WorldWideScience

Sample records for detector instrument design

  1. Neutron detector array at IUAC: Design features and instrumentation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... pulse shape analysis are performed using standard analog NIM electronics and data read- out using VME data acquisition .... ment VME-based data acquisition system for collecting data from NAND array. The data .... All the 50 detectors in the first phase of the project have been tested for their performance.

  2. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H; Abusleme, A; Afanaciev, K; Emeliantchik, I; Aguilar, J; Ambalathankandy, P; Fiutowski, T; Bambade, P; Bergholz, M; Castro, E; Grah, C; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Chelkov, G; Gostkin, M; Coca, C; Dumitru, L; Daniluk, W; Grzelak, G; Dragone, A; Elsener, K

    2010-01-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10 -3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

  3. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, Halina; Abusleme, Angel; Afanaciev, Konstantin

    2010-09-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10 -3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  4. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, Halina [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Abusleme, Angel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (BY)] (and others)

    2010-09-15

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10{sup -3} and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  5. Conceptual design of wearpack with physiology detector feature based on wearable instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Melani; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo; Priadythama, Ilham; Susmartini, Susy; Suhardi, Bambang

    2017-11-01

    Every company in Indonesia is responsible for their worker health and safety condition as mentioned in UU No I year 1970. In manufacturing industries, there are many manual tasks dealing with high work load and risk, so that they require excellent concentration and physical condition. There is no ideal way to guarantee worker safety without a real time physiological monitoring. This paper reports our ongoing study in conceptual design development of worker's clothing which is equipped with a wearable instrumentation system. The system is designed to detect and measure body temperature and pulse in real time. Some electrical components such as, LCD (liquid crystal display), LEDs (light emitting diode), batteries, and physiological sensors were assembled. All components are controlled by a wearable on board controller. LEDs is used as alert which can indicate abnormal physical conditions. The LCD was added to provide more detail information. TMP 36 and XD-58C were selected as the physiological sensors. Finally, an Arduino Lilypad was chosen for the controller. This instrumentation system was verified by accurately detected and inform physiological condition of 3 subjects. Further we are going to attach the system to a worker's clothing which was specifically designed to simplify and comfortable usage.

  6. Reliability analysis of instrument design of noninvasive bone marrow disease detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting; Sun, Yunlong

    2016-02-01

    Bone marrow is an important hematopoietic organ, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a variety of complications with high death rate and short survival time. Early detection and follow up care are particularly important. But the current diagnosis methods rely on bone marrow biopsy/puncture, with significant limitations such as invasion, complex operation, high risk, and discontinuous. It is highly in need of a non-invasive, safe, easily operated, and continuous monitoring technology. So we proposed to design a device aimed for detecting bone marrow lesions, which was based on near infrared spectrum technology. Then we fully tested its reliabilities, including the sensitivity, specificity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stability, and etc. Here, we reported this sequence of reliability test experiments, the experimental results, and the following data analysis. This instrument was shown to be very sensitive, with distinguishable concentration less than 0.002 and with good linearity, stability and high SNR. Finally, these reliability-test data supported the promising clinical diagnosis and surgery guidance of our novel instrument in detection of BMLs.

  7. Electronic Imaging in Astronomy Detectors and Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    McLean, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The second edition of Electronic Imaging in Astronomy: Detectors and Instrumentation describes the remarkable developments that have taken place in astronomical detectors and instrumentation in recent years – from the invention of the charge-coupled device (CCD) in 1970 to the current era of very large telescopes, such as the Keck 10-meter telescopes in Hawaii with their laser guide-star adaptive optics which rival the image quality of the Hubble Space Telescope. Authored by one of the world’s foremost experts on the design and development of electronic imaging systems for astronomy, this book has been written on several levels to appeal to a broad readership. Mathematical expositions are designed to encourage a wider audience, especially among the growing community of amateur astronomers with small telescopes with CCD cameras. The book can be used at the college level for an introductory course on modern astronomical detectors and instruments, and as a supplement for a practical or laboratory class.

  8. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 4 - Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Jaros, John; Miyamoto, Akiya; Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; Amann, John; Amirikas, Ramila; An, Qi; Anami, Shozo; Ananthanarayan, B.; Anderson, Terry; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Anerella, Michael; Anfimov, Nikolai; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Antipov, Sergei; Antoine, Claire; Aoki, Mayumi; Aoza, Atsushi; Aplin, Steve; Appleby, Rob; Arai, Yasuo; Araki, Sakae; Arkan, Tug; Arnold, Ned; Arnold, Ray; Arnowitt, Richard; Artru, Xavier; Arya, Kunal; Aryshev, Alexander; Asakawa, Eri; Asiri, Fred; Asner, David; Atac, Muzaffer; Atoian, Grigor; Attié, David; Augustin, Jean-Eudes; Augustine, David B.; Ayres, Bradley; Aziz, Tariq; Baars, Derek; Badaud, Frederique; Baddams, Nigel; Bagger, Jonathan; Bai, Sha; Bailey, David; Bailey, Ian R.; Baker, David; Balalykin, Nikolai I.; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Ball, Markus; Ball, Maurice; Ballestrero, Alessandro; Ballin, Jamie; Baltay, Charles; Bambade, Philip; Ban, Syuichi; Band, Henry; Bane, Karl; Banerjee, Bakul; Barbanotti, Serena; Barbareschi, Daniele; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Desmond P.; Barbi, Mauricio; Bardin, Dmitri Y.; Barish, Barry; Barklow, Timothy L.; Barlow, Roger; Barnes, Virgil E.; Barone, Maura; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Basu, Rahul; Battaglia, Marco; Batygin, Yuri; Baudot, Jerome; Baur, Ulrich; Elwyn Baynham, D.; Beard, Carl; Bebek, Chris; Bechtle, Philip; Becker, Ulrich J.; Bedeschi, Franco; Bedjidian, Marc; Behera, Prafulla; Bellantoni, Leo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Paul; Bentson, Lynn D.; Benyamna, Mustapha; Bergauer, Thomas; Berger, Edmond; Bergholz, Matthias; Beri, Suman; Berndt, Martin; Bernreuther, Werner; Bertolini, Alessandro; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Beteille, Andre; Bettoni, Simona; Beyer, Michael; Bhandari, R.K.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Bhuyan, Ruchika; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Biagini, Marica; Bialowons, Wilhelm; Biebel, Otmar; Bieler, Thomas; Bierwagen, John; Birch, Alison; Bisset, Mike; Biswal, S.S.; Blackmore, Victoria; Blair, Grahame; Blanchard, Guillaume; Blazey, Gerald; Blue, Andrew; Blümlein, Johannes; Boffo, Christian; Bohn, Courtlandt; Boiko, V.I.; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondarchuk, Eduard N.; Boni, Roberto; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boogert, Stewart; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Borras, Kerstin; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bosco, Alessio; Bosio, Carlo; Bosland, Pierre; Bosotti, Angelo; Boudry, Vincent; Boumediene, Djamel-Eddine; Bouquet, Bernard; Bourov, Serguei; Bowden, Gordon; Bower, Gary; Boyarski, Adam; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bozzi, Concezio; Brachmann, Axel; Bradshaw, Tom W.; Brandt, Andrew; Brasser, Hans Peter; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James E.; Breidenbach, Martin; Bricker, Steve; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brodsky, Stanley; Brooksby, Craig; Broome, Timothy A.; Brown, David; Brown, David; Brownell, James H.; Bruchon, Mélanie; Brueck, Heiner; Brummitt, Amanda J.; Brun, Nicole; Buchholz, Peter; Budagov, Yulian A.; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Bulyak, Eugene; Bungau, Adriana; Bürger, Jochen; Burke, Dan; Burkhart, Craig; Burrows, Philip; Burt, Graeme; Burton, David; Büsser, Karsten; Butler, John; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buzulutskov, Alexei; Cabruja, Enric; Caccia, Massimo; Cai, Yunhai; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caliier, Stephane; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cao, Jun-Jie; Cao, J.S.; Capatina, Ofelia; Cappellini, Chiara; Carcagno, Ruben; Carena, Marcela; Carloganu, Cristina; Carosi, Roberto; Stephen Carr, F.; Carrion, Francisco; Carter, Harry F.; Carter, John; Carwardine, John; Cassel, Richard; Cassell, Ronald; Cavallari, Giorgio; Cavallo, Emanuela; Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chandez, Frederic; Charles, Matthew; Chase, Brian; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chauveau, Jacques; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chehab, Robert; Chel, Stéphane; Chelkov, Georgy; Chen, Chiping; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Huai Bi; Chen, Jia Er; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chevallier, M.; Chi, Yun Long; Chickering, William; Cho, Gi-Chol; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Hyuk; Choi, Jong Bum; Choi, Seong Youl; Choi, Young-Il; Choudhary, Brajesh; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Rai Choudhury, S.; Christian, David; Christian, Glenn; Christophe, Grojean; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Church, Mike; Ciborowski, Jacek; Cihangir, Selcuk; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clarke, Christine; Clarke, Don G.; Clarke, James A.; Clements, Elizabeth; Coca, Cornelia; Coe, Paul; Cogan, John; Colas, Paul; Collard, Caroline; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Comerma, Albert; Compton, Chris; Constance, Ben; Conway, John; Cook, Ed; Cooke, Peter; Cooper, William; Corcoran, Sean; Cornat, Rémi; Corner, Laura; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; Clay Corvin, W.; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cowan, Ray; Crawford, Curtis; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Crittenden, James A.; Cussans, David; Cvach, Jaroslav; da Silva, Wilfrid; Dabiri Khah, Hamid; Dabrowski, Anne; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dadoun, Olivier; Dai, Jian Ping; Dainton, John; Daly, Colin; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daram, Sarojini; Datta, Anindya; Dauncey, Paul; David, Jacques; Davier, Michel; Davies, Ken P.; Dawson, Sally; De Boer, Wim; De Curtis, Stefania; De Groot, Nicolo; de la Taille, Christophe; de Lira, Antonio; De Roeck, Albert; de Sangro, Riccardo; De Santis,Stefano; Deacon, Laurence; Deandrea, Aldo; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Delebecque, Pierre; Delerue, Nicholas; Delferriere, Olivier; Demarteau, Marcel; Deng, Zhi; Denisov, Yu.N.; Densham, Christopher J.; Desch, Klaus; Deshpande, Nilendra; Devanz, Guillaume; Devetak, Erik; Dexter, Amos; Di benedetto, Vito; Diéguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dinh, Nguyen Dinh; Dixit, Madhu; Dixit, Sudhir; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dollan, Ralph; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Dorfan, Jonathan; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doucas, George; Downing, Robert; Doyle, Eric; Doziere, Guy; Drago, Alessandro; Dragt, Alex; Drake, Gary; Drásal, Zbynek; Dreiner, Herbert; Drell, Persis; Driouichi, Chafik; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drugakov, Vladimir; Du, Shuxian; Dugan, Gerald; Duginov, Viktor; Dulinski, Wojciech; Dulucq, Frederic; Dutta, Sukanta; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Dychkant, Alexandre; Dzahini, Daniel; Eckerlin, Guenter; Edwards, Helen; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrlichman, Michael; Ehrlichmann, Heiko; Eigen, Gerald; Elagin, Andrey; Elementi, Luciano; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John; Ellwood, George; Elsen, Eckhard; Emery, Louis; Enami, Kazuhiro; Endo, Kuninori; Enomoto, Atsushi; Eozénou, Fabien; Erbacher, Robin; Erickson, Roger; Oleg Eyser, K.; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fang, Shou Xian; Fant, Karen; Fasso, Alberto; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Fehlberg, John; Feld, Lutz; Feng, Jonathan L.; Ferguson, John; Fernandez-Garcia, Marcos; Luis Fernandez-Hernando, J.; Fiala, Pavel; Fieguth, Ted; Finch, Alexander; Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Peter; Eugene Fisk, H.; Fitton, Mike D.; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleury, Julien; Flood, Kevin; Foley, Mike; Ford, Richard; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Francis, Kurt; Frey, Ariane; Frey, Raymond; Friedsam, Horst; Frisch, Josef; Frishman, Anatoli; Fuerst, Joel; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fukuda, Shigeki; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Funk, Warren; Furletova, Julia; Furukawa, Kazuro; Furuta, Fumio; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gadow, Karsten; Gaede, Frank; Gaglione, Renaud; Gai, Wei; Gajewski, Jan; Galik, Richard; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gannaway, Fred; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yuanning; Garbincius, Peter; Garcia-Tabares, Luis; Garren, Lynn; Garrido, Luís; Garutti, Erika; Garvey, Terry; Garwin, Edward; Gascón, David; Gastal, Martin; Gatto, Corrado; Gatto, Raoul; Gay, Pascal; Ge, Lixin; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geiser, Achim; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Gibbons, Lawrence; Giganon, Arnaud; Gillespie, Allan; Gillman, Tony; Ginzburg, Ilya; Giomataris, Ioannis; Giunta, Michele; Gladkikh, Peter; Gluza, Janusz; Godbole, Rohini; Godfrey, Stephen; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goldstein, Joel; Gollin, George D.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Goodrick, Maurice; Gornushkin, Yuri; Gostkin, Mikhail; Gottschalk, Erik; Goudket, Philippe; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gournaris, Filimon; Graciani, Ricardo; Graf, Norman; Grah, Christian; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grandjean, Damien; Grannis, Paul; Grassellino, Anna; Graugés, Eugeni; Gray, Stephen; Green, Michael; Greenhalgh, Justin; Greenshaw, Timothy; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald; Grimes, Mark; Grimm, Terry; Gris, Philippe; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groll, Marius; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Grondin, Denis; Groom, Donald; Gross, Eilam; Grunewald, Martin; Grupen, Claus; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gu, Jun; Gu, Yun-Ting; Guchait, Monoranjan; Guiducci, Susanna; Guler, Ali Murat; Guler, Hayg; Gulmez, Erhan; Gunion, John; Guo, Zhi Yu; Gurtu, Atul; Ha, Huy Bang; Haas, Tobias; Haase, Andy; Haba, Naoyuki; Haber, Howard; Haensel, Stephan; Hagge, Lars; Hagura, Hiroyuki; Hajdu, Csaba; Haller, Gunther; Haller, Johannes; Hallermann, Lea; Halyo, Valerie; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Hammond, Larry; Han, Liang; Han, Tao; Hand, Louis; Handu, Virender K.; Hano, Hitoshi; Hansen, Christian; Hansen, Jørn Dines; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hara, Kazufumi; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Hartung, Walter; Hast, Carsten; Hauptman, John; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Chris; Hawkings, Richard; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hazumi, Masashi; He, An; He, Hong Jian; Hearty, Christopher; Heath, Helen; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heifets, Samuel; Heinemeyer, Sven; Heini, Sebastien; Helebrant, Christian; Helms, Richard; Heltsley, Brian; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hermel, Richard; Herms, Atilà; Herten, Gregor; Hesselbach, Stefan; Heuer, Rolf-Dieter; Heusch, Clemens A.; Hewett, Joanne; Higashi, Norio; Higashi, Takatoshi; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshiyasu; Hildreth, Michael D.; Hiller, Karlheinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen James; Himel, Thomas; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hioki, Zenro; Hirano, Koichiro; Hirose, Tachishige; Hisamatsu, Hiromi; Hisano, Junji; Hlaing, Chit Thu; Hock, Kai Meng; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hohlfeld, Mark; Honda, Yousuke; Hong, Juho; Hong, Tae Min; Honma, Hiroyuki; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hosoyama, Kenji; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Mi; Hou, Wei-Shu; Howell, David; Hronek, Maxine; Hsiung, Yee B.; Hu, Bo; Hu, Tao; Huang, Jung-Yun; Huang, Tong Ming; Huang, Wen Hui; Huedem, Emil; Huggard, Peter; Hugonie, Cyril; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huitu, Katri; Hwang, Youngseok; Idzik, Marek; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Ignatov, Fedor; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ilicheva, Tatiana; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Incagli, Marco; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Hitoshi; Inoue, Youichi; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioakeimidi, Katerina; Ishihara, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Issakov, Vladimir; Ito, Kazutoshi; Ivanov, V.V.; Ivanov, Valentin; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Iwasaki, Masako; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Jackson, David; Jackson, Frank; Jacobsen, Bob; Jaganathan, Ramaswamy; Jamison, Steven; Janssen, Matthias Enno; Jaramillo-Echeverria, Richard; Jauffret, Clement; Jawale, Suresh B.; Jeans, Daniel; Jedziniak, Ron; Jeffery, Ben; Jehanno, Didier; Jenner, Leo J.; Jensen, Chris; Jensen, David R.; Jiang, Hairong; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jimbo, Masato; Jin, Shan; Keith Jobe, R.; Johnson, Anthony; Johnson, Erik; Johnson, Matt; Johnston, Michael; Joireman, Paul; Jokic, Stevan; Jones, James; Jones, Roger M.; Jongewaard, Erik; Jönsson, Leif; Joshi, Gopal; Joshi, Satish C.; Jung, Jin-Young; Junk, Thomas; Juste, Aurelio; Kado, Marumi; Kadyk, John; Käfer, Daniela; Kako, Eiji; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kalinin, Alexander; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamitani, Takuya; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kamiya, Yukihide; Kamoshita, Jun-ichi; Kananov, Sergey; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Kanemura, Shinya; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kang, Wen; Kanjial, D.; Kapusta, Frédéric; Karataev, Pavel; Karchin, Paul E.; Karlen, Dean; Karyotakis, Yannis; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kasley, Paul; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Kato, Takashi; Kato, Yukihiro; Katzy, Judith; Kaukher, Alexander; Kaur, Manjit; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kazakov, Sergei; Kekelidze, V.D.; Keller, Lewis; Kelley, Michael; Kelly, Marc; Kelly, Michael; Kennedy, Kurt; Kephart, Robert; Keung, Justin; Khainovski, Oleg; Khan, Sameen Ahmed; Khare, Prashant; Khovansky, Nikolai; Kiesling, Christian; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kilian, Wolfgang; Killenberg, Martin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Hyun-Chui; Kim, Jonghoon; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Peter; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Sun Kee; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Youngim; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimmitt, Maurice; Kirby, Robert; Kircher, François; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittel, Olaf; Klanner, Robert; Klebaner, Arkadiy L.; Kleinwort, Claus; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klinkby, Esben; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Marc; Kneisel, Peter; Ko, In Soo; Ko, Kwok; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Kobel, Michael; Koch, Manuel; Kodys, Peter; Koetz, Uli; Kohrs, Robert; Kojima, Yuuji; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolodziej, Karol; Kolomensky, Yury G.; Komamiya, Sachio; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korbel, Volker; Koscielniak, Shane; Kostromin, Sergey; Kowalewski, Robert; Kraml, Sabine; Krammer, Manfred; Krasnykh, Anatoly; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Krawczyk, Maria; James Krebs, H.; Krempetz, Kurt; Kribs, Graham; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Kriske, Richard; Kronfeld, Andreas; Kroseberg, Jürgen; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruecker, Dirk; Krüger, Hans; Krumpa, Nicholas A.; Krumshtein, Zinovii; Kuang, Yu Ping; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Vic; Kudoh, Noboru; Kulis, Szymon; Kumada, Masayuki; Kumar, Abhay; Kume, Tatsuya; Kundu, Anirban; Kurevlev, German; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Kuriki, Masao; Kuroda, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Kusano, Tomonori; Kush, Pradeep K.; Kutschke, Robert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Kvasnicka, Peter; Kwon, Youngjoon; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lackey, Sharon; Lackowski, Thomas W.; Lafaye, Remi; Lafferty, George; Lagorio, Eric; Laktineh, Imad; Lal, Shankar; Laloum, Maurice; Lam, Briant; Lancaster, Mark; Lander, Richard; Lange, Wolfgang; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Langeveld, Willem; Larbalestier, David; Larsen, Ray; Lastovicka, Tomas; Lastovicka-Medin, Gordana; Latina, Andrea; Latour, Emmanuel; Laurent, Lisa; Le, Ba Nam; Le, Duc Ninh; Le Diberder, Francois; Dû, Patrick Le; Lebbolo, Hervé; Lebrun, Paul; Lecoq, Jacques; Lee, Sung-Won; Lehner, Frank; Leibfritz, Jerry; Lenkszus, Frank; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Levy, Aharon; Lewandowski, Jim; Leyh, Greg; Li, Cheng; Li, Chong Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Jin; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Wei Ming; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yuanjing; Li, Yulan; Li, Zenghai; Li, Zhong Quan; Liang, Jian Tao; Liao, Yi; Lilje, Lutz; Guilherme Lima, J.; Lintern, Andrew J.; Lipton, Ronald; List, Benno; List, Jenny; Liu, Chun; Liu, Jian Fei; Liu, Ke Xin; Liu, Li Qiang; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Sheng Guang; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Wanming; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lockyer, Nigel; Logan, Heather E.; Logatchev, Pavel V.; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lohse, Thomas; Lola, Smaragda; Lopez-Virto, Amparo; Loveridge, Peter; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lu, Changguo; Lu, Gong-Lu; Lu, Wen Hui; Lubatti, Henry; Lucotte, Arnaud; Lundberg, Björn; Lundin, Tracy; Luo, Mingxing; Luong, Michel; Luth, Vera; Lutz, Benjamin; Lutz, Pierre; Lux, Thorsten; Luzniak, Pawel; Lyapin, Alexey; Lykken, Joseph; Lynch, Clare; Ma, Li; Ma, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Wen-Gan; Macfarlane, David; Maciel, Arthur; MacLeod, Allan; MacNair, David; Mader, Wolfgang; Magill, Stephen; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Maiheu, Bino; Maity, Manas; Majchrzak, Millicent; Majumder, Gobinda; Makarov, Roman; Makowski, Dariusz; Malaescu, Bogdan; Mallik, C.; Mallik, Usha; Malton, Stephen; Malyshev, Oleg B.; Malysheva, Larisa I.; Mammosser, John; Mamta; Mamuzic, Judita; Manen, Samuel; Manghisoni, Massimo; Manly, Steven; Marcellini, Fabio; Marcisovsky, Michal; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Marks, Steve; Marone, Andrew; Marti, Felix; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Victoria; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Martinez, Manel; Martinez-Rivero, Celso; Martsch, Dennis; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Maruyama, Takashi; Masuzawa, Mika; Mathez, Hervé; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Mättig, Peter; Mattison, Thomas; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mawatari, Kentarou; Mazzacane, Anna; McBride, Patricia; McCormick, Douglas; McCormick, Jeremy; McDonald, Kirk T.; McGee, Mike; McIntosh, Peter; McKee, Bobby; McPherson, Robert A.; Meidlinger, Mandi; Meier, Karlheinz; Mele, Barbara; Meller, Bob; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Mendez, Hector; Mercer, Adam; Merkin, Mikhail; Meshkov, I.N.; Messner, Robert; Metcalfe, Jessica; Meyer, Chris; Meyer, Hendrik; Meyer, Joachim; Meyer, Niels; Meyners, Norbert; Michelato, Paolo; Michizono, Shinichiro; Mihalcea, Daniel; Mihara, Satoshi; Mihara, Takanori; Mikami, Yoshinari; Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.; Milardi, Catia; Miller, David J.; Miller, Owen; Miller, Roger J.; Milstene, Caroline; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Minashvili, Irakli; Miquel, Ramon; Mishra, Shekhar; Mitaroff, Winfried; Mitchell, Chad; Miura, Takako; Miyata, Hitoshi; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Mnich, Joachim; Moenig, Klaus; Moffeit, Kenneth; Mokhov, Nikolai; Molloy, Stephen; Monaco, Laura; Monasterio, Paul R.; Montanari, Alessandro; Moon, Sung Ik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Mora de Freitas, Paulo; Morel, Federic; Moretti, Stefano; Morgunov, Vasily; Mori, Toshinori; Morin, Laurent; Morisseau, François; Morita, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Youhei; Morita, Yuichi; Morozov, Nikolai; Morozumi, Yuichi; Morse, William; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Moultaka, Gilbert; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Alex; Mueller, Wolfgang; Muennich, Astrid; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Müller, Thomas; Munro, Morrison; Murayama, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nagamine, Tadashi; Nagano, Ai; Naito, Takashi; Nakai, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Isamu; Nakamura, Tomoya; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Nakao, Katsumi; Nakao, Noriaki; Nakayoshi, Kazuo; Nam, Sang; Namito, Yoshihito; Namkung, Won; Nantista, Chris; Napoly, Olivier; Narain, Meenakshi; Naroska, Beate; Nauenberg, Uriel; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nelson, Charles; Nelson, Janice; Nelson, Timothy; Nemecek, Stanislav; Neubauer, Michael; Neuffer, David; Newman, Myriam Q.; Nezhevenko, Oleg; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nguyen, Anh Ky; Nguyen, Minh; Van Nguyen Thi,Hong; Niebuhr, Carsten; Niehoff, Jim; Niezurawski, Piotr; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Nitoh, Osamu; Noguchi, Shuichi; Nomerotski, Andrei; Noonan, John; Norbeck, Edward; Nosochkov, Yuri; Notz, Dieter; Nowak, Grazyna; Nowak, Hannelies; Noy, Matthew; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nyffeler, Andreas; Nygren, David; Oddone, Piermaria; O'Dell, Joseph; Oh, Jong-Seok; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohkuma, Kazumasa; Ohlerich, Martin; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Norihito; Oide, Katsunobu; Okada, Nobuchika; Okada, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Takahiro; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Okumi, Shoji; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliver, William; Olivier, Bob; Olsen, James; Olsen, Jeff; Olsen, Stephen; Olshevsky, A.G.; Olsson, Jan; Omori, Tsunehiko; Onel, Yasar; Onengut, Gulsen; Ono, Hiroaki; Onoprienko, Dmitry; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Will; Orimoto, Toyoko J.; Oriunno, Marco; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Oroku, Masahiro; Orr, Lynne H.; Orr, Robert S.; Oshea, Val; Oskarsson, Anders; Osland, Per; Ossetski, Dmitri; Österman, Lennart; Ostiguy, Francois; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottewell, Brian; Ouyang, Qun; Padamsee, Hasan; Padilla, Cristobal; Pagani, Carlo; Palmer, Mark A.; Pam, Wei Min; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Pandit, V.S.; Pandita, P.N.; Pandurovic, Mila; Pankov, Alexander; Panzeri, Nicola; Papandreou, Zisis; Paparella, Rocco; Para, Adam; Park, Hwanbae; Parker, Brett; Parkes, Chris; Parma, Vittorio; Parsa, Zohreh; Parsons, Justin; Partridge, Richard; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Pásztor, Gabriella; Paterson, Ewan; Patrick, Jim; Patteri, Piero; Ritchie Patterson, J.; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paver, Nello; Pavlicek, Vince; Pawlik, Bogdan; Payet, Jacques; Pchalek, Norbert; Pedersen, John; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Pelka, Jerzy; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pellett, David; Peng, G.X.; Penn, Gregory; Penzo, Aldo; Perry, Colin; Peskin, Michael; Peters, Franz; Petersen, Troels Christian; Peterson, Daniel; Peterson, Thomas; Petterson, Maureen; Pfeffer, Howard; Pfund, Phil; Phelps, Alan; Van Phi, Quang; Phillips, Jonathan; Phinney, Nan; Piccolo, Marcello; Piemontese, Livio; Pierini, Paolo; Thomas Piggott, W.; Pike, Gary; Pillet, Nicolas; Jayawardena, Talini Pinto; Piot, Phillippe; Pitts, Kevin; Pivi, Mauro; Plate, Dave; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poehler, Michael; Poelker, Matthew; Poffenberger, Paul; Pogorelsky, Igor; Poirier, Freddy; Poling, Ronald; Poole, Mike; Popescu, Sorina; Popielarski, John; Pöschl, Roman; Postranecky, Martin; Potukochi, Prakash N.; Prast, Julie; Prat, Serge; Preger, Miro; Prepost, Richard; Price, Michael; Proch, Dieter; Puntambekar, Avinash; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Quadt, Arnulf; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Radeka, Veljko; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Ramberg, Erik; Ranjan, Kirti; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Raspereza, Alexei; Ratti, Alessandro; Ratti, Lodovico; Raubenheimer, Tor; Raux, Ludovic; Ravindran, V.; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Re, Valerio; Rease, Bill; Reece, Charles E.; Regler, Meinhard; Rehlich, Kay; Reichel, Ina; Reichold, Armin; Reid, John; Reid, Ron; Reidy, James; Reinhard, Marcel; Renz, Uwe; Repond, Jose; Resta-Lopez, Javier; Reuen, Lars; Ribnik, Jacob; Rice, Tyler; Richard, François; Riemann, Sabine; Riemann, Tord; Riles, Keith; Riley, Daniel; Rimbault, Cécile; Rindani, Saurabh; Rinolfi, Louis; Risigo, Fabio; Riu, Imma; Rizhikov, Dmitri; Rizzo, Thomas; Rochford, James H.; Rodriguez, Ponciano; Roeben, Martin; Rolandi, Gigi; Roodman, Aaron; Rosenberg, Eli; Roser, Robert; Ross, Marc; Rossel, François; Rossmanith, Robert; Roth, Stefan; Rougé, André; Rowe, Allan; Roy, Amit; Roy, Sendhunil B.; Roy, Sourov; Royer, Laurent; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; Royon, Christophe; Ruan, Manqi; Rubin, David; Ruehl, Ingo; Jimeno, Alberto Ruiz; Ruland, Robert; Rusnak, Brian; Ryu, Sun-Young; Sabbi, Gian Luca; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadygov, Ziraddin Y; Saeki, Takayuki; Sagan, David; Sahni, Vinod C.; Saini, Arun; Saito, Kenji; Saito, Kiwamu; Sajot, Gerard; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Salata, Zen; Salih, Sabah; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Samson, Joergen; Sanami, Toshiya; Levi Sanchez, Allister; Sands, William; Santic, John; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Sapronov, Andrey; Sarkar, Utpal; Sasao, Noboru; Satoh, Kotaro; Sauli, Fabio; Saunders, Claude; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, Lee; Saxton, Laura; Schäfer, Oliver; Schälicke, Andreas; Schade, Peter; Schaetzel, Sebastien; Scheitrum, Glenn; Schibler, Emilie; Schindler, Rafe; Schlösser, Markus; Schlueter, Ross D.; Schmid, Peter; Schmidt, Ringo Sebastian; Schneekloth, Uwe; Schreiber, Heinz Juergen; Schreiber, Siegfried; Schroeder, Henning; Peter Schüler, K.; Schulte, Daniel; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumann, Steffen; Schumm, Bruce A.; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Scott, Duncan J.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Sefkow, Felix; Sefri, Rachid; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Seidel, Sally; Seidman, David; Sekmen, Sezen; Seletskiy, Sergei; Senaha, Eibun; Senanayake, Rohan; Sendai, Hiroshi; Sertore, Daniele; Seryi, Andrei; Settles, Ronald; Sever, Ramazan; Shales, Nicholas; Shao, Ming; Shelkov, G.A.; Shepard, Ken; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Sheppard, John C.; Shi, Cai Tu; Shidara, Tetsuo; Shim, Yeo-Jeong; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Yuuki; Shimogawa, Tetsushi; Shin, Seunghwan; Shioden, Masaomi; Shipsey, Ian; Shirkov, Grigori; Shishido, Toshio; Shivpuri, Ram K.; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Shulga, Sergey; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Shuvalov, Sergey; Si, Zongguo; Siddiqui, Azher Majid; Siegrist, James; Simon, Claire; Simrock, Stefan; Sinev, Nikolai; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Pitamber; Singh, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Singini, Monito; Sinha, Anil K.; Sinha, Nita; Sinha, Rahul; Sinram, Klaus; Sissakian, A.N.; Skachkov, N.B.; Skrinsky, Alexander; Slater, Mark; Slominski, Wojciech; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smith, A J Stewart; Smith, Alex; Smith, Brian J.; Smith, Jeff; Smith, Jonathan; Smith, Steve; Smith, Susan; Smith, Tonee; Neville Snodgrass, W.; Sobloher, Blanka; Sohn, Young-Uk; Solidum, Ruelson; Solyak, Nikolai; Son, Dongchul; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sopczak, Andre; Soskov, V.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Speziali, Valeria; Spira, Michael; Sprehn, Daryl; Sridhar, K.; Srivastava, Asutosh; St. Lorant, Steve; Stahl, Achim; Stanek, Richard P.; Stanitzki, Marcel; Stanley, Jacob; Stefanov, Konstantin; Stein, Werner; Steiner, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert; Stern, Amir; Sternberg, Matt; Stockinger, Dominik; Stockton, Mark; Stoeck, Holger; Strachan, John; Strakhovenko, V.; Strauss, Michael; Striganov, Sergei I.; Strologas, John; Strom, David; Strube, Jan; Stupakov, Gennady; Su, Dong; Sudo, Yuji; Suehara, Taikan; Suehiro, Toru; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Suh, Jun Suhk; Sukovic, Goran; Sun, Hong; Sun, Stephen; Sun, Werner; Sun, Yi; Sun, Yipeng; Suszycki, Leszek; Sutcliffe, Peter; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsuto; Suzuki, Chihiro; Suzuki, Shiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Swent, Richard; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swinson, Christina; Syresin, Evgeny; Szleper, Michal; Tadday, Alexander; Takahashi, Rika; Takahashi, Tohru; Takano, Mikio; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Takeda, Seishi; Takenaka, Tateru; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Masami; Tang, Chuan Xiang; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tantawi, Sami; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tartaglia, Michael A.; Tassielli, Giovanni Francesco; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Tavian, Laurent; Tawara, Hiroko; Taylor, Geoffrey; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Telnov, Valery; Tenenbaum, Peter; Teodorescu, Eliza; Terashima, Akio; Terracciano, Giuseppina; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Teubner, Thomas; Teuscher, Richard; Theilacker, Jay; Thomson, Mark; Tice, Jeff; Tigner, Maury; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maxim; Toge, Nobukazu; Tokareva, N.A.; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomovic, Savo; Tompkins, John; Tonutti, Manfred; Topkar, Anita; Toprek, Dragan; Toral, Fernando; Torrence, Eric; Traversi, Gianluca; Trimpl, Marcel; Mani Tripathi, S.; Trischuk, William; Trodden, Mark; Trubnikov, G.V.; Tschirhart, Robert; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Tsukamoto, Toshifumi; Tsunemi, Akira; Tucker, Robin; Turchetta, Renato; Tyndel, Mike; Uekusa, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Kenji; Umemori, Kensei; Ummenhofer, Martin; Underwood, David; Uozumi, Satoru; Urakawa, Junji; Urban, Jeremy; Uriot, Didier; Urner, David; Ushakov, Andrei; Usher, Tracy; Uzunyan, Sergey; Vachon, Brigitte; Valerio, Linda; Valin, Isabelle; Valishev, Alex; Vamra, Raghava; Van der Graaf, Harry; Van Kooten, Rick; Van Zandbergen, Gary; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Variola, Alessandro; Varner, Gary; Velasco, Mayda; Velte, Ulrich; Velthuis, Jaap; Vempati, Sundir K.; Venturini, Marco; Vescovi, Christophe; Videau, Henri; Vila, Ivan; Vincent, Pascal; Virey, Jean-Marc; Visentin, Bernard; Viti, Michele; Vo, Thanh Cuong; Vogel, Adrian; Vogt, Harald; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vos, Marcel; Votava, Margaret; Vrba, Vaclav; Wackeroth, Doreen; Wagner, Albrecht; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Wagner, Stephen; Wake, Masayoshi; Walczak, Roman; Walker, Nicholas J.; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallon, Samuel; Walsh, Roberval; Walston, Sean; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walz, Dieter; Wang, Chao En; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Faya; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Juwen; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Lei; Wang, Min-Zu; Wang, Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Xiaolian; Wang, Xue-Lei; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Ward, Bennie; Ward, David; Warmbein, Barbara; Warner, David W.; Warren, Matthew; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Isamu; Watanabe, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Watanabe, Yuichi; Watson, Nigel; Wattimena, Nanda; Wayne, Mitchell; Weber, Marc; Weerts, Harry; Weiglein, Georg; Weiland, Thomas; Weinzierl, Stefan; Weise, Hans; Weisend, John; Wendt, Manfred; Wendt, Oliver; Wenzel, Hans; Wenzel, William A.; Wermes, Norbert; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wesseln, Steve; Wester, William; White, Andy; White, Glen R.; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wienemann, Peter; Wierba, Wojciech; Wilksen, Tim; Willis, William; Wilson, Graham W.; Wilson, John A.; Wilson, Robert; Wing, Matthew; Winter, Marc; Wirth, Brian D.; Wolbers, Stephen A.; Wolff, Dan; Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.; Woods, Michael; Woodward, Michael L.; Woolliscroft, Timothy; Worm, Steven; Wormser, Guy; Wright, Dennis; Wright, Douglas; Wu, Andy; Wu, Tao; Wu, Yue Liang; Xella, Stefania; Xia, Guoxing; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Xiao, Liling; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xiong, Lian You; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jing; Yajnik, Urjit A.; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yamada, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naoto; Yamamoto, Richard; Yamamoto, Yasuchika; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Yamazaki, Hideki; Yan, Wenbiao; Yang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Jin Min; Yang, Jongmann; Yang, Zhenwei; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yazgan, Efe; Yeh, G.P.; Yilmaz, Hakan; Yock, Philip; Yoda, Hakutaro; Yoh, John; Yokoya, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; York, Richard C.; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Takuo; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Young, Andrew; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Changzheng; Yue, Chong-Xing; Yue, Jun Hui; Zacek, Josef; Zagorodnov, Igor; Zalesak, Jaroslav; Zalikhanov, Boris; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zerwas, Dirk; Zerwas, Peter; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Bao Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Zhige; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Ziping; Zhao, Haiwen; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Ming Hua; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Tong Xian; Zhao, Zhen Tang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Shou Hua; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zhukov, Valery; Zimmermann, Frank; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zisman, Michael S.; Zomer, Fabian; Zong, Zhang Guo; Zorba, Osman; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2007-01-01

    This report, Volume IV of the International Linear Collider Reference Design Report, describes the detectors which will record and measure the charged and neutral particles produced in the ILC's high energy e+e- collisions. The physics of the ILC, and the environment of the machine-detector interface, pose new challenges for detector design. Several conceptual designs for the detector promise the needed performance, and ongoing detector R&D is addressing the outstanding technological issues. Two such detectors, operating in push-pull mode, perfectly instrument the ILC interaction region, and access the full potential of ILC physics.

  9. A Thermal Imaging Instrument with Uncooled Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed work, we will perform an instrument concept study for sustainable thermal imaging over land with uncooled detectors. We will define the science and...

  10. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

  11. Intelligent Detector Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, N.; Cassell, R.; Johnson, T.; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Magill, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; /Argonne

    2007-02-13

    At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx} 30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

  12. Instrumentation for multi-detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Replacement of manual controls by software control. 4. Provision of remote monitoring of data. 5. Faster data handling to support the large event rate and increased number of param- eters per event. 6. Modular development to allow integration with data from auxiliary detectors. In making a comparison of the instrumentation ...

  13. A Thermal Imaging Instrument with Uncooled Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; Barrentine, E. M.; Brown, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we perform an instrument concept study for sustainable thermal imaging over land with uncooled detectors. The National Research Council's Committee on Implementation of a Sustained Land Imaging Program has identified the inclusion of a thermal imager as critical for both current and future land imaging missions. Such an imaging instrument operating in two bands located at approximately 11 and 12 microns (for example, in Landsat 8, and also Landsat 9 when launched) will provide essential information for furthering our hydrologic understanding at scales of human influence, and produce field-scale moisture information through accurate retrievals of evapotranspiration (ET). Landsat 9 is slated to recycle the TIRS-2 instrument launched with Landsat 8 that uses cooled quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), hence requiring expensive and massive cryocooler technology to achieve its required spectral and spatial accuracies. Our goal is to conceptualize and develop a thermal imaging instrument which leverages recent and imminent technology advances in uncooled detectors. Such detector technology will offer the benefit of greatly reduced instrument cost, mass, and power at the expense of some acceptable loss in detector sensitivity. It would also allow a thermal imaging instrument to be fielded on board a low-cost platform, e.g., a CubeSat. Sustained and enhanced land imaging is crucial for providing high-quality science data on change in land use, forest health, crop status, environment, and climate. Accurate satellite mapping of ET at the agricultural field scale (the finest spatial scale of the environmental processes of interest) requires high-quality thermal data to produce the corresponding accurate land surface temperature (LST) retrievals used to drive an ET model. Such an imaging instrument would provide important information on the following: 1) the relationship between land-use and land/water management practices and water use dynamics; 2) the

  14. Instrumentation Design and Development Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has facilities for design, development and fabrication of: custominstrumentation, mobile instrumentation, miniaturized instrumentation, wirelessinstrumentation,...

  15. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  16. Gamma-ray Detectors for Nuclear Medical Imaging Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyu Seong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    In this review paper, basic configurations of gamma detectors in SPECT and PET systems were reviewed together with key performance parameters of the imaging system, such as the detection efficiency, the spatial resolution, the contrast resolution, and the data acquisition time for quick understanding of the system-component relationship and future design of advanced systems. Also key elements of SPECT and PET detectors, such as collimators, gamma detectors were discussed in conjunction with their current and future trend. Especially development trend of new scintillation crystals, innovative silicon-based photo-sensors and futuristic room temperature semiconductor detectors were reviewed for researchers who are interested in the development of future nuclear medical imaging instruments.

  17. LCFI vertex detector design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstene, C.; Sopczak, A.

    2005-12-01

    A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies CCD detectors for quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  18. Designing Intelligent Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Erner, Philip M.; Frasso, Scott

    2007-11-01

    Remote science operations require automated systems that can both act and react with minimal human intervention. One such vision is that of an intelligent instrument that collects data in an automated fashion, and based on what it learns, decides which new measurements to take. This innovation implements experimental design and unites it with data analysis in such a way that it completes the cycle of learning. This cycle is the basis of the Scientific Method. The three basic steps of this cycle are hypothesis generation, inquiry, and inference. Hypothesis generation is implemented by artificially supplying the instrument with a parameterized set of possible hypotheses that might be used to describe the physical system. The act of inquiry is handled by an inquiry engine that relies on Bayesian adaptive exploration where the optimal experiment is chosen as the one which maximizes the expected information gain. The inference engine is implemented using the nested sampling algorithm, which provides the inquiry engine with a set of posterior samples from which the expected information gain can be estimated. With these computational structures in place, the instrument will refine its hypotheses, and repeat the learning cycle by taking measurements until the system under study is described within a pre-specified tolerance. We will demonstrate our first attempts toward achieving this goal with an intelligent instrument constructed using the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robotics platform.

  19. CPP Detector Design Using MVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-09-01

    The Charged Pion Polarizability(CPP) experiment is approved to run in Hall-D at Jefferson Lab using the GlueX detector. CPP requires that π+π- production events be distinguished from μ+μ- to better than 99% accuracy. This drives the design of a new MWPC-based detector capable of separating the π events from the μ events. A multivariate analysis of simulated data was initially done to study the feasibility of a detector with this level of performance. More recently, the design parameters of the detector have been refined using a similar technique. Details on the initial study and how machine learning has contributed to the detector design will be presented.

  20. High Availability Instrumentation Packaging Standards for the ILC and Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, R.W.; Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-11-30

    ILC designers are exploring new packaging standards for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation, particularly high-speed serial interconnect systems for intelligent instruments versus the existing parallel backplanes of VME, VXI and CAMAC. The High Availability Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) system is a new industrial open standard designed to withstand single-point hardware or software failures. The standard crate, controller, applications module and sub-modules are being investigated. All modules and sub-modules are hot-swappable. A single crate is designed for a data throughput in communications applications of 2 Tb/s and an Availability of 0.99999, which translates into a downtime of five minutes per year. The ILC is planning to develop HA architectures for controls, beam instrumentation and detector systems.

  1. STAR PIXEL detector mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, H H; Anderssen, E; Greiner, L; Matis, H S; Ritter, H G; Sun, X; Szelezniak, M

    2009-01-01

    A high resolution pixel detector is being designed for the STAR [1] experiment at RHIC. This device will use MAPS as the detector element and will have a pointing accuracy of ∼25 microns. We will be reporting on the mechanical design required to support this resolution. The radiation length of the first layer (∼0.3% X 0 ) and its distance from the interaction point (2.5 cm) determines the resolution. The design makes use of air cooling and thin carbon composite structures to limit the radiation length. The mechanics are being developed to achieve spatial calibrations and stability to 20 microns and to permit rapid detector replacement in event of radiation damage or other potential failures from operation near the beam.

  2. Sources, instrumentation and detectors for protein crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Nave, C

    2001-01-01

    Some of the requirements for protein crystallography experiments on a synchrotron are described. Although data from different types of crystal are often collected without changing the X-ray beam properties, there are benefits if the incident beam is matched to a particular crystal and its diffraction pattern. These benefits are described with some examples. Radiation damage and other effects impose limits on the dose and dose rate on a protein crystal if the maximum amount of data is to be obtained. These limitations have possible consequences for the X-ray source required. Presently available commercial detector systems provide excellent data for protein crystallography but do not quite reach the specifications of the 'ideal' detector. In order to collect the most accurate data (e.g. for very weak anomalous scattering applications) detectors that produce near photon counting statistics over a wide dynamic range are required. It is possible that developments in 'pixel' detectors will allow these demanding exp...

  3. Design, instrumentation and response characteristics of a 2 pi multi-detector of CsI(Tl) scintillators mounted inside the Plastic Ball spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joulaeizadeh, L.; Gasparic, I.; Bacelar, J.; Caplar, R.; Löhner, H.

    2010-01-01

    A 2 pi hemispherical detector consisting of 64 CsI(Tl) scintillator modules covering the angular range of 80 degrees -160 degrees has been constructed. This detector is employed as the Inner Shell of the Plastic Ball detector and was used in two experimental programs concerning the study of pionic

  4. The instrumental design of Elmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Vargas, M.; Sánchez-Blanco, M.; Cavaller, L.; Martín-Fleitas, J.; Kohley, R.; Medina, M.; Rosich, J.; Hammersley, P. L.; Ronquillo, B.; Vega, M.

    ELMER is a visible imager spectrograph currently scheduled to be in operation at the GTC on Day One. This paper covers engineering aspects of the instrument and summarizes five poster contributions presented at this conference. ELMER is an instrument managed directly by the GTC Project Office, which has developed the preliminary design and large part of the detailed design. The detailed design, manufacturing, and testing of the structure and mechanisms is being undertaken by the join venture MEDIA-SPASA.

  5. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  6. Instrumentation and control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Homma, Fumitaka; Kondo, Makoto; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    2004-01-01

    The instrumentation and control system of the high temperature engineering test reactor consists of the instrumentation, control equipments and safety protection systems. There are not many differences in the instrumentation and control equipments design between the HTTR and light water reactors except for some features. Various kinds of R and D of reactor instrumentation were performed taking into account the HTTR operational conditions, and a plant dynamic analysis was carried out considering the operational conditions of the HTTR in order to design the control system. These systems are required to have a high reliability in respect to safety. In the rise-to-power test it was confirmed that the instrumentation has a high reliability and the control system has a high stability and reasonable damped characteristics for various disturbances

  7. Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ran

    A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property of such instruments and is the subject of the current study. Future telescopes will require as many as hundreds of thousands of detectors to meet the necessary requirements in terms of the field of view, scan speed, and resolution. A large pixel count is one benefit of the development of multiplexable detectors that use kinetic inductance detector (KID) technology. This dissertation presents the development of a KID-based instrument including a portion of the millimeter-wave bandpass filters and all aspects of the readout electronics, which together enabled one of the largest detector counts achieved to date in submillimeter-/millimeter-wavelength imaging arrays: a total of 2304 detectors. The work presented in this dissertation has been implemented in the MUltiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  8. The development of neutron detectors for the GEM instrument at ISIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, N.J.; Johnson, M.W.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    GEM is a new General Materials diffractometer now being commissioned at ISIS. To meet its broad based scientific programme GEM requires a large area position sensitive detector which covers a wide range of scattering angles and exhibits a high neutron count rate stability. This paper discusses the design of a ZnS/{sup 6}Li fibre coupled detector array that meets the GEM requirements. Typical detector characteristics are documented together with the current status of the project. Two thirds of the detector array are operational and from the results obtained to date it is already obvious that the impact of this instrument on neutron scattering studies will be profound. (author)

  9. Conceptual design studies for a CEPC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S. V.; Demarteau, M.

    2016-11-30

    The physics potential of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) can be significantly strengthened by two detectors with complementary designs. A promising detector approach based on the Silicon Detector (SiD) designed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is presented. Several simplifications of this detector for the lower energies expected at the CEPC are proposed. A number of cost optimizations of this detector are illustrated using full detector simulations. We show that the proposed changes will enable one to reach the physics goals at the CEPC.

  10. Conceptual Design Studies for a CEPC Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekanov, S. V.; Demarteau, M.

    The physics potential of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) can be significantly strengthened by two detectors with complementary designs. A promising detector approach based on the Silicon Detector (SiD) designed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is presented. Several simplifications of this detector for the lower energies expected at the CEPC are proposed. A number of cost optimizations of this detector are illustrated using full detector simulations. We show that the proposed changes will enable one to reach the physics goals at the CEPC.

  11. Design of nuclear instruments for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    Following an introduction to the atomic structure and the radioactive desintegration, the applications of radioisotopic sealed sources are described. The laws that govern the interaction of radiation with matter and the statistics applied to the radioactive measurements are presented. Different measurement techniques, basic equations of design, the way to provide the activity calculation of a source and the detector's characteristics are given, according to the parameters to be measured and the conditions imposed. Finally, the principles of operation and the most important characteristics of different nuclear instruments to be used in industrial measurements are described. (Author) [es

  12. Detector design studies for Turkish Accelerator Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Burçin; Piliçer, Ercan

    2017-02-01

    The proposed Particle Factory detector at Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC-PF) aims to search for charm physics, CP violation and mixing of D0 mesons as well as new physics effects by investigating head-on collisions of 1 GeV electron from Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with 3.56 GeV positrons from synchrotron storage ring. In this work, we constructed the TAC-PF detector design by using a recently developed framework namely Detector Description for High Energy Physics (DD4hep). The baseline TAC-PF detector design and its qualifications were summarized, followed by a general description.

  13. Design of an ionization diffusion chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto, S.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of an Ionization Diffusion Chamber detector has been made. It is a silindrical glass, 20 cm in diameter, 13,5 cm in height, air gas filled, operated at room pressure and room temperature at the top of this instrument while for the box temperature dry ice (CO 2 solid) temperature is used. This detector is ready for seeing alpha and beta particle tracks. (author)

  14. CLIC Detector Main Solenoid Design & Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, Andrea; Herve, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The magnet system for the CLIC Detector concepts is composed of the central solenoid in combination with the two forward anti-solenoids and the ancillary systems necessary for their operation, including the so-called push-pull scenario, allowing the quick exchange of the two detectors on the beam line. An overview of the design parameters of the detector main solenoids is presented hereafter.

  15. Design of a lepton detector for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnstein, R.; Carithers, W.C.; Duong-van, M.

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical background is given for a proposed experiment to detect W mesons using their leptonic decay mode. A lepton detector was designed for use at the planned ISABELLE proton--proton colliding beam storage rings. The general configuration of the detector is shown, and an electron identification module, an electron-hadron calorimeter, methods of muon identification, and an optional central detector (magnetic solenoid spectrometer) are discussed

  16. Delay Line Detectors for the UVCS and Sumer Instruments on the SOHO Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigmund, O. H. W.; Stock, J. M.; Marsh, D. R.; Gummin, M. A.; Raffanti, R.; Hull, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Welsh, B.; Donakowski, B.; Jelinsky, P.; a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_19970009824'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_19970009824_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_19970009824_hide'); "> hide

    1994-01-01

    Microchannel plate based detectors with cross delay line image readout have been rapidly implemented for the SUMER and UVCS instruments aboard the Solar Orbiting Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission to be launched in July 1995. In October 1993 a fast track program to build and characterize detectors and detector control electronics was initiated. We present the detector system design for the SOHO UVCS and SUMER detector programs, and results from the detector test program. Two deliverable detectors have been built at this point, a demonstration model for UVCS, and the flight Ly alpha detector for UVCS, both of which are to be delivered in the next few weeks. Test results have also been obtained with one other demonstration detector system. The detector format is 26mm x 9mm, with 1024 x 360 digitized pixels, using a low resistance Z stack of microchannel plates (MCP's) and a multilayer cross delay line anode (XDL). This configuration provides gains of approximately 2 x 10(exp 7) with good pulse height distributions (less than 50% FWHM) under uniform flood illumination, and background levels typical for this configuration (approximately 0.6 event cm (exp -2)sec(exp -1)). Local counting rates up to about 400 events/pixel/sec have been achieved with no degradation of the MCP gain. The detector and event encoding electronics achieves about 25 millimeter FVHM with good linearity (plus or minus approximately 1 pixel) and is stable to high global counting rates (greater than 4 x 10(exp 5) events sec(exp -1)). Flat field images are dominated by MCP fixed pattern noise and are stable, but the MCP multifiber modulation usually expected is uncharacteristically absent. The detector and electronics have also successfully passed both thermal vacuum and vibration tests.

  17. Single photon detector design features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Sergey V.; Kurochkin, Vladimir L.; Kurochkin, Yury V.

    2016-12-01

    In the report are discussed the laboratory test results of SPAD detectors with InGaAs / InP avalanche photodiodes, operating in Geiger mode. Device operating in synchronous mode with the dead timer setting for proper working conditions of photodiodes. The report materials will showing the functional block diagram of the detector, real operating signals in the receiver path and clock circuits and main results of measurements. The input signal of the synchronous detector is the clock, which determines the time positions of expected photons arrival. Increasing the clock speed 1-300 MHz or getting more time positions of the time grid, we provide increased capacity for time position code of signals, when QKD information transmitted over the nets. At the same time, the maximum attainable speed of photon reception is limited by diode dead time. Diode quantum noise are minimized by inclusion of a special time interval - dead time 0.1-10 usec, after each received and registered a photon. The lowest attainable value of the dead time is determined as a compromise between transients in electrical circuits, passive avalanche «quenching» circuit and thermal transients cooling crystal diode, after each avalanche pass though photodiode. Achievable time and speed parameters are discussed with specific examples of detectors.

  18. Detectors and Focal Plane Modules for Weather Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, A.I.; Robinson, E.; Masterjohn, S.; Khalap, V.; Bhargava, S.; Rangel, E.; Babu, S.; Smith, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Weather satellite instruments require detectors with a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to VLWIR. The Cross-track infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a Polar Orbiting interferometric sensor that measures earth radiances at high spectral resolution, using the data to provide pressure, temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere. The pressure, temperature and moisture sounding data are used in weather prediction models that track storms, predict levels of precipitation etc. The CrIS instrument contains SWIR (lambda(sub c) (is) approximately 5 micrometers at 98 K), MWIR (lambda(sub c) (is) approximately 9 micrometers at 98 K) and LWIRs (lambda(sub c) (is) approximately 15.4 ?m at 81 K) bands in three Focal Plane Array Assemblies (FPAAs). CrIS detectors are 850 micrometers diameter detectors with each FPAA consisting of nine photovoltaic detectors arranged in a 3 x 3 pattern. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown Hg1-xCdxTe material are used for the detectors fabricated in a modified Double Layer Planar Heterostructure (DLPH) architecture. Each detector has an accompanying cold preamplifier. SWIR and MWIR FPAAs operate at 98 K and the LWIR FPAA at 81 K, permitting the use of passive radiators to cool the detectors. D* requirements at peak 14.01 micrometers wavelength are greater than 5.0E+10 Jones for LWIR, greater than 7.5E+10 Jones at 8.26 micrometers for MWIR and greater than 3.0E+11 Jones at peak 4.64 micrometers wavelength for SWIR. All FPAAs exceeded the D* requirements. Measured mean values for the nine photodiodes in each of the LWIR, MWIR and SWIR FPAAs are D* = 5.3 x 10(exp 10) cm-Hz1/2/W at 14.0 micrometers, 9.6 x 10(exp 10) cm-Hz1/2/W at 8.0 micrometers and 3.4 x 10(exp 11) cm-Hz1/2/W at 4.64 micrometers.

  19. Preliminary A ampersand PCT multiple detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Camp, D.C.; Decman, D.J.; Johansson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation, multi-detector active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand PCT) scanner will be optimized for speed and accuracy. At the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) we have demonstrated the trade-offs between different A ampersand PCT design parameters that affect the speed and quality of the assay results. These fundamental parameters govern the optimum system design. Although the multi-detector scanner design has priority put on speed to increase waste drum throughput, higher speed should not compromise assay accuracy. One way to increase the speed of the A ampersand PCT technology is to use multiple detectors. This yields a linear speedup by a factor approximately equal to the number of detectors used without a compromise in system accuracy. There are many different design scenarios that can be developed using multiple detectors. Here we describe four different scenarios and discuss the trade-offs between them. Also, some considerations are given in this design description for the implementation of a multiple detector technology in a field- deployable mobile trailer system

  20. Design of 40M SANS instrument at HANARO, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Soo; Choi, Sung-Min; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hee; Kim, Hark-Rho

    2006-01-01

    The HANARO cold-neutron research facility project was launched on July 1, 2003. A state of the art SANS instrument was selected as a top-priority instrument by an instrument selection committee, which consisted of domestic users and HANARO personnel. An instrument development team and an international and domestic instrument advisory team were formulated. At the end position of the CG1B guide, 40M SANS will be installed in the cold-neutron guide hall. The guide and the instrument simulation were performed using Vitess software and the optimum conceptual design was completed based on the simulation results and the international advisory team reviews. The 100x100 cm 2 area detector will be installed and the sample-to-detector distance will vary from 1 to 20 m. The refractive focusing optics and the transmission polarizer/spin flipper setup is planned for installation. The Q range of the 40M SANS instrument will cover from 0.0008 to 1.0 A -1 when considering the refractive focusing optics. In this paper, the simulation results and the design of the new 40M SANS instrument are presented

  1. Design of 40M SANS instrument at HANARO, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yshan@kaeri.re.kr; Choi, Sung-Min [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hark-Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-15

    The HANARO cold-neutron research facility project was launched on July 1, 2003. A state of the art SANS instrument was selected as a top-priority instrument by an instrument selection committee, which consisted of domestic users and HANARO personnel. An instrument development team and an international and domestic instrument advisory team were formulated. At the end position of the CG1B guide, 40M SANS will be installed in the cold-neutron guide hall. The guide and the instrument simulation were performed using Vitess software and the optimum conceptual design was completed based on the simulation results and the international advisory team reviews. The 100x100 cm{sup 2} area detector will be installed and the sample-to-detector distance will vary from 1 to 20 m. The refractive focusing optics and the transmission polarizer/spin flipper setup is planned for installation. The Q range of the 40M SANS instrument will cover from 0.0008 to 1.0 A{sup -1} when considering the refractive focusing optics. In this paper, the simulation results and the design of the new 40M SANS instrument are presented.

  2. Instruments for calibration and monitoring of the LHCb Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Deplano, C; Lai, A

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this Ph. D. thesis is the study and the development of the instruments needed to monitor and calibrate the Muon Detector of the LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment. LHCb is currently under installation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will start to take data during 2007. The experiment will study B mesons decays to achieve a profound understanding of favour physics in the Standard Model framework and to search signs of new physics beyond. Muons can be found in the final states of many B-decays which are sensitive to CP violation. The Muon Detector has the crucial role to identify the muon particles generated by the b-hadron decays through a measurement of their transverse momentum, already at the first trigger level (Level-0). A 95% effciency in events selection is required for the Muon Trigger, which operates at the Level-0. 1380 detectors are used to equip the whole Muon System and the corresponding 122,112 readout channels must be time aligned and monitored with a resol...

  3. Digital configurable instrument for emulation of signals from radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Geraci, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering-DEIB, Milan 20133 (Italy)

    2014-01-15

    The paper presents a digital instrument characterized by a specially designed architecture that is able to emulate in real time signals from a generic radiation detection system. The instrument is not a pulse generator of recorded shapes but a synthesizer of random pulses compliant to programmable statistics for height and starting time of events. Completely programmable procedures for emulation of noise, disturbances, and reference level variation are implemented.

  4. Mechanical engineers' handbook, design, instrumentation, and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Kutz, Myer

    2015-01-01

    Full coverage of electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation andcontrol in mechanical engineering This second volume of Mechanical Engineers' Handbookcovers electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation and control, givingyou accessible and in-depth access to the topics you'll encounterin the discipline: computer-aided design, product design formanufacturing and assembly, design optimization, total qualitymanagement in mechanical system design, reliability in themechanical design process for sustainability, life-cycle design,design for remanufacturing processes, signal processing, dataacquisition and dis

  5. Design of GRM phoswich detector readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiangtao; Dong Yongwei; Song Liming; Wu Bobing; Zhang Yongjie; Xu He

    2014-01-01

    A set of mixed-signal read out system was designed for the phoswich detectors of the γ-ray burst monitor in the SVOM satellite, which was used to obtain the amplitude and the width of the voltage pulse that came from the GRM phoswich detector, and classify the signals. The FPGA was used to control the timing in the system, high-speed peak holding circuit was used to get the peak of voltage pulse, and the RS232 interface was used to complete the data exchange between the system and the PC. The test results show that this design can achieve the data acquisition and the discrimination. (authors)

  6. Designing and making of a tool used for measurements by X fluorescence using HgI{sub 2} detectors; Conception et realisation d`un instrument de mesure par fluorescence X utilisant des detecteurs HgI{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu-Xu, X.

    1994-10-01

    A new measuring apparatus by X fluorescence based on a HgI{sub 2} detector, operating at room temperature is presented. The principal properties of HgI{sub 2} are outlined. A computer code designed for this apparatus is developed. Some experimental results are given to illustrate the performances of the device. (author). 67 refs., 117 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. The system of the designing for PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zongliang

    2006-01-01

    PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography, a new nuclear medicine imaging device. PET detector is the key of PET. This paper introduces a system of the designing for PET detector. The system can be used to design various PET detector. A PET detector BLOCK with 8 x 8 crystals has been designed and built by this system. (authors)

  8. Design and validation of portable optical instrument for crop diagnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Zheng, Wengang; Huang, Wengjiang; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Liangyun

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a portable diagnostic instrument was designed and tested, which can measure the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structure insensitive pigment index (SIPI) of crop canopy in field. The instrument have a valid survey area of 1 m*1 m when the height between instrument and the ground was fixed to 1.3 meter The crop growth condition can be assessed based on their NDVI and SIPI values, so it will be very important for crop management to get these values. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. There are six special different photoelectrical detectors within red, blue and near infrared bands, which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and reflex light from the canopy of crop. This optical instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process and A/D convert module, the data storing and transmission module and human-machine interface module. The detector is the core of the instrument which measures the spectrums at special bands. The microprocessor calculates the NDVI and SIPI value based on the A/D value. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's RS232 serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field at different view directions. This paper also provided the method of calibration, the results showed that the average measurement error to SIPI value of instrument was 5.25% and the average measurement error to NDVI value in vegetation-covered region is 6.40%. It reveals the on-site and non-sampling mode of crop growth monitoring by fixed on the agricultural machine traveling in the field.

  9. Design innovations in neutron and gamma detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, K.R.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and gamma radiation needs to be monitored in most nuclear installations since it is highly penetrating. On-line monitoring of these radiations is very important for the safe and controlled operation of nuclear reactors, accelerators etc. Several design innovations have been carried out on gas ionisation detectors such as boron-lined proportional counters and ion chambers, fission detectors, gamma ion chambers as well as self-powered detectors. The use of additional structures within boron-lined detectors has enhanced their neutron sensitivity without a corresponding increase in the unwanted gamma sensitivity. The neutron sensitivity of fission counters can be enhanced by designing them as transmission line devices. Ion chambers with two and six pairs of electrodes have been developed for monitoring pulsed x-ray background at accelerator areas. Ion chambers have been employed at gamma fields up to 80 kR/h by deriving the exposure levels on-line using microcontroller devices programmed on the basis of theoretical and empirical formulas. The use of gas electron multiplier foils is proposed for charge multiplication in ion chambers. Self-powered detectors with new emitter materials like Hi, Ni and Inconel have been developed. (author)

  10. Norm based design of fault detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well...

  11. Burnout detector design for heat transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, H.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an burnout detector for heat transfer experiments, applied during tests for optimization of fuel elements for PWR reactors. The burnout detector avoids the fuel rods destruction during the experiments at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear. The detector evaluates the temperature changes over the fuel rods in the temperature changes over the fuel rods in the area where the burnout phenomenon could be anticipated. As soon as the phenomenon appears, the system power supply is turned off. The thermal Circuit No. 1, during the experiments, had been composed by nine fuel rods feed parallelly by the same power supply. Fine copper wires had been attached at the centre and at the ends of the fuel rod to take two Wheat stone bridge arms. The detector had been applied across the bridge diagonals, which must be balanced the burnout excursion can be detected as a small but fast increase of the signal over the detector. Large scale experiments had been carried out to compare the resistance bridge performance against a thermocouple attached through the fuel rod wall. These experiments had been showed us the advantages of the first method over the last, because the bridge evaluates the whole fuel rod, while the thermocouple evaluates only the area where it had been attached. (author)

  12. Conceptual design of safety instrumentation for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralikrishna, G.; Seshadri, U.; Raghavan, K.

    1996-01-01

    Instrumentation systems enable monitoring of the process which in turn enables control and shutdown of the process as per the requirements. Safety Instrumentation due to its vital importance has a stringent role and this needs to be designed methodically. This paper presents the details of the conceptual design for PFBR. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Design requirements for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies (SWIFT) instrument is a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument that employs the method of Doppler Michelson interferometry to measure stratospheric wind velocities and ozone densities in the altitude range of 15–45 km. The values of the main instrument parameters including filter system parameters and Michelson interferometer parameters are derived using simulations and analyses. The system design requirements for the instrument and spacecraft are presented and discussed. Some of the retrieval-imposed design requirements are also discussed. Critical design issues are identified. The design optimization process is described. The sensitivity of wind measurements to instrument characteristics is investigated including the impact on critical design issues. Using sensitivity analyses, the instrument parameters were iteratively optimized in order to meet the science objectives. It is shown that wind measurements are sensitive to the thermal sensitivity of the instrument components, especially the narrow filter and the Michelson interferometer. The optimized values of the main system parameters including Michelson interferometer optical path difference, instrument visibility, instrument responsivity and knowledge of spacecraft velocity are reported. This work also shows that the filter thermal drift and the Michelson thermal drift are two main technical risks. (paper)

  14. The ZEUS vertex detector: Design and prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvisi, C.; Anzivino, G.; Arzarello, F.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Camerini, U.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Ciralli, F.; Contin, A.; Costa, M.; D'Auria, S.; Del Papa, C.; De Pasquale, S.; Fiori, F.; Forte, A.; Frasconi, F.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lisowski, B.; Maccarrone, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; O'Shea, V.; Palmonari, F.; Pelfer, P.; Pilastrini, R.; Qian, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Timellini, R.; Zichichi, A.; Bologna Univ.; Cosenza Univ.; Florence Univ.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence

    1991-01-01

    A gas vertex detector, operated with dimethylether (DME) at atmospheric pressure, is presently being built for the ZEUS experiment at HERA. Its main design features, together with the performances of a prototype measured at various operating voltages, particle rates and geometrical conditions on a CERN Proton Synchrotron test beam, are presented. A spatial resolution down to 35 μm and an average wire efficiency of 96% have been achieved, for a 3 mm gas gap relative to each sense wire. (orig.)

  15. Design and construction of the SAPHIR detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwille, W.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Bockhorst, M. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Burbach, G. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Burgwinkel, R. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Empt, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Guse, B. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Haas, K.M. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Hannappel, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Heinloth, K. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Hey, T. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Honscheid, K. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Jahnen, T. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Jakob, H.P. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Joepen, N. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Juengst, H. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Kirch, U. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Klein, F.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.)

    1994-05-15

    The design, construction, and performance of the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer SAPHIR is described. It was built for the investigation of photon-induced reactions on nucleous and light nuclei with mulit-particle final states up to photon energies of 3.1 GeV. The detector is equipped with a tagged photon beam facility and is operated at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn. (orig.)

  16. JLEIC forward detector design and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Rikutaro [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    A major part of the physics program at the Electron-Ion Collider being planned in the US is the exploration of nucleon and nuclear structure. This program means that detection of particles that move in the forward direction and are associated with the beam electrons and protons(ions) is an important part of the detector design as well as of the accelerator and interaction area designs. The current planning of the forward detection for the Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider is discussed.

  17. Analysis and design of instrumented subsurface mooring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Sakhardande, R.N.; Nayak, B.U.; Somanatha, G.S.

    The analysis and design of instrumented mooring is complex, since the environmental loading on the system may be static or dynamic and random. By using certain assumptions, an equivalent static loading system can be adopted and the problem can...

  18. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Detector design for a Future Electron-Positron Collider (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    In this lecture I will discuss the issues related to the overall design and optimization of a detector for ILC and CLIC energies. I will concentrate on the two main detector concepts which are being developed in the context of the ILC. Here there has been much recent progress in developing realistic detector models and in understanding the physics performance of the overall detector concept. In addition, I will discuss the how the differences in the detector requirements for the ILC and CLIC impact the overall detector design.

  19. The Design and Performance of the 384: Element Submillimeter Detector Array for SHARC II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Samuel H.; Allen, Christine; Benford, Dominic; Silverberg, Robert; Staguhn, Johannes; Dowell, Darren; Phillips, Tom

    2003-01-01

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12 x 32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera (HAWC) for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450 microns.

  20. ASIC and HMC designs for portable nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the seed activity done so far for realizing the goal of compact portable nuclear instruments and related instrumentation that can be designed, developed and manufactured without external constraints. This important activity requires critical components to be made in the country by tapping and gearing the established industrial units for this activity. A good deal of ground work has been carried out over a period of time in setting up IC design facility and CAD-FAB interface. There has been a close interaction with the production and semiconductor facilities to design and develop ASIC, hybrids, display devices, detectors/sensors etc. Efforts are also undertaken to develop the critical technologies that are required to fulfill the requirement. A status report on various technologies, ASIC, hybrids and their application development done in the face of out-standing challenges is being presented here. (author)

  1. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of 'nonstandard' magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods

  2. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of "nonstandard" magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods.

  3. Resistive gaseous detectors designs, performance, and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Peskov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    This first book to critically summarize the latest achievements and emerging applications within this interdisciplinary topic focuses on one of the most important types of detectors for elementary particles and photons: resistive plate chambers (RPCs). In the first part, the outstanding, international team of authors comprehensively describes and presents the features and design of single and double-layer RPCs before covering more advanced multi-layer RPCs. The second part then focuses on the application of RPCs in high energy physics, materials science, medicine and security. Throughout, the experienced authors adopt a didactic approach, with each subject presented in a simple way, increasing in complexity step by step.

  4. Monolithic Ge:Ga two-dimensional array detector for FIS instrument on ASTRO-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shuji; Isozaki, Yosuke; Shirahata, Mai; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Patrashin, Michael A.; Fujiwara, Mikio; Hirao, Takanori; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Shibai, Hiroshi; Watabe, Toyoki

    2003-03-01

    ASTRO-F is a Japanese infrared satellite, which is scheduled for launch in early 2004. Far-infrared instrument that will be onboard ASTRO-F, Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), will perform the four-color all sky survey in the 50-200 um wavelength range with the diffraction-limited spatial resolution for 67-cm diameter telescope. For short-wave photometric bands of 50-110 um, we have developed a monolithic Ge:Ga two-dimensional array detector with no light cavity. This top-illumination type array design is promising for making future large-format array. The monolithic Ge:Ga is directly attached onto cryogenic readout electronics, capacitive trans-impedance amplifier composed of silicon p-MOSFETs, designed specially for low-temperature use. Results of the detector measurements show that the device works properly and sensitive enough for astronomical applications. Complex behavior of the detector, such as non-linearity of the integration ramp, transient response, non-uniform responsivity in the array, and cross-talk response, which may cause systematic error in the photometry, have been found. But, these effects are ~10% of major part of the signal and correctable with accuracy of a few %.

  5. Detectors and flux instrumentation for future neutrino facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Ankowski, A.; Badertscher, A.; Battistoni, G.; Blondel, A.; Bouchez, J.; Bross, A.; Bueno, A.; Camilleri, L.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Cazes, A.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Capua, F.; Ellis, Malcolm; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Fukushima, C.; Gschwendtner, E.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Iwasaki, M.; Kaneyuki, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kashikhin, V.; Kawai, Y.; Komatsu, M.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Kudenko, Y.; Kusaka, A.; Kyushima, H.; Longhin, A.; Marchionni, A.; Marotta, A.; McGrew, C.; Menary, S.; Meregaglia, A.; Mezzeto, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mondal, N.K.; Montanari, C.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakumo, H.; Nakayama, H.; Nelson, J.; Nowak, J.; Ogawa, S.; Peltoniemi, J.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Rubbia, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Sato, O.; Selvi, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shozawa, M.; Sobczyk, J.; Soler, F.J.P.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Suyama, M.; Tanak, M.; Terranova, F.; Tsenov, R.; Uchida, Y.; Weber, A.; Zlobin, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the conclusions from the detector group of the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and Super-Beam neutrino facility. The baseline detector options for each possible neutrino beam are defined as follows: 1. A very massive (Megaton) water Cherenkov detector is the baseline option for a sub-GeV Beta Beam and Super Beam facility. 2. There are a number of possibilities for either a Beta Beam or Super Beam (SB) medium energy facility between 1-5 GeV. These include a totally active scintillating detector (TASD), a liquid argon TPC or a water Cherenkov detector. 3. A 100 kton magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) is the baseline to detect the wrong sign muon final states (golden channel) at a high energy (20-50 GeV) neutrino factory from muon decay. A 10 kton hybrid neutrino magnetic emulsion cloud chamber detector for wrong sign tau detection (silver channel) is a possible complement to MIND, if one needs to resolve degeneracies that appear in the $\\delta$-$\\theta_{13}$...

  6. Concept Doped-Silicon Thermopile Detectors for Future Planetary Thermal Imaging Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Brook; Barrentine, Emily M.; Aslam, Shahid; Brown, Ari D.

    2016-10-01

    Presently, uncooled thermopiles are the detectors of choice for thermal mapping in the 4.6-100 μm spectral range. Although cooled detectors like Ge or Si thermistor bolometers, and MgB2 or YBCO superconducting bolometers, have much higher sensitivity, the required active or passive cooling mechanisms add prohibitive cost and mass for long duration missions. Other uncooled detectors, likepyroelectrics, require a motor mechanism to chop against a known reference temperature, which adds unnecessary mission risk. Uncooled vanadium oxide or amorphous Si microbolometer arrays with integrated CMOS readout circuits, not only have lower sensitivity, but also have not been proven to be radiation hard >100 krad (Si) total ionizing dose, and barring additional materials and readout development, their performance has reached a plateau.Uncooled and radiation hard thermopiles with D* ~1x109 cm√Hz/W and time constant τ ~100 ms have been integrated into thermal imaging instruments on several past missions and have extensive flight heritage (Mariner, Voyager, Cassini, LRO, MRO). Thermopile arrays are also on the MERTIS instrument payload on-board the soon to be launched BepiColombo Mission.To date, thermopiles used for spaceflight instrumentation have consisted of either hand assembled "one-off" single thermopile pixels or COTS thermopile pixel arrays both using Bi-Sb or Bi-Te thermoelectric materials. For future high performance imagers, thermal detector arrays with higher D*, lower τ, and high efficiency delineated absorbers are desirable. Existing COTS and other flight thermopile designs require highly specialized and nonstandard processing techniques to fabricate both the Bi-Sb or Bi-Te thermocouples and the gold or silver black absorbers, which put limitations on further development.Our detector arrays will have a D* ≥ 3x109 cm√Hz/W and a thermal time constant ≤ 30 ms at 170 K. They will be produced using proven, standard semiconductor and MEMS fabrication techniques

  7. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  8. Muon System Design Studies for Detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    van der Kraaij, E

    2011-01-01

    The two concepts for CLIC detectors inherited their design of the muon systems from the ILC community. In this note the outcome of a reevaluation of the design for the CLIC environment is presented. Based on a full detector simulation, the muon identification performance is analysed for different detector layouts and different cellsizes. As a result, nine layers are suggested for the muon systems of the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detectors, which are arranged in three groups of three layers. The cellsizes have been kept at 30×30 mm2. These layouts are used for the performance studies of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report (CDR).

  9. Performance of fully instrumented detector planes of the forward calorimeter of a Linear Collider detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H.; Afanaciev, K.; Aguilar, J.; Alvarez, E.; Avila, D.; Benhammou, Y.; Bortko, L.; Borysov, O.; Bergholz, M.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Castro, E.; Chelkov, G.; Coca, C.; Daniluk, W.; Dumitru, L.; Elsener, K.; Fadeyev, V.; Firlej, M.; Firu, E.; Fiutowski, T.; Ghenescu, V.; Gostkin, M.; Henschel, H.; Idzik, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Kananov, S.; Kollowa, S.; Kotov, S.; Kotula, J.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonok, V.; Krupa, B.; Kulis, Sz.; Lange, W.; Lesiak, T.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Lohmann, W.; Lukic, S.; Milke, C.; Moron, J.; Moszczynski, A.; Neagu, A.T.; Novgorodova, O.; Oliwa, K.; Orlandea, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Pawlik, B.; Preda, T.; Przyborowski, D.; Rosenblat, O.; Sailer, A.; Sato, Y.; Schumm, B.; Schuwalow, S.; Smiljanic, I.; Smolyanskiy, P.; Swientek, K.; Teodorescu, E.; Terlecki, P.; Wierba, W.; Wojton, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Zawiejski, L.; Zgura, I.S.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Detector-plane prototypes of the very forward calorimetry of a future detector at an $e^+e^-$ collider have been built and their performance was measured in an electron beam. The detector plane comprises silicon or GaAs pad sensors, dedicated front-end and ADC ASICs, and an FPGA for data concentration. Measurements of the signal-to-noise ratio for different feedback schemes and the response as a function of the position of the sensor are presented. A deconvolution method is successfully applied, and a comparison of the measured shower shape as a function of the absorber depth with a Monte-Carlo simulation is given.

  10. Corrections for the geometric distortion of the tube detectors on SANS instruments at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lilin; Do, Changwoo; Qian, Shuo; Wignall, George D.; Heller, William T.; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    The small-angle neutron scattering instruments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor recently upgraded the area detectors from the large, single volume crossed-wire detectors originally installed to staggered arrays of linear position-sensitive detectors (LPSDs). The specific geometry of the LPSD array requires that approaches to data reduction traditionally employed be modified. Here, two methods for correcting the geometric distortion produced by the LPSD array are presented and compared. The first method applies a correction derived from a detector sensitivity measurement performed using the same configuration as the samples are measured. In the second method, a solid angle correction is derived that can be applied to data collected in any instrument configuration during the data reduction process in conjunction with a detector sensitivity measurement collected at a sufficiently long camera length where the geometric distortions are negligible. Both methods produce consistent results and yield a maximum deviation of corrected data from isotropic scattering samples of less than 5% for scattering angles up to a maximum of 35°. The results are broadly applicable to any SANS instrument employing LPSD array detectors, which will be increasingly common as instruments having higher incident flux are constructed at various neutron scattering facilities around the world

  11. Breadboard model of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of charged particle fluxes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, M; Sanchez, S; Dudnik, O V; Kurbatov, E V; Timakova, T G; Tejedor, J I G; Titov, K G

    2013-01-01

    This report delves into the concept of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of energetic fluxes of charged particles in space. It also presents the preliminary laboratory tests results of the breadboard model electronic units. The SIDRA instrument consists of a detector head made of high purity silicon and high performance scintillation detectors, analog and digital signal processing units, and it also includes a secondary power supply module. Preliminary results of Monte Carlo instrument simulation using the CERN GEANT4 tool are presented and the measured key specifications of charge-to-voltage converters, shapers and peak detectors are discussed. Finally, the performance of the digital processing unit with its software and the parameters of the instrument breadboard model, in particular mass, dimensions and power consumption are also presented.

  12. Breadboard model of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of charged particle fluxes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M.; Dudnik, O. V.; Sanchez, S.; Kurbatov, E. V.; Timakova, T. G.; Tejedor, J. I. G.; Titov, K. G.

    2013-04-01

    This report delves into the concept of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of energetic fluxes of charged particles in space. It also presents the preliminary laboratory tests results of the breadboard model electronic units. The SIDRA instrument consists of a detector head made of high purity silicon and high performance scintillation detectors, analog and digital signal processing units, and it also includes a secondary power supply module. Preliminary results of Monte Carlo instrument simulation using the CERN GEANT4 tool are presented and the measured key specifications of charge-to-voltage converters, shapers and peak detectors are discussed. Finally, the performance of the digital processing unit with its software and the parameters of the instrument breadboard model, in particular mass, dimensions and power consumption are also presented.

  13. Electrode design for coplanar-grid detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, P.N.; Amman, M.

    1996-11-01

    The coplanar-grid charge sensing technique provides a method for improving the spectral response of gamma-ray detectors based on compound semiconductors, which typically have poor charge transport properties. The technique functions by effectively modifying the charge induction characteristics of the detector such that the dependence of detector signal on the depth of radiation interaction is minimized. The effectiveness of this technique however can be compromised by non-uniform charge induction characteristics across the detector. This paper examines such non-uniformity due to fringe effects near the detector edges. Alternate electrode configurations are studied that provide effective compensation for such effects. Results from experimental measurements and computer simulations are presented

  14. A Light-Weight Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidner, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    To meet challenging constraints on telemetry system weight and volume, a custom Light-Weight Instrumentation System was developed to collect vehicle environment and dynamics on a short-duration exo-atmospheric flight test vehicle. The total telemetry system, including electronics, sensors, batteries, and a 1 watt transmitter weighs about 1 kg. Over 80 channels of measurement, housekeeping, and telemetry system diagnostic data are transmitted at 128 kbps. The microcontroller-based design uses the automotive industry standard Controller Area Network to interface with and support in-flight control fimctions. Operational parameters are downloaded via a standard asynchronous serial communications intefiace. The basic design philosophy and functionality is described here

  15. Design principles for radiological protection instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    This Code of Practice takes the form of recommendations intended for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation, and should also be of value to the newcomer to the R.P.I. field. Topics are discussed under the following headings: outline of R.P.I. requirements, specifying the requirement, satisfying the requirements, (overall design, availability and reliability, information display, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, and cost analysis), supply, location and operation of the equipment, importance of documentation. (U.K.)

  16. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  17. Design of autotrack detecting instrument for solar UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangtao; Mao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In order to autotrack the object and detect the solar UV index, a reliable real-time high-precise instrument is proposed in this paper. This instrument involves two subsystems: the autotrack and detecting modules. The autotrack module consists of four-quadrant photo detector, multi-channel signal processing circuit and precise stepping system. The detecting module designed for dada measurement and acquisition is made up of the ultraviolet sensor UV460 and high precision A/D converter MAX1162. The key component of the entire instrument is ultralow-power microprocessor MSP430 which is used for entire system controlling and data processing. The lower system of autotracking and measurement is communicated with upper PC computer by RS232 module. In the experiment, the tracking precision of two-dimensional motion revolving stage is calibrated to be less than 0.05°. Experimental results indicate that the system designed could realize the precise autotracking and detecting function well, and the measure precision of system has reached the desirable target.

  18. Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications: Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hillemanns, H

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications in 'Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications' of Chapter '7 Applications of Detectors in Technology; Medicine and Other Fields' with the content: 7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications 7.3.1 Applications of HEP Detectors 7.3.2 Fast Micro- and Nanoelectronics for Particle Detector Readout 7.3.2.1 Fast Counting Mode Front End Electronics 7.3.2.2 NINO,...

  19. Fabrication and Testing of a Modular Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Instrumentation System for Test Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Roberts, Jeremy A.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2018-01-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Measurement of the neutron-flux distribution within the reactor core provides a more complete understanding of the operating conditions in the reactor than typical ex-core sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors have been developed and tested previously but have been limited to single-node operation and have utilized highly specialized designs. The development of a widely deployable, multi-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector assembly will enhance nuclear research capabilities. A modular, four-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was designed, fabricated, and tested at Kansas State University. The array was constructed from materials that do not significantly perturb the neutron flux in the reactor core. All four sensor nodes were equally spaced axially in the array to span the fuel-region of the reactor core. The array was filled with neon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors. The modular design of the instrument facilitates the testing and deployment of numerous sensor arrays. The unified design drastically improved device ruggedness and simplified construction from previous designs. Five 8-mm penetrations in the upper grid plate of the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor were utilized to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been specially developed to support pulse-mode operation. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array composed of four sensors was used to monitor local neutron flux at a constant reactor power of 100 kWth at different axial locations simultaneously. The array was positioned at five different radial locations within the core to emulate the deployment of multiple arrays and develop a 2-dimensional measurement of

  20. Fabrication and Testing of a Modular Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Instrumentation System for Test Nuclear Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichenberger Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Measurement of the neutron-flux distribution within the reactor core provides a more complete understanding of the operating conditions in the reactor than typical ex-core sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors have been developed and tested previously but have been limited to single-node operation and have utilized highly specialized designs. The development of a widely deployable, multi-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector assembly will enhance nuclear research capabilities. A modular, four-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was designed, fabricated, and tested at Kansas State University. The array was constructed from materials that do not significantly perturb the neutron flux in the reactor core. All four sensor nodes were equally spaced axially in the array to span the fuel-region of the reactor core. The array was filled with neon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors. The modular design of the instrument facilitates the testing and deployment of numerous sensor arrays. The unified design drastically improved device ruggedness and simplified construction from previous designs. Five 8-mm penetrations in the upper grid plate of the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor were utilized to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been specially developed to support pulse-mode operation. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array composed of four sensors was used to monitor local neutron flux at a constant reactor power of 100 kWth at different axial locations simultaneously. The array was positioned at five different radial locations within the core to emulate the deployment of multiple arrays and develop a 2-dimensional

  1. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; hide

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  2. Design of a portable dose rate detector based on a double Geiger-Mueller counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Gong, Pin; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Han, Zhen-Yang; He, Jian-Ping

    2018-01-01

    A portable dose rate detector was designed to monitor radioactive pollution and radioactive environments. The portable dose detector can measure background radiation levels (0.1 μSv/h) to nuclear accident radiation levels (>10 Sv/h). Both automatic switch technology of a double Geiger-Mueller counter and time-to-count technology were adopted to broaden the measurement range of the instrument. Global positioning systems and the 3G telecommunication protocol were installed to prevent radiation damage to the human body. In addition, the Monte Carlo N-Particle code was used to design the thin layer of metal for energy compensation, which was used to flatten energy response The portable dose rate detector has been calibrated by the standard radiation field method, and it can be used alone or in combination with additional radiation detectors.

  3. Designer's handbook of instrumentation and control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph J

    1991-01-01

    Here is a comprehensive, practical guide to the entire process of analog instrumentation and control, from sensor input to data conversion circuitry and final output. This readable handbook avoids complex mathematical treatments, instead taking an applications-oriented approach and presenting many sample circuits and concrete examples. It is an essential reference for engineers and high-level technicians in a variety of scientific and engineering fields--anywhere data is collected electronically and where such data is used to control physical processes.Key Features* Covers design o

  4. UA9 Instrumentation and Detectors in the CERN-SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Losito, R

    2010-01-01

    The UA9 experiment was installed in the CERN-SPS in March '09 in view of investigating crystal assisted collimation in coasting mode. Inside a vacuum vessel, two 2 mm long silicon crystals, bent by about 150 microradians are mounted on accurate goniometers, and a small 10mm long tungsten target is used to compare the effect of crystals with that of a standard scatterer. A moveable 60 cm long block of tungsten is located downstream at about 90 degrees phase advance to intercept the deflected beam. Scintillators, gas GEMs and beam loss monitors measure nuclear loss rates induced by the interaction of the halo beam in the crystal itself. A Roman pot is installed in the path of the deflected particles in between the crystal and the collimator, equipped with a Medipix detector to reconstruct the transverse spot of the impinging beam. Finally UA9 takes advantage of an LHC-collimator prototype installed close to the Roman pot to help in setting the beam conditions and to reveal in a destructive manner the deflected ...

  5. Maximum likelihood estimation of the broken power law spectral parameters with detector design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, L.W.

    2002-01-01

    The method of Maximum Likelihood (ML) is used to estimate the spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. This methodology, which requires the complete specificity of all cosmic-ray detector design parameters, is shown to provide approximately unbiased, minimum variance, and normally distributed spectra information for events detected by an instrument having a wide range of commonly used detector response functions. The ML procedure, coupled with the simulated performance of a proposed space-based detector and its planned life cycle, has proved to be of significant value in the design phase of a new science instrument. The procedure helped make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope. This ML methodology is then generalized to estimate broken power law spectral parameters from real cosmic-ray data sets

  6. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Broken Power Law Spectral Parameters with Detector Design Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Leonard W.

    2002-01-01

    The method of Maximum Likelihood (ML) is used to estimate the spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. This methodology, which requires the complete specificity of all cosmic-ray detector design parameters, is shown to provide approximately unbiased, minimum variance, and normally distributed spectra information for events detected by an instrument having a wide range of commonly used detector response functions. The ML procedure, coupled with the simulated performance of a proposed space-based detector and its planned life cycle, has proved to be of significant value in the design phase of a new science instrument. The procedure helped make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope. This ML methodology is then generalized to estimate broken power law spectral parameters from real cosmic-ray data sets.

  7. Instrumentation for Position Sensitive Detector-Powder diffractometer at CENM-Maamora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messous, M.-Y.; Belhorma, B.; Labrim, H.; El-Bakkari, B.; Jabri, H.

    2013-06-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors are widely used to configure neutron diffractometer and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and data acquisition system was developed to fulfil such instruments built around the research reactor. In this paper, the front-end electronics dedicated to the neutron powder diffractometer which will be installed in the axial beam port of the Triga Mark II research reactor (Center of Nuclear Studies of Maamora) is described. It consists of High voltage power supply, a Position-decoder and a Multichannel analyzer and data acquisition software. The 3 He-PSD detector response exposed to the neutron flow emitted by 252 Cf source held in paraffin spheres with distinct thicknesses for moderation effect, is shown. Monte-Carlo N Particles code (MCNP) simulations were also performed to study both the detector performance and the paraffin efficiency. (authors)

  8. Characterizing and validating the PROSPECT segmented scintillator detector design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, Danielle; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PROSPECT experiment will use two segmented liquid scintillator detectors positioned 7-20m from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core to perform a search for eV-scale sterile neutrinos and measure the antineutrino spectrum of uranium-235. A multi-year R&D program focused on background studies at the HFIR reactor, lithium-loaded liquid scintillator development, and characterization of multiple prototype detectors has culminated in the design of a segmented, 3-ton liquid scintillator detector for PROSPECT Phase I. This detector design is being validated with a 50 liter, 2-segment prototype detector, PROSPECT-50. We will report results of on-going performance and calibration studies and discuss implications for the PROSPECT physics program.

  9. Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making

  10. The design and performance of the 384-element imaging submillimeter detector arrays for HAWC and SHARC II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, S. H.; Allen, C. A.; Benford, D.; Dowell, C. D.; Harper, D. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J.

    2004-03-01

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12×32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450μm.

  11. The design and performance of the 384-element imaging submillimeter detector arrays for HAWC and SHARC II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, S.H. E-mail: moseley@stars.gsfc.nasa.gov; Allen, C.A.; Benford, D.; Dowell, C.D.; Harper, D.A.; Phillips, T.G.; Silverberg, R.F.; Staguhn, J

    2004-03-11

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12x32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450 {mu}m.

  12. The design and performance of the 384-element imaging submillimeter detector arrays for HAWC and SHARC II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, S.H.; Allen, C.A.; Benford, D.; Dowell, C.D.; Harper, D.A.; Phillips, T.G.; Silverberg, R.F.; Staguhn, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12x32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450 μm

  13. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237541; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362 mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline, while inclined designs have sensors angled such that they point towards the interaction point. The relative advantages and challenges of these two classes of designs will be examined in this paper, along with the mechanical solutions being considered. Thermal management, radiation-length mapping, and electrical services will al...

  14. Construction of a radiometer for pyroelectric detector and presentation of a model for detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, C.A. de.

    1987-01-01

    An expression has been developed for the pyroelectric voltage as a function of electric and thermal parameters of the detector. It has also been developed expressions for determination of unknown parameters from the experimentally obtained pyroelectric voltage curve as function of time and some other known information. It has also been shown figures of merit for characterization of the detectors, a study showing the detector performance dependence on each electric and thermal parameter and some illustrative experimental results. The radiometer designed and built for this work, is described. (author) [pt

  15. Modeling and design of X-rays bidimensional detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quisbert, Elmer Paz Alcon

    2000-03-01

    In this work has been developed the scintillating fiber optic and semiconductor devices based 2-D detector design, modeling and performance evaluation using Monte Carlo methods, for high X-ray energy range (10-140 kV) radiography and tomography applications. These processes allowed us, also, the imaging system parameters and components optimization and appropriate detector design. The model estimated the detectors performance parameters (DQE, MTF and SNR), and radiation risk (in terms of mean absorbed dose in the patient) and to show up how the sequence of physical processes in X-ray detection influence the performance of this imaging PFOC detectors. In this way, the modeling of the detector includes the statistics of the spatial distribution of absorbed X-rays and of X-ray to light conversion, its transmission, and the light quanta conversion into electrons. Also contributions to noise from the detection system chain is included, mainly the CCD detector ambient noise. Performance prediction, based on calculation taken from simulations, illustrates how such detectors meet the exacting requirements of some medical and industrial applications. Also, it is envisaged that our modeling procedure of the imaging system will be suitable not only for investigating how the system components should be best designed but for CT and RD system performance prediction. The powerful techniques would enable us to give advice for future development, in this field, in search of more dose-efficient imaging systems. (author)

  16. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline. High-eta particles will therefore hit these sensors at shallow angles, leaving elongated charge clusters. The length of such a charge cluster can be used to estimate the angle of the passing particle. This information can then be used in track reconstruction to improve tracking efficiency and reduce fake rates. Inclined designs ...

  17. Design and Construction of Prototype Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Fisher

    2012-03-23

    The Lepton Quark Studies (LQS) group is engaged in searching for dark matter using the Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (Carlsbad, NM). DMTPC is a direction-sensitive dark matter detector designed to measure the recoil direction and energy deposited by fluorine nuclei recoiling from the interaction with incident WIMPs. In the past year, the major areas of progress have been: to publish the first dark matter search results from a surface run of the DMTPC prototype detector, to build and install the 10L prototype in the underground laboratory at WIPP which will house the 1 m{sup 3} detector, and to demonstrate charge and PMT readout of the TPC using prototype detectors, which allow triggering and {Delta}z measurement to be used in the 1 m{sup 3} detector under development.

  18. Water NSTF Design, Instrumentation, and Test Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, Darius D.; Gerardi, Craig D.; Hu, Rui; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Bremer, Nathan C.; Lomperski, Stephen W.; Kraus, Adam R.; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Lv, Qiuping; Farmer, Mitchell T.

    2017-08-01

    variations and off-normal configurations. The facility design follows, including as-built dimensions and specifications of the various mechanical and liquid systems, design choices for the test section, water storage tank, and network piping. Specifications of the instrumentation suite are then presented, along with specific information on performance windows, measurement uncertainties, and installation locations. Finally, descriptions of the control systems and heat removal networks are provided, which have been engineered to support precise quantification of energy balances and facilitate well-controlled test operations.

  19. Rocket-borne instrument with a high-resolution microchannel plate detector for planetary UV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclintock, W. E.; Barth, C. A.; Steele, R. E.; Lawrence, G. M.; Timothy, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    A telescope-spectrograph employing a photon-counting microchannel plate (MCP)-CODACON detector has been built, tested, and flown on a sounding rocket. The detector uses a curved-channel MCP proximity focused onto a coded anode array of 1024 channels spaced 25.4-mm center to center. High quantum efficiency is obtained by depositing a cesium iodide photocathode on the front surface of the MCP. The instrument has obtained an ultraviolet spectrum of Jupiter with a spectral resolution of 8 A, which is higher than that of any previously reported observation in this wavelength range.

  20. Computer assistance for the pre-design of optical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, M.A.J. van der; Kruit, P.

    1995-01-01

    Currently designers use detailed numerical simulation tools for designing charged particle optical instruments. However, these detailed numerical simulation tools are not adequate for the pre-design stage, as they focus on the detailed design of components of the instrument while the pre-design stage deals with the design of the complete instrument. In this article the role of the pre-design stage is analyzed, resulting in a list of requirements for computer assistance at the pre-design stage. These requirements are derived using a model for the process of design. The results of this study are being used by us to develop a pre-design tool. (orig.)

  1. Design of the flame detector based on pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yu, Benhua; Dong, Lei; Li, Kai

    2017-10-01

    As a fire detection device, flame detector has the advantages of short reaction time and long distance. Based on pyroelectric infrared sensor working principle, the passive pyroelectric infrared alarm system is designed, which is mainly used for safety of tunnel to detect whether fire occurred or not. Modelling and Simulation of the pyroelectric Detector Using Labview. An attempt was made to obtain a simple test platform of a pyroelectric detector which would make an excellent basis for the analysis of its dynamic behaviour. After many experiments, This system has sensitive response, high anti-interference ability and safe and reliable performance.

  2. The design and performance of the ZEUS micro vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polini, A.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.

    2007-08-01

    In order to extend the tracking acceptance, to improve the primary and secondary vertex reconstruction and thus enhancing the tagging capabilities for short lived particles, the ZEUS experiment at the HERA Collider at DESY installed a silicon strip vertex detector. The barrel part of the detector is a 63 cm long cylinder with silicon sensors arranged around an elliptical beampipe. The forward part consists of four circular shaped disks. In total just over 200k channels are read out using 2.9 m 2 of silicon. In this report a detailed overview of the design and construction of the detector is given and the performance of the completed system is reviewed. (orig.)

  3. Configuration Design of Detector Shielding for Gamma Prompt Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elin-Nuraini; Darsono; Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    Configuration on design of detector shielding for gamma prompt analysishas been performed. The aim of this design is to obtain effective shieldingmaterial and configuration that able to protect the detector for fastneutron. The result shown that detector shielding configuration that obtainedby configuration of water and concrete, would be able to absorb fast neutronup to 99.5 %. The neutron flux that passed through shielding configuration is2.4 x 10 3 n/cm 2 dt, in the detector position of 60 cm (forward neutron beamdirection) on the X axis and 30 cm (side ward neutron beam direction) on theZ axis of target. On this position (60,30) counting result was 104358 for Pbcollimator and 246652 for PVC collimator. From examination result shown thatthe weight of silicon is in order 175 gram. (author)

  4. Designing a Modern Low Cost Muon Detector to Teach Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Carly; Kotler, Julia

    2016-09-01

    In an effort to make it possible for small institutions to train students in nuclear physics, an attempt is made to design a low cost cosmic ray muon detector (perhaps under 600 dollars) capable of measuring flux vs. solid angle and muon lifetime. In order to expose students to current particle detection technologies, silicon photomultipliers will be coupled with plastic scintillator to provide the signals, and an Arduino, Raspberry Pi, or National Instruments device will interface with the detector. Once designed and built, prototypes of the detector will be used in outreach to K-12 students in the Allentown, PA area. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1507841.

  5. Technical Design Report for the: PANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Erni, W; Krusche, B; Steinacher, M; Heng, Y; Liu, Z; Liu, H; Shen, X; Wang, Q; Xu, H; Albrecht, M; Becker, J; Eickel, K; Feldbauer, F; Fink, M; Friedel, P; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Koch, H; Kopf, B; Leyhe, M; Motzko, C; Pelizäus, M; Pychy, J; Roth, B; Schröder, T; Schulze, J; Steinke, M; Trifterer, T; Wiedner, U; Zhong, J; Beck, R; Becker, M; Bianco, S; Brinkmann, K -Th; Hammann, C; Hinterberger, F; Jäkel, R; Kaiser, D; Kliemt, R; Koop, K; Schmidt, C; Schnell, R; Thoma, U; Vlasov, P; Wendel, C; Winnebeck, A; Würschig, Th; Zaunick, H -G; Bianconi, A; Bragadireanu, M; Caprini, M; Ciubancan, M; Pantea, D; Tarta, P -D; De Napoli, M; Giacoppo, F; Rapisarda, E; Sfienti, C; Fiutowski, T; Idzik, N; Mindur, B; Przyborowski, D; Swientek, K; Bialkowski, E; Budzanowski, A; Czech, B; Kliczewski, S; Kozela, A; Kulessa, P; Lebiedowicz, P; Malgorzata, K; Pysz, K; Schäfer, W; Siudak, R; Szczurek, A; Brandys, P; Czyzewski, T; Czyzycki, W; Domagala, M; Hawryluk, M; Filo, G; Kwiatkowski, D; Lisowski, E; Lisowski, F; Bardan, W; Gil, D; Kamys, B; Kistryn, St; Korcyl, K; Krzemieñ, W; Magiera, A; Moskal, P; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Smyrski, J; Wroñska, A; Al-Turany, M; Arora, R; Augustin, I; Deppe, H; Dutta, D; Flemming, H; Götzen, K; Hohler, G; Karabowicz, R; Lehmann, D; Lewandowski, B; Lühning, J; Maas, F; Orth, H; Peters, K; Saito, T; Schepers, G; Schmidt, C J; Schmitt, L; Schwarz, C; Schwiening, J; Voss, B; Wieczorek, P; Wilms, A; Abazov, V M; Alexeev, G D; Arefiev, V A; Astakhov, V I; Barabanov, M Yu; Batyunya, B V; Davydov, Yu I; Dodokhov, V Kh; Efremov, A A; Fedunov, A G; Feshchenko, A A; Galoyan, A S; Grigoryan, S; Karmokov, A; Koshurnikov, E K; Lobanov, V I; Lobanov, Yu Yu; Makarov, A F; Malinina, L V; Malyshev, V L; Mustafaev, G A; Olshevski, A G; Pasyuk, M A; Perevalova, E A; Piskun, A A; Pocheptsov, T A; Pontecorvo, G; Rodionov, V K; Rogov, Yu N; Salmin, R A; Samartsev, A G; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shabratova, G S; Skachkova, A N; Skachkov, N B; Strokovsky, E A; Suleimanov, M K; Teshev, R Sh; Tokmenin, V V; Uzhinsky, V V; Vodopyanov, A S; Zaporozhets, S A; Zhuravlev, N I; Zorin, A G; Branford, D; Glazier, D; Watts, D; Woods, P; Britting, A; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Uhlig, F; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K; Tann, B; Tomaradze, A; Bettoni, D; Carassiti, V; Dalpiaz, P; Drago, A; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Negrini, M; Savriè, M; Stancari, G; Dulach, B; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lucherini, V; Pace, E; Bersani, A; Macri, M; Marinelli, M; Parodi, R F; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Düren, M; Eisner, T; Foehl, K; Hayrapetyan, A; Koch, P; Krïoch, B; Kühn, W; Lange, S; Liang, Y; Liu, M; Merle, O; Metag, V; Moritz, M; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Spruck, B; Stenzel, H; Strackbein, C; Thiel, M; Wang, Q; Clarkson, T; Euan, C; Hill, G; Hoek, M; Ireland, D; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Lehmann, I; Livingston, K; Lumsden, P; MacGregor, D; McKinnon, B; Montgomery, R; Murray, M; Protopopescu, D; Rosner, G; Seitz, B; Yang, G; Babai, M; Biegun, A K; Glazenborg-Kluttig, A; Guliyev, E; Jothi, V S; Kavatsyuk, M; Lemmens, P; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J; Poelman, T; Smit, H; van der Weele, J C; Sohlbach, H; Büscher, M; Dosdall, R; Dzhygadlo, R; Esch, S; Gillitzer, A; Goldenbaum, F; Grunwald, D; Jha, V; Kemmerling, G; Kleines, H; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Mertens, M; Ohm, H; Pohl, D L; Prasuhn, D; Randriamalala, T; Ritman, J; Roeder, M; Sterzenbach, G; Stockmanns, T; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P; Xu, H; Kisiel, J; Li, S; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Xu, H; Fissum, K; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Lundin, M; Schröder, B; Achenbach, P; Denig, A; Distler, M; Fritsch, M; Kangh, D; Karavdina, A; Lauth, W; Michel, M; Espi, M C Mora; Pochodzalla, J; Sanchez, S; Sanchez-Lorente, A; Sfienti, C; Weber, T; Dormenev, V I; Fedorov, A A; Korzhik, M V; Missevitch, O V; Boukharov, A; Malyshev, O; Marishev, I; Semenov, A; Varma, R; Höppner, C; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Mann, A; Neubert, S; Paul, S; Vandenbroucke, M; Zhang, Q; Khoukaz, A; Rausmann, T; Täschner, A; Wessels, J; Baldin, E; Kotov, K; Peleganchuk, S; Tikhonov, Yu; Hennino, T; Imre, M; Kunne, R; Galliard, C Le; Normand, J P Le; Marchand, D; Maroni, A; Ong, S; Pouthas, J; Ramstein, B; Rosier, P; Sudol, M; Theneau, C; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Van de Wiele, J; Zerguerras, T; Boca, G; Braghieri, A; Costanza, S; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Lavezzi, L; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Buda, V; Abramov, V V; Davidenko, A M; Derevschikov, A A; Goncharenko, Y M; Grishin, V N; Kachanov, V A; Konstantinov, D A; Kormilitsin, V A; Matulenko, Y A; Melnik, Y M; Meschanin, A P; Minaev, N G; Mochalov, V V; Morozov, D A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Ryazantsev, A V; Semenov, P A; Soloviev, L F; Uzunian, A V; Vasiliev, A N; Yakutin, A E; Belostotski, S; Gavrilov, G; Itzotov, A; Kisselev, A; Kravchenko, P; Manaenkov, S; Miklukho, O; Naryshkin, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Zhadanov, A; Bäck, T; Cederwall, B; Bargholtz, C; Gerén, L; Tegnér, P E; Thørngren, P; von Würtemberg, K M; Fava, L; Alberto, D; Amoroso, A; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; De Mori, F; Destefanis, M; Ferrero, L; Greco, M; Kugathasan, T; Maggiora, M; Marcello, S; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Calvo, D; Coli, S; De Remigis, P; Filippi, A; Giraudo, G; Lusso, S; Mazza, G; Mignone, M; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R; Zotti, L; Morra, O; Iazzi, F; Lavagno, A; Quarati, P; Szymanska, K; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Martin, A; Clement, H; Galnander, B; Calén, H; Fransson, K; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Thomé, E; Wolke, M; Zlomanczuk, J; Díaz, J; Ortiz, A; Buda, P; Dmowski, K; Korzeniewski, R; Przemyslaw, D; Slowinski, B; Borsuk, S; Chlopik, A; Guzik, Z; Kopec, J; Kozlowski, T; Melnychuk, D; Plominski, M; Szewinski, J; Traczyk, K; Zwieglinski, B; Bühler, P; Gruber, A; Kienle, P; Marton, J; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2012-01-01

    This document illustrates the technical layout and the expected performance of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. The MVD will detect charged particles as close as possible to the interaction zone. Design criteria and the optimisation process as well as the technical solutions chosen are discussed and the results of this process are subjected to extensive Monte Carlo physics studies. The route towards realisation of the detector is outlined.

  6. Design Report for Low Power Acoustic Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    the hardware design, target detection algorithm design in both MATLAB and VHDL , and typical performance results. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Acoustic low...diagram. .......................................................................................................3 Figure 4. HED VHDL block diagram...6 Figure 5. DCD VHDL block diagram

  7. Large coil test facility instrumentation system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.; Fletcher, W.M.; Goddard, J.S.; Murphy, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The design of the instrumentation system for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is described. Sensors are divided into two categories: coil diagnostic sensors, installed in the test coils; and facility sensors, installed in the various systems of the test facility in order to monitor their performance. After signal conditioning, data from the ''fast'' channels are multiplexed, digitized, and stored in four microcomputer systems programmed to be used in a ring buffer mode to record data before and after receipt of a random trigger from the normal zone detection circuitry. ''Slow'' channels are digitized by a scanner and buffered by a microcomputer. Selected data channels are continuously displayed on digital or recorded on strip chart recorders. The microcomputer systems are interfaced to a central minicomputer system for display and archival storage. Facility variables are digitized by a separate scanner system. Certain critical fault variables are compared with set point values, and if they are out of range, cause a programmable logic controller to initiate an emergency coil energy dump. 2 refs

  8. Instrument design optimization with computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael H. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Using Finite Element Analysis to approximate the solution of differential equations, two different instruments in experimental Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are analyzed. The time dependence of density uctuations from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak experiment (2011-2012) are studied with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the simulation results compared to data from the experiment. The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen target was the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. The first complete magnetic field simulation of the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented with a focus on primary electron beam deflection downstream of the target. The SHMS consists of a superconducting horizontal bending magnet (HB) and three superconducting quadrupole magnets. The HB allows particles scattered at an angle of 5:5 deg to the beam line to be steered into the quadrupole magnets which make up the optics of the spectrometer. Without mitigation, remnant fields from the SHMS may steer the unscattered beam outside of the acceptable envelope on the beam dump and limit beam operations at small scattering angles. A solution is proposed using optimal placement of a minimal amount of shielding iron around the beam line.

  9. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  10. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  11. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Lin; Wang Houjun; Zhou Xue; Zhou Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful

  12. Design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dally, Adam

    2013-04-01

    CUORE, the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events, is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with an active mass of 206 kg of ^130Te. The detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operating at 10 mK. The signature of 0νββ decay is an excess of events at the Q-value of 2528 keV. Understanding the energy response is critical for event identification, but this presents many challenges. The detector requires ultra-low background radiation, vacuum compatible materials, and cryogenic temperatures. Individual energy calibration of the bolometers is achieved by placing radioactive sources between detectors inside the cryostat. A source deployment and thermalization system that meets the background and thermal requirements of the CUORE experiment has been developed. This talk will discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system.

  13. EUV high resolution imager on-board solar orbiter: optical design and detector performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halain, J. P.; Mazzoli, A.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Stockman, Y.; Berghmans, D.; BenMoussa, A.; Auchère, F.

    2017-11-01

    The EUV high resolution imager (HRI) channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board Solar Orbiter will observe the solar atmospheric layers at 17.4 nm wavelength with a 200 km resolution. The HRI channel is based on a compact two mirrors off-axis design. The spectral selection is obtained by a multilayer coating deposited on the mirrors and by redundant Aluminum filters rejecting the visible and infrared light. The detector is a 2k x 2k array back-thinned silicon CMOS-APS with 10 μm pixel pitch, sensitive in the EUV wavelength range. Due to the instrument compactness and the constraints on the optical design, the channel performance is very sensitive to the manufacturing, alignments and settling errors. A trade-off between two optical layouts was therefore performed to select the final optical design and to improve the mirror mounts. The effect of diffraction by the filter mesh support and by the mirror diffusion has been included in the overall error budget. Manufacturing of mirror and mounts has started and will result in thermo-mechanical validation on the EUI instrument structural and thermal model (STM). Because of the limited channel entrance aperture and consequently the low input flux, the channel performance also relies on the detector EUV sensitivity, readout noise and dynamic range. Based on the characterization of a CMOS-APS back-side detector prototype, showing promising results, the EUI detector has been specified and is under development. These detectors will undergo a qualification program before being tested and integrated on the EUI instrument.

  14. Design, commissioning and performance of the PIBETA detector at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frlez, E. E-mail: frlez@virginia.edu; Pocanic, D.; Assamagan, K.A.; Bagaturia, Yu.; Baranov, V.A.; Bertl, W.; Broennimann, Ch.; Bychkov, M.; Crawford, J.F.; Daum, M.; Fluegel, Th.; Frosch, R.; Horisberger, R.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Khomutov, N.V.; Koglin, J.E.; Korenchenko, A.S.; Korenchenko, S.M.; Kozlowski, T.; Krause, B.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Kuchinsky, N.A.; Li, W.; Lawrence, D.W.; Minehart, R.C.; Mzhavia, D.; Obermeier, H.; Renker, D.; Ritchie, B.G.; Ritt, S.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Schnyder, R.; Sidorkin, V.V.; Slocum, P.L.; Smith, L.C.; Soic, N.; Stephens, W.A.; Supek, I.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; VanDevender, B.A.; Wang, Y.; Wirtz, H.P.; Ziock, K.O.H

    2004-07-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of the PIBETA detector built for the precise measurement of the branching ratio of pion beta decay, {pi}{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The central part of the detector is a 240-module spherical pure CsI calorimeter covering {approx}3{pi} sr solid angle. The calorimeter is supplemented with an active collimator/beam degrader system, an active segmented plastic target, a pair of low-mass cylindrical wire chambers and a 20-element cylindrical plastic scintillator hodoscope. The whole detector system is housed inside a temperature-controlled lead brick enclosure, which in turn is lined with cosmic muon plastic veto counters. Commissioning and calibration data were taken during two 3-month beam periods in 1999/2000 with {pi}{sup +} stopping rates between 1.3{center_dot}10{sup 3} {pi}{sup +}/s and 1.3{center_dot}10{sup 6} {pi}{sup +}/s. We examine the timing, energy and angular detector resolution for photons, positrons and protons in the energy range of 5-150 MeV, as well as the response of the detector to cosmic muons. We illustrate the detector signatures for the assorted rare pion and muon decays and their associated backgrounds.

  15. The Basic Design Report of the 40M SANS Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Hee; Hwang, Dong Gil; Kim, Hak Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Sung Min [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    The HANARO cold neutron research facility project was launched on July 1, 2003. A state of the art SANS instrument was selected as a top-priority instrument by an instrument selection committee, which consisted of domestic users and HANARO personnel. An instrument development team and an international and domestic instrument advisory team were formulated. The guide and the instrument simulation were performed using Vitess software and the optimum basic design was completed based on the simulation results and the international advisory team reviews. The optimum design of the guide for the 40M SANS instrument was completed and the optimum basic design of the 40M the SANS instrument was also completed based on the Vitess simulation results. The Q range of the instrument will cover from 0.0008 to 1.0 A-1 and the maximum flux at a sample position can reach about 5.5x10 7 n/cm2sec. The simulation results and the basic design product will be used for the detailed design and the construction of the SANS instrument. The simulation results could be applied to the development of the other instrument.

  16. An engineering design network for SSC detector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiacomo, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    The detector systems that are being proposed to exploit the capabilities of the SSC are of a scale and scope that will make them among the most complex devices ever built. To successfully design and build these systems over the next decade, the authors must make use of integrated state of the art computer aided engineering and design (CAE/CAD) tools that have been developed and employed in industry. The challenge is to made these tools and associated engineering resources available to the spectrum of institutions - large and small universities, industries and national labs - involved in SSC detector development in such a way that each may contribute and participate in the most effective manner. The authors believe that powerful workstations running sophisticated modeling, analysis and simulation software, linked by high speed data networks and governed by modern configuration management methods offer the ideal means of arriving at the optimum detector configuration for physics at the SSC

  17. Intensity-modulated near-infrared spectroscopy: instrument design issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Ken; Wickramasinghe, Yappa A.

    2000-05-01

    Tissue oxygenation instruments which rely on phase sensitive detection suffer form phase-amplitude crosstalk, i.e. the phase of the detected signal with respect to a reference signal is dependent on the average intensity of the light entering the photomultiplier tube (PMT). If an instrument that detects the phase of the scattered signal is to yield the phase accuracy required in order to provide useful clinical parameters, quantitative haemoglobin and oxy- haemoglobin concentrations (Hb), and (HbO2) and mixed arterial-venous saturation all sources of phase-amplitude effects must be understood. The phase-amplitude effect has in the past been attributed to the fact that the rise time of the detector decreases with increasing light intensity. In this work an additional phase-amplitude effect in intensity modulated near IR spectroscopy (IMNIRS) instrumentation is studied. The presence of a coherent interfering signal due to low level RF coupling at the detector output will corrupt the phase of the signal of interest and cause a phase-amplitude effect. Under certain conditions a relatively low level interfering RF signal can introduce a significant error in the slope of the phase per unit distance plot. A comparison between measured and modeled phase distortion is presented and ways to reduce the effect discussed. In addition to phase-amplitude effects, the final accuracy of the quantitative measurements made by an IMNIRS instrument depends heavily on the calibration. Calibration of the measured phase and the AC and DC components of the detected light must take into account distortions due to, (a) phase-amplitude crosstalk and system phase offset, (b) detector non-linearities, (c) variation in laser source intensity and phase with time and temperature, (d) optical probe light loss and (e) variations in detector sensitivity. Current instrument performance will be presented and discussed.

  18. Optimal Design of Large Dimensional Adaptive Subspace Detectors

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Atitallah, Ismail

    2016-05-27

    This paper addresses the design of Adaptive Subspace Matched Filter (ASMF) detectors in the presence of a mismatch in the steering vector. These detectors are coined as adaptive in reference to the step of utilizing an estimate of the clutter covariance matrix using training data of signalfree observations. To estimate the clutter covariance matrix, we employ regularized covariance estimators that, by construction, force the eigenvalues of the covariance estimates to be greater than a positive scalar . While this feature is likely to increase the bias of the covariance estimate, it presents the advantage of improving its conditioning, thus making the regularization suitable for handling high dimensional regimes. In this paper, we consider the setting of the regularization parameter and the threshold for ASMF detectors in both Gaussian and Compound Gaussian clutters. In order to allow for a proper selection of these parameters, it is essential to analyze the false alarm and detection probabilities. For tractability, such a task is carried out under the asymptotic regime in which the number of observations and their dimensions grow simultaneously large, thereby allowing us to leverage existing results from random matrix theory. Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the relevance of the proposed design strategy and to compare the performances of the proposed ASMF detectors versus Adaptive normalized Matched Filter (ANMF) detectors under mismatch scenarios.

  19. Design and optimization of vertex detector foils by superplastic forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    The production of one of the parts in a particle detector, called the RF Foil, has been a very intensive process in the past. The design and production process, which had a trial and error character, led eventually to an RF Foil that met the most important requirement: a sufficient leak tightness

  20. Extended Dry Storage Signature Bench Scale Detector Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    This report is the conceptual design of a detector based on research within the Extended Dry Storage Signature Development project under the DOE-­NE MPACT campaign. This is the second year of the project; from this year’s positive results, the next step is building a prototype and testing with real materials .

  1. Silicon drift detector: device design and mask layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Pourus; Mishra, Vijay; Kataria, S.K.; Rao, Ramgopal

    2005-01-01

    The mask design of Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) to be fabricated at the fabrication lab of IIT Bombay has been done. The mask layout consists of 13 distinct designs of varying geometry and design parameters. The design rules related to the silicon fabrication facility at IITB have been strictly adhered to while designing the mask for SDD. Additional features like alignment marks, reference marks and scribe lines have also been incorporated to facilitate convenient fabrication and ease in dicing of devices after processing. The next step is to get the mask set fabricated commercially and subsequently proceed towards SDD fabrication. (author)

  2. Optimal Design of Calibration Signals in Space Borne Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrarias, Miquel; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Gibert, Ferran; Armano, Michele; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Dolesi, Rita; Ferraioli, Luigi; Thorpe, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Future space borne gravitational wave detectors will require a precise definition of calibration signals to ensure the achievement of their design sensitivity. The careful design of the test signals plays a key role in the correct understanding and characterization of these instruments. In that sense, methods achieving optimal experiment designs must be considered as complementary to the parameter estimation methods being used to determine the parameters describing the system. The relevance of experiment design is particularly significant for the LISA Pathfinder mission, which will spend most of its operation time performing experiments to characterize key technologies for future space borne gravitational wave observatories. Here we propose a framework to derive the optimal signals in terms of minimum parameter uncertainty to be injected to these instruments during its calibration phase. We compare our results with an alternative numerical algorithm which achieves an optimal input signal by iteratively improving an initial guess. We show agreement of both approaches when applied to the LISA Pathfinder case.

  3. Optimal Design of Calibration Signals in Space-Borne Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrarias, Miquel; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Gibert, Ferran; Armano, Michele; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Dolesi, Rita; Ferraioli, Luigi; Ferroni, Valerio; hide

    2016-01-01

    Future space borne gravitational wave detectors will require a precise definition of calibration signals to ensure the achievement of their design sensitivity. The careful design of the test signals plays a key role in the correct understanding and characterisation of these instruments. In that sense, methods achieving optimal experiment designs must be considered as complementary to the parameter estimation methods being used to determine the parameters describing the system. The relevance of experiment design is particularly significant for the LISA Pathfinder mission, which will spend most of its operation time performing experiments to characterize key technologies for future space borne gravitational wave observatories. Here we propose a framework to derive the optimal signals in terms of minimum parameter uncertainty to be injected to these instruments during its calibration phase. We compare our results with an alternative numerical algorithm which achieves an optimal input signal by iteratively improving an initial guess. We show agreement of both approaches when applied to the LISA Pathfinder case.

  4. Micro vertex detector design for collider geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, M.; Crennell, D.; Fisher, C.M.; Hughes, P.; Kurtz, N.

    1984-05-01

    Previously the analysis of fixed target jet events using a scintillating optical fibre target to provide a projection of the topology on the plane transverse to the event axis has been considered. It was argued that this transverse plane projection is optimal for the detection of charm or beauty particle decay vertices. The idea is generalised to a jet analysis in a collider geometry particularly when associated with a high Psub(perpendicular to) or missing Esub(T) trigger. This report proposes a simple arrangement of fibres to give high precision track elements in the transverse plane projection coupled with a fast read-out capability. The principle physics aim of the design is to provide a tag for selecting top quark jets by detecting a beauty flavoured particle in the jet. (U.K.)

  5. Upgrade of detectors of neutron instruments at Neutron Physics Laboratory in Řež

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, E.I., E-mail: litvin@nf.jinr.ru [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 14980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ryukhtin, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Bogdzel, A.A.; Churakov, A.V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 14980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Farkas, G. [Charles University in Prague, Department of Physics of Material, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Hervoches, Ch.; Lukas, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Pilch, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 1992/2, 1822 Prague (Czech Republic); Saroun, J.; Strunz, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Zhuravlev, V.V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 14980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-01

    Three neutron instruments at the Neutron Physics Laboratory (NPL) in Řež near Prague — small-angle scattering (SANS) MAUD, strain scanner SPN-100 and strain diffractometer TKSN-400 — have been modernized recently with new 2D position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) from JINR, Dubna. Here we report on the progress made in relation to the possibilities of the diffractometers due to the improved performance of the detectors. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a detailed description of the hardware and software of the PSDs, as well as its integration with the in-house experimental control software. Then practical examples of neutron scattering experiments for each of the upgraded facilities are presented.

  6. A new numerical technique to design satellite energetic electron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tuszewski, M G; Ingraham, J C

    2002-01-01

    Energetic charged particles trapped in the magnetosphere are routinely detected by satellite instruments. However, it is generally difficult to extract quantitative energy and angular information from such measurements because the interaction of energetic electrons with matter is rather complex. Beam calibrations and Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations are often used to evaluate a flight instrument once it is built. However, rules of thumb and past experience are common tools to design the instrument in the first place. Hence, we have developed a simple numerical procedure, based on analytical probabilities, suitable for instrumental design and evaluation. In addition to the geometrical response, the contributions of surface backscattering, edge penetration, and bremsstrahlung radiation are estimated. The new results are benchmarked against MC calculations for a simple test case. Complicated effects, such as the contribution of the satellite to the instrumental response, can be estimated with the new formalism.

  7. Design of data acquisition system for GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianliang; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji; Jin Xi

    2011-01-01

    It describes the design and realization of the USB 2.0 high speed data acquisition devise which is used in the readout electronics of the GEM (gas electron multiplier) detector. By using of the USB Microcontroller EZ-USB FX2 CY7C68013A, high speed ADC and FPGA, high-speed data rate of data acquisition and transmission was realized. The data rate reaches to 20 MByte/s, meeting the requirements of data acquisition and transmission of the detector. (authors)

  8. SPECT detector system design based on embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weizheng; Zhao Shujun; Zhang Lei; Sun Yuanling

    2007-01-01

    A single-photon emission computed tomography detector system based on embedded Linux designed. This system is composed of detector module, data acquisition module, ARM MPU module, network interface communication module and human machine interface module. Its software uses multithreading technology based on embedded Linux. It can achieve high speed data acquisition, real-time data correction and network data communication. It can accelerate the data acquisition and decrease the dead time. The accuracy and the stability of the system can be improved. (authors)

  9. Neutron detector array at IUAC: Design features and instrumentation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... remote-controlled over a private local area network (LAN). The controller set the high voltage by connecting to the control pin of the chip via a 0–5V programmable volt- age through a digital-to-analog converter. Each board has its own unique MAC and IP address so that, each can be specifically selected at ...

  10. Die Casting Mold Design for Aluminum Alloy Shell of Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanyuan; Wang Meng; Guo Yuchao

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about die casting mold design for aluminum alloy shell of instrument. Three-dimensional model of the casting and mold are designed by using Pro/Engineer and AutoCad which can analyze forming quality. Digital design and theoretical calculation can greatly shorten product development cycle and mold design cycle, improve the accuracy of product design and mold design, and reduce the cost of mold design.

  11. Die Casting Mold Design for Aluminum Alloy Shell of Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about die casting mold design for aluminum alloy shell of instrument. Three-dimensional model of the casting and mold are designed by using Pro/Engineer and AutoCad which can analyze forming quality. Digital design and theoretical calculation can greatly shorten product development cycle and mold design cycle, improve the accuracy of product design and mold design, and reduce the cost of mold design.

  12. FMIT test-end instrumentation conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    FMIT test-end measurement techniques and instrumentation concepts for deuteron beam control, test-end device protection, test cell radiation field characterization, lithium jet performance monitoring, and in-situ off-line target testing and examination are described. The test-end refers to the beam line-target-test assembly interface area inside the test cell, but TEI includes measurements inside and outside the cell. The measurement requirements are briefly reviewed and referenced. The sometimes severe environmental limitations are discussed. Where feasible, multifunctional systems have been configured. Special facility features have been minimized

  13. Instrumental Genesis in GeoGebra Based Board Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    for teaching skills with GeoGebra, as well as an entrepreneurial attitude towards mathematics. Using the instrumental approach I discuss how open ended transdisciplinary design activities can support instrumental genesis, by considering the extent to which the pupils address mathematical knowledge...

  14. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  15. Design of a new time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering instrument at CPHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.C.; Gong, H.; Shao, B.B.; Wang, D.; Zhang, X.Z.; Zhang, K.; Wei, J.; Wang, X.W.; Guan, X.L.; Loong, C.-K.; Tao, J.Z.; Zhou, L.; Ke, Y.B.

    2012-01-01

    A new time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) diffractometer is to be built at the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) of Tsinghua University, China. This SANS project strives to serve two purposes: its instrumental design, fabrication and optimization will help glean valuable scientific and engineering experiences; and its utilization will help promote fruitful domestic user programs on research of large structures in advanced materials using neutrons. The design draws experiences from other TOF SANS instruments, particularly that of the long-pulse LENS of Indiana University and also considers the source features at CPHS. The design team enjoyed the guidance and assistance from experts through international collaborations. For simultaneous collection of scattering data in the Q-range (∼7×10 -3 -1 ) with reasonable Q-resolution and high efficiency, this instrument is designed to use large area detector (1×1 m 2 ) and broad wavelength bandwidth (1-10 Å) within the first frame. It also pays attention to possible use of optical devices such as neutron guides, focusing lenses and novel detectors.

  16. The Detector Design of the Jefferson Lab EIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenthaler, Markus [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is envisioned as the next-generation U.S. facility to study quarks and gluons in strongly interacting matter. The broad physics program of the EIC aims to precisely image gluons in nucleons and nuclei and to reveal the origin of the nucleon spin by colliding polarized electrons with polarized protons, polarized light ions, and heavy nuclei at high luminosity. The Jefferson Lab EIC (JLEIC) design is based on a figure-8 shaped ring-ring collider. The luminosity, exceeding 1033cm-2 s -1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass energy and maximum luminosity above 1034cm-2 s -1 , is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-energy electron cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. The focus of this presentation is put on the JLEIC primary detector that has been designed to support the full physics program of the EIC and to provide essentially full acceptance to all fragments produced in collisions. The detector has been fully integrated with the accelerator and extended to the forward electron and hadron regions to achieve exceptional small-angle acceptance and resolution as well as high-precision electron polarimetry and low-Q 2 tagging. The Central Detector design allows for excellent tracking up to small angles and excellent hadron PID resulting and offers a great performance, in particular for semi-inclusive and exclusive measurements. The combination of high luminosity, highly polarized lepton and ion beams, and a full acceptance, multi-purpose detector fully integrated with the accelerator will allow JLEIC a unique opportunity to make breakthroughs in the investigation of the strong interaction.

  17. A phoswich detector design for improved spatial sampling in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Jonathan D.; Koschan, Merry A.; Melcher, Charles L.; Meng, Fang; Schellenberg, Graham; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2018-02-01

    Block detector designs, utilizing a pixelated scintillator array coupled to a photosensor array in a light-sharing design, are commonly used for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging applications. In practice, the spatial sampling of these designs is limited by the crystal pitch, which must be large enough for individual crystals to be resolved in the detector flood image. Replacing the conventional 2D scintillator array with an array of phoswich elements, each consisting of an optically coupled side-by-side scintillator pair, may improve spatial sampling in one direction of the array without requiring resolving smaller crystal elements. To test the feasibility of this design, a 4 × 4 phoswich array was constructed, with each phoswich element consisting of two optically coupled, 3 . 17 × 1 . 58 × 10mm3 LSO crystals co-doped with cerium and calcium. The amount of calcium doping was varied to create a 'fast' LSO crystal with decay time of 32.9 ns and a 'slow' LSO crystal with decay time of 41.2 ns. Using a Hamamatsu R8900U-00-C12 position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT) and a CAEN V1720 250 MS/s waveform digitizer, we were able to show effective discrimination of the fast and slow LSO crystals in the phoswich array. Although a side-by-side phoswich array is feasible, reflections at the crystal boundary due to a mismatch between the refractive index of the optical adhesive (n = 1 . 5) and LSO (n = 1 . 82) caused it to behave optically as an 8 × 4 array rather than a 4 × 4 array. Direct coupling of each phoswich element to individual photodetector elements may be necessary with the current phoswich array design. Alternatively, in order to implement this phoswich design with a conventional light sharing PET block detector, a high refractive index optical adhesive is necessary to closely match the refractive index of LSO.

  18. Research on intellectualized γ detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zaiyu; Chen Jianhua; Zhang Guixin

    2006-01-01

    This design makes use of the Time-to-Count measuring method, the SCM and the high-voltage power is supplied into the γ detector, and new-style intellectualized γ detector is designed. The intellectualized γ detector is a sort of intellectualized, miniature, integrative γ radial monitor instrument. The designing project, performance index, and structural design of the detector are introduced. The research is applied into project. (authors)

  19. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, P.

    2005-01-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  20. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, P. [Electronics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: swamy@igcar.ernet.in

    2005-07-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  1. Design of a Dry Dilution Refrigerator for MMC Gamma Detector Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boyd, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cantor, Robin

    2017-04-03

    The goal of this LCP is to develop an ultra-high resolution gamma detector based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material to replace current Au:Er sensors. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers. MMC detectors require operating temperatures of ~15 mK and thus the use of a dilution refrigerator, and the desire for user-friendly operation without cryogenic liquids requires that this refrigerator use pulse-tube pre-cooling to ~4 K. For long-term reliability, we intend to re-design the heat switch that is needed to apply the magnetizing current to the Ag:Er sensor and that used to fail in earlier designs after months of operation. A cryogenic Compton veto will be installed to reduce the spectral background of the MMC, especially at low energies where ultra-high energy resolution is most important. The goals for FY16 were 1) to purchase a liquid-cryogen-free dilution refrigerator and adapt it for MMC operation, and 2) to fabricate Ag:Er-based MMC γ-detectors with improved performance and optimize their response. This report discusses the design of the instruments, and progress in MMC detector fabrication. Details of the MMC fabrication have been discussed in an April 2016 report to DOE.

  2. CMS Pixel Detector design for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Migliore, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about 7.5$\\times$10$^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2028, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity scenario, HL-LHC, will present new challenges in higher data rates and increased radiation.In order to maintain its physics reach the CMS Collaboration has undertaken a preparation program of the detector known as Phase-2 upgrade. The CMS Phase-2 Pixel upgrade will require a high bandwidth readout system and high radiation tolerance for sensors and on-detector ASICs. Several technologies for the upgrade sensors are being studied. Serial powering schemes are under consideration to accommodate significant constraints on the system. These prospective designs, as well as new layout geometries that include very forward pixel discs, will be presented together with performance estimations.

  3. Acoustic Sensor Design for Dark Matter Bubble Chamber Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Felis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark matter bubble chamber detectors use piezoelectric sensors in order to detect and discriminate the acoustic signals emitted by the bubbles grown within the superheated fluid from a nuclear recoil produced by a particle interaction. These sensors are attached to the outside walls of the vessel containing the fluid. The acoustic discrimination depends strongly on the properties of the sensor attached to the outer wall of the vessel that has to meet the requirements of radiopurity and size. With the aim of optimizing the sensor system, a test bench for the characterization of the sensors has been developed. The sensor response for different piezoelectric materials, geometries, matching layers, and backing layers have been measured and contrasted with FEM simulations and analytical models. The results of these studies lead us to have a design criterion for the construction of specific sensors for the next generation of dark matter bubble chamber detectors (250 L.

  4. An electrostatic radon detector designed for water radioactivity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Jian Xiong; Simpson, J J

    1999-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory contains 1000 t of ultra-pure heavy water and 7000 t of very pure light water. In order to achieve the goal of determining accurately the total number of neutrinos emitted by the sun regardless of type, the radioactivity in the water must be maintained with a radiopurity of less than 10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 g/g of sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U in secular equilibrium with their daughters. This paper describes the design and application of an electrostatic radon detector which determines the amount of radon emanating from a column containing MnO sub 2 used to extract radium from the water. This electrostatic radon detector has a total efficiency of 35% for detecting sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and 22% for sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn.

  5. Acoustic Sensor Design for Dark Matter Bubble Chamber Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, Ivan; Martínez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Ardid, Miguel

    2016-06-10

    Dark matter bubble chamber detectors use piezoelectric sensors in order to detect and discriminate the acoustic signals emitted by the bubbles grown within the superheated fluid from a nuclear recoil produced by a particle interaction. These sensors are attached to the outside walls of the vessel containing the fluid. The acoustic discrimination depends strongly on the properties of the sensor attached to the outer wall of the vessel that has to meet the requirements of radiopurity and size. With the aim of optimizing the sensor system, a test bench for the characterization of the sensors has been developed. The sensor response for different piezoelectric materials, geometries, matching layers, and backing layers have been measured and contrasted with FEM simulations and analytical models. The results of these studies lead us to have a design criterion for the construction of specific sensors for the next generation of dark matter bubble chamber detectors (250 L).

  6. Characterization of the neutron detector upgrade to the GP-SANS and Bio-SANS instruments at HFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kevin D.; Bailey, Katherine M.; Beal, Justin; Diawara, Yacouba; Funk, Loren; Steve Hicks, J.; Jones, A. B.; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Pingali, S. V.; Summers, P. R.; Urban, Volker S.; Vandergriff, David H.; Johnson, Nathan H.; Bradley, Brandon J.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past year, new 1 m×1 m neutron detectors have been installed at both the General Purpose SANS (GP-SANS) and the Bio-SANS instruments at HFIR, each intended as an upgrade to provide improved high rate capability. This paper presents the results of characterization studies performed in the detector test laboratory, including position resolution, linearity and background, as well as a preliminary look at high count rate performance.

  7. Design and manufacture NCS instruments for cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuy; Nguyen Tien Dung; Dang Nguyet Anh; Nguyen Phuc; Khuong Thanh Tuan; Luong Duc Long; Pham Trong Quyen

    2003-01-01

    The ministry project 'Design and manufacture some of NCS instruments for cement factories' is a part of instrumentation for cement production in Vietnam. The objectives of the project include: 1/Design and manufacture the automatic control system for cement raw material mixing, connected to components X-ray analyzer through serial port of PC; 2/Design and manufacture the automatic discharge control system using gamma rays. The instruments, made by the project , for controlling the conveyor belt weighing machine can be easily improved for various types of conveyor belt weighing machines. Their mobility and software equipped can be adapted for requirement of modern cement production technology. The instruments are operating well in some cement factories and they are helping in quality control. (NHA)

  8. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 4. Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Burrows, Philip; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The Si Vertex detectors, the main tracker, calorimetry, muon detectors, the superconducting spectrometer magnet, the detector electronics and data acquisition, simulation and reconstruction, benchmarking, costs. (HSI)

  9. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 4. Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Burrows, Philip; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi (eds.)

    2013-10-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The Si Vertex detectors, the main tracker, calorimetry, muon detectors, the superconducting spectrometer magnet, the detector electronics and data acquisition, simulation and reconstruction, benchmarking, costs. (HSI)

  10. Design and implementation of an expert system for the detector control systems of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henss, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    In the framework of this thesis an expert system ''Pixel-Advisor'' for the control system of the pixel detector was designed and implemented. This supports the operational personnel in the diagnosis and removal of possible problems, which are in connection with the detector control system and unburdens the few available DCS experts

  11. Design and development of position sensitive detector for hard x-ray using SiPM and new generation scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S. K.; Naik, Amisha P.; N. P. S., Mithun; Vadawale, S. V.; Tiwari, Neeraj K.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Nagrani, N.; Madhavi, S.; Ladiya, T.; Patel, A. R.; Shanmugam, M.; Adalja, H. L.; Patel, V. R.; Ubale, G. P.

    2017-08-01

    There is growing interest in high-energy astrophysics community for the development of sensitive instruments in the hard X-ray energy extending to few hundred keV. This requires position sensitive detector modules with high efficiency in the hard X-ray energy range. Here, we present development of a detector module, which consists of 25 mm x 25 mm CeBr3 scintillation detector, read out by a custom designed two dimensional array of Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM). Readout of common cathode of SiPMs provides the spectral measurement whereas the readout of individual SiPM anodes provides measurement of interaction position in the crystal. Preliminary results for spectral and position measurements with the detector module are presented here.

  12. Design aid system for nuclear power plant instrumentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Ito, Toshiichiro; Fujii, Makoto; Shimada, Nobuhide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to provide design aid for the nuclear power plant instrumentation of high reliability with the minimum cost while eliminating unrequired condition even if there are no data for the ground of the instrumentation design. Constitution: The information data base for the design of process radiation ray monitors are administrated by a data base administration device. The conditions to be satisfied in the process radiation monitors designed based on the data for the circumstances where particular predetermined process radiation monitors are installed, are derived by deduction using information obtained from the data base by way of the data base administration device. The derived design conditions are displayed and the optimum conditions are again reduced and displayed. In this way, the designers are assisted such that optimum designs can be obtained while sufficiently satisfying the safety and also in view of the cost. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Design of cost effective antennas for instrumentation radars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cost of antennas for instrumentation radars are determined by the development cost. By re-use of the reflector system cost effective antennas can be designed. The factors governing the design of such antennas are described here....

  14. Design of a highly segmented Endcap at a CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gerwig, H; Siegrist, N

    2010-01-01

    This technical note describes a possible design for a highly segmented end-cap at a CLIC detector with a strong magnetic field up to 5 Tesla. Reinforcement is horizontal in order to allow an insertion of the muon chambers from the side. Construction issues, assembly questions as well as muon chamber access and support questions have been studied. A FEA analysis to optimize dead space for physics and checking the weakening effect of alignment channels through the end-cap have been performed.

  15. Design of the digitizing beam position limit detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Digitizing Beam Position Limit Detector (DBPLD) is designed to identify and react to beam missteering conditions in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The high power of the insertion devices requires these missteering conditions to result in a beam abort in less than 2 milliseconds. Commercially available beam position monitors provide a voltage proportional to beam position immediately upstream and downstream of insertion devices. The DBPLD is a custom VME board that digitizes these voltages and interrupts the heartbeat of the APS machine protection system when the beam position exceeds its trip limits

  16. Design of micro-sensor-array detector for toxic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hai-yang; Tian, Peng

    2010-08-01

    To quickly measure the trace concentration of the single component toxic gas (e.g. sarin), a micro-array toxic gas detector is designed. A 3 x 3 gas sensor array with metalloporphyrins as sensitive materials is introduced. A micro-capsule that can be easy to be loaded and unloaded is designed for the gas reaction. A fiber-array optical path is designed, which is based on the principle that gas sensors will show different colors after reaction with the toxic gas. The tricolor information about the concentration of gas is collected by the color liner CCD. A control handling system with C8051F021 MCU as the core is implemented and embedded into the detector to perform the functions of gas sampling, data collection and analysis calculation. Data acquisition experimental results show that the proposed scheme can effectively collect the color information after gas reaction. Moreover, the system has many important advantages, such as small size, compact structure, high degree of automation, fast detection speed and high performance-cost ratio, etc.

  17. Image reconstruction design of industrial CT instrument for teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yongning; Cai Yufang

    2009-01-01

    Industrial CT instrument for teaching is applied to teaching and study in field of physics and radiology major, image reconstruction is an important part of software on CT instrument. The paper expatiate on CT physical theory and first generation CT reconstruction algorithm, describe scan process of industrial CT instrument for teaching; analyze image artifact as result of displacement of rotation center, implement method of center displacement correcting, design and complete image reconstruction software, application shows that reconstructed image is very clear and qualitatively high. (authors)

  18. Development and Application of a new DACOM Airborne Trace Gas Instrument based on Room-Temperature Laser and Detector Technology and all-Digital Control and Data Processin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; DiGangi, J. P.; Pusede, S. E.; Slate, T. A.; Rana, M.

    2014-12-01

    The DACOM (Differential Absorption Carbon monOxide Measurements) instrument has been used for airborne measurements of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide for nearly four decades. Over the years, the instrument has undergone a nearly continuous series of modifications, taking advantage of improvements in available technology and the benefits of experience, but always utilizing cryogenically cooled lasers and detectors. More recently, though, the availability of room-temperature, higher-power single-mode lasers at the mid-infrared wavelengths used by DACOM has made it possible to replace both the cryogenic lasers and detectors with thermoelectrically cooled versions. And the relative stability of these lasers has allowed us to incorporate an all-digital wavelength stabilization technique developed previously for the Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH) instrument. The new DACOM flew first in the summer 2013 SEAC4RS campaign, measuring CO from the DC-8 aircraft, and more recently measuring all three gases from the NASA P-3B aircraft in support of the summer 2014 DISCOVER-AQ campaign. We will present relevant aspects of the new instrument design and operation as well as selected data from recent campaigns illustrating instrument performance and some preliminary science.

  19. From tomography to voludensitometry: radiation detectors for industrial control and medical instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuzin, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the main technological solutions, available or in development, on X-ray detectors in order to obtain a digital image in biomedical radiography or in industrial radiography: linear x-ray detectors and bidimensional x-ray detectors (memory radioluminescent screens, matrix plan detectors)

  20. Design of reactor alarm instrument based on SOPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Lu Yi; Rong Ru

    2008-01-01

    The design of embedded alarm instrument in reactors based on Nios II CPU is introduced in this paper. This design uses the SOPC technology based on the Cyclone series FPGA as a digital bench, and connects the MPU and drivers and interface of times, RS232, sdram,and etc. into a FPGA chip. It is proved that the system achieves the design goals in primary experimentation. (authors)

  1. CLIC CDR - physics and detectors: CLIC conceptual design report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Demarteau, M.; Repond, J.; Xia, L.; Weerts, H. (High Energy Physics); (Many)

    2012-02-10

    This report forms part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC). The CLIC accelerator complex is described in a separate CDR volume. A third document, to appear later, will assess strategic scenarios for building and operating CLIC in successive center-of-mass energy stages. It is anticipated that CLIC will commence with operation at a few hundred GeV, giving access to precision standard-model physics like Higgs and top-quark physics. Then, depending on the physics landscape, CLIC operation would be staged in a few steps ultimately reaching the maximum 3 TeV center-of-mass energy. Such a scenario would maximize the physics potential of CLIC providing new physics discovery potential over a wide range of energies and the ability to make precision measurements of possible new states previously discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main purpose of this document is to address the physics potential of a future multi-TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider based on CLIC technology and to describe the essential features of a detector that are required to deliver the full physics potential of this machine. The experimental conditions at CLIC are significantly more challenging than those at previous electron-positron colliders due to the much higher levels of beam-induced backgrounds and the 0.5 ns bunch-spacing. Consequently, a large part of this report is devoted to understanding the impact of the machine environment on the detector with the aim of demonstrating, with the example of realistic detector concepts, that high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC. Since the impact of background increases with energy, this document concentrates on the detector requirements and physics measurements at the highest CLIC center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. One essential output of this report is the clear demonstration that a wide range of high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC with detectors which are challenging, but

  2. Technical Design Report for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Collaboration, ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    This is the first of two Technical Design Report documents that describe the upgrade of the central tracking system for the ATLAS experiment for the operation at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) starting in the middle of 2026. At this time the LHC will have been upgraded to reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5x10^34 cm^[-2]s^[-1], which corresponds to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. The new Inner Tracker (ITk) will be operational for more than ten years, during which ATLAS aims to accumulate a total data set of 3,000 fb^[-1]. Meeting these requirements presents a unique challenge for the design of an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large-area strip tracking detector surrounding it. This document presents in detail the requirements of the new tracker, its layout and expected performance including the results of several benchmark physics studies at the highest numbers of collisions per beam...

  3. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Af'idah, Dwi; Didik Widianto, Eko; Setyawan, Budi

    2013-06-01

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  4. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  5. Design of Ka-band antipodal finline mixer and detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Changfei; Xu Jinping; Chen Mo

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the analysis and design of a finline single-ended mixer and detector. In the circuit, for the purpose of eliminating high-order resonant modes and improving transition loss, metallic via holes are implemented along the mounting edge of the substrate embedded in the split-block of the WG-finline-microstrip transition. Meanwhile, a Ka band slow-wave and bandstop filter, which represents a reactive termination, is designed for the utilization of idle frequencies and operation frequencies energy. Full-wave analysis is carried out to optimize the input matching network of the mixer and the detector circuit using lumped elements to model the nonlinear diode. The exported S-matrix of the optimized circuit is used for conversion loss and voltage sensitivity analysis. The lowest measured conversion loss is 3.52 dB at 32.2 GHz; the conversion loss is flat and less than 5.68 dB in the frequency band of 29-34 GHz. The highest measured zero-bias voltage sensitivity is 1450 mV/mW at 38.6 GHz, and the sensitivity is better than 1000 mV/mW in the frequency band of 38-40 GHz.

  6. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Burrows, Philip N.; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  7. Designing means and specifications for model FT-619 kidney function instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongding

    1988-04-01

    In this paper, it is pointed out that the model FT-619 Kidney Function Equipment is a new cost-effective nuclear medicine instrument, which takes the leading position in China. The performance of the model FT-619,especially the lead collimated scintillation detector has reached the same level as the advanced equipment in the world market. It is also described in this article in detail that the design of the lead collimator and the shielding as well as the detection efficiency have achieved the optimum level and that a comparison has been made with foreign products

  8. System 80+ instrumentation and controls - certification of a reliable design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Scarola, K.; Turk, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering's (ABB) System 80+ advanced light water plant design includes a modern, fully digitized instrumentation and controls complex, Nuplex 80+. This complex incorporates an evolutionary advanced control room, replacing conventional analog instruments with more capable computer driven components. As a result, Nuplex 80+ results in significant improvements in operator information handling and control to enhance plant safety and availability. The design implements features which the U.S. NRC has determined to be acceptable for addressing the potential for common mode failure in software implemented for protective functions. (author)

  9. Modeling and design of X-rays bidimensional detectors; Modelagem e projeto de detectores bidimensionais para radiacao-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisbert, Elmer Paz Alcon

    2000-03-01

    In this work has been developed the scintillating fiber optic and semiconductor devices based 2-D detector design, modeling and performance evaluation using Monte Carlo methods, for high X-ray energy range (10-140 kV) radiography and tomography applications. These processes allowed us, also, the imaging system parameters and components optimization and appropriate detector design. The model estimated the detectors performance parameters (DQE, MTF and SNR), and radiation risk (in terms of mean absorbed dose in the patient) and to show up how the sequence of physical processes in X-ray detection influence the performance of this imaging PFOC detectors. In this way, the modeling of the detector includes the statistics of the spatial distribution of absorbed X-rays and of X-ray to light conversion, its transmission, and the light quanta conversion into electrons. Also contributions to noise from the detection system chain is included, mainly the CCD detector ambient noise. Performance prediction, based on calculation taken from simulations, illustrates how such detectors meet the exacting requirements of some medical and industrial applications. Also, it is envisaged that our modeling procedure of the imaging system will be suitable not only for investigating how the system components should be best designed but for CT and RD system performance prediction. The powerful techniques would enable us to give advice for future development, in this field, in search of more dose-efficient imaging systems. (author)

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description. System 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-01-01

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed and Instrument Air PandID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid PandID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility

  11. COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers - Instrument design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, G.; Bennett, C.; Weber, R.; Maruschak, J.; Ratliff, R.; Janssen, M.; Chitwood, J.; Hilliard, L.; Lecha, M.; Mills, R.; Patschke, R.; Richards, C.; Backus, C.; Mather, J.; Hauser, M.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.; Gulkis, S.; Boggess, N.; Cheng, E.; Kelsall, T.; Lubin, P.; Meyer, S.; Moseley, H.; Murdock, T.; Shafer, R.; Silverberg, R.; Wright, E.

    1990-09-01

    Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMRs) at frequencies of 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz have been designed and built to map the large angular scale variations in the brightness temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The instrument is being flown aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, launched on November 18, 1989. Each receiver input is switched between two antennas pointing 60 deg apart on the sky. The satellite is in near-polar orbit with the orbital plane precessing at 1 deg per day, causing the beams to scan the entire sky in 6 months. In 1 year of observation, the instruments are capable of mapping the sky to an rms sensitivity of 0.1 mK per 7 deg field of view. The mission and the instrument have been carefully designed to minimize the need for systematic corrections to the data.

  12. Design and construction of the prototype synchrotron radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhub, H; Baetzner, D; Baumgartner, S; Biland, A; Camps, C; Capell, M; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Fanchiang, Y J; Flügge, G; Fritschi, M; Grimm, O; Hangarter, K; Hofer, H; Horisberger, Urs; Kan, R; Kaestli, W; Kenney, G P; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Kuipers, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, M W; Lee, S C; Lewis, R; Lustermann, W; Pauss, Felicitas; Rauber, T; Ren, D; Ren, Z L; Röser, U; Son, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Tiwari, A N; Viertel, Gert M; Gunten, H V; Wicki, S W; Wang, T S; Yang, J; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD) is a small-scale experiment designed to measure the rate of low-energy charged particles and photons in near the Earth's orbit. It is a precursor to the Synchrotron Radiation Detector (SRD), a proposed addition to the upgraded version of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). The SRD will use the Earth's magnetic field to identify the charge sign of electrons and positrons with energies above 1 TeV by detecting the synchrotron radiation they emit in this field. The differential energy spectrum of these particles is astrophysically interesting and not well covered by the remaining components of AMS-02. Precise measurements of this spectrum offer the possibility to gain information on the acceleration mechanism and characteristics of all cosmic rays in our galactic neighbourhood. The SRD will discriminate against protons as they radiate only weakly. Both the number and energy of the synchrotron photons that the SRD needs to detect are small. The identificat...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF NEXT-GENERATION DETECTORS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, DIFFRACTION AND HOLOGRAPHY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles S. Fadley, Principal Investigator

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a new multichannel detector for use in photoelectron spectroscopy (as well as other types of high-count-rate spectroscopy) that will operate at rates of up to 1 GHz. Such detectors are crucial to the full utilization of the high-brightness radiation generated by third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. In addition, new software and hardware has been developed to permit rapidly and accurately scanning photoelectron spectra that will be accumulated in as little as a 200 micros. A versatile next-generation sample goniometer permitting equally rapid scanning of specimen angles or photon energies for angle-resolved photoemission studies, photoelectron diffraction, and photoelectron holography measurements, and cooling to below 10K has also been designed and constructed. These capabilities have been incorporated into a unique photoelectron spectrometer/diffractometer at the Advanced Light Source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; this experimental system includes ultrahigh energy resolution, in situ rotation, variable polarization, and optional spin detection. This overall system is now being used in studies of a variety of problems including magnetic metals and oxides; metal/metal, metal/metal oxide, and metal-oxide/metal-oxide multilayers; and systems exhibiting giant and colossal magnetoresistance

  14. Conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, D.; Oliaro, G.; Roney, P.; Sichta, P.; Tindall, K.

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction phase for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under way at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Operation is scheduled to begin on April 30, 1999. This paper describes the conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System. Major elements of the Central I and C System include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System to support the NSTX experimental device

  15. Design of virtual three-dimensional instruments for sound control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Axel Gezienus Elith

    An environment for designing virtual instruments with 3D geometry has been prototyped and applied to real-time sound control and design. It enables a sound artist, musical performer or composer to design an instrument according to preferred or required gestural and musical constraints instead of constraints based only on physical laws as they apply to an instrument with a particular geometry. Sounds can be created, edited or performed in real-time by changing parameters like position, orientation and shape of a virtual 3D input device. The virtual instrument can only be perceived through a visualization and acoustic representation, or sonification, of the control surface. No haptic representation is available. This environment was implemented using CyberGloves, Polhemus sensors, an SGI Onyx and by extending a real- time, visual programming language called Max/FTS, which was originally designed for sound synthesis. The extension involves software objects that interface the sensors and software objects that compute human movement and virtual object features. Two pilot studies have been performed, involving virtual input devices with the behaviours of a rubber balloon and a rubber sheet for the control of sound spatialization and timbre parameters. Both manipulation and sonification methods affect the naturalness of the interaction. Informal evaluation showed that a sonification inspired by the physical world appears natural and effective. More research is required for a natural sonification of virtual input device features such as shape, taking into account possible co- articulation of these features. While both hands can be used for manipulation, left-hand-only interaction with a virtual instrument may be a useful replacement for and extension of the standard keyboard modulation wheel. More research is needed to identify and apply manipulation pragmatics and movement features, and to investigate how they are co-articulated, in the mapping of virtual object

  16. Safety Evaluation of Kartini Reactor Based on Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipta Suhaemi; Djen Djen Dj; Itjeu K; Johnny S; Setyono

    2003-01-01

    The safety of Kartini reactor has been evaluated based on instrumentation system aspect. The Kartini reactor is designed by BATAN. Design power of the reactor is 250 kW, but it is currently operated at 100 kW. Instrumentation and control system function is to monitor and control the reactor operation. Instrumentation and control system consists of safety system, start-up and automatic power control, and process information system. The linear power channel and logarithmic power channel are used for measuring power. There are 3 types of control rod for controlling the power, i.e. safety rod, shim rod, and regulating rod. The trip and interlock system are used for safety. There are instrumentation equipment used for measuring radiation exposure, flow rate, temperature and conductivity of fluid The system of Kartini reactor has been developed by introducing a process information system, start-up system, and automatic power control. It is concluded that the instrumentation of Kartini reactor has followed the requirement and standard of IAEA. (author)

  17. Design and Implementation of Data Collection Instruments for Neonatology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica G. HĂŞMĂŞANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available im: The aim of our research was to design and implement data collection instruments to be use in context of an observational prospective clinical study with follow-up conducted on new born with intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: The structure of the data collection forms (paper based and electronic based was first identified and for each variable the best type to accomplish the research aim was established. The code for categorical variables has also been decided as well as the units of measurements for quantitative variables. In respect of good practice, a set of confounding factors (as gender, date of birth, etc. have also been identified and integrated in data collection instruments. Data-entry validation rules were implemented for each variable to reduce data input errors when the electronic data collection instrument was created. Results: Two data collection instruments have been developed and successfully implemented: a paper-based form and an electronic data collection instrument. The developed forms included demographics, neonatal complications (as hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, etc., biochemical data at birth and follow-up, immunological data, as well as basal and follow-up echocardiographic data. Data-entry validation criteria have been implemented in electronic data collection instrument to assure validity and precision when paper-based data are translated in electronic form. Furthermore, to assure subject’s confidentiality a careful attention was given to HIPPA identifiers when electronic data collection instrument was developed. Conclusion: Data collection instruments were successfully developed and implemented as an a priori step in a clinical research for assisting data collection and management in a case of an observational prospective study with follow-up visits.

  18. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didierjean, B.; Jobez, J-P.; Seguinot, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1997-01-01

    A Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) is currently manufactured in the framework of the tests of LHC-B collaboration. These extremely fast and sensible detectors (95% efficiency and 1 ns time accuracy for a single electron) could be utilized in many other applications: long base neutrino oscillations and possibly, HELLAZ. The model consists of an array of 2,048 1 x 1 mm 2 on Si strips of 50 mm thickness placed in glass cylinders of 127 mm diameter provided with Si windows and containing focalization electrodes. The electron circuits on 16 VA3 readout ceramic chips where designed, realized and tested. The stainless steel base card provided with 40 vacuum holes was already realised. The first production tests of visible light bi-alkali photocathodes operating in high vacuum will be performed soon. The design of the RICH2 counter (covering polar angles from 12 to 120 mrad) has been modified by turning the 120 mrad mirror to increase the spectrometer luminosity, i.e. to increase the length of the radiation path in gas by a factor of two. A second mirror sends the image in a region behind the magnetic field return, a region well-shielded from the LHC interaction zone. This design will provided 28 points for a β = 1 tracks and an angular uncertainty of 0.34 mrad per point. To cover the entire image 115 HPD will be necessary. The reconstruction of the complex systems of rings has been recently accomplished for events typical for RICH2, downstream, to discriminate between pions and kaons between 16 and 180 GeV/c. A simulation of 3,068 tracks has produced only 19 erroneous identifications, i.e. 0.6%. Another, simulation of 1,989 tracks with the RICH upstream resulted in 39 erroneous π/K identification, i.e. 2%. The report presents also the long base RICH experiment for detecting neutrino oscillations. A new version of 100 m length and 18.6 m diameter (27 kt of water) provided with HPDs of 250 mm diameter with 85 6 x 6 mm 2 arrays has been designed. Fifty such detectors will be

  19. Design of New Complex Detector Used for Gross Beta Measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junmin

    2010-01-01

    The level of gross β for radioactive aerosol in the containment of nuclear plants can indicate how serious the radioactive pollution is in the shell, and it can provide evidence which shows whether there is the phenomenon of leak in the boundaries of confined aquifer of the primary coolant circuit equipment.In the process of measuring, the counting of gross β is influenced by γ. In order to avoid the influence of γ, a new method was introduced and a new detector was designed using plastic scintillator as the major detecting component and BGO as the sub-component. Based on distinctive difference of light attenuation time, signal induced in them can be discriminated. γ background in plastic scintillator was subtracted according to the counting of γ in BGO. The functions of absolute detection efficiency were obtained. The simulation for Monte-Carlo method shows that the influence of γ background is decreased about one order of magnitude. (authors)

  20. System software design for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, S.; Bailey, M.

    1991-11-01

    An automated system for testing and performance evaluation of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) data acquisition electronics is described. The SVX data acquisition chain includes the Fastbus Sequencer and the Rabbit Crate Controller and Digitizers. The Sequencer is a programmable device for which we developed a high level assembly language. Diagnostic, calibration and data acquisition programs have been developed. A distributed software package was developed in order to operate the modules. The package includes programs written in assembly and Fortran languages that are executed concurrently on the SVX Sequencer modules and either a microvax or an SSP. Test software was included to assist technical personnel during the production and maintenance of the modules. Details of the design of different components of the package are reported

  1. Design of a software for gamma detector efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopy with highly-pure-germanium detector is one of the most used method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. Nevertheless Gamma spectroscopy results require to be corrected, first for taking into account the self-shielding effect that represents the absorption of the photons by the sample itself and secondly for correcting the fact that 2 photons emitted simultaneously with energy E 1 and E 2 are likely to be simultaneously detected and then counted as a single photon with an energy E 1 +E 2 . This effect is called gamma-gamma coincidence. A software has been designed to simulate both effect and produce correcting factors in the case of cylindrical geometries. This software has been validated on Americium 241 for the self-shielding effect and on Cesium 134 for gamma-gamma coincidence. (A.C.)

  2. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  3. Design and Validation of a Periodic Leg Movement Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Hyatt; Leary, Eileen; Lee, Seo-Young; Carrillo, Oscar; Stubbs, Robin; Peppard, Paul; Young, Terry; Widrow, Bernard; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements (PLMs) are episodic, involuntary movements caused by fairly specific muscle contractions that occur during sleep and can be scored during nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Because leg movements (LM) may be accompanied by an arousal or sleep fragmentation, a high PLM index (i.e. average number of PLMs per hour) may have an effect on an individual’s overall health and wellbeing. This study presents the design and validation of the Stanford PLM automatic detector (S-PLMAD), a robust, automated leg movement detector to score PLM. NPSG studies from adult participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC, n = 1,073, 2000–2004) and successive Stanford Sleep Cohort (SSC) patients (n = 760, 1999–2007) undergoing baseline NPSG were used in the design and validation of this study. The scoring algorithm of the S-PLMAD was initially based on the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine clinical scoring rules. It was first tested against other published algorithms using manually scored LM in the WSC. Rules were then modified to accommodate baseline noise and electrocardiography interference and to better exclude LM adjacent to respiratory events. The S-PLMAD incorporates adaptive noise cancelling of cardiac interference and noise-floor adjustable detection thresholds, removes LM secondary to sleep disordered breathing within 5 sec of respiratory events, and is robust to transient artifacts. Furthermore, it provides PLM indices for sleep (PLMS) and wake plus periodicity index and other metrics. To validate the final S-PLMAD, experts visually scored 78 studies in normal sleepers and patients with restless legs syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, narcolepsy-cataplexy, insomnia, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PLM indices were highly correlated between expert, visually scored PLMS and automatic scorings (r2 = 0.94 in WSC and r2 = 0.94 in SSC). In conclusion, The S-PLMAD is a robust and

  4. Remote sensing technology research and instrumentation platform design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An instrumented pallet concept and definition of an aircraft with performance and payload capability to meet NASA's airborne turbulent flux measurement needs for advanced multiple global climate research and field experiments is presented. The report addresses airborne measurement requirements for general circulation model sub-scale parameterization research, specifies instrumentation capable of making these measurements, and describes a preliminary support pallet design. Also, a review of aircraft types and a recommendation of a manned and an unmanned aircraft capable of meeting flux parameterization research needs is given.

  5. Terahertz Systems Engineering: Detectors, Sources, Propagation, Phenomenology, Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Jonathan Ying-Yan

    The terahertz (THz) band, from 300 GHz to 20 THz, is the last remaining frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fundamentally, the frequency is too high to use current electronic technologies, yet the photon energy is too low for optical systems. However, there is a rich set of phenomenology, science, and applications, which are only available with THz radiation. In order to exploit this, the THz engineer who is designing systems must be adept at integrating components with very limited performance into a system. This requires understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fields, including microwaves, infrared optics, material science, software development, atmospheric science, and the overall analysis and design of a system. Any THz system involves the sensing of some phenomena, which can be under the direct control of the engineer, such as in a communication system, or set by the laws of physics, such as in an astronomical telescope, or some variant in between. Thus, the design of such a system is fundamentally related to sensing science. Here, we have to consider detector and source technology, the propagation of radiation, target phenomenology, and the overall design and analysis of the system. This dissertation presents research in all of these areas. Specifically, in the field of THz phenomenology, I conducted a study to show the primary contrast mechanism in reflective biomedical imaging is water concentration. For source technology, I detail the development and characterization of photoconductive switches with record-breaking optical efficiency. In a separate study I developed a model which explains the complex photocarrier dynamics in fast-trapping THz photoconductive materials and show that high-frequency THz generation (>1 THz) is caused by beaching saturation. My work in detectors shows the design of a quasi-optical radar that exploits low 1/f noise Schottky diodes for detection of slow moving objects, useful for biomedical sensing of respiration and

  6. Design of a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor using an InSb detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shu-cheng; Wang, Jian; Tang, Qi-jie; Jiang, Feng-xin; Chen, Jin-ting; Zhang, Yi-hao; Wang, Zhi-yue; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hong-fei; Jiang, Hai-jiao; Zhu, Qing-feng; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo

    2018-02-01

    Infrared sky background level is an important parameter of infrared astronomy observations from the ground, particularly for a candidate site of an infrared capable observatory since low background level is required for such a site. The Chinese astronomical community is looking for a suitable site for a future 12 m telescope, which is designed for working in both optical and infrared wavelengths. However, none of the proposed sites has been tested for infrared observations. Nevertheless, infrared sky background measurements are also important during the design of infrared observing instruments. Based on the requirement, in order to supplement the current site survey data and guide the design of future infrared instruments, a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor (MNISBM) based on an InSb sensor is designed in this paper. The MNISBM consists of an optical system, mechanical structure and control system, detector and cooler, high gain readout electronics, and operational software. It is completed and tested in the laboratory. The results show that the sensitivity of the MNISBM meets the requirements of the measurement of near-infrared sky background level of several well-known astronomical infrared observing sites.

  7. Advanced Antenna Design for NASA's EcoSAR Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Deshpande, Manohar; Rincon, Rafael F.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced antenna arrays were designed for NASA's EcoSAR airborne radar instrument. EcoSAR is a beamforming synthetic aperture radar instrument designed to make polarimetric and "single pass" interferometric measurements of Earth surface parameters. EcoSAR's operational requirements of a 435MHz center frequency with up to 200MHz bandwidth, dual polarization, high cross-polarization isolation (> 30 dB), +/- 45deg beam scan range and antenna form-factor constraints imposed stringent requirements on the antenna design. The EcoSAR project successfully developed, characterized, and tested two array antennas in an anechoic chamber. EcoSAR's first airborne campaign conducted in the spring of 2014 generated rich data sets of scientific and engineering value, demonstrating the successful operation of the antennas.

  8. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  9. The MiniBooNE detector technical design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Stancu et al.

    2003-04-18

    The MiniBooNE experiment [1] is motivated by the LSND observation, [2] which has been interpreted as {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations, and by the atmospheric neutrino deficit, [3,4,5] which may be ascribed to {nu}{sub {mu}} oscillations into another type of neutrino. MiniBooNE is a single-detector experiment designed to: obtain {approx} 1000 {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} events if the LSND signal is due to {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations, establishing the oscillation signal at the > 5{sigma} level as shown in Fig. 1.1; extend the search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations significantly beyond what has been studied previously if no signal is observed; search for {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance to address the atmospheric neutrino deficit with a signal that is a suppression of the rate of {nu}{sub {mu}}C {yields} {mu}N events from the expected 600,000 per year; measure the oscillation parameters as shown in Fig. 1.2 if oscillations are observed; and test CP conservation in the lepton sector if oscillations are observed by running with separate {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beams. The detector will consist of a spherical tank 6.1 m (20 feet) in radius, as shown in Fig. 1.3, that stands in a 45-foot diameter cylindrical vault. An inner tank structure at 5.75 m radius will support 1280 8-inch phototubes (10% coverage) pointed inward and optically isolated from the outer region of the tank. The tank will be filled with 807 t of mineral oil, resulting in a 445 t fiducial volume. The outer tank volume will serve as a veto shield for identifying particles both entering and leaving the detector with 240 phototubes mounted on the tank wall. Above the detector tank will be an electronics enclosure that houses the fast electronics and data acquisition system and a utilities enclosure that houses the plumbing, overflow tank, and calibration laser. The detector will be located {approx} 550 m from the Booster neutrino

  10. Design of an intelligent flight instrumentation unit using embedded RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Marmolejo, R.; García-Torales, G.; Torres-Ortega, H. H.; Flores, J. L.

    2011-09-01

    Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAV) must calculate its spatial position to control the flight dynamics, which is done by Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). MEMS Inertial sensors have made possible to reduce the size and power consumption of such units. Commonly the flight instrumentation operates independently of the main processor. This work presents an instrumentation block design, which reduces size and power consumption of the complete system of a MUAV. This is done by coupling the inertial sensors to the main processor without considering any intermediate level of processing aside. Using Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) reduces the number of intermediate components, increasing MUAV reliability. One advantage is the possibility to control several different sensors with a single communication bus. This feature of the MEMS sensors makes a smaller and less complex MUAV design possible.

  11. Design and Implementation of Data Collection Instruments for Neonatology Research

    OpenAIRE

    Monica G. HĂŞMĂŞANU; Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Gabriela C. ZAHARIE; Tudor C. DRUGAN

    2014-01-01

    im: The aim of our research was to design and implement data collection instruments to be use in context of an observational prospective clinical study with follow-up conducted on new born with intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: The structure of the data collection forms (paper based and electronic based) was first identified and for each variable the best type to accomplish the research aim was established. The code for categorical variables has also been decided as well as the units ...

  12. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph (LUMOS): instrument definition and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian; West, Garrett; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Harris, Walter; Moustakas, Leonidas; O'Meara, John M.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Rigby, Jane; Schiminovich, David; Tumlinson, Jason

    2017-08-01

    The Large Ultraviolet/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) is one of four large mission concepts currently undergoing community study for consideration by the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR is being designed to pursue an ambitious program of exoplanetary discovery and characterization, cosmic origins astrophysics, and planetary science. The LUVOIR study team is investigating two large telescope apertures (9- and 15-meter primary mirror diameters) and a host of science instruments to carry out the primary mission goals. Many of the exoplanet, cosmic origins, and planetary science goals of LUVOIR require high-throughput, imaging spectroscopy at ultraviolet (100 - 400 nm) wavelengths. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph, LUMOS, is being designed to support all of the UV science requirements of LUVOIR, from exoplanet host star characterization to tomography of circumgalactic halos to water plumes on outer solar system satellites. LUMOS offers point source and multi-object spectroscopy across the UV bandpass, with multiple resolution modes to support different science goals. The instrument will provide low (R = 8,000 - 18,000) and medium (R = 30,000 - 65,000) resolution modes across the far-ultraviolet (FUV: 100 - 200 nm) and nearultraviolet (NUV: 200 - 400 nm) windows, and a very low resolution mode (R = 500) for spectroscopic investigations of extremely faint objects in the FUV. Imaging spectroscopy will be accomplished over a 3 × 1.6 arcminute field-of-view by employing holographically-ruled diffraction gratings to control optical aberrations, microshutter arrays (MSA) built on the heritage of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), advanced optical coatings for high-throughput in the FUV, and next generation large-format photon-counting detectors. The spectroscopic capabilities of LUMOS are augmented by an FUV imaging channel (100 - 200nm, 13 milliarcsecond angular resolution, 2 × 2

  13. Modelling physics detectors in a computer aided design system for simulation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahvenainen, J.; Oksakivi, T.; Vuoskoski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of transferring physics detector models from computer aided design systems into physics simulation packages like GEANT is receiving increasing attention. The problem of exporting detector models constructed in CAD systems into GEANT is well known. We discuss the problem and describe an application, called DDT, which allows one to design detector models in a CAD system and then transfer the models into GEANT for simulation purposes. (orig.)

  14. Design and characterization of water level detector using MW22B Multi-Turn potentiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito, Pauzi, Gurum A.; Suciyati, Sri W.; Turyani

    2012-06-01

    It has been designed and characterized the water level detector using MW22B Multi-Turn Potentiometer. The electrical angle of potentiometer used has been characterized, that is 3600°±7° and its linearity independent is ±0.25%. The realized system consists of three parts; mechanical system of sensor, signal conditioning circuit and output system. The mechanical system of sensor is destined to convert linearly the value of potentiometer resistance to the water level variation. The signal conditioning consists of analog and digital system especially microcontroller circuit. The value of water level measured is shown on the 2×16 characters LCD. The range of measured water level is 0 - 2.7 m that correspond to the potentiometer resistance range of 100Ω - 100 kΩ. The obtained vertical resolution of instrument is about 0.03 m and the error of system is ˜1.11%.

  15. A Study of the Operation of Especially Designed Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Lund-Jensen, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F

    2006-01-01

    In some experiments and applications there is need for large-area photosensitive detectors to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Nowadays, vacuum PMs are usually used for this purpose. We have developed special designs of planar photosensitive gaseous detectors able to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Such detectors are much cheaper PMs and are almost insensitive to magnetic fields. Results of systematic measurements of their quantum efficiencies, the maximum achievable gains and long-term stabilities will be presented. The successful operation of these detectors open realistic possibilities in replacing PMs by photosensitive gaseous detectors in some applications dealing with cryogenic liquids; for example in experiments using noble liquid TPCs or noble liquid scintillating calorimeters.

  16. Detectors for the Superconducting Super Collider, design concepts, and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    The physics of compensation calorimetry is reviewed in the light of the need of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors. The four major detector types: liquid argon, scintillator, room temperature liquids, and silicon, are analyzed with respect to some of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, general comments are presented which reflect the reliability of simulation code systems. 29 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  18. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal's photo multiplier tube (PMT)

  19. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal`s photo multiplier tube (PMT).

  20. Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): Instrument Design and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Christoph R.; Harlander, John M.; Brown, Charles M.; Marr, Kenneth D.; Miller, Ian J.; Stump, J. Eloise; Hancock, Jed; Peterson, James Q.; Kumler, Jay; Morrow, William H.; Mooney, Thomas A.; Ellis, Scott; Mende, Stephen B.; Harris, Stewart E.; Stevens, Michael H.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian J.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) instrument was built for launch and operation on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission. The instrument was designed to measure thermospheric horizontal wind velocity profiles and thermospheric temperature in altitude regions between 90 km and 300 km, during day and night. For the wind measurements it uses two perpendicular fields of view pointed at the Earth's limb, observing the Doppler shift of the atomic oxygen red and green lines at 630.0 nm and 557.7 nm wavelength. The wavelength shift is measured using field-widened, temperature compensated Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectrometers, employing low order échelle gratings operating at two different orders for the different atmospheric lines. The temperature measurement is accomplished by a multichannel photometric measurement of the spectral shape of the molecular oxygen A-band around 762 nm wavelength. For each field of view, the signals of the two oxygen lines and the A-band are detected on different regions of a single, cooled, frame transfer charge coupled device (CCD) detector. On-board calibration sources are used to periodically quantify thermal drifts, simultaneously with observing the atmosphere. The MIGHTI requirements, the resulting instrument design and the calibration are described.

  1. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility.

  2. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajanana, D; Gromov, V; Timmer, P

    2013-01-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ∼ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( 2 C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  3. Advanced nuclear instrumentation design using programmable logic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M. K.; Srivani, L.; Sambasivan, S. I.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of semiconductor technology has made the application of Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) inevitable in modern digital systems design but when they are deployed in Safety Critical Systems (SCS), their reliability and safety need to be proved beyond doubt. PLDs are available as off-the-shelf parts that offer a wide range of logic capacity, various features, speed and voltage characteristics. These devices can be customized as per the user requirements. Re-programmable series of PLDs allows designers to change the circuitry as often as they want until the design operates to their satisfaction. To describe the digital designs, IEEE standard Hardware Description Languages (HDL) such as VHDL and Verilog HDL are used. As designs grow more complex, the verification problems increase exponentially. High level Verification Languages (HVL) have emerged to solve the functional verification bottleneck. Using HVLs, directed-random verification approach is adopted to achieve high coverage. The purpose of this approach is to ensure that the system is verified for its functionality in all possible scenarios. A 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam (Tamilnadu), India. PLDs are extensively utilized in designing instrumentation systems like core monitoring and safety logic functions of PFBR. This paper provides review of advanced digital design methodologies adopted in designing PLD based SCS. (authors)

  4. Conceptual design of a 2 tesla superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab D{O} detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezniak, J.; Fast, R.W.; Krempetz, K.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid to be part of a proposed upgrade for the D0 detector. This detector was completed in 1992, and has been taking data since then. The Fermilab Tevatron had scheduled a series of luminosity enhancements prior to the startup of this detector. In response to this accelerator upgrade, efforts have been underway to design upgrades for D0 to take advantage of the new luminosity, and improvements in detector technology. This magnet is conceived as part of the new central tracking system for D0, providing a radiation-hard high-precision magnetic tracking system with excellent electron identification.

  5. Computer-aided design and construction of an antineutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutz, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Bugey group is setting-up a new detector for another neutrino oscillation experiment. This thesis reports on the different steps concerning its realisation. Light yield, light transmission and pulse shape discrimination properties of NE 320 a new liquid scintillator loaded with 0.15% of Lithium 6 allow to realise a large volume detector (3 x 600 l) with an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity. The benefit of the neutron capture on Lithium 6 has been conserved owing to the segmentation of the whole detector volume in 98 cells and to energy resolution and pulse shape discrimination properties of the liquid. The efficiency is expected to be 0.5 and the essential component of the background is the natural activity of the scintillator. This makes this detector the most performant for neutrino oscillation experiment at reactor [fr

  6. Structural design of a high energy particle detector using liquid scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Timothy John; /Minnesota U.

    1997-02-01

    This thesis presents a design for a 10,000 ton liquid scintillator neutrino detector being considered for the MINOS project at Fermilab. Details of designing, manufacturing, and assembling the active detector components are presented. The detector consists of 1080 magnetized steel absorber planes alternating with 1080 active detector planes. Each active plane is made up of plastic extrusions divided into nearly 400 cells for positional resolution. Life tests on the plastic extrusions determine their feasibility for containing the scintillator. The extrusions are sealed at the bottom, filled with liquid scintillator, and have an optical fiber running the entire length of each cell. The fibers terminate at the top of each extrusion in a manifold. An optical-fiber-light-guide connects the fibers in each manifold to a photo-detector. The photo-detector converts the light signals from the scintillator and optical fibers into electrical impulses for computer analysis.

  7. Instrumentation and performance of the water Cherenkov detector array at Sierra La Negra site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, H.; Alvarez, C.; Martinez, O.; Villasenor, L.; Perez, E.; Grajales, J.; Murrieta, T.

    We present results from the operation of the high mountain array of 4 water Cherenkov detectors located at 4550 m. a.s.l. located at Sierra Negra mountain (N 18 59.1, W 97 18.76 ) near of Puebla city in Mexico. The detectors consist of 4 light-tight cylindrical containers of 4 m2 cross section separated 25m. The vertices of the array form a triangle with one detector in the middle. The detector containers are filled with 5000 l of purified water and have a 5'' photomultiplier (EMI model 9030 A) facing down along the cylindrical axes. The acquisition electronics consists of scalers counting the number of particles every 5 ms, and an osciloscope used to fully record the traces of the four signals coming from the water Cherenkov detectors. The trigger signals correspond to photon candidate coming from a selected direction with an accuracy lower than one degree. Data and preliminary analysis are described corresponding to the last six months when operation of this detector array has been stable.

  8. Sentinel-5 instrument: status of design, performance, and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gühne, T.; Keim, C.; Bartsch, P.; Weiß, S.; Melf, M.; Seefelder, W.

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel-5 instrument is currently under development by a consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space in the frame of the European Union Copernicus program. It is a customer furnished item to the MetOp Second Generation satellite platform, which will provide operational meteorological data for the coming decades. Mission objective of the Sentinel-5 is to monitor the composition of the Earth atmosphere for Copernicus Atmosphere Services by taking measurements of trace gases and aerosols impacting air quality and climate with high resolution and daily global coverage. Therefore the Sentinel-5 provides five dispersive spectrometers covering the UV-VIS (270…500 nm), NIR (685 …773 nm) and SWIR (1590…1675 and 2305…2385 nm) spectral bands with resolutions <=1nm. Spatially the Sentinel-5 provides a 108° field of view with a ground sampling of 7.5 x 7 km2 at Nadir. The development program is post PDR and the build-up of the industrial team is finalised. We report on the instrument architecture and design derived from the driving requirements, the predicted instrument performance, and the general status of the program.

  9. Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Instrument Thermal Subsystem Design and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Veronica; Mosier, Carol; Neuberger, David

    2013-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is one of two instruments on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in February of 2013. The TIRS instrument was officially added to the mission later in the flow, which led to a highly aggressive schedule that became one of the main drivers during instrument development. The thermal subsystem design of the TIRS Sensor Unit is comprised of five thermal zones which range in temperature from less than 43 Kelvin to 330 Kelvin. Most zones are proportional heater controlled, and all are within a volume of 35 cu.ft. A two-stage cryocooler is used to cool the "cold stage" including three QWIP detectors to less than 43 Kelvin, and cool the "warm stage" to 105 Kelvin. The excess power dissipation from the cryocooler is rejected via ammonia transport heat pipes to a dedicated Cryocooler Radiator with embedded ammonia heat pipes. The cryogenic subsystem includes a series of shells used to radiatively and conductively isolate the cold stage from the warmer surroundings. The Optical System (telescope) is passively cooled to 180-190 Kelvin using a "thermal link" (comprised of a Flexible Conductive Thermal Strap and an APG Bar) which couples the telescope stage to a dedicated radiator with embedded ethane heat pipes. The Scene Select Mechanism, which is responsible for moving the Scene Select Mirror to three distinct positions (including Nadir, Space, and On-board Black Body Calibrator pointing), runs nominally at 278 Kelvin and is thermally isolated from the cryogenic thermal zones. The On-board Black Body Calibrator requires a dedicated radiator which allows for a temperature range of 260-330 Kelvin at the Source. The detectors are powered by the FPE Box, which is mounted to the nadir external surface of the composite honeycomb structure. There are two additional electronics boxes which are wet-mounted directly to the spacecraft shear panel, the Main Electronics Box and Cryocooler Electronics Box; thermal

  10. Design of Pixellated CMOS Photon Detector for Secondary Electron Detection in the Scanning Electron Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Joon Huang Chuah; David Holburn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of detecting secondary electrons generated in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The method suggests that the photomultiplier tube (PMT), traditionally used in the Everhart-Thornley (ET) detector, is to be replaced with a configurable multipixel solid-state photon detector offering the advantages of smaller dimension, lower supply voltage and power requirements, and potentially cheaper product cost. The design of the proposed detector has been implement...

  11. MOEMS devices designed and tested for astronomical instrumentation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Noell, Wilfried

    2012-03-01

    Next-generation astronomical instrumentation for ground-based and space telescopes could use MOEMS devices. Among them, Multi-Object Spectrographs (MOS) are the major instruments for studying primary galaxies and remote and faint objects. A promising solution for the object selection system is the use of MOEMS devices such as micromirror arrays (MMA) which allow the remote control of the multi-slit configuration in real time. We are engaged in a European development of MMA for generating reflective slit masks. Prototypes of MMA with 2048 individually addressable micromirrors made of single-crystal silicon were successfully designed, fabricated and tested. 100×200μm2 micromirrors can be tilted by electrostatic actuation yielding 24° mechanical tilt-angle. The micromirrors were successfully actuated before, during and after cryogenic cooling at 162K. Line-column addressing for individual mirrors has also been demonstrated. We were also engaged in a technical assessment of using a 2048 × 1080 DMD from Texas Instruments for space applications. For a MOS in space, the device should work in vacuum and at low temperature. Our tests reveal that the DMD remains fully operational at -40°C and in vacuum. A 1038 hours life test in space survey conditions, Total Ionizing Dose radiation, thermal cycling and vibrations/shocks have also been successfully completed. These results do not reveal any show-stopper concerning the ability of the DMD to meet environmental space requirements. These developments and tests demonstrate the full ability of this type of components for space instrumentation, especially in multi-object spectroscopy applications.

  12. Design of analytical instrumentation with D-T sealed neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yahua; Wu Jizong; Zheng Weiming; Liu Quanwei; Zhang Min

    2008-01-01

    Analytical instrumentation with D-T sealed neutron generators source activation, The 14 MeV D-T sealed neutron tube with 10 9 n · s -1 neutron yield is used as generator source. The optimal structure of moderator and shield was achieved by MC computing.The instrumentation's configuration is showed. The instrumentation is made up of the SMY-DT50.8-2.1 sealed neutron tube and the high-voltage power supply system, which center is the sealed neutron generators. 6 cm Pb and 20 cm polythene is chosen as moderator, Pb, polythene and 10 cm boron-PE was chosen as shield .The sample box is far the source from 9 cm, the measurement system were made up of HPGe detector and the sample transforming system. After moderator and shield, the thermal neutron fluence rate at the point of sample is 0.93 × 10 6 n · s -1 cm -2 , which is accorded with design demand, and the laboratory and surroundings reaches the safety standard of the dose levels. (authors)

  13. Design and installation of advanced computer safety related instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.; Andolina, K.; Ruether, J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly developing area of computer systems creates new opportunities for commercial utilities operating nuclear reactors to improve plant operation and efficiency. Two of the main obstacles to utilizing the new technology in safety-related applications is the current policy of the licensing agencies and the fear of decision making managers to introduce new technologies. Once these obstacles are overcome, advanced diagnostic systems, CRT-based displays, and advanced communication channels can improve plant operation considerably. The article discusses outstanding issues in the area of designing, qualifying, and licensing of computer-based instrumentation and control systems. The authors describe the experience gained in designing three safety-related systems, that include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based Safeguard Load Sequencer for NSP Prairie Island, a digital Containment Isolation monitoring system for TVA Browns Ferry, and a study that was conducted for EPRI/NSP regarding a PLC-based Reactor Protection system. This article presents the benefits to be gained in replacing existing, outdated equipment with new advanced instrumentation

  14. Older drivers' attitudes about instrument cluster designs in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Seder, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Little is known about older drivers' preferences and attitudes about instrumentation design in vehicles. Yet visual processing impairments are common among older adults and could impact their ability to interface with a vehicle's dashboard. The purpose of this study is to obtain information from them about this topic, using focus groups and content analysis methodology. A trained facilitator led 8 focus groups of older adults. Discussion was stimulated by an outline relevant to dashboard interfaces, audiotaped, and transcribed. Using multi-step content analysis, a trained coder placed comments into thematic categories and coded comments as positive, negative, or neutral in meaning. Comments were coded into these categories: gauges, knobs/switches, interior lighting, color, lettering, symbols, location, entertainment, GPS, cost, uniformity, and getting information. Comments on gauges and knobs/switches represented half the comments. Women made more comments about getting information; men made more comments about uniformity. Positive and negative comments were made in each category; individual differences in preferences were broad. The results of this study will be used to guide the design of a population-based survey of older drivers about instrument cluster format, which will also examine how their responses are related to their visual processing capabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and Test of an Event Detector for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinson, Brad J [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  16. Design and Test of an Event Detector and Locator for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinson, Brad J [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive{trademark} Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  17. Design of a novel Cherenkov detectors system for machine induced background monitoring in the CMS cavern

    CERN Document Server

    Orfanelli, Styliani; Giunta, Marina; Stickland, David P; Ambrose, Mitchell J; Rusack, Roger; Finkel, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    A novel detector system has been designed for an efficient online measurement of the machineinduced background in the CMS experimental cavern. The suppression of the CMS cavern background originating from pp collision products and the 25 ns bunch spacing have set the requirements for the detector design. Each detector unit will be a radiation hard, cylindrical Cherenkov radiator optically coupled to an ultra-fast UV-sensitive photomultiplier tube, providing a prompt, directionally sensitive measurement. Simulation and test beam measurements have shown the achievability of the goals that have driven the baseline design. The system will consist of 20 azimuthally distributed detectors per end, installed at a radius of r ~ 180 cm and a distance 20.6 m away from the CMS interaction region. The detector units will enable a measurement of the transverse distribution of the bunchby- bunch machine induced background flux. This will provide important feedback from the CMS on the beam conditions during the LHC machine s...

  18. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  19. Electrostatic design of the barrel CRID [Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector] and associated measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.; Duboscq, J.; Hale, D.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Morrison, R.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Williams, D.A.; Jacques, P.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Hasegawa, K.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, K.S.; Shoup, A.; Stockdale, I.; Suekane, F.; Whitaker, J.S.; Wilson, R.J.

    1990-04-01

    We report on the electrostatic design and related measurements of the barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector for the Stanford Large Detector experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider. We include test results of photon feedback in TMAE-laden gas, distortion measurements in the drift boxes and corona measurements. 13 refs., 21 figs

  20. Electrostatic design of the barrel CRID (Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector) and associated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Va' Vra, J. Williams, H. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (US

    1990-04-01

    We report on the electrostatic design and related measurements of the barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector for the Stanford Large Detector experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider. We include test results of photon feedback in TMAE-laden gas, distortion measurements in the drift boxes and corona measurements. 13 refs., 21 figs.

  1. Design and realization of a fast low noise electronics for a hybrid pixel X-ray detector dedicated to small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantepie, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    Since the invention of computerized tomography (CT), charge integration detector were widely employed for X-ray biomedical imaging applications. Nevertheless, other options exist. A new technology of direct detection using semiconductors has been developed for high energy physics instrumentation. This new technology, called hybrid pixel detector, works in photon counting mode and allows for selecting the minimum energy of the counted photons. The imXgam research team at CPPM develops the PIXSCAN demonstrator, a CT-scanner using the hybrid pixel detector XPAD. The aim of this project is to evaluate the improvement on image quality and on dose delivered during X-ray examinations of a small animal. After a first prototype of hybrid pixel detector XPAD1 proving the feasibility of the project, a complete imager XPAD2 was designed and integrated in the PIXSCAN demonstrator. Since then, with the evolution of microelectronic industry, important improvements are conceivable. To reducing the size of pixels and to improving the energy resolution of detectors, a third design XPAD3 was conceived and will be soon integrated in a second generation of PIXSCAN demonstrator. In this project, my thesis's work consisted in taking part to the design of the detector readout electronics, to the characterization of the chips and of the hybrid pixel detectors, and also to the definition of an auto-zeroing architecture for pixels. (author) [fr

  2. Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat; Budi Santoso; Krismawan; Abdul Jalil

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  3. The L3 vertex detector: design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, H.; Alverson, G.; Anderhub, H.; Bao, J.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Beissel, F.; Betev, B.; Biland, A.; Böhm, A.; Camps, C.; Chien, C.-Y.; Commichau, V.; Dieters, K.; Donat, A.; Djambazov, L.; Fisher, P.; Freibel, W.; Göttlicher, P.; Haensli, M.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Heller, R.; Herten, U.; Hofer, H.; Glaubman, M.; Jung, H.; Leedom, I.; Leiste, R.; Liebmann, H.; Lohmann, W.; Neyer, C.; Newman, D.; MacDermott, M.; Maolinbay, M.; McNally, D.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Orndorff, J.; Peng, Y.; Pevsner, A.; Pohl, M.; Quadleig, K.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Ren, D.; Reucroft, S.; Rieb, N.; Rinsche, U.; Röser, U.; Röhner, S.; Rose, J.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Sens, J. C.; Spangler, J.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Starosta, R.; Sultanov, G.; Suter, H.; Szcesny, H.; Taylor, L.; Tonisch, F.; Trowitzsch, G.; Ulbricht, J.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Virnich, H.; Vogt, H.; Von Gunten, H. P.; Waldmeier, S.; Weber, J.; Winands, T.; Zemp, P.

    1992-05-01

    The L3 vertex detector is comprised of the time expansion chamber (TEC), the Z-chamber and a layer of plastic scintillating fibers. The TEC has shown a high spatial resolution and an excellent multi-track reconstruction capability at LEP luminosity. The Z-chamber provides information about the z-coordinates of the tracks and the fibers are used for calibrating the drift velocity with a high precision. A description of the L3 vertex detector, its readout and data acquisition and its performance during the 1990 LEP running period is presented in this paper.

  4. Design Considerations for a Launch Vehicle Development Flight Instrumentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin L.; Crawford, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    When embarking into the design of a new launch vehicle, engineering models of expected vehicle performance are always generated. While many models are well established and understood, some models contain design features that are only marginally known. Unfortunately, these analytical models produce uncertainties in design margins. The best way to answer these analytical issues is with vehicle level testing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration respond to these uncertainties by using a vehicle level system called the Development Flight Instrumentation, or DFI. This DFI system can be simple to implement, with only a few measurements, or it may be a sophisticated system with hundreds of measurement and video, without a recording capability. From experience with DFI systems, DFI never goes away. The system is renamed and allowed to continue, in most cases. Proper system design can aid the transition to future data requirements. This paper will discuss design features that need to be considered when developing a DFI system for a launch vehicle. It will briefly review the data acquisition units, sensors, multiplexers and recorders, telemetry components and harnessing. It will present a reasonable set of requirements which should be implemented in the beginning of the program in order to start the design. It will discuss a simplistic DFI architecture that could be the basis for the next NASA launch vehicle. This will be followed by a discussion of the "experiences gained" from a past DFI system implementation, such as the very successful Ares I-X test flight. Application of these design considerations may not work for every situation, but they may direct a path toward success or at least make one pause and ask the right questions.

  5. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  6. Design of an advanced positron emission tomography detector system and algorithms for imaging small animal models of human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudray, Angela Marie Klohs

    Detecting, quantifying and visualizing biochemical mechanism in a living system without perturbing function is the goal of the instrument and algorithms designed in this thesis. Biochemical mechanisms of cells have long been known to be dependent on the signals they receive from their environment. Studying biological processes of cells in-vitro can vastly distort their function, since you are removing them from their natural chemical signaling environment. Mice have become the biological system of choice for various areas of biomedical research due to their genetic and physiological similarities with humans, the relatively low cost of their care, and their quick breeding cycle. Drug development and efficacy assessment along with disease detection, management, and mechanism research all have benefited from the use of small animal models of human disease. A high resolution, high sensitivity, three-dimensional (3D) positioning positron emission tomography (PET) detector system was designed through device characterization and Monte Carlo simulation. Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) were characterized in various packaging configurations; coupled to various configurations of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystals. Forty novelly packaged final design devices were constructed and characterized, each providing characteristics superior to commercially available scintillation detectors used in small animal imaging systems: ˜1mm crystal identification, 14-15% of 511 keV energy resolution, and averaging 1.9 to 5.6 ns coincidence time resolution. A closed-cornered box-shaped detector configuration was found to provide optimal photon sensitivity (˜10.5% in the central plane) using dual LSO-PSAPD scintillation detector modules and Monte Carlo simulation. Standard figures of merit were used to determine optimal system acquisition parameters. A realistic model for constituent devices was developed for understanding the signals reported by the

  7. Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper (CDIM): Instrument and Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; CDIM Team

    2018-01-01

    CDIM is the Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper, one of the probe-class missions currently under study for NASA. A detailed Report from the study will be submitted to NASA and for consideration by the Decadal Survey. The flight system will comprise a wide-field cryogenic telescope with a large focal plane array providing complete coverage from optical through mid-IR. The system will be deployed to L2 or Earth-trailing orbit, to provide a stable thermal environment and allow extended observations of fields selected to be cross-correlated with deep surveys in other wavebands. Spectra with will be measured for every point in each target field, using linear variable filters (LVFs). These filters eliminate the need for a spectrometer in the focal plane. Spectra are built up through simple imaging of a series of telescope pointings separated by small angular offsets. This poster presents the initial concept for the instrument and mission design.

  8. USE OF LEAN PRODUCTION INSTRUMENTS IN DESIGNING THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elietta P. Burnasheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the concept of lean production seeks not a reduction of costs but complete elimination of losses that do not bring added value to the product or service. In any system, in all processes – from production and assembly, to hospitality, education, health, transport and social services – there are hidden losses. Teaching itself is a kind of production process in which a certain “product” (student acquires the added value (knowledge and skills, that is why it has become topical in educational institution to establish the working group on introduction of lean production into the learning process. The article presents the factors that are to be taken into account while designing the educational process based on the lean production principles. Materials and Methods: methods of analysis of existing system of vocational training in higher school, monitoring of the results of educational practice, modeling and experimental work in the process of analytical work were used. Results: important direction for eliminating losses in the educational process is the development of the interlinked curricula, allowing to avoid repeated study of a number of didactic units in the organization of continuous training in the system “Vocational education – Higher education”. In order to eliminate the possibility of incompetent graduate one should focus on the organisation of objective final control. Losses in education are caused by to the mismatch between labour market demand and the spectrum of areas of training in educational institutions. Discussion and Conclusions: the lean production possibilities are defined as instrumental in ensuring the organisation of “the process of lean learning”: by applying some lean production instruments such as the designing of the educational process, preventing of “faulty work” while training students, the attuning of the training system to employers’ requests, the visualisation of the education

  9. Design of the Local Instrument for KSTAR Gravity Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her, N. I.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. O.; Sa, J. W.; Kim, G. H.; Kim, K. M.; Park, Y. M.; Hong, G. H.; Choi, C. H.; Bak, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    The gravity support installed between the lower toroidal field (TF) coil cooled by 4.5 K supercritical helium and the cryostat base is the main support structure for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) superconducting magnet system. This structure should be flexible to absorb thermal shrink of the magnet and also should be rigid to support the magnet weight and the plasma disruptions loads. The gravity support was designed with stainless steel 316LN and Carbon fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) that has low thermal conductivity and high structural strength at low temperature. The fabrication of the support has been completed after engineering design. The gravity support is composed of one toroidal ring and eight supporting posts as shown in Figure 1. The toroidal ring and post are cooled by 4.5 K supercritical helium and 77 K gaseous helium, respectively. The overall dimension of the post is 1 m height and 0.8 m width and depth, respectively. The post is composed of upper block, inner CFRP plate, lower block, flexible plate, thermal anchor block, outer CFRP plate, base block, and strengthen plate. Inner CFRP plate is connected to the upper and lower block using the pin. And the outer CFRP plate is connected to the thermal anchor block and the base block. Inner and outer CFRP plates consist of four and two 20 mm thin plates, respectively. Flexible plates consist of four 8 mm thin stainless steel plates to absorb the magnet shrinkage. These plates are assembled into the thermal anchor block and lower block. The fabrication of the gravity support initiated October 2002 has been completed in October 2003. The supporting post and toroidal ring were fabricated at shop individually and assembled at site. Various of static and dynamic loads will increase the stress level of the structure during the cool-down and plasma operation. After fabrication of the structure, we designed an instrumentation system to monitoring the structural safety. This system

  10. Design and test results of the AMS RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Casadei, D.

    2002-01-01

    The AMS-02 detector will operate for at least 3 years on the International Space Station, measuring cosmic ray spectra at about 400 km above sea level over a wide range of geomagnetic latitude. The proximity focusing ring imaging \\v{C}erenkov counter of AMS-02 will measure the particle velocity $\\beta$ with $\\approx 0.1%$ uncertainty, making possible to discriminate Beryllium isotopes up to about 15 GeV/nucl. In addition its charge measurement will allow to study the elemental composition of cosmic rays up to Iron. A prototype of the RICH detector was tested with cosmic rays and on a ion beam accelerated by SPS, at CERN (October 2002).

  11. Inner tracker design studies for a large gaseous tracker detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, E.; Ha, H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, J. H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. I. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    Experiments at the future linear collider project may answer long-standing questions in elementary particle physics and cosmology, such as what the origin of particle mass is, whether the concept of space-time should be extended, and how the universe was created. We present the technology choice, the optimization process, and the expected performance of the inner trackers currently proposed in the large-detector concept for the future linear collider project.

  12. Acoustic Sensor Design for Dark Matter Bubble Chamber Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Felis, Ivan; Mart?nez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Ardid, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter bubble chamber detectors use piezoelectric sensors in order to detect and discriminate the acoustic signals emitted by the bubbles grown within the superheated fluid from a nuclear recoil produced by a particle interaction. These sensors are attached to the outside walls of the vessel containing the fluid. The acoustic discrimination depends strongly on the properties of the sensor attached to the outer wall of the vessel that has to meet the requirements of radiopurity and size. ...

  13. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A pixelated luminosity detector counts coincidences in several three layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to measure the luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point.The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background.A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cerenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fused quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules...

  14. Instrumentations in x-ray plasma polarization spectroscopy. Crystal spectrometer, polarimeter and detectors for astronomical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baronova, Elena O.; Stepanenko, Mikhail M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jakubowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tsunemi, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Science, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    This report discusses the various problems which are encountered when a crystal spectrometer is used for the purpose of observing polarized x-ray lines. A polarimeter is proposed based on the novel idea of using two series of equivalent atomic planes in a single crystal. The present status of the astronomical x-ray detection techniques are described with emphasis on two dimensional detectors which are polarization sensitive. (author)

  15. Silicon X-Ray detectors study and related synchrotron instrumentation realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, E.

    1998-01-01

    The CCD cameras, EPIC, will be used in the primary focal planes of the satellite XMM telescopes. Two model of CCD have been developed for this experiment: one model with a classical structure MOS and the second one with P-N junctions. For the cameras gauging at high energies, a light line on one of the DCI storage ring curvature magnets has been realized. This line, equipped with a two crystals monochromator and grazing incidence mirrors, covers the domain between 1,5 and 15 KeV with three pairs of crystals Si(111), InSb(111) and quartz(1010). To satisfy the gauging constraints of these detectors, a special interest has been realized on three points: the spectral purity, the beam temporal stability and the beam lateral homogeneity. A Si(Li) detector has been developed for this application. This detector allows the measure of the cameras quantum efficiency with an absolute precision of 5%. During the cameras gauging many spectrum with the Si(Li) have been recorded. Their simulation in the range 0,7-15 KeV, allowed the measure of the creation energy of pairs in the silicon from the incident photons. (A.L.B.)

  16. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthoff, Moritz; CMS Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixelated luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two-pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cherenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fuzed quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All new and upgraded sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Results on their commissioning and essential characteristics using data since the start-up of LHC will be presented.

  17. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2017-02-11

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixelated luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two-pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cherenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fuzed quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All new and upgraded sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Results on their commissioning and essential characteristics using data since the start-up of LHC will be presented.

  18. Design of instrument for monitoring nuclear radiation and baneful gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jianping; Chen Jun; Zhu Wenkai

    2006-01-01

    Counters and ionization chambers are applied to sensors, and microprocessor based on ARM IP is applied to center controller in the instrument. It is achieved to monitor nuclear radiation and baneful gas in an instrument. The instrument is capable of LCD displaying, menu operating and speech alarming. (authors)

  19. Design and development of an anthropomorphic phantom equipped with detectors in order to evaluate the effective dose E at workplaces: feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furstoss, Ch.

    2006-11-01

    My PhD study aims to determine the feasibility to design and develop, for photon fields, an anthropomorphic phantom equipped with detectors in order to evaluate the effective dose E at workplaces. First of all, the energy losses within the organs are calculated using the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code, in order to determine the detection positions within the different organs. Then, to decrease the number of detection positions, the organ contribution to the effective dose is studied. Finally, the characteristics of the detectors to insert and the characteristics of the phantom to use are deduced. The results show that 24 or 23 detection positions, according to the wT values (publication 60 or new recommendations of the ICRP), give a E estimation with an uncertainty of ±15 % from 50 keV to 4 MeV. Moreover, the interest of such an instrument is underlined while comparing the E estimation by the personal dose equivalent Hp to the E estimation by the instrumented phantom when the phantom is irradiated by point sources (worker in front of a glove box for example). Last, after the detector and phantom characteristic determination, two types of detectors and one type of phantom are selected. However, for the detectors mainly, developments are necessary. Follow up this study, the characterization and the adaptation of the detectors to the project would be interesting. Furthermore, the study to mixed photon-neutrons would be required the needs of the radiological protection community. (author)

  20. Design of the high resolution optical instrument for the Pleiades HR Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamard, Jean-Luc; Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Valentini, David; Renard, Christophe; Tournier, Thierry; Laherrere, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-01

    As part of its contribution to Earth observation from space, ALCATEL SPACE designed, built and tested the High Resolution cameras for the European intelligence satellites HELIOS I and II. Through these programmes, ALCATEL SPACE enjoys an international reputation. Its capability and experience in High Resolution instrumentation is recognised by the most customers. Coming after the SPOT program, it was decided to go ahead with the PLEIADES HR program. PLEIADES HR is the optical high resolution component of a larger optical and radar multi-sensors system : ORFEO, which is developed in cooperation between France and Italy for dual Civilian and Defense use. ALCATEL SPACE has been entrusted by CNES with the development of the high resolution camera of the Earth observation satellites PLEIADES HR. The first optical satellite of the PLEIADES HR constellation will be launched in mid-2008, the second will follow in 2009. To minimize the development costs, a mini satellite approach has been selected, leading to a compact concept for the camera design. The paper describes the design and performance budgets of this novel high resolution and large field of view optical instrument with emphasis on the technological features. This new generation of camera represents a breakthrough in comparison with the previous SPOT cameras owing to a significant step in on-ground resolution, which approaches the capabilities of aerial photography. Recent advances in detector technology, optical fabrication and electronics make it possible for the PLEIADES HR camera to achieve their image quality performance goals while staying within weight and size restrictions normally considered suitable only for much lower performance systems. This camera design delivers superior performance using an innovative low power, low mass, scalable architecture, which provides a versatile approach for a variety of imaging requirements and allows for a wide number of possibilities of accommodation with a mini

  1. Design optimization for a wearable, gamma-ray and neutron sensitive, detector array with directionality estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Britt, Carl G.; August, Andrew J.; Qi, Hairong; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we report on a constrained optimization and tradeoff study of a hybrid, wearable detector array having directional sensing based upon gamma-ray occlusion. One resulting design uses CLYC detectors while the second feasibility design involves the coupling of gamma-ray-sensitive CsI scintillators and a rubber LiCaAlF6 (LiCAF) neutron detector. The detector systems' responses were investigated through simulation as a function of angle in a two-dimensional plane. The expected total counts, peak-to-total ratio, directionality performance, and detection of 40 K for accurate gain stabilization were considered in the optimization. Source directionality estimation was investigated using Bayesian algorithms. Gamma-ray energies of 122 keV, 662 keV, and 1332 keV were considered. The equivalent neutron capture response compared with 3 He was also investigated for both designs.

  2. The PRESHOWER - a New Multichnnel Detector for the CDF. The Scintillator Plates of the New Detector: Design, Production, Quality Control

    CERN Document Server

    Artikov, A M; Chocheli, D; Danilov, V; Grinyov, B; Lebedev, V; Senchyshyn, V G

    2005-01-01

    To increase the CDF efficiency when studying heavy quark processes there was designed, constructed and put into operation a new multichannel detector --- the so called Central Preshower. It was positioned before the central electromagnetic calorimeter and increased the photon, lepton and hadron identification efficiency. JINR in cooperation with the Institute of Scintillating Materials (Kharkiv) has created a sensitive element of the new detector: about 2800 units of the scintillation tiles; the specially developed quality control procedure guaranteed the necessary high light yield for tiles mass production. The chosen tiles were equipped at FNAL by two loops (about 1 m long) of WLS fibers positioned inside the $\\Omega $-shape groove; it guaranteed a light yield of $\\sim$ 25--35 photoelectrons/MIP.

  3. Design of Simple Instrumentation System for the Quality Analysis of Milk (Casein Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sangam

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a simple instrumentation system for the analysis of casein concentration in the milk. Casein is one of the major constituent of milk and its concentration describes the quality of the milk. Normally casein is analyzed by conventional analytical methods or by using Spectrophotometric methods. Here an attempt has been made to develop a simple portable system using optical instrumentation technique. The objective of the developed system is the real time analysis of the casein concentration of the milk at the field. The system involves UV light source, UV filter, cuvette, photo detector, display unit, data Acquisition Card (DAC as peripheral with USB port. Appropriate program has been developed in visual studio 6 and turbo C. Repeated number of real time analysis was carried out for different samples of milk; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with the amount determined by standard conventional methods with an accuracy of ±1.5 %, and the response time is within 100 seconds. This system can be used in the field for the quality analysis of milk as an independent unit and can also be interfaced to PC with USB port. The system has good accuracy, less response time and low cost.

  4. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanto, D.; Ula, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor.

  5. Design constrution and testing of a self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The design, contruction and testing of a self-powered neutron detector (SPN) and associated electronics are described. Several tests were performed giving information about dielectrical properties od detector and cable, gamma spectra induced in the detector through reactor irradiation, detector response as a function of neutron flux, current stability and reproductibility with the neutron flux. The gamma and neutron sensitivities were also evaluated, by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters and gold foils as references. The test results are presented and show that the detector response is reliable. The gamma and neutron sensitivities are in agreement with those found in the available literature. Neverthe less, a ceramic insulated cable should be employed for permanent use in a reactor. The tests were perfomance in a 100 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear of NUCLEBRAS,in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. (Author) [pt

  6. Design, construction and testing of a self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction and testing of a self-powered neutron detector (SPN) and associated electronics are described. Several tests were performed giving information about dielectrical properties of detector and cable, gamma spectra induced in the detector through reactor irradiation, detector response as a function of neutron flux, current stability and reproductibility with the neutron flux. The gamma and neutron sensitivities were also evaluated, by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters and gold foils as references. The test results are presented and show that the detector response is reliable. The gamma and neutron sensitivities are in agreement with those found in the available literature. Nevertheless, a ceramic insulated cable should be employed for permanent use in a reactor. The tests were performed in a 100 KW TRIGA Mark I reactor at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear of NUCLEBRAS, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. (author) [pt

  7. Signal charge sharing in multilinear drift detectors: Design and experimental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castoldi, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Holl, P. [3MPI Halbleiterlabor, Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Multilinear silicon drift detectors (MLSDD`s) are radiation detectors which combine excellent energy and position resolution with high count-rate capabilities. This is achieved by controlling the diffusion of the signal charges and limiting their lateral spread during the drift. This paper will present a study of the signal electrons` transport in MLSDD`s in comparison with the experimental measurements. Three-dimensional simulations were carried out, taking into account diffusion effects and mutual electrostatic interaction between the signal electrons. A representative sample of these simulations will be presented. Signal sharing in a multilinear drift detector and in a classical multi-anode drift detector are characterized and discussed. The results are useful to tailor the design of MLSDD`s for the detection of different kinds of radiation (e.g., optical photon, X-ray, ionizing particle) and to optimize signal charge sharing and detector performance according to a particular application purpose.

  8. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  9. Design, implementation and testing of SRAM based neutron detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Velure, Arild

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons of thermal and high energies can change the value of a bit stored in a Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) memory chip. The effect is non destructive and linearly dependent on the amount of incoming particles, which makes it exploitable for use as a neutron detector. Detection is done by writing a known pattern to the memory and continuously reading it back checking for wrong values. As the SRAM memory is immune to gamma radiation it is ideal for use in for instance medical linear acc...

  10. Upgrade of detectors of neutron instruments at Neutron Physics Laboratory in Rez

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Litvinenko, E. I.; Ryukhtin, Vasyl; Bogdzel, A. A.; Churakov, A. V.; Farkas, G.; Hervoches, Charles; Lukáš, Petr; Pilch, Jan; Šaroun, Jan; Strunz, Pavel; Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 841, JAN (2017), s. 5-11 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004; GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron scattering * gaseous position-sensitive detector * delay line readout Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Materials engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  11. Design and fabrication of a novel self-powered solid-state neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiCausi, Nicholas

    There is a strong interest in intercepting special nuclear materials (SNM) at national and international borders and ports for homeland security applications. Detection of SNM such as U and Pu is often accomplished by sensing their natural or induced neutron emission. Such detector systems typically use thermal neutron detectors inside a plastic moderator. In order to achieve high detection efficiency gas filled detectors are often used; these detectors require high voltage bias for operation, which complicates the system when tens or hundreds of detectors are deployed. A better type of detector would be an inexpensive solid-state detector that can be mass-produced like any other computer chip. Research surrounding solid-state detectors has been underway since the late 1990's. A simple solid-state detector employs a planar solar-cell type p-n junction and a thin conversion material that converts incident thermal neutrons into detectable alpha-particles and 7Li ions. Existing work has typically used 6LiF or 10B as this conversion layer. Although a simple planar detector can act as a highly portable, low cost detector, it is limited to relatively low detection efficiency (˜10%). To increase the efficiency, 3D perforated p-i-n silicon devices were proposed. To get high efficiency, these detectors need to be biased, resulting in increased leakage current and hence detector noise. In this research, a new type of detector structure was proposed, designed and fabricated. Among several detector structures evaluated, a honeycomb-like silicon p-n structure was selected, which is filled with natural boron as the neutron converter. A silicon p+-n diode formed on the thin silicon wall of the honeycomb structure detects the energetic alpha-particles emitted from the boron conversion layer. The silicon detection layer is fabricated to be fully depleted with an integral step during the boron filling process. This novel feature results in a simplified fabrication process. Three

  12. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  13. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  14. Hardware design for new instrumentation and control system of RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2010-01-01

    The design for New Instrumentation and Control system of RTP are proposed. Physical system is modular-based, comprise of several cabinets such as Reactor Protection System 1 and 2, Control Console, Information Console 1 and 2 as well as Communication Console. Reactor Protection System automatically will shut-down reactor whenever safety limit setting was approach. Control console is where the reactor operator actually controls the reactor with control the movement of control rods. Information Consoles using Liquid Crystal Display to monitor the reactor parameters. Communication Console is where the communication tools such as telephone and intercom are located. This new system will incorporated analog, digital and computer-based. Reactor Protection System will use all analog system. Reactor Control System and Reactor Monitoring System will use analog as well as computer-based system. Wide-range channel will use digital signal processor as a main component. Controlling control rod movement is using control rod button via microprocessor-based control rod controller. Automatic Flux Controller is using embedded computer for flexibility of programming. Data Acquisition System is using Programmable Logic Controller and Industrial Computer. The main software for this system will be developed using WinCC software. (author)

  15. TROPOMI, the solar backscatter satellite instrument for air quality and climate, heads towards detailed design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Voors, R.; Mika, A.; Otter, G.; Valk, N.J.C. van der; Aben, I.; Hoogeveen, R.; Gloudemans, A.; Dobber, M.R.; Veefkind, P.; Levelt, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is currently planned for launch on ESA's Sentinel 5 precursor satellite in the time frame of 2014. TROPOMI is an ultraviolet-to-SWIR wavelengths imaging spectrograph that uses two-dimensional detectors to register both the spectrum and the swath

  16. Design and test of a prototype silicon detector module for ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker endcaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.G.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment. The SCT consists of four concentric barrels of silicon detectors as well as two silicon endcap detectors formed by nine disks each. The layout of the forward silicon detector module presented in this paper is based on the approved layout of the silicon detectors of the SCT, their geometry and arrangement in disks, but uses otherwise components identical to the barrel modules of the SCT. The module layout is optimized for excellent thermal management and electrical performance, while keeping the assembly simple and adequate for a large scale module production. This paper summarizes the design and layout of the module and present results of a limited prototype production, which has been extensively tested in the laboratory and testbeam. The module design was not finally adopted for series production because a dedicated forward hybrid layout was pursued

  17. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Sensor Fish Design and Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall C. Richmond

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish passing through dams may be injured or killed despite advances in turbinedesign, project operations and other fish bypass systems. The six-degree-of-freedom (6DOFSensor Fish device is an autonomous sensor package that characterizes the physical conditionsand physical stresses to which fish are exposed when they pass through complex hydraulicenvironments. It has been used to identify the locations and operations where conditions aresevere enough to injure or kill fish. During the design process, a set of governing equationsof motion for the Sensor Fish was derived and simulated to understand the design implica-tions of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. The Sensor Fishpackage includes three rotation sensors, three acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, and atemperature sensor with a sampling frequency of 2,000 Hz. Its housing is constructed of clearpolycarbonate plastic. It is 24.5 mm in diameter and 90 mm in length and weighs about 43 g,similar to the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt. The accuracy of the pressure sensorwas determined to be within 0.2 psi. In laboratory acceptance tests, the relative errors of boththe linear acceleration and angular velocity measurements were determined to be less than5%. An exposure is defined as a significant event when the acceleration reaches predefinedthresholds. Based on the different characteristic of acceleration and rotation velocities, theexposure event is categorized as either a collision between the Sensor Fish and a solid struc-ture or shear caused by turbulence. Since its development in 2005, the 6DOF Sensor Fish hasbeen deployed successfully at many major dams in the United States.

  18. Real-time Transient Monitoring With the HAWC Detector: Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisher, Ian Gabriel

    Blazars are some of the most energetic environments in the Universe with exceptionally strong non-thermal emission. Since the detection of VHE variability in the blazar Markarian 421, observations of blazars and their VHE variability have been an active field of research. Through long campaigns of observations, blazars have shown variability over timescales that vary from minutes to days across the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to TeV gamma rays. Though rare, the variability can also have extreme outburst events where the flux peaks at several orders of magnitude higher than the quiescent state of the source. These outbursts are interesting not only for constraining the models of acceleration and variability but also as tools to study other physics topics such as the extragalactic background light, intergalactic magnetic field, and Lorentz invariance. Though powerful, the rarity of these events makes studies challenging and motivates additional searches and detections. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) detector is an extensive air shower instrument with a high duty cycle, large field of view, and extraordinary sensitivity to TeV gamma rays. This allows HAWC to perform unbiased monitoring of a large number of different sources for flaring states and catch rare events such as the aforementioned blazar flares. This work presents a search for short timescale flares from known blazars and TeV sources for the first year of HAWC data with the capability to generate alerts in real time. In the course of this work, a variety of new hardware, software, and detection techniques were developed in conjunction with the construction of the HAWC detector. These include hardware development on the design of the main data acquisition system, electronics integrations and testing, design/testing of the online reconstruction system, and design of the electronics for the outrigger extension. Algorithms and methods to detect transients in HAWC time series data were developed

  19. Differential Die-Away Instrument: Report on Neutron Detector Recovery Performance and Proposed Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Alison Victoria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Iliev, Metodi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rael, Carlos D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-22

    Four helium-3 (3He) detector/preamplifier packages (¾”/KM200, DDSI/PDT-A111, DDA/PDT-A111, and DDA/PDT10A) were experimentally tested to determine the deadtime effects at different DT neutron generator output settings. At very high count rates, the ¾”/KM200 package performed best. At high count rates, the ¾”/KM200 and the DDSI/PDT-A111 packages performed very well, with the DDSI/PDT-A111 operating with slightly higher efficiency. All of the packages performed similarly at mid to low count rates. Proposed improvements include using a fast recovery LANL-made dual channel preamplifier, testing smaller diameter 3He tubes, and further investigating quench gases.

  20. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  1. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

    2007-04-04

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10-30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  3. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  4. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  6. GEO-CAPE Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (COEDI) Instrument Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal of this study is to build a breadboard instrument and prove the functionality of the optical-mechanical assembly for the Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics...

  7. Software for simulation and design of neutron scattering instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads

    The experimental technique of Neutron Scattering is constantly evolving through advances in sources and instrumentation. The latest challenges and opportunities are posed by the European Spallation Source currently under construction in Lund, as both the source dimensions and time structure are far......Stas instrument file from limited user input. All optimized guides are thoroughly characterized allowing the user to select the most appropriate solution for a specific instrument. The software has been used extensively in connection with ESS, as several guides for instruments accepted for construction have been...... is simulated between all geometries, providing a rich simulation of background including spurious signals. The MARI (ISIS, UK) powder spectrometer and MACS (NIST, USA) triple axis spectrometer are simulated, and recent measurements are recreated demonstrating the increased fidelity obtainable....

  8. Networks for the ATLAS LHC Detector Requirements, Design and Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancu, S N

    2005-01-01

    ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the four experiments approved for operation on the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) accelerator at CERN. Inside the ATLAS detector, the proton-proton bunch crossings will occur at approximately 40 MHz, generating about 1.6 Mbyte data for each event. The handling of the resulting data rate (64 Tbyte/s) is a serious challenge. As most of the collisions are "ordinary" (i.e. contain irrelevant physics data) a three layer Trigger and Data Acquisition system (TDAQ) is used to select the interesting events in real-time before recording them on mass storage. The total data rate which needs to be permanently stored is thus reduced to approximately 320 Mbyte/s. The second level trigger is a distributed system, implemented using approximately 1000 end-nodes interconnected by a high speed Ethernet network (the DataFlow network). It receives event data at a rate of up to 100 kHz, analyzes it, and reduces the rate to 3.3 kHz; a cross-sectional network bandwidth of approximately 10 Gbyt...

  9. Design and performance of a modularized NaI(Tl) detector (the crystal ball prototype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.; Partridge, R.A.; Peck, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype NaI(Tl) detector (the Cluster of 54) of spherical geometry subtending a solid angle of 7.5 percent of 4π at its center, has recently been assembled and tested. This detector consisted of 54 close-packed but optically isolated NaI(Tl) modules and the associated electronic circuitry. The Cluster of 54 is the predecessor of an almost complete spherical detector, the Crystal Ball, which will cover 94 percent of 4π. The latter detector is now under construction and is especially designed for the study of γ-rays produced in electron-positron collisions at colliding beam facilities. The mechanical, optical, and electronic assembly of the prototype system is outlined. Cluster of 54 test data will be presented

  10. LHCb: Detector Module Design, Construction and Performance for the LHCb SciFi Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Ekelhof, R

    2014-01-01

    The Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker for the LHCb Upgrade (CERN/LHCC 2014-001; LHCb TDR 15) is based on 2.5 m long multi-layered ribbons from 10,000 km of scintillating fibre over 12 planes covering 350 m2. The planes are separated into modular detectors, each with cooled silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays for photo-readout. In this talk, we will present the construction and performance of this novel detector, including the intricacies of scintillating fibre ribbon production, constructing precision detector planes with a rigid and light module design, and the integration of the readout components for this detector. The complexities and issues regarding this active part of the SciFi Tracker will be emphasised along with the current solutions and measured performances.

  11. Binary selectable detector holdoff circuit: Design, testing, and application. [to laser radar data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrmas, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    A very high speed switching circuit, part of a laser radar data acquisition system, has been designed and tested. The primary function of this circuit was to provide computer controlled switching of photodiode detector preamplifier power supply voltages, typically less than plus or minus 20 volts, in approximately 10 nanoseconds. Thus, in actual use, detector and/or detector preamplifier damage can be avoided as a result of sudden extremely large values of backscattered radiation being detected, such as might be due to short range, very thin atmospheric dust layers. Switching of the power supply voltages was chosen over direct switching the photodiode detector input to the preamplifier, based on system noise considerations. Also, the circuit provides a synchronized trigger pulse output for triggering devices such as the Biomation Model 8100 100 MHz analog to digital converter.

  12. Analysis and optimal design of Si microstrip detector with overhanging metal electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2001-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment to be encountered at LHC (large hadron collider) and RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) poses a challenging task for the fabrication of Si microstrip detectors. Due to high luminosities, detectors are required to sustain very high voltage operation well exceeding the bias voltage needed to fully deplete them. The "overhanging" metal contact is now a well established technique for improving the breakdown performance of the Si microstrip detector. Based on computer simulation, the influence of various physical and geometrical parameters on the electrical breakdown of the Si detectors equipped with metal overhangs is extensively analysed. Furthermore, optimization of design parameters is performed to achieve breakdown voltages close to maximum realizable values. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. (17 refs).

  13. Design and Performance of the VMM1 ASIC for Micropattern Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Fried, J; Li, S; Nambiar, N; Polychronakos, V; Vernon, E

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the first prototype VMM1 ASIC designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 130 nm CMOS and fabricated in spring 2012 are presented. The 64-channel ASIC features a novel design for use with several types of micropattern gas detectors. The data driven system measures peak amplitude and timing information in tracking mode including sub-threshold neighbors and first channel hit address in trigger mode. Several programmable gain and integration times allows the flexibility to work with Micromegas, Thin Gap Chambers (TGCs), and Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. The IC design and features are presented along with measurements characterizing the performance of the VMM1 such as noise, linearity of the response, time walk, as well as calibration and performance measurements taken with a Micromegas detector.

  14. A bottom collider vertex detector design, Monte-Carlo simulation and analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, P.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed simulation of the BCD vertex detector is underway. Specifications and global design issues are briefly reviewed. The BCD design based on double sided strip detector is described in more detail. The GEANT3-based Monte-Carlo program and the analysis package used to estimate detector performance are discussed in detail. The current status of the expected resolution and signal to noise ratio for the ''golden'' CP violating mode B d → π + π - is presented. These calculations have been done at FNAL energy (√s = 2.0 TeV). Emphasis is placed on design issues, analysis techniques and related software rather than physics potentials. 20 refs., 46 figs

  15. Design and Fabrication of the Second-Generation KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni, I.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cruciani, A.; Bellini, F.; Castellano, M. G.; Cosmelli, C.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the cryogenic wide-area light detectors with excellent resolution project is the development of light detectors with large active area and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS using phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double readout of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work we present the fabrication process, starting from the silicon wafer arriving to the single chip. In the first part of the project, we designed and fabricated KID detectors using aluminum. Detectors are designed by means of state-of-the-art software for electromagnetic analysis (SONNET). The Al thin films (40 nm) are evaporated on high-quality, high-resistivity (> 10 kΩ cm) Si(100) substrates using an electron beam evaporator in a HV chamber. Detectors are patterned in direct-write mode, using electron beam lithography (EBL), positive tone resist poly-methyl methacrylate and lift-off process. Finally, the chip is diced into 20 × 20 mm2 chips and assembled in a holder OFHC (oxygen-free high conductivity) copper using PTFE support. To increase the energy resolution of our detectors, we are changing the superconductor to sub-stoichiometric TiN (TiN x ) deposited by means of DC magnetron sputtering. We are optimizing its deposition by means of DC magnetron reactive sputtering. For this kind of material, the fabrication process is subtractive and consists of EBL patterning through negative tone resist AR-N 7700 and deep reactive ion etching. Critical temperature of TiN x samples was measured in a dedicated cryostat.

  16. Detector optimisation studies for the KM3NeT conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanidze, Rezo [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), Erlangen University (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The KM3NeT design study is an EU-funded project for an European deep-sea research infrastructure, which will host a high energy neutrino telescope with a volume of at least one cubic kilometre in the Mediterranean Sea. Recently, the KM3NeT consortium prepared the conceptual design report (CDR), in which the possible options for the KM3NeT detector are described. The detector optimisation studies, performed in Erlangen using MC simulations, are presented in the talk.

  17. Alignment procedure for detector integration and characterization of the CaSSIS instrument onboard the TGO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Antonio; Da Deppo, Vania; Gambicorti, Lisa; Gerber, Michael; Ziethe, Ruth; Cremonese, Gabriele; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is a high-resolution camera for the ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission launched in March 2016. CaSSIS is capable of acquiring color stereo images of features on the surface of Mars to better understand the processes related to trace gas emission. The optical configuration of CaSSIS is based on a three-mirror anastigmatic off-axis imager with a relay mirror; to attain telecentric features and to maintain compact the design, the relay mirror has power. The University of Bern had the task of detector integration and characterization of CaSSIS focal plane. An OGSE (Optical Ground Support Equipment) characterization facility was set up for this purpose. A pinhole, imaged through an off-axis paraboloidal mirror, is used to produce a collimated beam. In this work, the procedures to align the OGSE and to link together the positions of each optical element will be presented. A global Reference System (RS) has been defined using an optical cube placed on the optical bench (OB) and linked to gravity through its X component; this global RS is used to correlate the alignment of the optical components. The main steps to characterize the position of the object to that of the CaSSIS focal plane have been repeated to guide and to verify the operations performed during the alignment procedures. A calculation system has been designed to work on the optical setup and on the detector simultaneously, and to compute online the new position of the focus plane with respect to the detector. Final results will be shown and discussed.

  18. Thermal simulations of the new design for the BELLE silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragic, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The experienced imperfections of the BELLE silicon vertex detector, SVD1 motioned the design of a new detector, SVD2, which targets on improving the main weaknesses encountered in the old design. In this report we focus on tile thermal aspects of the SVD2 ladder, whereby sufficient cooling of the detector is necessary in order to minimise the detector leakage currents. It is estimated that reducing the temperature of the silicon detector from 25 deg C to 15 deg C would result in a 50% reduction in leak current. Further, cooling the detector would help minimize mechanical stresses from the thermal cycling. Our task is to ensure that the heat generated by the readout chips is conducted down the SVD hybrid unit effectively, such that the chip and the hybrid temperature does not overbear the SVD silicon sensor temperature. We considered the performance of two materials to act as a heat spreading plate which is glued between the two hybrids in order to improve the heat conductivity of the hybrid unit, namely Copper and Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite (TPG). The effects of other ladder components were also considered in order to enhance the cooling of the silicon detectors. Finite element analysis with ANSYS software was used to simulate the thermal conditions of the SVD2 hybrid unit, in accordance with the baseline design for the mechanical structure of the ladder. It was found that Cu was a preferred material as it achieved equivalent silicon sensor cooling (3.6 deg C above cooling point), while its mechanical properties rendered it a lot more practical. Suppressing, the thermal path via a rib support block, by increasing its thermal resistivity, as well as increasing thermal conductivity of the ribs in the hybrid region, were deemed essential in the effective cooling of the silicon sensors

  19. Proceedings of cryogenic optical systems and instruments IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melugin, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of Cryogenic Optical systems and Instruments IV. Topics covered include: Cryogenic System Design and Optical Technology; Cryogenic Instruments, Sensors, and Detectors; Space Cryogenic Dewars and Coolers; and Cryogenic Mechanisms, Testing, and Structures

  20. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  1. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  2. Designing new guides and instruments using McStas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhi, E.; Hansen, T.; Wildes, A.

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of modem neutron-scattering instruments, the need for powerful tools to optimize their geometry and physical performances (flux, resolution, divergence, etc.) has become essential. As the usual analytical methods reach their limit of validity in the description...... of fine effects, the use of Monte Carlo simulations, which can handle these latter, has become widespread. The McStas program was developed at Riso National Laboratory in order to provide neutron scattering instrument scientists with an efficient and flexible tool for building Monte Carlo simulations...... of guides, neutron optics and instruments [1]. To date, the McStas package has been extensively used at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, for various studies including cold and thermal guides with ballistic geometry, diffractometers, triple-axis, backscattering and time-of-flight spectrometers...

  3. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the GIFTS Instrument Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomkowski, Paul P.

    2003-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Instrument is the next generation spectrometer for remote sensing weather satellites. The GIFTS instrument will be used to perform scans of the Earth s atmosphere by assembling a series of field-of- views (FOV) into a larger pattern. Realization of this process is achieved by step scanning the instrument FOV in a contiguous fashion across any desired portion of the visible Earth. A 2.3 arc second pointing stability, with respect to the scanning instrument, must be maintained for the duration of the FOV scan. A star tracker producing attitude data at 100 Hz rate will be used by the autonomous pointing algorithm to precisely track target FOV s on the surface of the Earth. The main objective is to validate the pointing algorithm in the presence of spacecraft disturbances and determine acceptable disturbance limits from expected noise sources. Proof of concept validation of the pointing system algorithm is carried out with a full system simulation developed using Matlab Simulink. Models for the following components function within the full system simulation: inertial reference unit (IRU), attitude control system (ACS), reaction wheels, star tracker, and mirror controller. With the spacecraft orbital position and attitude maintained to within specified limits the pointing algorithm receives quaternion, ephemeris, and initialization data that are used to construct the required mirror pointing commands at a 100 Hz rate. This comprehensive simulation will also aid in obtaining a thorough understanding of spacecraft disturbances and other sources of pointing system errors. Parameter sensitivity studies and disturbance analysis will be used to obtain limits of operability for the GIFTS instrument. The culmination of this simulation development and analysis will be used to validate the specified performance requirements outlined for this instrument.

  4. Design of fault detectors using ℋ∞ optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of detecting and/or isolating faults in dynamical systems is assessed. In contrast to previous approaches, the residual vector is considered to be a design variable as a free transfer function in addition to the actual filter which is supposed to minimize the residual. Some main...

  5. Design of Faraday cup ion detectors built by thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szalkowski, G.A., E-mail: gszalkowski3@gatech.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Darrow, D.S., E-mail: ddarrow@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P. O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cecil, F.E., E-mail: fcecil@mines.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2017-03-11

    Thin film Faraday cup detectors can provide measurements of fast ion loss from magnetically confined fusion plasmas. These multilayer detectors can resolve the energy distribution of the lost ions in addition to giving the total loss rate. Prior detectors were assembled from discrete foils and insulating sheets. Outlined here is a design methodology for creating detectors using thin film deposition that are suited to particular scientific goals. The intention is to use detectors created by this method on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The detectors will consist of alternating layers of aluminum and silicon dioxide, with layer thicknesses chosen to isolate energies of interest. Thin film deposition offers the advantage of relatively simple and more mechanically robust construction compared to other methods, as well as allowing precise control of film thickness. Furthermore, this depositional fabrication technique places the layers in intimate thermal contact, providing for three-dimensional conduction and dissipation of the ion-produced heating in the layers, rather than the essentially two-dimensional heat conduction in the discrete foil stack implementation.

  6. Simulation tool for optical design of PET detector modules including scintillator material and sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatekos, B.; Erdei, G.; Lorincz, E. [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics, Dept. of Atomic Physics, Budafoki ut 8, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-07-01

    The appearance of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in the field of PET detector modules made it necessary to apply more complex optical design methods to refine the performance of such assemblies. We developed a combined simulation tool that is capable to model complex detector structures including scintillation material, light guide, light collection optics and sensor, correctly taking into account the statistical behavior of emission of scintillation light and its absorbance in SPADs. As a validation we compared simulation results obtained by our software and another optical design program. Calculations were performed for a simple PET detector arrangement used for testing purposes. According to the results, deviation of center of gravity coordinates between the two simulations is 0.0195 mm, the average ratio of total counts 1.0052. We investigated the error resulting from finite sampling in wavelength space and we found that 20 nm pitch is sufficient for the simulation in case of the given spectral dependencies. (authors)

  7. Plasma Panel Detectors for MIP Detection for the SLHC and a Test Chamber Design

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Robert; Etzion, Erez; Friedman, Peter S; Levin, Daniel S; Moshe, Meny Ben; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Performance demands for high and super-high luminosity at the LHC (up to 10^35 cm^(-2) sec^(-1) after the 2017 shutdown) and at future colliders demand high resolution tracking detectors with very fast time response and excellent temporal and spatial resolution. We are investigating a new radiation detector technology based on Plasma Display Panels (PDP), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays. The design and production of PDPs is supported by four decades of industrial development. Emerging from this television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micropattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally an array of micro-Geiger plasma discharge cells operating in a non-ageing, hermetically sealed gas mixture . We report on the PPS development program, including design of a PPS Test Cell.

  8. Design considerations for large detector arrays on submillimeter-wave telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Antony A.

    2000-07-01

    The emerging technology of large (approximately 10,000 pixel) submillimeter-wave bolometer arrays presents a novel optical design problem -- how can such arrays be fed by diffraction- limited telescope optics where the primary mirror is less than 100,000 wavelengths in diameter? Standard Cassegrain designs for radiotelescope optics exhibit focal surface curvature so large that detectors cannot be placed more than 25 beam diameters from the central ray. The problem is worse for Ritchey-Chretien designs, because these minimize coma while increasing field curvature. Classical aberrations, including coma, are usually dominated by diffraction in submillimeter- wave single dish telescopes. The telescope designer must consider (1) diffraction, (2) aberration, (3) curvature of field, (4) cross-polarization, (5) internal reflections, (6) the effect of blockages, (7) means of beam chopping on- and off-source, (8) gravitational and thermal deformations of the primary mirror, (9) the physical mounting of large detector packages, and (10) the effect of gravity and (11) vibration on those detectors. Simultaneous optimization of these considerations in the case of large detector arrays leads to telescopes that differ considerably from standard radiotelescope designs. Offset optics provide flexibility for mounting detectors, while eliminating blockage and internal reflections. Aberrations and cross-polarization can be the same as on-axis designs having the same diameter and focal length. Trade-offs include the complication of primary mirror homology and an increase in overall cost. A dramatic increase in usable field of view can be achieved using shaped optics. Solutions having one to six mirrors will be discussed, including possible six-mirror design for the proposed South Pole 10 m telescope.

  9. Design and realization of a fast low noise electronics for a hybrid pixel X-ray detector dedicated to small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantepie, B.

    2008-12-01

    Since the invention of computerized tomography (CT), charge integration detector were widely employed for X-ray biomedical imaging applications. Nevertheless, other options exist. A new technology of direct detection using semiconductors has been developed for high energy physics instrumentation. This new technology, called hybrid pixel detector, works in photon counting mode and allows for selecting the minimum energy of the counted photons. The ImXgam research team at CPPM develops the PIXSCAN demonstrator, a CT-scanner using the hybrid pixel detector XPAD. The aim of this project is to evaluate the improvement in image quality and in dose delivered during X-ray examinations of a small animal. After a first prototype of a hybrid pixel detector XPAD1 proving the feasibility of the project, a complete imager XPAD2 was designed and integrated in the PIXSCAN demonstrator. Since then, with the evolution of microelectronic industry, important improvements are conceivable. To reducing the size of pixels and to improving the energy resolution of detectors, a third design XPAD3 was conceived and will be soon integrated in a second generation of PIXSCAN demonstrator. In this project, my thesis work consisted in taking part to the design of the detector readout electronics, to the characterization of the chips and of the hybrid pixel detectors, and also to the definition of a auto-zeroing architecture for pixels. The first and second chapters present X-ray medical imaging and particle detection with semi-conductors and its modelling. The third chapter deals with the specifications of electronic circuits for imaging applications first for analog pixels then for digital pixels and describes the general architecture of the integrated circuits. The validation tests are presented in the fourth chapter while the last chapter gives an account of expected changes in pixel electronics

  10. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be c...

  11. The GOTTHARD charge integrating readout detector: design and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozzanica, A; Bergamaschi, A; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Henrich, B; Johnson, I; Valeria, R; Schmitt, B; Xintian, S; Graafsma, H; Lohmann, M

    2012-01-01

    A charge integrating readout ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for silicon strip sensors has been developed at PSI in collaboration with DESY. The goal of the project is to provide a charge integrating readout system able to cope with the pulsed beam of XFEL machines and at the same time to retain the high dynamic range and single photon resolution performances typical for photon counting systems. The ASIC, designed in IBM 130 nm CMOS technology, takes advantage of its three gain stages with automatic stage selection to achieve a dynamic range of 10000 12 keV photons and a noise better than 300 e.n.c.. The 4 analog outputs of the ASIC are optimized for speed, allowing frame rates higher than 1 MHz, without compromises on linearity and noise performances. This work presents the design features of the ASIC, and reports the characterization results of the chip itself.

  12. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueyuek, Tayfun; Gadea, Andres; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Di Nitto, Antonio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Jaworski, Grzegorz; Javier Valiente-Dobon, Jose; De Angelis, Giacomo; Modamio, Victor; Triossi, Andrea [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Nyberg, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden); Palacz, Marcin [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Soederstroem, Paer-Anders [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Aliaga-Varea, Ramon Jose [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Atac, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Collado, Javier; Egea, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez, Vicente; Sanchis, Enrique [University of Valencia, Department of Electronic Engineering, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Erduran, Nizamettin [Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul (Turkey); Ertuerk, Sefa [University of Nigde, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Nigde (Turkey); France, Gilles de [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, CEA/DSAM, Caen (France); Gadea, Rafael; Herrero-Bosch, Vicente [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Kaskas, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Moszynski, Marek [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wadsworth, Robert [University of York, Department of Physics, York (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ -ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the {sup 58}Ni + {sup 56}Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array. (orig.)

  13. Overview of the data acquisition electronics system design for the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    The SLD Detector will contain five major electronics subsystems: Vertex, Drift, Liquid Argon Calorimeter, Cerenkov Ring Imaging, and Warm Iron Calorimeter. To implement the approximately 170,000 channels of electronics, extensive miniaturization and heavy use of multiplexing techniques are required. Design criteria for each subsystem, overall system architecture, and the R and D program are described

  14. Low-cost cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors based on electron-transport-only designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Lund, J.C.; Van Scyoc, J.M.; Hilton, N.R.; Lee, E.Y.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to utilize a novel device design to build a compact, high resolution, room temperature operated semiconductor gamma ray sensor. This sensor was constructed from a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystal. It was able to both detect total radiation intensity and perform spectroscopy on the detected radiation. CZT detectors produced today have excellent electron charge carrier collection, but suffer from poor hole collection. For conventional gamma-ray spectrometers, both the electrons and holes must be collected with high efficiency to preserve energy resolution. The requirement to collect the hole carriers, which have relatively low lifetimes, limits the efficiency and performance of existing experimental devices. By implementing novel device designs such that the devices rely only on the electron signal for energy information, the sensitivity of the sensors for detecting radiation can be increased substantially. In this report the authors describe a project to develop a new type of electron-only CZT detector. They report on their successful efforts to design, implement and test these new radiation detectors. In addition to the design and construction of the sensors the authors also report, in considerable detail, on the electrical characteristics of the CZT crystals used to make their detectors

  15. Detector design for active fault diagnosis in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekunda, André Krabdrup; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2018-01-01

    , an optimal detector design is presented for single and multiple faults using the amplitude and phase shift of the residual signal to conduct diagnosis. Here, both the optimal case of a perfect model and the suboptimal case of a model with uncertainties are discussed. The method is successfully tested...

  16. A New Instrument Design for Imaging Low Energy Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, Dennis; Rozmarynowski, Paul; Getty, Stephanie; Cooper, John F.; Smith, Billy

    2007-01-01

    The MidSTAR-2 satellite, to be built at the US Naval Academy as a follow-on to the successful MidSTAR-1 satellite (http://web.ew.usna.edu/midstar/), will launch in 2011 and carry three Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) experiments developed under Goddard's Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program. One of these GSFC instruments, the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) builds on the heritage of the Goddard-developed Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in 2000. MINI-ME features a Venetian-blind conversion surface assembly that improves both light rejection and conversion efficiency in a smaller and lighter package than LENA making this an highly effective instrument for viewing solar wind charge exchange with terrestrial and planetary exospheres. We will describe the MINI-ME prototyping effort and its science targets.

  17. Sentinel-3 coverage-driven mission design: Coupling of orbit selection and instrument design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, S.; Pirondini, F.; Palmade, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    The first satellite of the Sentinel-3 series was launched in February 2016. Sentinel-3 payload suite encompasses the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) with a swath of 1270 km, the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) yielding a dual-view scan with swaths of 1420 km (nadir) and 750 km (oblique view), the Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) working in Ku-band and C-band, and the dual-frequency Microwave Radiometer (MWR). In the early stages of mission and system design, the main driver for the Sentinel-3 reference orbit selection was the requirement to achieve a revisit time of two days or less globally over ocean areas with two satellites (i.e. 4-day global coverage with one satellite). The orbit selection was seamlessly coupled with the OLCI instrument design in terms of field of view (FoV) definition driven by the observation zenith angle (OZA) and sunglint constraints applied to ocean observations. The criticality of the global coverage requirement for ocean monitoring derives from the sunglint phenomenon, i.e. the impact on visible channels of the solar ray reflection on the water surface. This constraint was finally overcome thanks to the concurrent optimisation of the orbit parameters, notably the Local Time at Descending Node (LTDN), and the OLCI instrument FoV definition. The orbit selection process started with the identification of orbits with short repeat cycle (2-4 days), firstly to minimise the time required to achieve global coverage with existing constraints, and then to minimise the swath required to obtain global coverage and the maximum required OZA. This step yielded the selection of a 4-day repeat cycle orbit, thus allowing 2-day coverage with two adequately spaced satellites. Then suitable candidate orbits with higher repeat cycles were identified in the proximity of the selected altitudes and the reference orbit was ultimately chosen. Rationale was to keep the swath for global coverage as close as possible to the

  18. Design report for an indirectly cooled 3-m diameter superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.

    1982-01-01

    The Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF) is a large detector system designed to study anti pp collisions at very high center of mass energies. The central detector for the CDF shown employs a large axial magnetic field volume instrumented with a central tracking chamber composed of multiple layers of cylindrical drift chambers and a pair of intermediate tracking chambers. The purpose of this system is to determine the trajectories, sign of electric charge, and momenta of charged particles produced with polar angles between 10 and 170 degrees. The magnetic field volume required for tracking is approximately 3.5 m long an 3 m in diameter. To provide the desired δp/sub T/p/sub T/ less than or equal to 1.5% at 50 GeV/c using drift chambers with approx. 200μ resolution the field inside this volume should be 1.5 T. The field should be as uniform as is practical to simplify both track finding and the reconstruction of particle trajectories with the drift chambers. Such a field can be produced by a cylindrical current sheet solenoid with a uniform current density of 1.2 x 10 6 A/m (1200 A/mm) surrounded by an iron return yoke. For practical coils and return yokes, both central electromagnetic and central hadronic calorimetry must be located outside the coil of the magnet. This geometry requires that the coil and the cryostat be thin both in physical thickness and in radiation and absorption lengths. This dual requirement of high linear current density and minimal coil thickness can only be satisfied using superconducting technology. In this report we describe the design for an indirectly cooled superconducting solenoid to meet the requirements of the Fermilab CDF. The components of the magnet system are discussed in the following chapters, with a summary of parameters listed in Appendix A

  19. LHCb Scintillating Fiber detector front end electronics design and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, W. E. W.; Pellegrino, A.; Ietswaard, G. C. M.; Verkooijen, J. C.; Carneiro, U.; Massefferi, A.

    2017-03-01

    The on-detector electronics of the LHCb Scintillating Fiber Detector consists of multiple PCBs assembled in a unit called Read Out Box, capable of reading out 2048 channels with an output rate of 70 Gbps. There are three types of boards: PACIFIC, Clusterization and Master Board. The Pacific Boards host PACIFIC ASICs, with pre-amplifier and comparator stages producing two bits of data per channel. A cluster-finding algorithm is then run in an FPGA on the Clusterization Board. The Master Board distributes fast and slow control, and power. We describe the design, production and test of prototype PCBs.

  20. Design and performance of a lead fluoride detector as a luminosity monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Benito, R.; Khaneft, D. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany); O' Connor, C., E-mail: colton@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Capozza, L. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany); Diefenbach, J. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Gläser, B.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.E.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    Precise luminosity measurements for the OLYMPUS two-photon exchange experiment at DESY were performed by counting scattering events with alternating beams of electrons and positrons incident on atomic electrons in a gaseous hydrogen target. Final products of Møller, Bhabha, and pair annihilation interactions were observed using a pair of lead fluoride Cherenkov calorimeters with custom housings and electronics, adapted from a system used by the A4 parity violation experiment at MAMI. This paper describes the design, calibration, and operation of these detectors. An explanation of the Monte Carlo methods used to simulate the physical processes involved both at the scattering vertices and in the detector apparatus is also included.

  1. Integration of a 6LilnSe2 thermal neutron detector into a CubeSat instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Joanna C.; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold; Stassun, Keivan G.; Buliga, Vladimir; Matei, Liviu; Bodnarik, Julia G.; Stowe, Ashley C.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2016-10-01

    We present a preliminary design for a neutron detection system that is compact, lightweight, and low power consuming, utilizing the CubeSat platform making it suitable for space-based applications. This is made possible using the scintillating crystal lithium indium diselenide (LiInSe26), the first crystal to include Li6 in the crystalline structure, and a silicon avalanche photodiode. The schematics of this instrument are presented as well as the response of the instrument to initial testing under alpha radiation. A principal aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of such a neutron detection system within a CubeSat platform. The entire end-to-end system presented here is 10×10×15 cm3, weighs 670 g, and requires 5 V direct current at 3 W.

  2. Design and testing of the AGS Booster BPM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Van Zwienen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster beam position monitor system must accurately measure the position of beams and bunches over a wide range of intensity. The frequency of operation must also cover a wide range (600 kHz to 4.2 MHz) since the Booster accelerates both protons and heavy ions. Split-cylinder electrodes were chosen to monitor the position of the beam because of their good low frequency response and high linearity. The need to accelerate low-energy partially-stripped heavy ions requires the pick-up electrodes (PUEs) to operate in a 3 x 10 -11 torr vacuum. The PUEs are to measure the beam position to an absolute accuracy of ±0.5 mm and must therefore be mechanically stable despite the requirements that they be vacuum fired at 950 degree C and baked periodically to 300 degree C. This presentation describes both the mechanical design of the PUEs and the automated test procedure used to ensure the stability, accuracy, and linearity of each unit. 3 refs., 5 figs

  3. Thermalhydraulic design of non-instrumented capsule for irradiation experiments in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok Hoon; Ji, Dae Young

    1999-01-01

    It has been possible that various kinds of irradiation experiments are proceeded through the construction of HANARO. The non-instrumented capsule was designed for life time evaluation of nuclear material. The thermalhydraulic design of non-instrumented capsule was divided into two parts. Firstly, pressure drop experiments was performed to satisfy allowable limits on pressure drop and coolant flow rate for experimental hole IR-1 inside HANARO core. The tube diameter and lower part design of non-instrumented capsule was decided from the experiment. Secondly, thermal design to control the maximum specimen temperature was conducted by GENGTC one dimensional program

  4. Microcontroller ATMEGA8535 based Design of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Gas Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Suyuti, Ansar

    2012-01-01

    1218204-3737-IJECS-IJENS ?? August 2012 IJENS This paper presents design of Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas detector based on microcontroller performance. The device is embedded with real-time measurement through visualization in Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and computer monitor. In addition, the data processing utilizes microcontroller ATMEGA8535 under programming environment of CodeVision AVR V2.03.4. The visualization itself is designed based on the combination between programming language of ...

  5. Design of wideband acoustic detectors of gravitational waves equipped with displacement concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaci, Paola; Prodi, Giovanni A.; Vinante, Andrea; Bonaldi, Michele; Falferi, Paolo; Pontin, Antonio; Zendri, Jean Pierre

    2008-01-01

    We present the concept design of a new class of acoustic detectors of gravitational waves (GWs), which feature a wideband sensitivity. The main novelty relies in the geometry of the test mass, which is equipped with integrated whips. This tapering provides more resonant modes with favorable cross-section to GWs to achieve a large bandwidth. Moreover, the whips act as displacement concentrators and ensure a high mechanical gain at the sensing surfaces. The resulting decrease in mechanical stiffness allows us to achieve the noise matching condition with reasonable operating parameters of the displacement transducer. The performances of the detector are modeled taking into account the quantum and thermal noise sources in the case of a capacitive transducer with a SQUID amplifier. This class of detectors can be designed to target GWs in the frequency range above 1 kHz at a sensitivity comparable to that predicted for future long baseline interferometric detectors. After showing how to scale the design for different constructing materials and target frequencies, we discuss the predicted sensitivity to specific astrophysical signal waveforms.

  6. Three-dimensional cross point readout detector design for including depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha

    2018-04-01

    We designed a depth-encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a cross point readout method with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers. To evaluate the characteristics of the novel detector module and the PET system, we used the DETECT2000 to perform optical photon transport in the crystal array. The GATE was also used. The detector module is made up of four layers of scintillator arrays, the five layers of WLS fiber arrays, and two sensor arrays. The WLS fiber arrays in each layer cross each other to transport light to each sensor array. The two sensor arrays are coupled to the forward and left sides of the WLS fiber array, respectively. The identification of three-dimensional pixels was determined using a digital positioning algorithm. All pixels were well decoded, with the system resolution ranging from 2.11 mm to 2.29 mm at full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  7. Lessons Learned from GOSAT; Instrument Design, Calibration, Operation, Data Processing, and International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Shiomi, K.; Nakajima, M.

    2012-12-01

    we target sun glint (specular reflection) points, where the surface reflectance is not uniform or randomly distributed. Over the desert area, where surface reflectance is high and dust layers extend to high altitude, we have to use lower gain to avoid saturation and multiple scattering is complicated. For both ocean high albedo targets, validation data of XCO2 and XCH4 are limited. Validation by airplane become accurate but extrapolation is needed above flight attitude. Comparison of surface pressure between retrieved data and a priori model forecast fields is useful. For such kind of consistency, measurement must be very linear within wide dynamic range. After launch, we are re-evaluating the linearity of the detector, analog circuit and AD converters using a lab-model on the ground. Since launch, we have received feedback about the radiance spectra data from many data users of diverse institutes. We have gathered many calibration and validation data from international collaboration. We have modified the Level 1 algorithm and instrument calibrations several times. We are currently measuring the grid point of the Earth's surface, but the sampling for source and sink retrieval has not been optimized yet. We will present how we have solved problems, which portions of the instrument design we should modify, and items that we have not understood well yet.

  8. Optimised design of a ROTAX-type instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietze-Jaensch, H.

    1997-01-01

    The rotating analyser (ROTAX) spectrometer has been devised and installed at ISIS. Practical scans in (Qℎω) space with a nearly arbitrary scan direction, i.e. polarisation of q vs. Q are possible and feasible with no compromises on the resolution. Valuable technological and methodological knowledge has been compiled for an improved version of such a type of instrument. At present ROTAX lacks competitiveness with other spectrometers from an unexpectedly weak neutron flux of its particular beam-line and an unfavourable adaption of the analyser's drive power to the time frame or neutron source frequency

  9. Design and implementation of an XML based object-oriented detector description database for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liendl, M.

    2003-04-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a detector description database (DDD) for the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) located at the European organization for nuclear research (CERN). DDD is a fundamental part of the CMS offline software with its main applications, simulation and reconstruction. Both are in need of different models of the detector in order to efficiently solve their specific tasks. In the thesis the requirements to a detector description database are analyzed and the chosen solution is described in detail. It comprises the following components: an XML based detector description language, a runtime system that implements an object-oriented transient representation of the detector, and an application programming interface to be used by client applications. One of the main aspects of the development is the design of the DDD components. The starting point is a domain model capturing concisely the characteristics of the problem domain. The domain model is transformed into several implementation models according to the guidelines of the model driven architecture (MDA). Implementation models and appropriate refinements thereof are foundation for adequate implementations. Using the MDA approach, a fully functional prototype was realized in C++ and XML. The prototype was successfully tested through seamless integration into both the simulation and the reconstruction framework of CMS. (author)

  10. Computational modeling and design of a new open clip surgical instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jeremy Zheng

    2009-08-01

    This research introduces a new surgical clip instrument with improved mechanism to apply the metal clips to patient's vessel/tissues in the surgical operations. The improved clip delivery system has been designed and developed in the instrument to improve the clip distal move from clip channel into jaw guide track and resolve the problems of clip accidental shooting out when clip is being loaded into jaw pair by compression spring that has been normally used in some current surgical clip instruments. With this improvement, this new surgical open clip instrument can prevent patient's vessels and tissues from being damaging because the distal move of clips is well controlled without clip drop-off incident. Plus the operational force to form the clip is lower than regular surgical instruments due to new mechanism design. In addition to the above, the manufacturing and product cost can be decreased because the dimensional tolerance of components, such as clip channel and jaw guide track, can be wider due to this new instrument design. The prototype of this new instrument is analyzed and optimized through computer aided modeling and simulation, in order to prove its feasible function, reliable performance, and mechanical advantage. All these improved features have also been tested and verified through the prototype. With some further improvement to this new instrument design and valuable evaluations from surgeon and clinical fields in next several months, the commercial availability of this surgical clip instrument will be anticipate in 1-2 years.

  11. Proceedings of a workshop on methods for neutron scattering instrumentation design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P.

    1997-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop. The international gathering of about 50 participants representing 15 national facilities, universities and corporations featured oral presentations, posters, discussions and demonstrations. Participants looked at a number of issues concerning neutron scattering instruments and the tools used in instrument design. Objectives included: (1) determining the needs of the neutron scattering community in instrument design computer code and information sharing to aid future instrument development, (2) providing for a means of training scientists in neutron scattering and neutron instrument techniques, and (3) facilitating the involvement of other scientists in determining the characteristics of new instruments that meet future scientific objectives, and (4) fostering international cooperation in meeting these needs. The scope of the meeting included: (1) a review of x-ray scattering instrument design tools, (2) a look at the present status of neutron scattering instrument design tools and models of neutron optical elements, and (3) discussions of the present and future needs of the neutron scattering community. Selected papers were abstracted separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database

  12. A Recommended Procedure for Estimating the Cosmic-Ray Spectral Parameter of a Simple Power Law With Applications to Detector Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, L. W.

    2001-01-01

    A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index alpha-1 is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10(exp 13) eV. Two procedures for estimating alpha-1 the method of moments and maximum likelihood (ML), are developed and their statistical performance compared. It is concluded that the ML procedure attains the most desirable statistical properties and is hence the recommended statistical estimation procedure for estimating alpha-1. The ML procedure is then generalized for application to a set of real cosmic-ray data and thereby makes this approach applicable to existing cosmic-ray data sets. Several other important results, such as the relationship between collecting power and detector energy resolution, as well as inclusion of a non-Gaussian detector response function, are presented. These results have many practical benefits in the design phase of a cosmic-ray detector as they permit instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of one of the science objectives. This is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope.

  13. In-core Instrument Subcritical Verification (INCISV) - Core Design Verification Method - 358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prible, M.C.; Heibel, M.D.; Conner, S.L.; Sebastiani, P.J.; Kistler, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    According to the standard on reload startup physics testing, ANSI/ANS 19.6.1, a plant must verify that the constructed core behaves sufficiently close to the designed core to confirm that the various safety analyses bound the actual behavior of the plant. A large portion of this verification must occur before the reactor operates at power. The INCISV Core Design Verification Method uses the unique characteristics of a Westinghouse Electric Company fixed in-core self powered detector design to perform core design verification after a core reload before power operation. A Vanadium self powered detector that spans the length of the active fuel region is capable of confirming the required core characteristics prior to power ascension; reactivity balance, shutdown margin, temperature coefficient and power distribution. Using a detector element that spans the length of the active fuel region inside the core provides a signal of total integrated flux. Measuring the integrated flux distributions and changes at various rodded conditions and plant temperatures, and comparing them to predicted flux levels, validates all core necessary core design characteristics. INCISV eliminates the dependence on various corrections and assumptions between the ex-core detectors and the core for traditional physics testing programs. This program also eliminates the need for special rod maneuvers which are infrequently performed by plant operators during typical core design verification testing and allows for safer startup activities. (authors)

  14. Integration of a $^6$LiInSe$_2$ Thermal Neutron Detector into a CubeSat Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Egner, Joanna C.; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold; Stassun, Keivan G.; Buliga, Vladimir; Matei, Liviu; Bodnarik, Julia G.; Stowe, Ashley C.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a preliminary design for a novel neutron detection system that is compact, lightweight, and low power consuming, utilizing the CubeSat platform making it suitable for space-based applications. This is made possible using the scintillating crystal lithium indium diselenide ($^6$LiInSe$_2$), the first crystal to include $^6$Li in the crystalline structure, and a silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD). The schematics of this instrument are presented as well as the response of the instr...

  15. Design and Characterization of the VMM1 ASIC for Micropattern Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Fried, J; Li, S; Nambiar, N; Polychronakos, V; Vernon, E

    2013-01-01

    We present here the measurements of the first prototype VMM1 ASIC designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 130 nm CMOS and fabricated in spring 2012. The 64-channel ASIC features a novel design for use with several types of micropattern gas detectors. The data driven system measures peak amplitude and timing information in tracking mode and first channel hit address in trigger mode. Several programmable gain and integration times allows the flexibility to work with Micromegas, Thin Gap Chambers (TGCs), and Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. The IC design architecture and features will be presented along with measurements characterizing the performance of the VMM1 such as noise, linearity of the response, time walk, and calibration range. The concept for use with Micromegas in ATLAS Upgrade will also be covered including characterization under test beam conditions.

  16. Design and manufacturing of 05F-01K instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation in Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J. (and others)

    2007-07-15

    An instrumented capsule was developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel pellet elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in Hanaro. The instrumented capsule(02F-11K) for measuring and monitoring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. It was successfully irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.84 full power days at 24 MW). In the year of 2004, 3 test fuel rods and the instrumented capsule(03F-05K) were designed and manufactured to measure fuel centerline temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, and fuel axial deformation during irradiation test. This capsule was irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro reactor from April 26, 2004 to October 1, 2004 (59.5 EFPD at 24 {approx} 30 MW). The six typed dual instrumented fuel rods, which allow for two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod, have been designed and manufactured to enhance the efficiency of the irradiation test using the instrumented fuel capsule. The 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule was designed and manufactured for a design verification test of the three dual instrumented fuel rods. The irradiation test of the 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule will be carried out at the OR5 vertical experimental hole of Hanaro.

  17. Effects of Instrument Handle Design on Dental Hygienists' Forearm Muscle Activity During Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedbeck, Jessica R; Tolle, Susan L; McCombs, Gayle; Walker, Martha L; Russell, Daniel M

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 different commercially available instrument handle designs (A. 16 grams and 12.7 mm diameter, B. 23 grams and 11.1 mm diameter, C. 21 grams and 7.9 mm diameter and D. 18 grams and 6.35 mm diameter) on the muscle activity of four forearm muscles during a simulated scaling experience. Methods: A convenience sample of 27 (n=27) dental hygienists used a Columbia 13/14 curet with four different instrument handles to scale artificial calculus from typodont teeth. Each participant's muscle activity was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG). Results: Similar muscle activity was generated when scaling with instruments at 16, 18, and 21 grams with varying diameter handles. Instrument B generated significantly more muscle activity when compared to each of the other instrument handle designs (p=0.001, p=0.002, p=0.039). The lower left quadrant displayed significantly less muscle activity during scaling than the upper and lower right quadrants (p=0.026, p=0.000), although no significant interaction effect was found with instruments within quadrants. Most participants (62.96%) preferred instrument A, which was rated more comfortable based on weight when compared to the other instruments tested. Conclusions: Instrument handle design has an effect on forearm muscle activity when scaling in a simulated environment. The heaviest instrument with a relatively large diameter (B 11.1 mm and 23 g) generated significantly more overall mean muscle activity compared to the other three instruments. Similar amounts of muscle activity were produced by instruments weighing between 16 and 21 g. Participants' instrument preferences were more affected by handle diameter than weight. Results support the need for further research to determine the impact of these findings on muscle load related to risk of musculoskeletal disorders in a real-world setting. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  18. The Design of Instruments For Government Finance in An Islamic Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Nadeem ul; Mirakhor, Abbas

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a viable approach for the design of an instrument of government finance (and monetary management) in an Islamic economy where conventional transactions based on an ex-ante promise of a risk-free rate of return are forbidden. Resources to finance government infrastructural and development projects can be mobilized through the issuance of a national participation paper (NPP) and this instrument can also serve as an instrument of monetary management. Various concep...

  19. Conceptual Design of Simulated Radiation Detector for Nuclear Forensics Exercise Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Baek, Ye Ji; Lee, Seung Min

    2016-01-01

    A site associated with an illicit trafficking or security event may contain trace evidence of criminal or malicious acts involving radioactive material. Such a site is called a radiological crime scene. Management of a radiological crime scene requires a process of ensuring an orderly accurate and effective collection and preservation of evidence. In order to effectively address such a security event, first responders and/or on-scene investigators need to exercise detecting, locating and recovering materials at the scene of the incident. During such the exercise, a sealed source can be used. This source is allowed to be a very small amount for exercises as there is the limit on the amount of radioactive material that causes no harm. So it is typically difficult to be found by some radiation detectors that the exercises have little effect on improving the ability of trainees. Therefore, we developed a conceptual design of a simulation radiation detector coupled with simulation sources which are designed to imitate a significant amount radioactive material for the purpose of a nuclear forensics exercise. With the potential of a terrorist attack using radioactive materials, the first responders should regularly perform the nuclear forensics exercise in order to prepare for a recovery operation. In this regard, some devices such as simulated detector, coupled with a virtual source, can replace a real detector and a surrogate source of material in field exercises. BLE technology could be applied to create similar environments to that of an actual radiological attack. The detector coupled with the simulated sources could be very helpful for first responders in testing and improving their ability in the case of a nuclear security event. In addition, this conceptual design could be extended to develop a simulated dosimeter coupled with a beacon signal emitters. The dosimeter is a personal device used for indicating the cumulated exposure of radiation in real time in the

  20. Conceptual Design of Simulated Radiation Detector for Nuclear Forensics Exercise Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Baek, Ye Ji; Lee, Seung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A site associated with an illicit trafficking or security event may contain trace evidence of criminal or malicious acts involving radioactive material. Such a site is called a radiological crime scene. Management of a radiological crime scene requires a process of ensuring an orderly accurate and effective collection and preservation of evidence. In order to effectively address such a security event, first responders and/or on-scene investigators need to exercise detecting, locating and recovering materials at the scene of the incident. During such the exercise, a sealed source can be used. This source is allowed to be a very small amount for exercises as there is the limit on the amount of radioactive material that causes no harm. So it is typically difficult to be found by some radiation detectors that the exercises have little effect on improving the ability of trainees. Therefore, we developed a conceptual design of a simulation radiation detector coupled with simulation sources which are designed to imitate a significant amount radioactive material for the purpose of a nuclear forensics exercise. With the potential of a terrorist attack using radioactive materials, the first responders should regularly perform the nuclear forensics exercise in order to prepare for a recovery operation. In this regard, some devices such as simulated detector, coupled with a virtual source, can replace a real detector and a surrogate source of material in field exercises. BLE technology could be applied to create similar environments to that of an actual radiological attack. The detector coupled with the simulated sources could be very helpful for first responders in testing and improving their ability in the case of a nuclear security event. In addition, this conceptual design could be extended to develop a simulated dosimeter coupled with a beacon signal emitters. The dosimeter is a personal device used for indicating the cumulated exposure of radiation in real time in the

  1. Neutron beam-line shield design for the protein crystallography instrument at the Lujan Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Muhrer, G.; Ferguson, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a very useful methodology for calculating absolute total (neutron plus gamma-ray) dose equivalent rates for use in the design of neutron beam line shields at a spallation neutron source. We have applied this technique to the design of beam line shields for several new materials science instruments being built at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center. These instruments have a variety of collimation systems and different beam line shielding issues. We show here some specific beam line shield designs for the Protein Crystallography Instrument. (author)

  2. Design and implementation of a radiation hardened silicon on sapphire (SOS) embedded signal conditioning unit controller (SCUC) for the RAPID instrument on the Cluster satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersland, L.

    1992-07-01

    The Cluster mission consistens of four spacecrafts equipped with instruments capable of making comprehensive measurements of plasma particles and electromagnetic fields. The RAPID (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors) spectrometer is one of many instruments on board the Cluster satellites. It is designed for fast analysis of energetic electrons and ions with a complete coverage of the unit sphere in phase space. This thesis describes the development and testing of an embedded controller for the Spectroscopic Camera for Electrons, Neutral and Ion Compositions (SCENIC), which is a part of the RAPID instrument. The design is implemented in two different CMOS circuit technologies, namely Actel's Field Programmable Gate Arrays and GEC Plessey's CMOS Silicon On Sapphire (SOS) gate array. The prototypes of the SOS gate array have been verified and characterized. This includes measurements of DC and AC parameters under different conditions, including total dose of gamma irradiation. 42 refs., 92 figs., 44 tabs

  3. Significance of analog instrumentation - design philosophy of replacement dump arrest unit at Pickering Station Candu Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.F.; McDowell, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences of opinion concerning power plant instrumentation, including safety systems. One popular view point is that modem instrumentation must be microprocessor-based to be acceptable. An alternative view point is that properly designed analog instrumentation is recommended in some applications and has proven to be viable based upon performance and experience. A practical example is discussed in detail, explaining how a combination of discrete analog circuitry, combined with discrete digital circuitry provides a robust solution to a complex instrumentation replacement problem. In this application, a microprocessor-based instrument was designed as a replacement for an obsolete analog instrument. Due to severe licensing difficulties, the instrument was redesigned as a combination of discrete analog and digital circuitry. In the implementation of this circuitry, all complex testing functions of the improved microprocessor-based instrument were accommodated and system accuracy and performance were not compromised over the micro-processor-based instrument. The instrument has met all requirements for reliability and EMI/RFI susceptibility, as well as isolation of analog outputs and the ability to withstand severe transient noise on inputs and outputs without adversely affecting performance

  4. Design and construction of a small animal PET/CT scanner combining scintillation Phoswich modules and hybrid pixels detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, St.

    2010-07-01

    The pathway that has been followed by the imXgam team at CPPM was to combine on a single rotating device the detector modules of the small animal PET scanner ClearPET with a photon counting X-ray detector in order to perform simultaneous acquisition of images from the anatomy (X-ray CT) and from the metabolic function (PET) of the common field-of-view. A preliminary study of the hybrid imaging system ClearPET/XPAD3 carried out using Gate led us to form a new PET detection assembly based on 21 Phoswich modules, to fix the design of the PET/CT device, as well as to study and solve the difficulties arising from simultaneous hybrid imaging. Last but not least, the simulation tool also allowed us for thinking how well such a system could judiciously use the spatial and temporal correlations between anatomic and functional information. From an instrumentation point of view, we succeeded to set up the ClearPET/XPAD3 prototype. Once both imaging systems were operational individually, we demonstrated on one side that the ClearPET prototype was perfectly capable of performing correctly in simultaneous acquisition conditions, providing that the detector modules were appropriately shielded. On the other side, the new generation of the hybrid pixel camera using the XPAD3-S chip proved to be quite promising given the good quality of the first reconstructed images. Finally, the proof of concept of simultaneous PET/CT data acquisition was made using a sealed positron source and an X-ray tube. (author)

  5. Online Course Design in Higher Education: A Review of National and Statewide Evaluation Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Sally; Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2018-01-01

    This research identifies six online course evaluation instruments used nationally or in statewide systems. We examined the characteristics (i.e., number of standards and criteria) and coded the criteria that guide the design of online courses. We discussed the focus of the instruments and their unique features.

  6. A Workshop on Methods for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design. Introduction and Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, Rex P.

    1996-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop on ''Methods for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design'' September 23-25 at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These proceedings are a collection of a portion of the invited and contributed presentations

  7. Model design and instrumentation experiences with continuous-flow cryogenic tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of wind tunnels that can be operated at cryogenic temperatures has placed several new demands on the ability to build and instrument wind tunnel models. The experiences at the NASA Langley Research Center relative to the design and instrumentation of models for continuous flow cryogenic wind tunnels are reviewed.

  8. Design of software platform based on linux operating system for γ-spectrometry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Zhou Chen; Zhang Yongjin

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of γ-spectrometry instrument software platform based on s3c2410a processor with arm920t core, emphases are focused on analyzing the integrated application of embedded linux operating system, yaffs file system and qt/embedded GUI development library. It presented a new software platform in portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  9. Cell design and electrostatic optimisation for the ZEUS central tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.H.C.

    1987-11-01

    The report is concerned with the cell design and electrostatic optimisation for the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector (CTD). The CTD is being designed for charged track reconstruction and particle momentum measurement in the ZEUS experiment at the HERA electron-proton collider. The contents of the report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the techniques employed in the study, and includes: design overview, voltage optimisation, strategy evolution, electrostatic screens, and optimisation over many superlayers. The second part contains a critical assessment of the results obtained, including optimised parameters, operational stability and alternative field values. (U.K.)

  10. Background simulations for the ATHENA X-IFU instrument: impact on the instrumental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Cea, D.; Mineo, T.; Perinati, E.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Piro, L.

    2014-07-01

    On 28 november 2013 ESA selected "The Hot and Energetic Universe" as the scientific theme for a large mission to be flown in 2028 in the second lagrangian point, and ATHENA is the mission that will address this science topic. It will carry on board the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), a 3840 pixel array based on TES (Transition Edge Sensor) microcalorimeters providing high resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV @ 6 keV) in the 0.3-12 keV range. Among X-IFU goals there is the detection and characterization of high redshift AGNs, Clusters of galaxies and their outskirts, and the elusive Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), so great care must be paid to the reduction of the background level. These scientific objectives will be reached if the particle background is kept lower than 0.05 cts cm-2 s-1, and to this aim, it is mandatory the use of a Cryogenic AC (CryoAC), as well as an optimized design of the cryostat and of the structures surrounding X-IFU. Our team, that is responsible for the ACD design, performed a detailed study to predict the rejection efficiency of the ACD as a function of its geometrical parameters and design choices. Since no experimental data on the background experienced by X-Ray microcalorimeters in the L2 orbit are available at the moment, the particle background levels have been calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 software.

  11. Built environment instruments for walkability, bikeability, and recreation: disability and universal design relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer A; Zimmerman, Jennifer L; Rimmer, James H

    2012-04-01

    Despite a plethora of instruments that measure the built environment with respect to its effect on potential physical activity, little is known about how relevant these instruments are for people with disabilities (PWDs). This review comprises an in-depth review of instruments related to the built environment and physical activity, as well as an examination of such instruments to determine their applicability for PWDs. In this paper, the term "built environment" refers to human-made structures (e.g., urban and rural design characteristics, recreational structures) that may facilitate or impede an individual's ability to be physically active. A content analysis was conducted on 95 instruments measuring walkability, bikeability, and recreation with respect to disability and universal design (UD) relevance. Instruments were also cataloged according to other dimensions, including psychometric properties, data collection modalities, and impact or use. Roughly one third of all instruments include some disability-specific items, and only a few UD principles are consistently demonstrated across all instruments. Psychometric information is available for approximately one half of the instruments. Most instruments use objective/audit methods of data collection, with less using subjective/perceived and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. With respect to instrument impact/use, just over one half of the instruments have articles cited in the peer-reviewed literature. Recommendations for new and revised built environment instruments include more focus on specific disability populations, incorporation of all UD principles, as well as attention to psychometric quality and measurement specificity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An engineering design study of the support platform assembly for the SSC SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, H.J.; Western, J.L.; Wands, R.H.

    1993-04-01

    A large angular acceptance high energy physics particle detector is presently being designed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration for the purposes of doing high pt physics at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. The support platform assembly is the structural device which transfers the 30,000 tonne gravitational load of the octagonally shaped muon barrel toroid and the other detector components to the foundation below. The detector components are very sensitive to differential deflection and rely on the barrel toroid and support platform for stability. The operational load path is provided by two pairs of inclined longitudinal plates resting at 67.5 degree on three pairs of plate girders that are positioned in-line in Z. The plate girders are held together laterally with 38 tie bars and supported vertically by the vertical adjustment system. The lateral stability of the inclined plates is provided by 22 stabilizer beams with cross bracing between each beam. The Z location of each split in the plate girder is coincident with the Z location of the gap in the calorimeter (4428 nun from the detector center.) The width of each split is 155 mm to allow installation of the alignment reference system. The collider beam line in the IR-8 underground experimental hall is oriented at a 2.16 mm/m slope from south to north as shown in Figure 2. The support is designed and installed to provide this slope at the top surface of the inclined plates. The assembled support rests on a ten foot thick steel reinforced 8000 psi concrete slab. The slab has a 2 mm differential deflection criteria under nominal gravitational loading

  13. Design and Tests of the Silicon Sensors for the ZEUS Micro Vertex Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Dannheim, D.; Koetz, U.; Coldewey, C.; Fretwurst, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Klanner, R.; Martens, J.; Koffeman, E.; Tiecke, H.; Carlin, R.

    2002-01-01

    To fully exploit the HERA-II upgrade,the ZEUS experiment has installed a Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) using n-type, single-sided, silicon micro-strip sensors with capacitive charge division. The sensors have a readout pitch of 120 micrometers, with five intermediate strips (20 micrometer strip pitch). The designs of the silicon sensors and of the test structures used to verify the technological parameters, are presented. Results on the electrical measurements are discussed. A total of 1123 sen...

  14. Students, teachers and technicians are installing a cosmic ray detector in the CMS visitor gallery. The detector was designed and built in the framework of the US Quarknet project under the supervision of physicists from the Notre Dame University (USA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    Students, teachers and technicians are installing a cosmic ray detector in the CMS visitor gallery. The detector was designed and built in the framework of the US Quarknet project under the supervision of physicists from the Notre Dame University (USA)

  15. Instruments of Inquiry: Understanding the Nature and Role of Design Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Designers employ a range of tools in most design projects, yet there are few frameworks for understanding how and why they work. On the basis of a well-established school of thought, pragmatism, this paper contributes with a coherent conceptualisation of tools in design, which I label instruments...

  16. Bragg optics computer codes for neutron scattering instrument design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovici, M.; Yelon, W.B.; Berliner, R.R.; Stoica, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for neutron crystal spectrometer design, optimization and experiment planning are described. Phase space distributions, linewidths and absolute intensities are calculated by matrix methods in an extension of the Cooper-Nathans resolution function formalism. For modeling the Bragg reflection on bent crystals the lamellar approximation is used. Optimization is done by satisfying conditions of focusing in scattering and in real space, and by numerically maximizing figures of merit. Examples for three-axis and two-axis spectrometers are given

  17. Design of Electronic Experiments Using Computer Generated Virtual Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    is displayed on the front panel DC Voltage meter. C LABORATORY 4 DESIGN The original Laboratory 4, Transistor ( BJT ) Characteristics, experiment...voltage relations of an NPN transistor in a common-emitter circuit configuration used in both the static and dynamic operation. 5. Transistor curve...of a BJT common emitter amplifier to stated specifications, test it for prop biasing signal amplification characteristics and operational stability. 7

  18. The mechanical design and dynamic testing of the IBEX-H1 electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, Allen G [SNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical design, fabrication and dynamic testing of an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument. The functional and environmental requirements combined with limited spacecraft accommodations, resulted in complex component geometries, unique material selections, and difficult fabrication processes. The challenging aspects of the mechanical design and several of the more difficult production processes are discussed. In addition, the successes, failures, and lessons learned from acoustic and random vibration testing of a full-scale prototype instrument are presented.

  19. Detector design studies for a cubic kilometre Deep Sea neutrino telescope - KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, J; Dornic, D [CPPM - Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Cohen, F [IReS - Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg (France); Jouvenot, F [formerly University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory (United Kingdom); Maurin, G; Naumann, C [CEA Saclay - DSM/IRFU - Service de Physique des Particules (France)], E-mail: Christopher.naumann@cea.fr, E-mail: gilles.maurin@cea.fr

    2008-11-01

    The KM3NeT consortium is currently preparing the construction of a cubic-kilometre sized neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea as a continuation of the previous efforts by the three Mediterranean projects ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR and as a counterpart to the South-Pole based IceCube detector. The main physics goals of KM3NeT include the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts as well as the search for new physics, such as neutrino signals from neutralino annihilation. A key point during the early phases of this experiment is the determination of the ideal detector layout as well as of important design criteria such as required spatial and temporal resolution of the sensor elements, to optimise the sensitivity in the energy range of interest. For this purpose, several independent Monte-Carlo studies using a range of possible detector configurations are being performed. In this presentation, one of these studies, using the fast and flexible Mathematica-based simulation and reconstruction package NESSY, is described in more detail together with expected results for some exemplary detector configurations.

  20. Detector design studies for a cubic kilometre Deep Sea neutrino telescope - KM3NeT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J; Dornic, D; Cohen, F; Jouvenot, F; Maurin, G; Naumann, C

    2008-01-01

    The KM3NeT consortium is currently preparing the construction of a cubic-kilometre sized neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea as a continuation of the previous efforts by the three Mediterranean projects ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR and as a counterpart to the South-Pole based IceCube detector. The main physics goals of KM3NeT include the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts as well as the search for new physics, such as neutrino signals from neutralino annihilation. A key point during the early phases of this experiment is the determination of the ideal detector layout as well as of important design criteria such as required spatial and temporal resolution of the sensor elements, to optimise the sensitivity in the energy range of interest. For this purpose, several independent Monte-Carlo studies using a range of possible detector configurations are being performed. In this presentation, one of these studies, using the fast and flexible Mathematica-based simulation and reconstruction package NESSY, is described in more detail together with expected results for some exemplary detector configurations.

  1. Nanofluid enhancement of mineral oil and thermal properties instrument design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Eli

    There are two purposes of this research, to design and build a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids and to determine if the increased heat transfer capabilities of nanofluids can be applied to cooling transformers by using the heat transfer cell to measure the enhancement. The design and construction of a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids was successful. A heat transfer cell was built and tested on several fluids to confirm the accuracy of the design and the experiments. Three fluids were successfully tested overall for their thermal conductivity values, and one fluid was tested for its convection coefficients in the heat transfer cells. Values for the thermal conductivity and the convection coefficients were obtained during this experiment that agreed with commonly accepted values for the testing fluids. The average value for the thermal conductivities for mineral oil of the first design in the ¼" diameter cell is 0.15W/ m2c', and agrees well with the commonly accepted values of mineral oils. The value commonly accepted value of thermal conductivity for mineral oil is 0.14W/m2c' at 25°C, the first heat transfer cell yielded a thermal conductivity value of approximately 0.16W/m2 c' at roughly 25C. The heat transfer cell was also used to calculated convection coefficients of mineral oil, and values were obtained within the limits for natural convection according to Incropera, contributing more to the validity of the results from this heat transfer cell. A second heat transfer cell was designed to determine the thermal conductivities of more thermally sensitive fluids, offering a wider range of materials that can be tested. The second design places the thermocouples directly at their assumed position of the wire and the wall temperatures for calculation purposes, yielding more accurate results and can therefore more accurately calculate the

  2. Design of a streaked radiography instrument for ICF ablator tuning measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R. E.; Geissel, M.; Kellogg, J. W.; Bennett, G. R.; Edens, A. D.; Atherton, B. W.; Leeper, R. J.; Hicks, D. G.; Spears, B. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Holder, J. P.; Landen, O. L.

    2008-01-01

    A streaked radiography diagnostic has been proposed as a technique to determine the ablator mass remaining in an inertial confinement fusion ignition capsule at peak velocity. This instrument, the 'HXRI-5', has been designed to fit within a National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator. The HXRI-5 will be built at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and initial testing will be done at the SNL Z-Beamlet Facility. In this paper, we will describe the National Ignition Campaign requirements for this diagnostic, the instrument design, and the planned test experiments.

  3. The design of the optical components and gas control systems of the CERN Omega Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, R.J.; Cowell, J.; Flower, P.S.

    1985-06-01

    A large Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (RICH) has been commissioned for use at the CERN Omega Spectrometer. The general design of the device is discussed, and the dependence of the attainable spatial resolution and range of particle identification on its optical parameters is illustrated. The construction and performance of the major optical components and gas systems of the detector are also described. (author)

  4. Application of the self-powered detector concept in the design of a threshold gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVert, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    The self-powered detector concept has been utilized to develop an energy threshold gamma-ray detector. Gamma-ray energy discrimination is achieved by using a thick annular lead shield around the outer wall (emitter) of the detector in conjunction with a self-shielding central electrode (collector). Measurements conducted in the graphite pit of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor have confirmed its ability to detect high-energy prompt fission gamma rays while discriminating against a significant flux of low-energy gamma rays from the decay of fission products. Also, auto-power spectral densities obtained with the detector were used to estimate the kinetic parameter, β/l, of the reactor

  5. Two specialized delayed-neutron detector designs for assays of fissionable elements in water and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Balagna, J.P.; Menlove, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    Two specialized neutron-sensitive detectors are described which are employed for rapid assays of fissionable elements by sensing for delayed neutrons emitted by samples after they have been irradiated in a nuclear reactor. The more sensitive of the two detectors, designed to assay for uranium in water samples, is 40% efficient; the other, designed for sediment sample assays, is 27% efficient. These detectors are also designed to operate under water as an inexpensive shielding against neutron leakage from the reactor and neutrons from cosmic rays. (Auth.)

  6. Hitachi's design and results in replacement of nuclear plant instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, J.; Arakida, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the experience in designing and providing a highly automated control system for more efficient use of existing nuclear plants in Japan. Hitachi upgrades existing plants by replacing various equipments such as pumps and valves, and has developed a new controller. However, unlike in newly constructed plants, new equipment coexists with older equipment in existing plants, and the operator cannot easily identify the various equipment characteristics and, there is a possibility that should depend on the experience and the sense of an individual operator. Therefore, in the system with old and new equipment characteristics, we adopted the automation system in order to reduce operator's workload. In addition, we have developed an automation system that can correspond to changes in the equipment characteristics and those combinations based on a wide parameter survey that adopts an analytical code. We were able not only to reduce the operator's workload, but also to increase plant efficiency through these improvements. (authors)

  7. Optimum design calculations for detectors based on ZnSe(Te,O) scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrunov, K.; Ryzhikov, V.; Gavrilyuk, V.; Naydenov, S.; Lysetska, O.; Litichevskyi, V.

    2013-01-01

    Light collection in scintillators ZnSe(X), where X is an isovalent dopant, was studied using Monte Carlo calculations. Optimum design was determined for detectors of “scintillator—Si-photodiode” type, which can involve either one scintillation element or scintillation layers of large area made of small-crystalline grains. The calculations were carried out both for determination of the optimum scintillator shape and for design optimization of light guides, on the surface of which the layer of small-crystalline grains is formed

  8. The design of a position-sensitive thermal-neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2007-01-01

    We design a type of position-sensitive thermal-neutron detector. The design is based on the nuclear reaction 10 B(n, α) 7 Li, and solid boron-10 is used as the target material while the alpha and lithium-7 particles from the reaction are caught as the source of position information of the original neutrons. With the help of MCNP software, we simulate the distribution of alpha particles in the boron target, which leads to the optimal thickness of target, physical efficiency and position resolution. (authors)

  9. Design of Compact Particle Detector System Using FPGA for Space Particle Environment Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a high resolution proton and electron telescope for the detection of high energy particles, which constitute a major part of the space environment. The flux of the particles, in the satellite orbits, can vary abruptly according to the position and solar activities. In this study, a conceptual design of the detector, for adapting these variations with a high energy resolution, was made and the performance was estimated. In addition, a parallel processing algorithm was devised and embodied using FPGA for the high speed data processing, capable of detecting high flux without losing energy resolution, on board a satellite.

  10. Design of Pixellated CMOS Photon Detector for Secondary Electron Detection in the Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Huang Chuah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of detecting secondary electrons generated in the scanning electron microscope (SEM. The method suggests that the photomultiplier tube (PMT, traditionally used in the Everhart-Thornley (ET detector, is to be replaced with a configurable multipixel solid-state photon detector offering the advantages of smaller dimension, lower supply voltage and power requirements, and potentially cheaper product cost. The design of the proposed detector has been implemented using a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology with optical enhancement. This microchip comprises main circuit constituents of an array of photodiodes connecting to respective noise-optimised transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs, a selector-combiner (SC circuit, and a postamplifier (PA. The design possesses the capability of detecting photons with low input optical power in the range of 1 nW with 100 μm × 100 μm sized photodiodes and achieves a total amplification of 180 dBΩ at the output.

  11. A new MCNPX PTRAC coincidence capture file capability: a tool for neutron detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Louise G.; Schear, Melissa A.; Hendricks, John S.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Croft, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The existing MCNPX(trademark) PTRAC coincidence capture file allows a full list of neutron capture events to be recorded in any simulated detection medium. The originating event history number (e.g. spontaneous fission events), capture time, location and source particle number are tracked and output to file for post-processing. We have developed a new MCNPX PTRAC coincidence capture file capability to aid detector design studies. New features include the ability to track the isotopes that emitted the detected neutrons as well as induced fission chains in mixed samples before detection (both generation number and isotope). Here, the power of this tool is demonstrated using a detector design that has been developed for the non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. Individual capture time distributions have been generated for neutrons originating from Curium-244 source spontaneous fission events and induced fission events in fissile isotopes of interest: namely Plutonium-239, Plutonium-241, and Uranium-235. Through this capability, a full picture for the attribution of neutron capture events in the detector can be simulated.

  12. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author)

  13. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekoszewski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author).

  14. The Science benefits and preliminary design of the southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, D G; Barriga, P; Coward, D; Dumas, J-C; Fan, Y; Gras, S; Howell, E; Ju, L; Miao, H [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Brooks, A F; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Veitch, P J [Department of Physics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005 Australia (Australia); Charlton, P [School of Computing and Mathematics, Charles Sturt University, NSW 2678 (Australia); Galloway, D [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia); Hughes, S [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); McClelland, D E; Scott, S M; Slagmolen, B J J [Department of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Melatos, A [School of Physics University of Melbourne, Parkville Vic 3010 Australia (Australia)], E-mail: dgb@physics.uwa.edu.au (and others)

    2008-07-15

    The proposed southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO increases the projected average baseline of the global array of ground based gravitational wave detectors by a factor {approx}4. This allows the world array to be substantially improved. The orientation of AIGO allows much better resolution of both wave polarisations. This enables better distance estimates for inspiral events, allowing unambiguous optical identification of host galaxies for about 25% of neutron star binary inspiral events. This can allow Hubble Law estimation without optical identification of an outburst, and can also allow deep exposure imaging with electromagnetic telescopes to search for weak afterglows. This allows independent estimates of cosmological acceleration and dark energy as well as improved understanding of the physics of neutron star and black hole coalescences. This paper reviews and summarises the science benefits of AIGO and presents a preliminary conceptual design.

  15. Design of a fast multi-hit position sensitive detector based on a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, L; Da Costa, G; Deconihout, B

    2002-01-01

    A new position sensitive detector has been designed for time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It combines a double micro-channel plate stage with a phosphor screen, the conductive coating of which is divided into an array of strip-like-shaped anodes. Time-of-flight signals are measured on the strip array with a 0.5 ns resolution, while a CCD camera records light-spots generated by ion impacts on the phosphor screen. With this particular imaging device, it is possible to accurately assign time-of-flight to positions recorded by the camera. This paper describes the main features of this new position sensitive detector and results obtained with a three-dimensional atom probe are presented.

  16. Design of the Front-End Detector Control System of the ATLAS New Small Wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Koulouris, Aimilianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will be upgraded during the next LHC Long Shutdown (LS2). The flagship upgrade is the New Small Wheel (NSW), which consists of 2 disks of Muon Gas detectors. The detector technologies used are Micromegas (MM) and sTGC, providing a total of 16 layers of tracking and trigger. The Slow Control Adapter (SCA) is part of the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) - “Radiation Hard Optical Link Project” family of chips designed at CERN, EP-ESE department, which will be used at the NSW upgrade. The SCA offers several interfaces to read analog and digital inputs, and configure front-end Readout ASICs, FPGAs, or other chips. This poster gives an overview of the system, data flow, and software developed for communicating with the SCA.

  17. Design of the cooling systems for the multiplicity and vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Cunningham, R.

    1997-11-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being constructed to investigate a phase of matter termed the quark-gluon plasma. The plasma will be produced through the collision of two heavy ions. The multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD) located in the center of PHENIX will characterize the events, determine the collision point, and act as a central trigger. This report presents the final mechanical designs of the cooling systems for the Multiplicity and Vertex Detector (MVD). In particular, the design procedure and layouts are discussed for two different air cooling systems for the multichip modules and MVD enclosure, and a liquid cooling system for the low dropout voltage regulators. First of all, experimental prototype cooling system test results used to drive the final mechanical designs are summarized and discussed. Next, the cooling system requirements and design calculation for the various subsystem components are presented along with detailed lists of supply vendors, components, and costs. Finally, safety measures incorporated in the final mechanical design and operation procedures for each of the subsystems are detailed.

  18. Seismic design of electrical equipment and instrumentation for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuharu; Nishizawa, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Yoshio; Miura, Takumi

    1977-01-01

    To ensure the safety of nuclear power stations at an earthquake, it is necessary to establish seismic capabilities of electrical equipment and instrumentation as well as equipment and piping. While in equipment and piping, mechanical strength is the main factor involved, in electrical equipment and instrumentation, functional sustenance is another important factor. Accordingly, the latter requires special design, and various methods of seismic qualification have been studied. Among them, the static method -- in which the rigidity of electrical equipment and instrumentation is improved, and their seismic capabilities are qualified -- is simple, convenient and universally applicable. By this static method as the base, tests and investigations were conducted on seismic capabilities of major electrical equipment and instrumentation such as control panels, metal-clad switchgears, motor control centers, local instrument panels, and batteries. Their seismic capabilities were appraised and qualified. (auth.)

  19. Design of a novel instrument for active neutron interrogation of artillery shells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Bélanger-Champagne

    Full Text Available The most common explosives can be uniquely identified by measuring the elemental H/N ratio with a precision better than 10%. Monte Carlo simulations were used to design two variants of a new prompt gamma neutron activation instrument that can achieve this precision. The instrument features an intense pulsed neutron generator with precise timing. Measuring the hydrogen peak from the target explosive is especially challenging because the instrument itself contains hydrogen, which is needed for neutron moderation and shielding. By iterative design optimization, the fraction of the hydrogen peak counts coming from the explosive under interrogation increased from [Formula: see text]% to [Formula: see text]% (statistical only for the benchmark design. In the optimized design variants, the hydrogen signal from a high-explosive shell can be measured to a statistics-only precision better than 1% in less than 30 minutes for an average neutron production yield of 109 n/s.

  20. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  1. Design of embedded hardware platform in intelligent γ-spectrometry instrument based on ARM9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Fang Fang

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of embedded hardware platform based on ARM9 S3C2410A, emphases are focused on analyzing the methods of design the circuits of memory, LCD and keyboard ports. It presented a new solution of hardware platform in intelligent portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  2. Design studies and sensor tests for the beam calorimeter of the ILC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, E.

    2007-03-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is being designed to explore particle physics at the TeV scale. The design of the Very Forward Region of the ILC detector is considered in the presented work. The Beam Calorimeter - one of two electromagnetic calorimeters situated there - is the subject of this thesis. The Beam Calorimeter has to provide a good hermeticity for high energy electrons, positrons and photons down to very low polar angles, serve for fast beam diagnostics and shield the inner part of the detector from backscattered beamstrahlung remnants and synchrotron radiation. As a possible technology for the Beam Calorimeter a diamond-tungsten sandwich calorimeter is considered. Detailed simulation studies are done in order to explore the suitability of the considered design for the Beam Calorimeter objectives. Detection efficiency, energy and angular resolution for electromagnetic showers are studied. At the simulation level the diamondtungsten design is shown to match the requirements on the Beam Calorimeter performance. Studies of polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamond as a sensor material for the Beam Calorimeter are done to explore the properties of the material. Results of the measurements performed with pCVD diamond samples produced by different manufacturers are presented. (orig.)

  3. Design studies and sensor tests for the beam calorimeter of the ILC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, E.

    2007-03-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is being designed to explore particle physics at the TeV scale. The design of the Very Forward Region of the ILC detector is considered in the presented work. The Beam Calorimeter - one of two electromagnetic calorimeters situated there - is the subject of this thesis. The Beam Calorimeter has to provide a good hermeticity for high energy electrons, positrons and photons down to very low polar angles, serve for fast beam diagnostics and shield the inner part of the detector from backscattered beamstrahlung remnants and synchrotron radiation. As a possible technology for the Beam Calorimeter a diamond-tungsten sandwich calorimeter is considered. Detailed simulation studies are done in order to explore the suitability of the considered design for the Beam Calorimeter objectives. Detection efficiency, energy and angular resolution for electromagnetic showers are studied. At the simulation level the diamondtungsten design is shown to match the requirements on the Beam Calorimeter performance. Studies of polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamond as a sensor material for the Beam Calorimeter are done to explore the properties of the material. Results of the measurements performed with pCVD diamond samples produced by different manufacturers are presented. (orig.)

  4. What makes a good home-based nocturnal seizure detector? A value sensitive design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith van Andel

    Full Text Available A device for the in-home detection of nocturnal seizures is currently being developed in the Netherlands, to improve care for patients with severe epilepsy. It is recognized that the design of medical technology is not value neutral: perspectives of users and developers are influential in design, and design choices influence these perspectives. However, during development processes, these influences are generally ignored and value-related choices remain implicit and poorly argued for. In the development process of the seizure detector we aimed to take values of all stakeholders into consideration. Therefore, we performed a parallel ethics study, using "value sensitive design." Analysis of stakeholder communication (in meetings and e-mail messages identified five important values, namely, health, trust, autonomy, accessibility, and reliability. Stakeholders were then asked to give feedback on the choice of these values and how they should be interpreted. In a next step, the values were related to design choices relevant for the device, and then the consequences (risks and benefits of these choices were investigated. Currently the process of design and testing of the device is still ongoing. The device will be validated in a trial in which the identified consequences of design choices are measured as secondary endpoints. Value sensitive design methodology is feasible for the development of new medical technology and can help designers substantiate the choices in their design.

  5. What makes a good home-based nocturnal seizure detector? A value sensitive design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Judith; Leijten, Frans; van Delden, Hans; van Thiel, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    A device for the in-home detection of nocturnal seizures is currently being developed in the Netherlands, to improve care for patients with severe epilepsy. It is recognized that the design of medical technology is not value neutral: perspectives of users and developers are influential in design, and design choices influence these perspectives. However, during development processes, these influences are generally ignored and value-related choices remain implicit and poorly argued for. In the development process of the seizure detector we aimed to take values of all stakeholders into consideration. Therefore, we performed a parallel ethics study, using "value sensitive design." Analysis of stakeholder communication (in meetings and e-mail messages) identified five important values, namely, health, trust, autonomy, accessibility, and reliability. Stakeholders were then asked to give feedback on the choice of these values and how they should be interpreted. In a next step, the values were related to design choices relevant for the device, and then the consequences (risks and benefits) of these choices were investigated. Currently the process of design and testing of the device is still ongoing. The device will be validated in a trial in which the identified consequences of design choices are measured as secondary endpoints. Value sensitive design methodology is feasible for the development of new medical technology and can help designers substantiate the choices in their design.

  6. New Instrumentation Reduces Operative Time in Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty Using the Oxford Mobile Bearing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Berend

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Redesigned instrumentation has become available for implantation of the Oxford Mobile Bearing Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. To assess the benefit of these changes, we compared operative time of 200 Phase III and 176 Microplasty UKA done 2008-2011. An average time savings of 8.6 minutes was seen with the Microplasty design.  Additionally, the standard deviation in operative times, minimum and maximum operatives were lower in knees in which Microplasty instrumentation was utilized.  A 15% savings in operative time was seen with the new Microplasty instrumentation.

  7. Magnetic design of a spin-echo small-angle neutron-scattering instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Uca, O; Rekveldt, M T

    2003-01-01

    In a spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering instrument dipole magnets and guide field coils are used. The homogeneity of the fields should be sufficient to have linear labeling of the height with precession. Furthermore, the instrument must have a homogenous line integral over the beam cross-section. It is shown that line integral inhomogeneities are directly connected to field components perpendicular to the main field. The design parameters of these magnetic units of the setup are calculated.

  8. A conceptual framework for designing micro electrical connectors for hearing aid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Fuglsang-Philip, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical connectors play vital roles in modern electronic instruments. Hearing aid devices as advanced combinations of micro mechanics and electronics comprise various electrical connectors for different purposes. However, the current trend in the miniaturization along with the sharp...... technological advancements have urged them to incorporate increased number of electrical contacts. The current paper presents a conceptual framework for designing and manufacturing novel plug and socket systems for hearing aid instruments by using the state of art manufacturing technologies for micro components...

  9. Design and test of a high resolution plastic scintillating fiber detector with intensified CCD readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebourgeard, P.

    1991-01-01

    We present the design of a particle detector involving a coherent array of 100 000 plastic scintillating microfibers, with an individual core diameter around 50 micrometers, and an intensified bidimensional CCD array. We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the use of polystyrene based scintillators in optical multimodal fibers. The isotropic excitation of modes and the characteristics of energy transfers between the polystyrene matrix and the added fluorescent dyes are of particular interest. An experimental approach is proposed and applied to the development of a new binary scintillator. In order to study the transmission of the signal from the interaction area to the output face, we specify the loss factors, the resolution and the signal to noise ratio within the fiber array. The low light level at the output face of the detector leads us to use image intensifiers in photon counting mode. This requires a detailed analysis of resolutions, gain, noise and detectivity concepts. We propose to describe these strongly correlated notions by the moment generation formalism. Thus, a previous modelisation of the photoelectronic devices allows us to evaluate the performance of the readout chain. A complete detector has been assembled and tested on a high energy hadron beam; the measurements are in good agreement with the modelisation [fr

  10. Optimizing the design and analysis of cryogenic semiconductor dark matter detectors for maximum sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyle, Matt Christopher [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we illustrate how the complex E- field geometry produced by interdigitated electrodes at alternating voltage biases naturally encodes 3D fiducial volume information into the charge and phonon signals and thus is a natural geometry for our next generation dark matter detectors. Secondly, we will study in depth the physics of import to our devices including transition edge sensor dynamics, quasi- particle dynamics in our Al collection fins, and phonon physics in the crystal itself so that we can both understand the performance of our previous CDMS II device as well as optimize the design of our future devices. Of interest to the broader physics community is the derivation of the ideal athermal phonon detector resolution and it's T3 c scaling behavior which suggests that the athermal phonon detector technology developed by CDMS could also be used to discover coherent neutrino scattering and search for non-standard neutrino interaction and sterile neutrinos. These proposed resolution optimized devices can also be used in searches for exotic MeV-GeV dark matter as well as novel background free searches for 8GeV light WIMPs.

  11. Time-of-flight diffractometer with multiple pulse overlap - an example for the application of modern tools for instrument design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhr, U.; Bauer, G.S.; Wagner, W.

    1997-01-01

    A Time-of-Flight Diffractometer with high pulse rates, allowing multiple frame overlap, is a completely novel design of an instrument dedicated for high resolution strain-field mapping. We elaborated a detailed concept of this instrument applying analytical calculations and Monte Carlo computer simulations. Having established the instrument concept, the computer simulations will now be extended to optimize the total performance of the instrument. To illustrate the necessity and possibilities of applying modem tools for instrument design, we describe, as an example, the different steps towards the development of the detailed design of this instrument, which we intend to build at the Swiss spallation. source SINQ in the near future

  12. A novel, highly efficient cavity backshort design for far-infrared TES detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; de Lange, G.; Audley, M. D.; Trappe, N.; Murphy, J. A.; Gradziel, M.; Vreeling, W.-J.; Watson, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a new cavity backshort design for TES (transition edge sensor) detectors which will provide increased coupling of the incoming astronomical signal to the detectors. The increased coupling results from the improved geometry of the cavities, where the geometry is a consequence of the proposed chemical etching manufacturing technique. Using a number of modelling techniques, predicted results of the performance of the cavities for frequencies of 4.3-10 THz are presented and compared to more standard cavity designs. Excellent optical efficiency is demonstrated, with improved response flatness across the band. In order to verify the simulated results, a scaled model cavity was built for testing at the lower W-band frequencies (75-100 GHz) with a VNA system. Further testing of the scale model at THz frequencies was carried out using a globar and bolometer via an FTS measurement set-up. The experimental results are presented, and compared to the simulations. Although there is relatively poor comparison between simulation and measurement at some frequencies, the discrepancies are explained by means of higher-mode excitation in the measured cavity which are not accounted for in the single-mode simulations. To verify this assumption, a better behaved cylindrical cavity is simulated and measured, where excellent agreement is demonstrated in those results. It can be concluded that both the simulations and the supporting measurements give confidence that this novel cavity design will indeed provide much-improved optical coupling for TES detectors in the far-infrared/THz band.

  13. Detectors, sampling, shielding, and electronics for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1981-08-01

    A brief discussion of the important design elements for positron emission tomographs is presented. The conclusions are that the instrumentation can be improved by the use of larger numbers of small, efficient detectors closely packed in many rings, the development of new detector materials, and novel electronic designs to reduce the deadtime and increase maximum event rates

  14. Forward tracking at the next $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider part II: experimental challenges and detector design

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, S.; Dannheim, D.; Duarte, J.; Gaede, F.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Sailer, A.; Valentan, M.; Vila, I.; Vos, M.

    2013-06-01

    We present the second in a series of studies into the forward tracking system for a future linear e+e− collider with a center-of-mass energy in the range from 250 GeV to 3 TeV. In this note a number of specific challenges are investigated, which have caused a degradation of the tracking and vertexing performance in the forward region in previous experiments. We perform a quantitative analysis of the dependence of the tracking performance on detector design parameters and identify several ways to mitigate the performance loss for charged particles emitted at shallow angle.

  15. Study for a Design of Magnet System for the SPD Detector NICA LHEP JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Ivan P.

    2016-02-01

    The choice of magnet system for the Spin Physics Detector of the NICA Collider of LHEP JINR is given. The inverse problem of magnetostatics is solved for a magnetic field of 0.5 tesla in the aperture a) ɸ 3 m x 5 m and b) ɸ 3 m x 6 m. We also discuss the design of the magnet with a field of 0.3 T. The paper presents the results obtained for the "warm" and SC versions of the magnetic system: currents (ampere-turns), the geometry (size) of the coil and the iron yoke, weight (on the whole and the individual elements), the magnet transportation and assembly.

  16. Designing an extended energy range single-sphere multi-detector neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.; Bedogni, R.; Moraleda, M.; Esposito, A.; Pola, A.; Introini, M.V.; Mazzitelli, G.; Quintieri, L.; Buonomo, B.

    2012-01-01

    This communication describes the design specifications for a neutron spectrometer consisting of 31 thermal neutron detectors, namely Dysprosium activation foils, embedded in a 25 cm diameter polyethylene sphere which includes a 1 cm thick lead shell insert that degrades the energy of neutrons through (n,xn) reactions, thus allowing to extension of the energy range of the response up to hundreds of MeV neutrons. The new spectrometer, called SP 2 (SPherical SPectrometer), relies on the same detection mechanism as that of the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer, but with the advantage of determining the whole neutron spectrum in a single exposure. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX was used to design the spectrometer in terms of sphere diameter, number and position of the detectors, position and thickness of the lead shell, as well as to obtain the response matrix for the final configuration. This work focuses on evaluating the spectrometric capabilities of the SP 2 design by simulating the exposure of SP 2 in neutron fields representing different irradiation conditions (test spectra). The simulated SP 2 readings were then unfolded with the FRUIT unfolding code, in the absence of detailed pre-information, and the unfolded spectra were compared with the known test spectra. The results are satisfactory and allowed approving the production of a prototypal spectrometer.

  17. tkLayout: a Design Tool for Innovative Silicon Tracking Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A new CMS tracker is scheduled to become operational for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade in the early 2020's. tkLayout is a software package developed to create 3d models for the design of the CMS tracker and to evaluate its fundamental performance figures. The new tracker will have to cope with much higher luminosity conditions, resulting in increased track density, harsher radiation exposure and, especially, much higher data acquisition bandwidth, such that equipping the tracker with triggering capabilities is envisaged. The design of an innovative detector involves deciding on an architecture offering the best trade-off among many figures of merit, such as tracking resolution, power dissipation, bandwidth, cost and so on. Quantitatively evaluating these figures of merit as early as possible in the design phase is of capital importance and it is best done with the aid of software models. tkLayout is a flexible modeling tool: new performance estimates and support for different detector geometries can be quickly ad...

  18. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  19. Research on conceptual design of simplified nuclear safety instrument and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jie

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear safety instrument and control system is directly related to the safety of the reactor. So redundant and diversity design is used to ensure the system's security and reliability. This make the traditional safety system large, more cabinets and wiring complexity. To solve these problem, we can adopt new technology to make the design more simple. The simplify conceptual design can make the system less cabinets, less wiring, but high security, strong reliability. (author)

  20. Design Methodology: ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab

    2014-10-31

    The development of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) for pixel detectors with complex in-pixel processing using Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools that are, themselves, mainly developed for the design of conventional digital circuits requires a specialized approach. Mixed signal pixels often require parasitically aware detailed analog front-ends and extremely compact digital back-ends with more than 1000 transistors in small areas below 100μm x 100μm. These pixels are tiled to create large arrays, which have the same clock distribution and data readout speed constraints as in, for example, micro-processors. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout.

  1. Design and performance of an acquisition and control system for a positron camera with novel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds-Tayler, J.R.N.; Reader, A.J.; Flower, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Sun-based data acquisition and control (DAQ) system has been designed for PETRRA, a whole-body positron camera using large-area BaF 2 -TMAE detectors. The DAQ system uses a high-speed digital I/O card (S16D) installed on the S-bus of a SPARC10 and a specially-designed Positron Camera Interface (PCI), which also controls both the gantry and horizontal couch motion. Data in the form of different types of 6-byte packets are acquired in list mode. Tests with a signal generator show that the DAQ system should be able to cater for coincidence count-rates up to 100 kcps. The predicted count loss due to the DAQ system is ∼13% at this count rate, provided asynchronous-read based software is used. The list-mode data acquisition system designed for PETRRA could be adapted for other 3D PET cameras with similar data rates

  2. The antenna-transducer mechanical coupling design for the Schenberg detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, J L; Aguiar, O D; Jr, W F Velloso; Lucena, A U de

    2004-01-01

    We are designing microwave parametric transducers to be used in the Brazilian gravitational wave detector. In this paper, we explain the technical constraints used to design the mechanical parts of these transducers. The transducer and the antenna have been modelled by a finite element model (FEM) and the corresponding dynamical equations have been solved using the Msc/Nastran software. We have used the FEM analysis results in an iterative way, adjusting the geometric parameters in each step. Using this procedure we were able to calculate the transducer mechanical structure by positioning its main resonance frequency to the value of the sphere's quadrupolar mode frequency in order to design the best possible mechanical coupling and increasing transducer efficiency

  3. Higs-instrument: design and demonstration of a high performance gas concentration imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaan, A. L.; Klop, W. A.; Visser, H.; van Brug, H.; Human, J.

    2017-09-01

    Climate change and environmental conditions are high on the political agenda of international governments. Laws and regulations are being setup all around the world to improve the air quality and to reduce the impact. The growth of a number of trace gasses, including CO2, Methane and NOx are especially interesting due to their environmental impact. The regulations made are being based on both models and measurements of the trend of those trace gases over the years. Now the regulations are in place also enforcement and therewith measurements become more and more important. Instruments enabling high spectral and spatial resolution as well as high accurate measurements of trace gases are required to deliver the necessary inputs. Nowadays those measurements are usually performed by space based spectrometers. The requirement for high spectral resolution and measurement accuracy significantly increases the size of the instruments. As a result the instrument and satellite becomes very expensive to develop and to launch. Specialized instruments with a small volume and the required performance will offer significant advantages in both cost and performance. Huib's Innovative Gas Sensor (HIGS, named after its inventor Huib Visser), currently being developed at TNO is an instrument that achieves exactly that. Designed to measure only a single gas concentration, opposed to deriving it from a spectrum, it achieves high performance within a small design volume. The instrument enables instantaneous imaging of the gas distribution of the selected gas. An instrument demonstrator has been developed for NO2 detection. Laboratory measurements proved the measurement technique to be successful. An on-sky measurement campaign is in preparation. This paper addresses both the instrument design as well as the demonstrated performances.

  4. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  5. Requirements and Design Reference Mission for the WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument take s advantage of AFTA s 2.4 -meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes : Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, yot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architecture s. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predict s the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  6. Clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) - Instrument design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopia, Leonard P.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the earth's reflected shortwave and emitted longwave energy and of the effect of clouds on these quantities are planned using a refined version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning instrument. The CERES instruments are being designed to accumulate earth radiance measurements with a repeatability of better than 0.5 percent over their five year life. Beginning in 1996, flights are planned on both polar and low earth orbit satellites to obtain the required temporal and spatial coverage. The design and development of CERES are discussed.

  7. Design, development, manufacturing, testing and commissioning of instrumentation for critical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, P.K.; Gadgil, Kautubh; Punekar, Parag; Ramkumar, N.; Gohel, Nilesh; Darbhe, M.D.; Bharathan, R.; Bharadhwaj, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Critical Facility (CF) is a low power research reactor. Neutronic and Process Instrumentation are important systems those ensure safety and control of the reactor. The Control and Instrumentation systems for the Critical facility have been designed, developed and commissioned by RRMD. Most of the nuclear instrumentation used here is originally designed and developed jointly by Electronics Division and RRMD during ZAC project for conversion of the earlier vacuum tube based instrumentation to the solid state circuits during 1984-85 for Zerlina, Apsara and Cirus and are in operation at Cirus and Apsara since commissioning in 1984-85. The Process Instrumentation is provided for monitoring important process parameters such as level, flow, temperature and pressure and generating trips, alarms and interlocks necessary for smooth operation of the systems and safety of personnel and equipment. The paper will provide technical information on the reactor instrumentation for both nuclear and process systems, used in Critical Facility, the associated trip and alarms logics, and their integration into the reactor monitoring control and protection system, information systems developed for Critical Facility. (author)

  8. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  9. Developing an instrument model to assess teachers’ creativity in designing and teaching music subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Utomo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at developing an instrument model to assess teacher’s creativity in designing and teaching music at school. The study was conducted by adapting the approach of Research and Development (R&D from the model designed by Borg and Gall and the cycle model design developed by Cenamo & Kalk. The development comprises two stages; the model development and dissemination. The model development encompassed of model planning, model designing, as well as the try out. While, the dissemination stage was done by presenting the research result at a conference. At the end of the study, it was proven that the assessment instrument model used to assess teachers’ creativity in designing and teaching music subject at school had met with the research aim. It was shown from the try out test on the assessment instrument model development that: (1 the assessment material, assessment technique, rater criteria, assessment object, units of observation, competence test process, time allotment, observation process, measurement criteria, as well as the measurement rubric had been considered appropriate and had provenly matched from one to another so that it can be applied well; (2 the reliability of the assessment instrument based on Intraclass Correlation Coefficients/ICC test on consistency and absolute agreement definition type as well as the Generalizability Coefficient had met the criteria.

  10. Design and evaluation of a new ergonomic handle for instruments in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancibrian, Ramon; Gutierrez-Diez, María C; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Benito-Gonzalez, Maria A; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Manuel-Palazuelos, Jose C

    2014-05-01

    Laparoscopic surgery techniques have been demonstrated to provide massive benefits to patients. However, surgeons are subjected to hardworking conditions because of the poor ergonomic design of the instruments. In this article, a new ergonomic handle design is presented. This handle is designed using ergonomic principles, trying to provide both more intuitive manipulation of the instrument and a shape that reduces the high-pressure zones in the contact with the surgeon's hand. The ergonomic characteristics of the new handle were evaluated using objective and subjective studies. The experimental evaluation was performed using 28 volunteers by means of the comparison of the new handle with the ring-handle (RH) concept in an instrument available on the market. The volunteers' muscle activation and motions of the hand, wrist, and arm were studied while they performed different tasks. The data measured in the experiment include electromyography and goniometry values. The results obtained from the subjective analysis reveal that most volunteers (64%) preferred the new prototype to the RH, reporting less pain and less difficulty to complete the tasks. The results from the objective study reveal that the hyperflexion of the wrist required for the manipulation of the instrument is strongly reduced. The new ergonomic handle not only provides important ergonomic advantages but also improves the efficiency when completing the tasks. Compared with RH instruments, the new prototype reduced the high-pressure areas and the extreme motions of the wrist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and Analysis of a Collision Detector for Hybrid Robotic Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan ZHANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive sensing depends on the physical parameter changing either the spacing between the two plates or the dielectric constant. Based on this idea, a capacitive based collision detection sensor is proposed and designed in this paper for the purpose of detecting any collision between the end effector and peripheral equipment (e.g., fixture for the three degrees of freedom hybrid robotic machine tools when it is in operation. One side of the finger-like capacitor is attached to the moving platform of the hybrid robotic manipulator and the other side of the finger-like capacitor is attached to the tool. When the tool accidently hits the peripheral equipment, the vibration will make the distance of the capacitor change and therefore trigger the machine to stop. The new design is illustrated and modelled. The capacitance, sensitivity and frequency response of the detector are analyzed in detail, and finally, the fabrication process is presented. The proposed collision detector can also be applied to other machine tools.

  12. Towards a gravitational wave observatory designer: sensitivity limits of spaceborne detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barke, S; Wang, Y; Delgado, J J Esteban; Tröbs, M; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K

    2015-01-01

    The most promising concept for low frequency (millihertz to hertz) gravitational wave observatories are laser interferometric detectors in space. It is usually assumed that the noise floor for such a detector is dominated by optical shot noise in the signal readout. For this to be true, a careful balance of mission parameters is crucial to keep all other parasitic disturbances below shot noise. We developed a web application that uses over 30 input parameters and considers many important technical noise sources and noise suppression techniques to derive a realistic position noise budget. It optimizes free parameters automatically and generates a detailed report on all individual noise contributions. Thus one can easily explore the entire parameter space and design a realistic gravitational wave observatory. In this document we describe the different parameters, present all underlying calculations, and compare the final observatory’s sensitivity with astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. We use as an example parameters currently assumed to be likely applied to a space mission proposed to be launched in 2034 by the European Space Agency. The web application itself is publicly available on the Internet at http://spacegravity.org/designer. Future versions of the web application will incorporate the frequency dependence of different noise sources and include a more detailed model of the observatory’s residual acceleration noise. (paper)

  13. Towards a gravitational wave observatory designer: sensitivity limits of spaceborne detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barke, S.; Wang, Y.; Esteban Delgado, J. J.; Tröbs, M.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2015-05-01

    The most promising concept for low frequency (millihertz to hertz) gravitational wave observatories are laser interferometric detectors in space. It is usually assumed that the noise floor for such a detector is dominated by optical shot noise in the signal readout. For this to be true, a careful balance of mission parameters is crucial to keep all other parasitic disturbances below shot noise. We developed a web application that uses over 30 input parameters and considers many important technical noise sources and noise suppression techniques to derive a realistic position noise budget. It optimizes free parameters automatically and generates a detailed report on all individual noise contributions. Thus one can easily explore the entire parameter space and design a realistic gravitational wave observatory. In this document we describe the different parameters, present all underlying calculations, and compare the final observatory’s sensitivity with astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. We use as an example parameters currently assumed to be likely applied to a space mission proposed to be launched in 2034 by the European Space Agency. The web application itself is publicly available on the Internet at http://spacegravity.org/designer. Future versions of the web application will incorporate the frequency dependence of different noise sources and include a more detailed model of the observatory’s residual acceleration noise.

  14. An Optimized Design of Single-Channel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Phoswich Detector by Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized single-channel phoswich well detector design has been proposed and assessed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of xenon radioisotopes. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic beta counting cell (BC404 embedded in a CsI(Tl crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The BC404 is configured in a cylindrical pipe shape to minimise light collection deterioration. The CsI(Tl crystal consists of a rectangular part and a semicylindrical scintillation part as a light reflector to increase light gathering. Compared with a PhosWatch detector, the final optimized detector geometry showed 15% improvement in the energy resolution of a 131mXe 129.4 keV conversion electron peak. The predicted beta-gamma coincidence efficiencies of xenon radioisotopes have also been improved accordingly.

  15. Design, simulation, fabrication, and preliminary tests of 3D CMS pixel detectors for the super-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koybasi, Ozhan; /Purdue U.; Bortoletto, Daniela; /Purdue U.; Hansen, Thor-Erik; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kok, Angela; /SINTEF, Oslo; Hansen, Trond Andreas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Lietaer, Nicolas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Jensen, Geir Uri; /SINTEF, Oslo; Summanwar, Anand; /SINTEF, Oslo; Bolla, Gino; /Purdue U.; Kwan, Simon Wing Lok; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The Super-LHC upgrade puts strong demands on the radiation hardness of the innermost tracking detectors of the CMS, which cannot be fulfilled with any conventional planar detector design. The so-called 3D detector architectures, which feature columnar electrodes passing through the substrate thickness, are under investigation as a potential solution for the closest operation points to the beams, where the radiation fluence is estimated to reach 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Two different 3D detector designs with CMS pixel readout electronics are being developed and evaluated for their advantages and drawbacks. The fabrication of full-3D active edge CMS pixel devices with p-type substrate has been successfully completed at SINTEF. In this paper, we study the expected post-irradiation behaviors of these devices with simulations and, after a brief description of their fabrication, we report the first leakage current measurement results as performed on wafer.

  16. Design, construction and commissioning of the Thermal Screen Control System for the CMS Tracker detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E; Tsirou, A

    The CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) laboratory is currently building the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Four international collaborations have designed (and are now constructing) detectors able to exploit the physics potential of this collider. Among them is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), a general purpose detector optimized for the search of Higgs boson and for physics beyond the Standard Model of fundamental interactions between elementary particles. This thesis presents, in particular, the design, construction, commissioning and test of the control system for a screen that provides a thermal separation between the Tracker and ECAL (Electromagnetic CALorimeter) detector of CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid experiment). Chapter 1 introduces the new challenges posed by these installations and deals, more in detail, with the Tracker detector of CMS. The size of current experiments for high energy physics is comparable to that of a small industrial plant: therefore, the techniques used for controls a...

  17. IB: A Monte Carlo simulation tool for neutron scattering instrument design under PVM and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    Design of modern neutron scattering instruments relies heavily on Monte Carlo simulation tools for optimization. IB is one such tool written in C++ and implemented under Parallel Virtual Machine and the Message Passing Interface. The program was initially written for the design and optimization of the EQ-SANS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source. One of its features is the ability to group simple instrument components into more complex ones at the user input level, e.g. grouping neutron mirrors into neutron guides and curved benders. The simulation engine manages the grouped components such that neutrons entering a group are properly operated upon by all components, multiple times if needed, before exiting the group. Thus, only a few basic optical modules are needed at the programming level. For simulations that require higher computer speeds, the program can be compiled and run in parallel modes using either the PVM or the MPI architectures.

  18. CONCEPTUAL AND DESIGN ISSUES IN INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT FOR RESEARCH WITH BEREAVED PARENTS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briller, Sherylyn H.; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Thurston, Celia S.; Meert, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    Many childhood deaths in the United States occur in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and parents have special needs in this death context. As an interdisciplinary research team, we discuss conceptual and design issues encountered in creating a new instrument, the Bereaved Parent Needs Assessment–PICU, for assessing parents’ needs in this setting. Using a qualitative approach, our team previously explored how the culture and related ways of providing care in one urban Midwestern children’s hospital PICU affected parents’ bereavement needs and experiences. We describe using this qualitative foundation in the development of a new quantitative instrument to more widely validate and measure bereaved parents’ needs around the time of a child’s death across multiple PICUs. We highlight a series of issues that warrant consideration in designing a research instrument for this vulnerable population including setting and context, format and content, temporality, recruitment, and content expertise. PMID:22953511

  19. Design criteria for pulse transformers used in neutron detector pulse counting channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powler, E.P.

    1963-10-01

    The need for long cables between the detector and head amplifier in neutron pulse counting channels has led to the development of systems in which a transformer is used to 'match' the high impedance of a fission or proportional counter to the characteristic impedance of the cable. A further transformer can be used to match the cable to the input of a low noise pulse amplifier if this has a high impedance. This report is intended to give the designer sufficient information to optimise a system and predict the performance in terms of signal to noise ratio, resolving time and gain. Related problems are covered and include the use of balanced twin cables, the requirements of temperatures up to 500 deg. C and the need for high interference rejection. Two systems are described in some detail to emphasise the principles of design. (author)

  20. Guide for design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments in the BSR and ORR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, K.W.

    1977-03-01

    This report is a guide for the design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments that are to be operated in the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) or the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and are to be connected to the reactor power-reduction and alarm systems

  1. Design, Validation, and Use of an Evaluation Instrument for Monitoring Systemic Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Boone, William; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fraser, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the design, development, validation, and use of an instrument that measures student attitudes and several environmental dimensions (i.e., standards-based teaching, home support, and peer support). Indicates that the classroom environment (standards-based teaching practices) was the strongest independent predictor of both achievement and…

  2. Status of the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra Aldo, F

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is currently being constructed and will be installed in 2006 to be ready for commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider. The complete pixel detector is composed of three concentric barrels and six disks that are populated by 1744 ATLAS Pixel modules. The main components of the pixel module are the readout electronics and the silicon sensor whose active region is instrumented with rectangular pixels. The module has been designed to be able to survive 10 years of operation within the ATLAS detector. A brief description of the pixel detector will be presented with results and problems encountered during the production stage.

  3. A Design Approach to Engage with Audience with Wearable Musical Instruments: Sound Gloves

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chi-Hsia; Tahiroglu, Koray

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of engaging the audience with new musical instruments in live performance context. We introduce design concerns that we consider influential to enhance the communication flow between the audience and the performer. We also propose and put in practice a design approach that considers the use of performance space as a way to engage with the audience. A collaborative project, Sound Gloves, presented here exemplifies such a concept by dissolving the space between pe...

  4. DESIGNING AFFECTIVE INSTRUMENT BASED ON SCIENTIFIC APPROACH FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisarah Ira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was describing the designing of instrument for affective assessment in English language teaching. The focus of the designing was only for observation sheet that will be used by English teachers during the teaching and learning process. The instrument was designed based on scientific approach that has five stages namely observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, and communicating. In the designing process, ADDIE Model was used as the method of research. The designing of instrument was considering the gap between the reality and the teachers’ need. The result showed that the designing was also notice to the affective taxonomy such as receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization. Then, three key words were used as the indicator to show the five levels of affective taxonomy such as seriously, volunteer, and without asked by teacher. Furthermore, eighteen types of affective such as religious, honesty, responsible, discipline, hard work, self confidence, logical thinking, critical thinking, creative, innovative, independent, curiosity, love knowledge, respect, polite, democracy, emotional intelligence, and pluralist were put on each stage of scientific approach. So, it is hoped that can be implemented in all of context of English language teaching at schools and can assess the students’ affective comprehensively.

  5. The development of state/region owned goods management’s monitoring instrument design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwanto Yogy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems in state/region owned goods in Indonesian state and local governments are suspected to occur because of weak monitoring programs, according to many studies. A tool or instrument in implementing this monitoring program is expected to address this problem. Such tool currently doesn’t exist yet. This research aims to fill that gap by developing a monitoring instrument design for state/region owned goods by using Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Local Government as a research context in order to take valuable inputs for the design. This research is using developmental research method. Government Regulation were used for normative reference and Friedman’s results-based accountability quadrat were used in developing good indicators for the instrument. This research is succeeded in formulating the indicators that made up the instrument. Indicators compiled are divided into compliance-based indicators and results-based indicators. Indicators are formulated based on the validation and inputs from employees of DIY’s Assets Management Agency and experts from academia. This instrument still has some limitations that need improvement through further research.

  6. Design and implementation of ATCA-based 100Gbps DP-QPSK optical signal test instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaojing; Qin, Jiangyi; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Chenwu

    2014-11-01

    In order to achieve the receiving task of 100Gbps Dual Polarization-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DP-QPSK) optical signal acquisition instrument, improve acquisition performance of the instrument, this paper has deeply researched DP-QPSK modulation principles, demodulation techniques and the key technologies of optical signal acquisition. The theories of DP-QPSK optical signal transmission are researched. The DP-QPSK optical signal transmission model is deduced. And the clock and data recovery in high-speed data acquisition and offset correction of multi-channel data are researched. By reasonable hardware circuit design and software system construction, the utilization of high performance Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA), this paper proposes a 100Gbps DP-QPSK optical signal acquisition instrument which is based on ATCA. The implementations of key modules are presented by comparison and argumentation. According to the modularization idea, the instrument can be divided into eight modules. Each module performs the following functions. (1) DP-QPSK coherent detection demodulation module; (2) deceleration module; (3) FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array); (4) storage module; (5) data transmission module; (6) clock module; (7) power module; (8) JTAG debugging, configuration module; What is more, this paper has put forward two solutions to test optical signal acquisition instrument performance. The first scenario is based on a standard STM-256 optical signal format and exploits the SignalTap of QuartusII software to monitor the optical signal data. Another scenario is to use a pseudo-random signal series to generate data, acquisition module acquires a certain amount of data signals, and then the signals are transferred to a computer by the Gigabit Ethernet to analyze. Two testing results show that the bit error rate of optical signal acquisition instrument is low. And the instrument fully meets the requirements of signal receiving system. At the same time

  7. TU-E-BRA-06: Evaluation of a New MV X-Ray Detector Designed for the TomoTherapy® System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E; Schmidt, R; Strait, D; Cody, D; Ehle, C; Eloranta, D; Maly, C; Muehlenkamp, J; Peak, T

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of a new MV X-ray detector prototype specifically designed for use on the TomoTherapy® System. A gas-filled detector array, similar in concept to existing TomoTherapy detector arrays, has been designed and fabricated for the TomoTherapy System. Unlike existing detector arrays, the prototype detector array has a radius of curvature that matches the source-to-detector distance. Also, the internal structure of the detector such as the septa material and geometry has been optimized for MV X-rays. The prototype detector performance was assessed by measuring the signal properties of each of the detector channel signals. Signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were measured. Finally, the resulting MVCT image quality was assessed. The signal profile across the prototype detector more closely matches the incident X-ray beam intensity and, in particular, is missing the characteristic trough in the center of signal profiles from existing TomoTherapy detector arrays. Compared to an existing detector, the mean signal is approximately equal outside the central region. Inside the 100 central channels (out of 576 total channels), the prototype detector signal is substantially larger than the existing detector. The variation in the pulse-to-pulse signal (noise), after accounting for output fluctuations, is substantially lower with the new detector. The resulting SNR is an average of 18% higher across all channels, with an improvement of up to 36% for the central channels. The prototype detector yielded MVCT images that, compared to one typical system with an existing detector array, had 7% lower image noise in the periphery and 36% lower noise at the center of the image. This evaluation indicates that the performance of a new MV X-ray detector array prototype exceeds the performance of an existing detector array in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and resulting MVCT image quality. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Mechanical and Cooling Design Studies for an Integrated Stave Concept for Silicon Strip Detectors for the Super LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cepeda, M; Gilchriese, M G D; Haber, C; Miller, W K; Miller, W O; Post, R

    2008-01-01

    Design studies for the mechanical and thermal performance of an integrated stave concept for large-area silicon-strip detector support and cooling are described. The fabrication and test of small-scale prototypes are also presented. Finite-element and other calculations have been completed to develop the design concept and to compare with the measurements on prototypes.

  9. The high dynamic range pixel array detector (HDR-PAD): Concept and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Experiments at storage ring light sources as well as at next-generation light sources increasingly require detectors capable of high dynamic range operation, combining low-noise detection of single photons with large pixel well depth. XFEL sources in particular provide pulse intensities sufficiently high that a purely photon-counting approach is impractical. The High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector (HDR-PAD) project aims to provide a dynamic range extending from single-photon sensitivity to 10{sup 6} photons/pixel in a single XFEL pulse while maintaining the ability to tolerate a sustained flux of 10{sup 11} ph/s/pixel at a storage ring source. Achieving these goals involves the development of fast pixel front-end electronics as well as, in the XFEL case, leveraging the delayed charge collection due to plasma effects in the sensor. A first prototype of essential electronic components of the HDR-PAD readout ASIC, exploring different options for the pixel front-end, has been fabricated. Here, the HDR-PAD concept and preliminary design will be described.

  10. Detection of ultra-high energy neutrino interactions in ice: comparing radio detector array designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtol, Keith; Vieregg, Abigail

    2014-08-01

    Ultra-high energy (UHE, >10^18 eV) cosmic neutrinos are anticipated to reveal the most distant, most obscured, and highest energy particle accelerators in the Universe. An almost guaranteed flux of UHE neutrinos is predicted from the interactions of UHE cosmic rays with the cosmic microwave background, and additional contributions may arise from prompt emission at individual sources. The spectrum of UHE neutrinos is a sensitive discriminator of the cosmological evolution of UHE sources, as well as the composition of UHE cosmic rays. At the same time, UHE neutrinos will enable several tests of fundamental physics, including constraints on the neutrino-nucleon interaction cross section at center-of-momentum energies ~100 TeV, and searches for Lorentz invariance violation.Theoretical predictions and subsequent laboratory measurements of coherent radio emission from showers initiated by neutrino interactions in dielectric media (e.g., ice, sand, salt, lunar regolith) have motivated diverse experimental approaches involving "detectors" comprised of up to millions of cubic kilometers of natural materials. I will discuss simulation results comparing the expected performance of several proposed radio detector array designs with subterranean, ice shelf, and above ice configurations.

  11. Design and development of a silicon-segmented detector for 2D dose measurements in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichelli, David [Department of Clinical Phisiopathology, University of Florence, v.le Morgagni, 85-50134 Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail: david.menichelli@cern.ch; Bruzzi, Mara [Department of Energetics, University of Florence, via S. Marta, 3-50139 Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bucciolini, Marta; Talamonti, Cinzia; Casati, Marta; Marrazzo, Livia [Department of Clinical Phisiopathology, University of Florence, v.le Morgagni, 85-50134 Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Tesi, Mauro [Department of Energetics, University of Florence, via S. Marta, 3-50139 Florence (Italy); Piemonte, Claudio; Pozza, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola [ITC-irst, via Sommarive, 18-38050 Trento (Italy); Brianzi, Mirko [INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Florence, L.go E. Fermi, 2-50125 Florence (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and protontherapy, require detectors with specific features, usually not available in conventional dosimeters. IMRT dose measurements, for instance, must face non-uniform beam fluences as well as a time-varying dose rate. Two-dimensional detectors present a great interest for dosimetry in beams with steep dose gradients, but they must satisfy a number of requirements and, in particular, they must exhibit high spatial resolution. With the aim of developing a dosimetric system adequate for 2D pre-treatment dose verifications, we designed a modular dosimetric device based on a monolithic silicon-segmented module. State and results of this work in progress are described in this article. The first 441 pixels, 6.29x6.29 cm{sup 2} silicon module has been produced by ion implantation on a 50 {mu}m thick p-type epitaxial layer. This sensor has been connected to a discrete readout electronics performing current integration, and has been tested with satisfactory results. In the final configuration, nine silicon modules will be assembled together to cover an area close to 20x20 cm{sup 2} with 3969 channels. In this case, the readout electronics will be based on an ASIC capable to read 64 channels by performing current-to-frequency conversion.

  12. 3D integration technology for hybrid pixel detectors designed for particle physics and imaging experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, D.; Berthelot, A.; Cuchet, R.; Chantre, C.; Campbell, M.; Tick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and are becoming established at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the advantages of 3D Integration come from reduced inter chip dead area even on large surfaces and from improved detector construction yield resulting from the use of single chip 4-side buttable tiles. For many years, numerous R and centres and companies have put a lot of effort into developing 3D integration technologies and today, some mature technologies are ready for prototyping and production. The core technology of the 3D integration is the TSV (Through Silicon Via) and for many years, LETI has developed those technologies for various types of applications. In this paper we present how one of the TSV approaches developed by LETI, called TSV last, has been applied to a readout wafer containing readout chips intended for a hybrid pixel detector assembly. In the first part of this paper, the 3D design adapted to the read-out chip will be described. Then the complete process flow will be explained and, finally, the test strategy adopted and

  13. A pilot's opinion - VTOL control design requirements for the instrument approach task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents pilot opinion supported by test data concerning flight control and display concepts and control system design requirements for VTOL aircraft in the instrument approach task. Material presented is drawn from research flights in the following aircraft: Dornier DO-31, Short SC-1, LTV XC-142A, and Boeing-Vertol CH-46. The control system concepts and mechanizations employed in the above aircraft are discussed, and the effect of control system augmentation is shown on performance. Operational procedures required in the instrument approach task are described, with comments on need for automation and combining of control functions.

  14. Aseismatic design of electrical equipments and instruments for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuharu; Nishizawa, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Yoshio; Miura, Takumi

    1977-01-01

    The aseismatic design of electrical instruments is carried out according to IEEE Standard 344-1971 in the USA. In Japan also, the method of aseismatic design of electrical instruments has been investigated by the representatives of electric power companies and electric machine makers since 1972. In Hitachi Ltd., the statical method of confirming aseismatic property was established on the basis of the rigid design for electrical instruments. It is convenient to examine the aseismatic property of electrical equipments by classifying them into control and switch boards, electrical appliances, equipments and circuits. It is possible to use the static method treating earthquake force as static load by avoiding resonance with the electrical equipments which have the higher natural frequency than that of buildings. The purposes of the vibration test are to prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, to clarify the vibration characteristics, and to confirm the maintenance of functions and the strength of the equipments. The vibration tests of control boards, the switch boards of enclosed type, motor control centers, the racks for instrumentation, storage batteries and electrical appliances are explained. Moreover, the vibration analysis with a computer according to finite element method is described. (Kako, I.)

  15. Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary.

  16. Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary

  17. Design of a high-magnification and low-aberration compact catadioptric telescope for the Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave interferometric detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, C; Barsuglia, M; Tacca, M; Genin, E; Gouaty, R

    2017-01-01

    Advanced Virgo is a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational-wave detector, aiming to increase its sensitivity by an order of magnitude. Among the main modifications of the instrument, the size of the laser beam inside the central area has been roughly doubled. Consequently, the input/output optics systems have been re-designed. Due to the overall Advanced Virgo optical scheme, high-magnification and compact telescopes are needed. These telescopes also have to fulfill stringent requirements in terms of aberrations, separation of secondary beams and scattered light. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Virgo telescopes and their estimated performances in terms of tuning capability and optical properties. (paper)

  18. Designing Successful Next-Generation Instruments to Detect the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) team, Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) team

    2018-01-01

    The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) signifies a period of intense evolution of the Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM) in the early Universe caused by the first generations of stars and galaxies, wherein they turned the neutral IGM to be completely ionized by redshift ≥ 6. This important epoch is poorly explored to date. Measurement of redshifted 21 cm line from neutral Hydrogen during the EoR is promising to provide the most direct constraints of this epoch. Ongoing experiments to detect redshifted 21 cm power spectrum during reionization, including the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), appear to be severely affected by bright foregrounds and unaccounted instrumental systematics. For example, the spectral structure introduced by wide-field effects, aperture shapes and angular power patterns of the antennas, electrical and geometrical reflections in the antennas and electrical paths, and antenna position errors can be major limiting factors. These mimic the 21 cm signal and severely degrade the instrument performance. It is imperative for the next-generation of experiments to eliminate these systematics at their source via robust instrument design. I will discuss a generic framework to set cosmologically motivated antenna performance specifications and design strategies using the Precision Radio Interferometry Simulator (PRISim) -- a high-precision tool that I have developed for simulations of foregrounds and the instrument transfer function intended primarily for 21 cm EoR studies, but also broadly applicable to interferometer-based intensity mapping experiments. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), designed in-part based on this framework, is expected to detect the 21 cm signal with high significance. I will present this framework and the simulations, and their potential for designing upcoming radio instruments such as HERA and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  19. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Sisk, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument

  20. Design of an 8-40 GHz Antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.; Trent, Christopher; Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of land surface snow remains a significant challenge in the remote sensing arena. Developing the tools needed to remotely measure Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is an important priority. The Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) is being developed to address this need. WISM is an airborne instrument comprised of a dual-frequency (X- and Ku-bands) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and dual-frequency (K- and Ka-bands) radiometer. A unique feature of this instrument is that all measurement bands share a common antenna aperture consisting of an array feed reflector that covers the entire bandwidth. This paper covers the design and fabrication of the wideband array feed which is based on tightly coupled dipole arrays. Implementation using a relatively new multi-layer microfabrication process results in a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with beamformer that operates from 8 to 40 gigahertz.

  1. Numerical simulation and optimal design of Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-Optical Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiuhui; Shen, Yijie; Yuan, Meng; Gong, Mali

    2017-12-01

    Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-Optical Reconnaissance (SPIDER) is a cutting-edge electro-optical imaging technology to realize miniaturization and complanation of imaging systems. In this paper, the principle of SPIDER has been numerically demonstrated based on the partially coherent light theory, and a novel concept of adjustable baseline pairing SPIDER system has further been proposed. Based on the results of simulation, it is verified that the imaging quality could be effectively improved by adjusting the Nyquist sampling density, optimizing the baseline pairing method and increasing the spectral channel of demultiplexer. Therefore, an adjustable baseline pairing algorithm is established for further enhancing the image quality, and the optimal design procedure in SPIDER for arbitrary targets is also summarized. The SPIDER system with adjustable baseline pairing method can broaden its application and reduce cost under the same imaging quality.

  2. Open-field mouse brain PET: design optimisation and detector characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyme, Andre Z.; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Gong, Kuang; Bec, Julien; Selfridge, Aaron; Du, Junwei; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R.; Meikle, Steven R.

    2017-08-01

    ‘Open-field’ PET, in which an animal is free to move within an enclosed space during imaging, is a very promising advance for neuroscientific research. It provides a key advantage over conventional imaging under anesthesia by enabling functional changes in the brain to be correlated with an animal’s behavioural response to environmental or pharmacologic stimuli. Previously we have demonstrated the feasibility of open-field imaging of rats using motion compensation techniques applied to a commercially available PET scanner. However, this approach of ‘retro-fitting’ motion compensation techniques to an existing system is limited by the inherent geometric and performance constraints of the system. The goal of this project is to develop a purpose-built PET scanner with geometry, motion tracking and imaging performance tailored and optimised for open-field imaging of the mouse brain. The design concept is a rail-based sliding tomograph which moves according to the animal’s motion. Our specific aim in this work was to evaluate candidate scanner designs and characterise the performance of a depth-of-interaction detector module for the open-field system. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate and compare the sensitivity and spatial resolution performance of four scanner geometries: a ring, parallel plate, and two box variants. Each system was based on a detector block consisting of a 23  ×  23 array of 0.785  ×  0.785  ×  20 mm3 LSO crystals (overall dim. 19.6  ×  19.6  ×  20 mm). We found that a DoI resolution capability of 3 mm was necessary to achieve approximately uniform sub-millimetre spatial resolution throughout the FoV for all scanners except the parallel-plate geometry. With this DoI performance, the sensitivity advantage afforded by the box geometry with overlapping panels (16% peak absolute sensitivity, a 36% improvement over the ring design) suggests this unconventional design is best

  3. Innovations in ILC detector design using a particle flow algorithm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, S.; High Energy Physics

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future e + e - collider that will produce particles with masses up to the design center-of-mass (CM) energy of 500 GeV. The ILC complements the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which, although colliding protons at 14 TeV in the CM, will be luminosity-limited to particle production with masses up to ∼1-2 TeV. At the ILC, interesting cross-sections are small, but there are no backgrounds from underlying events, so masses should be able to be measured by hadronic decays to dijets (∼80% BR) as well as in leptonic decay modes. The precise measurement of jets will require major detector innovations, in particular to the calorimeter, which will be optimized to reconstruct final state particle 4-vectors--called the particle flow algorithm approach to jet reconstruction

  4. Conceptual design of a low-temperature radiation-hard tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O; Perea-Solano, B

    2003-01-01

    Silicon sensors have about ten times improved radiation hardness around 130 K temperature, compared with the state-of-art sensors close to room temperature. This is based on the Lazarus effect studied by the RD39 Collaboration of CERN. Other benefits of low temperatures will also be discussed. We shall describe the conceptual design of low-mass detector modules cooled using two-phase flow of argon in miniature cooling pipes integrated in the module structure between the sensors and the readout hybrid circuit. The main engineering features of the cooling system and mechanical support structures are discussed, as well as the benefits arising from the operation of the tracker under cryogenic vacuum. 4 Refs.

  5. New design features of gas ionization detectors used for elastic recoil detection

    CERN Document Server

    Timmers, H; Ophel, T R

    2000-01-01

    Several alternative design features of large acceptance, gas ionization detectors have proven to be successful for application to elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). In particular, effects due to the distortion of the entrance field by a large area window have been eliminated in a simple fashion, to allow measurement of the initial rate of energy loss and to provide an energy- and species-independent cathode signal. No less importantly, use of a divided electrode in the anode plane has enabled a more straightforward means of determining the scattering angle that is required for kinematic corrections. An intermediate grid was found to provide a direct and true total energy signal, with only slightly diminished resolution compared with that of the summed total anode equivalent.

  6. The “Puck” energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low‐resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low‐resource but highly capable, mass‐species‐discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the “Puck” EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high‐voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions. PMID:27867799

  7. Performance of the transition radiation detector flown on the NMSU/WIZARD TS93 balloon-borne instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G.; Brancaccio, F.M. [INFN, Laboratori nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Bidoli, V. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Bronzini, F. [Rome Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `La Sapienza` Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    It is built and tested a transition radiation detector (TRD) to discriminate positrons from protons in the balloon flight TS 93 experiment. It is presented the TRD performance using flight data obtaining a proton-positron rejection factor of the order of 10{sup -3}. During the 24 hour flight, the data in the momentum range 4-50 GeV/c are collected. Using the TRD together with the Silicon calorimeter, it is achieved an overall rejection factor of about 10{sup -5} of positron against the proton background over the entire momentum range.

  8. New class of neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources

  9. Design and Fabrication of the Double Cladding Instrumented Fuel Rods and the Instrumented Fuel Capsule(07F-06K) for the Irradiation Test at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Oh, Jong Myung; Oh, Soo Yeol; Park, Sung Jae; Sho, Man Soon; Kim, Bong Goo; Choo, Kee Nam; Kim, Young Ki

    2009-01-01

    An instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel irradiation test (hereinafter referred to as 'instrumented fuel capsule'), which is crucial for the verification of a nuclear fuel performance and safety, has been developed to measure the fuel characteristics, such as the centerline and surface temperatures of the nuclear fuel, the internal pressure of a fuel rod, the elongation of the fuel pellet and the neutron fluxes during an irradiation test at HANARO(High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). The irradiation test of the first instrumented fuel capsule(02F-11K) was carried out for verification test at HANARO in March 2003. Through the irradiation tests of the some capsules, the design specifications and safety of the instrumented fuel capsule were verified successfully. And the dual instrumented fuel rods, which allow for two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod, have been developed to enhance the efficiency of the irradiation test using the instrumented fuel capsule. In this paper, we designed and fabricated a double cladding fuel rod to control the high temperature of nuclear fuels during an irradiation test at HANARO. And we design an instrumented fuel capsule(07F-06K) for an irradiation test of the double cladding fuel rods. We have designed and fabricated the double cladding fuel rod mockups and performed the out-pile tests using these mockups. The purposes of the out-pile tests were to analyze an effect of a gap size(between an outer cladding and an inner cladding) on the temperature and the effect of a mixture ratio of helium gas and neon gas on the temperature. Through the results of the out-pile tests, we have obtained the effects of a gap size and a gas mixture ratio on the temperature of nuclear fuels. Therefore an double cladding fuel rod and the 07F- 06K instrumented fuel capsule were designed on the base of the results of the out-pile tests using the mockups

  10. Development of a portable X-ray and gamma-ray detector instrument and imaging camera for use in radioactive and hazardous materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scyoc, J.M. van; James, R.B.; Anderson, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop instruments for use in the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Devices for identifying and imaging such wastes are critical to developing environmental remediation strategies. Field portable units are required to enable the on-site analysis of solids, liquids, and gas effluents. Red mercuric iodide (α-HgI 2 ) is a semiconductor material that can be operated as a high-energy-resolution radiation detector at ambient temperatures. This property provides the needed performance of conventional germanium- and silicon-based devices, while eliminating the need for the cryogenic cooling of such instruments. The first year of this project focused on improving the materials properties of the mercuric iodide to enable the new sensor technology; in particular the charge carrier traps limiting device performance were determined and eliminated. The second year involved the development of a field portable x-ray fluorescence analyzer for compositional analyses. The third and final year of the project focused on the development of imaging sensors to provide the capability for mapping the composition of waste masses. This project resulted in instruments useful not only for managing hazardous and radioactive wastes, but also in a variety of industrial and national security applications

  11. Design of a Prototype Differential Die‐Away Instrument Proposed for Swedish Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinik, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.martinik@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grape, Sophie; Jansson, Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Goodsell, Alison V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tobin, Stephen J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Blekholmstorget 30, Box 250, SE-101 24 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-06-11

    As part of the United States (US) Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project, the traditional Differential Die-Away (DDA) method that was originally developed for waste drum assay has been investigated and modified to provide a novel application to characterize or verify spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Following the promising, yet largely theoretical and simulation based, research of physics aspects of the DDA technique applied to SNF assay during the early stages of the NGSI-SF project, the most recent effort has been focused on the practical aspects of developing the first fully functional and deployable DDA prototype instrument for spent fuel. As a result of the collaboration among US research institutions and Sweden, the opportunity to test the newly proposed instrument's performance with commercial grade SNF at the Swedish Interim Storage Facility (Clab) emerged. Therefore the design of this instrument prototype has to accommodate the requirements of the Swedish regulator as well as specific engineering constrains given by the unique industrial environment. Within this paper, we identify key components of the DDA based instrument and we present methodology for evaluation and the results of a selection of the most relevant design parameters in order to optimize the performance for a given application, i.e. test-deployment, including assay of 50 preselected spent nuclear fuel assemblies of both pressurized (PWR) as well as boiling (BWR) water reactor type.

  12. Testing the Solar Probe Cup, an Instrument Designed to Touch the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Phyllis L.; Case, Anthony W.; Kasper, Justin Christophe; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Alterman, Ben; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Bookbinder, Jay; Korreck, Kelly E.; Stevens, Michael Louis

    2014-01-01

    Solar Probe Plus will be the first, fastest, and closest mission to the sun, providing the first direct sampling of the sub-Alfvenic corona. The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a unique re-imagining of the traditional Faraday Cup design and materials for immersion in this high temperature environment. Sending an instrument of this type into a never-seen particle environment requires extensive characterization prior to launch to establish sufficient measurement accuracy and instrument response. To reach this end, a slew of tests for allowing SPC to see ranges of appropriate ions and electrons, as well as a facility that reproduces solar photon spectra and fluxes for this mission. Having already tested the SPC at flight like temperatures with no significant modification of the noise floor, we recently completed a round of particle testing to see if the deviations in Faraday Cup design fundamentally change the operation of the instrument. Results and implications from these tests will be presented, as well as performance comparisons to cousin instruments such as those on the WIND spacecraft.

  13. [The design and application of a moxibustion instrument with less harmful smoke and direction adjustment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongliang; Wang, Xiongjiang; Nong, Zhangsong; Wang, Kailong; Pang, Jun

    2018-02-12

    The design of a clip-on moxibustion instrument which could adjust the directions and absorb harmful granules of moxa smoke was introduced in this paper. It was designed to solve the problems in home health care and clinical treatment, such as the inconvenience of adjustment of moxibustion directions and temperature, more dust and granules of moxa smoke and inconvenience of moxibustion placement. The main part of moxibustion instrument was made up of moxibustion box, bracket and base clamp. The moxibustion box could fix moxa stick and absorb smoke granules; the bracket could be twisted to adjust the direction of moxibustion box; the base clamp was aimed to fix moxibustion box on the edge of the object to save space. This moxibustion instrument could be used for various indications of moxibustion, especially in the joints or body parts with less muscles; and it can significantly enhance the pertinence and safety of moxibustion, and reduce the labor intensity. This moxibustion instrument is original and unique, simple and reasonable, easy to operate, with low cost and good effect, which will increase new vitality for the popularization and development of moxibustion.

  14. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrical-modelling, design and simulation of cumulative radiation effects in semiconductor pixels detectors: prospects and limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourches, N. T.; Chipaux, R.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon detectors have gained in popularity since silicon became a widely used electronic semiconductor material. Silicon detectors are used in particle physics as well as imagers for pixel based detecting systems. Over the past twenty years a lot of experimental efforts have been focused on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on silicon based detectors including charged coupled devices (CCDs). Some of this research was performed in the framework of high luminosity particle physics experiments, along with radiation hardness studies of basic semiconductors devices. The building blocks of silicon pixel detectors including CCDs are simple PIN or PN structures partially or totally depleted, or even MOS and APD (Avalanche PhotoDiode) structures. Bulk or surface defects considerably affect the transport of free carriers. We propose here guidelines for pixel design. The method takes into account the properties of defects and will be tested through two pixel structures. The electrical properties of defects can be reduced to basic parameters, which can be introduced in a standard simulation code to make predictive simulations. We include an analytical model for defect build up derived from isochronal annealing experiments. Studying pixels detectors with different geometrical structures and fabricated with various semiconducting materials is made possible with this method. Its purpose is to provide an alternative to tedious and extensive radiation tests on fabricated detectors. Predicting the pixel behaviour w.r.t. defect properties is necessary for the long-term reliability of detectors and for making them radiation hard. A general method for pixel design is introduced and we will show how it can be used for the design of alternative (germanium) pixels.

  16. Low-noise detector and amplifier design for 100 ns direct detection CO{sub 2} LIDAR receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, M.M.; Cooke, B.J.; Laubscher, B.E.; Olivas, N.L.; Fuller, K.

    1997-06-01

    The development and test results of a prototype detector/amplifier design for a background limited, pulsed 100 ns, 10--100 kHz repetition rate LIDAR/DIAL receiver system are presented. Design objectives include near-matched filter detection of received pulse amplitude and round trip time-of-flight, and the elimination of excess correlated detector/amplifier noise for optimal pulse averaging. A novel pole-zero cancellation amplifier, coupled with a state-of-the-art SBRC (Santa Barbara Research Center) infrared detector was implemented to meet design objectives. The pole-zero cancellation amplifier utilizes a tunable, pseudo-matched filter technique to match the width of the laser pulse to the shaping time of the filter for optimal SNR performance. Low frequency correlated noise, (l/f and drift noise) is rejected through a second order high gain feedback loop. The amplifier also employs an active detector bias stage minimizing detector drift. Experimental results will be provided that demonstrate near-background limited, 100 ns pulse detection performance given a 8.5--11.5 {micro}m (300 K B.B.) radiant background, with the total noise floor spectrally white for optimal pulse averaging efficiency.

  17. Optimal Design of the Adaptive Normalized Matched Filter Detector using Regularized Tyler Estimators

    KAUST Repository

    Kammoun, Abla

    2017-10-25

    This article addresses improvements on the design of the adaptive normalized matched filter (ANMF) for radar detection. It is well-acknowledged that the estimation of the noise-clutter covariance matrix is a fundamental step in adaptive radar detection. In this paper, we consider regularized estimation methods which force by construction the eigenvalues of the covariance estimates to be greater than a positive regularization parameter ρ. This makes them more suitable for high dimensional problems with a limited number of secondary data samples than traditional sample covariance estimates. The motivation behind this work is to understand the effect and properly set the value of ρthat improves estimate conditioning while maintaining a low estimation bias. More specifically, we consider the design of the ANMF detector for two kinds of regularized estimators, namely the regularized sample covariance matrix (RSCM), the regularized Tyler estimator (RTE). The rationale behind this choice is that the RTE is efficient in mitigating the degradation caused by the presence of impulsive noises while inducing little loss when the noise is Gaussian. Based on asymptotic results brought by recent tools from random matrix theory, we propose a design for the regularization parameter that maximizes the asymptotic detection probability under constant asymptotic false alarm rates. Provided Simulations support the efficiency of the proposed method, illustrating its gain over conventional settings of the regularization parameter.

  18. Model-based testing of a vehicle instrument cluster for design validation using machine vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yingping; McMurran, Ross; Dhadyalla, Gunwant; Jones, R Peter; Mouzakitis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced testing system, combining model-based testing and machine vision technologies, for automated design validation of a vehicle instrument cluster. In the system, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tester, supported by model-based approaches, simulates vehicle operations in real time and dynamically provides all essential signals to the instrument cluster under test. A machine vision system with advanced image processing algorithms is designed to inspect the visual displays. Experiments demonstrate that the system developed is accurate for measuring the pointer position, bar graph position, pointer angular velocity and indicator flash rate, and is highly robust for validating various functionalities including warning lights status, symbol and text displays. Moreover, the system developed greatly eases the task of tedious validation testing and makes onerous repeated tests possible

  19. Computer-aided design for routing of in-core instrumentation guide tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Ho; Sohn, Yong Soo; Yoon, Ki Seok; Cho, Duk Sang; Sung, Ki Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-01

    This study presents a computer design program for in-core instrumentation (ICI) guide tube routing and locations on support system, and checking the interference between ICI guide tubes in the reactor coolant system of typical pressurized water reactor. The simulation program called ICITRIC(in-core instrumentation tube routing and interference check), has been developed for routing of ICI guide tubes, locations on support system, and checking the interference between ICI guide tubes. The program, ICITRIC, has been written in FORTRAN 77 language which is available under UNIX environment. Results of this program are compared with those of the commercial code, PATRAN, and both results are almost same. Also the results may provide input data for ICI system static and dynamic analysis performed by the commercial code, SUPERPIPE. Through a process of iteration, the designer can apply initial conditions, and modify the routing until satisfied with the overall system performance. (Author) 15 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. The Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor Optimum Design for Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Edward 'Ted'; Rodriguez, Carmelo

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear power plants rely on instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for monitoring, control and protection. While the earlier generations of nuclear plants were built with largely analog instrumentation systems, the industrial base has moved to digital based system. The reason for this transition to digital I and C systems lies in their important advantage over existing analog systems. In essence, the challenge is to prove that the new digital guidelines included in NUREG 0800, Standard Review Plan Chapter 7 and all associated documents provided adequate direction and safety review for an advanced control design for a new nuclear plant in the United States. This paper focuses on how one of the new designs incorporates the latest technology and meets the new NRC requirements. (authors)

  1. An Upgraded Front-End Switching Power Supply Design For the ATLAS TileCAL Detector of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply brick for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and generally a more robust design, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features in this 300 KHz design. We discuss the improvements to the design, and the radiation testing that we have done to qualify the design. We also present our plans for the production of 2400 new bricks for installation on the detector in 2013.

  2. An Upgraded Front-End Switching Power Supply Design for the ATLAS TileCAL Detector of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Henriques, A; Minashvili, I; Nemecek, S; Price, L; Proudfoot, J; Stanek, R

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply brick for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and generally a more robust design, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features in this 300 KHz design. We discuss the improvements to the design, and the radiation testing that we have done to qualify the design. We also present our plans for the production of 2400 new bricks for installation on the detector in 2013.

  3. An automation design of 500 keV/10 mA electron beam machine instrumentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto

    1999-01-01

    An instrumentations automation of a 500 keV/10 mA Electron Beam Machine by using an IBM-PC/AT which equipped with an industrial type interfaces such as PCL-718 ADC-12 bit, PCLD-889 a programmable gain/multiplexer, PCLD-786 a driver relay with optocoupleur relays has designed. During the laboratory simulation tests by using a Turbo-C software proved that the whole system has functioning property. (author)

  4. Designing an economic instrument for sustainable solid waste management in the household sector

    OpenAIRE

    Welivita, Indunee

    2014-01-01

    Household Solid Waste Management has become problematic in urban areas especially in developing countries like Sri Lanka due to increased waste generation and financial constraints. The main objective of this research was to design an economic instrument with policy suggestions in order to address the household solid waste management problem in Dehiwala – the Mt. Lavinia Municipal Council area in Sri Lanka. In order to reduce the quantity of waste by encouraging sustainable solid waste manage...

  5. A conceptual framework for designing micro electrical connectors for hearing aid instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Fuglsang-Philip, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical connectors play vital roles in modern electronic instruments. Hearing aid devices as advanced combinations of micro mechanics and electronics comprise various electrical connectors for different purposes. However, the current trend in the miniaturization along with the sharp technological advancements have urged them to incorporate increased number of electrical contacts. The current paper presents a conceptual framework for designing and manufacturing novel plug and socket systems...

  6. Design of a decision unit for calibration of a particle detector using a laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS detector conceived for particle physics studies will begin its operation on the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC) by 2007. It will be dedicated to search of Higgs boson and studies of the Standard Model and new physics beyond it. The scintillation tile calorimeter is a sub-assembly of the ATLAS detector. The 10,000 readout paths of the calorimeter are constituted of photomultipliers transforming light in electric signals. The reconstruction of the particle tracks and energy disposed into the detector must be accurately determined. Hence every sub-assembly is provided with several calibration systems. The calibration system of the scintillator tile calorimeter makes use of a laser which has its own calibration units providing accurate knowledge of the calorimeter light pulses feeding the photomultipliers. It consists of: - four photodiodes receiving a fraction of the laser beam; - a monochromatic alpha radioactive source passing in front of photodiodes; - a charge injector to test the photodiode preamplifier linearity. To control the laser system an electronic card was designed and built. This is inserted into a VME frame composed of three parts: - the first one is an interface with the soft via the VME bus; - the second one is a pulse shaper for the analog signals coming from photomultipliers and photodiodes; - while, the third one records the laser response time. The electronic signals issued from the analogue inputs are shaped by constant fraction discriminators. Particularly, they have the specific feature of giving response times almost independent of the input signal height. The laser response time is dependent on the height of light pulses. The SLAMA card embodies a function dedicated to this operation with the purpose of optimizing the calibrations in the absence of physical events. Other various functions are also integrated by the card by means of FPGA programmable digital components the following specific circuits: - an interface with the VME bus

  7. JACoW Design of the front-end detector control system of the ATLAS New Small Wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakos, Paris

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will be upgraded during the next LHC Long Shutdown (LS2). The flagship upgrade is the New Small Wheel (NSW) [1], which consists of 2 disks of Muon Gas detectors. The detector technologies used are Micromegas (MM) and sTGC, providing a total of 16 layers of tracking and trigger. The Slow Control Adapter (SCA) is part of the Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) - “Radiation Hard Optical Link Project” family of chips designed at CERN, EP-ESE department [2,3], which will be used at the NSW upgrade. The SCA offers several interfaces to read analogue and digital inputs, and configure front-end Readout ASICs, FPGAs, or other chips. The design of the NSW Detector Control System (DCS) takes advantage of this functionality, as described in this paper.

  8. Complete factorial design experiment for 3D load cell instrumented crank validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Valle-Casas; Rafael, Dalazen; Vinicius, Cene; Alexandre, Balbinot

    2015-08-01

    Developing of instrumentation systems for sport medicine is a promising area, that's why this research evaluates the design of a new instrumented crank arm prototype for a race bicycle projecting an experiment for indoor - outdoor comparison. This study investigated the viability of an instrumentation 3D load cell for force measurement crank, implementing a design of experiment. A Complete factorial design experiment was developed for data validation, with an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) throwing significant results for controlled factors with response variables rms, mean and variance. A software routine allowed to obtained system variables metrics for Symmetry and Cadence analysis, which came out from Effective force bilateral comparing and speed computation. Characterization allowed achieving calibration curves that were used for data conversion in force projection channels with a linearity error of 0.29% (perpendicular), 0.55% (parallel) and 0.10% (lateral). Interactions of factors resulted significant mainly for indoor tests in symmetry and cadence was significant in interactions generally for outdoor tests. Implemented system was able to generate Effective Force graph for 3D plot symmetry analysis, torque and power symmetry for specialist's analysis.

  9. [System design of small intellectualized ultrasound hyperthermia instrument in the LabVIEW environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Bai, Jingfeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2005-08-01

    Small-scale intellectualized medical instrument has attracted great attention in the field of biomedical engineering, and LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) provides a convenient environment for this application due to its inherent advantages. The principle and system structure of the hyperthermia instrument are presented. Type T thermocouples are employed as thermotransducers, whose amplifier consists of two stages, providing built-in ice point compensation and thus improving work stability over temperature. Control signals produced by specially designed circuit drive the programmable counter/timer 8254 chip to generate PWM (Pulse width modulation) wave, which is used as ultrasound radiation energy control signal. Subroutine design topics such as inner-tissue real time feedback temperature control algorithm, water temperature control in the ultrasound applicator are also described. In the cancer tissue temperature control subroutine, the authors exert new improvments to PID (Proportional Integral Differential) algorithm according to the specific demands of the system and achieve strict temperature control to the target tissue region. The system design and PID algorithm improvement have experimentally proved to be reliable and excellent, meeting the requirements of the hyperthermia system.

  10. State-of-the-Art Report on the Piping and Instrumentation Design of RHRS in the Commercial NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun; Park, C. T.; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, B. S.; Yoon, Ju Hyeon

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the study is for system designers to understand the technical state of the piping and instrumentation design of RHRS (or SCS) in the commercial nuclear power plants, thus to design more uncomplicated and advanced system. In this study, we have reviewed the design requirements and the technical state of piping and instrumentation design. Firstly we have reviewed the design requirements, including functional, isolation, pressure relief, pump protection, test requirements, etc.. Especially we have separately reviewed the design requirements of the low temperature overpressure, including ASME code requirements. Also we have reviewed the technical state of piping and instrumentation design, including piping design, PAMS design, ESFAS design, relief valve design, and instrument/valve/pump control design. In the piping design, the technical state of design has been investigated classified by the five regions, which have a little different design features, from the RCS suction line to the LPSI header line. Commonly, the P and ID is the design output which the related design requirements of the system have been all applied, also the operations for in-service inspection, heat-up/normal/cool-down, and emergency have been all considered. If we can understand well the design bases and its meanings of the P and ID, it would be helpful for us to design more uncomplicated and advanced system

  11. DESIGNING A FINITE STATE MACHINE SIMULATOR TO DETECT LOOPS FOR ALICE DETECTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Yogatama, Bobbi Winema

    2017-01-01

    This paper present the design and implementation of a Finite State Machine simulator to provoke loops in ALICE Detector Control System (DCS). Loops in a Finite State Machine can be very harmful for the control system and need to be prevented. One way to prevent loops is to simulate the designed Finite State Machine using a simulator that can detect all of the possible conditions that can provoke loops. Further correction can then be made after the loops are detected in the control system. The proposed simulator is able to get the structure of any unknown FSM, get every datapoint elements that are associated with the FSM, and find every possible datapoint combinations that can provoke loops in the FSM. At the end of the project, we tested the simulator on a sample FSM with loops and a real FSM that belongs to the ALICE PHOton Spectrometer (PHOS). The testing results indicate that the simulator is able to detect every possible condition that can cause loops in the FSM.

  12. Design, construction, operation and performance of a Hadron Blind Detector for the PHENIX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.; Azmoun, B.; Cherlin, A.; Chi, C.Y.; Citron, Z.; Connors, M.; Dubey, A.; Durham, J.M.; Fraenkel, Z.; Hemmick, T.; Kamin, J.; Kozlov, A.; Lewis, B.; Makek, M.; Milov, A.; Naglis, M.; Pantuev, V.; Pisani, R.; Proissl, M.; Ravinovich, I.

    2011-01-01

    A Hadron Blind Detector (HBD) has been developed, constructed and successfully operated within the PHENIX detector at RHIC. The HBD is a Cherenkov detector operated with pure CF 4 . It has a 50 cm long radiator directly coupled in a windowless configuration to a readout element consisting of a triple GEM stack, with a CsI photocathode evaporated on the top surface of the top GEM and pad readout at the bottom of the stack. This paper gives a comprehensive account of the construction, operation and in-beam performance of the detector.

  13. Neutronics experiments, radiation detectors and nuclear techniques development in the EU in support of the TBM design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M., E-mail: maurizio.angelone@enea.it [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45-00044 Frascati (Italy); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Flammini, D. [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45-00044 Frascati (Italy); Jodlowski, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Klix, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kodeli, I. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kuc, T. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Leichtle, D. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Lilley, S. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Majerle, M.; Novák, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Ostachowicz, B. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Packer, L.W. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pillon, M. [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45-00044 Frascati (Italy); Pohorecki, W. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Radulović, V. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Šimečková, E. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A number of experiments and tests are ongoing to develop detectors and methods for HCLL and HCPM ITER-TBM. • Experiments for measuring gas production relevant to IFMIF are also performed using a cyclotron. • A benchmark experiment with a Cu block is performed to validate copper cross sections. • Experimental techniques to measure tritium in TBM are presented. • Experimental verification of activation cross sections for a Neutron Activation System for TBM is addressed. - Abstract: The development of high quality nuclear data, radiation detectors and instrumentation techniques for fusion technology applications in Europe is supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E) and conducted in a joint and collaborative effort by several European research associations (ENEA, KIT, JSI, NPI, AGH, and CCFE) joined to form the “Consortium on Nuclear Data Studies/Experiments in Support of TBM Activities”. This paper presents the neutronics activities carried out by the Consortium. A selection of available results are presented. Among then a benchmark experiment on a pure copper block to study the Cu cross sections at neutron energies relevant to fusion, the fabrication of prototype neutron detectors able to withstand harsh environment and temperature >200 °C (artificial diamond and self-powered detectors) developed for operating in ITER-TBM as well as measurement of relevant activation and integral gas production cross-sections. The latter measured at neutron energies relevant to IFMIF (>14 MeV) and the development of innovative experimental techniques for tritium measurement in TBM.

  14. Principles relating to the digital instrumentation and control design approach 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The design of the instrumentation and control of nuclear facilities uses digital systems that offer increasing computation and interconnection capabilities. They enable advanced functions to be carried out, such as calculation of the critical heat flux ratio, help to detect hardware failures in real time and provide operators with rich, flexible interfaces. However, these evolved functions may be affected by faults that make their logic systematically inadequate in certain cases, which introduces sources of failure other than random hardware failures and raises questions about the informal concept of the increased 'complexity' of instrumentation and control. Appropriate design principles shall therefore be applied so that this logic is as fault-free as possible and can be assessed by an independent body such as IRSN. This document presents the main problems associated with the design of the digital instrumentation and control of a complex facility, as well as the general principles to follow to demonstrate that a satisfactory safety level has been achieved. The doctrine elements presented in this document are the result of the experience acquired during assessments carried out for the French nuclear power plants, enhanced by exchanges with experts from the nuclear sector, and reflect French practice; they apply in other sectors in which a high level of confidence can be attributed to instrumentation and control. The normative texts cited in this document provide detailed requirements that are open to considerable interpretation, as the nature of the problem posed does not enable relevant and measurable criteria to be defined in all cases. This document aims to explain the principles underlying these detailed requirements and to give the means for interpreting them in each situation. (authors)

  15. Development of a database of instruments for resource-use measurement: purpose, feasibility, and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridyard, Colin H; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2012-01-01

    Health economists frequently rely on methods based on patient recall to estimate resource utilization. Access to questionnaires and diaries, however, is often limited. This study examined the feasibility of establishing an open-access Database of Instruments for Resource-Use Measurement, identified relevant fields for data extraction, and outlined its design. An electronic survey was sent to authors of full UK economic evaluations listed in the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (2008-2010), authors of monographs of Health Technology Assessments (1998-2010), and subscribers to the JISCMail health economics e-mailing list. The survey included questions on piloting, validation, recall period, and data capture method. Responses were analyzed and data extracted to generate relevant fields for the database. A total of 143 responses to the survey provided data on 54 resource-use instruments for inclusion in the database. All were reliant on patient or carer recall, and a majority (47) were questionnaires. Thirty-seven were designed for self-completion by the patient, carer, or guardian, and the remainder were designed for completion by researchers or health care professionals while interviewing patients. Methods of development were diverse, particularly in areas such as the planning of resource itemization (evident in 25 instruments), piloting (25), and validation (29). On the basis of the present analysis, we developed a Web-enabled Database of Instruments for Resource-Use Measurement, accessible via www.DIRUM.org. This database may serve as a practical resource for health economists, as well as a means to facilitate further research in the area of resource-use data collection. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  17. Design and construction of an instrument for measuring thermistor electrical characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiono; Yudi Herdiana

    2007-01-01

    In this work an instrument for measuring the electrical characteristic of thermistor has been designed and constructed. The instrument was constructed from main components i.e. a micro controller AT89C51, 3 ADC-0804, a LM35 temperature sensor and IC MAX 232. The IC MAX 232 component is used to connect the micro controller to the personal computer serially by using RS-232 standard. While ADC-0804 was used to convert the analog data (DC voltage) to the digital one so that the data was readable by the micro controller. Digital data from 3 ADC-0804 circuit which have been read by the micro controller was sent directly to the personal computer. The data from the measurement which have been stored in the personal computer was then processed to know the value of temperature and measured thermistor resistance. The processed data could be either stored in a data base or displayed in a monitor or printed in the form of table data and in the form a graph of thermistor resistance as the function of temperature. The result of measurement from measuring instrument of the characteristic of thermistor electric's had been made, being compared by measuring calibrated instrument, the deviation is about 0.33 %. (author)

  18. Design and control of a 3-DOF hydraulic driven surgical instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuntz Timo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of minimally invasive surgery techniques has steadily increased, the development of new tools for these procedures has stagnated. Indeed a new generation of surgical instruments, with tips that have multiple degrees of freedom, has been developed. However, they are facing so many technical problems that none have been able to establish themselves in the medical market. To overcome the problems these instruments are facing, a micro hydraulic power transmission system has been developed and been presented in [1]. With these driving units it was possible to design an instrument for minimally invasive surgery with a tip which is movable in 3 degrees of freedom (DOF and that is light in weight, small in size and powerful in movements and gripping. This paper presents the mechanical setup (including dimensions and materials, describes the theoretical basis for the control with the inverse kinematic model, discusses the external drives setup and gives first performance data of this novel hydraulically actuated laparoscopic instrument with 3 degrees of freedom.

  19. Design and implementation of an expert system for the detector control systems of the ATLAS pixel detector; Entwurf und Implementation eines Expertensystems fuer das Detektorkontrollsystem des ATLAS-Pixeldetektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henss, Tobias

    2008-12-15

    In the framework of this thesis an expert system ''Pixel-Advisor'' for the control system of the pixel detector was designed and implemented. This supports the operational personnel in the diagnosis and removal of possible problems, which are in connection with the detector control system and unburdens the few available DCS experts.

  20. Design optimization of the PANDA micro-vertex-detector for high performance spectroscopy in the charm quark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerschig, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The PANDA experiment is one of the key projects at the future FAIR facility, which is currently under construction at GSI Darmstadt. Measurements will be performed with antiprotons using a fixed-target setup. The main scope of PANDA is the study of the strong interaction in the charm quark sector. Therefore, high precision spectroscopy of hadronic systems in this energy domain is a prerequisite. The Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) as innermost part of the tracking system plays an important role to achieve this goal. At present, the PANDA project has exceeded the initial phase of conceptual design studies. Based on these results, an optimization of the individual detector subsystems, and thus also for the MVD, is necessary to continue the overall detector development towards its commissioning. Therefore, a comprehensive and realistic detector model must be developed, which on the one hand fulfils the physics requirements but on the other hand also includes feasible engineering solutions. This task is the main scope of the present work. The outcome of these studies will deliver important contributions to the technical design report for the PANDA MVD, which is the next step towards the final detector assembly. In the first part of this work, main physics aspects of the charm spectroscopy are highlighted and a complete review of the experimental status in this field is given. Afterwards, all relevant details of the PANDA experiment are summarized. The conceptual design and associated hardware developments for the MVD are discussed separately in the following chapters. They deliver basic input for the performed detector optimization, which is presented in the central part. Furthermore, this section describes the development of a comprehensive detector model for the MVD and its introduction into the physics simulation framework of PANDA. The final part contains a compilation of extended simulations with the developed detector model. This includes the determination of basic

  1. Design optimization of the PANDA micro-vertex-detector for high performance spectroscopy in the charm quark sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuerschig, Thomas

    2011-07-19

    The PANDA experiment is one of the key projects at the future FAIR facility, which is currently under construction at GSI Darmstadt. Measurements will be performed with antiprotons using a fixed-target setup. The main scope of PANDA is the study of the strong interaction in the charm quark sector. Therefore, high precision spectroscopy of hadronic systems in this energy domain is a prerequisite. The Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) as innermost part of the tracking system plays an important role to achieve this goal. At present, the PANDA project has exceeded the initial phase of conceptual design studies. Based on these results, an optimization of the individual detector subsystems, and thus also for the MVD, is necessary to continue the overall detector development towards its commissioning. Therefore, a comprehensive and realistic detector model must be developed, which on the one hand fulfils the physics requirements but on the other hand also includes feasible engineering solutions. This task is the main scope of the present work. The outcome of these studies will deliver important contributions to the technical design report for the PANDA MVD, which is the next step towards the final detector assembly. In the first part of this work, main physics aspects of the charm spectroscopy are highlighted and a complete review of the experimental status in this field is given. Afterwards, all relevant details of the PANDA experiment are summarized. The conceptual design and associated hardware developments for the MVD are discussed separately in the following chapters. They deliver basic input for the performed detector optimization, which is presented in the central part. Furthermore, this section describes the development of a comprehensive detector model for the MVD and its introduction into the physics simulation framework of PANDA. The final part contains a compilation of extended simulations with the developed detector model. This includes the determination of basic

  2. Design of optical instruments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22-24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, David M.; Genberg, Victor L.; Krumweide, Gary C.; Thomas, Michael J.

    1992-09-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include optical system design, recent application of composite materials to precision optical instrument structure, development of composite mirrors and reflectos, development of composite materials for dimensionally stable structures, and structural mechanics. Papers are presented on adjustable distortion correctors, the optical design for the ATLAS multispectral scanner, an internal thermal emission analysis of an IR seeker, recent developments with the Mars Observer Camera graphite/epoxy structure, and moisture effects and control for the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrograph composite structure. Attention is also given to composite materials for precision space reflector panels, the structural design and analysis for an ultralow-CTE optical bench for the Hubbale Space Telescope corrective optics, the evaluation of high-modulus pitch/cyanate material systems for dimensionally stable structures, weight minimization of an active mirror, and a compliant optical mount design. (For individual items see A93-29782 to A93-29798)

  3. Instrumentation and control of future sodium cooled fast reactors - Design improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusoodanan, K.; Sakthivel, M.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    India's fast reactor program started with the 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor. 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is currently under construction at Kalpakkam. Safety of PFBR is enhanced by improved design features of I and C system. Since the design of Instrumentation and control (I and C) of PFBR, considerable improvements in terms of advancement in technology and indigenization has taken place. Further improvements in I and C is proposed for solving many of the difficulties faced during the design and construction phases of PFBR. Design improvements proposed are covered in this paper which will make the implementation and maintenance of I and C of future SFRs easier. (authors)

  4. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, O., E-mail: osierra@sgc.gov.co; Parrado, G., E-mail: gparrado@sgc.gov.co; Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M., E-mail: mlpena@sgc.gov.co; Orozco, J. [Colombian Geological Survey, Nuclear Affairs Technical Division, Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, Bogota D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  5. Instruments for subsurface monitoring of geothermal subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, J.E.; Ranson, B.B.

    1979-07-01

    The requirements for a subsurface geothermal subsidence instrument were reviewed. Available instruments for monitoring subsurface displacements, both vertical and horizontal, were studied and the most capable instruments identified. Techniques and materials for improving existing or developing new instruments were evaluated. Elements of sensor and signal technology with potential for high temperature monitoring of subsidence were identified. Drawing from these studies, methods to adapt production wells for monitoring were proposed and several new instrumentation systems were conceptually designed. Finally, four instrumentation systems were selected for future development. These systems are: triple sensor induction sensor probe (with casing collar markers); triple sensor gamma ray detector probe (with radioactive markers); triple sensor reed switch probe (with magnet markers); and triple sensor oscillator-type magnet detector probe (with magnet markers). All are designed for use in well casing incorporating slip couplings or bellows sections, although the gamma ray detector probe may also be used in unlined holes. These systems all measure vertical moement. Instruments to measure horizontal displacement due to geothermal subsidence were studied and the required instrument performance was judged to be beyond the state-of-the-art. Thus, no conceptual designs for instruments to monitor horizontal movement are included.

  6. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R ampersand D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R ampersand D

  7. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R D.

  8. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  9. Design of springs in non-instrumented capsule for the HANARO irradiation test of advanced UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Kang, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    Non-instrumented capsule was designed to irradiate the large grain UO 2 pellet developed for the high burn-up LWR fuel in the HANARO reactor. The non-instrumented capsule will be irradiated for about 30 months in HANARO Outside-core (OR) region. In the non-instrumented capsule, there are four different springs such as top guide spring, bottom spring, plenum spring and fuel rod hol-down spring. To ensure the mechanical integrity of non-instrumented capsule during the long term operation, those springs were designed after the spring characteristic tests

  10. Software design for the VIS instrument onboard the Euclid mission: a multilayer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pezzuto, S.; Liu, S. J.; Giusi, G.; Li Causi, G.; Farina, M.; Cropper, M.; Denniston, J.; Niemi, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Euclid mission scientific payload is composed of two instruments: a VISible Imaging Instrument (VIS) and a Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument (NISP). Each instrument has its own control unit. The Instrument Command and Data Processing Unit (VI-CDPU) is the control unit of the VIS instrument. The VI-CDPU is connected directly to the spacecraft by means of a MIL-STD-1553B bus and to the satellite Mass Memory Unit via a SpaceWire link. All the internal interfaces are implemented via SpaceWire links and include 12 high speed lines for the data provided by the 36 focal plane CCDs readout electronics (ROEs) and one link to the Power and Mechanisms Control Unit (VI-PMCU). VI-CDPU is in charge of distributing commands to the instrument sub-systems, collecting their housekeeping parameters and monitoring their health status. Moreover, the unit has the task of acquiring, reordering, compressing and transferring the science data to the satellite Mass Memory. This last feature is probably the most challenging one for the VI-CDPU, since stringent constraints about the minimum lossless compression ratio, the maximum time for the compression execution and the maximum power consumption have to be satisfied. Therefore, an accurate performance analysis at hardware layer is necessary, which could delay too much the design and development of software. In order to mitigate this risk, in the multilayered design of software we decided to design a middleware layer that provides a set of APIs with the aim of hiding the implementation of the HW connected layer to the application one. The middleware is built on top of the Operating System layer (which includes the Real-Time OS that will be adopted) and the onboard Computer Hardware. The middleware itself has a multi-layer architecture composed of 4 layers: the Abstract RTOS Adapter Layer (AOSAL), the Speci_c RTOS Adapter Layer (SOSAL), the Common Patterns Layer (CPL), the Service Layer composed of two subgroups which

  11. Instrumentation effects on U and Pu CBNM standards spectra quality measured on a 500 mm3 CdZnTe and a 2×2 inch LaBr3 detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshenkovskii, I.; Borella, A.; Van der Meer, K.; Bruggeman, M.; Pauly, N.; Labeau, P. E.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, there is interest in developing gamma-ray measuring devices based on the room temperature operated medium resolution detectors such as semiconductor detectors of the CdZnTe type and scintillators of the LaBr3 type. This is true also for safeguards applications and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has launched a project devoted to the assessment of medium resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy for the verification of the isotopic composition of U and Pu bearing samples. This project is carried out within the Non-Destructive Assay Working Group of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA). In this study we analyze medium resolution spectra of U and Pu standards with the aim to develop an isotopic composition determination algorithm, particularly suited for these types of detectors. We show how the peak shape of a CdZnTe detector is influenced by the instrumentation parameters. The experimental setup consisted of a 500 mm3 CdZnTe detector, a 2×2 inch LaBr3 detector, two types of measurement instrumentation - an analogue one and a digital one, and a set of certified samples - a 207Bi point source and U and Pu CBNM standards. The results of our measurements indicate that the lowest contribution to the peak asymmetry and thus the smallest impact on the resolution of the 500 mm3 CdZnTe detector was achieved with the digital MCA. Analysis of acquired spectra allowed to reject poor quality measurement runs and produce summed spectra files with the least impact of instrumentation instabilities. This work is preliminary to further studies concerning the development of an isotopic composition determination algorithm particularly suited for CZT and LaBr3 detectors for safeguards applications.

  12. Instrumentation effects on U and Pu CBNM standards spectra quality measured on a 500 mm3 CdZnTe and a 2×2 inch LaBr3 detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleshenkovskii I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is interest in developing gamma-ray measuring devices based on the room temperature operated medium resolution detectors such as semiconductor detectors of the CdZnTe type and scintillators of the LaBr3 type. This is true also for safeguards applications and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA has launched a project devoted to the assessment of medium resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy for the verification of the isotopic composition of U and Pu bearing samples. This project is carried out within the Non-Destructive Assay Working Group of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA. In this study we analyze medium resolution spectra of U and Pu standards with the aim to develop an isotopic composition determination algorithm, particularly suited for these types of detectors. We show how the peak shape of a CdZnTe detector is influenced by the instrumentation parameters. The experimental setup consisted of a 500 mm3 CdZnTe detector, a 2×2 inch LaBr3 detector, two types of measurement instrumentation – an analogue one and a digital one, and a set of certified samples – a 207Bi point source and U and Pu CBNM standards. The results of our measurements indicate that the lowest contribution to the peak asymmetry and thus the smallest impact on the resolution of the 500 mm3 CdZnTe detector was achieved with the digital MCA. Analysis of acquired spectra allowed to reject poor quality measurement runs and produce summed spectra files with the least impact of instrumentation instabilities. This work is preliminary to further studies concerning the development of an isotopic composition determination algorithm particularly suited for CZT and LaBr3 detectors for safeguards applications.

  13. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  14. Conceptual design of instrumentation and control system for nuclear steel-making plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruoka, Kazuo; Amano, Hiroshi; Miyasugi, Takeshi; Okawa, Toshio.

    1982-01-01

    In the total system research, one of research items in a large project of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology ''Research and development of direct iron-making technology by utilizing high temperature reducing gas'', the total image of a direct iron-making pilot plant combined with a multi-purpose, high temperature gas-cooled, experimental reactor being developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was built up, and its technical problems were pointed out. In nuclear iron-making, nuclear thermal energy is taken out of a reactor, using helium as a medium, and by the pyrolysis of petroleum with the high temperature helium, the reducing gas containing CO and H 2 is obtained. Then, reduced iron is obtained by reducing iron ore pellets with the high temperature reducing gas. The conceptual design of this experimental plant was performed for two and a half years since 1978. In this paper, the outline of the instrumentation and control system and the design and evaluation methods adopted are described. The outline and the features of the experimental plant, the design of the instrumentation and control system, and the example of designing a control system with CONPAK are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Design of a 3-Stage ADR for the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument on the Astro-H Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; Wegel, Donald C.; Canavan, Edgar R.; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Astro-H mission will include the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument, whose 36-pixel detector array of ultra-sensitive x-ray microcalorimeters requires cooling to 50 mK. This will be accomplished using a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design is dictated by the need to operate with full redundancy with both a superfluid helium dewar at 1.3 K or below, and with a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cooler. The ADR is configured as a 2-stage unit that is located in a well in the helium tank, and a third stage that is mounted to the top of the helium tank. The third stage is directly connected through two heat switches to the JT cooler and the helium tank, and manages heat flow between the two. When liquid helium is present, the 2-stage ADR operates in a single-shot manner using the superfluid helium as a heat sink. The third stage may be used independently to reduce the time-average heat load on the liquid to extend its lifetime. When the liquid is depleted, the 2nd and 3rd stages operate as a continuous ADR to maintain the helium tank at as low a temperature as possible - expected to be 1.2 K - and the 1st stage cools from that temperature as a single-stage, single-shot ADR. The ADR s design and operating modes are discussed, along with test results of the prototype 3-stage ADR.

  16. Design and optimization of electrochemical detectors for HPLC and flow analysis systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, Kommer

    1980-01-01

    In dit proefschrift worden twee nieuwe electrochemische detectoren beschreven. De differentiële amperometrische detector is speciaal ontworpen voor de hoge druk vloeistof chromatografie, terwijl de amperometrische detector die berust op het principe van een roterende " wall - jet " electrode ook

  17. Reactor instrumentation and control design and performance simulation for SP-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R. A.; Alley, A. D.; Halfen, F. J.; Brynsvold, G. V.

    1987-01-01

    The SP-100 flight system will be launched with all primary and secondary lithium in the solid state. Once in orbit, the reactor will be brought critical and maintained at a low power level while the lithium is thawed out. Once the system is thawed out, the reactor power will be controlled to provide the energy source required by the power conversion system to meet the payload electrical power requirements. The Reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem which includes the reactor control drives, instrumentation and the digital controller provides for the control of the nuclear subsystem to perform these operating maneuvers as well as providing for automatic shutdown and restart under certain off-normal conditions. The design and performance of this system are described.

  18. The CLARA/NORSAT-1 solar absolute radiometer: instrument design, characterization and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin; Levesque, Pierre-Luc; Kopp, Greg; Andersen, Bo; Beck, Ivo; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Gyo, Manfred; Heuerman, Karl; Koller, Silvio; Mingard, Nathan; Remesal Oliva, Alberto; Pfiffner, Daniel; Soder, Ricco; Spescha, Marcel; Suter, Markus; Schmutz, Werner

    2017-10-01

    The compact lightweight absolute radiometer (CLARA) experiment aims at measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI) in space and is scheduled to fly on the Norwegian NORSAT-1 micro satellite. The CLARA experiment will contribute to the long term monitoring of the TSI variability to support the analysis of potential long term trends in the Sun’s variability. CLARA is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology radiometric scale and will provide further evidence for the TSI value on an absolute scale. In this paper we present the design, characterization, and calibration details of the CLARA instrument. The combined measurement uncertainty for the calibrated SI-traceable CLARA flight instrument is 567-912 ppm (k  =  1) depending on the measuring channel.

  19. Development and design of a late-model fitness test instrument based on LabView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Wu, Feiqing

    2010-12-01

    Undergraduates are pioneers of China's modernization program and undertake the historic mission of rejuvenating our nation in the 21st century, whose physical fitness is vital. A smart fitness test system can well help them understand their fitness and health conditions, thus they can choose more suitable approaches and make practical plans for exercising according to their own situation. following the future trends, a Late-model fitness test Instrument based on LabView has been designed to remedy defects of today's instruments. The system hardware consists of fives types of sensors with their peripheral circuits, an acquisition card of NI USB-6251 and a computer, while the system software, on the basis of LabView, includes modules of user register, data acquisition, data process and display, and data storage. The system, featured by modularization and an open structure, is able to be revised according to actual needs. Tests results have verified the system's stability and reliability.

  20. Advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants. Design, verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on design, verification and validation of advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants was held in Espoo, Finland on 20 - 23 June 1994. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Working Group's (IWG) on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (NPPCI) and on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (ATWR). VTT Automation together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy responded about the practical arrangements of the meeting. In total 96 participants from 21 countries and the Agency took part in the meeting and 34 full papers and 8 posters were presented. Following topics were covered in the papers: (1) experience with advanced and digital systems, (2) safety and reliability analysis, (3) advanced digital systems under development and implementation, (4) verification and validation methods and practices, (5) future development trends. (orig.)

  1. Design of a instrumentation module for monitoring ingestive behavior in laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    The development of accurate and objective tools for monitoring of ingestive behavior (MIB) is one of the most important needs facing studies of obesity and eating disorders. This paper presents the design of an instrumentation module for non-invasive monitoring of food ingestion in laboratory studies. The system can capture signals from a variety of sensors that characterize ingestion process (such as acoustical and other swallowing sensors, strain sensor for chewing detection and self-report buttons). In addition to the sensors, the data collection system integrates time-synchronous video footage that can be used for annotation of subject's activity. Both data and video are simultaneously and synchronously acquired and stored by a LabVIEW-based interface specifically developed for this application. This instrumentation module improves a previously developed system by eliminating the post-processing stage of data synchronization and by reducing the risks of operator's error.

  2. A new DOI detector design using discrete crystal array with depth-dependent reflector patterns and single-ended readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Chaeyeong [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jihoon, E-mail: ray.jihoon.kang@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 50 Daehak-ro, Yeosu, Jeonnam 59626 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong Hyun, E-mail: ychung@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-21

    We developed a depth of interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector using depth-dependent reflector patterns in a discrete crystal array. Due to the different reflector patterns at depth, light distribution was changed relative to depth. As a preliminary experiment, we measured DOI detector module crystal identification performance. The crystal consisted of a 9×9 array of 2 mmx2 mmx20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals. The crystal array was optically coupled to a 64-channel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube with a 2 mmx2 mm anode size and an 18.1 mmx18.1 mm effective area. We obtained the flood image with an Anger-type calculation. DOI layers and 9×9 pixels were well distinguished in the obtained images. Preclinical PET scanners based on this detector design offer the prospect of high and uniform spatial resolution.

  3. Design of Digital Multi-Radian Phase Detector on J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Zhoujun; Gao, Li; Liu, Minghai; Zhuang, Ge

    2014-10-01

    A real time system used to detect phase difference between two sinusoidal signals is proposed in this paper. The system is designed to process the phase signal of the far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) interferometer on J-TEXT. It is based on zero-crossing detection and makes use of the digital circuit. Compared with a traditional zero-crossing phase detector, it doesn't need to sacrifice the time resolution to expand the phase range. The phase difference is divided into two parts, the integer part and the fraction part. In each detecting cycle, they are detected separately. It outputs digital signals that are more stable for transmission. A prototype was built on J-TEXT using discrete components. A practical method is proposed to deal with the counting error caused by the deviation of electronic components in manufacture. Reasonable results were obtained on the prototype. The phase resolution reaches 2π/64 in test, and can still be improved by raising the clock frequency.

  4. Singular value decomposition metrics show limitations of detector design in diffuse fluorescence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Frederic; Tichauer, Kenneth M; Pogue, Brian W

    2010-11-29

    The spatial resolution and recovered contrast of images reconstructed from diffuse fluorescence tomography data are limited by the high scattering properties of light propagation in biological tissue. As a result, the image reconstruction process can be exceedingly vulnerable to inaccurate prior knowledge of tissue optical properties and stochastic noise. In light of these limitations, the optimal source-detector geometry for a fluorescence tomography system is non-trivial, requiring analytical methods to guide design. Analysis of the singular value decomposition of the matrix to be inverted for image reconstruction is one potential approach, providing key quantitative metrics, such as singular image mode spatial resolution and singular data mode frequency as a function of singular mode. In the present study, these metrics are used to analyze the effects of different sources of noise and model errors as related to image quality in the form of spatial resolution and contrast recovery. The image quality is demonstrated to be inherently noise-limited even when detection geometries were increased in complexity to allow maximal tissue sampling, suggesting that detection noise characteristics outweigh detection geometry for achieving optimal reconstructions.

  5. Design and Development of a Salbutamol Intake Detector for Low Respiratory Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vui Hin, Tsen; Ilyani Ramli, Nur

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposed a new salbutamol intake detector design using asthma spacer and gas sensor. The device enable real time monitoring of propellant level inhaled by the infant which will decrease the recovery time of the asthma attack. Microcontroller Arduino UNO is program to control the input and output of the system. MQ6 gas sensor detecting the propellant Hydrofluoroalkane from the metered dose inhaler (MDI) canister and demonstrated the level of propellant inhaled on the LCD in real time. MQ6 gas sensor suitable used to detect concentration of propellant inside the asthma spacer due to it is low sensitive to natural gas where include the carbon dioxide exhaled by the infant. Besides this, MQ6 gas sensor also highly sensitive to propane and the preview aerosol inventor mentioned propane as propellant which used for MDI to push the salbutamol out from MDI canister. Therefore, MQ6 gas sensor is suitable to detect propellant inside asthma spacer. The output voltage of MQ6 in initial state where no propellant inside asthma spacer is between 0.55V and 0.65V. Furthermore, when the MDI canister is been pressed, the concentration of propellant is increased and the output voltage of MQ6 gas sensor also increased in ranged between 1.1V and 1.2V.

  6. Design and Development of Mode System for Sealed Radioactive Sources at Nuclear Instrumentation Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity is a major health hazard in nuclear field. In this project, a facility has been developed for monitoring sealed radioactive radiation sources using a computational and identification software based approach. This design software is a hybrid software using Visual Basic for computational analysis and Image Processing in MATLAB for identification of sources. This facility is developed to prevent students, lab officers and lab staff from unnecessary radiation hazards. A modular software based design has been addressed in this project with dynamic monitoring and identification of sealed radioactive radiation sources. The facility is fully automated and can controlled and handled remotely though a desktop computer based graphical user interface. This facility provides on - line activity measurement and computation features. This facility is a new state of the art design for nuclear instrumentation laboratory fulfilling the safety requirement of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Directorate of Safety. (author)

  7. Design and evaluation of a SiPM-based large-area detector module for positron emission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Sánchez, H.; Murrieta-Rodríguez, T.; Calva-Coraza, E.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.

    2018-03-01

    The design and evaluation of a large-area detector module for positron emission imaging applications, is presented. The module features a SensL ArrayC-60035-64P-PCB solid state detector (8×8 array of tileable silicon photomultipliers by SensL, 7.2 mm pitch) covering a total area of 57.4×57.4 mm2. The detector module was formed using a pixelated array of 40×40 lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillator crystal elements with 1.43 mm pitch. A 7 mm thick coupling light guide was used to allow light sharing between adjacent SiPM. A 16-channel symmetric charge division (SCD) readout board was designed to multiplex the number of signals from 64 to 16 (8 columns and 8 rows) and a center-of-gravity algorithm to identify the position. Data acquisition and digitization was accomplished using a custom-made system based on FPGAs boards. Crystal maps were obtained using 18F-positron sources and Voronoi diagrams were used to correct for geometric distortions and to generate a non-uniformity correction matrix. All measurements were taken at a controlled room temperature of 22oC. The crystal maps showed minor distortion, 90% of the 1600 total crystal elements could be identified, a mean peak-to-valley ratio of 4.3 was obtained and a 10.8% mean energy resolution for 511 keV annihilation photons was determined. The performance of the detector using our own readout board was compared to that using two different commercially readout boards using the same detector module arrangement. We show that these large-area SiPM arrays, combined with a 16-channel SCD readout board, can offer high spatial resolution, excellent energy resolution and detector uniformity and thus, can be used for positron emission imaging applications.

  8. Design and performance of dual-polarization lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter-wave polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrick, H.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Abitbol, M. H.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bryan, S.; Day, P.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Flanigan, D.; Leduc, H. G.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; Miller, A.; Tucker, C.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: Lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) are an attractive technology for millimeter-wave observations that require large arrays of extremely low-noise detectors. We designed, fabricated and characterized 64-element (128 LEKID) arrays of horn-coupled, dual-polarization LEKIDs optimized for ground-based CMB polarimetry. Our devices are sensitive to two orthogonal polarizations in a single spectral band centered on 150 GHz with Δν/ν = 0.2. The 65 × 65 mm square arrays are designed to be tiled into the focal plane of an optical system. We demonstrate the viability of these dual-polarization LEKIDs with laboratory measurements. Methods: The LEKID modules are tested with an FPGA-based readout system in a sub-kelvin cryostat that uses a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The devices are characterized using a blackbody and a millimeter-wave source. The polarization properties are measured with a cryogenic stepped half-wave plate. We measure the resonator parameters and the detector sensitivity, noise spectrum, dynamic range, and polarization response. Results: The resonators have internal quality factors approaching 1 × 106. The detectors have uniform response between orthogonal polarizations and a large dynamic range. The detectors are photon-noise limited above 1 pW of absorbed power. The noise-equivalent temperatures under a 3.4 K blackbody load are 80%. The entire array is multiplexed on a single readout line, demonstrating a multiplexing factor of 128. The array and readout meet the requirements for 4 arrays to be read out simultaneously for a multiplexing factor of 512. Conclusions: This laboratory study demonstrates the first dual-polarization LEKID array optimized specifically for CMB polarimetry and shows the readiness of the detectors for on-sky observations.

  9. Democratizing science with the aid of parametric design and additive manufacturing: Design and fabrication of a versatile and low-cost optical instrument for scattering measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Serrano, Jose M; Nadal-Serrano, Adolfo; Lopez-Vallejo, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of rapid prototyping techniques using additive manufacturing in combination with parametric design to create low-cost, yet accurate and reliable instruments. The methodology followed makes it possible to make instruments with a degree of customization until now available only to a narrow audience, helping democratize science. The proposal discusses a holistic design-for-manufacturing approach that comprises advanced modeling techniques, open-source design strategies, and an optimization algorithm using free parametric software for both professional and educational purposes. The design and fabrication of an instrument for scattering measurement is used as a case of study to present the previous concepts.

  10. Design and performance of the ABCD chip for the binary readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, W; Buttar, C M; Cindro, V; Clarks, A G; Dawson, I; Dorfan, D; Dubbs, T; Falconer, N; French, M; Greenall, A; Grillo, A A; Happer, R; Jarron, Pierre; Kaplon, J; Kudlaty, J; Kramberger, G; Lacasta, C; La Marra, D; Macina, Daniela; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Meddeler, G; Milgrome, O; Niggli, H; Phillips, P W; Roe, S; Smith, A; Spieler, H; Spencer, E; Szczygiel, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wolter, M; Zsenei, A

    2000-01-01

    The ABCD design is a single chip implementation of the binary readout architecture for silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker. The prototype chip has been manufactured successfully in the DMILL process. In the paper we present the design of the chip and the measurement results. The basic analogue performance of the ABCD design has been evaluated using a prototype SCT module equipped with the ABCD chips. The digital performance has been evaluated using a general purpose IC tester. The measurements confirmed that all blocks of the ABCD design are fully functional and the chips meet all basic requirements of the SCT. (7 refs).

  11. GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF INSTRUMENTS OF COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT FROM MEASURABLE LEARNING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Polo Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation is not enough to improve education necessary but. There are no magic to educational problems through assessment solutions. However, the evaluation, in partnership with the methodology, should be treated as determinants of the quality and improving education. Surely, many teachers agree that it is not easy to design assessment tools that are consistent with the teaching-learning competence and, in turn, with rigorous curriculum standards and assessment of the Autonomous Community. However, this difficulty should not be considered as an impossibility. Through this article aims to contribute to building an improvement plan associated with the design of the evaluation instruments from different areas or subjects. Such a design should be based on at least the following: I want to evaluate (referring to assessment criteria and standards of assessable learning included in the instrument and I will evaluate (referencing jurisdictional situations linked to next and known student context, HOW I WILL QUALIFY (preserving the right of students to an objective evaluation and what consequences they will have the results for the different agents that make up the educational community.

  12. Quadrupole-free detector optics design for the Compact Linear Collider final focus system at 3 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Plassard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to simplify the machine detector interface of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC, a new detector model has been designed allowing the last quadrupole QD0 of the final focus system (FFS to be located outside of the experiment with a distance L^{*} from the interaction point of 6 m. In this paper, the beam delivery system (BDS has been reoptimized, offering a luminosity performance that exceeds the design requirements by 11% for the total luminosity and by 7% in the energy peak. A simulation campaign has been carried out and has proved the feasibility of recovering the luminosity under realistic transverse misalignments of the FFS optics, by means of different orbit and aberration correction techniques, making this long L^{*} design a realistic candidate for the future CLIC BDS.

  13. Quadrupole-free detector optics design for the Compact Linear Collider final focus system at 3 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Fabien; Latina, Andrea; Marin, Eduardo; Tomás, Rogelio; Bambade, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to simplify the machine detector interface of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a new detector model has been designed allowing the last quadrupole QD0 of the final focus system (FFS) to be located outside of the experiment with a distance L* from the interaction point of 6 m. In this paper, the beam delivery system (BDS) has been reoptimized, offering a luminosity performance that exceeds the design requirements by 11% for the total luminosity and by 7% in the energy peak. A simulation campaign has been carried out and has proved the feasibility of recovering the luminosity under realistic transverse misalignments of the FFS optics, by means of different orbit and aberration correction techniques, making this long L* design a realistic candidate for the future CLIC BDS.

  14. Design and manufacturing methods for the integral field unit of the nirspec instrument on JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Dan; Robertson, David

    2017-11-01

    An integral field unit, to be used with the near-IR spectrometer instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is currently under development by SSTL and CfAI. Special problems in design and manufacture of the optical system are outlined, and manufacturing methods for critical optical elements are discussed. The optical system is complex, requiring a total of 95 mirrors to produce 30 output channels. Emphasis is placed on the advantages of free-form machining in aluminium. These include: resistance to launch stress, insensitivity to temperature variations from ambient to cryogenic, and the possibility of relatively complex mirror surface shapes.

  15. Design and characterization of radiation resistant integrated circuits for the LHC particle detectors using deep sub-micron CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelli, Giovanni Maria

    2000-01-01

    The electronic circuits associated with the particle detectors of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have to work in a highly radioactive environment. This work proposes a methodology allowing the design of radiation resistant integrated circuits using the commercial sub-micron CMOS technology. This method uses the intrinsic radiation resistance of ultra-thin grid oxides, the technology of enclosed layout transistors (ELT), and the protection rings to avoid the radio-induced creation of leakage currents. In order to check the radiation tolerance level, several test structures have been designed and tested with different radiation sources. These tests have permitted to study the physical phenomena responsible for the damages induced by the radiations and the possible remedies. Then, the particular characteristics of ELT transistors and their influence on the design of complex integrated circuits has been explored. The modeling of the W/L ratio, the asymmetries (for instance in the output conductance) and the performance of ELT couplings have never been studied yet. The noise performance of the 0.25 μ CMOS technology, used in the design of several integrated circuits of the LHC detectors, has been characterized before and after irradiation. Finally, two integrated circuits designed using the proposed method are presented. The first one is an analogic memory and the other is a circuit used for the reading of the signals of one of the LHC detectors. Both circuits were irradiated and have endured very high doses practically without any sign of performance degradation. (J.S.)

  16. Using the Rasch measurement model to design a report writing assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Wayne R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how the Rasch measurement model was used to develop an assessment instrument designed to measure student ability to write law enforcement incident and investigative reports. The ability to write reports is a requirement of all law enforcement recruits in the state of Michigan and is a part of the state's mandatory basic training curriculum, which is promulgated by the Michigan Commission on Law Enforcement Standards (MCOLES). Recently, MCOLES conducted research to modernize its training and testing in the area of report writing. A structured validation process was used, which included: a) an examination of the job tasks of a patrol officer, b) input from content experts, c) a review of the professional research, and d) the creation of an instrument to measure student competency. The Rasch model addressed several measurement principles that were central to construct validity, which were particularly useful for assessing student performances. Based on the results of the report writing validation project, the state established a legitimate connectivity between the report writing standard and the essential job functions of a patrol officer in Michigan. The project also produced an authentic instrument for measuring minimum levels of report writing competency, which generated results that are valid for inferences of student ability. Ultimately, the state of Michigan must ensure the safety of its citizens by licensing only those patrol officers who possess a minimum level of core competency. Maintaining the validity and reliability of both the training and testing processes can ensure that the system for producing such candidates functions as intended.

  17. Quantitative imaging of the human upper airway: instrument design and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, M. S.; Armstrong, J. J.; Paduch, A.; Sampson, D. D.; Walsh, J. H.; Hillman, D. R.; Eastwood, P. R.

    2006-08-01

    Imaging of the human upper airway is widely used in medicine, in both clinical practice and research. Common imaging modalities include video endoscopy, X-ray CT, and MRI. However, no current modality is both quantitative and safe to use for extended periods of time. Such a capability would be particularly valuable for sleep research, which is inherently reliant on long observation sessions. We have developed an instrument capable of quantitative imaging of the human upper airway, based on endoscopic optical coherence tomography. There are no dose limits for optical techniques, and the minimally invasive imaging probe is safe for use in overnight studies. We report on the design of the instrument and its use in preliminary clinical studies, and we present results from a range of initial experiments. The experiments show that the instrument is capable of imaging during sleep, and that it can record dynamic changes in airway size and shape. This information is useful for research into sleep disorders, and potentially for clinical diagnosis and therapies.

  18. Design of the dual instrumented fuel rods to measure the nuclear fuel characteristics during Irradiation test at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Oh, Jong Myung; Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Ki nam; Choi, Myung Hwan; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Boong Goo; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    The instrumented capsule for the nuclear fuel irradiation test (hereinafter referred to instrumented fuel capsule), which are crucial for the verification of a nuclear fuel performance and safety, have been developed at HANARO(High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). The irradiation test of the first instrumented fuel capsule(02F-11K) was carried out in March 2003 for 1,296 MWD(Mega Watt Day) and the irradiation test of the second instrumented fuel capsule(03F-05K) was carried out in April 2004 for 1,533MWD at HANARO. Through the irradiation tests of the two capsules, the design specifications and safety of the instrumented fuel capsule were verified successfully. In the 02F-11K instrumented fuel capsule, only the technologies for measuring the center temperature of the nuclear fuel and neutron flux were implemented. In the 03F-05K instrumented fuel capsule, the technologies for measuring the center temperature of the nuclear fuel, the internal pressure of the fuel rod, the elongation of the nuclear fuel and the neutron flux were implemented. The purpose of this paper is to develop the dual instrumented technology that enables two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod. Therefore, this paper presents the design of the dual instrumented fuel rods and the plan of the irradiation test for the newly designed fuel rods

  19. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  20. System Design and Implementation of the Detector Assembly of the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, M. P.; Adams, J.; Goodwin, P.; Hobson, C.W.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammom, D.; McGuinness, D. S.; Moseley, S. J.; Porter, F. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) onboard Astro-H presents to the science community unprecedented capability (less than 7 eV at 6 keV) for high-resolution spectral measurements in the range of 0.5-12 keV to study extended celestial sources. At the heart of this SXS is the x-ray calorimeter spectrometer (XCS) where detectors (calorimeter array and anticoincidence detector) operate at 50 mK, the bias circuit operates at nominal 1.3 K, and the first stage amplifiers operateat 130 K, all within a nominal 20 cm envelope. The design of the detector assembly in this XCS originates from the Astro-E x-ray spectrometer (XRS) and lessons learned from Astro-E and Suzaku. After the production of our engineering model, additional changes were made in order to improve our flight assembly process for better reliability and overall performance. In this poster, we present the final design and implementation of the flight detector assembly, show comparison of parameters and performance to Suzakus XRS, and list susceptibilities to other subsystems as well as our lessons learned.