detector made of dosimetry grade CR-39. The function of the detector is how ever dependent mainly on the geometrical design of the housing of the detector. The properties of these detectors are, however, highly dependent on the design of the detectors housing.The design itself, it's theoretical efficiency, it's actual calibration process and it's calibration factor are presented. Mechanical reliability has been established in some 3 years of operation both as a fixed area monitor and as a personal portable detector. (authors)

  20. Design, characterization and beam test performance of different silicon microstrip detector geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catacchini, E.; Ciampolini, L.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.

    1998-01-01

    During the last few years a large number of silicon microstrip detectors has been especially designed and tested in order to study and optimize the performances of the tracking devices to be used in the forward-backward part of the CMS (technical proposal, CERN/LHCC 94-38 LHCC/Pl, 15 December 1994) experiment. Both single and double sided silicon detectors of a trapezoidal ('wedge') shape and with different strip configurations, including prototypes produced with double metal technology, were characterized in the laboratory and tested using high-energy beams. Furthermore, due to the high-radiation environment where the detectors should operate, particular care was devoted to the study of the characteristics of heavily irradiated detectors. The main results of detector performances (charge response, signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution etc.) will be reviewed and discussed. (author)

  1. Design, construction and testing of a self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction and testing of a self-powered neutron detector (SPN) and associated electronics are described. Several tests were performed giving information about dielectrical properties of detector and cable, gamma spectra induced in the detector through reactor irradiation, detector response as a function of neutron flux, current stability and reproductibility with the neutron flux. The gamma and neutron sensitivities were also evaluated, by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters and gold foils as references. The test results are presented and show that the detector response is reliable. The gamma and neutron sensitivities are in agreement with those found in the available literature. Nevertheless, a ceramic insulated cable should be employed for permanent use in a reactor. The tests were performed in a 100 KW TRIGA Mark I reactor at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear of NUCLEBRAS, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. (author) [pt

  2. Design constrution and testing of a self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The design, contruction and testing of a self-powered neutron detector (SPN) and associated electronics are described. Several tests were performed giving information about dielectrical properties od detector and cable, gamma spectra induced in the detector through reactor irradiation, detector response as a function of neutron flux, current stability and reproductibility with the neutron flux. The gamma and neutron sensitivities were also evaluated, by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters and gold foils as references. The test results are presented and show that the detector response is reliable. The gamma and neutron sensitivities are in agreement with those found in the available literature. Neverthe less, a ceramic insulated cable should be employed for permanent use in a reactor. The tests were perfomance in a 100 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear of NUCLEBRAS,in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. (Author) [pt

  3. Wiring of instrument for measuring pulse count of pseudocoincidences in radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekrdle, J.

    1978-01-01

    A network is described consisting of a flip-flop circuit, a pulse counter, a shift register, a gate and a clock generator. Pulses from an alpha detector are applied to the adjusting input of the control flip-flop whose output is connected to the reset input of the pulse counter and to the control input of the gate for beta pulses delayed by the shift register. The pulse counter is supplied with pulses from the clock generator output. The pulses also energize the shift register. The control flip-flop is reset by the output of the pulse counter overflow and also by the beta pulse passing through the open gate to the output terminal. (H.S.)

  4. Review of techniques and detectors used in instruments for field measurement of β doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Generally, field measurements are required to assess the hazard from β-rays before personnel are allowed to occupy a working space or perform a task. Occasionally, the measurements are required for an assessment after a β-ray exposure is suspected to have occurred. With these uses of field instruments in mind, the following detectors and associated techniques will be discussed in terms of the measurement principles, advantages, and limitations: 1) thin-walled ion chambers (sometimes in combination with thick-walled ones or with covers thick enough to prevent penetration of β-particles); 2) thin scintillators, nearly tissue equivalent, to provide a detector analogous to skin; 3) scintillators, thick enough to absorb all the energy of the β-particles. Circuitry is required to count pulses according to size to permit calculation of dose or dose rate; 4) silicon diodes with thin detection layers operated as photocurrent generators; 5) silicon diodes, reversed biassed, with pulses counted according to size; 6) simple pulse counters (e.g., GM counters or silicon diodes with thin windows)

  5. Review of techniques and detectors used in instruments for field measurement of beta doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Generally, field measurements are required to assess the hazard from #betta#-rays before personnel are allowed to occupy a working space or perform a task. Occasionally, the measurements are required for an assessment after a #betta#-ray exposure is suspected to have occurred. Until recently the dose or dose rate have been the quantities of interest but there is now felt to be a need to characterize the energies and directions of the #betta#-rays as well. The purpose of #betta#-dosimetry is the assessment of hazard to superficial tissues (within approx. 10 mm of the surface) and that these tissues may also be exposed simultaneously to other ionizing radiations. The #betta#-dosimetry technique must take account of this. With these uses of field instruments in mind the following detectors, and associated techniques will be discussed in terms of the measurement principles, advantages and limitations: thin-walled ion chambers (sometimes in combination with thick-walled ones or with covers thick enough to prevent penetration of #betta#-particles); thin scintillators, nearly tissue equivalent, to provide a detector analogous to skin; scintillators, thick enough to absorb all the energy of the #betta#-particles (circuitry is required to count pulses according to size to permit calculation of dose or dose rate); silicon diodes with thin detection layers operated as photocurrent generators; silicon diodes, reversed biassed, with pulses counted according to size; and simple pulse counters (e.g., GM counters or silicon diodes with thin windows)

  6. Designing new guides and instruments using McStas

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, E; Wildes, A R; Ghosh, R; Lefmann, K

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of modern neutron-scattering instruments, the need for powerful tools to optimize their geometry and physical performances (flux, resolution, divergence, etc.) has become essential. As the usual analytical methods reach their limit of validity in the description of fine effects, the use of Monte Carlo simulations, which can handle these latter, has become widespread. The McStas program was developed at Riso National Laboratory in order to provide neutron scattering instrument scientists with an efficient and flexible tool for building Monte Carlo simulations of guides, neutron optics and instruments. To date, the McStas package has been extensively used at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, for various studies including cold and thermal guides with ballistic geometry, diffractometers, triple-axis, backscattering and time-of-flight spectrometers. In this paper, we present some simulation results concerning different guide geometries that may be used in the future at th...

  7. Design and fabrication of a novel self-powered solid-state neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiCausi, Nicholas

    There is a strong interest in intercepting special nuclear materials (SNM) at national and international borders and ports for homeland security applications. Detection of SNM such as U and Pu is often accomplished by sensing their natural or induced neutron emission. Such detector systems typically use thermal neutron detectors inside a plastic moderator. In order to achieve high detection efficiency gas filled detectors are often used; these detectors require high voltage bias for operation, which complicates the system when tens or hundreds of detectors are deployed. A better type of detector would be an inexpensive solid-state detector that can be mass-produced like any other computer chip. Research surrounding solid-state detectors has been underway since the late 1990's. A simple solid-state detector employs a planar solar-cell type p-n junction and a thin conversion material that converts incident thermal neutrons into detectable alpha-particles and 7Li ions. Existing work has typically used 6LiF or 10B as this conversion layer. Although a simple planar detector can act as a highly portable, low cost detector, it is limited to relatively low detection efficiency (˜10%). To increase the efficiency, 3D perforated p-i-n silicon devices were proposed. To get high efficiency, these detectors need to be biased, resulting in increased leakage current and hence detector noise. In this research, a new type of detector structure was proposed, designed and fabricated. Among several detector structures evaluated, a honeycomb-like silicon p-n structure was selected, which is filled with natural boron as the neutron converter. A silicon p+-n diode formed on the thin silicon wall of the honeycomb structure detects the energetic alpha-particles emitted from the boron conversion layer. The silicon detection layer is fabricated to be fully depleted with an integral step during the boron filling process. This novel feature results in a simplified fabrication process. Three

  8. Detailed design and first tests of the application software for the instrument control unit of Euclid-NISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligori, S.; Corcione, L.; Capobianco, V.; Bonino, D.; Sirri, G.; Fornari, F.; Giacomini, F.; Patrizii, L.; Valenziano, L.; Travaglini, R.; Colodro, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bonoli, C.; Chiarusi, T.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Spurio, M.; Tenti, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Laudisio, F.; Sirignano, C.; Stanco, L.; Ventura, S.; Auricchio, N.; Balestra, A.; Franceschi, E.; Morgante, G.; Trifoglio, M.; Medinaceli, E.; Guizzo, G. P.; Debei, S.; Stephen, J. B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we describe the detailed design of the application software (ASW) of the instrument control unit (ICU) of NISP, the Near-Infrared Spectro-Photometer of the Euclid mission. This software is based on a real-time operating system (RTEMS) and will interface with all the subunits of NISP, as well as the command and data management unit (CDMU) of the spacecraft for telecommand and housekeeping management. We briefly review the main requirements driving the design and the architecture of the software that is approaching the Critical Design Review level. The interaction with the data processing unit (DPU), which is the intelligent subunit controlling the detector system, is described in detail, as well as the concept for the implementation of the failure detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR) algorithms. The first version of the software is under development on a Breadboard model produced by AIRBUS/CRISA. We describe the results of the tests and the main performances and budgets.

  9. Designing new guides and instruments using McStas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhi, E.; Hansen, T.; Wildes, A.

    2002-01-01

    of guides, neutron optics and instruments [1]. To date, the McStas package has been extensively used at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, for various studies including cold and thermal guides with ballistic geometry, diffractometers, triple-axis, backscattering and time-of-flight spectrometers...

  10. On-line estimator/detector design for a plutonium nitrate concentrator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.; Rozsa, R.B.

    1979-04-01

    In this report we consider the design of a nonlinear estimator to be used in conjunction with on-line detectors for a plutonium/concentrator. Using a complex state-of-the-art process model to simulate realistic data, we show that the estimator performance using a simplified process model is adequate over a wide range of operation. The estimator is used to simulate and characterize some on-line diversion detectors, i.e., detectors designed to indicate if some of the critical special nuclear material in process is stolen or diverted from the unit. Several different diversion scenarios are presented. Simulation results indicate that the estimators and detectors yielded reasonable performance for the scenarios investigated

  11. Design and test of a prototype silicon detector module for ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker endcaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.G.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment. The SCT consists of four concentric barrels of silicon detectors as well as two silicon endcap detectors formed by nine disks each. The layout of the forward silicon detector module presented in this paper is based on the approved layout of the silicon detectors of the SCT, their geometry and arrangement in disks, but uses otherwise components identical to the barrel modules of the SCT. The module layout is optimized for excellent thermal management and electrical performance, while keeping the assembly simple and adequate for a large scale module production. This paper summarizes the design and layout of the module and present results of a limited prototype production, which has been extensively tested in the laboratory and testbeam. The module design was not finally adopted for series production because a dedicated forward hybrid layout was pursued

  12. Design of data acquisition system for 2D-ARRAY ionization chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Xing Guilai; Wu Zhifang; Wang Zhentao

    2012-01-01

    The introduction is given on the design and development of data acquisition system for 2D-ARRAY ionization chamber detector, which is used for dose verification of tumor radiotherapy. The paper describes the structure and the principle of the 2D-ARRAY ionization chamber detector system in detail, and focuses on the discussion on the design process of the detector's data acquisition system and the development of data acquisition system which is constituted by preamplifier, preamplifier control board and data acquisition board. The client can setup the parameters of the detector system via TCP/IP and do data processing such as high speed data collection and acquisition, further operation and so on. (authors)

  13. IR detectors for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument payload for the METOP-1 ESA polar platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Michel; Lorans, Dominique; Bischoff, Isabelle; Giotta, Dominique; Wolny, Michel

    1994-12-01

    IASI is an Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer devoted to the operational meteorology and to atmospheric studies and is to be installed on board the second ESA Polar Platform called METOP-1, planned to be launched in the year 2000. The main purpose of this high performance instrument is to record temperature and humidity profiles. The required lifetime is 4 years. This paper presents the characteristics of the LW IR detection arrays for the IASI spectrometer which consist of HgCdTe de- tectors. SAT has to develop the Engineering Model, Qualification Model and Fight Models of detectors, each having 4 pixels and AR-coated microlenses in a dedicated space housing equipped with a flexible line and a connector. An array is composed of HgCdTe photoconductive detectors. For this long wavelength the array is sensitive from 8.26 micrometers to 15.5 micrometers . The detectors, with sensitive areas of 900 x 900 micrometers 2, are 100 K operating with passive cooling. High quality HgCdTe material is a key feature for the manufacturing of high performance photoconductive detectors. Therefore epitaxial HgCdTe layers are used in this project. These epilayers are grown at CEA/LETI on lattice matched CdZnTe substrates, by Te-rich liquid phase epitaxy, based on a slider technique. The Cd content in the layer is carefully adjusted to meet the required cut off wavelength on the devices. After growth of the epilayers, the samples are annealed under Hg pressure in order to convert them into N type mate- rials. The electrical transport properties of the liquid phase epitaxied wafers are, at 100 K, mobility (mu) over 150,000 cm2/V.s and electrical concentration N of 1.5 1015 cm-3, the residual doping level being 1014 cm-3 at low temperature. On these materials the feasibility study of long wavelength HgCdTe photoconductors has been achieved with the following results: the responsivity is 330 V/W. The bias voltage is Vp=300 mV for a 4 mW limitation of power for each element. The

  14. A New Instrument Design for Imaging Low Energy Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, Dennis; Rozmarynowski, Paul; Getty, Stephanie; Cooper, John F.; Smith, Billy

    2007-01-01

    The MidSTAR-2 satellite, to be built at the US Naval Academy as a follow-on to the successful MidSTAR-1 satellite (http://web.ew.usna.edu/midstar/), will launch in 2011 and carry three Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) experiments developed under Goddard's Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program. One of these GSFC instruments, the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) builds on the heritage of the Goddard-developed Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in 2000. MINI-ME features a Venetian-blind conversion surface assembly that improves both light rejection and conversion efficiency in a smaller and lighter package than LENA making this an highly effective instrument for viewing solar wind charge exchange with terrestrial and planetary exospheres. We will describe the MINI-ME prototyping effort and its science targets.

  15. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may....... The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range...... of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn....

  16. Design and Validation of an Instrumented Uneven Terrain Treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshina, Alexandra S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2018-06-01

    Studying human and animal locomotion on an uneven terrain can be beneficial to basic science and applied studies for clinical and robotic applications. Traditional biomechanical analysis of human locomotion has often been limited to laboratory environments with flat, smooth runways and treadmills. The authors modified a regular exercise treadmill by attaching wooden blocks to the treadmill belt to yield an uneven locomotion surface. To ensure that these treadmill modifications facilitated biomechanical measurements, the authors compared ground reaction force data collected while a subject ran on the modified instrumented treadmill with a smooth surface with data collected using a conventional instrumented treadmill. Comparisons showed only minor differences. These results suggest that adding an uneven surface to a modified treadmill is a viable option for studying human or animal locomotion on an uneven terrain. Other types of surfaces (eg, compliant blocks) could be affixed in a similar manner for studies on other types of locomotion surfaces.

  17. Design of the power sources for portable nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Fang Fang; Cui Yan; Cui Junliang; Zhou Wei

    2007-01-01

    How to charge for the portable equipments is always a topical subject aimed by people, the application of new type batteries and Battery Management brings great facility to people's life, the rechargeable battery for portable equipments is widely used in portable equipments, but the convenience of the charging power source is limited in special situation. This paper will discuss how to combining rechargeable battery with traditional alkaline batteries for charging the portable instruments. (authors)

  18. Instruments of Inquiry: Understanding the Nature and Role of Design Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Designers employ a range of tools in most design projects, yet there are few frameworks for understanding how and why they work. On the basis of a well-established school of thought, pragmatism, this paper contributes with a coherent conceptualisation of tools in design, which I label instruments...... of inquiry. This perspective underscores the crucial role that instruments play in design, and the ways in which they scaffold design creativity and exploration. In particular, it highlights that instruments not only augment our capabilities for carrying out intended actions, they also guide our perception...... and understanding of design problems and solutions. I present and discuss a framework consisting of five qualities of instruments of inquiry, which make them valuable in designerly inquiry: perception, conception, externalisation, knowing-through-action, and mediation....

  19. MCNP-REN: a Monte Carlo tool for neutron detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhold, M.E.; Baker, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The development of neutron detectors makes extensive use of the predictions of detector response through the use of Monte Carlo techniques in conjunction with the point reactor model. Unfortunately, the point reactor model fails to accurately predict detector response in common applications. For this reason, the general Monte Carlo code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP), was modified to simulate the pulse streams that would be generated by a neutron detector and normally analyzed by a shift register. This modified code, MCNP-Random Exponentially Distributed Neutron Source (MCNP-REN), along with the Time Analysis Program, predicts neutron detector response without using the point reactor model, making it unnecessary for the user to decide whether or not the assumptions of the point model are met for their application. MCNP-REN is capable of simulating standard neutron coincidence counting as well as neutron multiplicity counting. Measurements of mixed oxide fresh fuel were taken with the Underwater Coincidence Counter, and measurements of highly enriched uranium reactor fuel were taken with the active neutron interrogation Research Reactor Fuel Counter and compared to calculation. Simulations completed for other detector design applications are described. The method used in MCNP-REN is demonstrated to be fundamentally sound and shown to eliminate the need to use the point model for detector performance predictions

  20. The EUROBALL neutron wall - design and performance tests of neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Skeppstedt, Ö; Lindström, L; Wadsworth, R; Hibbert, I; Kelsall, N; Jenkins, D; Grawe, H; aGórska, M; Moszynski, M; Sujkowski, Z; Wolski, D; Kapusta, M; Hellström, M; Kalogeropoulos, S; Oner, D; Johnson, A; Cederkäll, J; Klamra, W; Nyberg, J; Weiszflog, M; Kay, J; Griffiths, R; Garces-Narro, J; Pearson, C; Eberth, J

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical design of the EUROBALL neutron wall and neutron detectors, and their performance measured with a sup 2 sup 4 sup 6 sup , sup 2 sup 4 sup 8 Cm fission source are described. The array consists of 15 pseudohexaconical detector units subdivided into three, 149 mm high, hermetically separated segments and a smaller central pentagonal unit subdivided into five segments. The detectors are filled with Bicron BC501A liquid scintillator. Each section of the hexaconical detectors is viewed by a 130 mm diameter Philips XP4512PA photomultiplier while the sections of pentagonal detectors are viewed by Philips XP4312B PMTs. The tests of n-gamma discrimination performed by zero-crossing and time-of-flight methods show a full separation of gamma- and neutron events down to 50 keV recoil electron energy. These tests demonstrate the excellent timing properties of the detectors and an average time resolution of 1.56 ns. The factors determining the efficiency of neutron detectors are discussed. The total efficiency...

  1. Design and performance of a modularized NaI(Tl) detector (the crystal ball prototype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.; Partridge, R.A.; Peck, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype NaI(Tl) detector (the Cluster of 54) of spherical geometry subtending a solid angle of 7.5 percent of 4π at its center, has recently been assembled and tested. This detector consisted of 54 close-packed but optically isolated NaI(Tl) modules and the associated electronic circuitry. The Cluster of 54 is the predecessor of an almost complete spherical detector, the Crystal Ball, which will cover 94 percent of 4π. The latter detector is now under construction and is especially designed for the study of γ-rays produced in electron-positron collisions at colliding beam facilities. The mechanical, optical, and electronic assembly of the prototype system is outlined. Cluster of 54 test data will be presented

  2. Analysis and optimal design of Si microstrip detector with overhanging metal electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2001-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment to be encountered at LHC (large hadron collider) and RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) poses a challenging task for the fabrication of Si microstrip detectors. Due to high luminosities, detectors are required to sustain very high voltage operation well exceeding the bias voltage needed to fully deplete them. The "overhanging" metal contact is now a well established technique for improving the breakdown performance of the Si microstrip detector. Based on computer simulation, the influence of various physical and geometrical parameters on the electrical breakdown of the Si detectors equipped with metal overhangs is extensively analysed. Furthermore, optimization of design parameters is performed to achieve breakdown voltages close to maximum realizable values. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. (17 refs).

  3. LHCb: Detector Module Design, Construction and Performance for the LHCb SciFi Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Ekelhof, R

    2014-01-01

    The Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker for the LHCb Upgrade (CERN/LHCC 2014-001; LHCb TDR 15) is based on 2.5 m long multi-layered ribbons from 10,000 km of scintillating fibre over 12 planes covering 350 m2. The planes are separated into modular detectors, each with cooled silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays for photo-readout. In this talk, we will present the construction and performance of this novel detector, including the intricacies of scintillating fibre ribbon production, constructing precision detector planes with a rigid and light module design, and the integration of the readout components for this detector. The complexities and issues regarding this active part of the SciFi Tracker will be emphasised along with the current solutions and measured performances.

  4. A bottom collider vertex detector design, Monte-Carlo simulation and analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, P.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed simulation of the BCD vertex detector is underway. Specifications and global design issues are briefly reviewed. The BCD design based on double sided strip detector is described in more detail. The GEANT3-based Monte-Carlo program and the analysis package used to estimate detector performance are discussed in detail. The current status of the expected resolution and signal to noise ratio for the ''golden'' CP violating mode B d → π + π - is presented. These calculations have been done at FNAL energy (√s = 2.0 TeV). Emphasis is placed on design issues, analysis techniques and related software rather than physics potentials. 20 refs., 46 figs

  5. Design of a readout ASIC for gas detectors with self-amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhi; Liu Yinong

    2009-01-01

    A readout ASIC has been designed for gas detectors with self-amplification such as GEM and RPC. It provides amplification and shaping of the detector signals and buffers them to the free running ADCs. The charge gain and the shaping time can be adjusted. The programmability of gain and shaping time is very convenient for studying detector performance under different gas gain and also expands the application range of the chip. The ENC increases as charge gain decreases below 10 mV/fC because the noise from the shaper becomes significant. The chip is designed in Chartered 0.35μm 2P4M CMOS process. Detailed design and simulation results are described in the paper. (authors)

  6. Lessons Learned from GOSAT; Instrument Design, Calibration, Operation, Data Processing, and International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Shiomi, K.; Nakajima, M.

    2012-12-01

    we target sun glint (specular reflection) points, where the surface reflectance is not uniform or randomly distributed. Over the desert area, where surface reflectance is high and dust layers extend to high altitude, we have to use lower gain to avoid saturation and multiple scattering is complicated. For both ocean high albedo targets, validation data of XCO2 and XCH4 are limited. Validation by airplane become accurate but extrapolation is needed above flight attitude. Comparison of surface pressure between retrieved data and a priori model forecast fields is useful. For such kind of consistency, measurement must be very linear within wide dynamic range. After launch, we are re-evaluating the linearity of the detector, analog circuit and AD converters using a lab-model on the ground. Since launch, we have received feedback about the radiance spectra data from many data users of diverse institutes. We have gathered many calibration and validation data from international collaboration. We have modified the Level 1 algorithm and instrument calibrations several times. We are currently measuring the grid point of the Earth's surface, but the sampling for source and sink retrieval has not been optimized yet. We will present how we have solved problems, which portions of the instrument design we should modify, and items that we have not understood well yet.

  7. Design and Fabrication of the Second-Generation KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni, I.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cruciani, A.; Bellini, F.; Castellano, M. G.; Cosmelli, C.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the cryogenic wide-area light detectors with excellent resolution project is the development of light detectors with large active area and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS using phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double readout of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work we present the fabrication process, starting from the silicon wafer arriving to the single chip. In the first part of the project, we designed and fabricated KID detectors using aluminum. Detectors are designed by means of state-of-the-art software for electromagnetic analysis (SONNET). The Al thin films (40 nm) are evaporated on high-quality, high-resistivity (> 10 kΩ cm) Si(100) substrates using an electron beam evaporator in a HV chamber. Detectors are patterned in direct-write mode, using electron beam lithography (EBL), positive tone resist poly-methyl methacrylate and lift-off process. Finally, the chip is diced into 20 × 20 mm2 chips and assembled in a holder OFHC (oxygen-free high conductivity) copper using PTFE support. To increase the energy resolution of our detectors, we are changing the superconductor to sub-stoichiometric TiN (TiN x ) deposited by means of DC magnetron sputtering. We are optimizing its deposition by means of DC magnetron reactive sputtering. For this kind of material, the fabrication process is subtractive and consists of EBL patterning through negative tone resist AR-N 7700 and deep reactive ion etching. Critical temperature of TiN x samples was measured in a dedicated cryostat.

  8. Proceedings of a workshop on methods for neutron scattering instrumentation design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P.

    1997-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop. The international gathering of about 50 participants representing 15 national facilities, universities and corporations featured oral presentations, posters, discussions and demonstrations. Participants looked at a number of issues concerning neutron scattering instruments and the tools used in instrument design. Objectives included: (1) determining the needs of the neutron scattering community in instrument design computer code and information sharing to aid future instrument development, (2) providing for a means of training scientists in neutron scattering and neutron instrument techniques, and (3) facilitating the involvement of other scientists in determining the characteristics of new instruments that meet future scientific objectives, and (4) fostering international cooperation in meeting these needs. The scope of the meeting included: (1) a review of x-ray scattering instrument design tools, (2) a look at the present status of neutron scattering instrument design tools and models of neutron optical elements, and (3) discussions of the present and future needs of the neutron scattering community. Selected papers were abstracted separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database

  9. Proceedings of a workshop on methods for neutron scattering instrumentation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, R.P. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop. The international gathering of about 50 participants representing 15 national facilities, universities and corporations featured oral presentations, posters, discussions and demonstrations. Participants looked at a number of issues concerning neutron scattering instruments and the tools used in instrument design. Objectives included: (1) determining the needs of the neutron scattering community in instrument design computer code and information sharing to aid future instrument development, (2) providing for a means of training scientists in neutron scattering and neutron instrument techniques, and (3) facilitating the involvement of other scientists in determining the characteristics of new instruments that meet future scientific objectives, and (4) fostering international cooperation in meeting these needs. The scope of the meeting included: (1) a review of x-ray scattering instrument design tools, (2) a look at the present status of neutron scattering instrument design tools and models of neutron optical elements, and (3) discussions of the present and future needs of the neutron scattering community. Selected papers were abstracted separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Assessment Instrument Design to Reveal Science Generic Skill and Chemistry Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, Woro; Sudarmin; Supartono, Wiyanto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design assessment instrument to evaluate science generic skill (SGS) achievement and chemistry literacy in ethnoscience-integrated chemistry learning. The steps of tool designing refers to Plomp models including 1) Investigation Phase (Prelimenary Investigation); 2) Designing Phase (Design); 3)…

  11. Design and manufacturing of 05F-01K instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation in Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J. (and others)

    2007-07-15

    An instrumented capsule was developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel pellet elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in Hanaro. The instrumented capsule(02F-11K) for measuring and monitoring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. It was successfully irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.84 full power days at 24 MW). In the year of 2004, 3 test fuel rods and the instrumented capsule(03F-05K) were designed and manufactured to measure fuel centerline temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, and fuel axial deformation during irradiation test. This capsule was irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro reactor from April 26, 2004 to October 1, 2004 (59.5 EFPD at 24 {approx} 30 MW). The six typed dual instrumented fuel rods, which allow for two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod, have been designed and manufactured to enhance the efficiency of the irradiation test using the instrumented fuel capsule. The 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule was designed and manufactured for a design verification test of the three dual instrumented fuel rods. The irradiation test of the 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule will be carried out at the OR5 vertical experimental hole of Hanaro.

  12. Thermal simulations of the new design for the BELLE silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragic, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The experienced imperfections of the BELLE silicon vertex detector, SVD1 motioned the design of a new detector, SVD2, which targets on improving the main weaknesses encountered in the old design. In this report we focus on tile thermal aspects of the SVD2 ladder, whereby sufficient cooling of the detector is necessary in order to minimise the detector leakage currents. It is estimated that reducing the temperature of the silicon detector from 25 deg C to 15 deg C would result in a 50% reduction in leak current. Further, cooling the detector would help minimize mechanical stresses from the thermal cycling. Our task is to ensure that the heat generated by the readout chips is conducted down the SVD hybrid unit effectively, such that the chip and the hybrid temperature does not overbear the SVD silicon sensor temperature. We considered the performance of two materials to act as a heat spreading plate which is glued between the two hybrids in order to improve the heat conductivity of the hybrid unit, namely Copper and Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite (TPG). The effects of other ladder components were also considered in order to enhance the cooling of the silicon detectors. Finite element analysis with ANSYS software was used to simulate the thermal conditions of the SVD2 hybrid unit, in accordance with the baseline design for the mechanical structure of the ladder. It was found that Cu was a preferred material as it achieved equivalent silicon sensor cooling (3.6 deg C above cooling point), while its mechanical properties rendered it a lot more practical. Suppressing, the thermal path via a rib support block, by increasing its thermal resistivity, as well as increasing thermal conductivity of the ribs in the hybrid region, were deemed essential in the effective cooling of the silicon sensors

  13. Design of fault detectors using ℋ∞ optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of detecting and/or isolating faults in dynamical systems is assessed. In contrast to previous approaches, the residual vector is considered to be a design variable as a free transfer function in addition to the actual filter which is supposed to minimize the residual. Some main...... directions are suggested, and a numerical algorithm implementing part of these is proposed....

  14. Neutron beam-line shield design for the protein crystallography instrument at the Lujan Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Muhrer, G.; Ferguson, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a very useful methodology for calculating absolute total (neutron plus gamma-ray) dose equivalent rates for use in the design of neutron beam line shields at a spallation neutron source. We have applied this technique to the design of beam line shields for several new materials science instruments being built at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center. These instruments have a variety of collimation systems and different beam line shielding issues. We show here some specific beam line shield designs for the Protein Crystallography Instrument. (author)

  15. Design and validation of an observational instrument for technical and tactical actions in beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Palao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical and tactical actions determine performance in beach volleyball. This research develops and tests an instrument to monitor and evaluate the manner of execution and efficacy of the actions in beach volleyball. The purpose of this paper was to design and validate an observational instrument to analyze technical and tactical actions in beach volleyball. The instrument collects information regarding: a information about the match (context, b information about game situations, c information about technical situations (serve, reception, set, attack, block, and court defense in relation to player execution, role, manner of execution, execution zone, and efficacy, and d information about the result of the play (win-lose and way point is obtained. Instrument design and validation was done in seven stages: a review of literature and consultation of experts; b pilot observation and data analysis; c expert review of instrument (qualitative and quantitative evaluation; d observer training test; e expert review of instrument (content validity; f measurement of the ability of the instrument to discriminate the result of the set; and g measurement of the ability of the instrument to differentiate between competition age groups. The results show that the instrument allows for obtaining objective and valid information about the players and team from offensive and defensive technical and tactical actions, as well as indirectly from physical actions. The instrument can be used, in its entirety or partially, for researching and coaching purposes.

  16. Added value of integrated circuit detector in head CT: objective and subjective image quality in comparison to conventional detector design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Andreas; Bender, Benjamin; Spira, Daniel; Schabel, Christoph; Bhadelia, Rafeeque; Claussen, Claus; Ernemann, Ulrike; Brodoefel, Harald

    2014-12-01

    A new computed tomography (CT) detector with integrated electric components and shorter conducting pathways has recently been introduced to decrease system inherent electronic noise. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential benefit of such integrated circuit detector (ICD) in head CT by comparing objective and subjective image quality in low-dose examinations with a conventional detector design. Using a conventional detector, reduced-dose noncontrast head CT (255 mAs; effective dose, 1.7 mSv) was performed in 25 consecutive patients. Following transition to ICD, 25 consecutive patients were scanned using identical imaging parameters. Images in both groups were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction (IR) and filtered back projection (FBP) and assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality. Acquisition of head CT using ICD increased signal-to-noise ratio of gray and white matter by 14% (10.0 ± 1.6 vs. 11.4 ± 2.5; P = .02) and 17% (8.2 ± 0.8 vs. 9.6 ± 1.5; P = .000). The associated improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio was 12% (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.2 ± 0.6; P = .121). In addition, there was a 51% increase in objective image sharpness (582 ± 85 vs. 884.5 ± 191; change in HU/Pixel; P < .000). Compared to standard acquisitions, subjective grading of noise and overall image quality scores were significantly improved with ICD (2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P < .000; 2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P = .001). Moreover, streak artifacts in the posterior fossa were substantially reduced (2.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.7 ± 0.5; P = .004). At the same radiation level, acquisition of head CT with ICD achieves superior objective and subjective image quality and provides potential for significant dose reduction. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The GOTTHARD charge integrating readout detector: design and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozzanica, A; Bergamaschi, A; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Henrich, B; Johnson, I; Valeria, R; Schmitt, B; Xintian, S; Graafsma, H; Lohmann, M

    2012-01-01

    A charge integrating readout ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for silicon strip sensors has been developed at PSI in collaboration with DESY. The goal of the project is to provide a charge integrating readout system able to cope with the pulsed beam of XFEL machines and at the same time to retain the high dynamic range and single photon resolution performances typical for photon counting systems. The ASIC, designed in IBM 130 nm CMOS technology, takes advantage of its three gain stages with automatic stage selection to achieve a dynamic range of 10000 12 keV photons and a noise better than 300 e.n.c.. The 4 analog outputs of the ASIC are optimized for speed, allowing frame rates higher than 1 MHz, without compromises on linearity and noise performances. This work presents the design features of the ASIC, and reports the characterization results of the chip itself.

  18. Design of Faraday cup ion detectors built by thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szalkowski, G.A., E-mail: gszalkowski3@gatech.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Darrow, D.S., E-mail: ddarrow@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P. O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cecil, F.E., E-mail: fcecil@mines.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2017-03-11

    Thin film Faraday cup detectors can provide measurements of fast ion loss from magnetically confined fusion plasmas. These multilayer detectors can resolve the energy distribution of the lost ions in addition to giving the total loss rate. Prior detectors were assembled from discrete foils and insulating sheets. Outlined here is a design methodology for creating detectors using thin film deposition that are suited to particular scientific goals. The intention is to use detectors created by this method on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The detectors will consist of alternating layers of aluminum and silicon dioxide, with layer thicknesses chosen to isolate energies of interest. Thin film deposition offers the advantage of relatively simple and more mechanically robust construction compared to other methods, as well as allowing precise control of film thickness. Furthermore, this depositional fabrication technique places the layers in intimate thermal contact, providing for three-dimensional conduction and dissipation of the ion-produced heating in the layers, rather than the essentially two-dimensional heat conduction in the discrete foil stack implementation.

  19. Design and fabrication of an optimum peripheral region for low gain avalanche detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Martínez, Pablo; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Greco, V.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2016-01-01

    Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) represent a remarkable advance in high energy particle detection, since they provide a moderate increase (gain ~10) of the collected charge, thus leading to a notable improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, which largely extends the possible application of Silicon detectors beyond their present working field. The optimum detection performance requires a careful implementation of the multiplication junction, in order to obtain the desired gain on the read out signal, but also a proper design of the edge termination and the peripheral region, which prevents the LGAD detectors from premature breakdown and large leakage current. This work deals with the critical technological aspects required to optimize the LGAD structure. The impact of several design strategies for the device periphery is evaluated with the aid of TCAD simulations, and compared with the experimental results obtained from the first LGAD prototypes fabricated at the IMB-CNM clean room. Solutions for the peripheral region improvement are also provided.

  20. Trends in the design of front-end systems for room temperature solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredi, Pier F.; Re, Valerio

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the present trends in the design of low-noise front-end systems for room temperature semiconductor detectors. The technological advancement provided by submicron CMOS and BiCMOS processes is examined from several points of view. The noise performances are a fundamental issue in most detector applications and suitable attention is devoted to them for the purpose of judging whether or not the present processes supersede the solutions featuring a field-effect transistor as a front-end element. However, other considerations are also important in judging how well a monolithic technology suits the front-end design. Among them, the way a technology lends itself to the realization of additional functions, for instance, the charge reset in a charge-sensitive loop or the time-variant filters featuring the special weighting functions that may be requested in some applications of CdTe or CZT detectors

  1. Plasma Panel Detectors for MIP Detection for the SLHC and a Test Chamber Design

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Robert; Etzion, Erez; Friedman, Peter S; Levin, Daniel S; Moshe, Meny Ben; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Performance demands for high and super-high luminosity at the LHC (up to 10^35 cm^(-2) sec^(-1) after the 2017 shutdown) and at future colliders demand high resolution tracking detectors with very fast time response and excellent temporal and spatial resolution. We are investigating a new radiation detector technology based on Plasma Display Panels (PDP), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays. The design and production of PDPs is supported by four decades of industrial development. Emerging from this television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micropattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally an array of micro-Geiger plasma discharge cells operating in a non-ageing, hermetically sealed gas mixture . We report on the PPS development program, including design of a PPS Test Cell.

  2. Design and fabrication of an optimum peripheral region for low gain avalanche detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Martínez, Pablo; Flores, D., E-mail: david.flores@imb-cnm.csic.es; Hidalgo, S.; Greco, V.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2016-06-11

    Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) represent a remarkable advance in high energy particle detection, since they provide a moderate increase (gain ~10) of the collected charge, thus leading to a notable improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, which largely extends the possible application of Silicon detectors beyond their present working field. The optimum detection performance requires a careful implementation of the multiplication junction, in order to obtain the desired gain on the read out signal, but also a proper design of the edge termination and the peripheral region, which prevents the LGAD detectors from premature breakdown and large leakage current. This work deals with the critical technological aspects required to optimize the LGAD structure. The impact of several design strategies for the device periphery is evaluated with the aid of TCAD simulations, and compared with the experimental results obtained from the first LGAD prototypes fabricated at the IMB-CNM clean room. Solutions for the peripheral region improvement are also provided.

  3. In-core Instrument Subcritical Verification (INCISV) - Core Design Verification Method - 358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prible, M.C.; Heibel, M.D.; Conner, S.L.; Sebastiani, P.J.; Kistler, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    According to the standard on reload startup physics testing, ANSI/ANS 19.6.1, a plant must verify that the constructed core behaves sufficiently close to the designed core to confirm that the various safety analyses bound the actual behavior of the plant. A large portion of this verification must occur before the reactor operates at power. The INCISV Core Design Verification Method uses the unique characteristics of a Westinghouse Electric Company fixed in-core self powered detector design to perform core design verification after a core reload before power operation. A Vanadium self powered detector that spans the length of the active fuel region is capable of confirming the required core characteristics prior to power ascension; reactivity balance, shutdown margin, temperature coefficient and power distribution. Using a detector element that spans the length of the active fuel region inside the core provides a signal of total integrated flux. Measuring the integrated flux distributions and changes at various rodded conditions and plant temperatures, and comparing them to predicted flux levels, validates all core necessary core design characteristics. INCISV eliminates the dependence on various corrections and assumptions between the ex-core detectors and the core for traditional physics testing programs. This program also eliminates the need for special rod maneuvers which are infrequently performed by plant operators during typical core design verification testing and allows for safer startup activities. (authors)

  4. Design and realization of a fast low noise electronics for a hybrid pixel X-ray detector dedicated to small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantepie, B.

    2008-12-01

    Since the invention of computerized tomography (CT), charge integration detector were widely employed for X-ray biomedical imaging applications. Nevertheless, other options exist. A new technology of direct detection using semiconductors has been developed for high energy physics instrumentation. This new technology, called hybrid pixel detector, works in photon counting mode and allows for selecting the minimum energy of the counted photons. The ImXgam research team at CPPM develops the PIXSCAN demonstrator, a CT-scanner using the hybrid pixel detector XPAD. The aim of this project is to evaluate the improvement in image quality and in dose delivered during X-ray examinations of a small animal. After a first prototype of a hybrid pixel detector XPAD1 proving the feasibility of the project, a complete imager XPAD2 was designed and integrated in the PIXSCAN demonstrator. Since then, with the evolution of microelectronic industry, important improvements are conceivable. To reducing the size of pixels and to improving the energy resolution of detectors, a third design XPAD3 was conceived and will be soon integrated in a second generation of PIXSCAN demonstrator. In this project, my thesis work consisted in taking part to the design of the detector readout electronics, to the characterization of the chips and of the hybrid pixel detectors, and also to the definition of a auto-zeroing architecture for pixels. The first and second chapters present X-ray medical imaging and particle detection with semi-conductors and its modelling. The third chapter deals with the specifications of electronic circuits for imaging applications first for analog pixels then for digital pixels and describes the general architecture of the integrated circuits. The validation tests are presented in the fourth chapter while the last chapter gives an account of expected changes in pixel electronics

  5. Design considerations for large detector arrays on submillimeter-wave telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Antony A.

    2000-07-01

    The emerging technology of large (approximately 10,000 pixel) submillimeter-wave bolometer arrays presents a novel optical design problem -- how can such arrays be fed by diffraction- limited telescope optics where the primary mirror is less than 100,000 wavelengths in diameter? Standard Cassegrain designs for radiotelescope optics exhibit focal surface curvature so large that detectors cannot be placed more than 25 beam diameters from the central ray. The problem is worse for Ritchey-Chretien designs, because these minimize coma while increasing field curvature. Classical aberrations, including coma, are usually dominated by diffraction in submillimeter- wave single dish telescopes. The telescope designer must consider (1) diffraction, (2) aberration, (3) curvature of field, (4) cross-polarization, (5) internal reflections, (6) the effect of blockages, (7) means of beam chopping on- and off-source, (8) gravitational and thermal deformations of the primary mirror, (9) the physical mounting of large detector packages, and (10) the effect of gravity and (11) vibration on those detectors. Simultaneous optimization of these considerations in the case of large detector arrays leads to telescopes that differ considerably from standard radiotelescope designs. Offset optics provide flexibility for mounting detectors, while eliminating blockage and internal reflections. Aberrations and cross-polarization can be the same as on-axis designs having the same diameter and focal length. Trade-offs include the complication of primary mirror homology and an increase in overall cost. A dramatic increase in usable field of view can be achieved using shaped optics. Solutions having one to six mirrors will be discussed, including possible six-mirror design for the proposed South Pole 10 m telescope.

  6. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  7. A Workshop on Methods for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design. Introduction and Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, Rex P.

    1996-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop on ''Methods for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design'' September 23-25 at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These proceedings are a collection of a portion of the invited and contributed presentations

  8. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  9. Design of software platform based on linux operating system for γ-spectrometry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Zhou Chen; Zhang Yongjin

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of γ-spectrometry instrument software platform based on s3c2410a processor with arm920t core, emphases are focused on analyzing the integrated application of embedded linux operating system, yaffs file system and qt/embedded GUI development library. It presented a new software platform in portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  10. An integrated 3D design, modeling and analysis resource for SSC detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiacomo, N.J.; Adams, T.; Anderson, M.K.; Davis, M.; Easom, B.; Gliozzi, J.; Hale, W.M.; Hupp, J.; Killian, K.; Krohn, M.; Leitch, R.; Lajczok, M.; Mason, L.; Mitchell, J.; Pohlen, J.; Wright, T.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated computer aided engineering and design (CAE/CAD) is having a significant impact on the way design, modeling and analysis is performed, from system concept exploration and definition through final design and integration. Experience with integrated CAE/CAD in high technology projects of scale and scope similar to SSC detectors leads them to propose an integrated computer-based design, modeling and analysis resource aimed specifically at SSC detector system development. The resource architecture emphasizes value-added contact with data and efficient design, modeling and analysis of components, sub-systems or systems with fidelity appropriate to the task. They begin with a general examination of the design, modeling and analysis cycle in high technology projects, emphasizing the transition from the classical islands of automation to the integrated CAE/CAD-based approach. They follow this with a discussion of lessons learned from various attempts to design and implement integrated CAE/CAD systems in scientific and engineering organizations. They then consider the requirements for design, modeling and analysis during SSC detector development, and describe an appropriate resource architecture. They close with a report on the status of the resource and present some results that are indicative of its performance. 10 refs., 7 figs

  11. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüyük, Tayfun; Di Nitto, Antonio; Jaworski, Grzegorz; Gadea, Andrés; Javier Valiente-Dobón, José; Nyberg, Johan; Palacz, Marcin; Söderström, Pär-Anders; Jose Aliaga-Varea, Ramon; de Angelis, Giacomo; Ataç, Ayşe; Collado, Javier; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar; Egea, Francisco Javier; Erduran, Nizamettin; Ertürk, Sefa; de France, Gilles; Gadea, Rafael; González, Vicente; Herrero-Bosch, Vicente; Kaşkaş, Ayşe; Modamio, Victor; Moszynski, Marek; Sanchis, Enrique; Triossi, Andrea; Wadsworth, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ-ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the 58Ni + 56Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array.

  12. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueyuek, Tayfun; Gadea, Andres; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Di Nitto, Antonio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Jaworski, Grzegorz; Javier Valiente-Dobon, Jose; De Angelis, Giacomo; Modamio, Victor; Triossi, Andrea [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Nyberg, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden); Palacz, Marcin [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Soederstroem, Paer-Anders [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Aliaga-Varea, Ramon Jose [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Atac, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Collado, Javier; Egea, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez, Vicente; Sanchis, Enrique [University of Valencia, Department of Electronic Engineering, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Erduran, Nizamettin [Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul (Turkey); Ertuerk, Sefa [University of Nigde, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Nigde (Turkey); France, Gilles de [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, CEA/DSAM, Caen (France); Gadea, Rafael; Herrero-Bosch, Vicente [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Kaskas, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Moszynski, Marek [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wadsworth, Robert [University of York, Department of Physics, York (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ -ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the {sup 58}Ni + {sup 56}Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array. (orig.)

  13. Design and implementation of a radiation hardened silicon on sapphire (SOS) embedded signal conditioning unit controller (SCUC) for the RAPID instrument on the Cluster satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersland, L.

    1992-07-01

    The Cluster mission consistens of four spacecrafts equipped with instruments capable of making comprehensive measurements of plasma particles and electromagnetic fields. The RAPID (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors) spectrometer is one of many instruments on board the Cluster satellites. It is designed for fast analysis of energetic electrons and ions with a complete coverage of the unit sphere in phase space. This thesis describes the development and testing of an embedded controller for the Spectroscopic Camera for Electrons, Neutral and Ion Compositions (SCENIC), which is a part of the RAPID instrument. The design is implemented in two different CMOS circuit technologies, namely Actel's Field Programmable Gate Arrays and GEC Plessey's CMOS Silicon On Sapphire (SOS) gate array. The prototypes of the SOS gate array have been verified and characterized. This includes measurements of DC and AC parameters under different conditions, including total dose of gamma irradiation. 42 refs., 92 figs., 44 tabs

  14. Design, development and performance study of six-gap glass MRPC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, M.M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Mondal, N.K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R.R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)

    2016-12-15

    The multigap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs) are gas ionization detectors with multiple gas sub-gaps made of resistive electrodes. The high voltage (HV) is applied on the outer surfaces of outermost resistive plates only, while the interior plates are left electrically floating. The presence of multiple narrow sub-gaps with high electric field results in faster signals on the outer electrodes, thus improving the detector's time resolution. Due to their excellent performance and relatively low cost, the MRPC detector has found potential application in time-of-flight (TOF) systems. Here we present the design, fabrication, optimization of the operating parameters such as the HV, the gas mixture composition, and, performance of six-gap glass MRPC detectors of area 27 cm x 27 cm, which are developed in order to find application as trigger detectors, in TOF measurement etc. The design has been optimized with unique spacers and blockers to ensure a proper gas flow through the narrow sub-gaps, which are 250 μm wide. The gas mixture consisting of R134A, Isobutane and SF{sub 6}, and the fraction of each constituting gases has been optimized after studying the MRPC performance for a set of different concentrations. The counting efficiency of the MRPC is about 95% at 17.9 kV. At the same operating voltage, the time resolution, after correcting for the walk effect, is found to be about 219 ps. (orig.)

  15. Detector design issues for compact nuclear emission cameras dedicated to breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Craig S.

    2003-01-01

    Certain gamma ray and positron emitting radiotracers have shown great promise for use in the detection, diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. Unfortunately, standard nuclear emission cameras (SPECT, PET) found in the clinic are not practical for breast imaging of these emissions due to inadequate spatial and energy resolutions and sensitivity, large and awkward size, and relatively high cost per study. High spatial and energy resolutions and sensitivity are needed for good lesion detectability. Due to these limitations of standard cameras, there has been recent research into the development of small, compact nuclear emission imagers dedicated for close-proximity breast imaging. The small detector head size means a variety of exotic detectors or collimators may be implemented to improve spatial and energy resolution and sensitivity performances at a reasonable cost. In this paper, we will present some of the compact gamma ray and annihilation photon imaging detector designs that have been proposed and/or developed for dedicated breast imaging. We will review the physics and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various detector configurations. Finally we will estimate the fundamental spatial resolution potential available with close-proximity nuclear emission imaging and discuss how one may approach those limits through proper detector design

  16. Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package

  17. B-factory detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B 0 →J/ΨK S decays and related modes

  18. Low-cost cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors based on electron-transport-only designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Lund, J.C.; Van Scyoc, J.M.; Hilton, N.R.; Lee, E.Y.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to utilize a novel device design to build a compact, high resolution, room temperature operated semiconductor gamma ray sensor. This sensor was constructed from a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystal. It was able to both detect total radiation intensity and perform spectroscopy on the detected radiation. CZT detectors produced today have excellent electron charge carrier collection, but suffer from poor hole collection. For conventional gamma-ray spectrometers, both the electrons and holes must be collected with high efficiency to preserve energy resolution. The requirement to collect the hole carriers, which have relatively low lifetimes, limits the efficiency and performance of existing experimental devices. By implementing novel device designs such that the devices rely only on the electron signal for energy information, the sensitivity of the sensors for detecting radiation can be increased substantially. In this report the authors describe a project to develop a new type of electron-only CZT detector. They report on their successful efforts to design, implement and test these new radiation detectors. In addition to the design and construction of the sensors the authors also report, in considerable detail, on the electrical characteristics of the CZT crystals used to make their detectors

  19. Overview of the data acquisition electronics system design for the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    The SLD Detector will contain five major electronics subsystems: Vertex, Drift, Liquid Argon Calorimeter, Cerenkov Ring Imaging, and Warm Iron Calorimeter. To implement the approximately 170,000 channels of electronics, extensive miniaturization and heavy use of multiplexing techniques are required. Design criteria for each subsystem, overall system architecture, and the R and D program are described

  20. Design, development and calibration of a radioactive gas (85Kr) detector for continuous environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.; John, Jacob; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B.; Gopalan, C.S.; Menezes, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    Design, development and calibration of a scintillation type detector for environmental monitoring of low levels of 85 Kr activity in off-line effluents or plant areas in presence of gamma background are reported. Calibration of the system was done using NBS 85 Kr standard. (author)

  1. Design, development and calibration of a radioactive gas (/sup 85/Kr) detector for continuous environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.; John, J.; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.); Gopalan, C.S.; Menezes, C.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Electronics Div.)

    Design, development and calibration of a scintillation type detector for environmental monitoring of low levels of /sup 85/Kr activity in off-line effluents or plant areas in presence of gamma background are reported. Calibration of the system was done using NBS /sup 85/Kr standard.

  2. The effect of the rotational orientation of circular photomultipliers in a PET camera block detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, J.; Wong, Wai-Hoi; Hu, Guoju

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of the effects of geometric asymmetries in circular photomultipliers (PMT) on the design of PET position-sensitive block detectors. The dynodes of linear-focus circular PMT's are asymmetric relative to the axis of the photocathode, despite the rotational symmetry of the photocathode. Hence, there are regional photocathode differences in the anode signal, which affect the decoding characteristics of position sensitive block detectors. This orientation effect, as well as the effect of introducing light diffusers, are studied in a block detector design (BGO) using the PMT-quadrant-sharing configuration. The PMT studied is the Philips XP-1911 (19mm diameter). Seven symmetrical and representative orientations of the four decoding PMT were investigated, as well as one asymmetric orientation. The measurements performed include block-composite pulse-height spectra and crystal decoding maps. Two orientation effects were observed: (A) distortion variation in decoding maps, and (B) decoding resolution variation. The introduction of circular plastic pieces, used as light diffusers, prove to be useful by improving the decoding of crystals on the periphery of the detector block and minimizing distortion in the decoding map. These measurements have shown optimal PMT orientations for the PMT-quadrant-sharing design, as well as for conventional block designs

  3. Object-oriented analysis and design of a GEANT based detector simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, K.; Kanzaki, J.; Sasaki, T.; Takaiwa, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.; Yamagata, T.

    1994-01-01

    The authors give a status report of the project to design a detector simulation program by reengineering GEANT with the object-oriented methodology. They followed the Object Modeling Technique. They explain the object model they constructed. Also problems of the technique found during their study are discussed

  4. Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Gabby; Venema, Lars; Navarro, Ramón

    2017-11-01

    NOVA is involved in the development and realization of various optical astronomical instruments for groundbased as well as space telescopes, with a focus on nearand mid-infrared instrumentation. NOVA has developed a suite of scientific instruments with cryogenic optics for the ESO VLT and VLTI instruments: VISIR, MIDI, the SPIFFI 2Kcamera for SINFONI, X-shooter and MATISSE. Other projects include the cryogenic optics for MIRI for the James Webb Space Telescope and several E-ELT instruments. Mounting optics is always a compromise between firmly fixing the optics and preventing stresses within the optics. The fixing should ensure mechanical stability and thus accurate positioning in various gravity orientations, temperature ranges, during launch, transport or earthquake. On the other hand, the fixings can induce deformations and sometimes birefringence in the optics and thus cause optical errors. Even cracking or breaking of the optics is a risk, especially when using brittle infrared optical materials at the cryogenic temperatures required in instruments for infrared astronomy, where differential expansion of various materials amounts easily to several millimeters per meter. Special kinematic mounts are therefore needed to ensure both accurate positioning and low stress. This paper concentrates on the opto-mechanical design of optics mountings, especially for large transmission optics in cryogenic circumstances in space instruments. It describes the development of temperature-invariant ("a-thermal") kinematic designs, their implementation in ground based instrumentation and ways to make them suitable for space instruments.

  5. Instrumental Genesis in GeoGebra Based Board Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I address the use of digital tools (GeoGebra) in open ended design activities, with primary school children. I present results from the research and development project “Creative Digital Mathematics”, which aims to use the pupil’s development of mathematical board games as a vehicle...... in their work with GeoGebra and how they relate their work with GeoGebra and mathematics to fellow pupils and real life situations. The results show that pupils’ consider development of board games as meaningful mathematical activity, and that they develop skills with GeoGebra, furthermore the pupils considers...... potential use of their board game by classmates in their design activities....

  6. Design report for an indirectly cooled 3-m diameter superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.

    1982-01-01

    The Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF) is a large detector system designed to study anti pp collisions at very high center of mass energies. The central detector for the CDF shown employs a large axial magnetic field volume instrumented with a central tracking chamber composed of multiple layers of cylindrical drift chambers and a pair of intermediate tracking chambers. The purpose of this system is to determine the trajectories, sign of electric charge, and momenta of charged particles produced with polar angles between 10 and 170 degrees. The magnetic field volume required for tracking is approximately 3.5 m long an 3 m in diameter. To provide the desired δp/sub T/p/sub T/ less than or equal to 1.5% at 50 GeV/c using drift chambers with approx. 200μ resolution the field inside this volume should be 1.5 T. The field should be as uniform as is practical to simplify both track finding and the reconstruction of particle trajectories with the drift chambers. Such a field can be produced by a cylindrical current sheet solenoid with a uniform current density of 1.2 x 10 6 A/m (1200 A/mm) surrounded by an iron return yoke. For practical coils and return yokes, both central electromagnetic and central hadronic calorimetry must be located outside the coil of the magnet. This geometry requires that the coil and the cryostat be thin both in physical thickness and in radiation and absorption lengths. This dual requirement of high linear current density and minimal coil thickness can only be satisfied using superconducting technology. In this report we describe the design for an indirectly cooled superconducting solenoid to meet the requirements of the Fermilab CDF. The components of the magnet system are discussed in the following chapters, with a summary of parameters listed in Appendix A

  7. The mechanical design and dynamic testing of the IBEX-H1 electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, Allen G [SNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical design, fabrication and dynamic testing of an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument. The functional and environmental requirements combined with limited spacecraft accommodations, resulted in complex component geometries, unique material selections, and difficult fabrication processes. The challenging aspects of the mechanical design and several of the more difficult production processes are discussed. In addition, the successes, failures, and lessons learned from acoustic and random vibration testing of a full-scale prototype instrument are presented.

  8. [Design and implementation of medical instrument standard information retrieval system based on APS.NET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaijun

    2010-07-01

    This paper Analys the design goals of Medical Instrumentation standard information retrieval system. Based on the B /S structure,we established a medical instrumentation standard retrieval system with ASP.NET C # programming language, IIS f Web server, SQL Server 2000 database, in the. NET environment. The paper also Introduces the system structure, retrieval system modules, system development environment and detailed design of the system.

  9. Design and testing of the AGS Booster BPM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Van Zwienen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster beam position monitor system must accurately measure the position of beams and bunches over a wide range of intensity. The frequency of operation must also cover a wide range (600 kHz to 4.2 MHz) since the Booster accelerates both protons and heavy ions. Split-cylinder electrodes were chosen to monitor the position of the beam because of their good low frequency response and high linearity. The need to accelerate low-energy partially-stripped heavy ions requires the pick-up electrodes (PUEs) to operate in a 3 x 10 -11 torr vacuum. The PUEs are to measure the beam position to an absolute accuracy of ±0.5 mm and must therefore be mechanically stable despite the requirements that they be vacuum fired at 950 degree C and baked periodically to 300 degree C. This presentation describes both the mechanical design of the PUEs and the automated test procedure used to ensure the stability, accuracy, and linearity of each unit. 3 refs., 5 figs

  10. New design of a quasi-monolithic detector module with DOI capability for small animal pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha; Choi, Yong

    2008-01-01

    We report a new design of a detector module with depth of interaction (DOI) based on a quasi-monolithic LSO crystal, a multi-channel sensor, and maximum-likelihood position-estimation (MLPE) algorithm. Light transport and detection were modeled in a quasi-monolithic crystal using DETECT2000 code, with lookup tables (LUTs) built by simulation. Events were well separated by applying the MLPE method within 2.0 mm spatial resolution in both trans-axial and DOI directions. These results demonstrate that the proposed detector provides dependable positioning capability for small animal positron emission tomography (PET)

  11. LHCb Scintillating Fiber detector front end electronics design and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, W. E. W.; Pellegrino, A.; Ietswaard, G. C. M.; Verkooijen, J. C.; Carneiro, U.; Massefferi, A.

    2017-03-01

    The on-detector electronics of the LHCb Scintillating Fiber Detector consists of multiple PCBs assembled in a unit called Read Out Box, capable of reading out 2048 channels with an output rate of 70 Gbps. There are three types of boards: PACIFIC, Clusterization and Master Board. The Pacific Boards host PACIFIC ASICs, with pre-amplifier and comparator stages producing two bits of data per channel. A cluster-finding algorithm is then run in an FPGA on the Clusterization Board. The Master Board distributes fast and slow control, and power. We describe the design, production and test of prototype PCBs.

  12. Design and performance of a lead fluoride detector as a luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Benito, R.; Khaneft, D.; O'Connor, C.; Capozza, L.; Diefenbach, J.; Gläser, B.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.E.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.

    2016-01-01

    Precise luminosity measurements for the OLYMPUS two-photon exchange experiment at DESY were performed by counting scattering events with alternating beams of electrons and positrons incident on atomic electrons in a gaseous hydrogen target. Final products of Møller, Bhabha, and pair annihilation interactions were observed using a pair of lead fluoride Cherenkov calorimeters with custom housings and electronics, adapted from a system used by the A4 parity violation experiment at MAMI. This paper describes the design, calibration, and operation of these detectors. An explanation of the Monte Carlo methods used to simulate the physical processes involved both at the scattering vertices and in the detector apparatus is also included.

  13. Design and performance of a lead fluoride detector as a luminosity monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Benito, R.; Khaneft, D. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany); O' Connor, C., E-mail: colton@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Capozza, L. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany); Diefenbach, J. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Gläser, B.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.E.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    Precise luminosity measurements for the OLYMPUS two-photon exchange experiment at DESY were performed by counting scattering events with alternating beams of electrons and positrons incident on atomic electrons in a gaseous hydrogen target. Final products of Møller, Bhabha, and pair annihilation interactions were observed using a pair of lead fluoride Cherenkov calorimeters with custom housings and electronics, adapted from a system used by the A4 parity violation experiment at MAMI. This paper describes the design, calibration, and operation of these detectors. An explanation of the Monte Carlo methods used to simulate the physical processes involved both at the scattering vertices and in the detector apparatus is also included.

  14. Design and construction of a uniform magnetic field generator for a 32 channel cosmic ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Guzman, K. N.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, R. A.; Felix, J.; Arceo, L. J.; Araujo, C.

    2017-10-01

    The trajectory of a particle can be measured if some points of its track are known. This is applied to any kind of particle, including cosmic rays. We have designed and built a device for this purpose. We present the design, construction and characterization of a uniform magnetic field generator system in a finite volume. An array of Cerenkov detectors will be placed inside of it for determining the cosmic rays charge and to reconstruct their trajectories.

  15. Functional Requirements on the Design of the Detectors and the Interaction Region of an e+e- Linear Collider with a Push-Pull Arrangement of Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Interaction Region of the International Linear Collider is based on two experimental detectors working in a push-pull mode. A time efficient implementation of this model sets specific requirements and challenges for many detector and machine systems, in particular the IR magnets, the cryogenics and the alignment system, the beamline shielding, the detector design and the overall integration. This paper attempts to separate the functional requirements of a push pull interaction region and machine detector interface from any particular conceptual or technical solution that might have been proposed to date by either the ILC Beam Delivery Group or any of the three detector concepts. As such, we hope that it provides a set of ground rules for interpreting and evaluating the MDI parts of the proposed detector concept's Letters of Intent, due March 2009. The authors of the present paper are the leaders of the IR Integration Working Group within Global Design Effort Beam Delivery System and the representatives from each detector concept submitting the Letters Of Intent.

  16. A design of energy detector for ArF excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zebin; Han, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Yi; Bai, Lujun

    2017-08-01

    ArF excimer lasers with short wavelength and high photon energy are widely applied in the field of integrated circuit lithography, material processing, laser medicine, and so on. Excimer laser single pulse energy is a very important parameter in the application. In order to detect the single pulse energy on-line, one energy detector based on photodiode was designed. The signal processing circuit connected to the photodiode was designed so that the signal obtained by the photodiode was amplified and the pulse width was broadened. The amplified signal was acquired by a data acquisition card and stored in the computer for subsequent data processing. The peak of the pulse signal is used to characterize the single pulse energy of ArF excimer laser. In every condition of deferent pulse energy value levels, a series of data about laser pulses energy were acquired synchronously using the Ophir energy meter and the energy detector. A data set about the relationship between laser pulse energy and the peak of the pulse signal was acquired. Then, by using the data acquired, a model characterizing the functional relationship between the energy value and the peak value of the pulse was trained based on an algorithm of machine learning, Support Vector Regression (SVR). By using the model, the energy value can be obtained directly from the energy detector designed in this project. The result shows that the relative error between the energy obtained by the energy detector and by the Ophir energy meter is less than 2%.

  17. Three-dimensional cross point readout detector design for including depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha

    2018-04-01

    We designed a depth-encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a cross point readout method with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers. To evaluate the characteristics of the novel detector module and the PET system, we used the DETECT2000 to perform optical photon transport in the crystal array. The GATE was also used. The detector module is made up of four layers of scintillator arrays, the five layers of WLS fiber arrays, and two sensor arrays. The WLS fiber arrays in each layer cross each other to transport light to each sensor array. The two sensor arrays are coupled to the forward and left sides of the WLS fiber array, respectively. The identification of three-dimensional pixels was determined using a digital positioning algorithm. All pixels were well decoded, with the system resolution ranging from 2.11 mm to 2.29 mm at full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  18. Design of angular position detector for rotary stepping motor of CEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seok Ha; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Ji Ho; Huh, Hyung; Yu, Je Yong

    2000-11-01

    The position of control rod must be detected continuously to control CEDM control rod used in SMART. The up-and-down movement of control rod can be detected approximately by using a position indicator, but an additionary sensor should be required because the accuracy of it is low. And because the rotary stepping motor for SMART CEDM is to work at harsh conditions of high temperature, pressure and radiation, it is difficult to select an adequate sensor from commercially available products. Therefore, a sensor to monitor the position of control rod by detecting the position of rotary angle for stepping motor should studied. This paper analyzes and compares the techniques of Synchro, Resolver, and Magnesyn being used as a rotary angle detector for stepping motor. The rotary angle detector by using our unique concept is designed on the basis of upper work. The prototype of rotary angle detector is produced and the results of test and valuation is presented

  19. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  20. Design and implementation of an XML based object-oriented detector description database for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liendl, M.

    2003-04-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a detector description database (DDD) for the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) located at the European organization for nuclear research (CERN). DDD is a fundamental part of the CMS offline software with its main applications, simulation and reconstruction. Both are in need of different models of the detector in order to efficiently solve their specific tasks. In the thesis the requirements to a detector description database are analyzed and the chosen solution is described in detail. It comprises the following components: an XML based detector description language, a runtime system that implements an object-oriented transient representation of the detector, and an application programming interface to be used by client applications. One of the main aspects of the development is the design of the DDD components. The starting point is a domain model capturing concisely the characteristics of the problem domain. The domain model is transformed into several implementation models according to the guidelines of the model driven architecture (MDA). Implementation models and appropriate refinements thereof are foundation for adequate implementations. Using the MDA approach, a fully functional prototype was realized in C++ and XML. The prototype was successfully tested through seamless integration into both the simulation and the reconstruction framework of CMS. (author)

  1. Design and Construction of Detector and Data Acquisition Elements for Proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermi Research Alliance; Northern Illinois University

    2015-01-01

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) offers an alternative to x-ray imaging with potential for three-dimensional imaging, reduced radiation exposure, and in-situ imaging. Northern Illinois University (NIU) is developing a second-generation proton computed tomography system with a goal of demonstrating the feasibility of three-dimensional imaging within clinically realistic imaging times. The second-generation pCT system is comprised of a tracking system, a calorimeter, data acquisition, a computing farm, and software algorithms. The proton beam encounters the upstream tracking detectors, the patient or phantom, the downstream tracking detectors, and a calorimeter. The schematic layout of the PCT system is shown. The data acquisition sends the proton scattering information to an offline computing farm. Major innovations of the second generation pCT project involve an increased data acquisition rate ( MHz range) and development of three-dimensional imaging algorithms. The Fermilab Particle Physics Division and Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development at Northern Illinois University worked together to design and construct the tracking detectors, calorimeter, readout electronics and detector mounting system.

  2. tkLayout: a design tool for innovative silicon tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G.

    2014-03-01

    A new CMS tracker is scheduled to become operational for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade in the early 2020's. tkLayout is a software package developed to create 3d models for the design of the CMS tracker and to evaluate its fundamental performance figures. The new tracker will have to cope with much higher luminosity conditions, resulting in increased track density, harsher radiation exposure and, especially, much higher data acquisition bandwidth, such that equipping the tracker with triggering capabilities is envisaged. The design of an innovative detector involves deciding on an architecture offering the best trade-off among many figures of merit, such as tracking resolution, power dissipation, bandwidth, cost and so on. Quantitatively evaluating these figures of merit as early as possible in the design phase is of capital importance and it is best done with the aid of software models. tkLayout is a flexible modeling tool: new performance estimates and support for different detector geometries can be quickly added, thanks to its modular structure. Besides, the software executes very quickly (about two minutes), so that many possible architectural variations can be rapidly modeled and compared, to help in the choice of a viable detector layout and then to optimize it. A tracker geometry is generated from simple configuration files, defining the module types, layout and materials. Support structures are automatically added and services routed to provide a realistic tracker description. The tracker geometries thus generated can be exported to the standard CMS simulation framework (CMSSW) for full Monte Carlo studies. tkLayout has proven essential in giving guidance to CMS in studying different detector layouts and exploring the feasibility of innovative solutions for tracking detectors, in terms of design, performance and projected costs. This tool has been one of the keys to making important design decisions for over five years now and has also enabled project engineers

  3. Design and Characterization of the VMM1 ASIC for Micropattern Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Fried, J; Li, S; Nambiar, N; Polychronakos, V; Vernon, E

    2013-01-01

    We present here the measurements of the first prototype VMM1 ASIC designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 130 nm CMOS and fabricated in spring 2012. The 64-channel ASIC features a novel design for use with several types of micropattern gas detectors. The data driven system measures peak amplitude and timing information in tracking mode and first channel hit address in trigger mode. Several programmable gain and integration times allows the flexibility to work with Micromegas, Thin Gap Chambers (TGCs), and Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. The IC design architecture and features will be presented along with measurements characterizing the performance of the VMM1 such as noise, linearity of the response, time walk, and calibration range. The concept for use with Micromegas in ATLAS Upgrade will also be covered including characterization under test beam conditions.

  4. Design and expected performance of a novel hybrid detector for very-high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Blanco, A.; Conceição, R.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; De Angelis, A.; Doro, M.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Matthiae, G.; Pimenta, M.; Shellard, R.; Tomé, B.

    2018-05-01

    Current detectors for Very-High-Energy γ-ray astrophysics are either pointing instruments with a small field of view (Cherenkov telescopes), or large field-of-view instruments with relatively large energy thresholds (extensive air shower detectors). In this article, we propose a new hybrid extensive air shower detector sensitive in an energy region starting from about 100 GeV. The detector combines a small water-Cherenkov detector, able to provide a calorimetric measurement of shower particles at ground, with resistive plate chambers which contribute significantly to the accurate shower geometry reconstruction. A full simulation of this detector concept shows that it is able to reach better sensitivity than any previous gamma-ray wide field-of-view experiment in the sub-TeV energy region. It is expected to detect with a 5σ significance a source fainter than the Crab Nebula in one year at 100 GeV and, above 1 TeV a source as faint as 10% of it. As such, this instrument is suited to detect transient phenomena making it a very powerful tool to trigger observations of variable sources and to detect transients coupled to gravitational waves and gamma-ray bursts.

  5. Conceptual Design of Simulated Radiation Detector for Nuclear Forensics Exercise Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Baek, Ye Ji; Lee, Seung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A site associated with an illicit trafficking or security event may contain trace evidence of criminal or malicious acts involving radioactive material. Such a site is called a radiological crime scene. Management of a radiological crime scene requires a process of ensuring an orderly accurate and effective collection and preservation of evidence. In order to effectively address such a security event, first responders and/or on-scene investigators need to exercise detecting, locating and recovering materials at the scene of the incident. During such the exercise, a sealed source can be used. This source is allowed to be a very small amount for exercises as there is the limit on the amount of radioactive material that causes no harm. So it is typically difficult to be found by some radiation detectors that the exercises have little effect on improving the ability of trainees. Therefore, we developed a conceptual design of a simulation radiation detector coupled with simulation sources which are designed to imitate a significant amount radioactive material for the purpose of a nuclear forensics exercise. With the potential of a terrorist attack using radioactive materials, the first responders should regularly perform the nuclear forensics exercise in order to prepare for a recovery operation. In this regard, some devices such as simulated detector, coupled with a virtual source, can replace a real detector and a surrogate source of material in field exercises. BLE technology could be applied to create similar environments to that of an actual radiological attack. The detector coupled with the simulated sources could be very helpful for first responders in testing and improving their ability in the case of a nuclear security event. In addition, this conceptual design could be extended to develop a simulated dosimeter coupled with a beacon signal emitters. The dosimeter is a personal device used for indicating the cumulated exposure of radiation in real time in the

  6. Conceptual Design of Simulated Radiation Detector for Nuclear Forensics Exercise Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Baek, Ye Ji; Lee, Seung Min

    2016-01-01

    A site associated with an illicit trafficking or security event may contain trace evidence of criminal or malicious acts involving radioactive material. Such a site is called a radiological crime scene. Management of a radiological crime scene requires a process of ensuring an orderly accurate and effective collection and preservation of evidence. In order to effectively address such a security event, first responders and/or on-scene investigators need to exercise detecting, locating and recovering materials at the scene of the incident. During such the exercise, a sealed source can be used. This source is allowed to be a very small amount for exercises as there is the limit on the amount of radioactive material that causes no harm. So it is typically difficult to be found by some radiation detectors that the exercises have little effect on improving the ability of trainees. Therefore, we developed a conceptual design of a simulation radiation detector coupled with simulation sources which are designed to imitate a significant amount radioactive material for the purpose of a nuclear forensics exercise. With the potential of a terrorist attack using radioactive materials, the first responders should regularly perform the nuclear forensics exercise in order to prepare for a recovery operation. In this regard, some devices such as simulated detector, coupled with a virtual source, can replace a real detector and a surrogate source of material in field exercises. BLE technology could be applied to create similar environments to that of an actual radiological attack. The detector coupled with the simulated sources could be very helpful for first responders in testing and improving their ability in the case of a nuclear security event. In addition, this conceptual design could be extended to develop a simulated dosimeter coupled with a beacon signal emitters. The dosimeter is a personal device used for indicating the cumulated exposure of radiation in real time in the

  7. Design and construction of a small animal PET/CT scanner combining scintillation Phoswich modules and hybrid pixels detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, St.

    2010-07-01

    The pathway that has been followed by the imXgam team at CPPM was to combine on a single rotating device the detector modules of the small animal PET scanner ClearPET with a photon counting X-ray detector in order to perform simultaneous acquisition of images from the anatomy (X-ray CT) and from the metabolic function (PET) of the common field-of-view. A preliminary study of the hybrid imaging system ClearPET/XPAD3 carried out using Gate led us to form a new PET detection assembly based on 21 Phoswich modules, to fix the design of the PET/CT device, as well as to study and solve the difficulties arising from simultaneous hybrid imaging. Last but not least, the simulation tool also allowed us for thinking how well such a system could judiciously use the spatial and temporal correlations between anatomic and functional information. From an instrumentation point of view, we succeeded to set up the ClearPET/XPAD3 prototype. Once both imaging systems were operational individually, we demonstrated on one side that the ClearPET prototype was perfectly capable of performing correctly in simultaneous acquisition conditions, providing that the detector modules were appropriately shielded. On the other side, the new generation of the hybrid pixel camera using the XPAD3-S chip proved to be quite promising given the good quality of the first reconstructed images. Finally, the proof of concept of simultaneous PET/CT data acquisition was made using a sealed positron source and an X-ray tube. (author)

  8. Design of a novel instrument for active neutron interrogation of artillery shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Champagne, Camille; Vainionpää, Hannes; Peura, Pauli; Toivonen, Harri; Eerola, Paula; Dendooven, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The most common explosives can be uniquely identified by measuring the elemental H/N ratio with a precision better than 10%. Monte Carlo simulations were used to design two variants of a new prompt gamma neutron activation instrument that can achieve this precision. The instrument features an intense pulsed neutron generator with precise timing. Measuring the hydrogen peak from the target explosive is especially challenging because the instrument itself contains hydrogen, which is needed for neutron moderation and shielding. By iterative design optimization, the fraction of the hydrogen peak counts coming from the explosive under interrogation increased from [Formula: see text]% to [Formula: see text]% (statistical only) for the benchmark design. In the optimized design variants, the hydrogen signal from a high-explosive shell can be measured to a statistics-only precision better than 1% in less than 30 minutes for an average neutron production yield of 109 n/s.

  9. Design of a novel instrument for active neutron interrogation of artillery shells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Bélanger-Champagne

    Full Text Available The most common explosives can be uniquely identified by measuring the elemental H/N ratio with a precision better than 10%. Monte Carlo simulations were used to design two variants of a new prompt gamma neutron activation instrument that can achieve this precision. The instrument features an intense pulsed neutron generator with precise timing. Measuring the hydrogen peak from the target explosive is especially challenging because the instrument itself contains hydrogen, which is needed for neutron moderation and shielding. By iterative design optimization, the fraction of the hydrogen peak counts coming from the explosive under interrogation increased from [Formula: see text]% to [Formula: see text]% (statistical only for the benchmark design. In the optimized design variants, the hydrogen signal from a high-explosive shell can be measured to a statistics-only precision better than 1% in less than 30 minutes for an average neutron production yield of 109 n/s.

  10. Design of embedded hardware platform in intelligent γ-spectrometry instrument based on ARM9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Fang Fang

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of embedded hardware platform based on ARM9 S3C2410A, emphases are focused on analyzing the methods of design the circuits of memory, LCD and keyboard ports. It presented a new solution of hardware platform in intelligent portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  11. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of three different rotary nickel-titanium instruments designed for retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Ugur; Aydin, Cumhur

    2012-01-01

    A number of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems have been developed to provide better, faster, and easier cleaning and shaping of the root canal system, and recently, rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment have been introduced. Because the main problem with the rotary NiTi files is fracture, the aim of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment. Total of 60 instruments of 3 different rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment were used in this study. Twenty R-Endo R3, 20 ProTaper D3, and 20 Mtwo R (Retreatment) 25.05 instruments were tested. Cyclic fatigue testing of instruments was performed by using a device that allowed the instruments to rotate freely inside an artificial canal. Each instrument was rotated until fracture occurred, and the number of cycles to fracture for each instrument was calculated. Representative samples were also evaluated under a scanning electron microscope to confirm the fracture was flexural. Data were analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance test. R-Endo R3 instruments showed better cyclic fatigue resistance than ProTaper D3 and Mtwo R 25.05 instruments, and the difference was statistically significant (P instruments were more resistant to fatigue failure than ProTaper D3 and Mtwo R 25.05. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and study of a coplanar grid array CdZnTe detector for improved spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yuedong; Xiao, Shali; Yang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Liuqiang

    2014-01-01

    Coplanar grid (CPG) CdZnTe detectors have been used as gamma-ray spectrometers for years. Comparing with pixelated CdZnTe detectors, CPG CdZnTe detectors have either no or poor spatial resolution, which directly limits its use in imaging applications. To address the issue, a 2×2 CPG array CdZnTe detector with dimensions of 7×7×5 mm 3 was fabricated. Each of the CPG pairs in the detector was moderately shrunk in size and precisely designed to improve the spatial resolution while maintaining good energy resolution, considering the charge loss at the surface between the strips of each CPG pairs. Preliminary measurements were demonstrated at an energy resolution of 2.7–3.9% for the four CPG pairs using 662 keV gamma rays and with a spatial resolution of 3.3 mm, which is the best spatial resolution ever achieved for CPG CdZnTe detectors. The results reveal that the CPG CdZnTe detector can also be applied to imaging applications at a substantially higher spatial resolution. - Highlights: • A novel structure of coplanar grid CdZnTe detector was designed to evaluate the possibility of applying the detector to gamma-ray imaging applications. • The best spatial resolution of coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors ever reported has been achieved, along with good spectroscopic performance. • Depth correction of the energy spectra using a new algorithm is presented

  13. An engineering design study of the support platform assembly for the SSC SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, H.J.; Western, J.L.; Wands, R.H.

    1993-04-01

    A large angular acceptance high energy physics particle detector is presently being designed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration for the purposes of doing high pt physics at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. The support platform assembly is the structural device which transfers the 30,000 tonne gravitational load of the octagonally shaped muon barrel toroid and the other detector components to the foundation below. The detector components are very sensitive to differential deflection and rely on the barrel toroid and support platform for stability. The operational load path is provided by two pairs of inclined longitudinal plates resting at 67.5 degree on three pairs of plate girders that are positioned in-line in Z. The plate girders are held together laterally with 38 tie bars and supported vertically by the vertical adjustment system. The lateral stability of the inclined plates is provided by 22 stabilizer beams with cross bracing between each beam. The Z location of each split in the plate girder is coincident with the Z location of the gap in the calorimeter (4428 nun from the detector center.) The width of each split is 155 mm to allow installation of the alignment reference system. The collider beam line in the IR-8 underground experimental hall is oriented at a 2.16 mm/m slope from south to north as shown in Figure 2. The support is designed and installed to provide this slope at the top surface of the inclined plates. The assembled support rests on a ten foot thick steel reinforced 8000 psi concrete slab. The slab has a 2 mm differential deflection criteria under nominal gravitational loading

  14. Design and Tests of the Silicon Sensors for the ZEUS Micro Vertex Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Dannheim, D.; Koetz, U.; Coldewey, C.; Fretwurst, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Klanner, R.; Martens, J.; Koffeman, E.; Tiecke, H.; Carlin, R.

    2002-01-01

    To fully exploit the HERA-II upgrade,the ZEUS experiment has installed a Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) using n-type, single-sided, silicon micro-strip sensors with capacitive charge division. The sensors have a readout pitch of 120 micrometers, with five intermediate strips (20 micrometer strip pitch). The designs of the silicon sensors and of the test structures used to verify the technological parameters, are presented. Results on the electrical measurements are discussed. A total of 1123 sen...

  15. Design and properties of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecki, Maciej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; CieŻ, Michal; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Kulawik, Jan; Panas, Andrzej; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wielunski, Marek; Witek, Krzysztof; Yakushev, Alexander; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the design of charged-particle detectors commissioned and developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE) in collaboration with foreign partners, used in international research on transactinide elements and to build personal radiation protection devices in Germany. Properties of these detectors and the results obtained using the devices are also presented. The design of the following epiplanar detector structures is discussed: ♢ 64-element chromatographic arrays for the COMPACT (Cryo On-line Multidetector for Physics And Chemistry of Transactinides) detection system used at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt (GSI) for research on Hassium, Copernicium and Flerovium, as well as elements 119 and 120, ♢ 2-element flow detectors for the COLD (Cryo On-Line Detector) system used for research on Copernicium and Flerovium at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, ♢ detectors for a radon exposimeter and sensors for a neutron dosimeter developed at the Institut für Strahlenschutz, Helmholtz Zentrum München. The design of planar detectors - single-sided and double-sided strip detectors for the Focal Plane Detector Box used at GSI for research on Flerovium and elements 119 and 120 is also discussed.

  16. Detector design studies for a cubic kilometre Deep Sea neutrino telescope - KM3NeT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J; Dornic, D; Cohen, F; Jouvenot, F; Maurin, G; Naumann, C

    2008-01-01

    The KM3NeT consortium is currently preparing the construction of a cubic-kilometre sized neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea as a continuation of the previous efforts by the three Mediterranean projects ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR and as a counterpart to the South-Pole based IceCube detector. The main physics goals of KM3NeT include the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts as well as the search for new physics, such as neutrino signals from neutralino annihilation. A key point during the early phases of this experiment is the determination of the ideal detector layout as well as of important design criteria such as required spatial and temporal resolution of the sensor elements, to optimise the sensitivity in the energy range of interest. For this purpose, several independent Monte-Carlo studies using a range of possible detector configurations are being performed. In this presentation, one of these studies, using the fast and flexible Mathematica-based simulation and reconstruction package NESSY, is described in more detail together with expected results for some exemplary detector configurations.

  17. Research on conceptual design of simplified nuclear safety instrument and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jie

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear safety instrument and control system is directly related to the safety of the reactor. So redundant and diversity design is used to ensure the system's security and reliability. This make the traditional safety system large, more cabinets and wiring complexity. To solve these problem, we can adopt new technology to make the design more simple. The simplify conceptual design can make the system less cabinets, less wiring, but high security, strong reliability. (author)

  18. A basic design of SR4 instrumentation and control system for research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahrudin Yusuf; M Subhan; Ikhsan Shobari; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    An SR4 instrumentation and control systems of research reactor is the equipment of nuclear research reactors as power protection devices and control systems. The equipment is to monitor safety parameters and process parameters in the state of reactor shut down, start-up, and in operation at fixed power. In the engineering of Instrumentation and control systems SR4 research reactor, its basic design consists of technical specifications of the reactor protection system devices, technical specifications of the reactor power control system devices, technical specifications information system devices, and systems process termination cabling as a support system. This basic design is used as the basis for the preparation of detailed design and subsequent engineering development of instrumentation systems and control system integrated. (author)

  19. Higs-instrument: design and demonstration of a high performance gas concentration imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaan, A. L.; Klop, W. A.; Visser, H.; van Brug, H.; Human, J.

    2017-09-01

    Climate change and environmental conditions are high on the political agenda of international governments. Laws and regulations are being setup all around the world to improve the air quality and to reduce the impact. The growth of a number of trace gasses, including CO2, Methane and NOx are especially interesting due to their environmental impact. The regulations made are being based on both models and measurements of the trend of those trace gases over the years. Now the regulations are in place also enforcement and therewith measurements become more and more important. Instruments enabling high spectral and spatial resolution as well as high accurate measurements of trace gases are required to deliver the necessary inputs. Nowadays those measurements are usually performed by space based spectrometers. The requirement for high spectral resolution and measurement accuracy significantly increases the size of the instruments. As a result the instrument and satellite becomes very expensive to develop and to launch. Specialized instruments with a small volume and the required performance will offer significant advantages in both cost and performance. Huib's Innovative Gas Sensor (HIGS, named after its inventor Huib Visser), currently being developed at TNO is an instrument that achieves exactly that. Designed to measure only a single gas concentration, opposed to deriving it from a spectrum, it achieves high performance within a small design volume. The instrument enables instantaneous imaging of the gas distribution of the selected gas. An instrument demonstrator has been developed for NO2 detection. Laboratory measurements proved the measurement technique to be successful. An on-sky measurement campaign is in preparation. This paper addresses both the instrument design as well as the demonstrated performances.

  20. Students, teachers and technicians are installing a cosmic ray detector in the CMS visitor gallery. The detector was designed and built in the framework of the US Quarknet project under the supervision of physicists from the Notre Dame University (USA)

    CERN Document Server

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    Students, teachers and technicians are installing a cosmic ray detector in the CMS visitor gallery. The detector was designed and built in the framework of the US Quarknet project under the supervision of physicists from the Notre Dame University (USA)

  1. The Instrumented Flux Return Detector of the SuperB Experiment: R&D Studies and First Results of the Fermilab Beam Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Evangelisti, F.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Manzali, M.; Melchiorri, M.; Munerato, M.; Santoro, V.; Tommassetti, L.; Benettoni, M.; Dalcorso, F.; Feltresi, E.; Fanin, C.; Gagliardi, N.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Stroili, R.

    SuperB is a super-flavor factory that will be built in Tor Vergata (Italy). The project, recently approved by the Italian Government, and classified as the flagship project of the Italian INFN, foresees the construction of a high intensity asymmetric electron-positron collider and of the related detector. The expected luminosity of 2x1036cm-2 s-1, a factor 100 higher than the last generation of B-factories, will allow the high statistic study of rare decays and, possibly, will allow a deeper insight in the field of new physics. Part of the SuperB apparatus is the Instrumented Flux Return (IFR). This detector exploits the flux return iron structure of the superconducting solenoid as absorber for the identification of muons and neutral hadrons. In more details, It consists of ≃ 92 cm of iron interleaved by 9 layers of highly segmented scintillators. The detection technique is based on relatively inexpensive extruded plastic scintillator bars produced at the FNAL-NICADD facility. The scintillation light is collected through Wave Length Shifting fibers and guided to recently developed devices called Silicon Photon Multipliers used as photodetectors. The use of plastic scintillator as active material ensures reliability, robustness and long term stability while the high granularity and the fast response guarantee a good space-time resolution, extremely important to cope with the expected high particles flux. The readout scheme under evaluation is this manuscript is the double coordinate readout ("BIRO readout") where two layers of orthogonal scintillator bars provide both, the polar and azimuthal coordinate. In order to deeply understand the performances and possible drawbacks of the above technique, a full depth prototype has been designed and built in Ferrara and Padova, and tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FBTF) in December 2010. In this paper a comprehensive description of the IFR related R&D studies will be presented. In particular, we will focus on the

  2. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  3. Requirements and Design Reference Mission for the WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument take s advantage of AFTA s 2.4 -meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes : Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, yot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architecture s. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predict s the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  4. The energetic NeUtral Atom Detector Unit (NUADU) for China's Double Star Mission and its calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan E-mail: stil@may.ie; Balaz, Jan; Strharsky, Igor; Barabash, Stas; Brinkfeldt, Klas; Li Lu; Shen Chao; Shi Jiankui; Zong Qingang; Kudela, Karel; Fu Suiyan; Roelof, E.C.; Brandt, Pontus C. son; Dandouras, Iannis

    2004-09-11

    An account is provided of an advanced Energetic NeUtral Atom Detector Unit (NUADU) designed for China's Double Star Mission. Special emphasis is given to describing the detector head of the instrument and its calibration.

  5. The design of the optical components and gas control systems of the CERN Omega Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, R.J.; Cowell, J.; Flower, P.S.

    1985-06-01

    A large Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (RICH) has been commissioned for use at the CERN Omega Spectrometer. The general design of the device is discussed, and the dependence of the attainable spatial resolution and range of particle identification on its optical parameters is illustrated. The construction and performance of the major optical components and gas systems of the detector are also described. (author)

  6. Application of the self-powered detector concept in the design of a threshold gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVert, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    The self-powered detector concept has been utilized to develop an energy threshold gamma-ray detector. Gamma-ray energy discrimination is achieved by using a thick annular lead shield around the outer wall (emitter) of the detector in conjunction with a self-shielding central electrode (collector). Measurements conducted in the graphite pit of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor have confirmed its ability to detect high-energy prompt fission gamma rays while discriminating against a significant flux of low-energy gamma rays from the decay of fission products. Also, auto-power spectral densities obtained with the detector were used to estimate the kinetic parameter, β/l, of the reactor

  7. 3D design and electric simulation of a silicon drift detector using a spiral biasing adapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-yun; Xiong, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector, Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Li, Zheng, E-mail: zhengli58@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector, Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2016-09-21

    The detector system of combining a spiral biasing adapter (SBA) with a silicon drift detector (SBA-SDD) is largely different from the traditional silicon drift detector (SDD), including the spiral SDD. It has a spiral biasing adapter of the same design as a traditional spiral SDD and an SDD with concentric rings having the same radius. Compared with the traditional spiral SDD, the SBA-SDD separates the spiral's functions of biasing adapter and the p–n junction definition. In this paper, the SBA-SDD is simulated using a Sentaurus TCAD tool, which is a full 3D device simulation tool. The simulated electric characteristics include electric potential, electric field, electron concentration, and single event effect. Because of the special design of the SBA-SDD, the SBA can generate an optimum drift electric field in the SDD, comparable with the conventional spiral SDD, while the SDD can be designed with concentric rings to reduce surface area. Also the current and heat generated in the SBA are separated from the SDD. To study the single event response, we simulated the induced current caused by incident heavy ions (20 and 50 μm penetration length) with different linear energy transfer (LET). The SBA-SDD can be used just like a conventional SDD, such as X-ray detector for energy spectroscopy and imaging, etc. - Highlights: • The separation of the spiral biasing adapter and SDD is a new concept. • The distribution of the electric potential is symmetrical around the axis through the anode. • The region with higher electron concentrations defines the drift channel.

  8. Two specialized delayed-neutron detector designs for assays of fissionable elements in water and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Balagna, J.P.; Menlove, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    Two specialized neutron-sensitive detectors are described which are employed for rapid assays of fissionable elements by sensing for delayed neutrons emitted by samples after they have been irradiated in a nuclear reactor. The more sensitive of the two detectors, designed to assay for uranium in water samples, is 40% efficient; the other, designed for sediment sample assays, is 27% efficient. These detectors are also designed to operate under water as an inexpensive shielding against neutron leakage from the reactor and neutrons from cosmic rays. (Auth.)

  9. The design and implementation of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Steven Reed

    Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) is a satellite project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to study the ionosphere, more particularly Storm Enhanced Densities (SED) with a payload consisting of plasma diagnostic instrumentation. Three instruments onboard DICE include an Electric Field Probe (EFP), Ion Langmuir Probe (ILP), and Three Axis Magnetometer (TAM). The EFP measures electric fields from +/-8V and consists of three channels a DC to 40Hz channel, a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), and an spectrographic channel with four bands from 16Hz to 512Hz. The ILP measures plasma densities from 1x104 cm--3 to 2x107 cm--3. The TAM measures magnetic field strength with a range +/-0.5 Gauss with a sensitivity of 2nT. To achieve desired mission requirements careful selection of instrument requirements and planning of the instrumentation design to achieve mission success. The analog design of each instrument is described in addition to the digital framework required to sample the science data at a 70Hz rate and prepare the data for the Command and Data Handing (C&DH) system. Calibration results are also presented and show fulfillment of the mission and instrumentation requirements.

  10. Design concepts for a nuclear digital instrumentation and control system platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, T. C.; Chen, C. K.; Chen, P. J.; Shyu, S. S.; Lee, C. L.; Hsieh, S. F.

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the development results of the nuclear instrumentation and control system in Taiwan. As the Taiwan nuclear power plants age, the need to consider upgrading of both their safety and non-safety-related instrumentation and control systems becomes more urgent. Meanwhile, the digital instrumentation and control system that is based on current fast evolving electronic and information technologies are difficult to maintain effectively. Therefore, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research was made a decision to promote the Taiwan Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System project to collaborate with domestic electronic industry to establish self-reliant capabilities on the design, manufacturing, and application of nuclear instrumentation and control systems with newer technology. In the case of safety-related applications like nuclear instrumentation and control, safety-oriented quality control is required. In order to establish a generic qualified digital platform, the world-wide licensing experience should be considered in the licensing process. This paper describes the qualification and certification tools by IEC 61508 for design and development of safety related equipment and explains the basis for many decisions made while performing the digital upgrade. (Author)

  11. The design of a position-sensitive thermal-neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2007-01-01

    We design a type of position-sensitive thermal-neutron detector. The design is based on the nuclear reaction 10 B(n, α) 7 Li, and solid boron-10 is used as the target material while the alpha and lithium-7 particles from the reaction are caught as the source of position information of the original neutrons. With the help of MCNP software, we simulate the distribution of alpha particles in the boron target, which leads to the optimal thickness of target, physical efficiency and position resolution. (authors)

  12. Design, construction, characterization, and use of a detector to measure time of flight of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, A. C.; Felix, J.

    2017-01-01

    In the study of cosmic rays, measurements of time of flight and momentum have been used to identify incident particles from its physical properties, like mass. In this document we present the design, construction, characterization, and operation of a detector to measure time of flight of cosmic rays. The device is comprised of three small plates of plastic scintillator arranged in vertical straight line, coupled to one photomultiplier tube. The analogical output has been connected to a data acquisition system to obtain the number of digital pulses per millisecond. We present details of design, construction, operation, and preliminary results.

  13. Design of Compact Particle Detector System Using FPGA for Space Particle Environment Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a high resolution proton and electron telescope for the detection of high energy particles, which constitute a major part of the space environment. The flux of the particles, in the satellite orbits, can vary abruptly according to the position and solar activities. In this study, a conceptual design of the detector, for adapting these variations with a high energy resolution, was made and the performance was estimated. In addition, a parallel processing algorithm was devised and embodied using FPGA for the high speed data processing, capable of detecting high flux without losing energy resolution, on board a satellite.

  14. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  15. Multi-detector and systematic imaging system designed and developed within the New AGLAE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, L.; Pacheco, C.; Moignard, B.; Lemasson, Q.; Guillou, T.; Walter, Ph

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The New AGLAE project aims to establish a world-class facility for non invasive analysis of Cultural Heritage materials. One of the objectives of the New AGLAE project is to increase the x-ray measurement detection, enabling to reduce the beam intensity thus the interaction with sensitive artworks by a ten. Multidisciplinary, the New AGLAE project will provide an exceptional and multipurpose beam line with a performance in spatial resolution, beam stability and a capability of multi-particle detection much higher than for the previous facility. The New AGLAE will give fundamental elements for the understanding of the structure of materials, their composition, properties, and change over time. One of the objectives of this project is to design and set up a new data acquisition system. To reach that purpose, the surface and the number of PIXE detectors have been increased. Indeed, a 10 mm 2 and a 30 mm 3 Si(Li) detectors respectively dedicated to low and high energy measurements, were replaced by a cluster of five 50 mm 2 S.D.D. detectors. If this multi detector enables to decrease the intensity of the incident beam by one order of magnitude, involving less irradiation during the analysis, it can also provide large and/or fast maps. So as to digital the preamp pulses obtained from the detectors, a custom Digital X-ray Processor provides both digital data and control signals compatible to a multiparameter multichannel system. This multiparameter system saves each event from x-ray, gamma and particle detectors and simultaneously the X, Y positions of the beam on the sample as a list file. Furthermore, to draw several-cm-sized maps with a 20/40μm resolution, the scanning of the area originally combines a fast vertical magnetic deflection of the beam and a mechanical movement of the target. To process the data, several homemade software have been developed or updated so as to rebuild any matrix of spectra, to re-bin maps, to process a series of single spectra

  16. Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

    2009-07-01

    A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

  17. Design of Pixellated CMOS Photon Detector for Secondary Electron Detection in the Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Huang Chuah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of detecting secondary electrons generated in the scanning electron microscope (SEM. The method suggests that the photomultiplier tube (PMT, traditionally used in the Everhart-Thornley (ET detector, is to be replaced with a configurable multipixel solid-state photon detector offering the advantages of smaller dimension, lower supply voltage and power requirements, and potentially cheaper product cost. The design of the proposed detector has been implemented using a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology with optical enhancement. This microchip comprises main circuit constituents of an array of photodiodes connecting to respective noise-optimised transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs, a selector-combiner (SC circuit, and a postamplifier (PA. The design possesses the capability of detecting photons with low input optical power in the range of 1 nW with 100 μm × 100 μm sized photodiodes and achieves a total amplification of 180 dBΩ at the output.

  18. Design and evaluation of a new ergonomic handle for instruments in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancibrian, Ramon; Gutierrez-Diez, María C; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Benito-Gonzalez, Maria A; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Manuel-Palazuelos, Jose C

    2014-05-01

    Laparoscopic surgery techniques have been demonstrated to provide massive benefits to patients. However, surgeons are subjected to hardworking conditions because of the poor ergonomic design of the instruments. In this article, a new ergonomic handle design is presented. This handle is designed using ergonomic principles, trying to provide both more intuitive manipulation of the instrument and a shape that reduces the high-pressure zones in the contact with the surgeon's hand. The ergonomic characteristics of the new handle were evaluated using objective and subjective studies. The experimental evaluation was performed using 28 volunteers by means of the comparison of the new handle with the ring-handle (RH) concept in an instrument available on the market. The volunteers' muscle activation and motions of the hand, wrist, and arm were studied while they performed different tasks. The data measured in the experiment include electromyography and goniometry values. The results obtained from the subjective analysis reveal that most volunteers (64%) preferred the new prototype to the RH, reporting less pain and less difficulty to complete the tasks. The results from the objective study reveal that the hyperflexion of the wrist required for the manipulation of the instrument is strongly reduced. The new ergonomic handle not only provides important ergonomic advantages but also improves the efficiency when completing the tasks. Compared with RH instruments, the new prototype reduced the high-pressure areas and the extreme motions of the wrist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of the cooling systems for the multiplicity and vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Cunningham, R.

    1997-11-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being constructed to investigate a phase of matter termed the quark-gluon plasma. The plasma will be produced through the collision of two heavy ions. The multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD) located in the center of PHENIX will characterize the events, determine the collision point, and act as a central trigger. This report presents the final mechanical designs of the cooling systems for the Multiplicity and Vertex Detector (MVD). In particular, the design procedure and layouts are discussed for two different air cooling systems for the multichip modules and MVD enclosure, and a liquid cooling system for the low dropout voltage regulators. First of all, experimental prototype cooling system test results used to drive the final mechanical designs are summarized and discussed. Next, the cooling system requirements and design calculation for the various subsystem components are presented along with detailed lists of supply vendors, components, and costs. Finally, safety measures incorporated in the final mechanical design and operation procedures for each of the subsystems are detailed

  20. Design and Implementation Content Validity Study: Development of an instrument for measuring Patient-Centered Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment. At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items, informational support (seven items, emotional support (five items, problem solving (seven items, patient activation (10 items, intimacy/friendship (six items and spirituality strengthening (14 items. Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument.

  1. Design of the Front-End Detector Control System of the ATLAS New Small Wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Koulouris, Aimilianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will be upgraded during the next LHC Long Shutdown (LS2). The flagship upgrade is the New Small Wheel (NSW), which consists of 2 disks of Muon Gas detectors. The detector technologies used are Micromegas (MM) and sTGC, providing a total of 16 layers of tracking and trigger. The Slow Control Adapter (SCA) is part of the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) - “Radiation Hard Optical Link Project” family of chips designed at CERN, EP-ESE department, which will be used at the NSW upgrade. The SCA offers several interfaces to read analog and digital inputs, and configure front-end Readout ASICs, FPGAs, or other chips. This poster gives an overview of the system, data flow, and software developed for communicating with the SCA.

  2. The Science benefits and preliminary design of the southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, D G; Barriga, P; Coward, D; Dumas, J-C; Fan, Y; Gras, S; Howell, E; Ju, L; Miao, H [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Brooks, A F; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Veitch, P J [Department of Physics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005 Australia (Australia); Charlton, P [School of Computing and Mathematics, Charles Sturt University, NSW 2678 (Australia); Galloway, D [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia); Hughes, S [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); McClelland, D E; Scott, S M; Slagmolen, B J J [Department of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Melatos, A [School of Physics University of Melbourne, Parkville Vic 3010 Australia (Australia)], E-mail: dgb@physics.uwa.edu.au (and others)

    2008-07-15

    The proposed southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO increases the projected average baseline of the global array of ground based gravitational wave detectors by a factor {approx}4. This allows the world array to be substantially improved. The orientation of AIGO allows much better resolution of both wave polarisations. This enables better distance estimates for inspiral events, allowing unambiguous optical identification of host galaxies for about 25% of neutron star binary inspiral events. This can allow Hubble Law estimation without optical identification of an outburst, and can also allow deep exposure imaging with electromagnetic telescopes to search for weak afterglows. This allows independent estimates of cosmological acceleration and dark energy as well as improved understanding of the physics of neutron star and black hole coalescences. This paper reviews and summarises the science benefits of AIGO and presents a preliminary conceptual design.

  3. The Science benefits and preliminary design of the southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D G; Barriga, P; Coward, D; Dumas, J-C; Fan, Y; Gras, S; Howell, E; Ju, L; Miao, H; Brooks, A F; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Veitch, P J; Charlton, P; Galloway, D; Hughes, S; McClelland, D E; Scott, S M; Slagmolen, B J J; Melatos, A

    2008-01-01

    The proposed southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO increases the projected average baseline of the global array of ground based gravitational wave detectors by a factor ∼4. This allows the world array to be substantially improved. The orientation of AIGO allows much better resolution of both wave polarisations. This enables better distance estimates for inspiral events, allowing unambiguous optical identification of host galaxies for about 25% of neutron star binary inspiral events. This can allow Hubble Law estimation without optical identification of an outburst, and can also allow deep exposure imaging with electromagnetic telescopes to search for weak afterglows. This allows independent estimates of cosmological acceleration and dark energy as well as improved understanding of the physics of neutron star and black hole coalescences. This paper reviews and summarises the science benefits of AIGO and presents a preliminary conceptual design

  4. IB: A Monte Carlo simulation tool for neutron scattering instrument design under PVM and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    Design of modern neutron scattering instruments relies heavily on Monte Carlo simulation tools for optimization. IB is one such tool written in C++ and implemented under Parallel Virtual Machine and the Message Passing Interface. The program was initially written for the design and optimization of the EQ-SANS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source. One of its features is the ability to group simple instrument components into more complex ones at the user input level, e.g. grouping neutron mirrors into neutron guides and curved benders. The simulation engine manages the grouped components such that neutrons entering a group are properly operated upon by all components, multiple times if needed, before exiting the group. Thus, only a few basic optical modules are needed at the programming level. For simulations that require higher computer speeds, the program can be compiled and run in parallel modes using either the PVM or the MPI architectures.

  5. CONCEPTUAL AND DESIGN ISSUES IN INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT FOR RESEARCH WITH BEREAVED PARENTS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briller, Sherylyn H.; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Thurston, Celia S.; Meert, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    Many childhood deaths in the United States occur in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and parents have special needs in this death context. As an interdisciplinary research team, we discuss conceptual and design issues encountered in creating a new instrument, the Bereaved Parent Needs Assessment–PICU, for assessing parents’ needs in this setting. Using a qualitative approach, our team previously explored how the culture and related ways of providing care in one urban Midwestern children’s hospital PICU affected parents’ bereavement needs and experiences. We describe using this qualitative foundation in the development of a new quantitative instrument to more widely validate and measure bereaved parents’ needs around the time of a child’s death across multiple PICUs. We highlight a series of issues that warrant consideration in designing a research instrument for this vulnerable population including setting and context, format and content, temporality, recruitment, and content expertise. PMID:22953511

  6. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author)

  7. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekoszewski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author).

  8. Design and development of a highly sensitive, field portable plasma source instrument for on-line liquid stream monitoring and real-time sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yixiang; Su, Yongxuan; Jin, Zhe; Abeln, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive, field portable, low-powered instrument for on-site, real-time liquid waste stream monitoring is described in this article. A series of factors such as system sensitivity and portability, plasma source, sample introduction, desolvation system, power supply, and the instrument configuration, were carefully considered in the design of the portable instrument. A newly designed, miniature, modified microwave plasma source was selected as the emission source for spectroscopy measurement, and an integrated small spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector was installed for signal processing and detection. An innovative beam collection system with optical fibers was designed and used for emission signal collection. Microwave plasma can be sustained with various gases at relatively low power, and it possesses high detection capabilities for both metal and nonmetal pollutants, making it desirable to use for on-site, real-time, liquid waste stream monitoring. An effective in situ sampling system was coupled with a high efficiency desolvation device for direct-sampling liquid samples into the plasma. A portable computer control system is used for data processing. The new, integrated instrument can be easily used for on-site, real-time monitoring in the field. The system possesses a series of advantages, including high sensitivity for metal and nonmetal elements; in situ sampling; compact structure; low cost; and ease of operation and handling. These advantages will significantly overcome the limitations of previous monitoring techniques and make great contributions to environmental restoration and monitoring. (c)

  9. A conceptual framework for designing micro electrical connectors for hearing aid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Fuglsang-Philip, M.

    2016-01-01

    technological advancements have urged them to incorporate increased number of electrical contacts. The current paper presents a conceptual framework for designing and manufacturing novel plug and socket systems for hearing aid instruments by using the state of art manufacturing technologies for micro components...

  10. Guide for design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments in the BSR and ORR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, K.W.

    1977-03-01

    This report is a guide for the design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments that are to be operated in the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) or the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and are to be connected to the reactor power-reduction and alarm systems

  11. Design, Validation, and Use of an Evaluation Instrument for Monitoring Systemic Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Boone, William; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fraser, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the design, development, validation, and use of an instrument that measures student attitudes and several environmental dimensions (i.e., standards-based teaching, home support, and peer support). Indicates that the classroom environment (standards-based teaching practices) was the strongest independent predictor of both achievement and…

  12. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  13. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  14. What makes a good home-based nocturnal seizure detector? A value sensitive design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Judith; Leijten, Frans; van Delden, Hans; van Thiel, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    A device for the in-home detection of nocturnal seizures is currently being developed in the Netherlands, to improve care for patients with severe epilepsy. It is recognized that the design of medical technology is not value neutral: perspectives of users and developers are influential in design, and design choices influence these perspectives. However, during development processes, these influences are generally ignored and value-related choices remain implicit and poorly argued for. In the development process of the seizure detector we aimed to take values of all stakeholders into consideration. Therefore, we performed a parallel ethics study, using "value sensitive design." Analysis of stakeholder communication (in meetings and e-mail messages) identified five important values, namely, health, trust, autonomy, accessibility, and reliability. Stakeholders were then asked to give feedback on the choice of these values and how they should be interpreted. In a next step, the values were related to design choices relevant for the device, and then the consequences (risks and benefits) of these choices were investigated. Currently the process of design and testing of the device is still ongoing. The device will be validated in a trial in which the identified consequences of design choices are measured as secondary endpoints. Value sensitive design methodology is feasible for the development of new medical technology and can help designers substantiate the choices in their design.

  15. Design studies and sensor tests for the beam calorimeter of the ILC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, E.

    2007-03-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is being designed to explore particle physics at the TeV scale. The design of the Very Forward Region of the ILC detector is considered in the presented work. The Beam Calorimeter - one of two electromagnetic calorimeters situated there - is the subject of this thesis. The Beam Calorimeter has to provide a good hermeticity for high energy electrons, positrons and photons down to very low polar angles, serve for fast beam diagnostics and shield the inner part of the detector from backscattered beamstrahlung remnants and synchrotron radiation. As a possible technology for the Beam Calorimeter a diamond-tungsten sandwich calorimeter is considered. Detailed simulation studies are done in order to explore the suitability of the considered design for the Beam Calorimeter objectives. Detection efficiency, energy and angular resolution for electromagnetic showers are studied. At the simulation level the diamondtungsten design is shown to match the requirements on the Beam Calorimeter performance. Studies of polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamond as a sensor material for the Beam Calorimeter are done to explore the properties of the material. Results of the measurements performed with pCVD diamond samples produced by different manufacturers are presented. (orig.)

  16. Design studies and sensor tests for the beam calorimeter of the ILC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, E.

    2007-03-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is being designed to explore particle physics at the TeV scale. The design of the Very Forward Region of the ILC detector is considered in the presented work. The Beam Calorimeter - one of two electromagnetic calorimeters situated there - is the subject of this thesis. The Beam Calorimeter has to provide a good hermeticity for high energy electrons, positrons and photons down to very low polar angles, serve for fast beam diagnostics and shield the inner part of the detector from backscattered beamstrahlung remnants and synchrotron radiation. As a possible technology for the Beam Calorimeter a diamond-tungsten sandwich calorimeter is considered. Detailed simulation studies are done in order to explore the suitability of the considered design for the Beam Calorimeter objectives. Detection efficiency, energy and angular resolution for electromagnetic showers are studied. At the simulation level the diamondtungsten design is shown to match the requirements on the Beam Calorimeter performance. Studies of polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamond as a sensor material for the Beam Calorimeter are done to explore the properties of the material. Results of the measurements performed with pCVD diamond samples produced by different manufacturers are presented. (orig.)

  17. The development of state/region owned goods management’s monitoring instrument design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwanto Yogy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems in state/region owned goods in Indonesian state and local governments are suspected to occur because of weak monitoring programs, according to many studies. A tool or instrument in implementing this monitoring program is expected to address this problem. Such tool currently doesn’t exist yet. This research aims to fill that gap by developing a monitoring instrument design for state/region owned goods by using Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Local Government as a research context in order to take valuable inputs for the design. This research is using developmental research method. Government Regulation were used for normative reference and Friedman’s results-based accountability quadrat were used in developing good indicators for the instrument. This research is succeeded in formulating the indicators that made up the instrument. Indicators compiled are divided into compliance-based indicators and results-based indicators. Indicators are formulated based on the validation and inputs from employees of DIY’s Assets Management Agency and experts from academia. This instrument still has some limitations that need improvement through further research.

  18. DESIGNING AFFECTIVE INSTRUMENT BASED ON SCIENTIFIC APPROACH FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisarah Ira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was describing the designing of instrument for affective assessment in English language teaching. The focus of the designing was only for observation sheet that will be used by English teachers during the teaching and learning process. The instrument was designed based on scientific approach that has five stages namely observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, and communicating. In the designing process, ADDIE Model was used as the method of research. The designing of instrument was considering the gap between the reality and the teachers’ need. The result showed that the designing was also notice to the affective taxonomy such as receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization. Then, three key words were used as the indicator to show the five levels of affective taxonomy such as seriously, volunteer, and without asked by teacher. Furthermore, eighteen types of affective such as religious, honesty, responsible, discipline, hard work, self confidence, logical thinking, critical thinking, creative, innovative, independent, curiosity, love knowledge, respect, polite, democracy, emotional intelligence, and pluralist were put on each stage of scientific approach. So, it is hoped that can be implemented in all of context of English language teaching at schools and can assess the students’ affective comprehensively.

  19. Mechanical design and vibro-acoustic testing of ultrathin carbon foils for a spacecraft instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, Allen G [SNL

    2009-01-01

    IBEX-Hi is an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument designed to measure the energy and flux distribution of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) emanating from the interaction zone between the Earth's solar system and the Milky Way galaxy. A key element to this electro-optic instrument is an array of fourteen carbon foils that are used to ionize the ENAs. The foils are comprised of an ultrathin (50-100 {angstrom} thick) layer of carbon suspended across the surface of an electroformed Nickel wire screen, which in turn is held taught by a metal frame holder. The electro formed orthogonal screen has square wire elements, 12.7 {micro}m thick, with a pitch of 131.1 wires/cm. Each foil holder has an open aperture approximately 5 cm by 2.5 cm. Designing and implementing foil holders with such a large surface area has not been attempted for spaceflight in the past and has proven to be extremely challenging. The delicate carbon foils are subject to fatigue failure from the large acoustic and vibration loads that they will be exposed to during launch of the spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution of the foil holder design from previous space instrument applications to a flight-like IBEX-Hi prototype. Vibro-acoustic qualification tests of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument and the resulting failure of several foils are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of iterative foil holder design modifications and laser vibrometer modal testing to support future fatigue failure analyses, along with additional acoustic testing of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument. The results of these design and testing activities are merged and the resulting flight-like foil holder assembly is proposed.

  20. Design and test of a high resolution plastic scintillating fiber detector with intensified CCD readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebourgeard, P.

    1991-01-01

    We present the design of a particle detector involving a coherent array of 100 000 plastic scintillating microfibers, with an individual core diameter around 50 micrometers, and an intensified bidimensional CCD array. We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the use of polystyrene based scintillators in optical multimodal fibers. The isotropic excitation of modes and the characteristics of energy transfers between the polystyrene matrix and the added fluorescent dyes are of particular interest. An experimental approach is proposed and applied to the development of a new binary scintillator. In order to study the transmission of the signal from the interaction area to the output face, we specify the loss factors, the resolution and the signal to noise ratio within the fiber array. The low light level at the output face of the detector leads us to use image intensifiers in photon counting mode. This requires a detailed analysis of resolutions, gain, noise and detectivity concepts. We propose to describe these strongly correlated notions by the moment generation formalism. Thus, a previous modelisation of the photoelectronic devices allows us to evaluate the performance of the readout chain. A complete detector has been assembled and tested on a high energy hadron beam; the measurements are in good agreement with the modelisation [fr

  1. Design of InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared barrier detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, M.; Rossignol, R.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Christol, P.

    2017-04-01

    Design of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) infrared barrier detectors is theoretically investigated. Each part of the barrier structures is studied in order to achieve optimal device operation at 150 K and 77 K, in the midwave and longwave infrared domain, respectively. Whatever the spectral domain, nBp structure with a p-type absorbing zone and an n-type contact layer is found to be the most favourable detector architecture allowing a reduction of the dark-current associated with generation-recombination processes. The nBp structures are then compared to pin photodiodes. The MWIR nBp detector with 5 μm cut-off wavelength can operate up to 120 K, resulting in an improvement of 20 K on the operating temperature compared to the pin device. The dark-current density of the LWIR nBp device at 77 K is expected to be as low as 3.5 × 10-4 A/cm2 at 50 mV reverse bias, more than one decade lower than the usual T2SL photodiode. This result, for a device having cut-off wavelength at 12 μm, is at the state of the art compared to the well-known MCT 'rule 07'.

  2. Optimizing the design and analysis of cryogenic semiconductor dark matter detectors for maximum sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyle, Matt Christopher [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we illustrate how the complex E- field geometry produced by interdigitated electrodes at alternating voltage biases naturally encodes 3D fiducial volume information into the charge and phonon signals and thus is a natural geometry for our next generation dark matter detectors. Secondly, we will study in depth the physics of import to our devices including transition edge sensor dynamics, quasi- particle dynamics in our Al collection fins, and phonon physics in the crystal itself so that we can both understand the performance of our previous CDMS II device as well as optimize the design of our future devices. Of interest to the broader physics community is the derivation of the ideal athermal phonon detector resolution and it's T3 c scaling behavior which suggests that the athermal phonon detector technology developed by CDMS could also be used to discover coherent neutrino scattering and search for non-standard neutrino interaction and sterile neutrinos. These proposed resolution optimized devices can also be used in searches for exotic MeV-GeV dark matter as well as novel background free searches for 8GeV light WIMPs.

  3. A pilot's opinion - VTOL control design requirements for the instrument approach task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents pilot opinion supported by test data concerning flight control and display concepts and control system design requirements for VTOL aircraft in the instrument approach task. Material presented is drawn from research flights in the following aircraft: Dornier DO-31, Short SC-1, LTV XC-142A, and Boeing-Vertol CH-46. The control system concepts and mechanizations employed in the above aircraft are discussed, and the effect of control system augmentation is shown on performance. Operational procedures required in the instrument approach task are described, with comments on need for automation and combining of control functions.

  4. Design of an 8-40 GHz Antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.; Trent, Christopher R.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This poster describes the implementation of a 6x6 element, dual linear polarized array with beamformer that operates from about 8-40 GHz. It is implemented using a relatively new multi-layer microfabrication process. The beamformer includes baluns that feed dual-polarized differential antenna elements and reactive splitters that cover the full frequency range of operation. This fixed beam array (FBA) serves as the feed for a multi-band instrument designed to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) from an airborne platform known as the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM).

  5. A novel, highly efficient cavity backshort design for far-infrared TES detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; de Lange, G.; Audley, M. D.; Trappe, N.; Murphy, J. A.; Gradziel, M.; Vreeling, W.-J.; Watson, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a new cavity backshort design for TES (transition edge sensor) detectors which will provide increased coupling of the incoming astronomical signal to the detectors. The increased coupling results from the improved geometry of the cavities, where the geometry is a consequence of the proposed chemical etching manufacturing technique. Using a number of modelling techniques, predicted results of the performance of the cavities for frequencies of 4.3-10 THz are presented and compared to more standard cavity designs. Excellent optical efficiency is demonstrated, with improved response flatness across the band. In order to verify the simulated results, a scaled model cavity was built for testing at the lower W-band frequencies (75-100 GHz) with a VNA system. Further testing of the scale model at THz frequencies was carried out using a globar and bolometer via an FTS measurement set-up. The experimental results are presented, and compared to the simulations. Although there is relatively poor comparison between simulation and measurement at some frequencies, the discrepancies are explained by means of higher-mode excitation in the measured cavity which are not accounted for in the single-mode simulations. To verify this assumption, a better behaved cylindrical cavity is simulated and measured, where excellent agreement is demonstrated in those results. It can be concluded that both the simulations and the supporting measurements give confidence that this novel cavity design will indeed provide much-improved optical coupling for TES detectors in the far-infrared/THz band.

  6. Aseismatic design of electrical equipments and instruments for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuharu; Nishizawa, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Yoshio; Miura, Takumi

    1977-01-01

    The aseismatic design of electrical instruments is carried out according to IEEE Standard 344-1971 in the USA. In Japan also, the method of aseismatic design of electrical instruments has been investigated by the representatives of electric power companies and electric machine makers since 1972. In Hitachi Ltd., the statical method of confirming aseismatic property was established on the basis of the rigid design for electrical instruments. It is convenient to examine the aseismatic property of electrical equipments by classifying them into control and switch boards, electrical appliances, equipments and circuits. It is possible to use the static method treating earthquake force as static load by avoiding resonance with the electrical equipments which have the higher natural frequency than that of buildings. The purposes of the vibration test are to prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, to clarify the vibration characteristics, and to confirm the maintenance of functions and the strength of the equipments. The vibration tests of control boards, the switch boards of enclosed type, motor control centers, the racks for instrumentation, storage batteries and electrical appliances are explained. Moreover, the vibration analysis with a computer according to finite element method is described. (Kako, I.)

  7. Detectors, sampling, shielding, and electronics for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1981-08-01

    A brief discussion of the important design elements for positron emission tomographs is presented. The conclusions are that the instrumentation can be improved by the use of larger numbers of small, efficient detectors closely packed in many rings, the development of new detector materials, and novel electronic designs to reduce the deadtime and increase maximum event rates

  8. Conceptual phase A design of a cryogenic shutter mechanism for the SAFARI flight instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, Max; Wehmeier, Udo J.; Vuilleumier, Aurèle; Messina, Gabriele; Meyer, Michael R.

    2012-09-01

    We present a conceptual design for a cryogenic optical mechanism for the SAFARI instrument. SAFARI is a long wavelength (34-210 micron) Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) to fly as an ESA instrument on the JAXA SPICA mission projected to launch in 2021. SPICA is a large 3m class space telescope which will have an operating temperature of less than 7K. The SAFARI shutter is a single point of failure flight mechanism designed to operate in space at a temperature of 4K which meets redundancy and reliability requirements of this challenging mission. The conceptual design is part of a phase A study led by ETH Institute for Astronomy and conducted by RUAG Space AG.

  9. JIGSAW: Acquisition, Display and Analysis system designed to collect data from Multiple Gamma-Ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.E.; Bamford, G.J.; Rester, A.C.; Coldwell, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report on work performed to date on JIGSAW - a self contained data acquisition, display and analysis system designed to collect data form multiple gamma-ray detectors. The data acquisition system utilizes commercially available VMEbus and NIM hardware modules and the VME exec real time operating system. A Unix based software package, written in ANSI standard C and with the XII graphics routines, allows the user to view the acquired spectra. Analysis of the histograms can be performed in background during the run with the ROBFIT suite of curve fitting routines

  10. Development of design of a radioisotope switchable neutron source and new portable detector of smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskhi, L.; Kurdadze, L.

    2010-01-01

    Development of simple and cheap radioisotope switchable neutron source for application in the portable device of detecting of smuggling is presented. Detailed calculations (Monte-Carlo modeling) for the purpose of optimization of a design of the source and the detector module are carried out. The sufficient an yield of neutrons, about 2 o 105 n/s provides the source with the sizes of approx 25 x 25 x 60 mm 3. Results of simulation of scanning smuggling areas (polyethylene 10 x 10 x 5 cm 3) behind the thick steel wall (1.2 cm) gave the relation of signal/ background 7-8

  11. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xu; Liu Congzhan; Zhao Jianling

    2014-01-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically. (authors)

  12. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Cong-Zhan; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2014-02-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically.

  13. Cryogenic and radiation hard ASIC design for large format NIR/SWIR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Dupont, Benoit; Dierickx, Bart; Müller, Eric; Verbruggen, Geert; Gielis, Stijn; Valvekens, Ramses

    2014-10-01

    An ASIC is developed to control and data quantization for large format NIR/SWIR detector arrays. Both cryogenic and space radiation environment issue are considered during the design. Therefore it can be integrated in the cryogenic chamber, which reduces significantly the vast amount of long wires going in and out the cryogenic chamber, i.e. benefits EMI and noise concerns, as well as the power consumption of cooling system and interfacing circuits. In this paper, we will describe the development of this prototype ASIC for image sensor driving and signal processing as well as the testing in both room and cryogenic temperature.

  14. tkLayout: a Design Tool for Innovative Silicon Tracking Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A new CMS tracker is scheduled to become operational for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade in the early 2020's. tkLayout is a software package developed to create 3d models for the design of the CMS tracker and to evaluate its fundamental performance figures. The new tracker will have to cope with much higher luminosity conditions, resulting in increased track density, harsher radiation exposure and, especially, much higher data acquisition bandwidth, such that equipping the tracker with triggering capabilities is envisaged. The design of an innovative detector involves deciding on an architecture offering the best trade-off among many figures of merit, such as tracking resolution, power dissipation, bandwidth, cost and so on. Quantitatively evaluating these figures of merit as early as possible in the design phase is of capital importance and it is best done with the aid of software models. tkLayout is a flexible modeling tool: new performance estimates and support for different detector geometries can be quickly ad...

  15. Conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid for a magnetic SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Kephart, R.D.; Krebs, H.J.; Stone, M.E.; Theriot, D.; Wands, R.H.

    1988-07-01

    The conceptual design of a large superconducting solenoid suitable for a magnetic detector at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) has begun at Fermilab. The magnet will provide a magnetic field of 2 T over a volume 8 m in diameter by 16 m long. The particle-physics calorimetry will be inside the field volume and so the coil will be bath cooled and cryostable; the vessels will be stainless steel. Predictibility of performance and the ability to safely negotiate all probable failure modes, including a quench, are important items of the design philosophy. Although the magnet is considerably larger than existing solenoids of this type and although many issues of manufacturability, transportability and cost have not been completely addressed, our conceptual design has convinced us that this magnet is a reasonable extrapolation of present technology. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Design and performance of an acquisition and control system for a positron camera with novel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds-Tayler, J.R.N.; Reader, A.J.; Flower, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Sun-based data acquisition and control (DAQ) system has been designed for PETRRA, a whole-body positron camera using large-area BaF 2 -TMAE detectors. The DAQ system uses a high-speed digital I/O card (S16D) installed on the S-bus of a SPARC10 and a specially-designed Positron Camera Interface (PCI), which also controls both the gantry and horizontal couch motion. Data in the form of different types of 6-byte packets are acquired in list mode. Tests with a signal generator show that the DAQ system should be able to cater for coincidence count-rates up to 100 kcps. The predicted count loss due to the DAQ system is ∼13% at this count rate, provided asynchronous-read based software is used. The list-mode data acquisition system designed for PETRRA could be adapted for other 3D PET cameras with similar data rates

  17. Correction Capability in the 3 Anatomic Planes of Different Pedicle Screw Designs in Scoliosis Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Coleman, John; Rawlinson, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    Computer simulations to compare the correction capabilities of different pedicle screws in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) instrumentations. To compare the correction and resulting bone-screw forces associated with different pedicle screws in scoliosis instrumentations. Pedicle screw fixation is widely used in surgical instrumentation for spinal deformity treatment. Screw design, correction philosophies, and surgical techniques are constantly evolving to achieve better control of the vertebrae and correction of the spinal deformity. Yet, there remains a lack of biomechanical studies that quantify the effects and advantages of different screw designs in terms of correction kinematics. The correction capabilities of fixed-angle, multiaxial, uniaxial, and saddle axial screws were kinematically analyzed, simulated, and compared. These simulations were based on the screw patterns and correction techniques proposed by 2 experienced surgeons for 2 AIS cases. Additional instrumentations were assessed to compare the correction and resulting bone-screw forces associated with each type of screw. The fixed-angle, uniaxial and saddle axial screws had similar kinematic behavior and performed better than multiaxial screws in the coronal and transverse planes (8% and 30% greater simulated corrections, respectively). Uniaxial and multiaxial screws were less effective than fixed-angle and saddle axial screws in transmitting compression/distraction to the anterior spine because of their sagittal plane mobility between the screw head and shank. Only the saddle axial screws allow vertebra angle in the sagittal plane to be independently adjusted. Pedicle screws of different designs performed differently for deformity corrections or for compensating screw placement variations in different anatomic planes. For a given AIS case, screw types should be determined based on the particular instrumentation objectives, the deformity's stiffness and characteristics so as to make the best of

  18. Designing Successful Next-Generation Instruments to Detect the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) team, Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) team

    2018-01-01

    The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) signifies a period of intense evolution of the Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM) in the early Universe caused by the first generations of stars and galaxies, wherein they turned the neutral IGM to be completely ionized by redshift ≥ 6. This important epoch is poorly explored to date. Measurement of redshifted 21 cm line from neutral Hydrogen during the EoR is promising to provide the most direct constraints of this epoch. Ongoing experiments to detect redshifted 21 cm power spectrum during reionization, including the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), appear to be severely affected by bright foregrounds and unaccounted instrumental systematics. For example, the spectral structure introduced by wide-field effects, aperture shapes and angular power patterns of the antennas, electrical and geometrical reflections in the antennas and electrical paths, and antenna position errors can be major limiting factors. These mimic the 21 cm signal and severely degrade the instrument performance. It is imperative for the next-generation of experiments to eliminate these systematics at their source via robust instrument design. I will discuss a generic framework to set cosmologically motivated antenna performance specifications and design strategies using the Precision Radio Interferometry Simulator (PRISim) -- a high-precision tool that I have developed for simulations of foregrounds and the instrument transfer function intended primarily for 21 cm EoR studies, but also broadly applicable to interferometer-based intensity mapping experiments. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), designed in-part based on this framework, is expected to detect the 21 cm signal with high significance. I will present this framework and the simulations, and their potential for designing upcoming radio instruments such as HERA and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  19. Design Through Integration of On-Board Calibration Device with Imaging Spectroscopy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) project is to "identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures." The project designs, builds, and tests various imaging spectroscopy instruments that use On-Board Calibration devices (OBC) to check the accuracy of the data collected by the spectrometers. The imaging instrument records the spectral signatures of light collected during flight. To verify the data is correct, the OBC shines light which is collected by the imaging spectrometer and compared against previous calibration data to track spectral response changes in the instrument. The spectral data has the calibration applied to it based on the readings from the OBC data in order to ensure accuracy.

  20. Design of and initial results from a Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Glowacki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of a Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC is described and initial results obtained from HIRAC are presented. The ability of HIRAC to perform in-situ laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH and HO2 radicals with the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE technique establishes it as internationally unique for a chamber of its size and pressure/temperature variable capabilities. In addition to the FAGE technique, HIRAC features a suite of analytical instrumentation, including: a multipass FTIR system; a conventional gas chromatography (GC instrument and a GC instrument for formaldehyde detection; NO/NO2, CO, O3, and H2O vapour analysers. Ray tracing simulations and NO2 actinometry have been utilized to develop a detailed model of the radiation field within HIRAC. Comparisons between the analysers and the FTIR coupled to HIRAC have been performed, and HIRAC has also been used to investigate pressure dependent kinetics of the chlorine atom reaction with ethene and the reaction of O3 and t-2-butene. The results obtained are in good agreement with literature recommendations and Master Chemical Mechanism predictions. HIRAC thereby offers a highly instrumented platform with the potential for: (1 high precision kinetics investigations over a range of atmospheric conditions; (2 detailed mechanism development, significantly enhanced according to its capability for measuring radicals; and (3 field instrument intercomparison, calibration, development, and investigations of instrument response at a range of atmospheric conditions.

  1. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of a Prototype Differential Die‐Away Instrument Proposed for Swedish Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinik, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.martinik@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grape, Sophie; Jansson, Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Goodsell, Alison V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tobin, Stephen J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Blekholmstorget 30, Box 250, SE-101 24 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-06-11

    As part of the United States (US) Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project, the traditional Differential Die-Away (DDA) method that was originally developed for waste drum assay has been investigated and modified to provide a novel application to characterize or verify spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Following the promising, yet largely theoretical and simulation based, research of physics aspects of the DDA technique applied to SNF assay during the early stages of the NGSI-SF project, the most recent effort has been focused on the practical aspects of developing the first fully functional and deployable DDA prototype instrument for spent fuel. As a result of the collaboration among US research institutions and Sweden, the opportunity to test the newly proposed instrument's performance with commercial grade SNF at the Swedish Interim Storage Facility (Clab) emerged. Therefore the design of this instrument prototype has to accommodate the requirements of the Swedish regulator as well as specific engineering constrains given by the unique industrial environment. Within this paper, we identify key components of the DDA based instrument and we present methodology for evaluation and the results of a selection of the most relevant design parameters in order to optimize the performance for a given application, i.e. test-deployment, including assay of 50 preselected spent nuclear fuel assemblies of both pressurized (PWR) as well as boiling (BWR) water reactor type.

  3. Testing the Solar Probe Cup, an Instrument Designed to Touch the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Phyllis L.; Case, Anthony W.; Kasper, Justin Christophe; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Alterman, Ben; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Bookbinder, Jay; Korreck, Kelly E.; Stevens, Michael Louis

    2014-01-01

    Solar Probe Plus will be the first, fastest, and closest mission to the sun, providing the first direct sampling of the sub-Alfvenic corona. The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a unique re-imagining of the traditional Faraday Cup design and materials for immersion in this high temperature environment. Sending an instrument of this type into a never-seen particle environment requires extensive characterization prior to launch to establish sufficient measurement accuracy and instrument response. To reach this end, a slew of tests for allowing SPC to see ranges of appropriate ions and electrons, as well as a facility that reproduces solar photon spectra and fluxes for this mission. Having already tested the SPC at flight like temperatures with no significant modification of the noise floor, we recently completed a round of particle testing to see if the deviations in Faraday Cup design fundamentally change the operation of the instrument. Results and implications from these tests will be presented, as well as performance comparisons to cousin instruments such as those on the WIND spacecraft.

  4. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  5. Towards a gravitational wave observatory designer: sensitivity limits of spaceborne detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barke, S; Wang, Y; Delgado, J J Esteban; Tröbs, M; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K

    2015-01-01

    The most promising concept for low frequency (millihertz to hertz) gravitational wave observatories are laser interferometric detectors in space. It is usually assumed that the noise floor for such a detector is dominated by optical shot noise in the signal readout. For this to be true, a careful balance of mission parameters is crucial to keep all other parasitic disturbances below shot noise. We developed a web application that uses over 30 input parameters and considers many important technical noise sources and noise suppression techniques to derive a realistic position noise budget. It optimizes free parameters automatically and generates a detailed report on all individual noise contributions. Thus one can easily explore the entire parameter space and design a realistic gravitational wave observatory. In this document we describe the different parameters, present all underlying calculations, and compare the final observatory’s sensitivity with astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. We use as an example parameters currently assumed to be likely applied to a space mission proposed to be launched in 2034 by the European Space Agency. The web application itself is publicly available on the Internet at http://spacegravity.org/designer. Future versions of the web application will incorporate the frequency dependence of different noise sources and include a more detailed model of the observatory’s residual acceleration noise. (paper)

  6. Towards a gravitational wave observatory designer: sensitivity limits of spaceborne detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barke, S.; Wang, Y.; Esteban Delgado, J. J.; Tröbs, M.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2015-05-01

    The most promising concept for low frequency (millihertz to hertz) gravitational wave observatories are laser interferometric detectors in space. It is usually assumed that the noise floor for such a detector is dominated by optical shot noise in the signal readout. For this to be true, a careful balance of mission parameters is crucial to keep all other parasitic disturbances below shot noise. We developed a web application that uses over 30 input parameters and considers many important technical noise sources and noise suppression techniques to derive a realistic position noise budget. It optimizes free parameters automatically and generates a detailed report on all individual noise contributions. Thus one can easily explore the entire parameter space and design a realistic gravitational wave observatory. In this document we describe the different parameters, present all underlying calculations, and compare the final observatory’s sensitivity with astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. We use as an example parameters currently assumed to be likely applied to a space mission proposed to be launched in 2034 by the European Space Agency. The web application itself is publicly available on the Internet at http://spacegravity.org/designer. Future versions of the web application will incorporate the frequency dependence of different noise sources and include a more detailed model of the observatory’s residual acceleration noise.

  7. Design and Analysis of a Collision Detector for Hybrid Robotic Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan ZHANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive sensing depends on the physical parameter changing either the spacing between the two plates or the dielectric constant. Based on this idea, a capacitive based collision detection sensor is proposed and designed in this paper for the purpose of detecting any collision between the end effector and peripheral equipment (e.g., fixture for the three degrees of freedom hybrid robotic machine tools when it is in operation. One side of the finger-like capacitor is attached to the moving platform of the hybrid robotic manipulator and the other side of the finger-like capacitor is attached to the tool. When the tool accidently hits the peripheral equipment, the vibration will make the distance of the capacitor change and therefore trigger the machine to stop. The new design is illustrated and modelled. The capacitance, sensitivity and frequency response of the detector are analyzed in detail, and finally, the fabrication process is presented. The proposed collision detector can also be applied to other machine tools.

  8. The Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor Optimum Design for Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Edward 'Ted'; Rodriguez, Carmelo

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear power plants rely on instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for monitoring, control and protection. While the earlier generations of nuclear plants were built with largely analog instrumentation systems, the industrial base has moved to digital based system. The reason for this transition to digital I and C systems lies in their important advantage over existing analog systems. In essence, the challenge is to prove that the new digital guidelines included in NUREG 0800, Standard Review Plan Chapter 7 and all associated documents provided adequate direction and safety review for an advanced control design for a new nuclear plant in the United States. This paper focuses on how one of the new designs incorporates the latest technology and meets the new NRC requirements. (authors)

  9. Design of improved detection instrumentation for the annulus gas system for wolsong 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seog Nam; Koo, Jun Mo; Chang, Ik Ho; Jung, Ho Chang; Han, Sang Joon

    1996-01-01

    The improved and advanced Annulus Gas System (AGS) has been developed for Wolsong 2 to satisfy the requirements of the regulatory body. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required a shorter detection time following a small leak from a pressure tube and/or calandria tube. This paper describes licensing requirements, functional requirements and detail design description for the AGS. The Wolsong unit No. 1 AGS was designed to operate as a stagnant system normally requiring only pressure regulation and having provisions for purging. The improved AGS involves the adoption of gas recirculation in AGS, duplication of dew point indicators with additional instrumentation and sampling provisions to prompt operator action. The improved system operates in the recirculation mode with continuous dew point measurement for leak detection. An AGS with improved detection instrumentation is provided. 8 refs., 3 figs. (author)

  10. High intensity multi beam design of SANS instrument for Dhruva reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Sohrab, E-mail: abbas@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Désert, S. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA, Saclay, 91191 (France)

    2016-05-23

    A new and versatile design of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) instrument based on utilization of multi-beam is presented. The multi-pinholes and multi-slits as SANS collimator for medium flux Dhruva rearctor have been proposed and their designs have been validated using McStas simulations. Various instrument configurations to achieve different minimum wave vector transfers in scattering experiments are envisioned. These options enable smooth access to minimum wave vector transfers as low as ~ 6×10{sup −4} Å{sup −1} with a significant improvement in neutron intensity, allowing faster measurements. Such angularly well defined and intense neutron beam will allow faster SANS studies of agglomerates larger than few tens of nm.

  11. The single chip microcomputer technique in an intelligent nuclear instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tieliu; Sun Punan; Wang Ying

    1995-01-01

    The authors present that how to acquire and process the output signals from the nuclear detector adopting single chip microcomputer technique, including working principles and the designing method of the computer's software and hardware in the single chip microcomputer instrument

  12. The Design and Research of the Operation Status Detector for Marine Engine Room Power Plant Based on Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Designed in this paper, based on the noise of ship engine room power plant running status of detector, is mainly used in the operation of the power plant of acoustic shell size to determine when the machine running state, this device is composed of signal disposal and alarm display adjustment part of two parts. Detector that can show the size of the voice, if exceed the set limit alarm value, the detector can sound an alarm, to remind staff equipment fails, it shall timely inspection maintenance, improve the safety of the operation of the ship.

  13. Design, simulation, fabrication, and preliminary tests of 3D CMS pixel detectors for the super-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koybasi, Ozhan; /Purdue U.; Bortoletto, Daniela; /Purdue U.; Hansen, Thor-Erik; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kok, Angela; /SINTEF, Oslo; Hansen, Trond Andreas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Lietaer, Nicolas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Jensen, Geir Uri; /SINTEF, Oslo; Summanwar, Anand; /SINTEF, Oslo; Bolla, Gino; /Purdue U.; Kwan, Simon Wing Lok; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The Super-LHC upgrade puts strong demands on the radiation hardness of the innermost tracking detectors of the CMS, which cannot be fulfilled with any conventional planar detector design. The so-called 3D detector architectures, which feature columnar electrodes passing through the substrate thickness, are under investigation as a potential solution for the closest operation points to the beams, where the radiation fluence is estimated to reach 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Two different 3D detector designs with CMS pixel readout electronics are being developed and evaluated for their advantages and drawbacks. The fabrication of full-3D active edge CMS pixel devices with p-type substrate has been successfully completed at SINTEF. In this paper, we study the expected post-irradiation behaviors of these devices with simulations and, after a brief description of their fabrication, we report the first leakage current measurement results as performed on wafer.

  14. Design, construction and commissioning of the Thermal Screen Control System for the CMS Tracker detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E; Tsirou, A

    The CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) laboratory is currently building the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Four international collaborations have designed (and are now constructing) detectors able to exploit the physics potential of this collider. Among them is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), a general purpose detector optimized for the search of Higgs boson and for physics beyond the Standard Model of fundamental interactions between elementary particles. This thesis presents, in particular, the design, construction, commissioning and test of the control system for a screen that provides a thermal separation between the Tracker and ECAL (Electromagnetic CALorimeter) detector of CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid experiment). Chapter 1 introduces the new challenges posed by these installations and deals, more in detail, with the Tracker detector of CMS. The size of current experiments for high energy physics is comparable to that of a small industrial plant: therefore, the techniques used for controls a...

  15. An Optimized Design of Single-Channel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Phoswich Detector by Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized single-channel phoswich well detector design has been proposed and assessed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of xenon radioisotopes. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic beta counting cell (BC404 embedded in a CsI(Tl crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The BC404 is configured in a cylindrical pipe shape to minimise light collection deterioration. The CsI(Tl crystal consists of a rectangular part and a semicylindrical scintillation part as a light reflector to increase light gathering. Compared with a PhosWatch detector, the final optimized detector geometry showed 15% improvement in the energy resolution of a 131mXe 129.4 keV conversion electron peak. The predicted beta-gamma coincidence efficiencies of xenon radioisotopes have also been improved accordingly.

  16. Design criteria for pulse transformers used in neutron detector pulse counting channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powler, E.P.

    1963-10-01

    The need for long cables between the detector and head amplifier in neutron pulse counting channels has led to the development of systems in which a transformer is used to 'match' the high impedance of a fission or proportional counter to the characteristic impedance of the cable. A further transformer can be used to match the cable to the input of a low noise pulse amplifier if this has a high impedance. This report is intended to give the designer sufficient information to optimise a system and predict the performance in terms of signal to noise ratio, resolving time and gain. Related problems are covered and include the use of balanced twin cables, the requirements of temperatures up to 500 deg. C and the need for high interference rejection. Two systems are described in some detail to emphasise the principles of design. (author)

  17. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  18. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  19. Silicon position sensitive detectors for the Helios (NA 34) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Manns, T; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Thompson, J A; Tosh, R; Chand, T; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1987-01-15

    The design construction and testing of X-Y tracking modules for a silicon microstrip vertex detector for use in Fermilab experiment E706 is discussed. A successful adaptation of various technologies, essential for instrumenting this class of detectors at a university laboratory is described. Emphasis is placed on considerable cost reduction, design flexibiity and more rapid turnover with a view toward large detectors for the future.

  20. The Design and Development of Driving Game as an Evaluation Instrument for Driving License Test

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Hadi Abdul Razak; Mohd Hairy Manap

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to highlight the design and development of an educational game prototype as an evaluation instrument for the Malaysia driving license static test. This educational game brings gaming technology into the conventional objective static test to make it more effective, real and interesting. From the feeling of realistic, the future driver can learn something, memorized and use it in the real life. The current online objective static test only make th...

  1. A conceptual framework for designing micro electrical connectors for hearing aid instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Fuglsang-Philip, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical connectors play vital roles in modern electronic instruments. Hearing aid devices as advanced combinations of micro mechanics and electronics comprise various electrical connectors for different purposes. However, the current trend in the miniaturization along with the sharp technological advancements have urged them to incorporate increased number of electrical contacts. The current paper presents a conceptual framework for designing and manufacturing novel plug and socket systems...

  2. Multi-detector and systematic imaging system designed and developed within the New AGLAE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, L.; Pacheco, C.; Moignard, B.; Lemasson, Q. [C2RMF - Palais du Louvre 14 quai F Mitterrand 75001, Paris (France); FR3605 - MCC/CNRS/UPMC (France); Guillou, T.; Walter, Ph [FR3605 - CC/CNRS/UPMC (France); LAMS - UMR 8220 - CNRS/UPMC - Seine, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The New AGLAE project aims to establish a world-class facility for non invasive analysis of Cultural Heritage materials. One of the objectives of the New AGLAE project is to increase the x-ray measurement detection, enabling to reduce the beam intensity thus the interaction with sensitive artworks by a ten. Multidisciplinary, the New AGLAE project will provide an exceptional and multipurpose beam line with a performance in spatial resolution, beam stability and a capability of multi-particle detection much higher than for the previous facility. The New AGLAE will give fundamental elements for the understanding of the structure of materials, their composition, properties, and change over time. One of the objectives of this project is to design and set up a new data acquisition system. To reach that purpose, the surface and the number of PIXE detectors have been increased. Indeed, a 10 mm{sup 2} and a 30 mm{sup 3} Si(Li) detectors respectively dedicated to low and high energy measurements, were replaced by a cluster of five 50 mm{sup 2} S.D.D. detectors. If this multi detector enables to decrease the intensity of the incident beam by one order of magnitude, involving less irradiation during the analysis, it can also provide large and/or fast maps. So as to digital the preamp pulses obtained from the detectors, a custom Digital X-ray Processor provides both digital data and control signals compatible to a multiparameter multichannel system. This multiparameter system saves each event from x-ray, gamma and particle detectors and simultaneously the X, Y positions of the beam on the sample as a list file. Furthermore, to draw several-cm-sized maps with a 20/40μm resolution, the scanning of the area originally combines a fast vertical magnetic deflection of the beam and a mechanical movement of the target. To process the data, several homemade software have been developed or updated so as to rebuild any matrix of spectra, to re-bin maps, to process a series of

  3. Conceptual design for muon detectors using resistive plastic tubes. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Border, P.; Courant, H.; Heller, K.; Jones, A.; Lin, J.; Maxam, D.; Ruddick, K.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable low cost detectors which can be built in quantity require a simple design consisting of as few separate pieces as possible using inexpensive materials. For example, ordinary insulating plastics with good structural strength, such as polyethylene or polystyrene, have about 1/3 the cost of aluminum per unit weight. Since plastic is also about 1/3 the density of aluminum, the material cost for a drift tube would be reduced by an order of magnitude. This substitution of plastic for aluminum alone would save the muon system for the SDC more than $2M. Additional savings of greater magnitude can be expected since an entire drift tube, including a field shaping electrode structure, can be manufactured as a single piece by the technique of co-extrusion. A symmetric design with all walls far from the wire will also eliminate critical tolerances in the relative position of the electrodes with respect to the wire. Furthermore, module assembly and mounting costs will surely be reduced if the muon detectors were light weight and, as far as possible, had the same shape and size. With the 8 cm diameter plastic tube of the design, the electric drift field is nearly uniform as shown. This field is determined by a simple symmetric electrode structure, so that the necessary drift/position relationship can be achieved without precisely controlling the position of the electrode structure with respect to the wire. If the positioning of the electrode structure relative to the wire is not a critical dimension, the structural support for the tube need not be maintained to a high tolerance reducing the cost of the structure. Using a resistive plastic to shape the potential gives a simple electrode structure that will require a minimum number of electronic connections. The basic element of this design is the cylindrical plastic drift tube constructed from co-extruded plastics of different conductivity

  4. The design and construction of a double-sided Silicon Microvertex Detector for the L3 experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Bertucci, B.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Caria, M.; Checcucci, B.; Easo, S.; Fiandrini, E.; Krastev, V.R.; Massetti, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Bosetti, M.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rattaggi, M.; Terzi, G.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Burger, W.J.; Extermann, P.; Perrin, E.; Susinno, G.F.; Bencze, G.Y.L.; Kornis, J.; Toth, J.; Bobbink, G.J.; Duinker, P.; Brooks, M.L.; Coan, T.E.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; Mills, G.B.; Thompson, T.C.; Busenitz, J.; DiBitonto, D.; Camps, C.; Commichau, V.; Hangartner, K.; Schmitz, P.; Chen, A.; Hou, S.; Lin, W.T.; Gougas, A.; Kim, D.; Paul, T.; Hauviller, C.; Herve, A.; Josa, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lecomte, P.; Viertel, G.M.; Waldmeier, S.; Leiste, R.; Lejeune, E.; Weill, R.; Lohmann, W.; Nowak, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Schoeniech, B.; Tonisch, F.; Trowitzsch, G.; Vogt, H.; Passaleva, G.; Yeh, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    A Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) has been commissioned for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron-Positron colliding-beam accelerator (LEP) at the European Center for Nuclear Physics, (CERN). The SMD is a 72,672 channel, two layer barrel tracker that is comprised of 96 ac-coupled, double-sided silicon detectors. Details of the design and construction are presented

  5. [System design of small intellectualized ultrasound hyperthermia instrument in the LabVIEW environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Bai, Jingfeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2005-08-01

    Small-scale intellectualized medical instrument has attracted great attention in the field of biomedical engineering, and LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) provides a convenient environment for this application due to its inherent advantages. The principle and system structure of the hyperthermia instrument are presented. Type T thermocouples are employed as thermotransducers, whose amplifier consists of two stages, providing built-in ice point compensation and thus improving work stability over temperature. Control signals produced by specially designed circuit drive the programmable counter/timer 8254 chip to generate PWM (Pulse width modulation) wave, which is used as ultrasound radiation energy control signal. Subroutine design topics such as inner-tissue real time feedback temperature control algorithm, water temperature control in the ultrasound applicator are also described. In the cancer tissue temperature control subroutine, the authors exert new improvments to PID (Proportional Integral Differential) algorithm according to the specific demands of the system and achieve strict temperature control to the target tissue region. The system design and PID algorithm improvement have experimentally proved to be reliable and excellent, meeting the requirements of the hyperthermia system.

  6. Study of electrode pattern design for a CZT-based PET detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Levin, C S

    2014-06-07

    We are developing a 1 mm resolution small animal positron emission tomography (PET) system using 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride photon detectors comprising 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm crystals metalized with a cross-strip electrode pattern with a 1 mm anode strip pitch. We optimized the electrode pattern design for intrinsic sensitivity and spatial, energy and time resolution performance using a test detector comprising cathode and steering electrode strips of varying dimensions. The study found 3 and 5 mm width cathode strips locate charge-shared photon interactions near cathode strip boundaries with equal precision. 3 mm width cathode strips exhibited large time resolution variability as a function of photon interaction location between the anode and cathode planes (~26 to ~127.5 ns full width at half maximum (FWHM) for 0.5 mm and 4.2 mm depths, respectively). 5 mm width cathode strips by contrast exhibited more stable time resolution for the same interaction locations (~34 to ~83 ns FWHM), provided more linear spatial positioning in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes, and as much as 68.4% improvement in photon sensitivity over the 3 mm wide cathode strips. The results were understood by analyzing the cathode strips' weighting functions, which indicated a stronger 'small pixel' effect in the 3 mm wide cathode strips. Photon sensitivity and anode energy resolution were seen to improve with decreasing steering electrode bias from 0 to -80 V w.r.t. the anode potential. A slight improvement in energy resolution was seen for wider steering electrode strips (400 versus 100 µm) for charge-shared photon interactions. Although this study successfully focused on electrode pattern features for PET performance, the results are generally applicable to semiconductor photon detectors employing cross-trip electrode patterns.

  7. State-of-the-Art Report on the Piping and Instrumentation Design of RHRS in the Commercial NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun; Park, C. T.; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, B. S.; Yoon, Ju Hyeon

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the study is for system designers to understand the technical state of the piping and instrumentation design of RHRS (or SCS) in the commercial nuclear power plants, thus to design more uncomplicated and advanced system. In this study, we have reviewed the design requirements and the technical state of piping and instrumentation design. Firstly we have reviewed the design requirements, including functional, isolation, pressure relief, pump protection, test requirements, etc.. Especially we have separately reviewed the design requirements of the low temperature overpressure, including ASME code requirements. Also we have reviewed the technical state of piping and instrumentation design, including piping design, PAMS design, ESFAS design, relief valve design, and instrument/valve/pump control design. In the piping design, the technical state of design has been investigated classified by the five regions, which have a little different design features, from the RCS suction line to the LPSI header line. Commonly, the P and ID is the design output which the related design requirements of the system have been all applied, also the operations for in-service inspection, heat-up/normal/cool-down, and emergency have been all considered. If we can understand well the design bases and its meanings of the P and ID, it would be helpful for us to design more uncomplicated and advanced system

  8. Performance of the transition radiation detector flown on the NMSU/WIZARD TS93 balloon-borne instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G.; Brancaccio, F.M. [INFN, Laboratori nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Bidoli, V. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Bronzini, F. [Rome Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `La Sapienza` Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    It is built and tested a transition radiation detector (TRD) to discriminate positrons from protons in the balloon flight TS 93 experiment. It is presented the TRD performance using flight data obtaining a proton-positron rejection factor of the order of 10{sup -3}. During the 24 hour flight, the data in the momentum range 4-50 GeV/c are collected. Using the TRD together with the Silicon calorimeter, it is achieved an overall rejection factor of about 10{sup -5} of positron against the proton background over the entire momentum range.

  9. Design and construction of an instrument for measuring thermistor electrical characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiono; Yudi Herdiana

    2007-01-01

    In this work an instrument for measuring the electrical characteristic of thermistor has been designed and constructed. The instrument was constructed from main components i.e. a micro controller AT89C51, 3 ADC-0804, a LM35 temperature sensor and IC MAX 232. The IC MAX 232 component is used to connect the micro controller to the personal computer serially by using RS-232 standard. While ADC-0804 was used to convert the analog data (DC voltage) to the digital one so that the data was readable by the micro controller. Digital data from 3 ADC-0804 circuit which have been read by the micro controller was sent directly to the personal computer. The data from the measurement which have been stored in the personal computer was then processed to know the value of temperature and measured thermistor resistance. The processed data could be either stored in a data base or displayed in a monitor or printed in the form of table data and in the form a graph of thermistor resistance as the function of temperature. The result of measurement from measuring instrument of the characteristic of thermistor electric's had been made, being compared by measuring calibrated instrument, the deviation is about 0.33 %. (author)

  10. Principles relating to the digital instrumentation and control design approach 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The design of the instrumentation and control of nuclear facilities uses digital systems that offer increasing computation and interconnection capabilities. They enable advanced functions to be carried out, such as calculation of the critical heat flux ratio, help to detect hardware failures in real time and provide operators with rich, flexible interfaces. However, these evolved functions may be affected by faults that make their logic systematically inadequate in certain cases, which introduces sources of failure other than random hardware failures and raises questions about the informal concept of the increased 'complexity' of instrumentation and control. Appropriate design principles shall therefore be applied so that this logic is as fault-free as possible and can be assessed by an independent body such as IRSN. This document presents the main problems associated with the design of the digital instrumentation and control of a complex facility, as well as the general principles to follow to demonstrate that a satisfactory safety level has been achieved. The doctrine elements presented in this document are the result of the experience acquired during assessments carried out for the French nuclear power plants, enhanced by exchanges with experts from the nuclear sector, and reflect French practice; they apply in other sectors in which a high level of confidence can be attributed to instrumentation and control. The normative texts cited in this document provide detailed requirements that are open to considerable interpretation, as the nature of the problem posed does not enable relevant and measurable criteria to be defined in all cases. This document aims to explain the principles underlying these detailed requirements and to give the means for interpreting them in each situation. (authors)

  11. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  12. Development of a portable X-ray and gamma-ray detector instrument and imaging camera for use in radioactive and hazardous materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scyoc, J.M. van; James, R.B.; Anderson, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop instruments for use in the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Devices for identifying and imaging such wastes are critical to developing environmental remediation strategies. Field portable units are required to enable the on-site analysis of solids, liquids, and gas effluents. Red mercuric iodide (α-HgI 2 ) is a semiconductor material that can be operated as a high-energy-resolution radiation detector at ambient temperatures. This property provides the needed performance of conventional germanium- and silicon-based devices, while eliminating the need for the cryogenic cooling of such instruments. The first year of this project focused on improving the materials properties of the mercuric iodide to enable the new sensor technology; in particular the charge carrier traps limiting device performance were determined and eliminated. The second year involved the development of a field portable x-ray fluorescence analyzer for compositional analyses. The third and final year of the project focused on the development of imaging sensors to provide the capability for mapping the composition of waste masses. This project resulted in instruments useful not only for managing hazardous and radioactive wastes, but also in a variety of industrial and national security applications

  13. The high dynamic range pixel array detector (HDR-PAD): Concept and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Experiments at storage ring light sources as well as at next-generation light sources increasingly require detectors capable of high dynamic range operation, combining low-noise detection of single photons with large pixel well depth. XFEL sources in particular provide pulse intensities sufficiently high that a purely photon-counting approach is impractical. The High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector (HDR-PAD) project aims to provide a dynamic range extending from single-photon sensitivity to 10{sup 6} photons/pixel in a single XFEL pulse while maintaining the ability to tolerate a sustained flux of 10{sup 11} ph/s/pixel at a storage ring source. Achieving these goals involves the development of fast pixel front-end electronics as well as, in the XFEL case, leveraging the delayed charge collection due to plasma effects in the sensor. A first prototype of essential electronic components of the HDR-PAD readout ASIC, exploring different options for the pixel front-end, has been fabricated. Here, the HDR-PAD concept and preliminary design will be described.

  14. Design and development of a silicon-segmented detector for 2D dose measurements in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichelli, David [Department of Clinical Phisiopathology, University of Florence, v.le Morgagni, 85-50134 Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail: david.menichelli@cern.ch; Bruzzi, Mara [Department of Energetics, University of Florence, via S. Marta, 3-50139 Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bucciolini, Marta; Talamonti, Cinzia; Casati, Marta; Marrazzo, Livia [Department of Clinical Phisiopathology, University of Florence, v.le Morgagni, 85-50134 Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Tesi, Mauro [Department of Energetics, University of Florence, via S. Marta, 3-50139 Florence (Italy); Piemonte, Claudio; Pozza, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola [ITC-irst, via Sommarive, 18-38050 Trento (Italy); Brianzi, Mirko [INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Florence, L.go E. Fermi, 2-50125 Florence (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and protontherapy, require detectors with specific features, usually not available in conventional dosimeters. IMRT dose measurements, for instance, must face non-uniform beam fluences as well as a time-varying dose rate. Two-dimensional detectors present a great interest for dosimetry in beams with steep dose gradients, but they must satisfy a number of requirements and, in particular, they must exhibit high spatial resolution. With the aim of developing a dosimetric system adequate for 2D pre-treatment dose verifications, we designed a modular dosimetric device based on a monolithic silicon-segmented module. State and results of this work in progress are described in this article. The first 441 pixels, 6.29x6.29 cm{sup 2} silicon module has been produced by ion implantation on a 50 {mu}m thick p-type epitaxial layer. This sensor has been connected to a discrete readout electronics performing current integration, and has been tested with satisfactory results. In the final configuration, nine silicon modules will be assembled together to cover an area close to 20x20 cm{sup 2} with 3969 channels. In this case, the readout electronics will be based on an ASIC capable to read 64 channels by performing current-to-frequency conversion.

  15. Design of optical instruments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22-24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, David M.; Genberg, Victor L.; Krumweide, Gary C.; Thomas, Michael J.

    1992-09-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include optical system design, recent application of composite materials to precision optical instrument structure, development of composite mirrors and reflectos, development of composite materials for dimensionally stable structures, and structural mechanics. Papers are presented on adjustable distortion correctors, the optical design for the ATLAS multispectral scanner, an internal thermal emission analysis of an IR seeker, recent developments with the Mars Observer Camera graphite/epoxy structure, and moisture effects and control for the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrograph composite structure. Attention is also given to composite materials for precision space reflector panels, the structural design and analysis for an ultralow-CTE optical bench for the Hubbale Space Telescope corrective optics, the evaluation of high-modulus pitch/cyanate material systems for dimensionally stable structures, weight minimization of an active mirror, and a compliant optical mount design. (For individual items see A93-29782 to A93-29798)

  16. Instrumentation and control of future sodium cooled fast reactors - Design improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusoodanan, K.; Sakthivel, M.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    India's fast reactor program started with the 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor. 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is currently under construction at Kalpakkam. Safety of PFBR is enhanced by improved design features of I and C system. Since the design of Instrumentation and control (I and C) of PFBR, considerable improvements in terms of advancement in technology and indigenization has taken place. Further improvements in I and C is proposed for solving many of the difficulties faced during the design and construction phases of PFBR. Design improvements proposed are covered in this paper which will make the implementation and maintenance of I and C of future SFRs easier. (authors)

  17. 3D integration technology for hybrid pixel detectors designed for particle physics and imaging experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, D.; Berthelot, A.; Cuchet, R.; Chantre, C.; Campbell, M.; Tick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and are becoming established at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the advantages of 3D Integration come from reduced inter chip dead area even on large surfaces and from improved detector construction yield resulting from the use of single chip 4-side buttable tiles. For many years, numerous R and centres and companies have put a lot of effort into developing 3D integration technologies and today, some mature technologies are ready for prototyping and production. The core technology of the 3D integration is the TSV (Through Silicon Via) and for many years, LETI has developed those technologies for various types of applications. In this paper we present how one of the TSV approaches developed by LETI, called TSV last, has been applied to a readout wafer containing readout chips intended for a hybrid pixel detector assembly. In the first part of this paper, the 3D design adapted to the read-out chip will be described. Then the complete process flow will be explained and, finally, the test strategy adopted and

  18. Design of a high-magnification and low-aberration compact catadioptric telescope for the Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave interferometric detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, C; Barsuglia, M; Tacca, M; Genin, E; Gouaty, R

    2017-01-01

    Advanced Virgo is a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational-wave detector, aiming to increase its sensitivity by an order of magnitude. Among the main modifications of the instrument, the size of the laser beam inside the central area has been roughly doubled. Consequently, the input/output optics systems have been re-designed. Due to the overall Advanced Virgo optical scheme, high-magnification and compact telescopes are needed. These telescopes also have to fulfill stringent requirements in terms of aberrations, separation of secondary beams and scattered light. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Virgo telescopes and their estimated performances in terms of tuning capability and optical properties. (paper)

  19. Compact and Light-Weight Solar Spaceflight Instrument Designs Utilizing Newly Developed Miniature Free-Standing Zone Plates: EUV Radiometer and Limb-Scanning Monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; McMullin, D. R.; Bremer, J.; Chang, C.; Sakdinawat, A.; Jones, A. R.; Vest, R.

    2014-12-01

    Two solar instrument designs are presented that utilize newly developed miniature free-standing zone plates having interconnected Au opaque bars and no support membrane resulting in excellent long-term stability in space. Both instruments are based on a zone plate having 4 mm outer diameter and 1 to 2 degree field of view. The zone plate collects EUV radiation and focuses a narrow bandpass through a pinhole aperture and onto a silicon photodiode detector. As a miniature radiometer, EUV irradiance is accurately determined from the zone plate efficiency and the photodiode responsivity that are calibrated at the NIST SURF synchrotron facility. The EUV radiometer is pointed to the Sun and measures the absolute solar EUV irradiance in high time cadence suitable for solar physics and space weather applications. As a limb-scanning instrument in low earth orbit, a miniature zone-plate monochromator measures the extinction of solar EUV radiation by scattering through the upper atmosphere which is a measure of the variability of the ionosphere. Both instruments are compact and light-weight and are attractive for CubeSats and other missions where resources are extremely limited.

  20. Designing a new type of neutron detector for neutron and gamma-ray discrimination via GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Qing; Chu, Shengnan; Ling, Yongsheng; Cai, Pingkun; Jia, Wenbao

    2016-01-01

    Design of a new type of neutron detector, consisting of a fast neutron converter, plastic scintillator, and Cherenkov detector, to discriminate 14-MeV fast neutrons and gamma rays in a pulsed n–γ mixed field and monitor their neutron fluxes is reported in this study. Both neutrons and gamma rays can produce fluorescence in the scintillator when they are incident on the detector. However, only the secondary charged particles of the gamma rays can produce Cherenkov light in the Cherenkov detector. The neutron and gamma-ray fluxes can be calculated by measuring the fluorescence and Cherenkov light. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit is used to simulate the whole process occurring in the detector, whose optimum parameters are known. Analysis of the simulation results leads to a calculation method of neutron flux. This method is verified by calculating the neutron fluxes using pulsed n–γ mixed fields with different n/γ ratios, and the results show that the relative errors of all calculations are <5%. - Highlights: • A neutron detector is developed to discriminate 14-MeV fast neutrons and gamma rays. • The GEANT4 is used to optimize the parameters of the detector. • A calculation method of neutron flux is established through the simulation. • Several n/γ mixture fields are simulated to validate of the calculation method.