WorldWideScience

Sample records for detection-ion trap mass

  1. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  2. Suitability of a magnetic particle immunoassay for the analysis of PBDEs in Hawaiian euryhaline fish and crabs in comparison with gas chromatography/electron capture detection-ion trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ting; Cho, Il Kyu; Wang Dongli; Rubio, Fernando M.; Shelver, Weilin L.; Gasc, Anne M.E.; Li, Ji; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    A gas chromatograph/electron capture detector-ion trap mass spectrometer (GC/ECD-ITMS) was used for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in euryhaline fish and crabs. GC/ECD-ITMS results showed that average recoveries from the spiked fish samples are in a range of 58-123% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5-19%. PBDE concentrations obtained from GC/ECD-ITMS ranged from 28 ng/g to 1845 ng/g lipid weight (lw) in all aquatic species collected from Hawaiian brackish waters. The general BDE congener concentration profile observed in this study is BDE-47 > BDE-100 > BDE-154 > BDE-99 > BDE-153 > BDE-28 > BDE-183. The ELISA results expressed as BDE-47 equivalents correlated well with those of GC/ECD-ITMS, with a correlation coefficient (R 2 = 0.68) and regression coefficient (slope = 0.82). Comparison of ELISA with GC/ECD-ITMS results demonstrated that ELISA provides a timely and cost-effective method to screen PBDEs in fish and crab samples. - PBDEs (with the most abundant being BDE-47) at concentrations of 28-1845 ng/g lipid weight in fish and crabs from Hawaiian freshwater were detected with both ELISA and GC/MS

  3. Calcium Atom Trap for Atom Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Artificially produced fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of them has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10-10. The ultra-trace radio isotopes have been analyzed by the radio-chemical method, accelerator mass spectrometer, and laser based method. The radiochemical method has been used in the nuclear industry. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The accelerator mass spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and it has the isobar effects. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) is a basically isobar-effect free method. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis), one of the laser based method, has been successfully demonstrated sufficient isotope selectivity with small system size. It has been applied for the detection of Kr-81 and Kr-85. However, it is not suitable for real sample detection, because it requires steady atomic beam generation during detection and is not allowed simultaneous detection of other isotopes. Therefore, we proposed the coupled method of Atom Trap and Mass Spectrometer. It consists of three parts, neutral atom trap, ionization and mass spectrometer. In this paper, we present the demonstration of the magneto-optical trap of neutral calcium. We discuss the isotope selective characteristics of the MOT (Magneto Optical Trap) of calcium by the fluorescence measurement. In addition, the frequency stabilization of the trap beam will be presented

  4. Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworschak, M.; Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Vorobyev, G. K.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Eliseev, S.; Ketter, J.; Fleckenstein, T.; Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Kluge, H.-J.

    2010-01-01

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt allows accurate mass measurements of radionuclides, produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated by the velocity filter SHIP from the primary beam. Recently, the masses of the three nobelium isotopes 252-254 No were determined. These are the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements, which provide new anchor points in this region. The heavy nuclides were produced in cold-fusion reactions by irradiating a PbS target with a 48 Ca beam, resulting in production rates of the nuclei of interest of about one atom per second. In combination with data from decay spectroscopy our results are used to perform a new atomic-mass evaluation in this region.

  5. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 5 applications of ion trapping devices

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Examines ion/neutral and ion/ion reactions, ion spectroscopy, and the structural characterization of proteins and peptides using quadropole ion trap mass spectrometry, Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

  6. Coupling an optical trap to a mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, E.P.; Sandberg, V.D.; Tupa, D.; Vieira, D.J.; Zhao, X.X. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Guckert, R.; Wollnik, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]/[Giessen Univ. (Germany); Preston, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]/[California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The efficient coupling of a magneto-optical trap to a mass separator is being developed to undertake high-precision electroweak interaction measurements in a series of radioisotopes. The use of ion implantation and subsequent heated-foil release is being pursued as a suitable way of introducing radioactive samples into the ultrahigh vacuum region of an optical trap without gas loading. This paper discusses the layout of the mass separator,the coupling to a magneto- optical trap, and the implantation and release scheme.

  7. Coupling an optical trap to a mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, E.P.; Sandberg, V.D.; Tupa, D.; Vieira, D.J.; Zhao, X.X.; Guckert, R.; Wollnik, H.; Preston, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The efficient coupling of a magneto-optical trap to a mass separator is being developed to undertake high-precision electroweak interaction measurements in a series of radioisotopes. The use of ion implantation and subsequent heated-foil release is being pursued as a suitable way of introducing radioactive samples into the ultrahigh vacuum region of an optical trap without gas loading. This paper discusses the layout of the mass separator,the coupling to a magneto- optical trap, and the implantation and release scheme

  8. Precision mass measurements at THe-trap and the FSU trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, Martin Juergen

    2016-07-26

    THe-Trap is a Penning-trap mass spectrometer at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany, that aims to measure the T/{sup 3}He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of 10{sup -11}. Improvements of the measurement technique, in particular the measurement of systematic shifts, enabled measurements of mass ratios with relative uncertainties of 7.10{sup -11}, as demonstrated by a cyclotron frequency ratio determination on {sup 12}C{sup 4+}/{sup 16}O{sup 5+}. This uncertainty was limited by the lineshape. An improved theoretical model based on a rotating wave approximation can be used to describe dynamical interactions between the detection system and the ion, in order to better understand the lineshape and to further reduce the uncertainty. The Florida State University trap is a Penning-trap mass spectrometer located in Tallahassee, Florida (USA). In the context of this thesis, three mass ratios were measured, and further 20 mass ratio measurements analyzed, which resulted in the publication of the masses of {sup 82,83}Kr, {sup 131,134}Xe, {sup 86-88}Sr, and {sup 170-174,176}Yb with relative uncertainties between (0.9 - 1.3).10{sup -10}. These masses serve as reference masses for other experiments and have applications in the determination of the fine-structure constant alpha via the photon-recoil method.

  9. Trap-induced mass declines in small mammals: Mass as a population index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2003-01-01

    Body mass is routinely used as an index of physical condition for comparing small-mammal populations. However, trapping effects on animals may undermine the effectiveness of body mass as an index of population health. We examined the effects of live-trapping on body mass of 3 small-mammal species: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), southern red-...

  10. Precise mass measurements of exotic nuclei--the SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Dworschak, M.; Eliseev, S.; Hessberger, F.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Maero, G.; Martin, A.; Mazzocco, M.; Rauth, C.; Vorobjev, G.; Blaum, K.; Ferrer, R.; Neidherr, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Neumayr, J.

    2007-01-01

    The SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer has been designed and constructed to measure the mass of short-lived, radioactive nuclei. The radioactive nuclei are produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated in flight with the velocity filter SHIP at GSI in Darmstadt. They are captured in a gas cell and transfered to a double Penning trap mass spectrometer. There, the cyclotron frequencies of the radioactive ions are determined and yield mass values with uncertainties ≥4.5·10 -8 . More than 50 nuclei have been investigated so far with the present overall efficiency of about 0.5 to 2%

  11. Electrostatic ion trap and Fourier transform measurements for high-resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K. G.; Gadkari, S. C.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Sahni, V. C.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development of an electrostatic ion trap for high-resolution mass spectrometry. The trap works on purely electrostatic fields and hence trapping and storing of ions is not mass restrictive, unlike other techniques based on Penning, Paul, or radio frequency quadrupole ion traps. It allows simultaneous trapping and studying of multiple mass species over a large mass range. Mass spectra were recorded in ''dispersive'' and ''self-bunching'' modes of ions. Storage lifetimes of about 100 ms and mass resolving power of about 20 000 could be achieved from the fifth harmonic Fourier transform spectrum of Xe ions recorded in the self-bunching mode

  12. Recent results from the Penning trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christine; Elomaa, Viki-Veikko; Eronen, Tommi; Hakala, Jani; Jokinen, Ari; Kankainen, Anu; Rahaman, Saidur; Rissanen, Juho; Aeystoe, Juha [Department of Physics, (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    Accurate mass determination employing Penning ion traps has gained increasing importance after the installation of several new on-line facilities at accelerator labs. These setups combine unique production possibilities for rare isotopes with elaborate ion-capture and manipulation techniques. Since the final commissioning of the JYFLTRAP setup at the IGISOL facility in Jyvaeskylae, the masses of more than 200 short-lived nuclides have been measured. Their knowledge applies to studies on nuclear structure, the modeling of nucleosynthesis processes, tests of the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis and the unitarity of the CKM matrix, and furthermore, can help to assist in ongoing searches of neutrinoless double-beta decays. This presentation focuses on recent highlights studied at JYFLTRAP.

  13. Measurement and simulation of the pressure ratio between the two traps of double Penning trap mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidherr, D.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Ferrer, R.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Weber, C.

    2008-01-01

    Penning traps are ideal tools to perform high-precision mass measurements. For this purpose the cyclotron frequency of the stored charged particles is measured. In case of on-line mass measurements of short-lived nuclides produced at radioactive beam facilities the ions get in general first prepared and cooled by buffer-gas collisions in a preparation trap to reduce their motional amplitudes and are then transported to a precision trap for the cyclotron frequency determination. In modern Penning trap mass spectrometers both traps are placed in the homogeneous region of one superconducting magnet to optimize the transport efficiency. Because the gas pressure inside the precision trap has to be very low in order to minimize the damping of the ion motion caused by collisions with rest gas molecules during the frequency determination, a pumping barrier is installed between both traps. To predict the pressure difference between the two traps in the region of molecular gas flow the motion of each particle can be simulated without consideration of the other particles. Thus, it is possible to calculate the transit probability through a tube of a given geometry. The results are compared with experimentally obtained pressure differences.

  14. New Isotope Analysis Method: Atom Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young

    2011-01-01

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Some fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of artificially produced radioactive isotopes has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10 -10 . In general, radio-chemical method has been applied to detect ultra-trace radio isotopes. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The Accelerator Mass Spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and its selectivity is affected by isobars. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) has the advantage of isobar-effect free characteristics. But the system size is still huge for high isotope selective system. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis) has been successfully applied to detect ultra-trace isotope, Kr-81 and Kr-85. ATTA is the isobar-effect free detection with high isotope selectivity and the system size is small. However, it requires steady atomic beam source during detection, and is not allowed simultaneous detection of several isotopes. In this presentation, we introduce new isotope detection method which is a coupled method of Atom Trap Mass Spectrometry (ATMS). We expect that it can overcome the disadvantage of ATTA while it has both advantages of ATTA and mass spectrometer. The basic concept and the system design will be presented. In addition, the experimental status of ATMS will also be presented

  15. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  16. High-Precision Mass Measurements of Exotic Nuclei with the Triple-Trap Mass Spectrometer Isoltrap

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Zuber, K T; Stanja, J

    2002-01-01

    The masses of close to 200 short-lived nuclides have already been measured with the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with a relative precision between 1$\\times$10$^{-7}$ and 1$\\times$10^{-8}$. The installatin of a radio-frequency quadrupole trap increased the overall efficiency by two orders of magnitude which is at present about 1%. In a recent upgrade, we installed a carbon cluster laser ion source, which will allow us to use carbon clusters as mass references for absolute mass measurements. Due to these improvements and the high reliability of ISOLTRAP we are now able to perform accurate high-precision mass measurements all over the nuclear chart. We propose therefore mass measurements on light, medium and heavy nuclides on both sides of the valley of stability in the coming four years. ISOLTRAP is presently the only instrument capable of the high precision required for many of the proposed studies.

  17. A novel ion cooling trap for multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y., E-mail: yito@riken.jp [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Schury, P. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); New Mexico State University, Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Wada, M.; Naimi, S. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Smorra, C. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sonoda, T. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mita, H. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Takamine, A. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aoyama Gakuin University, 4-4-25 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8366 (Japan); Okada, K. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Wollnik, H. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); New Mexico State University, Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Fast cooling time: 2 ms. • High efficiency: ≈27% for {sup 23}Na{sup +} and ≈5.1% for {sup 7}Li{sup +}. • 100% Duty cycle with double trap system. -- Abstract: A radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap system for use with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF) for short-lived nuclei has been developed. The trap system consists of two different parts, an asymmetric taper trap and a flat trap. The ions are cooled to a sufficient small bunch for precise mass measurement with MRTOF in only 2 ms cooling time in the flat trap, then orthogonally ejected to the MRTOF for mass analysis. A trapping efficiency of ≈27% for {sup 23}Na{sup +} and ≈5.1% for {sup 7}Li{sup +} has been achieved.

  18. Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hofmann, S.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Haettner, E.; Plaß, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ramirez, E. Minaya; Nesterenko, D.

    2013-01-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

  19. Direct trace analysis of metals and alloys in a quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Song, K S; Yang, M; Cha, H K; Lee, J M; Lee, G H

    1999-01-01

    An ion-trap mass spectrometer adopting a quadrupole ion-trap and laser ablation/ionization method was constructed. The developed system was tested for composition analysis of some metals (Cu, stainless), and alloys (hastalloy C, mumetal) by mass spectrometry. Samples were analyzed by using laser ablation from a sample probe tip followed by a mass analysis with the quadrupole ion-trap. The quadrupole ion-trap was modified to enable laser ablation by a XeCl excimer laser pulse that passed radially through the ring electrode. A mass scan of the produced ions was performed in the mass selective instability mode wherein trapped ions were successively detected by increasing the rf voltage through the ring electrode. Factors affecting the mass resolution, such as pressure of buffer gas and ablation laser power, are discussed.

  20. Chemical characterization of microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a new technique for the chemical characterization of microparticles based upon the use of electrodynamic traps. The electrodynamic trap has achieved widespread use in the mass spectrometry community in the form of the ion trap mass spectrometer or quadrupole ion trap. Small macroscopic particles can be confined or levitated within the electrode structure of a three-dimensional quadrupole electrodynamic trap in the same way as fundamental charges or molecular ions by using a combination of ac and dc potentials. Our concept is to use the same electrode structure to perform both microparticle levitation and ion trapping/mass analysis. The microparticle will first be trapped and spatially stabilized within the trap for characterization by optical probes, i.e., absorption, fluorescence, or Raman spectroscopy. After the particle has been optically characterized, it is further characterized using mass spectrometry. Ions are generated from the particle surface using laser ablation or desorption. The characteristics of the applied voltages are changed to trap the ions formed by the laser with the ions subsequently mass analyzed. The work described in this paper focuses on the ability to perform laser desorption experiments on microparticles contained within the ion trap

  1. Precise mass measurements of astrophysical interest made with the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.A.; Barber, R.C.; Blank, B.; Boudreau, C.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Gulick, S.; Hardy, J.C.; Heinz, A.; Lee, J.K.P.; Levand, A.F.; Moore, R.B.; Savard, G.; Seweryniak, D.; Sharma, K.S.; Sprouse, G.D.; Trimble, W.; Vaz, J.; Wang, J.C.; Zhou, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The processes responsible for the creation of elements more massive than iron are not well understood. Possible production mechanisms involve the rapid capture of protons (rp-process) or the rapid capture of neutrons (r-process), which are thought to occur in explosive astrophysical events such as novae, x-ray bursts, and supernovae. Mass measurements of the nuclides involved with uncertainties on the order of 100 keV or better are critical to determine the process 'paths', the energy output of the events, and the resulting nuclide abundances. Particularly important are the masses of 'waiting-point' nuclides along the rp-process path where the process stalls until the subsequent β decay of the nuclides. This paper will discuss the precise mass measurements made of isotopes along the rp-process and r-process paths using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer, including the mass of the critical waiting-point nuclide 68 Se

  2. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 4 theory and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of the use of ion trapping in different areas of mass spectrometry and different areas of application indicates the value of a single source of information drawing together diverse inputs. This book provides an account of the theory and instrumentation of mass spectrometric applications and an introduction to ion trapping devices.

  3. PENTATRAP. A novel Penning-trap system for high-precision mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas

    2015-01-21

    The novel Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP aims at mass-ratio determinations of medium-heavy to heavy ions with relative uncertainties below 10{sup -11}. From the mass ratios of certain ion species, the corresponding mass differences will be determined with sub-eV/c{sup 2} uncertainties. These mass differences are relevant for neutrino-mass experiments, a test of special relativity and tests of bound-state QED. Means to obtain the required precision are very stable trapping fields, the use of highly-charged ions produced by EBITs, a non-destructive cyclotron-frequency determination scheme employing detectors with single-ion sensitivity and a five-trap tower, that allows for measurement schemes being insensitive to magnetic field drifts. Within this thesis, part of the detection electronics was set up and tested under experimental conditions. A single-trap setup was realized. A Faraday cup in the trap tower enabled the proper adjustment of the settings of the beamline connecting the EBIT and the Penning-trap system, resulting in the first trapping of ions at PENTATRAP. A stabilization of switched voltages in the beamline and detailed studies of ion bunch characteristics allowed for reproducible loading of only a few ions. Detection of the axial oscillation of the trapped ions gave hints that in some cases, even single ions had been trapped. Furthermore, valuable conclusions about necessary modifications of the setup could be drawn.

  4. Chemical characterization of microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a new technique for the chemical characterization of microparticles based upon the use of electrodynamic traps. The electrodynamic trap has achieved widespread use in the mass spectrometry community in the form of the ion trap mass spectrometer or quadrupole ion trap. Small macroscopic particles can be confined or leviated within the electrode structure of a three-dimensional quadrupole electrodynamic trap in the same way as fundamental charges or molecular ions by using a combination of ac and dc potentials. Our concept is to use the same electrode structure to perform both microparticle levitation and ion trapping/mass analysis. The microparticle will first be trapped and spatially stabilized within the trap for characterization by optical probes, i.e., absorption, fluorescence, or Raman spectroscopy. After the particle has been optically characterized, it is further characterized using mass spectrometry. Ions are generated from the particle surface using laser ablation or desorption. The characteristics of the applied voltages are changed to trap the ions formed by the laser with the ions subsequently mass analyzed. The work described in this paper focuses on the ability to perform laser desorption experiments on microparticles contained within the ion trap. Laser desorption has previously been demonstrated in ion trap devices by applying the sample to a probe which is inserted so as to place the sample at the surface of the ring electrode. Our technique requires the placement of a microparticle in the center of the trap. Our initial experiments have been performed on falling microparticles rather than levitated particles to eliminate voltage switching requirements when changing from particle to ion trapping modes

  5. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, Michael Gerhard

    2009-12-08

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt was set up for high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides produced in fusion evaporation reactions and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. It consists of a gas stopping cell for the deceleration of the high energetic reaction products, an RFQ cooler and buncher for cooling and accumulation of the ions, and a double Penning trap system to perform mass measurements. The mass is determined by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the ion of interest in a strong homogeneous magnetic field and comparing it to the frequency of a well-known reference ion. With this method relative uncertainties in the order of 10{sup -8} can be achieved. Recently, mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No (Z=102) and the lawrencium isotope {sup 255}Lr (Z=103) were performed successfully. These were the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements ever per- formed. The production rate of the atoms of interest was about one per second or less. The results of the measurements on nobelium confirm the previous mass values which were deduced from Q{sub {alpha}} values. In the case of {sup 255}Lr the mass excess value, which was previously only estimated from systematic trends, was for the first time directly measured. These results mark the first step in the exploration of the region of transuranium elements which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to fix the endpoints of {alpha} decay chains which are originating from superheavy elements close to the predicted island of stability. (orig.)

  6. Management of Cosmopolites sordidus and Metamasius hemipterus in banana by pheromone-based mass trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpizar, D; Fallas, M; Oehlschlager, A C; Gonzalez, L M

    2012-03-01

    Mass trapping Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-baited pitfall trap and Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-sugarcane-baited open gallon trap was conducted in commercial banana. Four traps for each insect per hectare were placed in each of two 5-hectare plots of banana. Two additional 5-hectare plots were designated as controls and treated according to the plantation protocol. Capture rates of C. sordidus and M. hemipterus declined by >75 % over 10-12 months. In the banana growing region studied, corm damage was due primarily to C. sordidus, while only a minor amount of damage was attributable to M. hemipterus. Corm damage reduction in trapping plots was, thus, attributed primarily to C. sordidus trapping. In trapping plots, corm damage decreased by 61-64 % during the experiment. Banana bunch weights increased 23 % relative to control plots after 11-12 months of trapping. Fruit diameter did not vary between bunches harvested from trapping plots vs. control plots. Plant vigor, however, as determined by stem circumference at one meter above ground increased in plots with traps compared to control plots. Trapping for C. sordidus in two plantations of over 200 hectares each, reduced corm damage 62-86 % relative to pre-trapping levels. Insecticide control measures in place when the experiment commenced resulted in about 20-30 % corm damage, while use of pheromone trapping to manage C. sordidus lowered corm damage to 10 % or less. It is estimated that the increase in value of increased yield obtained in this trial (23 %) is about $4,240 USD per year per hectare, while the cost of pheromone trapping is approximately $185 USD per year per hectare. The trapping program becomes revenue neutral if bunch weights increase by an average of 1 % per year of trapping. Approximately 10 % of all plantation area in Costa Rica use the pheromone trapping system described here. The system also is used in Martinique

  7. Trapping planets in an evolving protoplanetary disk: preferred time, locations and planet mass

    OpenAIRE

    Baillié, Kévin; Charnoz, Sébastien; Pantin, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Planet traps are necessary to prevent forming planets from falling onto their host star by type I migration. Surface mass density and temperature gradient irregularities favor the apparition of traps and deserts. Such features are found at the dust sublimation lines and heat transition barriers. We study how planets may remain trapped or escape as they grow and as the disk evolves. We model the temporal viscous evolution of a protoplanetary disk by coupling its dynamics, thermodynamics, geome...

  8. Isobar Separation in a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer by Mass-Selective Re-Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes; Yavor, Mikhail I.; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    A novel method for (ultra-)high-resolution spatial mass separation in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is presented. Ions are injected into a time-of-flight analyzer from a radio frequency (rf) trap, dispersed in time-of-flight according to their mass-to-charge ratios and then re-trapped dynamically in the same rf trap. This re-trapping technique is highly mass-selective and after sufficiently long flight times can provide even isobaric separation. A theoretical treatment of the method is presented and the conditions for optimum performance of the method are derived. The method has been implemented in a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer and mass separation powers (FWHM) in excess of 70,000, and re-trapping efficiencies of up to 35% have been obtained for the protonated molecular ion of caffeine. The isobars glutamine and lysine (relative mass difference of 1/4000) have been separated after a flight time of 0.2 ms only. Higher mass separation powers can be achieved using longer flight times. The method will have important applications, including isobar separation in nuclear physics and (ultra-)high-resolution precursor ion selection in multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Homan, Tobias; Mweresa, Collins K.; Maire, Nicolas; Pasquale, Di Aurelio; Masiga, Daniel; Oria, Prisca A.; Alaii, Jane; Leeuwis, Cees; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Takken, Willem; Smith, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing levels of insecticide resistance as well as outdoor, residual transmission of malaria threaten the efficacy of existing vector control tools used against malaria mosquitoes. The development of odour-baited mosquito traps has led to the possibility of controlling malaria

  10. The kick-out mass selection technique for ions stored in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toker, Y; Altstein, N; Aviv, O; Rappaport, M L; Heber, O; Schwalm, D; Strasser, D; Zajfman, D

    2009-01-01

    A simple mass selection technique which allows one to clean a keV ion beam of undesirable masses while stored in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT) is described. The technique is based on the time-of-flight principle and takes advantage of the long storage times and self-bunching that are possible in this type of traps (self bunching being the effect that keeps ions of the same mass bunched in spite of their finite distributions of velocities and trajectories). As the oscillation period is proportional to the square root of the ion mass, bunches containing ions of different masses will separate in space with increasing storage time and can be kicked out by a pulsed deflector mounted inside the trap. A mass selector of this type has been implemented successfully in an EIBT connected to an Even-Lavie supersonic expansion source and is routinely used in ongoing cluster experiments.

  11. A cylindrical Penning trap for capture, mass selective cooling, and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Bollen, G.; Beck, D.; Koenig, M.; Kluge, H.-J.; Schwarz, S.; Schark, E.; Stein, J.; Szerypo, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Penning trap ion accumulator, cooler, and buncher for low-energy ion beams has been developed for the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. A cylindrical electrode configuration is used for the creation of a nested trapping potential. This is required for efficient accumulation of externally produced ions and for high-mass selectivity by buffer gas cooling. The design goal of a mass resolving power of about 1 x 10 5 has been achieved. Isobar separation has been demonstrated for radioactive rare-earth ion beams delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator. (orig.)

  12. A cylindrical Penning trap for capture, mass selective cooling, and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Raimbault-Hartmann, H; Bollen, G; König, M; Kluge, H J; Schark, E; Stein, J; Schwarz, S; Szerypo, J

    1997-01-01

    A Penning trap ion accumulator, cooler, and buncher for low energy ion beams has been developed for the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. A cylindrical electrode configuration is used for the creation of a nested trapping potential. This is required for efficient accumulation of externally produced ions and for high mass selectivity by buffer gas cooling. The design goal of a mass resolving power of about $1\\cdot 10^{5}$ has been achieved. Isobar separation has been demonstrated for radioactive rare earth ion beams delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator.

  13. Improvements in the injection system of the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, J; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Crawford, J E; Gulick, S; Hardy, J C; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Savard, G; Seweryniak, D; Sharma, K S; Sprouse, G; Vaz, J; Wang, J C; Zhou, Z

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is designed to make precise mass measurements on a variety of stable and short-lived isotopes. Modifications to the injection system of the CPT have been implemented in recent months, the purpose being to more efficiently collect and transfer weakly-produced reaction products from the target to the Penning trap. These include a magnetic triplet situated after the target chamber to increase the acceptance of the Enge spectrograph, a velocity filter to more effectively separate the beam from the reaction products and the replacement of the Paul trap with a linear trap resulting in more efficient capture and accumulation of ions from the ion cooler. This paper will discuss these recent modifications and how they have increased our ability in making mass measurements on isotopes of low abundance, including those from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission source.

  14. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk [Sensor Tech Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H]{sup -} for TNT and DNT or [M]{sup ·-}. for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO]{sup -}. These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee; Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk

    2013-01-01

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H] - for TNT and DNT or [M] ·- . for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO] - . These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available

  16. Developments for the HITRAP cooler trap and mass measurements around A = 96 at SHIPTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koszudowski, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions Trap) facility is currently being set up and commissioned at GSI in Darmstadt. It will provide bunches of 10 5 heavy highly-charged ions, for example hydrogen-like uranium (U 91+ ), to high-precision atomic physics experiments. The ions are produced by the GSI accelerator complex and decelerated to 4 MeV/u in the Experimental Storage Ring. Then the ions are decelerated by a two-step linear decelerator down to 6 keV/u. The first deceleration step down to 500 keV/u was successfully commissioned. The decelerated ions are injected into a Penning trap (the Cooler Trap), where they are cooled to 4 K by electron and resistive cooling. Resonant circuits for non-destructive detection and the resistive cooling of the trapped particles were designed and tested. The time control of the trap-cycle (trapping, cooling, extraction) with a time resolution of 25 ns was implemented into the control system CS. CS is also used at the mass measurement Penning trap SHIPTRAP, where the new time control is successfully operated. SHIPTRAP measures radioactive ions stemming from fusion evaporation reactions at the velocity filter SHIP. The masses of 9 nuclides ( 93,94,95 Technetium, 94,96 Ruthenium, 95,96,97,98 Rhodium) near the line of stability were precisely measured and compared with the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The detection of isomeric states with the present SHIPTRAP set-up was studied. (orig.)

  17. Frequency-scanning MALDI linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I-Chung; Lin, Jung Lee; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2011-11-01

    This study presents the first report on the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection by frequency scan. We designed, installed, and tested this radio frequency (RF) scan linear ion trap mass spectrometer and its associated electronics to dramatically extend the mass region to be detected. The RF circuit can be adjusted from 300 to 10 kHz with a set of operation amplifiers. To trap the ions produced by MALDI, a high pressure of helium buffer gas was employed to quench extra kinetic energy of the heavy ions produced by MALDI. The successful detection of the singly charged secretory immunoglobulin A ions indicates that the detectable mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of this system can reach ~385 000 or beyond.

  18. Population Dynamic Observation And Mass Trapping Of Fruit Fly Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuswadi, Achmad Nasroh; Indarwatmi, Murni; Nasution, Indah A.; Darwani; Himawan, Toto

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the control of B. carambolae, major pest of mango fruit in Indonesia using sterile insect technique, population monitoring with methyl eugenol attractant baited traps, absolute population measurement with release and recapture techniques, and mass trapping to reduce population of the pest in mango orchards were conducted. Based on the number of the male fly trapped it was know that the fly population was always low when no mature mango fruit found on the orchard, and it strated to increase in October, the middle time, of mango harvest until some time after the end of harvesting time. In August, when the population was low, about 4000 flies/hectare or 600 flies/hectare were found in the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively. Mass trapping with 4 trapps per hectare was able to kill about 620 and 240 male flies per hectare of the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively

  19. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  20. Developments for the HITRAP cooler trap and mass measurements around A = 96 at SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszudowski, Stephen

    2009-07-08

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions Trap) facility is currently being set up and commissioned at GSI in Darmstadt. It will provide bunches of 10{sup 5} heavy highly-charged ions, for example hydrogen-like uranium (U{sup 91+}), to high-precision atomic physics experiments. The ions are produced by the GSI accelerator complex and decelerated to 4 MeV/u in the Experimental Storage Ring. Then the ions are decelerated by a two-step linear decelerator down to 6 keV/u. The first deceleration step down to 500 keV/u was successfully commissioned. The decelerated ions are injected into a Penning trap (the Cooler Trap), where they are cooled to 4 K by electron and resistive cooling. Resonant circuits for non-destructive detection and the resistive cooling of the trapped particles were designed and tested. The time control of the trap-cycle (trapping, cooling, extraction) with a time resolution of 25 ns was implemented into the control system CS. CS is also used at the mass measurement Penning trap SHIPTRAP, where the new time control is successfully operated. SHIPTRAP measures radioactive ions stemming from fusion evaporation reactions at the velocity filter SHIP. The masses of 9 nuclides ({sup 93,94,95}Technetium, {sup 94,96}Ruthenium, {sup 95,96,97,98}Rhodium) near the line of stability were precisely measured and compared with the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The detection of isomeric states with the present SHIPTRAP set-up was studied. (orig.)

  1. Trapping of low-mass planets outside the truncated inner edges of protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ryan; Lai, Dong

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the migration of a low-mass (≲10 M⊕) planet near the inner edge of a protoplanetary disc using two-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics simulations. We employ an inner boundary condition representing the truncation of the disc at the stellar corotation radius. As described by Tsang, wave reflection at the inner disc boundary modifies the Type I migration torque on the planet, allowing migration to be halted before the planet reaches the inner edge of the disc. For low-viscosity discs (α ≲ 10-3), planets may be trapped with semi-major axes as large as three to five times the inner disc radius. In general, planets are trapped closer to the inner edge as either the planet mass or the disc viscosity parameter α increases, and farther from the inner edge as the disc thickness is increased. This planet trapping mechanism may impact the formation and migration history of close-in compact multiplanet systems.

  2. Applicability of hybrid linear ion trap-high resolution mass spectrometry and quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry for mycotoxin analysis in baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert, Josep; James, Kevin J; Mañes, Jordi; Soler, Carla

    2012-02-03

    Recent developments in mass spectrometers have created a paradoxical situation; different mass spectrometers are available, each of them with their specific strengths and drawbacks. Hybrid instruments try to unify several advantages in one instrument. In this study two of wide-used hybrid instruments were compared: hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry (QTRAP®) and the hybrid linear ion trap-high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap®). Both instruments were applied to detect the presence of 18 selected mycotoxins in baby food. Analytical parameters were validated according to 2002/657/CE. Limits of quantification (LOQs) obtained by QTRAP® instrument ranged from 0.45 to 45 μg kg⁻¹ while lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) values were obtained by LTQ-Orbitrap®: 7-70 μg kg⁻¹. The correlation coefficients (r) in both cases were upper than 0.989. These values highlighted that both instruments were complementary for the analysis of mycotoxin in baby food; while QTRAP® reached best sensitivity and selectivity, LTQ-Orbitrap® allowed the identification of non-target and unknowns compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Ramsey method in high-precision mass spectrometry with Penning traps Experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kretzschmar, M; Nagy, S; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The highest precision in direct mass measurements is obtained with Penning trap mass spectrometry. Most experiments use the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes of the stored ion due to excitation by external radiofrequency-quadrupole fields. In this work a new excitation scheme, Ramsey's method of time-separated oscillatory fields, has been successfully tested. It has been shown to reduce significantly the uncertainty in the determination of the cyclotron frequency and thus of the ion mass of interest. The theoretical description of the ion motion excited with Ramsey's method in a Penning trap and subsequently the calculation of the resonance line shapes for different excitation times, pulse structures, and detunings of the quadrupole field has been carried out in a quantum mechanical framework and is discussed in detail in the preceding article in this journal by M. Kretzschmar. Here, the new excitation technique has been applied with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN fo...

  4. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm ∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  5. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Chen Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G.; Sullivan, Scott T.; Hudson, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates.

  6. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  7. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N ∝ 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of 241 Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  8. Air trapping on computed tomography images of healthy individuals: effects of respiration and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Tate, E.; Watarai, J.; Sasaki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationships of changes in the lung area during respiration and of individual body mass index (BMI) to air trapping on expiratory computed tomography (CT) in young non-smoking adults of either gender. Methods: The volunteers were 10 women and 10 men (mean age 25.7 years) who were healthy lifelong non-smokers. We obtained both end-inspiratory and end-expiratory CT images at three levels: the upper, middle and lower lung. The ratio of cross-sectional lung area upon expiration to cross-sectional lung area upon inspiration (lung area ratio) was determined for each lung at each of the three levels. In cases showing air trapping, we calculated the percentage of area of air in relation to the total lung area in each section. BMI was calculated for each participant. Results: Air trapping was present in dependent areas of the lungs of 6 women and 5 men. The mean percentage of area of air trapped was statistically greater for men (9.8 ± 9.2%) than for women (4.9 ± 5.2%). The mean lung area ratio was 0.52 ± 0 14 among volunteers with air trapping (66 sections) and 0.69 ± 0.12 among those without air trapping (54 sections) (p < 0.001). At each lung level, the mean lung area ratio was greater in individuals with air trapping than in those without. Mean BMI was also greater in these people (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Change in the respiratory lung area and BMI contribute to development of air trapping

  9. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF TRAPPED, ACCRETING PROTOPLANETS: THE ORIGIN OF THE OBSERVED MASS-PERIOD RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    The large number of observed exoplanets (∼>700) provides important constraints on their origin as deduced from the mass-period diagram of planets. The most surprising features in the diagram are (1) the (apparent) pileup of gas giants at a period of ∼500 days (∼1 AU) and (2) the so-called mass-period relation, which indicates that planetary mass is an increasing function of orbital period. We construct the evolutionary tracks of growing planets at planet traps in evolving protoplanetary disks and show that they provide a good physical understanding of how these observational properties arise. The fundamental feature of our model is that inhomogeneities in protoplanetary disks give rise to multiple (up to 3) trapping sites for rapid (type I) planetary migration of planetary cores. The viscous evolution of disks results in the slow radial movement of the traps and their cores from large to small orbital periods. In our model, the slow inward motion of planet traps is coupled with the standard core accretion scenario for planetary growth. As planets grow, type II migration takes over. Planet growth and radial movement are ultimately stalled by the dispersal of gas disks via photoevaporation. Our model makes a number of important predictions: that distinct sub-populations of planets that reflect the properties of planet traps where they have grown result in the mass-period relation, that the presence of these sub-populations naturally explains a pileup of planets at ∼1 AU, and that evolutionary tracks from the ice line do put planets at short periods and fill an earlier claimed p lanet desert — a sparse population of planets in the mass-semimajor axis diagram.

  10. Final Report - Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program - Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Sandia National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, W.B.

    2002-12-18

    This report covers the three main projects that collectively comprised the Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program. Chapter 1 describes the direct interrogation of individual particles by laser desorption within the ion trap mass spectrometer analyzer. The goals were (1) to develop an ''intelligent trigger'' capable of distinguishing particles of biological origin from those of nonbiological origin in the background and interferent particles and (2) to explore the capability for individual particle identification. Direct interrogation of particles by laser ablation and ion trap mass spectrometry was shown to have good promise for discriminating between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin, although detailed protocols and operating conditions were not worked out. A library of more than 20,000 spectra of various types of biological particles has been assembled. Methods based on multivariate analysis and on neural networks were used to discriminate between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin. It was possible to discriminate between at least some species of bacteria if mass spectra of several hundred similar particles were obtained. Chapter 2 addresses the development of a new ion trap mass analyzer geometry that offers the potential for a significant increase in ion storage capacity for a given set of analyzer operating conditions. This geometry may lead to the development of smaller, lower-power field-portable ion trap mass spectrometers while retaining laboratory-scale analytical performance. A novel ion trap mass spectrometer based on toroidal ion storage geometry has been developed. The analyzer geometry is based on the edge rotation of a quadrupolar ion trap cross section into the shape of a torus. Initial performance of this device was poor, however, due to the significant contribution of nonlinear fields introduced by the rotation of the symmetric ion-trapping geometry. These

  11. Mass sensors with mechanical traps for weighing single cells in different fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yaochung; Delgado, Francisco Feijó; Son, Sungmin; Burg, Thomas P; Wasserman, Steven C; Manalis, Scott R

    2011-12-21

    We present two methods by which single cells can be mechanically trapped and continuously monitored within the suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) mass sensor. Since the fluid surrounding the trapped cell can be quickly and completely replaced on demand, our methods are well suited for measuring changes in cell size and growth in response to drugs or other chemical stimuli. We validate our methods by measuring the density of single polystyrene beads and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells with a precision of approximately 10(-3) g cm(-3), and by monitoring the growth of single mouse lymphoblast cells before and after drug treatment.

  12. The mass of $^{22}$Mg and a concept for a novel laser ion source trap

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Manas

    Clean and high-quality radioactive ion beams can be prepared by combining ion trap and resonance laser ionization techniques. A feasibility study for such a laser ion source trap has been carried out which shows enormous improvement in the beam emittance, purity, and in addition allows for a variation of the ion beam time structure. Direct high-precision mass measurements around mass number A=22 are of utmost importance. First, the masses of the superallowed $\\beta$-emitter $^{22}$Mg and its daughter $^{22}$Na are needed to test the conserved-vector-current(CVC) hypothesis and the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa(CKM) matrix unitarity, both being predictions of the Standard Model. Second, to calculate the reaction rate of $^{21}$Na($p,\\gamma$)$^{22}$Mg the involved masses are required very accurately. This rate is needed in order to extract an upper limit on the amount of a characteristic $\\gamma$-radiation emitted from classical nova bursts which has been searched for but not yet detected. At the triple trap mass s...

  13. Production of high stellar-mass primordial black holes in trapped inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shu-Lin; Lee, Wolung [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University,Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Ng, Kin-Wang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica,Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica,Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-01

    Trapped inflation has been proposed to provide a successful inflation with a steep potential. We discuss the formation of primordial black holes in the trapped inflationary scenario. We show that primordial black holes are naturally produced during inflation with a steep trapping potential. In particular, we have given a recipe for an inflaton potential with which particle production can induce large non-Gaussian curvature perturbation that leads to the formation of high stellar-mass primordial black holes. These primordial black holes could be dark matter observed by the LIGO detectors through a binary black-hole merger. At the end, we have given an attempt to realize the required inflaton potential in the axion monodromy inflation, and discussed the gravitational waves sourced by the particle production.

  14. Development of a multiplexed interface for capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-An; Wu, Ming-Chi; Her, Guor-Rong

    2006-08-01

    A four-channel multiplexed electrospray capillary electrophoresis interface has been developed. This new interface permits up to four capillary electrophoresis columns to be sampled sequentially by means of a stepper motor and a notched rotating plate assembly, which at any instant occludes all but a single sprayer. In this design, four sheath liquid electrospray probes are oriented in a circular array situated 90 degrees relative to one another. The rotating metal disk, which contains a one-quarter notch, is mounted to the stepper motor assembly and is located between the sprayers and the entrance aperture of an ion trap mass spectrometer. By using the data acquisition signal from the ion trap mass spectrometer, the scan event is synchronized with the rotation of the metal disk. With this device, four discrete sample streams can be simultaneously analyzed, resulting in a 4-fold increase in analytical throughput.

  15. Quantification of Lansoprazole in Oral Suspension by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Hybrid Ion-Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy D. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to be used as a stability indicating assay for the study of a 3 mg/mL lansoprazole oral suspension. The method utilizes a UPLC (ultra-performance liquid chromatography column and unique mass spectrometric detection (ion-trap time-of-flight (IT-TOF to achieve a sensitive (LOD 2 ng/mL, accurate, and reproducible quantification of lansoprazole. This method reports an intraday and interday coefficient of variation of 2.98 ± 2.17% (n=5 for each concentration for each day and 3.07 ± 0.89% (n=20 for each concentration, respectively. Calibration curves (5–25 μg/mL were found to be linear with an R2 value ranging from 0.9972 to 0.9991 on 4 different days. Accuracy of the assay, expressed as % error, ranged from 0.30 to 5.22%. This method is useful for monitoring the stability of lansoprazole in oral suspension.

  16. Technical developments for an upgrade of the LEBIT Penning trap mass spectrometry facility for rare isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, M.; Barquest, B. R.; Bollen, G.; Bustabad, S. E.; Campbell, C. M.; Ferrer, R.; Gehring, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lincoln, D. L.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S.

    2011-07-01

    The LEBIT (Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap) facility is the only Penning trap mass spectrometry (PTMS) facility to utilize rare isotopes produced via fast-beam fragmentation. This technique allows access to practically all elements lighter than uranium, and in particular enables the production of isotopes that are not available or that are difficult to obtain at isotope separation on-line facilities. The preparation of the high-energy rare-isotope beam produced by projectile fragmentation for low-energy PTMS experiments is achieved by gas stopping to slow down and thermalize the fast-beam ions, along with an rf quadrupole cooler and buncher and rf quadrupole ion guides to deliver the beam to the Penning trap. During its first phase of operation LEBIT has been very successful, and new developments are now underway to access rare isotopes even farther from stability, which requires dealing with extremely short lifetimes and low production rates. These developments aim at increasing delivery efficiency, minimizing delivery and measurement time, and maximizing use of available beam time. They include an upgrade to the gas-stopping station, active magnetic field monitoring and stabilization by employing a miniature Penning trap as a magnetometer, the use of stored waveform inverse Fourier transform (SWIFT) to most effectively remove unwanted ions, and charge breeding.

  17. Technical developments for an upgrade of the LEBIT Penning trap mass spectrometry facility for rare isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redshaw, M.; Barquest, B. R.; Bollen, G.; Bustabad, S. E.; Campbell, C. M.; Ferrer, R.; Gehring, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lincoln, D. L.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S.

    2011-01-01

    The LEBIT (Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap) facility is the only Penning trap mass spectrometry (PTMS) facility to utilize rare isotopes produced via fast-beam fragmentation. This technique allows access to practically all elements lighter than uranium, and in particular enables the production of isotopes that are not available or that are difficult to obtain at isotope separation on-line facilities. The preparation of the high-energy rare-isotope beam produced by projectile fragmentation for low-energy PTMS experiments is achieved by gas stopping to slow down and thermalize the fast-beam ions, along with an rf quadrupole cooler and buncher and rf quadrupole ion guides to deliver the beam to the Penning trap. During its first phase of operation LEBIT has been very successful, and new developments are now underway to access rare isotopes even farther from stability, which requires dealing with extremely short lifetimes and low production rates. These developments aim at increasing delivery efficiency, minimizing delivery and measurement time, and maximizing use of available beam time. They include an upgrade to the gas-stopping station, active magnetic field monitoring and stabilization by employing a miniature Penning trap as a magnetometer, the use of stored waveform inverse Fourier transform (SWIFT) to most effectively remove unwanted ions, and charge breeding.

  18. Utility of Higher Harmonics in Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Electrostatic Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekonski, Eric T; Johnson, Joshua T; McLuckey, Scott A

    2017-04-18

    Mass resolution (M/ΔM fwhm) is observed to linearly increase with harmonic order in a Fourier transform electrostatic linear ion trap (ELIT) mass spectrometer. This behavior was predicted by Grosshans and Marshall for frequency-multiple detection in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer only for situations when the prominent mechanism for signal decay is ion ejection from the trap. As the analyzer pressure in our ELIT chamber is relatively high, such that collisional scattering and collision-induced dissociation are expected to underlie much of the ion loss, we sought to explore the relationship between harmonic order and mass resolution. Mass resolutions of 36 900 (fundamental), 75 850 (2nd harmonic), and 108 200 (3rd harmonic) were obtained for GdO + (avg. m/z 173.919) with a transient length of 300 ms. To demonstrate that the mass resolution was truly increasing with harmonic order, the unresolved isotopes at the fundamental distribution of cytochrome c +8 (m/z ∼ 1549) were nearly baseline, resolved at the third harmonic (mass resolution ≈ 23 000) with a transient length of only 200 ms. This experiment demonstrates that, when the ion density is sufficiently low, ions with frequency differences of less than 4 Hz remain uncoalesced. Higher harmonics can be used to increase the effective mass resolution for a fixed transient length and thereby may enable the resolution of closely spaced masses, determination of a protein ion's charge state, and study of the onset of peak coalescence when the resolution at the fundamental frequency is insufficient.

  19. Penning Trap Experiments with the Most Exotic Nuclei on Earth: Precision Mass Measurements of Halo Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Lapierre, A.; Ringle, R.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.

    2009-05-01

    Exotic nuclei are characterized with an extremely unbalanced protons-neutrons ratio (p/n) where for instance, the halo isotopes of He and Li have up to 3X more n than p (compared to p/n = 1 in ^12C). The properties of these exotic halo nuclei have long been recognized as the most stringent tests of our understanding of the strong force. ^11Li belongs to a special category of halos called Borromean, bound as a three-body family, while the two-body siblings, ^10Li and 2 n, are unbound as separate entities. Last year, a first mass measurement of the radioisotope ^11Li using a Penning trap spectrometer was carried out at the TITAN (Triumf's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science) facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. Penning traps are proven to be the most precise device to make mass measurements, yet until now they were unable to reach these nuclei. At TRIUMF we managed to measure the mass of ^11Li to an unprecedented precision of dm/m = 60 ppb, which is remarkable since it has a half-life of only 8.8 ms which it the shortest-lived nuclide to be measured with this technique. Furthermore, new and improved masses for the 2 and 4 n halo ^6,8He, as well has the 1 n halo ^11Be have been performed. An overview of the TITAN mass measurement program and its impact in understanding the most exotic nuclei will be given.

  20. Precision Comparison of $\\bar{p}$ and $ p $ Masses in a Penning Trap

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    PS196 : Precision Comparison of $\\bar{p}$ and p Masses in a Penning Trap For the first time, antiprotons with energies 10$^{10}$ times lower than those in LEAR can be stored and studied over long times in a small apparatus. The first measurement at this new, low energy frontier is a 1000-fold improvement in the measured antiproton mass. The mass dependent cyclotron frequencies, first for antiprotons then for protons orbiting in the same magnetic field, are compared to establish that the antiproton and proton masses are the same to at least 4~parts in 10$^8$. This is the most stringent test of whether a baryon system is invariant under CPT transformations. A special trap geometry and a superconducting solenoid which cancels fluctuations in the magnetic field in the accelerator hall were crucial to this greatly improved measurement. The current objective is to improve the precision by one or two orders of magnitude. Antiprotons from LEAR at 5.9~MeV, slow below 3~keV via collisions in a thin metal window, and ar...

  1. 210Pb and Mass Flux Imbalance Between the Settling Particulates and Sediments at a Sediment Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Chung, Y.; Hung, G.

    2005-05-01

    In order to evaluate the mass balance problems between the settling particulates and the underlying sediments, sediment traps were deployed at M1 site (21o32¡¦N, 119o28¡¦E; 2948m) where a box core was taken recently. The sediment trap results were previously published (Chung et al., 2004: Continental Shelf Research). We report here the 210Pb profile measured on this box core by determining its daughter, 210Po, with alpha spectrometry, assuming the paired nuclides are in radioactive equilibrium. The box core (33 cm long, taken in June, 2004) was analyzed for the distributions of its water content, loss on ignition (LOI), and 210Pb. The water content decreases with depth and averages about 55 percent; the LOI as a measure of the total organic matter (TOM) is fairly constant at about 12 percent. The 210Pb profile shows a general exponential decrease with depth, yielding a maximum sedimentation rate of 0.26cm/y, applying a constant flux and constant sedimentation rate model. This rate translates to a mass flux of 0.31g/cm2/y or about 8.5g/m2/d with a dry bulk density of 1.2g/cm3. Based on the excess 210Pb inventory integrated over the core length, the 210Pb flux is estimated at about 19.2dpm/cm2/y or 526dpm/cm2/d assuming at steady state. The 210Pb and mass fluxes obtained from the deepest trap at M1 were only 129dpm/m2/d and 0.55g/m2/d, respectively. The large ¡excess¡" of the 210Pb and mass fluxes in the sediments over those measured from the sediment trap (4 times in 210Pb flux and 14 times in mass flux) suggests either the sedimentation rate was overestimated due to neglect of the mixing effect, and/or large additional particulates, as resuspended sediments which contain less 210Pb, have been transported laterally near the bottom from elsewhere.

  2. A comb-sampling method for enhanced mass analysis in linear electrostatic ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, J. B.; Kelly, O.; Calvert, C. R.; Duffy, M. J.; King, R. B.; Belshaw, L.; Graham, L.; Alexander, J. D.; Williams, I. D. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Bryan, W. A. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Turcu, I. C. E.; Cacho, C. M.; Springate, E. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    In this paper an algorithm for extracting spectral information from signals containing a series of narrow periodic impulses is presented. Such signals can typically be acquired by pickup detectors from the image-charge of ion bunches oscillating in a linear electrostatic ion trap, where frequency analysis provides a scheme for high-resolution mass spectrometry. To provide an improved technique for such frequency analysis, we introduce the CHIMERA algorithm (Comb-sampling for High-resolution IMpulse-train frequency ExtRAaction). This algorithm utilizes a comb function to generate frequency coefficients, rather than using sinusoids via a Fourier transform, since the comb provides a superior match to the data. This new technique is developed theoretically, applied to synthetic data, and then used to perform high resolution mass spectrometry on real data from an ion trap. If the ions are generated at a localized point in time and space, and the data is simultaneously acquired with multiple pickup rings, the method is shown to be a significant improvement on Fourier analysis. The mass spectra generated typically have an order of magnitude higher resolution compared with that obtained from fundamental Fourier frequencies, and are absent of large contributions from harmonic frequency components.

  3. In-cylinder pressure resonance analysis for trapped mass estimation in automotive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Bares Moreno, Pau

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a new application for in-cylinder pressure sensors in internal combustion engines. The new method takes profit of the high-frequency content of the in-cylinder pressure signal to determine the speed of sound evolution during the expansion stroke and combines this estimation with the low-frequency content of the pressure signal and a volume estimation to obtain a measurement of the trapped mass. The new method is based on the studies of the resonance phenomenon in pent...

  4. Commissioning of the double Penning trap system MLLTRAP and first studies on mass-dependent systematic uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, Kevin; Weber, Christine; Thirolf, Peter G.; Szerypo, Jerzy; Gartzke, Eva; Habs, Dietrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Kolhinen, Veli [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    The cylindrical double Penning trap system MLLTRAP in its commissioning phase at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) Tandem accelerator in Garching is designed to perform high-accuracy mass measurements on fusion-reaction products. As the mass uncertainty is inversely proportional to the ionic charge state, the ions of interest will be charge bred prior to injection into the Penning trap system. In the future setup, both traps are foreseen to be operated as measurement traps with a relative homogeneity of the magnetic field at the trapping sites of {delta}B/B{<=}0.3 ppm. In the commissioning phase, an offline surface ionization source is used for iterative optimization of the apparatus and studies on mass-dependent systematic uncertainties. Mass measurements via the time-of-flight ion cyclotron resonance method (TOF-ICR) of reference ions with well-known masses ({sup 85}Rb, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 39}K, {sup 133}Cs) were carried out to analyze mass-dependent systematic effects. Together with previous studies on the uncertainty due to magnetic-field fluctuations the current status with respect to the limits of mass accuracy of the apparatus is presented.

  5. MOMA and other next-generation ion trap mass spectrometers for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P. R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Pinnick, V. T.; Li, X.; Grubisic, A.; Southard, A. E.; Hovmand, L.; Cottin, H.; Makarov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970's, quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) systems have served as low-risk, cost-efficient means to explore the inner and outer reaches of the solar system. These legacy instruments have interrogated the compositions of the lunar exosphere (LADEE), surface materials on Mars (MSL), and the atmospheres of Venus (Pioneer Venus), Mars (MAVEN) and outer planets (Galileo and Cassini-Huygens). However, the in situ detection of organic compounds on Mars and Titan, coupled with ground-based measurements of amino acids in meteorites and a variety of organics in comets, has underlined the importance of molecular disambiguation in the characterization of high-priority planetary environments. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) flight instrument, centered on a linear ion trap, enables the in situ detection of volatile and non-volatile organics, but also the characterization of molecular structures through SWIFT ion isolation/excitation and tandem mass spectrometry (MSn). Like the SAM instrument on MSL, the MOMA investigation also includes a gas chromatograph (GC), thereby enabling the chemical separation of potential isobaric interferences based on retention times. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS; PI: William Brinckerhoff), developed to TRL 6 via the ROSES MatISSE Program, augments the core MOMA design and adds: expanded mass range (from 20 - 2000 Da); high-temperature evolved gas analysis (up to 1300°C); and, dual polarity detector assemblies (supporting the measurement of negative ions). The LITMS instrument will be tested in the field in 2017 through the Atacama Rover Astrobiology Drilling Studies (ARADS; PI: Brian Glass) ROSES PSTAR award. Following on these advancements, the Advanced Resolution Organic Molecule Analyzer (AROMA; PI: Ricardo Arevalo Jr.), supported through the ROSES PICASSO Program, combines a highly capable MOMA/LITMS-like linear ion trap and the ultrahigh resolution CosmOrbitrap mass analyzer developed by a consortium of five

  6. Penning trap mass spectrometry Q-value determinations for highly forbidden β-decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Rachel; Bollen, Georg; Eibach, Martin; Gamage, Nadeesha; Gulyuz, Kerim; Hamaker, Alec; Izzo, Chris; Kandegedara, Rathnayake; Redshaw, Matt; Ringle, Ryan; Valverde, Adrian; Yandow, Isaac; Low Energy Beam Ion Trap Team

    2017-09-01

    Over the last several decades, extremely sensitive, ultra-low background beta and gamma detection techniques have been developed. These techniques have enabled the observation of very rare processes, such as highly forbidden beta decays e.g. of 113Cd, 50V and 138La. Half-life measurements of highly forbidden beta decays provide a testing ground for theoretical nuclear models, and the comparison of calculated and measured energy spectra could enable a determination of the values of the weak coupling constants. Precision Q-value measurements also allow for systematic tests of the beta-particle detection techniques. We will present the results and current status of Q value determinations for highly forbidden beta decays. The Q values, the mass difference between parent and daughter nuclides, are measured using the high precision Penning trap mass spectrometer LEBIT at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.

  7. Impenetrable Mass-Imbalanced Particles in One-Dimensional Harmonic Traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-01-01

    Strongly interacting particles in one dimension subject to external confinement have become a topic of considerable interest due to recent experimental advances and the development of new theoretical methods to attack such systems. In the case of equal mass fermions or bosons with two or more...... internal degrees of freedom, one can map the problem onto the well-known Heisenberg spin models. However, many interesting physical systems contain mixtures of particles with different masses. Therefore, a generalization of the recent strong-coupling techniques would be highly desirable....... This is particularly important since such problems are generally considered non-integrable and thus the hugely successful Bethe ansatz approach cannot be applied. Here we discuss some initial steps towards this goal by investigating small ensembles of one-dimensional harmonically trapped particles where pairwise...

  8. Shedding light on the mercury mass discrepancy by weighing Hg52+ ions in a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritioff, T.; Bluhme, H.; Schuch, R.; Bergstroem, I.; Bjoerkhage, M.

    2003-01-01

    In their nuclear tables Audi and Wapstra have pointed out a serious mass discrepancy between their extrapolated values for the mercury isotopes and those from a direct measurement by the Manitoba group. The values deviate by as much as 85 ppb from each other with claimed uncertainties of about 16 and 7 ppb, respectively. In order to decide which values are correct the masses of the 198 Hg and 204 Hg isotopes have been measured in the Stockholm Penning trap mass spectrometer SMILETRAP using 52+ ions. This charge state corresponds to a filled Ni electron configuration for which the electron binding energy can be accurately calculated. The mass values obtained are 197.966 768 44(43) u for 198 Hg and 203.973 494 10(39) u for 204 Hg. These values agree with those measured by the Manitoba group, with a 3 times lower uncertainty. This measurement was made possible through the implementation of a cooling technique of the highly charged mercury ions during charge breeding in the electron beam ion source used for producing the Hg 52+ ions

  9. Caution on the use of liquid nitrogen traps in stable hydrogen isotope-ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping

    2010-01-01

    An anomalous stable hydrogen isotopic fractionation of 4 ‰ in gaseous hydrogen has been correlated with the process of adding liquid nitrogen (LN2) to top off the dewar of a stainless-steel water trap on a gaseous hydrogen-water platinum equilibration system. Although the cause of this isotopic fractionation is unknown, its effect can be mitigated by (1) increasing the capacity of any dewars so that they do not need to be filled during a daily analytic run, (2) interspersing isotopic reference waters among unknowns, and (3) applying a linear drift correction and linear normalization to isotopic results with a program such as Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) for Light Stable Isotopes. With adoption of the above guidelines, measurement uncertainty can be substantially improved. For example, the long-term (months to years) δ2H reproducibility (1& sigma; standard deviation) of nine local isotopic reference waters analyzed daily improved substantially from about 1‰ to 0.58 ‰. This isotopically fractionating mechanism might affect other isotope-ratio mass spectrometers in which LN2 is used as a moisture trap for gaseous hydrogen

  10. UV Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy of Haloanilinium Ions in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christopher S.; Kirk, Benjamin B.; Blanksby, Stephen J.; O'Hair, Richard. A. J.; Trevitt, Adam J.

    2013-06-01

    UV-vis photodissociation action spectroscopy is becoming increasingly prevalent because of advances in, and commercial availability of, ion trapping technologies and tunable laser sources. This study outlines in detail an instrumental arrangement, combining a commercial ion-trap mass spectrometer and tunable nanosecond pulsed laser source, for performing fully automated photodissociation action spectroscopy on gas-phase ions. The components of the instrumentation are outlined, including the optical and electronic interfacing, in addition to the control software for automating the experiment and performing online analysis of the spectra. To demonstrate the utility of this ensemble, the photodissociation action spectra of 4-chloroanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-iodoanilinium cations are presented and discussed. Multiple photoproducts are detected in each case and the photoproduct yields are followed as a function of laser wavelength. It is shown that the wavelength-dependent partitioning of the halide loss, H loss, and NH3 loss channels can be broadly rationalized in terms of the relative carbon-halide bond dissociation energies and processes of energy redistribution. The photodissociation action spectrum of (phenyl)Ag2 + is compared with a literature spectrum as a further benchmark.

  11. Development of a Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) Investigation for Future Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W.; Danell, R.; Van Ameron, F.; Pinnick, V.; Li, X.; Arevalo, R.; Glavin, D.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P.; Chu, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Future surface missions to Mars and other planetary bodies will benefit from continued advances in miniature sensor and sample handling technologies that enable high-performance chemical analyses of natural samples. Fine-scale (approx.1 mm and below) analyses of rock surfaces and interiors, such as exposed on a drill core, will permit (1) the detection of habitability markers including complex organics in association with their original depositional environment, and (2) the characterization of successive layers and gradients that can reveal the time-evolution of those environments. In particular, if broad-based and highly-sensitive mass spectrometry techniques could be brought to such scales, the resulting planetary science capability would be truly powerful. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) investigation is designed to conduct fine-scale organic and inorganic analyses of short (approx.5-10 cm) rock cores such as could be acquired by a planetary lander or rover arm-based drill. LITMS combines both pyrolysis/gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GCMS) of sub-sampled core fines, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of the intact core surface, using a common mass analyzer, enhanced from the design used in the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument on the 2018 ExoMars rover. LITMS additionally features developments based on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and recent NASA-funded prototype efforts in laser mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, and precision subsampling. LITMS brings these combined capabilities to achieve its four measurement objectives: (1) Organics: Broad Survey Detect organic molecules over a wide range of molecular weight, volatility, electronegativity, concentration, and host mineralogy. (2) Organic: Molecular Structure Characterize internal molecular structure to identify individual compounds, and reveal functionalization and processing. (3) Inorganic Host Environment Assess the local chemical

  12. Analysis of iodinated quorum sensing peptides by LC–UV/ESI ion trap mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorick Janssens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Five different quorum sensing peptides (QSP were iodinated using different iodination techniques. These iodinated peptides were analyzed using a C18 reversed phase HPLC system, applying a linear gradient of water and acetonitrile containing 0.1% (m/v formic acid as mobile phase. Electrospray ionization (ESI ion trap mass spectrometry was used for the identification of the modified peptides, while semi-quantification was performed using total ion current (TIC spectra. Non-iodinated peptides and mono- and di-iodinated peptides (NIP, MIP and DIP respectively were well separated and eluted in that order. Depending on the used iodination method, iodination yields varied from low (2% to high (57%.

  13. Novel control modes to improve the performance of rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xinming; Tang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Cheng'an; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-10-01

    The rectilinear ion trap (RIT) has gradually become one of the preferred mass analyzers for portable mass spectrometers because of its simple configuration. In order to enhance the performance, including sensitivity, quantitation capability, throughput, and resolution, a novel RIT mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers was designed and characterized. The studied system constituted a quadrupole linear ion trap (QLIT) in the first chamber and a RIT in the second chamber. Two control modes are hereby proposed: Storage Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (SQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used at high pressure for ion storage and isolation, and the RIT was used for analysis; and Analysis Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (AQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used for ion storage and cooling. Subsequently, synchronous scanning and analysis were carried out by QLIT and RIT. In SQLIT-RIT mode, signal intensity was improved by a factor of 30; the limit of quantitation was reduced more than tenfold to 50 ng mL-1, and an optimal duty cycle of 96.4% was achieved. In AQLIT-RIT mode, the number of ions coexisting in the RIT was reduced, which weakened the space-charge effect and reduced the mass shift. Furthermore, the mass resolution was enhanced by a factor of 3. The results indicate that the novel control modes achieve satisfactory performance without adding any system complexity, which provides a viable pathway to guarantee good analytical performance in miniaturization of the mass spectrometer.

  14. Effect of the trapped mass and its composition on the heat transfer in the compression cycle of a reciprocating engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armas, Octavio; Rodriguez, Jose; Payri, Francisco; Martin, Jaime; Agudelo, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the polytropic coefficient calculation during the compression process in the thermodynamic cycle of a reciprocating internal combustion engine is an interesting tool to minimize errors in the synchronization of pressure and volume signals, and to determine heat flux transferred to the cylinder walls. The accuracy of this calculation depends on the instantaneous values for pressure, volume, trapped mass and its composition, as well as on their variations. In this work the effect of the errors in blow-by, trapped mass and its composition have been studied in detail, specially the effect of errors in the composition estimation, owing to the use of exhaust gas recirculation in typical diesel engines

  15. Mass of 17O from Penning-trap mass spectrometry and molecular spectroscopy: A precision test of the Dunham-Watson model in carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Brianna J.; Redshaw, Matthew; Myers, Edmund G.; Mueller, Holger S. P.

    2010-01-01

    By fitting the Dunham-Watson model to extensive rotational and vibrational spectroscopic data of isotopic variants of CO, and by using existing precise masses of 13 C, 16 O, and 18 O from Penning-trap mass spectrometry, we determine the atomic mass of 17 O to be M[ 17 O]=16.999 131 644(30) u, where the uncertainty is purely statistical. Using Penning-trap mass spectrometry, we have also directly determined the atomic mass of 17 O with the more precise result M[ 17 O]=16.999 131 756 6(9) u. The Dunham-Watson model applied to the molecular spectroscopic data hence predicts the mass of 17 O to better than 1 part in 10 8 .

  16. Cooling the center-of-mass motion of a diamond nanocrystal in a magneto-gravitational trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Feng

    A magneto-gravitational trap for micro/nanometer sized diamagnetic particles, such as diamond nanocrystals, is tested and characterized. After exploring various other systems, such as a suspended graphene beam and an optical trap, this magneto-gravitational nanomechanical trapping system for diamond with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers presents unique advantages for experiments in fundamental quantum mechanics. Those include, for example, the generation of large quantum superposition states and tests of quantum gravity. Features are demonstrated for this system, such as stable and passive levitation from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum, low resonant frequencies and damping rates, and cooling of the center-of-mass motions to below 1 K. The construction of the trap, vacuum system, optics, and motion detection electronics are described in detail.

  17. Developing a Vacuum Electrospray Source To Implement Efficient Atmospheric Sampling for Miniature Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quan; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Xinqiong; Qian, Xiang; Ni, Kai; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-12-05

    The performance of a miniature mass spectrometer in atmospheric analysis is closely related to the design of its sampling system. In this study, a simplified vacuum electrospray ionization (VESI) source was developed based on a combination of several techniques, including the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface, direct capillary sampling, and pneumatic-assisted electrospray. Pulsed air was used as a vital factor to facilitate the operation of electrospray ionization in the vacuum chamber. This VESI device can be used as an efficient atmospheric sampling interface when coupled with a miniature rectilinear ion trap (RIT) mass spectrometer. The developed VESI-RIT instrument enables regular ESI analysis of liquid, and its qualitative and quantitative capabilities have been characterized by using various solution samples. A limit of detection of 8 ppb could be attained for arginine in a methanol solution. In addition, extractive electrospray ionization of organic compounds can be implemented by using the same VESI device, as long as the gas analytes are injected with the pulsed auxiliary air. This methodology can extend the use of the proposed VESI technique to rapid and online analysis of gaseous and volatile samples.

  18. Global nickel anomaly links Siberian Traps eruptions and the latest Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R; Rodriguez, Sedelia; Baransky, Eva; Cai, Yue

    2017-09-29

    Anomalous peaks of nickel abundance have been reported in Permian-Triassic boundary sections in China, Israel, Eastern Europe, Spitzbergen, and the Austrian Carnic Alps. New solution ICP-MS results of enhanced nickel from P-T boundary sections in Hungary, Japan, and Spiti, India suggest that the nickel anomalies at the end of the Permian were a worldwide phenomenon. We propose that the source of the nickel anomalies at the P-T boundary were Ni-rich volatiles released by the Siberian volcanism, and by coeval Ni-rich magma intrusions. The peaks in nickel abundance correlate with negative δ 13 C and δ 18 O anomalies, suggesting that explosive reactions between magma and coal during the Siberian flood-basalt eruptions released large amounts of CO 2 and CH 4 into the atmosphere, causing severe global warming and subsequent mass extinction. The nickel anomalies may provide a timeline in P-T boundary sections, and the timing of the peaks supports the Siberian Traps as a contributor to the latest Permian mass extinction.

  19. MSM, an Efficient Workflow for Metabolite Identification Using Hybrid Linear Ion Trap Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Robert; Huang, Yingying; Schwartz, Jae C.; Chen, Yan; Carlson, Timothy J.; Ma, Ji

    2012-05-01

    Identification of drug metabolites can often yield important information regarding clearance mechanism, pharmacologic activity, or toxicity for drug candidate molecules. Additionally, the identification of metabolites can provide beneficial structure-activity insight to help guide lead optimization efforts towards molecules with optimal metabolic profiles. There are challenges associated with detecting and identifying metabolites in the presence of complex biological matrices, and new LC-MS technologies have been developed to meet these challenges. In this report, we describe the development of an experimental approach that applies unique features of the hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometer to streamline in vitro and in vivo metabolite identification experiments. The approach, referred to as MSM, utilizes multiple collision cells, dissociation methods, mass analyzers, and detectors. With multiple scan types and different dissociation modes built into one experimental method, along with flexible post-acquisition analysis options, the MSM workflow offers an attractive option to fast and reliable identification of metabolites in different kinds of in vitro and in vivo samples. The MSM workflow was successfully applied to metabolite identification analysis of verapamil in both in vitro rat hepatocyte incubations and in vivo rat bile samples.

  20. Mass-selective isolation of ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap. A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Raymond E.; Londry, Frank A.; Alfred, Roland L.; Franklin, Anthony M.; Todd, John F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Trajectories of single ions stored in the quadrupole ion trap have been calculated using a simulation program described as the specific program for quadrupolar resonance (SPQR). Previously, the program has been used for the investigation of quadrupolar resonance excitation of ions with a static working point (or co-ordinates) in the stability diagram. The program has been modified to accommodate continuous d.c. and/or r.f. voltage ramps so as to permit calculation of ion trajectories while the working point is being changed. The modified program has been applied to the calculation of ion trajectories during ion isolation, or mass-selective storage, in the ion trap. The quadrupolar resonance excitation aspect of SPQR was not used in this study. Trajectories are displayed as temporal variations of ion kinetic energy, and axial and radial excursions from the centre of the ion trap. The working points of three ion species (m/z 144, 146 and 148), located initially on the qz, axis with qz [approximate] 0.12, were moved to the vicinity of the upper apex by a combination of r.f. and d.c. voltages applied in succession. Stable trajectories were maintained only for the ion species of m/z 146 for which the working point lay within this apex; the other ion species were ejected either radially or axially. The d.c. voltage was then reduced to zero so as to restore the working point of the isolated ion species to the qz axis. The amplitude of the r.f voltage was reduced to its initial value so as to retrieve the initial working point for m/z 146. The process extended over a real time of 2.9 ms, and was collision-free. The trajectory of the isolated ion was stable during this process; the ion species with m/z value lower than that of the target ion, that is, m/z 144, was ejected axially at the [beta]z = 1 boundary, while that with higher m/z value, that is, m/z 148, was ejected radially at the [beta]r = 0 boundary, as expected. The moderating effects of buffer gas were not taken

  1. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [Currently EACOA Fellow at Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10641, Taiwan. (China); Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: yasu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Also at Origins Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1, Canada. (Canada)

    2013-11-20

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M {sub *} ≤ 0.7 M {sub ☉}).

  2. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M * ≤ 0.7 M ☉ ).

  3. A Dual Source Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer of ExoMars 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickerhoff, William B.; vanAmerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R. M.; Arevalo, R.; Atanassova, M.; Hovmand, L.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cotter, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present details on the objectives, requirements, design and operational approach of the core mass spectrometer of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on the 2018 ExoMars mission. The MOMA mass spectrometer enables the investigation to fulfill its objective of analyzing the chemical composition of organic compounds in solid samples obtained from the near surface of Mars. Two methods of ionization are realized, associated with different modes of MOMA operation, in a single compact ion trap mass spectrometer. The stringent mass and power constraints of the mission have led to features such as low voltage and low frequency RF operation [1] and pulse counting detection.

  4. Use of Early Ripening Cultivars to Avoid Infestation and Mass Trapping to Manage Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Emily; Koski, Carissa; Barsoian, Olivia; Faubert, Heather; Cowles, Richard S; Alm, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    Use of early ripening highbush blueberry cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping were evaluated for managing spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars were sampled for spotted wing drosophila infestation. Most 'Earliblue', 'Bluetta', and 'Collins' fruit were harvested before spotted wing drosophila oviposition commenced, and so escaped injury. Most fruit from 'Bluejay', 'Blueray', and 'Bluehaven' were also harvested before the first week of August, after which spotted wing drosophila activity led to high levels of blueberry infestation. In a separate experiment, damage to cultivars was related to the week in which fruit were harvested, with greater damage to fruit observed as the season progressed. Attractant traps placed within blueberry bushes increased nearby berry infestation by 5%, irrespective of cultivar and harvest date. The significant linear reduction in infestation with increasing distance from the attractant trap suggests that traps are influencing fly behavior to at least 5.5 m. Insecticides applied to the exterior of traps, compared with untreated traps, revealed that only 10-30% of flies visiting traps enter the traps and drown. Low trap efficiency may jeopardize surrounding fruits by increasing local spotted wing drosophila activity. To protect crops, traps for mass trapping should be placed in a perimeter outside fruit fields and insecticides need to be applied to the surface of traps or on nearby fruit to function as an attract-and-kill strategy. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  5. Simulation of lean NOx trap performance with microkinetic chemistry and without mass transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Rich; Daw, C. Stuart (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN); Pihl, Josh A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN); Chakravarthy, V. Kalyana (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-01

    A microkinetic chemical reaction mechanism capable of describing both the storage and regeneration processes in a fully formulated lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT) is presented. The mechanism includes steps occurring on the precious metal, barium oxide (NO{sub x} storage), and cerium oxide (oxygen storage) sites of the catalyst. The complete reaction set is used in conjunction with a transient plug flow reactor code to simulate not only conventional storage/regeneration cycles with a CO/H{sub 2} reductant, but also steady flow temperature sweep experiments that were previously analyzed with just a precious metal mechanism and a steady state code. The results show that NO{sub x} storage is not negligible during some of the temperature ramps, necessitating a re-evaluation of the precious metal kinetic parameters. The parameters for the entire mechanism are inferred by finding the best overall fit to the complete set of experiments. Rigorous thermodynamic consistency is enforced for parallel reaction pathways and with respect to known data for all of the gas phase species involved. It is found that, with a few minor exceptions, all of the basic experimental observations can be reproduced with these purely kinetic simulations, i.e., without including mass-transfer limitations. In addition to accounting for normal cycling behavior, the final mechanism should provide a starting point for the description of further LNT phenomena such as desulfation and the role of alternative reductants.

  6. [Determination of 21 fragrance allergens in toys by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qing; Zang, Qing; Bai, Hua; Li, Haiyu; Kang, Suyuan; Wang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    A method of gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) was developed for the determination of 21 fragrance allergens in sticker toys, plush toys and plastic toys. The experimental conditions, such as sample pretreatment conditions, and the analytical conditions of GC-IT-MS, were optimized. The sticker toy samples and plush toy samples were extracted with acetone by ultrasonic wave, and the extracts were separated on an Agilent HP-1 MS column (50 m x 0.2 mm x 0.5 microm), then determined by IT-MS and quantified by external standard method. The plastic toy samples were extracted by the dissolution-precipitation approach, cleaned up with an Envi-carb solid phase extraction column and concentrated by rotary evaporation and nitrogen blowing, then determined by GC-IT-MS and quantified by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.002-50 mg/L with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.996 8. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > 10) were 0.02-40 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the target compounds spiked in the sample at three concentration levels were in the range of 82.2%-110.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.6%-10.5%. These results show that this method is accurate and sensitive for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the 21 fragrance allergens in the 3 types of toys.

  7. Differential fragmentation patterns of pectin oligogalacturonides observed by nanoelectrospray quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry using automated spectra interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutenda, Kudzai E; Matthiesen, Rune; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides of different degrees of polymerization (DP) and methyl esterification (DE) were structurally analyzed by nanoESI quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry. The fragmentation patterns of the oligogalacturonides were compared using the program 'Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist...... with free carboxylic acid groups underwent higher water loss compared to fully methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides under the same fragmentation conditions. Cross-ring cleavage, in which fragmentation occurs across the ring system of the galacturonate residue and signified by unique mass losses...... water loss than methyl-esterified ones will be postulated. In addition, the VEMS program was extended to automatically interpret and assign the fragment ions peaks generated in this study....

  8. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaya Ramirez, E., E-mail: minaya@ipno.in2p3.fr [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Cam, J.-F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen (France); Chauveau, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Daudin, L. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Delahaye, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Dupré, P. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Lunney, D. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); Metz, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Naimi, S. [Riken, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Perrot, L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Orsay (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 10{sup 5} ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 10{sup 5} is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  9. Mass-manufacturable polymer microfluidic device for dual fiber optical trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Diane; Ottevaere, Heidi; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; Callewaert, Manly; Wuytens, Pieter; Simpson, Stephen H; Hanna, Simon; De Malsche, Wim; Thienpont, Hugo

    2015-11-30

    We present a microfluidic chip in Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) for optical trapping of particles in an 80µm wide microchannel using two counterpropagating single-mode beams. The trapping fibers are separated from the sample fluid by 70µm thick polymer walls. We calculate the optical forces that act on particles flowing in the microchannel using wave optics in combination with non-sequential ray-tracing and further mathematical processing. Our results are compared with a theoretical model and the Mie theory. We use a novel fabrication process that consists of a premilling step and ultraprecision diamond tooling for the manufacturing of the molds and double-sided hot embossing for replication, resulting in a robust microfluidic chip for optical trapping. In a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show the trapping capabilities of the hot embossed chip by trapping spherical beads with a diameter of 6µm, 8µm and 10µm and use the power spectrum analysis of the trapped particle displacements to characterize the trap strength.

  10. Chemical Mass Shifts in a Digital Linear Ion Trap as Analytical Identity of o-, m-, and p-Xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lulu; Xue, Bing; Huang, Zhengxu; Cheng, Ping; Ma, Li; Ding, Li; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-07-01

    Chemical mass shifts between isomeric ions of o-, m-, and p-xylene were measured using a digital linear ion trap, and the directions and values of the shifts were found to be correlated to the collision cross sections of the isomers. Both forward and reverse scans were used and the chemical shifts for each pair of isomers in scans of opposite directions were in opposite signs. Using different voltage settings (namely the voltage dividing ratio-VDR) of the ion trap allows adding high order field components in the quadrupole field and results in larger chemical mass shifts. The differential chemical mass shift which combined the shifts from forward and reverse scans doubled the amount of chemical shift, e.g., 0.077 Th between o- and p-xylene, enough for identification of the type of isomer without using an additional ion mobility spectrometer. The feature of equal and opposite chemical mass shifts also allowed to null out the chemical mass shift by calculating the mean m/z value between the two opposite scans and remove or reduce the mass error caused by chemical mass shift. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Chemical Mass Shifts in a Digital Linear Ion Trap as Analytical Identity of o-, m-, and p-Xylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lulu; Xue, Bing; Huang, Zhengxu; Cheng, Ping; Ma, Li; Ding, Li; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-04-01

    Chemical mass shifts between isomeric ions of o-, m-, and p-xylene were measured using a digital linear ion trap, and the directions and values of the shifts were found to be correlated to the collision cross sections of the isomers. Both forward and reverse scans were used and the chemical shifts for each pair of isomers in scans of opposite directions were in opposite signs. Using different voltage settings (namely the voltage dividing ratio-VDR) of the ion trap allows adding high order field components in the quadrupole field and results in larger chemical mass shifts. The differential chemical mass shift which combined the shifts from forward and reverse scans doubled the amount of chemical shift, e.g., 0.077 Th between o- and p-xylene, enough for identification of the type of isomer without using an additional ion mobility spectrometer. The feature of equal and opposite chemical mass shifts also allowed to null out the chemical mass shift by calculating the mean m/z value between the two opposite scans and remove or reduce the mass error caused by chemical mass shift. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Linear ion-trap mass spectrometric characterization of human pituitary nitrotyrosine-containing proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianquan; Desiderio, Dominic M.

    2007-01-01

    The nitric oxide-mediated Tyr-nitration of endogenous proteins is associated with several pathological and physiological processes. In order to investigate the presence - and potential roles - of Tyr-nitration in the human pituitary, a large-format two-dimensional gel separation plus a Western blot against a specific anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibody were used to separate and detect nitroproteins from a human pituitary proteome. The nitroproteins were subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion, and high-sensitivity vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (vMALDI) linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the tryptic peptides. Those MS/MS data were used to determine the amino acid sequence and the specific nitration site of each tryptic nitropeptide, and were matched to corresponding proteins with Bioworks TuboSEQUEST software. Compared to our previous study, 16 new nitrotyrosine-immunoreactive positive Western blot spots were found within the area pI 3.0-10 and Mr 10-100 kDa. Four new nitroproteins were discovered: the stanniocalcin 1 precursor--involved in calcium and phosphate metabolism; mitochondrial co-chaperone protein HscB, which might act as a co-chaperone in iron-sulfur cluster assembly in mitochrondria; progestin and adipoQ receptor family member III--a seven-transmembrane receptor; proteasome subunit alpha type 2--involved in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent non-lysosomal proteolytic pathway. Those data demonstrate that nitric oxide-mediated Tyr-nitration might participate in various biochemical, metabolic, and pathological processes in the human pituitary.

  13. Mass Spectrometry Parameters Optimization for the 46 Multiclass Pesticides Determination in Strawberries with Gas Chromatography Ion-Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Vera, Jose L.; Domingues, Valentina F.; Silva, Luís M. S.; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Multiclass analysis method was optimized in order to analyze pesticides traces by gas chromatography with ion-trap and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of some analytical parameters on pesticide signal response was explored. Five ion trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS) operating parameters, including isolation time (IT), excitation voltage (EV), excitation time (ET), maximum excitation energy or " q" value (q), and isolation mass window (IMW) were numerically tested in order to maximize the instrument analytical signal response. For this, multiple linear regression was used in data analysis to evaluate the influence of the five parameters on the analytical response in the ion trap mass spectrometer and to predict its response. The assessment of the five parameters based on the regression equations substantially increased the sensitivity of IT-MS/MS in the MS/MS mode. The results obtained show that for most of the pesticides, these parameters have a strong influence on both signal response and detection limit. Using the optimized method, a multiclass pesticide analysis was performed for 46 pesticides in a strawberry matrix. Levels higher than the limit established for strawberries by the European Union were found in some samples.

  14. Bait station devices can improve mass trapping performance for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo Millo, Jaime; Vacas González, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThe use of traps and other attract-and-kill devices in pest management strategies to reduce Mediterranean fruit fly populations has proved to be efficient. Nevertheless, many farmers are concerned about the effect of these devices on the trees where they are hung. Direct field observations have revealed that fruit damage is higher in trees with traps than in trees without them. This work evaluates the efficacy of different types of attract-and-kill device to protect fruit of the sin...

  15. Theoretical study of the mode of the mass-selective nonstable axial output ions from the nonlinear trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakov, M.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    One studied theoretically the mode of mass-selective unstable output of ions from three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap. One developed a method represent coordinates of ions per one period of supplying HF voltage with regard to nonlinear distortions of quadrupole potential. One derived equation for an envelope of ion oscillations in the form of motion equation of mass point in the efficient force field. One explained the effect of output delay of ions at presence of the field negative even harmonics. One proved that the positive even distortions of quadrupole potential favored realization of that mode and studied the dynamics of ions in the course of output [ru

  16. Numerical and graphical description on the ion motions in a Penning trap for mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.L.; Tian, Y.L.; Huang, W.X.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, Y.S.; Zhao, J.M.; Wang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The ion motions in a Penning trap have been studied in detail in the presence of azimuthal dipolar and quadrupolar radio-frequency excitations and buffer gas cooling. The numerical solutions by using the Runge–Kutta method and thus the pictures of the ion trajectories in the trap have been obtained for different cases and summarized in graphical form. For the recentering of the ion of interest and to perform the purification of the ion species, one has to set a reasonable buffer gas pressure in the trap and apply azimuthal quadrupolar excitation at frequency ω rf =ω c . -- Highlights: • Azimuthal dipolar and quadrupolar rf excitations and buffer gas cooling. • Runge–Kutta method. • Pictures of the ion trajectories obtained and summarized in graphical form. • A reasonable buffer gas pressure should be set for recentering ions

  17. Ultracold molecules for the masses: Evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, B. K.

    While cold molecule experiments are rapidly moving towards their promised benefits of precision spectroscopy, controllable chemistry, and novel condensed phases, heretofore the field has been greatly limited by a lack of methods to cool and compress chemically diverse species to temperatures below ten millikelvin. While in atomic physics these needs are fulfilled by laser cooling, magneto-optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, until now none of these techniques have been applicable to molecules. In this thesis, two major breakthroughs are reported. The first is the observation of evaporative cooling in magnetically trapped hydroxyl (OH) radicals, which potentially opens a path all the way to Bose-Einstein condensation of dipolar radicals, as well as allowing cold- and ultracold-chemistry studies of fundamental reaction mechanisms. Through the combination of an extremely high gradient magnetic quadrupole trap and the use of the OH Λ-doublet transition to enable highly selective forced evaporation, cooling by an order of magnitude in temperature was achieved and yielded a final temperature no higher than 5mK. The second breakthrough is the successful application of laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping to molecules. Motivated by a proposal in this thesis, laser cooling of molecules is now known to be technically feasible in a select but substantial pool of diatomic molecules. The demonstration of not only Doppler cooling but also two-dimensional magneto-optical trapping in yttrium (II) oxide, YO, is expected to enable rapid growth in the availability of ultracold molecules—just as the invention of the atomic magneto-optical trap stimulated atomic physics twenty-five years ago.

  18. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets[I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas[2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study[3] has been

  20. Earth history. U-Pb geochronology of the Deccan Traps and relation to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Blair; Samperton, Kyle M; Eddy, Michael P; Keller, Gerta; Adatte, Thierry; Bowring, Samuel A; Khadri, Syed F R; Gertsch, Brian

    2015-01-09

    The Chicxulub asteroid impact (Mexico) and the eruption of the massive Deccan volcanic province (India) are two proposed causes of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, which includes the demise of nonavian dinosaurs. Despite widespread acceptance of the impact hypothesis, the lack of a high-resolution eruption timeline for the Deccan basalts has prevented full assessment of their relationship to the mass extinction. Here we apply uranium-lead (U-Pb) zircon geochronology to Deccan rocks and show that the main phase of eruptions initiated ~250,000 years before the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and that >1.1 million cubic kilometers of basalt erupted in ~750,000 years. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Deccan Traps contributed to the latest Cretaceous environmental change and biologic turnover that culminated in the marine and terrestrial mass extinctions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Storage ion trap of an 'In-Flight Capture' type for precise mass measurement of radioactive nuclear reaction products and fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantin, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Data on nuclear masses provide a basis for creating and testing various nuclear models. A tandem system of FLNR comprised of the U-400M cyclotron, the COMBAS magnetic separator and the mass-spectrometric ion trap of an 'in-flight capture' type is considered as a possible complex for producing of the short-lived nuclei in fragmentation reactions by heavy ions and for precise mass measurement of these nuclei. The plan of scientific and technical FLNR research includes a project DRIBs for producing beams of accelerated radioactive nuclear reaction products and photofission fragments. This project proposes also precise mass measurements of the fission fragment with the help of the ion trap. The in-flight entrance of the ions and their capture in the mass-spectrometric ion trap using the monochromatizing degrader, the static electric and magnetic fields and a new invention, a magnetic unidirectional transporting ventil, is considered

  2. Extending and refining the mass surface around $^{208}$Pb by high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry with ISOLTRAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Stora, T; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Schwarz, S; Stanja, J; Herlert, A J; Yamaguchi, T

    We propose high-precision mass spectrometry of nuclides around the doubly magic $^{208}$Pb. On the neutron-rich side, we aim to extend the knowledge of Fr, At, Hg, and Au masses to study the robustness of the N = 126 shell closure and to provide mass data necessary for modeling the rapid-neutron-capture process. On the proton-rich side, we aim at high-resolution mass spectrometry of selected Au, At, and Fr isotopes to verify the predicted existence of very low-lying isomeric states. The proposal will make use of newly-available laser-ionization schemes for Au and At. Finally, the recently implemented multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator for auxiliary isobaric purification now allows measurements which were not feasible before.

  3. An aircraft-borne chemical ionization – ion trap mass spectrometer (CI-ITMS for fast PAN and PPN measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schlager

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An airborne chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer instrument (CI-ITMS has been developed for tropospheric and stratospheric fast in-situ measurements of PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate and PPN (peroxypropionyl nitrate. The first scientific deployment of the FASTPEX instrument (FASTPEX = Fast Measurement of Peroxyacyl nitrates took place in the Arctic during 18 missions aboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon, within the framework of the POLARCAT-GRACE campaign in the summer of 2008. The FASTPEX instrument is described and characteristic properties of the employed ion trap mass spectrometer are discussed. Atmospheric data obtained at altitudes of up to ~12 km are presented, from the boundary layer to the lowermost stratosphere. Data were sampled with a time resolution of 2 s and a 2σ detection limit of 25 pmol mol−1. An isotopically labelled standard was used for a permanent on-line calibration. For this reason the accuracy of the PAN measurements is better than ±10% for mixing ratios greater than 200 pmol mol−1. PAN mixing ratios in the summer Arctic troposphere were in the order of a few hundred pmol mol−1 and generally correlated well with CO. In the Arctic boundary layer and lowermost stratosphere smaller PAN mixing ratios were observed due to a combination of missing local sources of PAN precursor gases and efficient removal processes (thermolysis/photolysis. PPN, the second most abundant PAN homologue, was measured simultaneously. Observed PPN/PAN ratios range between ~0.03 and 0.3.

  4. Analysis of Disperse Dyes Using Liquid Chromatography/Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (LC/LIT-MSn) and Database Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takao; Ikeue, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Handa, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/LIT-MS(n)) was used to construct a database of disperse dyes. Fifty-three standard dyes were subjected to LC/LIT-MS(n) and characterized based on their mass spectra (MS, MS(2), and MS(3)), values of λmax (maximum absorption wavelength in the UV-visible spectrum), and retention times. The results demonstrate that it is possible to reliably identify coexisting dyes that cannot be separated by LC or detected by diode array detection due to their low molecular absorption coefficients. In addition, the by-products included in the standard dyes were found to provide important information for the identification and discrimination of dyestuffs synthesized using different processes. The confirmation of the effectiveness of LC/LIT-MS(n) analysis in detecting small amounts of disperse dyes in this study shows its potential for use in the discrimination of dyed fibers obtained at crime scenes.

  5. Mass flows and angular momentum density for px + ipy paired fermions in a harmonic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Michael; Anduaga, Inaki

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple two-dimensional model of a p x + ip y superfluid in which the mass flow that gives rise to the intrinsic angular momentum is easily calculated by numerical diagonalization of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes operator. We find that, at zero temperature and for constant director l, the mass flow closely follows the Ishikawa-Mermin-Muzikar formula j mass =1/2 curl/(ρhl/2)

  6. Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radioactive, highly charged ions. Measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr nuclides for nuclear astrophysics and development of a novel Penning trap for cooling highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Vanessa Veronique

    2012-01-01

    High-precision atomic mass measurements are vital for the description of nuclear structure, investigations of nuclear astrophysical processes, and tests of fundamental symmetries. The neutron-rich A ∼ 100 region presents challenges for modeling the astrophysical r-process because of sudden nuclear shape transitions. This thesis reports on high-precision masses of short-lived neutron-rich 94,97,98 Rb and 94,97-99 Sr isotopes using the TITAN Penning-trap mass spectrometer at TRIUMF. The isotopes were charge-bred to q = 15+; uncertainties of less than 4 keV were achieved. Results deviate by up to 11σ compared to earlier measurements and extend the region of nuclear deformation observed in the A∼100 region. A parameterized r-process model network calculation shows that mass uncertainties for the elemental abundances in this region are now negligible. Although beneficial for the measurement precision, the charge breeding process leads to an increased energy spread of the ions on the order of tens of eV/q. To eliminate this drawback, a Cooler Penning Trap (CPET) has been developed as part of this thesis. The novel multi-electrode trap structure of CPET forms nested potentials to cool HCI sympathetically using either electrons or protons to increase the overall efficiency and precision of the mass measurement. The status of the off-line setup and initial commissioning experiments are presented.

  7. Detection of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in urine by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklerov, J H; Kalasinsky, K S; Ehorn, C A

    1999-10-01

    A confirmatory method for the detection and quantitation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is presented. The method employs gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) using an internal ionization ion trap detector for sensitive MS-MS-in-time measurements of LSD extracted from urine. Following a single-step solid-phase extraction of 5 mL of urine, underivatized LSD can be measured with limits of quantitation and detection of 80 and 20 pg/mL, respectively. Temperature-programmed on-column injections of urine extracts were linear over the concentration range 20-2000 pg/mL (r2 = 0.999). Intraday and interday coefficients of variation were LSD-positive samples in this laboratory. Comparisons with alternate GC-MS methods and extraction procedures are discussed.

  8. Characterization of primaquine imidazolidin-4-ones with antimalarial activity by electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Nuno; Moreira, Rui; Gomes, Paula

    2008-02-01

    The extensive characterization by electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) of 20 imidazolidin-4-ones derived from the antimalarial primaquine was well obtained. These compounds are being under investigation as potential antimalarials, as they have been previously found to be active against rodent P. berghei malaria and to be highly stable under physiological conditions. Experiments by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in the nozzle-skimmer region or by tandem-MS have shown the title compounds to be remarkably stable. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the major fragmentations observed in ESI-MSn experiments. Overall, this work represents an unprecedented contribution to a deeper insight into imidazolidin-4-one antimalarials based on a classic 8-aminoquinolinic scaffold. Data herein reported and discussed may be an useful guide for future studies on therapeutically relevant molecules possessing either the 8-aminoquinoline or the imidazolidin-4-one motifs.

  9. Determination of triacylglycerol regioisomers using electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry with a kinetic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Nathalie L; Acheampong, Akwasi; Heron, Sylvie; Tchapla, Alain

    2012-04-13

    The kinetic method was applied to differentiate and quantify mixtures of regioisomeric triacylglycerols (TAGs) by generating and mass selecting alkali ion bound metal dimeric clusters with a TAG chosen as reference (ref) and examining their competitive dissociations in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This methodology readily distinguished pairs of regioisomers (AAB/ABA) such as LLO/LOL, OOP/OPO and SSP/SPS and consequently distinguished sn-1/sn-3, sn-2 substituents on the glycerol backbone. The dimeric complex ions [ref, Li, TAG((AAB and/or ABA))](+) generated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were subjected to collision induced dissociation causing competitive loss of either the neutral TAG reference (ref) leading to [Li(AAB and/or ABA)](+) or the neutral TAG molecule (TAG((AAB and/or ABA))) leading to [ref, Li](+). The ratio of the two competitive dissociation rates, defined by the product ion branching ratio (R(iso)), was related via the kinetic method to the regioisomeric composition of the investigated TAG mixture. In this work, a linear correlation was established between composition of the mixture of each TAG regioisomer and the logarithm of the branching ratio for competitive fragmentation. Depending on the availability of at least one TAG regioisomer as standard, the kinetic method and the standard additions method led to the quantitative analysis of natural TAG mixtures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening and identification of steroidal saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides employing UPLC tandem triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Xin-Dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a practical and valid strategy for the screening and structural characterization of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge steroidal saponins (SSs) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The whole analytical protocols integrate four-step procedures in the positive mode: (1) rational deduction of mass fragmentation pathways of A. asphodeloides SSs; (2) untargeted screening of potential A. asphodeloides SSs by multiple-ion monitoring-information-dependent-acquiring-enhanced product ion (MIM-IDA-EPI) scan through reverse phase liquid chromatography; (3) comprehensive construction of an ammoniated precursor ion database by combining untargeted MIM-IDA-EPI scans and data literature; and (4) structural interpretation of targeted A. asphodeloides SSs using MIM-IDA-EPI and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-IDA-EPI with an energy-resolved technique. The protocols were used to analyze SSs in A. asphodeloides; of the 87 detected SSs that were unambiguously characterized or tentatively identified, 19 compounds were the first to be reported from A. asphodeloides and 13 ones were characterized as potential new compounds. Accuracy of the analytical procedure was demonstrated by structural identification of three SSs by NMR spectroscopy. The proposed schemes hold an excellent promise in the structural prediction and interpretation of complex SSs from plant medicines by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Background-free beta-decay half-life measurements by in-trap decay and high-resolution MR-ToF mass analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. N.; Atanasov, D.; Blaum, K.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Welker, A.; Wienholtz, F.; Zuber, K.

    2016-06-01

    In-trap decay in ISOLTRAP's radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) ion beam cooler and buncher was used to determine the lifetime of short-lived nuclides. After various storage times, the remaining mother nuclides were mass separated from accompanying isobaric contaminations by the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator (MR-ToF MS), allowing for a background-free ion counting. A feasibility study with several online measurements shows that the applications of the ISOLTRAP setup can be further extended by exploiting the high resolving power of the MR-ToF MS in combination with in-trap decay and single-ion counting.

  12. Systems and methods for integrating ion mobility and ion trap mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya; Prost, Spencer A.

    2018-04-10

    Described herein are examples of systems and methods for integrating IMS and MS systems. In certain examples, systems and methods for decoding double multiplexed data are described. The systems and methods can also perform multiple refining procedures in order to minimize the demultiplexing artifacts. The systems and methods can be used, for example, for the analysis of proteomic and petroleum samples, where the integration of IMS and high mass resolution are used for accurate assignment of molecular formulae.

  13. Leisure Traveling for 21st Century Americans: Mass Tourism as a Cultural Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniculăese Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of mass men in the American environment exhibit predictable and similar patterns of behavior as tourists. Pre-Industrial Revolution modes of traveling as liberation and exploration are now thwarted by the leveling effect of globalization and the illusion of information fueled by the all-pervasive mass media. Claims about the role of routine or the quest for authenticity are challenged as genuine motivations for mass tourism. Both the American culture and travel destinations in developing countries have authentic content that is largely ignored in favor of sensationalism and cliché. Excessive regimentation in the US creates the acute need for transcending to which popular culture finds accessible solutions through tourism: an experience of concentrated yet vague exoticism which feels liberating without yielding exploration. Travel destinations are shaped to American standards of material comfort and even adopt western popular culture icons in an effort to supply accessible familiar experiences of western entertainment. Various kinds of difficulty that once stimulated travelers are now relieved by travel agencies, rendering the experience of traveling less personal and more like TV entertainment. Old notions of space, time and reality itself are blurred in favor of a hyper-reality where fiction dominates.

  14. Area-wide mass trapping by pheromone-based attractants for the control of sugar beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar, Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmić, Zrinka; Tóth, Miklós; Lemić, Darija; Grubišić, Dinka; Pospišil, Milan; Bažok, Renata

    2017-10-01

    Owing to the changing climate, narrow crop rotation, and changes in insecticide application practice, sugar beet weevil (SBW) (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar) has become the most important economic pest in sugar beet. To develop alternative control methods, an area-wide (AW) control program using aggregation pheromones was implemented over 4 years on an area of 6 and 14.8 km 2 in east Croatia. The mass trapping of SBW on the 'old' sugar beet fields reduced the population from 0.73% to 11.59%. Owing to the strong attack, mass trapping was not effective enough to avoid an insecticide application. However, it significantly reduced the number of insecticide applications, the amount of insecticide used, and the damage compared to the fields outside the mass trapping area. This is the first study to implement an AW program for SBW. It may not be possible to state from this study that trapping alone can reduce the SBW population below the economic threshold level. However, the data do suggest that trapping can play an important role in the reduction of insecticide applications and in creating an integrated pest management plan for dealing with SBW under similar circumstances. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process. Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Dinko

    2016-07-06

    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton-to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium ({sup 129-131}Cd) and caesium ({sup 132,146-148}Cs) isotopes. Measurements were done at the on-line radioactive ion-beam facility ISOLDE by using the four-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The cadmium isotopes are key nuclides for the synthesis of stable isotopes around the mass peak A = 130 in the Solar System abundance.

  16. Screening of Carotenoids in Tomato Fruits by Using Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Caretti, Fulvia; Ventura, Salvatore; Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; Venditti, Alessandro; Curini, Roberta

    2015-08-26

    This paper presents an analytical strategy for a large-scale screening of carotenoids in tomato fruits by exploiting the potentialities of the triple quadrupole-linear ion trap hybrid mass spectrometer (QqQLIT). The method involves separation on C30 reversed-phase column and identification by means of diode array detection (DAD) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The authentic standards of six model compounds were used to optimize the separative conditions and to predict the chromatographic behavior of untargeted carotenoids. An information dependent acquisition (IDA) was performed with (i) enhanced-mass scan (EMS) as the survey scan, (ii) enhanced-resolution (ER) scan to obtain the exact mass of the precursor ions (16-35 ppm), and (iii) enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan to obtain structural information. LC-DAD-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) chromatograms were also acquired for the identification of targeted carotenoids occurring at low concentrations; for the first time, the relative abundance between the MRM transitions (ion ratio) was used as an extra tool for the MS distinction of structural isomers and the related families of geometrical isomers. The whole analytical strategy was high-throughput, because a great number of experimental data could be acquired with few analytical steps, and cost-effective, because only few standards were used; when applied to characterize some tomato varieties ('Tangerine', 'Pachino', 'Datterino', and 'Camone') and passata of 'San Marzano' tomatoes, our method succeeded in identifying up to 44 carotenoids in the 'Tangerine'" variety.

  17. Study on elemental analysis of metal and ceramic samples by using laser ablation ion trap mass spectrometry(LAITMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Park, Hyun Kook; Lee, Sang Chun; SONG, Kyu Seok

    2002-01-01

    Laser ablation ion trap mass spectrometry (LAITMS) was developed for the analysis of metal and ceramic samples. For this study, XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) was used for ablating the samples and ITMS was used as a detector. Samples were introduced from outside of a ring electrode and this way of sample introduction was very effective for solid samples when laser ablation was employed. Helium gas was used as a buffer gas, and its effect on sensitivity and some parameters (buffer gas pressure, ion storage time, and cut-off RF voltage) were studied. The optimized conditions were 1 x 10 - 4 Torr of buffer gas pressure, 100 ms of ion storage time and 1150 V p- p of cut-off RF voltage. From that results, copper (Cu) and molybdenum(Mo) metals were tested with LAITMS and the mass spectra of these pure metals were compared with the natural abundance of isotope ratio. We also examined ceramic samples (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and represented the result of elements analysis

  18. Food contaminant analysis at ultra-high mass resolution: application of hybrid linear ion trap - orbitrap mass spectrometry for the determination of the polyether toxins, azaspiracids, in shellfish.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-10-30

    The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1\\/AZA6 and AZA4\\/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS\\/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1 ppm of the theoretical m\\/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 µg\\/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007 µg\\/g) using CID MS\\/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n = 6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n = 3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS\\/MS, produced

  19. Spin trapping combined with quantitative mass spectrometry defines free radical redistribution within the oxidized hemoglobin:haptoglobin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallelian, Florence; Garcia-Rubio, Ines; Puglia, Michele; Kahraman, Abdullah; Deuel, Jeremy W; Engelsberger, Wolfgang R; Mason, Ronald P; Buehler, Paul W; Schaer, Dominik J

    2015-08-01

    Extracellular or free hemoglobin (Hb) accumulates during hemolysis, tissue damage, and inflammation. Heme-triggered oxidative reactions can lead to diverse structural modifications of lipids and proteins, which contribute to the propagation of tissue damage. One important target of Hb׳s peroxidase reactivity is its own globin structure. Amino acid oxidation and crosslinking events destabilize the protein and ultimately cause accumulation of proinflammatory and cytotoxic Hb degradation products. The Hb scavenger haptoglobin (Hp) attenuates oxidation-induced Hb degradation. In this study we show that in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Hb and the Hb:Hp complex share comparable peroxidative reactivity and free radical generation. While oxidation of both free Hb and Hb:Hp complex generates a common tyrosine-based free radical, the spin-trapping reaction with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) yields dissimilar paramagnetic products in Hb and Hb:Hp, suggesting that radicals are differently redistributed within the complex before reacting with the spin trap. With LC-MS(2) mass spectrometry we assigned multiple known and novel DMPO adduct sites. Quantification of these adducts suggested that the Hb:Hp complex formation causes extensive delocalization of accessible free radicals with drastic reduction of the major tryptophan and cysteine modifications in the β-globin chain of the Hb:Hp complex, including decreased βCys93 DMPO adduction. In contrast, the quantitative changes in DMPO adduct formation on Hb:Hp complex formation were less pronounced in the Hb α-globin chain. In contrast to earlier speculations, we found no evidence that free Hb radicals are delocalized to the Hp chain of the complex. The observation that Hb:Hp complex formation alters free radical distribution in Hb may help to better understand the structural basis for Hp as an antioxidant protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Collision induced dissociation of protonated N-nitrosodimethylamine by ion trap mass spectrometry: Ultimate carcinogens in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia; Baker, Michael; Gabryelski, Wojciech

    2009-12-01

    Collision induced dissociation of protonated N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and isotopically labeled N-nitrosodimethyl-d6-amine (NDMA-d6) was investigated by sequential ion trap mass spectrometry to establish mechanisms of gas phase reactions leading to intriguing products of this potent carcinogen. The fragmentation of (NDMA + H+) occurs via two dissociation pathways. In the alkylation pathway, homolytic cleavage of the N-O bond of N-dimethyl, N'-hydroxydiazenium ion generates N-dimethyldiazenium distonic ion which reacts further by a CH3 radical loss to form methanediazonium ion. Both methanediazonium ion and its precursor are involved in ion/molecule reactions. Methanediazonium ion showed to be capable of methylating water and methanol molecules in the gas phase of the ion trap and N-dimethyldiazenium distonic ion showed to abstract a hydrogen atom from a solvent molecule. In the denitrosation pathway, a tautomerization of N-dimethyl, N'-hydroxydiazenium ion to N-nitrosodimethylammonium intermediate ion results in radical cleavage of the N-N bond of the intermediate ion to form N-dimethylaminium radical cation which reacts further through [alpha]-cleavage to generate N-methylmethylenimmonium ion. Although the reactions of NDMA in the gas phase are different to those for enzymatic conversion of NDMA in biological systems, each activation method generates the same products. We will show that collision induced dissociation of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA) is also a feasible approach to gain information on formation, stability, and reactivity of alkylating agents originating from NDEA and NDPA. Investigating such biologically relevant, but highly reactive intermediates in the condensed phase is hampered by the short life-times of these transient species.

  1. Performance of the linear ion trap Orbitrap mass analyzer for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, L.; Emke, E.; Hernández, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work illustrates the potential of liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap Fourier Transform Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the simultaneous identification and quantification of 24 drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water. The developed methodology consisted of

  2. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  3. Infrared laser dissociation of single megadalton polymer ions in a gated electrostatic ion trap: the added value of statistical analysis of individual events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Mohammad A; Clavier, Christian; Dagany, Xavier; Kerleroux, Michel; Dugourd, Philippe; Dunbar, Robert C; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-05-07

    In this study, we report the unimolecular dissociation mechanism of megadalton SO 3 -containing poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) polymer cations and anions with the aid of infrared multiphoton dissociation coupled to charge detection ion trap mass spectrometry. A gated electrostatic ion trap ("Benner trap") is used to store and detect single gaseous polymer ions generated by positive and negative polarity in an electrospray ionization source. The trapped ions are then fragmented due to the sequential absorption of multiple infrared photons produced from a continuous-wave CO 2 laser. Several fragmentation pathways having distinct signatures are observed. Highly charged parent ions characteristically adopt a distinctive "stair-case" pattern (assigned to the "fission" process) whereas low charge species take on a "funnel like" shape (assigned to the "evaporation" process). Also, the log-log plot of the dissociation rate constants as a function of laser intensity between PAMPS positive and negative ions is significantly different.

  4. Nanoelectrospray with ion-trap mass spectrometry for the determination of beta-casomorphins in derived milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-García, Ana; Font, Guillermina; Juan, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

    2009-11-15

    Beta-casomorphins (b-CMs) are bioactive peptides derived from casein with opioid agonist effects similar to morphine. The use of electrospray (ESI) with quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry (QIT-MS) for these compounds in two matrices, cheese and milk, was examined. It was compared to a liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and a "soft" ionisation technique, NanoMate, with selected ion monitoring (SIM), which are unreliable for the determination of trace casomorphins in derived milk products. b-CM mass fragmentation pathways were done for the four most common b-CMs: beta-casomorphin (1-5) bovine (b-CM-5), beta-casomorphin (1-7) bovine (b-CM-7), [D-Ala2, D-Pro4,Tyr5]-beta-casomorphin (1-5) amide (b-CM-10) and beta-casomorphin (1-5) amide [D-Ala2,Hyp4,Tyr5] (b-CM-11). The major product ions obtained in QIT-MS were used to construct fragmentation pathways for b-CMs. The different collision energies using automated nanoelectrospray ion source NanoMate and conventional LC in QIT-MS were studied. Calibration data for b-CMs, using spiked milk or cheese samples (10 g or 10 mL), were: NanoMate/MS (25-1000 microg/L), r(2)=0.998; NanoMate/MS(2) (5-1000 microg/L), r(2)=0.9992; NanoMate/MS(3) (2.5-1000 microg/L), r(2)=0.9998. Reproducibility data (% RSD, N=5) for NanoMate/MS(n) mode ranged between 2.0 at 500 microg/L and 7.0 at 10 microg/L.

  5. Determination of the serine palmitoyl transferase inhibitor myriocin by electrospray and Q-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Giuseppe Matteo; Signorelli, Paola; Rizzo, Jessica; Ghilardi, Claudio; Antognetti, Jacopo; Caretti, Anna; Lazarević, Jelena S; Strettoi, Enrica; Novelli, Elena; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Rubino, Federico Maria; Paroni, Rita

    2017-12-01

    Myriocin is a potent inhibitor of serine-palmitoyl-transferase, the first and rate-determining enzyme in the sphingolipids biosynthetic pathway. This study developed, validated and applied a LC-MS/MS method to measure myriocin in minute specimens of animal tissue. The chemical analog 14-OH-myriocin was used as the internal standard. The two molecules were extracted from the tissue homogenate by solid-phase extraction, separated by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and measured by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry in the triple quadrupole. Detection was accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring, employing the most representative transitions, 400@104 and 402@104 for myriocin and 14-OH-myriocin, respectively. The typical limit of detection and lower limit of quantitation of the optimized method were 0.9 pmol/mL (~0.016 pmol injected) and 2.3 pmol/mL, respectively, and the method was linear up to 250 pmol/mL range (r 2  = 0.9996). The intra- and between-day repeatability afforded a coefficient of variation ≤7.0%. Applications included quantification of myriocin in mouse lungs after 24 h from administration of ~4 nmol by intra-tracheal delivery. Measured levels ranged from 4.11 (median; 2.3-7.4 IQR, n = 4) to 11.7 (median; 7.6-22.7 interquartile range (IQR), n = 6) pmol/lung depending on the different formulations used. Myriocin was also measured in retinas of mice treated by intravitreal injection and ranged from 0.045 (less than the limit of detection) to 0.35 pmol/retina. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Action spectroscopy of SrCl{sup +} using an integrated ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Prateek, E-mail: teek24@ucla.edu; Schowalter, Steven J.; Hudson, Eric R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    The photodissociation cross-section of SrCl{sup +} is measured in the spectral range of 36 000–46 000 cm{sup −1} using a modular time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). By irradiating a sample of trapped SrCl{sup +} molecular ions with a pulsed dye laser, X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} state molecular ions are electronically excited to the repulsive wall of the A{sup 1}Π state, resulting in dissociation. Using the TOF-MS, the product fragments are detected and the photodissociation cross-section is determined for a broad range of photon energies. Detailed ab initio calculations of the SrCl{sup +} molecular potentials and spectroscopic constants are also performed and are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The spectroscopic constants for SrCl{sup +} are also compared to those of another alkaline earth halogen, BaCl{sup +}, in order to highlight structural differences between the two molecular ions. This work represents the first spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of SrCl{sup +}.

  7. Application of Liquid Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Technique to Determine Ergot Alkaloids in Grain Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Szymczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry-based method to determine six ergot alkaloids and their isomers is presented. The samples were cleaned on neutral alumina-based solid-phase extraction cartridges. The following method parameters were obtained (depending on the analyte and spiking level: method recovery from 63.0 to 104.6 %, relative standard deviation below 18 %, linear range from 1 to 325 μg/kg, linear correlation coefficient not less than 0.98. The developed analytical procedure was applied to determine the levels of ergot alkaloids in 65 samples of selected rye-based food products (flour– 34 samples, bran – 12 samples, rye – 18 samples, flakes – 1 sample. Measurable levels of alkaloids were found in majority of the analysed samples, particularly in rye flour. Additionally, alkaloids were determined in ergot sclerotia isolated from rye grains. Total content was nearly 0.01 % (97.9 mg/kg. However, the alkaloid profi le was dominated by ergocristine at 45.6 % (44.7 mg/kg, an alkaloid not commonly found in the tested food products. Ergocorninine at 0.2 % (0.2 mg/kg was the least abundant alkaloid.

  8. Application of Liquid Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Technique to Determine Ergot Alkaloids in Grain Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Roszko, Marek

    2015-03-01

    A liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry-based method to determine six ergot alkaloids and their isomers is presented. The samples were cleaned on neutral alumina-based solid-phase extraction cartridges. The following method parameters were obtained (depending on the analyte and spiking level): method recovery from 63.0 to 104.6%, relative standard deviation below 18%, linear range from 1 to 325 µg/kg, linear correlation coefficient not less than 0.98. The developed analytical procedure was applied to determine the levels of ergot alkaloids in 65 samples of selected rye-based food products (flour - 34 samples, bran - 12 samples, rye - 18 samples, flakes - 1 sample). Measurable levels of alkaloids were found in majority of the analysed samples, particularly in rye flour. Additionally, alkaloids were determined in ergot sclerotia isolated from rye grains. Total content was nearly 0.01% (97.9 mg/kg). However, the alkaloid profile was dominated by ergocristine at 45.6% (44.7 mg/kg), an alkaloid not commonly found in the tested food products. Ergocorninine at 0.2% (0.2 mg/kg) was the least abundant alkaloid.

  9. Simultaneous screening and confirmation of multiple classes of drug residues in fish by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shani; Gieseker, Charles; Reimschuessel, Renate; Decker, Christie-Sue; Carson, Mary C

    2009-11-13

    LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to screen and confirm 38 compounds from a variety of drug classes in four species of fish: trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and hexane. The acetonitrile phase was evaporated, redissolved in water and acetonitrile, and analyzed by gradient chromatography on a phenyl column. MS(2) or MS(3) spectra were monitored for each compound. Qualitative method performance was evaluated by the analysis over several days of replicate samples of control fish, fish fortified with a drug mixture at 1 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm, and fish dosed with a representative from each drug class. Half of the 38 drugs were confirmed at 0.01 ppm, the lowest fortification level. This included all of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the macrolides, malachite green, and most of the imidazoles. Florfenicol amine, metronidazole, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and most of the betalactams were confirmed at 0.1 ppm. Ivermectin and penicillin G were only detectable in the 1 ppm fortified samples. With the exception of amoxicillin, emamectin, metronidazole, and tylosin, residue presence was confirmed in all the dosed fish.

  10. Enhanced signal generation for use in the analysis of synthetic pyrethroids using chemical ionization tandem quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichilongo, Kwenga

    2004-12-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids fragment extensively under electron ionization (EI) conditions to give low mass ions, most of them with the same m/z ratios. This fragmentation is primarily due to the labile ester linkage found in these compounds. In this research we established the best gas chromatography (GC) conditions in the EI mode that served as a benchmark in the development of a chemical ionization (CI) protocol for ten selected synthetic pyrethroids. Based on proton affinity data, several reagent gases were evaluated in the positive CI ionization mode. Methanol was found to produce higher average ion counts relative to the other gases evaluated, which led to the development of an optimized method consisting of selective ejection chemical ionization (SECI) and MS/MS. Standard stainless steel ion trap electrodes produced significant degradation of chromatographic performance on late eluting compounds, which was attributed to electrode surface chemistry. A dramatic improvement in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios was observed when the chromatographically inert Silcosteel coated electrodes were used. The resulting method, that has significant S/N ratio improvements resulting from a combination of septum programmable injections (SPI), optimized CI and inert Silcosteel-coated electrodes, was used to determine instrument detection limits.

  11. A lethal ovitrap-based mass trapping scheme for dengue control in Australia: I. Public acceptability and performance of lethal ovitraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, S A; Rapley, L P; Williams, C; Johnson, P H; Larkman, M; Silcock, R M; Long, S A; Russell, R C

    2009-12-01

    We report on the first field evaluation of the public acceptability and performance of two types of lethal ovitrap (LO) in three separate trials in Cairns, Australia. Health workers were able to set standard lethal ovitraps (SLOs) in 75 and 71% of premise yards in the wet and dry season, respectively, and biodegradable lethal ovitraps (BLOs) in 93% of yards. Public acceptance, measured as retention of traps by residents, was high for both trap types, with porous (grass, soil and mulch) versus solid (tiles, concrete, wood and stone) substrates. The SLOs and the BLOs were readily acceptable to ovipositing Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae); the mean number of eggs/trap was 6 and 15, for the dry season and wet season SLO trial, respectively, and 15 for the BLO wet season trial. Indeed, 84-94% of premise yards had egg positive SLOs or BLOs. A high percentage of both wet and dry season SLOs (29 and 70%, respectively) and BLOs (62%) that were dry after 4 weeks were egg positive, indicating the traps had functioned. Lethal strips from SLOs and BLOs that had been exposed for 4 weeks killed 83 and 74%, respectively, of gravid Ae. aegypti in laboratory assays. These results indicate that mass trapping schemes using SLOs and BLOs are not rejected by the public and effectively target gravid Ae. aegypti. The impact of the interventions on mosquito populations is described in a companion paper.

  12. Penning-trap mass measurements of the neutron-rich K and Ca isotopes: Resurgence of the N=28 shell strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, A.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Simon, V. V.; Delheij, P.; Lunney, D.; Ringle, R.; Savajols, H.; Dilling, J.

    2012-02-01

    We present Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich 44,47-50K and 49,50Ca isotopes carried out at the TITAN facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. The 44K mass measurement was performed with a charge-bred 4+ ion utilizing the TITAN electron beam ion trap and agrees with the literature. The mass excesses obtained for 47K and 49,50Ca are more precise and agree with the values published in the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME’03). The 48,49,50K mass excesses are more precise than the AME’03 values by more than 1 order of magnitude. For 48,49K, we find deviations of 7σ and 10σ, respectively. The new 49K mass excess lowers significantly the two-neutron separation energy at the neutron number N=30 compared with the separation energy calculated from the AME’03 mass-excess values and thus increases the N=28 neutron-shell gap energy at Z=19 by approximately 1 MeV.

  13. Nanoelectrospray high capacity ion trap multiple stage mass spectrometry for the structural analysis of human brain gangliosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelic, Zeljka; Ratiu, Cornelia; Grozescu, Ioan; Zamfir, Alina Diana

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A novel protocol based on electrospray ionization (ESI) multiple stage high capacity ion trap (HCT) mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for glycosphingolipidomic surveys. The method was optimized for detailed structural elucidation of human brain gangliosides and particularly applied to human hippocampus-associated structures. The multiple stage MS experiments allowed for a complete structural characterization of GM1 ganglioside species, which was achieved by elucidation of the oligosaccharide sequence, identification of the GM1 a structural isomer from the data upon sialic acid localization along the sugar backbone and determination of the d18:1/18:0 of fatty acid/sphingoid base composition of the ceramide moiety. The methodology developed here is of general practical applicability for glycolipids and represents a step forward in the implementation of the advanced and most modern MS methods in glycomics. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids, which consist of a mono- to polysialylated oligosaccharide chain of variable length attached to a ceramide portion of different composition with respect to the type of sphingoid base and fatty acid residues. Among all body systems, the central nervous system (CNS) possesses the highest content of gangliosides and they are playing a particularly important biological role at this level. Specific changes in the ganglioside expression and type of the expressed structures were observed to occur during brain development, maturation, and aging, and due to diseases or neurodegeneration processes. Gangliosides represent, therefore, an important class of biomarkers, carriers of information upon various CNS processes and events. Though in the human brain, their expression was observed to have a regional and tissue development induced specificity, the differences in ganglioside structure, composition and quantity were not systematically investigated or rigorously determined so far. (authors)

  14. Direct Analysis of Organic Compounds in Liquid Using a Miniature Photoionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer with Pulsed Carrier-Gas Capillary Inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinqiong; Yu, Quan; Zhang, Qian; Ni, Kai; Qian, Xiang; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-08-01

    A miniature ion trap mass spectrometer with capillary direct sampling and vacuum ultraviolet photoionization source was developed to conduct trace analysis of organic compounds in liquids. Self-aspiration sampling is available where the samples are drawn into the vacuum chamber through a capillary with an extremely low flow rate (less than 1 μL/min), which minimizes sample consumption in each analysis to tens of micrograms. A pulsed gas-assisted inlet was designed and optimized to promote sample transmission in the tube and facilitate the cooling of ions, thereby improving instrument sensitivity. A limit of detection of 2 ppb could be achieved for 2,4-dimethylaniline in a methanol solution. The sampling system described in the present study is specifically suitable for a miniature photoionization ion trap mass spectrometer that can perform rapid and online analysis for liquid samples. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Application of a trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for separation and characterization of impurities and isomers in cefpiramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Yu; Wen, Chunmei; Wang, Zhijian

    2017-11-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry had been routinely used for structure identification of impurity. However, all LC-MS methods were based on a volatile mobile phase, and a non-volatile system is used in the official analytical method of United States Pharmacopoeia for cefpiramide which limited the use of mass spectrometry for structure characterization of the impurities. Here we presented the utilization of a trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2D LC-IT-TOF MS) with positive and negative modes of electrospray ionization for characterization of eight impurities in cefpiramide. Trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography and online desalting technique made it possible to characterize the impurity in cefpiramide in the condition of official standard, and the TIC chromatogram of LC-MS was in conformity with the LC chromatogram of the official analytical method in the peak sequence of impurities, which could further improve the method of official monographs in pharmacopoeias. Each peak separated by the non-volatile mobile phase was trapped by a 20 μL quantitative loop then transferred into a system with a volatile mobile phase connected to a MS detector. In the first dimension, the column was Kromasil C 8 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a non-volatile salt mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL min -1 . In the second dimension, the column was Shimadzu Shim-pack GISS C 18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) with a volatile salt mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.3 mL min -1 . Through the multiple heart-cutting 2D-LC approach and online desalting technique, the problem of incompatibility between non-volatile salt mobile phase and mass spectrometry was solved completely. The fragmentation behavior of cefpiramide and its eight impurities were studied. The structures of eight impurities in cefpiramide drug substance were deduced based on the HPLC-MS n data, in

  16. Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Ion Trap Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry for Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Shejin-Liyan Granule Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Jifeng Gu; Weijun Wu; Mengwei Huang; Fen Long; Xinhua Liu; Yizhun Zhu

    2018-01-01

    A method for high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of Shejin-liyan Granule. According to the fragmentation mechanism and high-resolution MS data, 54 compounds, including fourteen isoflavones, eleven ligands, eight flavonoids, six physalins, six organic acids, four triterpenoid saponins, two xanthones, two alkaloi...

  17. Nuclear structure studies in the xenon and radon region and the discovery of a new radon isotope by Penning-trap mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Neidherr, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays high-precision mass measurements based on Penning traps allow a deep insight into the fundamental properties of nucleonic matter. To this end, the cyclotron frequency of an ion confined in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field B is determined. At the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE / CERN the masses of short-lived radioactive nuclei with half-lives down to several ten ms can be measured with an uncertainty in the order of 10$^{-8}$and below. ISOLTRAP consists of an RFQ cooler and buncher to cool and accumulate the ions coming from ISOLDE and a double Penning-trap system to first clean the ion samples and finally perform the mass measurements. Within this thesis the masses of neutron rich xenon and radon isotopes, namely $^{138-146}$Xe and $^{223-229}$Rn were determined, eleven of them for the first time. $^{229}$Rn was even discovered in this experiment and its half-life could be determined to roughly 12$^{+1.2}_{-1.3}$ s. Since the mass reflects all interactions inside the nucleus it is a unique...

  18. Loading of mass spectrometry ion trap with Th ions by laser ablation for nuclear frequency standard application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, Petr V; Derevyashkin, Sergey P; Khabarova, Ksenia Y; Kolachevsky, Nikolay N; Lebedinsky, Yury Y; Poteshin, Sergey S; Sysoev, Alexey A; Tkalya, Evgeny V; Tregubov, Dmitry O; Troyan, Viktor I; Vasiliev, Oleg S; Yakovlev, Valery P; Yudin, Valery I

    2017-08-01

    We describe an original multisectional quadrupole ion trap aimed to realize nuclear frequency standard based on the unique isomer transition in thorium nucleus. It is shown that the system effectively operates on Th + , Th 2+ and Th 3+ ions produced by laser ablation of metallic thorium-232 target. Laser intensity used for ablation is about 6 GW/cm 2 . Via applying a bias potential to every control voltage including the RF one, we are able not only to manipulate ions within the energy range as wide as 1-500 eV but to specially adjust trap potentials in order to work mainly with ions that belong to energy distribution maximum and therefore to effectively enhance the number of trapped ions. Measurement of energy distributions of 232 Th + , 232 Th 2+ , 232 Th 3+ ions obtained by laser ablation allows us to define optimal potential values for trapping process. Observed number of ions inside trap in dependence on trapping time is found to obey an unusually slow - logarithmic decay law that needs more careful study.

  19. In-depth study of in-trap high-resolution mass separation by transversal ion ejection from a multi-reflection time-of-flight device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Paul; Knauer, Stefan; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz

    2018-01-01

    The recently introduced method of ion separation by transversal ejection of unwanted species in electrostatic ion-beam traps and multi-reflection time-of-flight devices has been further studied in detail. As this separation is performed during the ion storage itself, there is no need for additional external devices such as ion gates or traps for either pre- or postselection of the ions of interest. The ejection of unwanted contaminant ions is performed by appropriate pulses of the potentials of deflector electrodes. These segmented ring electrodes are located off-center in the trap, i.e., between one of the two ion mirrors and the central drift tube, which also serves as a potential lift for capturing incoming ions and axially ejecting ions of interest after their selection. The various parameters affecting the selection effectivity and resolving power are illustrated with tin-cluster measurements, where isotopologue ion species provide mass differences down to a single atomic mass unit at ion masses of several hundred. Symmetric deflection voltages of only 10 V were found sufficient for the transversal ejection of ion species with as few as three deflection pulses. The duty cycle, i.e., the pulse duration with respect to the period of ion revolution, has been varied, resulting in resolving powers of up to several tens of thousands for this selection technique.

  20. Pilot experiment to control Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using mass trapping technique in a custard apple (Annona cherimolia Mill.) orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, J.P.; Escobar, I.; Garcia Tapia, F.J.; Aranda, G.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, as a result of assays coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (and participated by Spain), it was decided that ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine be included in low release polyetilene bag dispensers (Biolure, Consep, Co) as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) females were greatly attracted by them. These synthetic substances are placed in traps at the frequency of one and a half months to two months. If Tephry traps are used, one DDVP wafer (containing Vapona or a similar substance) is enough to kill the flies that enter them. These attractants make it unnecessary to replenish the liquids in the Mcphail traps and remain effective throughout the entire fruit season. The Caja Rural de Granada (a bank of farmers) encourages all techniques that increase crop profits for farmers. It is even more desirable if such crop profitability can be achieved without the application of insecticides which may result in the likely presence of toxic residues. In the light of the results achieved by the attractants with regard to female Medflies, the Caja Rural de Granada, together with the National Institute of Agricultural Research Counselling (Agricultural Department), performed an experiment on mass trapping to confirm whether it is possible to protect a fruit plantation with the application of this biotechnical method. Due to the great risk of this initial experiment, the farmers were free to use insecticides as often as they deemed necessary so that no damages due to any plague could be blamed on the experiment

  1. First Penning-trap mass measurement of the electron capture nuclide {sup 163}Ho and its daughter {sup 163}Dy for the ECHO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Fabian [Institut fuer Kernchemie und Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: TRIGA-SPEC Collaboration; ECHo-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The ECHo (Electron Capture of {sup 163}Ho) project aims to determine the mass of the electron neutrino by measuring the calorimetric spectrum of {sup 163}Ho. To be able to extract the neutrino mass from the spectrum near the endpoint a precise knowledge of the decay Q-value is necessary. The ideal way to measure this in a model independent way is by high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry. The ECHo collaboration has {sup 163}Ho samples available, which were produced by reactor neutron irradiation. Such samples are typically highly contaminated with radioactive and stable species. These were efficiently removed by chemical purification. Ionization by laser ablation allows high-precision Penning-trap mass measurements with sample sizes of 10{sup 16} atoms. From the measured cyclotron frequency ratio of {sup 163}Ho{sup 16}O{sup +} to {sup 163}Dy{sup 16}O{sup +} we determined the Q-value to be 2.5(7) keV. In addition absolute mass measurements using carbon cluster ions as reference were performed with an uncertainty two times lower than literature values. Future measurements at SHIPTRAP (GSI, Darmstadt) and PENTATRAP (MPIK, Heidelberg) are planned with the aim to drastically improve the uncertainty of the Q-value down to a few eV and thus providing the required input for the ECHo project.

  2. Biomimetic trapping cocktail to screen reactive metabolites: use of an amino acid and DNA motif mixture as light/heavy isotope pairs differing in mass shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Shuto; Honda, Takuto; Lee, Seon Hwa; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2018-06-01

    Candidate drugs that can be metabolically transformed into reactive electrophilic products, such as epoxides, quinones, and nitroso compounds, are of special concern because subsequent covalent binding to bio-macromolecules can cause adverse drug reactions, such as allergic reactions, hepatotoxicity, and genotoxicity. Several strategies have been reported for screening reactive metabolites, such as a covalent binding assay with radioisotope-labeled drugs and a trapping method followed by LC-MS/MS analyses. Of these, a trapping method using glutathione is the most common, especially at the early stage of drug development. However, the cysteine of glutathione is not the only nucleophilic site in vivo; lysine, histidine, arginine, and DNA bases are also nucleophilic. Indeed, the glutathione trapping method tends to overlook several types of reactive metabolites, such as aldehydes, acylglucuronides, and nitroso compounds. Here, we introduce an alternate way for screening reactive metabolites as follows: A mixture of the light and heavy isotopes of simplified amino acid motifs and a DNA motif is used as a biomimetic trapping cocktail. This mixture consists of [ 2 H 0 ]/[ 2 H 3 ]-1-methylguanidine (arginine motif, Δ 3 Da), [ 2 H 0 ]/[ 2 H 4 ]-2-mercaptoethanol (cysteine motif, Δ 4 Da), [ 2 H 0 ]/[ 2 H 5 ]-4-methylimidazole (histidine motif, Δ 5 Da), [ 2 H 0 ]/[ 2 H 9 ]-n-butylamine (lysine motif, Δ 9 Da), and [ 13 C 0 , 15 N 0 ]/[ 13 C 1 , 15 N 2 ]-2'-deoxyguanosine (DNA motif, Δ 3 Da). Mass tag triggered data-dependent acquisition is used to find the characteristic doublet peaks, followed by specific identification of the light isotope peak using MS/MS. Forty-two model drugs were examined using an in vitro microsome experiment to validate the strategy. Graphical abstract Biomimetic trapping cocktail to screen reactive metabolites.

  3. Classical states of an electric dipole in an external magnetic field: Complete solution for the center of mass and trapped states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atenas, Boris; Pino, Luis A. del; Curilef, Sergio, E-mail: scurilef@ucn.cl

    2014-11-15

    We study the classical behavior of an electric dipole in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Using the Lagrangian formulation, we obtain the equations of motion, whose solutions are represented in terms of Jacobi functions. We also identify two constants of motion, namely, the energy E and a pseudomomentumC{sup →}. We obtain a relation between the constants that allows us to suggest the existence of a type of bound states without turning points, which are called trapped states. These results are consistent with and complementary to previous results. - Highlights: • Bound states without turning points. • Lagrangian Formulation for an electric dipole in a magnetic field. • Motion of the center of mass and trapped states. • Constants of motion: pseudomomentum and energy.

  4. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáček, Petr; Bukowski, M.; Rosenberger, T. A.; Picklo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2016), s. 2225-2234 ISSN 0022-2275 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : shotgun lipidomics * triple quadrupole/ion-trap * human blood plasma * phosphatidylcholines Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.810, year: 2016 http://www.jlr.org/content/57/12/2225.full

  5. Characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of amino acids and (S)-N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-1-benzylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide using ion trap and QqTOF electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jirasko, Robert; Holcapek, Michal; Kolarova, Lenka; Nadvornik, Milan; Popkov, Alexander

    This work demonstrates the application of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) using two different mass analyzers, ion trap and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass analyzer, for the structural characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of

  6. Nuclear structure studies in the xenon and radon region and the discovery of a new radon isotope by Penning trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidherr, Dennis

    2010-04-28

    Nowadays high-precision mass measurements based on Penning traps allow a deep insight into the fundamental properties of nucleonic matter. To this end, the cyclotron frequency {nu}{sub c}=qB=(2{pi}m) of an ion confined in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field B is determined. At the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE / CERN the masses of short-lived radioactive nuclei with half-lives down to several ten ms can be measured with an uncertainty in the order of 10{sup -8} and below. ISOLTRAP consists of an RFQ cooler and buncher to cool and accumulate the ions coming from ISOLDE and a double Penning trap system to first clean the ion samples and finally perform the mass measurements. Within this thesis the masses of neutron rich xenon and radon isotopes, namely {sup 138-146}Xe and {sup 223-229}Rn were determined, eleven of them for the first time. {sup 229}Rn was even discovered in this experiment and its half-life could be determined to 12{sub -1.3}{sup +1.2} s. Since the mass reflects all interactions inside the nucleus it is a unique fingerprint of the nuclide of interest. One of these interactions, the proton-neutron interaction, leads for example to the onset of deformation. The aim of this thesis is to investigate a possible connection be- tween collective effects in nuclei, like the onset of deformation, and double-differences of binding energies, so called {delta}V{sub pn} values. Especially in the here presented areas these {delta}V{sub pn} values show a very unusual behavior and can not be explained with simple orbital overlapping arguments. One explanation could be the occurrence of octupolar deformation in these regions, which is usually probed with other experimental techniques. However, a quantitative description of the influence of such type of deformation on {delta}V{sub pn} is still not possible with modern theories. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear structure studies in the xenon and radon region and the discovery of a new radon isotope by Penning trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidherr, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays high-precision mass measurements based on Penning traps allow a deep insight into the fundamental properties of nucleonic matter. To this end, the cyclotron frequency ν c =qB=(2πm) of an ion confined in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field B is determined. At the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE / CERN the masses of short-lived radioactive nuclei with half-lives down to several ten ms can be measured with an uncertainty in the order of 10 -8 and below. ISOLTRAP consists of an RFQ cooler and buncher to cool and accumulate the ions coming from ISOLDE and a double Penning trap system to first clean the ion samples and finally perform the mass measurements. Within this thesis the masses of neutron rich xenon and radon isotopes, namely 138-146 Xe and 223-229 Rn were determined, eleven of them for the first time. 229 Rn was even discovered in this experiment and its half-life could be determined to 12 -1.3 +1.2 s. Since the mass reflects all interactions inside the nucleus it is a unique fingerprint of the nuclide of interest. One of these interactions, the proton-neutron interaction, leads for example to the onset of deformation. The aim of this thesis is to investigate a possible connection be- tween collective effects in nuclei, like the onset of deformation, and double-differences of binding energies, so called δV pn values. Especially in the here presented areas these δV pn values show a very unusual behavior and can not be explained with simple orbital overlapping arguments. One explanation could be the occurrence of octupolar deformation in these regions, which is usually probed with other experimental techniques. However, a quantitative description of the influence of such type of deformation on δV pn is still not possible with modern theories. (orig.)

  8. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-06

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs.

  9. A novel trapping system for the detection of reactive drug metabolites using the fungus Cunninghamella elegans and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydevik, Axel; Hansson, Annelie; Hellqvist, Anna; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

    2015-07-01

    A new model is presented that can be used to screen for bioactivation of drugs. The evaluation of toxicity is an important step in the development of new drugs. One way to detect possible toxic metabolites is to use trapping agents such as glutathione. Often human liver microsomes are used as a metabolic model in initial studies. However, there is a need for alternatives that are easy to handle, cheap, and can produce large amounts of metabolites. In the presented study, paracetamol, mefenamic acid, and diclofenac, all known to form reactive metabolites in humans, were incubated with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans and the metabolites formed were characterized with ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. Interestingly, glutathione conjugates formed by the fungus were observed for all three drugs and their retention times and MS/MS spectra matched those obtained in a comparative experiment with human liver microsomes. These findings clearly demonstrated that the fungus is a suitable trapping model for toxic biotransformation products. Cysteine conjugates of all three test drugs were also observed with high signal intensities in the fungal incubates, giving the model a further indicator of drug bioactivation. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the use of a fungal model for the formation and trapping of reactive drug metabolites. The investigated model is cheap, easy to handle, it does not involve experimental animals and it can be scaled up to produce large amounts of metabolites. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Quantification of prominent volatile compounds responsible for muskmelon and watermelon aroma by purge and trap extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredes, Alejandro; Sales, Carlos; Barreda, Mercedes; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Roselló, Salvador; Beltrán, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic headspace purge-and-trap (DHS-P&T) methodology for the determination and quantification of 61 volatile compounds responsible for muskmelon and watermelon aroma has been developed and validated. The methodology is based on the application of purge-and-trap extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to (ion trap) mass spectrometry detection. For this purpose two different P&T sorbent cartridges have been evaluated. The influence of different extraction factors (sample weight, extraction time, and purge flow) on extraction efficiency has been studied and optimised using response surface methodology. Precision, expressed as repeatability, has been evaluated by analysing six replicates of real samples, showing relative standard deviations between 3% and 27%. Linearity has been studied in the range of 10-6130 ng mL(-1) depending on the compound response, showing coefficients of correlation between 0.995 and 0.999. Detection limits ranged between 0.1 and 274 ng g(-1). The methodology developed is well suited for analysis of large numbers of muskmelon and watermelon samples in plant breeding programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accurate and rapid modeling of iron–bleomycin-induced DNA damage using tethered duplex oligonucleotides and electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Harsch, Andreas; Marzilli, Lisa A.; Bunt, Richard C.; Stubbe, Joanne; Vouros, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Bleomycin B2 (BLM) in the presence of iron [Fe(II)] and O2 catalyzes single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) cleavage of DNA. Electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry was used to monitor these cleavage processes. Two duplex oligonucleotides containing an ethylene oxide tether between both strands were used in this investigation, allowing facile monitoring of all ss and ds cleavage events. A sequence for site-specific binding and cleavage by Fe–BLM was incorporated into each an...

  12. Gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry applied for the analysis of triazine herbicides in environmental waters by an isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zongwei; Wang Dongli; Ma, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    A gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of simazine, atrazine, cyanazine, as well as the degradation products of atrazine, such as deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine in environmental water samples. Isotope dilution technique was applied for the quantitative analysis of atrazine in water at low ng/l levels. One liter of water sample spiked with stable isotope internal standard atrazine-d 5 was extracted with a C 18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. The analysis was performed on an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in MS/MS method. The extraction recoveries were in the range of 83-94% for the triazine herbicides in water at the concentrations of 24, 200, and 1000 ng/l, while poor recoveries were obtained for the degradation products of atrazine. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were within the range of 3.2-16.1%. The detection limits of the method were between 0.75 and 12 ng/l when 1 l of water was analyzed. The method was successfully applied to analyze environmental water samples collected from a reservoir and a river in Hong Kong for atrazine detected at concentrations between 3.4 and 26 ng/l

  13. Rapid identification and quantitation of compounds with forensic interest using fast liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and library searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlainen, Katja; Sippola, Erkki; Kostiainen, Risto

    2003-04-25

    A fast liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method by using a monolithic column, gradient elution and ion trap mass spectrometer was developed for 14 forensically interesting and chemically different compounds. All compounds were eluted within 2.5 min and the total analysis time was 5 min including stabilisation time required for the next injection. All the compounds, basics, neutrals and acids were efficiently ionised by positive ion ESI. A laboratory library including MS-MS spectra and retention times was developed and tested. Results with 476 standard samples and 50 authentic samples showed that the compounds studied can be unambiguously identified with the library. A quantitative method was developed for the compounds using external calibration. The evaluation process showed good linearity of the method and reasonable repeatability. Limits of detection ranged from 10.0 to 50.0 ng/ml.

  14. Penning-trap mass spectrometry of neutron-rich copper isotopes for probing the Z = 28 and N = 50 shell closures

    CERN Multimedia

    Manea, V

    We propose to perform a Penning-trap mass measurement of $^{79}$Cu. This exotic N = 50 isotone is the last frontier before the doubly-magic $^{78}$Ni and will greatly improve our knowledge of shell evolution. In the same run, we propose $^{77-78}$Cu mass measurements, as well as the search for a possible isomer in $^{76m}$Cu. The data will help to clarify the structure of the odd proton in the Cu isotopes, the influence on the Z = 28 proton core of the νg$_{9/2}$ orbital filling and the impact of the proton-neutron residual interaction on the strength of the N = 50 shell closure.

  15. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  16. Trapping radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning

  17. Performance of the linear ion trap Orbitrap mass analyzer for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; de Voogt, Pim

    2013-03-20

    This work illustrates the potential of liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap Fourier Transform Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the simultaneous identification and quantification of 24 drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water. The developed methodology consisted of automatic solid-phase extraction using Oasis HLB cartridges, chromatographic separation of the targeted drugs, full-scan accurate mass data acquisition under positive electrospray ionization mode over an m/z range of 50-600Da at a resolution of 30,000 FWHM and simultaneous MS(n) measurements to obtain information of fragment ions generated in the linear ion trap. Accurate mass of the protonated molecule, together with at least one nominal mass product ion and retention time allowed the confident identification of the compounds detected in these complex matrices. In addition to the highly reliable qualitative analysis, Orbitrap analyzer also proved to have satisfactory potential for quantification at sub-ppb analyte levels, a possibility that has been very little explored in the literature until now. The limits of quantification ranged from 4 to 68ngL(-1) in influent sewage water, and from 2 to 35ngL(-1) in effluent, with the exception of MDA, morphine and THC that presented higher values as a consequence of the high ionization suppression in this type of samples. Satisfactory recoveries (70-120%) and precision (abuse could be identified and quantified, mainly MDMA, benzoylecgonine, codeine, oxazepam and temazepam. Orbitrap also showed potential for retrospective investigation of ketamine metabolites in the samples without the need of additional analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 40 CFR 75.15 - Special provisions for measuring Hg mass emissions using the excepted sorbent trap monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for measuring Hg... EMISSION MONITORING Monitoring Provisions § 75.15 Special provisions for measuring Hg mass emissions using... Federal Hg mass emission reduction program that adopts the provisions of subpart I of this part, if the...

  19. Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. A reliable technique for the analysis of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F J; Malavia, J; Galceran, M T [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Abalos, M; Abad, E; Rivera, J [Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Dept. of Ecotechnologies, IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The recent establishment of maximum residue limits for polychlorodibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in food and feed samples by the European Community and the future inclusion of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in these values at the end of 2006, has led to an important increase on the routine analysis of these compounds. Therefore, there is a clear need to have powerful sensitive and selective methods for the analysis of these compounds at low concentration levels. Actually, gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) is the technique of reference for the determination of these analytes in environmental and food samples due to its high sensitivity and selectivity. Nevertheless, this technique is relatively expensive and requires qualifier personnel. Therefore, the development of more economical but reliable methods that can deliver results comparable to GC-HRMS is required. During the last years, gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) working in MS/MS mode has become an interesting alternative technique to GC-HRMS for the analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the ability of the gas chromatography coupled with ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS/MS) for the analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in food and feed samples. This work was performed on the framework of the European research project called DIFFERENCE (Dioxins in Food and Feed - Reference methods and New Certified Reference Materials) with the objective to validate the GC-ITMS/MS method as alternative to HRMS in order to reduce the cost of dioxin analysis. The results and conclusions of the evaluation study are presented here.

  20. [Screening and confirmation of 24 hormones in cosmetics by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Fengmei; Niu, Zengyuan; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Gang; Chen, Junhui

    2014-05-01

    A method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS) was established to screen and confirm 24 hormones in cosmetics. Various cosmetic samples were extracted with methanol. The extract was loaded onto a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution of acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid for the separation. The accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion was acquired by full scanning of electrostatic field orbitrap. The rapid screening was carried out by the accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion. The confirmation analysis for targeted compounds was performed with the retention time and qualitative fragments obtained by data dependent scan mode. Under the optimal conditions, the 24 hormones were routinely detected with mass accuracy error below 3 x 10(-6) (3 ppm), and good linearities were obtained in their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The LODs (S/N = 3) of the 24 compounds were hormones in 50 cosmetic samples. The results demonstrate that the method is a useful tool for the rapid screening and identification of the hormones in cosmetics.

  1. A study of trapped ion dynamics by photon-correlation and pulse-probe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, J.; Dholakia, K.; Zs, G.; Horvath, K.; Hernandez-Pozos, J. L.; Power, W.; Segal, D. M.; Thompson, R. C.; Walker, T.

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate non-evasive methods for observing ion and ion cloud oscillation frequencies in a quadrupole ion trap. These trap resonances are measured for small clouds using a photon correlation technique. For large clouds the rotation frequency can be detected with the help of an additional pulsed probe laser. We show applications of the photon correlation method such as estimating the dynamic properties of a combined trap and detecting ion crystals

  2. A selective and sensitive method for quantitation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in whole blood by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libong, Danielle; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Ricordel, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    A gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ion trap MS-MS) method for detection and quantitation of LSD in whole blood is presented. The sample preparation process, including a solid-phase extraction step with Bond Elut cartridges, was performed with 2 mL of whole blood. Eight microliters of the purified extract was injected with a cold on-column injection method. Positive chemical ionization was performed using acetonitrile as reagent gas; LSD was detected in the MS-MS mode. The chromatograms obtained from blood extracts showed the great selectivity of the method. GC-MS quantitation was performed using lysergic acid methylpropylamide as the internal standard. The response of the MS was linear for concentrations ranging from 0.02 ng/mL (detection threshold) to 10.0 ng/mL. Several parameters such as the choice of the capillary column, the choice of the internal standard and that of the ionization mode (positive CI vs. EI) were rationalized. Decomposition pathways under both ionization modes were studied. Within-day and between-day stability were evaluated.

  3. Simultaneous determination of eight common odors in natural water body using automatic purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xuwei; Liang, Gaodao; Chen, Jun; Qi, Min; Xie, Ping

    2011-06-17

    Production and fate of taste and odor (T&O) compounds in natural waters are a pressing environmental issue. Simultaneous determination of these complex compounds (covering a wide range of boiling points) has been difficult. A simple and sensitive method for the determination of eight malodors products of cyanobacterial blooms was developed using automatic purge and trap (P&T) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This extraction and concentration technique is solvent-free. Dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethyltrisulfide (DMTS), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), β-cyclocitral, geosmin (GSM) and β-ionone were separated within 15.3 min. P&T uses trap #07 and high-purity nitrogen purge gas. The calibration curves of the eight odors show good linearity in the range of 1-500 ng/L with a correlation coefficient above 0.999 (levels=8) and with residuals ranging from approximately 83% to 124%. The limits of detection (LOD) (S/N=3) are all below 1.5 ng/L that of GSM is even lower at 0.08 ng/L. The relative standard deviations (RSD) are between 3.38% and 8.59% (n=5) and recoveries of the analytes from water samples of a eutrophic lake are between 80.54% and 114.91%. This method could be widely employed for monitoring these eight odors in natural waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a quadrupole/linear ion trap instrument for the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, M D; Ferrer, C; Ulaszewska, M; García-Reyes, J F; Molina-Díaz, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2007-11-01

    This article describes the development of an enhanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of pesticides in olive oil. One hundred pesticides belonging to different classes and that are currently used in agriculture have been included in this method. The LC-MS method was developed using a hybrid quadrupole/linear ion trap (QqQ(LIT)) analyzer. Key features of this technique are the rapid scan acquisition times, high specificity and high sensitivity it enables when the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode or the linear ion-trap operational mode is employed. The application of 5 ms dwell times using a linearly accelerating (LINAC) high-pressure collision cell enabled the analysis of a high number of pesticides, with enough data points acquired for optimal peak definition in MRM operation mode and for satisfactory quantitative determinations to be made. The method quantifies over a linear dynamic range of LOQs (0.03-10 microg kg(-1)) up to 500 microg kg(-1). Matrix effects were evaluated by comparing the slopes of matrix-matched and solvent-based calibration curves. Weak suppression or enhancement of signals was observed (ion (EPI) and MS3 were developed.

  5. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Michael

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation. The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  6. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D 2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  7. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, M

    2004-07-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D{sub 2} molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  8. Penning-trap mass spectrometry and mean-field study of nuclear shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, V.; Ascher, P.; Atanasov, D.; Barzakh, A. E.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Cocolios, T. E.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Marsh, B.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of nuclear shape coexistence in the region of neutron-deficient lead isotopes. The midshell gold isotopes 180,185,188,190Au (Z =79 ), the two long-lived nuclear states in 197At (Z =85 ), and the neutron-rich nuclide 219At were produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and their masses were determined with the high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The studied gold isotopes address the trend of binding energies in a region of the nuclear chart where the nuclear charge radii show pronounced discontinuities. Significant deviations from the atomic-mass evaluation were found for Au,190188. The new trend of two-neutron separation energies is smoother, although it does reveal the onset of deformation. The origin of this effect is interpreted in connection to the odd-even staggering of binding energies, as well as theoretically by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations including quasiparticle blocking. The role of blocking for reproducing the large odd-even staggering of charge radii in the mercury isotopic chain is illustrated.

  9. Penning-trap mass measurements of exotic rubidium and gold isotopes for a mean-field study of pairing and quadrupole correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Manea, Vladimir

    2015-09-14

    The most complex nuclei are situated between the magic and the mid-shell ones, in regions known for sudden changes of the trends of nuclear observables. These are the so-called shape-transition regions, where the nuclear paradigm changes from the vibrational liquid drop to the static rotor. With few exceptions, nuclei in these regions are radioactive, with half-lives dropping into the millisecond range. Complementing the information obtained from the low-lying excitation spectrum, nuclear binding energies and mean-square charge radii are among the observables most sensitive to these changes of nuclear structure. In the present work, a study of the shape- transition phenomenon is performed by measurements of radioactive nuclides produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The masses of the neutron-rich rubidium isotopes $^{98-100}$Rb and of the neutron-deficient gold isotopes $^{180, 185, 188, 190, 191}$Au are determined using the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The mass of $^{100}$Rb is determined for t...

  10. Metabolism of nitazoxanide in rats, pigs, and chickens: Application of liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianhui; Guo, Chunna; Chen, Zhangliu; Liu, Yahong; He, Limin; Zeng, Zhenling; Yan, Chaoqun; Pan, Guangfang; Li, Shuaipeng

    2015-09-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a nitrothiazole benzamide compound with a broad activity spectrum against parasites, Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, and viruses. In this study, hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer providing a high mass resolution and accuracy was used to investigate the metabolism of NTZ in rats, pigs, and chickens. The results revealed that acetylation and glucuronidation were the main metabolic pathways in rats and pigs, whereas acetylation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways in chickens, which indicated interspecies variations in drug metabolism and elimination. With the accurate mass data and the characteristic MS(n) product ions, we identified six metabolites in which tizoxanide and hydroxylated tizoxanide were phase I metabolites and tizoxanide glucuronide, tizoxanide glucose, tizoxanide sulfate and hydroxyl tizoxanide sulfate were phase II metabolites. Hydroxylated tizoxanide and tizoxanide glucose were identified for the first time. All the comprehensive data were provided to make out the metabolism of NTZ in rats, pigs and chickens more clearly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct determination of cadmium in foods by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a tungsten coil trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mao, Xuefei; Liu, Jixin; Wang, Min; Qian, Yongzhong; Gao, Chengling; Qi, Yuehan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a solid sampling device consisting of a tungsten coil trap, porous carbon vaporizer and on-line ashing furnace of a Ni-Cr coil was interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A modified double gas circuit system was employed that was composed of carrier and supplemental gas lines controlled by separate gas mass flow controllers. For Cd determination in food samples using the assembled solid sampling ICP-MS, the optimal ashing and vaporization conditions, flow rate of the argon-hydrogen (Ar/H2) (v:v = 24:1) carrier gas and supplemental gas, and minimum sampling mass were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of quantification was 0.5 pg and the relative standard deviation was within a 10.0% error range (n = 10). Furthermore, the mean spiked recoveries for various food samples were 99.4%-105.9% (n = 6). The Cd concentrations measured by the proposed method were all within the certified values of the reference materials or were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of the microwave digestion ICP-MS method, demonstrating the good accuracy and precision of the solid sampling ICP-MS method for Cd determination in food samples.

  12. Multiple and sequential data acquisition method: an improved method for fragmentation and detection of cross-linked peptides on a hybrid linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Breitwieser, Florian P; Huber, Marie L; Colinge, Jacques; Müller, André C; Bennett, Keiryn L

    2013-02-05

    The identification and validation of cross-linked peptides by mass spectrometry remains a daunting challenge for protein-protein cross-linking approaches when investigating protein interactions. This includes the fragmentation of cross-linked peptides in the mass spectrometer per se and following database searching, the matching of the molecular masses of the fragment ions to the correct cross-linked peptides. The hybrid linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) Orbitrap Velos combines the speed of the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) duty circle with high mass accuracy, and these features were utilized in the current study to substantially improve the confidence in the identification of cross-linked peptides. An MS/MS method termed multiple and sequential data acquisition method (MSDAM) was developed. Preliminary optimization of the MS/MS settings was performed with a synthetic peptide (TP1) cross-linked with bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate (BS(3)). On the basis of these results, MSDAM was created and assessed on the BS(3)-cross-linked bovine serum albumin (BSA) homodimer. MSDAM applies a series of multiple sequential fragmentation events with a range of different normalized collision energies (NCE) to the same precursor ion. The combination of a series of NCE enabled a considerable improvement in the quality of the fragmentation spectra for cross-linked peptides, and ultimately aided in the identification of the sequences of the cross-linked peptides. Concurrently, MSDAM provides confirmatory evidence from the formation of reporter ions fragments, which reduces the false positive rate of incorrectly assigned cross-linked peptides.

  13. Comprehensive lipidomic analysis of human plasma using multidimensional liquid- and gas-phase separations: Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry vs. liquid chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglai, Anna; Gargano, Andrea F G; Jordens, Jan; Mengerink, Ynze; Honing, Maarten; van der Wal, Sjoerd; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-12-29

    Recent advancements in separation science have resulted in the commercialization of multidimensional separation systems that provide higher peak capacities and, hence, enable a more-detailed characterization of complex mixtures. In particular, two powerful analytical tools are increasingly used by analytical scientists, namely online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC, having a second-dimension separation in the liquid phase) and liquid chromatography-ion mobility-spectrometry (LC-IMS, second dimension separation in the gas phase). The goal of the current study was a general assessment of the liquid-chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry (LC-TIMS-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC×LC-MS) platforms for untargeted lipid mapping in human plasma. For the first time trapped-ion-mobility spectrometry (TIMS) was employed for the separation of the major lipid classes and ion-mobility-derived collision-cross-section values were determined for a number of lipid standards. The general effects of a number of influencing parameters have been inspected and possible directions for improvements are discussed. We aimed to provide a general indication and practical guidelines for the analyst to choose an efficient multidimensional separation platform according to the particular requirements of the application. Analysis time, orthogonality, peak capacity, and an indicative measure for the resolving power are discussed as main characteristics for multidimensional separation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Utility of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) on an ion trap mass spectrometer in the analysis of drugs and metabolites in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Dieter M; Garrett, Timothy J; Cantone, Joseph L; Diters, Richard W; Mitroka, James G; Prieto Conaway, Maria C; Adams, Stephen P; Yost, Richard A; Sanders, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The properties and potential liabilities of drug candidate are investigated in detailed ADME assays and in toxicity studies, where findings are placed in context of exposure to dosed drug and metabolites. The complex nature of biological samples may necessitate work-up procedures prior to high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS) analysis of endogenous or xenobiotic compounds. This concept can readily be applied to biological fluids such as blood or urine, but in localized samples such as organs and tissues potentially important spatial, thus anatomical, information is lost during sample preparation as the result of homogenization and extraction procedures. However, the localization of test article or spatial identification of metabolites may be critical to the understanding of the mechanism of target-organ toxicity and its relevance to clinical safety. Tissue imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) with higher order mass spectrometric scanning functions was utilized for localization of dosed drug or metabolite in tissue. Laser capture microscopy (LCM) was used to obtain related samples from tissue for analyses by standard MALDI-MS and HPLC-MS. In a toxicology study, rats were administered with a high dosage of a prodrug for 2 weeks. Birefringent microcrystalline material (10-25 microm) was observed in histopathologic formalin-fixed tissue samples. Direct analysis by IMS provided the identity of material in the microcrystals as circulating active drug while maintaining spatial orientation. Complementary data from visual cross-polarized light microscopy as well as standard MALDI-MS and HPLC-MS experiments on LCM samples validated the qualitative results obtained by IMS. Furthermore, the HPLC-MS analysis on the LCM samples afforded a semi-quantitative assessment of the crystalline material in the tissue samples. IMS by MALDI ion trap MS proved sensitive

  15. Performance of the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Investigation on the 2018 Exomars Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Pinnick, Veronica T.; van Amerom, Friso H. W.; Danell, Ryan M.; Li, Xiang; Getty, Stephanie; Hovmand, Lars; Atanassova, Martina; Mahaffy, Paul R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The 2018 ExoMars rover mission includes the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation. MOMA will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from degradation derived from cosmic radiation and/or oxidative chemical reactions. When combined with the complement of instruments in the rover's Pasteur Payload, MOMA has the potential to reveal the presence of a wide range of organics preserved in a variety of mineralogical environments, and to begin to understand the structural character and potential origin of those compounds. The MOMA investigation is led by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) with the mass spectrometer subsystem provided by NASA GSFC. MOMA's linear ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is designed to analyze molecular composition of: (i) gas evolved from pyrolyzed powder samples and separated in a gas chromatograph; and, (ii) ions directly desorbed from crushed solid samples at Mars ambient pressure, as enabled by a pulsed UV laser system, fast-actuating aperture valve and capillary ion inlet. Breadboard ITMS and associated electronics have been advanced to high end-to-end fidelity in preparation for flight hardware delivery to Germany in 2015.

  16. Gas Chromatographic-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds by Ion-Molecule Reactions Using the Electron-Deficient Reagent Ion CCl{3/+}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Su, Yue; Wang, Hao-Yang; Guo, Yin-Long

    2011-10-01

    When using tetrachloromethane as the reagent gas in gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry equipped with hybrid ionization source, the cation CCl{3/+} was generated in high abundance and further gas-phase experiments showed that such an electron-deficient reagent ion CCl{3/+} could undergo interesting ion-molecule reactions with various volatile organic compounds, which not only present some informative gas-phase reactions, but also facilitate qualitative analysis of diverse volatile compounds by providing unique mass spectral data that are characteristic of particular chemical structures. The ion-molecule reactions of the reagent ion CCl{3/+} with different types of compounds were studied, and results showed that such reactions could give rise to structurally diagnostic ions, such as [M + CCl3 - HCl]+ for aromatic hydrocarbons, [M - OH]+ for saturated cyclic ether, ketone, and alcoholic compounds, [M - H]+ ion for monoterpenes, M·+ for sesquiterpenes, [M - CH3CO]+ for esters, as well as the further fragment ions. The mechanisms of ion-molecule reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic ketones and alcoholic compounds with the reagent ion CCl{3/+} were investigated and proposed according to the information provided by MS/MS experiments and theoretical calculations. Then, this method was applied to study volatile organic compounds in Dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum and 20 compounds, including monoterpenes and their oxygen-containing derivatives, aromatic hydrocarbon and sesquiterpenes were identified using such ion-molecule reactions. This study offers a perspective and an alternative tool for the analysis and identification of various volatile compounds.

  17. Liquid chromatography/negative electrospray ionization ion trap MS(2) mass spectrometry application for the determination of microcystins occurrence in Southern Portugal water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M A; Reis, M P; Mateus, M C

    2013-11-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are toxins produced by cyanobacteria which are common organisms in the phytoplankton of eutrophic lakes, rivers and freshwater reservoirs. In the present work, a novel method of liquid chromatography-electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/Ion trap-MS/MS), operated in the negative ionization mode, was developed for the analysis of these cyanotoxins. The method was applied to determine the amounts of total microcystins-LR, -YR and -RR in two water reservoirs in Southern Portugal, namely Alqueva and Beliche. A total of 30 water samples were analysed along 2011. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for sample cleaning-up and analyte enrichment. The extracted toxins were separated on a C18 column with a gradient of acetonitrile/water with 0.1% formic acid. Detection of microcystins was carried out using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the negative polarity mode, as this method gave a higher selectivity. The MC-RR, YR and LR quantification limits were 17.9, 31.7 and 15.8 ng/L, respectively; quite below the limits recommended by WHO guidelines for drinking water (1 μg/L). Total MC highest concentrations were found in the warm months of June, July and September in Alqueva sampling sites, with concentrations of MC LR and RR ranging 17-344 and 25-212 ng/L, respectively, showing comparable results for MC-RR and LR and slightly lower concentration of MC-YR. Detected values for Beliche reservoir were below quantification limits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Laser ablation synthesis of arsenic-phosphide Asm Pn clusters from As-P mixtures. Laser desorption ionisation with quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry: The mass spectrometer as a synthesizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubáček, Pavel; Prokeš, Lubomír; Pamreddy, Annapurna; Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; Conde, José Elias; Alberti, Milan; Havel, Josef

    2018-05-30

    Only a few arsenic phosphides are known. A high potential for the generation of new compounds is offered by Laser Ablation Synthesis (LAS) and when Laser Desorption Ionization (LDI) is coupled with simultaneous Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS), immediate identification of the clusters can be achieved. LAS was used for the generation of arsenic phosphides via laser ablation of phosphorus-arsenic mixtures while quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QIT-TOFMS) was used to acquire the mass spectra. Many new As m P n ± clusters (479 binary and 369 mono-elemental) not yet described in the literature were generated in the gas phase and their stoichiometry determined. The likely structures for some of the observed clusters arbitrary selected (20) were computed by density functional theory (DFT) optimization. LAS is an advantageous approach for the generation of new As m P n clusters, while mass spectrometry was found to be an efficient technique for the determination of cluster stoichiometry. The results achieved might inspire the synthesis of new materials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. PALOMA : an isotope analyzer using static mass spectrometry, coupled with cryogenic and chemical trapping, for the MSL mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassefiere, E.; Jambon, A.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Goulpeau, G.; Leblanc, F.; Montmessin, F.; Sarda, P.; Agrinier, P.; Fouchet, T.; Waite, H.

    The technique of GCMS analysis has to be completed by static mass spectrometry for precise in-situ measurements of the isotopic composition of planetary atmospheres (noble gases, stable isotopes), and volatile outgassed products from solid sample pyrolysis. Static mass spectrometry, coupled with gas separation by cryo-separation and gettering, is commonly used in the laboratory to study volatiles extracted from terrestrial and meteoritic samples. Such an instrument (PALOMA) is presently developed in our laboratories, and it will be coupled with a Pyr-GCMS analyzer (MACE), built by a US consortium of science laboratories and industrials (University of Michigan, Southwest Research Institute, JPL, Ball Aerospace). The MACE/PALOMA experiment will be proposed on the NASA Mars Science Laboratory mission, planned to be launched in 2009. The scientific objectives of PALOMA, coupled with MACE, may be listed as follows : (i) search for isotopic signatures of past life in atmosphere, rock, dust and ice samples, with emphasis on carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen; (ii) accurately measure isotopic composition of atmospheric noble gases, and stable isotopes, in order to better constrain past escape, surface interaction, outgassing history and climate evolution; (iii) precisely measure diurnal/ seasonal variations of isotopic ratios of H2O, CO2, and N2, for improving our understanding of present and past climate, and of the role of water cycle. Main measurement objectives are : (i) C, H, O, N isotopic composition in both organic evolved samples (provided by MACE pyrolysis system) and atmosphere with high accuracy (a few per mil at 1-s level); (ii) noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) and stable (C, H, O, N) isotope composition in atmosphere with high accuracy (a few per mil at 1-s level); (iii) molecular and isotopic composition of inorganic evolved samples (salts, hydrates, nitrates, {ldots}), including ices; (iv) diurnal and seasonal monitoring of D/H in water vapor, and water ice.

  20. Quantification of urinary 0,0'-dityrosine, a biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, by high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mas spectrometry. A comparison with ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orhan, H.; Coolen, S.; Meerman, J.H.N.

    2005-01-01

    We recently described an isotope dilution reversed-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion-trap-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of oxidized amino acids in human urine, including o,o′-dityrosine, a specific marker

  1. Profiling and identification of (-)-epicatechin metabolites in rats using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhanpeng; Wang, Fei; Dai, Shengyun; Lu, Jianqiu; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiayu

    2017-08-01

    (-)-Epicatechin (EC), an optical antipode of (+)-catechin (C), possesses many potential significant health benefits. However, the in vivo metabolic pathway of EC has not been clarified yet. In this study, an efficient strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer was developed to profile and characterize EC metabolites in rat urine, faeces, plasma, and various tissues. Meanwhile, post-acquisition data-mining methods including high-resolution extracted ion chromatogram (HREIC), multiple mass defect filters (MMDFs), and diagnostic product ions (DPIs) were utilized to screen and identify EC metabolites from HR-ESI-MS 1 to ESI-MS n stage. Finally, a total of 67 metabolites (including parent drug) were tentatively identified based on standard substances, chromatographic retention times, accurate mass measurement, and relevant drug biotransformation knowledge. The results demonstrated that EC underwent multiple in vivo metabolic reactions including methylation, dehydration, hydrogenation, glucosylation, sulfonation, glucuronidation, ring-cleavage, and their composite reactions. Among them, methylation, dehydration, glucosylation, and their composite reactions were observed only occurring on EC when compared with C. Meanwhile, the distribution of these detected metabolites in various tissues including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain were respectively studied. The results demonstrated that liver and kidney were the most important organs for EC and its metabolites elimination. In conclusion, the newly discovered EC metabolites significantly expanded the understanding on its pharmacological effects and built the foundation for further toxicity and safety studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Stable Trapping of Multielectron Helium Bubbles in a Paul Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. M.; Vadakkumbatt, V.; Pal, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-06-01

    In a recent experiment, we have used a linear Paul trap to store and study multielectron bubbles (MEBs) in liquid helium. MEBs have a charge-to-mass ratio (between 10^{-4} and 10^{-2} C/kg) which is several orders of magnitude smaller than ions (between 10^6 and 10^8 C/kg) studied in traditional ion traps. In addition, MEBs experience significant drag force while moving through the liquid. As a result, the experimental parameters for stable trapping of MEBs, such as magnitude and frequency of the applied electric fields, are very different from those used in typical ion trap experiments. The purpose of this paper is to model the motion of MEBs inside a linear Paul trap in liquid helium, determine the range of working parameters of the trap, and compare the results with experiments.

  3. Hydrolysis of VX on concrete: rate of degradation by direct surface interrogation using an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Gary S; Williams, John M; Appelhans, Anthony D; Gresham, Garold L; Olson, John E; Jeffery, Mark T; Rowland, Brad

    2002-11-15

    The nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate) is lethal at very low levels of exposure, which can occur by dermal contact with contaminated surfaces. Hence, behavior of VX in contact with common urban or industrial surfaces is a subject of acute interest. In the present study, VX was found to undergo complete degradation when in contact with concrete surfaces. The degradation was directly interrogated at submonolayer concentrations by periodically performing secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses after exposure of the concrete to VX. The abundance of the [VX + H]+ ion in the SIMS spectra was observed to decrease in an exponential fashion, consistent with first-order or pseudo-first-order behavior. This phenomenon enabled the rate constant to be determined at 0.005 min(-1) at 25 degrees C, which corresponds to a half-life of about 3 h on the concrete surface. The decrease in [VX + H]+ was accompanied by an increase in the abundance of the principal degradation product diisopropylaminoethanethiol (DESH), which arises by cleavage of the P-S bond. Degradation to form DESH is accompanied by the formation of ethyl methylphosphonic acid, which is observable only in the negative ion spectrum. A second degradation product was also implicated, which corresponded to a diisopropylvinylamine isomer (perhaps N,N-diisopropyl aziridinium) that arose via cleavage of the S-C bond. No evidence was observed for the formation of the toxic S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothioic acid. The degradation rate constants were measured at four different temperatures (24-50 degrees C), which resulted in a linear Arrhenius relationship and an activation energy of 52 kJ mol(-1). This value agrees with previous values observed for VX hydrolysis in alkaline solutions, which suggests that the degradation of submonolayer VX is dominated by alkaline hydrolysis within the adventitious water film on the concrete surface.

  4. Trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, E., E-mail: eoin.butler@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Andresen, G. B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, S. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayden, M. E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Humphries, A. J. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only {approx}1 T ({approx}0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be 'born' inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 10{sup 4} times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released-the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). This is more than sufficient time to interrogate the atoms spectroscopically, as well as to ensure that they have relaxed to their ground state.

  5. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085660; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Kreim, Susanne

    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton- to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium (129−131 Cd) and caesium...

  6. Accurate and rapid modeling of iron-bleomycin-induced DNA damage using tethered duplex oligonucleotides and electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, A; Marzilli, L A; Bunt, R C; Stubbe, J; Vouros, P

    2000-05-01

    Bleomycin B(2)(BLM) in the presence of iron [Fe(II)] and O(2)catalyzes single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) cleavage of DNA. Electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry was used to monitor these cleavage processes. Two duplex oligonucleotides containing an ethylene oxide tether between both strands were used in this investigation, allowing facile monitoring of all ss and ds cleavage events. A sequence for site-specific binding and cleavage by Fe-BLM was incorporated into each analyte. One of these core sequences, GTAC, is a known hot-spot for ds cleavage, while the other sequence, GGCC, is a hot-spot for ss cleavage. Incubation of each oligo-nucleotide under anaerobic conditions with Fe(II)-BLM allowed detection of the non-covalent ternary Fe-BLM/oligonucleotide complex in the gas phase. Cleavage studies were then performed utilizing O(2)-activated Fe(II)-BLM. No work-up or separation steps were required and direct MS and MS/MS analyses of the crude reaction mixtures confirmed sequence-specific Fe-BLM-induced cleavage. Comparison of the cleavage patterns for both oligonucleotides revealed sequence-dependent preferences for ss and ds cleavages in accordance with previously established gel electrophoresis analysis of hairpin oligonucleotides. This novel methodology allowed direct, rapid and accurate determination of cleavage profiles of model duplex oligonucleotides after exposure to activated Fe-BLM.

  7. Investigation of Symphytum cordatum alkaloids by liquid-liquid partitioning, thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroczek, Tomasz; Ndjoko-Ioset, Karine; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Mietkiewicz-Capala, Agnieszka; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    From the alkalised crude extract of Symphytum cordatum (L.) W.K. roots, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were extracted as free tertiary bases and polar N-oxides in a merely one-step liquid-liquid partitioning (LLP) in separation funnel and subsequently pre-fractionated by preparative multiple-development (MD) thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel plates. In this way three alkaloid fractions of different polarities and retention on silica gel plates were obtained as: the most polar N-oxides of the highest retention, the tertiary bases of medium retention, and diesterified N-oxides of the lowest retention. The former fraction was reduced into free bases by sodium hydrosulfite and purified by LLP on Extrelut-NT3 cartridge. It was further analysed together with the two other fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface on XTerra C 18 column using a gradient elution. Based on MS n spectra, 18 various alkaloids have been tentatively determined for the first time in this plant as the following types of structure: echimidine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-sarracinyl-9-viridiflorylretronecine (two diasteroisomers), echimidine (two diasteroisomers), lycopsamine (two diasteroisomers), dihydroechinatine-N-oxide, dihydroheliospathuline-N-oxide, lycopsamine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-acetyllycopsamine-N-oxide, symphytine-N-oxide (two diasteroisomers) and 2'',3''-epoxyechiumine-N-oxide

  8. Trace analysis of pesticides in paddy field water by direct injection using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Martínez-Bueno, M J; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2011-07-29

    A multiresidue method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 70 pesticides in paddy field water. After its filtration, water was injected directly in a liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). The list of target analytes included organophosphates, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, carbamates, conazoles, imidazolinones and others compounds widely used in different countries where rice is cropped. Detection and quantification limits achieved were in the range from 0.4 to 80 ng L(-1) and from 2 to 150 ng L(-1), respectively. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range 0.1-50 μg L(-1) were higher than 0.99 except for diazinon (0.1-25 μg L(-1)). Only 9 pesticides presented more than 20% of signal suppression/enhancement, no matrix effect was observed in the studied conditions for the rest of the target pesticides. The method developed was used to investigate the occurrence of pesticides in 59 water samples collected in paddy fields located in Spain and Uruguay. The study shows the presence of bensulfuron methyl, tricyclazole, carbendazim, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and quinclorac in a concentration range from 0.08 to 7.20 μg L(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in beverages consumed in religious practices by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaujac, Alain; Dempster, Nicola; Navickiene, Sandro; Brandt, Simon D; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt

    2013-03-15

    A novel analytical approach combining solid-phase microextraction (SPME)/gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) was developed for the detection and quantification N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a powerful psychoactive indole alkaloid present in a variety of South American indigenous beverages, such as ayahuasca and vinho da jurema. These particular plant products, often used within a religious context, are increasingly consumed throughout the world following an expansion of religious groups and the availability of plant material over the Internet and high street shops. The method described in the present study included the use of SPME in headspace mode combined GC-IT-MS and included the optimization of the SPME procedure using multivariate techniques. The method was performed with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber in headspace mode (70 min at 60 °C) which resulted in good precision (RSDvinho da jurema samples, obtained from Brazilian religious groups, which revealed DMT concentration levels between 0.10 and 1.81 g L(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Ion Trap Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry for Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Shejin-Liyan Granule Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jifeng; Wu, Weijun; Huang, Mengwei; Long, Fen; Liu, Xinhua; Zhu, Yizhun

    2018-04-11

    A method for high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of Shejin-liyan Granule. According to the fragmentation mechanism and high-resolution MS data, 54 compounds, including fourteen isoflavones, eleven ligands, eight flavonoids, six physalins, six organic acids, four triterpenoid saponins, two xanthones, two alkaloids, and one licorice coumarin, were identified or tentatively characterized. In addition, ten of the representative compounds (matrine, galuteolin, tectoridin, iridin, arctiin, tectorigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, irigenin, arctigenin, and irisflorentin) were quantified using the validated HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS method. The method validation showed a good linearity with coefficients of determination (r²) above 0.9914 for all analytes. The accuracy of the intra- and inter-day variation of the investigated compounds was 95.0-105.0%, and the precision values were less than 4.89%. The mean recoveries and reproducibilities of each analyte were 95.1-104.8%, with relative standard deviations below 4.91%. The method successfully quantified the ten compounds in Shejin-liyan Granule, and the results show that the method is accurate, sensitive, and reliable.

  11. Determination of pesticides associated with suspended sediments in the San Joaquin River, California, USA, using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Baston, D.S.; Crepeau, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical method useful for the quantification of a range of pesticides and pesticide degradation products associated with suspended sediments was developed by testing a variety of extraction and cleanup schemes. The final extraction and cleanup methods chosen for use are suitable for the quantification of the listed pesticides using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and the removal of interfering coextractable organic material found in suspended sediments. Methylene chloride extraction followed by Florisil cleanup proved most effective for separation of coextractives from the pesticide analytes. Removal of elemental sulfur was accomplished with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfite. The suitability of the method for the analysis of a variety of pesticides was evaluated, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were determined (0.1-6.0 ng/g dry weight of sediment) for 21 compounds. Recovery of pesticides dried onto natural sediments averaged 63%. Analysis of duplicate San Joaquin River suspended-sediment samples demonstrated the utility of the method for environmental samples with variability between replicate analyses lower than between environmental samples. Eight of 21 pesticides measured were observed at concentrations ranging from the MDL to more than 80 ng/g dry weight of sediment and exhibited significant temporal variability. Sediment-associated pesticides, therefore, may contribute to the transport of pesticides through aquatic systems and should be studied separately from dissolved pesticides.

  12. HPLC/ESI-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry for characterization and direct quantification of amphoteric and nonionic surfactants in aqueous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Garland, Jay L.; Johnson, Jodie V.

    2002-01-01

    An amphoteric (cocamidopropylbetaine, CAPB) and a nonionic (alcohol polyethoxylate, AE) surfactant were characterized by electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as to their homologue distribution and ionization/fragmentation chemistry. Quantitative methods involving reversed-phase gradient HPLC and (+)ESI-MSn were developed to directly determine these surfactants in hydroponic plant growth medium that received simulated graywater. The predominant homologues, 12 C alkyl CAPB and 9 EO AE, were monitored to represent the total amount of the respective surfactants. The methods demonstrated dynamic linear ranges of 0.5-250 ng (r2 > 0.996) for CAPB and 8-560 ng (r2 > 0.998) for AE homologue mixture, corresponding to minimum quantification limits of 25 ppb CAPB and 0.4 ppm AE with 20-microL injections. This translated into an even lower limit for individual components due to the polydispersive nature of the surfactants. The procedure was successfully employed for the assessment of CAPB and AE biodegradation in a hydroponic plant growth system used as a graywater bioreactor.

  13. Development and validation of automatic HS-SPME with a gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry method for analysis of volatiles in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Barros, Elisabete; Moreira, Nathalie; Elias Pereira, Giuliano; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Moraes Rezende, Claudia; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2012-11-15

    An automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) was developed in order to quantify a large number of volatile compounds in wines such as alcohols, ester, norisoprenoids and terpenes. The procedures were optimized for SPME fiber selection, pre-incubation temperature and time, extraction temperature and time, and salt addition. A central composite experimental design was used in the optimization of the extraction conditions. The volatile compounds showed optimal extraction using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, incubation of 5 ml of wine with 2g NaCl at 45 °C during 5 min, and subsequent extraction of 30 min at the same temperature. The method allowed the identification of 64 volatile compounds. Afterwards, the method was validated successfully for the most significant compounds and was applied to study the volatile composition of different white wines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Ion Trap Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry for Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Shejin-Liyan Granule Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Gu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of Shejin-liyan Granule. According to the fragmentation mechanism and high-resolution MS data, 54 compounds, including fourteen isoflavones, eleven ligands, eight flavonoids, six physalins, six organic acids, four triterpenoid saponins, two xanthones, two alkaloids, and one licorice coumarin, were identified or tentatively characterized. In addition, ten of the representative compounds (matrine, galuteolin, tectoridin, iridin, arctiin, tectorigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, irigenin, arctigenin, and irisflorentin were quantified using the validated HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS method. The method validation showed a good linearity with coefficients of determination (r2 above 0.9914 for all analytes. The accuracy of the intra- and inter-day variation of the investigated compounds was 95.0–105.0%, and the precision values were less than 4.89%. The mean recoveries and reproducibilities of each analyte were 95.1–104.8%, with relative standard deviations below 4.91%. The method successfully quantified the ten compounds in Shejin-liyan Granule, and the results show that the method is accurate, sensitive, and reliable.

  15. Investigation of Symphytum cordatum alkaloids by liquid-liquid partitioning, thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroczek, Tomasz [Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Medical University, 1 Chodzki St., 20-093 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: tmroczek@pharmacognosy.org; Ndjoko-Ioset, Karine [Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Phytochimie, Ecole de Pharmacie Geneve-Lausanne, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Glowniak, Kazimierz [Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Medical University, 1 Chodzki St., 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Mietkiewicz-Capala, Agnieszka [Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Medical University, 1 Chodzki St., 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Hostettmann, Kurt [Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Phytochimie, Ecole de Pharmacie Geneve-Lausanne, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2006-05-04

    From the alkalised crude extract of Symphytum cordatum (L.) W.K. roots, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were extracted as free tertiary bases and polar N-oxides in a merely one-step liquid-liquid partitioning (LLP) in separation funnel and subsequently pre-fractionated by preparative multiple-development (MD) thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel plates. In this way three alkaloid fractions of different polarities and retention on silica gel plates were obtained as: the most polar N-oxides of the highest retention, the tertiary bases of medium retention, and diesterified N-oxides of the lowest retention. The former fraction was reduced into free bases by sodium hydrosulfite and purified by LLP on Extrelut-NT3 cartridge. It was further analysed together with the two other fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface on XTerra C{sub 18} column using a gradient elution. Based on MS {sup n} spectra, 18 various alkaloids have been tentatively determined for the first time in this plant as the following types of structure: echimidine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-sarracinyl-9-viridiflorylretronecine (two diasteroisomers), echimidine (two diasteroisomers), lycopsamine (two diasteroisomers), dihydroechinatine-N-oxide, dihydroheliospathuline-N-oxide, lycopsamine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-acetyllycopsamine-N-oxide, symphytine-N-oxide (two diasteroisomers) and 2'',3''-epoxyechiumine-N-oxide.

  16. Bulk derivatization and direct injection of human cerebrospinal fluid for trace-level quantification of endogenous estrogens using trap-and-elute liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui; Papouskova, Barbora; Lemr, Karel; Wigginton, Jane G; Schug, Kevin A

    2014-08-01

    Although there are existing methods for determining estrogen in human bodily fluids including blood plasma and serum, very little information is available regarding estrogen levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is critical to assess in studies of neuroprotective functions and diffusion of neuroprotective estrogens across the blood-brain barrier. To address this problem, a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of four endogenous estrogens (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estriol) in human CSF was developed. An aliquot (300 μL) of human CSF was bulk derivatized using dansyl chloride in the sample and 10 μL was directly injected onto a restricted-access media trap column for protein removal. No off-line sample extraction or cleanup was needed. The limits of detection of estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estriol were 17, 28, 13, and 30 pg/mL, respectively, which is in the parts-per-trillion regime. The method was then applied to human CSF collected from ischemic trauma patients. Endogenous estrogens were detected and quantified, demonstrating the effectiveness of this method. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Simultaneous determination of components released from dental composite resins in human saliva by liquid chromatography/multiple-stage ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ven-Shing; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2012-02-01

    Dental composite resins are widely used for fixing teeth; however, the monomers used in dental composite resins have been found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic, namely triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), and bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA). In this study, we incubated dental composite resins with human saliva for demonstrating the released monomers and biodegradation products. A simple saliva sample dilution method without purification or derivatization was used for quantification. We found that liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-stage ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n) ) operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was able to separate the three monomers within 10 min. The calibration curves were linear (R² >0.996) over a wide range for each monomer in saliva: TEGDMA, 5-500 ppb; UDMA, 5-100 ppb, and Bis-GMA, 5-700 ppb. Furthermore, several biodegradation products were discovered with data-dependent MS/MS scan techniques. Although TEGMA degradation products have previously been reported, we identified two previously unknown UDMA degradation products. The LC-MS/MS method developed in this study was able to successfully quantify monomers and their principal biodegradation products from dental composite resins in human saliva. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Interrogating the Plasmodium Sporozoite Surface: Identification of Surface-Exposed Proteins and Demonstration of Glycosylation on CSP and TRAP by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian E Swearingen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasite infection is initiated by the mosquito-transmitted sporozoite stage, a highly motile invasive cell that targets hepatocytes in the liver for infection. A promising approach to developing a malaria vaccine is the use of proteins located on the sporozoite surface as antigens to elicit humoral immune responses that prevent the establishment of infection. Very little of the P. falciparum genome has been considered as potential vaccine targets, and candidate vaccines have been almost exclusively based on single antigens, generating the need for novel target identification. The most advanced malaria vaccine to date, RTS,S, a subunit vaccine consisting of a portion of the major surface protein circumsporozoite protein (CSP, conferred limited protection in Phase III trials, falling short of community-established vaccine efficacy goals. In striking contrast to the limited protection seen in current vaccine trials, sterilizing immunity can be achieved by immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites, suggesting that more potent protection may be achievable with a multivalent protein vaccine. Here, we provide the most comprehensive analysis to date of proteins located on the surface of or secreted by Plasmodium falciparum salivary gland sporozoites. We used chemical labeling to isolate surface-exposed proteins on sporozoites and identified these proteins by mass spectrometry. We validated several of these targets and also provide evidence that components of the inner membrane complex are in fact surface-exposed and accessible to antibodies in live sporozoites. Finally, our mass spectrometry data provide the first direct evidence that the Plasmodium surface proteins CSP and TRAP are glycosylated in sporozoites, a finding that could impact the selection of vaccine antigens.

  19. Simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin in fresh pufferfish and pufferfish-based products using immunoaffinity columns and liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengmeng; Wu, Haiyan; Jiang, Tao; Tan, Zhijun; Zhao, Chunxia; Zheng, Guanchao; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we established a comprehensive method for simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS). TTX was extracted by 1% acetic acid-methanol, and most of the lipids were then removed by freezing lipid precipitation, followed by purification and concentration using immunoaffinity columns (IACs). Matrix effects were substantially reduced due to the high specificity of the IACs, and thus, background interference was avoided. Quantitation analysis was therefore performed using an external calibration curve with standards prepared in mobile phase. The method was evaluated by fortifying samples at 1, 10, and 100 ng/g, respectively, and the recoveries ranged from 75.8%-107%, with a relative standard deviation of less than 15%. The TTX calibration curves were linear over the range of 1-1 000 μg/L, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/g and a quantification limit of 1 ng/g. Using this method, samples can be further analyzed using an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment, in the positive mode, from a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injection, which can provide an extra level of confirmation by matching the full product ion spectra acquired for a standard sample with those from an enhanced product ion (EPI) library. The scheduled multiple reaction monitoring method enabled TTX to be screened for, and TTX was positively identified using the IDA and EPI spectra. This method was successfully applied to analyze a total of 206 samples of fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products. The results from this study show that the proposed method can be used to quantify and identify TTX in a single run with excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and is suitable for the analysis of complex matrix pufferfish samples.

  20. Different target surfaces for the analysis of peptides, peptide mixtures and peptide mass fingerprints by AP-MALDI ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenauer, Ernst; Kassler, Alexander; Haubner, Roland; Allmaier, Günter

    2011-06-10

    The desorption/ionization behavior of individual peptides, an equimolare peptide mixture and a tryptic digest was investigated by AP-MALDI-IT-MS using four different target materials (gold-covered stainless steel (SS), titanium nitride-covered SS, hand-polished SS, and microdiamond-covered hardmetal) under identical conditions. Gold-covered as well as polished SS targets yielded comparable mass spectra for peptides and peptide mixture in the low pMol-range. The first target exhibited superior data down to the 10fMol-range. In contrast, titanium nitride-covered SS and microdiamond-covered hardmetal AP-MALDI-targets yielded poor sensitivity. These observations could be correlated with the surface roughness of the targets determined by 3D-confocal-white-light-microscopy. The roughest surfaces were found for titanium nitride-covered SS and microdiamond-covered hardmetal material showing both poor MS sensitivity. A less rough surface could be determined for the hand-polished SS target and the smoothest surface was found for the gold-covered target yielding the best sensitivity of all surfaces. These differences in the roughness having a strong impact on the ultimate sensitivity obtainable for peptide samples could be corroborated by electron microscopy. A peptide mixture covering a wide range of molecular weights and a tryptic protein digest (from 2-DE) exhibit the same behavior. This clearly indicates that the smooth gold-covered SS target is the surface of choice in AP-MALDI MS proteomics. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Assessment of the ion-trap mass spectrometer for routine qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse extracted from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorce, S P; Sklerov, J H; Kalasinsky, K S

    2000-10-01

    The ion-trap mass spectrometer (MS) has been available as a detector for gas chromatography (GC) for nearly two decades. However, it still occupies a minor role in forensic toxicology drug-testing laboratories. Quadrupole MS instruments make up the majority of GC detectors used in drug confirmation. This work addresses the use of these two MS detectors, comparing the ion ratio precision and quantitative accuracy for the analysis of different classes of abused drugs extracted from urine. Urine specimens were prepared at five concentrations each for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), benzoylecgonine (BZE), delta9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THCCOOH), phencyclidine (PCP), morphine (MOR), codeine (COD), and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). Concentration ranges for AMP, METH, BZE, delta9-THCCOOH, PCP, MOR, COD, and 6-AM were 50-2500, 50-5000, 15-800, 1.5-65, 1-250, 500-32000, 250-21000, and 1.5-118 ng/mL, respectively. Sample extracts were injected into a GC-quadrupole MS operating in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and a GC-ion-trap MS operating in either selected ion storage (SIS) or full scan (FS) mode. Precision was assessed by the evaluation of five ion ratios for n = 15 injections at each concentration using a single-point calibration. Precision measurements for SIM ion ratios provided coefficients of variation (CV) between 2.6 and 9.8% for all drugs. By comparison, the SIS and FS data yielded CV ranges of 4.0-12.8% and 4.0-11.2%, respectively. The total ion ratio failure rates were 0.2% (SIM), 0.7% (SIS), and 1.2% (FS) for the eight drugs analyzed. Overall, the SIS mode produced stable, comparable mean ratios over the concentration ranges examined, but had greater variance within batch runs. Examination of postmortem and quality-control samples produced forensically accurate quantitation by SIS when compared to SIM. Furthermore, sensitivity of FS was equivalent to SIM for all compounds examined except for 6-AM.

  2. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A [Albuquerque, NM; Blain, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM; Linker, Kevin L [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  3. Status and outlook of CHIP-TRAP: The Central Michigan University high precision Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, M.; Bryce, R. A.; Hawks, P.; Gamage, N. D.; Hunt, C.; Kandegedara, R. M. E. B.; Ratnayake, I. S.; Sharp, L.

    2016-06-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP) that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m / q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  4. Status of THe-Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    THe-Trap (short for Tritium-{sup 3}He Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass-ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10{sup -11}. The ratio is of relevance for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN), which aims to measure the electron anti-neutrino mass, by measuring the shape of the β-decay energy spectrum close to its endpoint. An independent measurement of the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass-ratio pins down this endpoint, and thus will help to determine the systematics of KATRIN. The trap setup consists of two Penning-traps: One trap for precision measurements, the other trap for ion storage. Ideally, the trap content will be periodically switched, which reduces the time between the measurements of the two ions' motional frequencies. In 2012, a mass ratio measurement of {sup 12}C{sup 4+} to {sup 14}N{sup 5+} was performed to characterize systematic effects of the traps. This measurement yielded a accuracy of 10{sup -9}. Further investigations revealed that a major reason for the modest accuracy is the large axial amplitude of ∼100 μm, compared to a ideal case of 3 μm at 4 K. In addition, relative magnetic fluctuations at a 3 x 10{sup -10} level on a 10 h timescale need to be significantly improved. In this contribution, the aforementioned findings and further systematic studies will be presented.

  5. Development of a method for comprehensive and quantitative analysis of plant hormones by highly sensitive nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Yoshihiro; Okazawa, Atsushi; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2009-01-01

    In recent plant hormone research, there is an increased demand for a highly sensitive and comprehensive analytical approach to elucidate the hormonal signaling networks, functions, and dynamics. We have demonstrated the high sensitivity of a comprehensive and quantitative analytical method developed with nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS) under multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in plant hormone profiling. Unlabeled and deuterium-labeled isotopomers of four classes of plant hormones and their derivatives, auxins, cytokinins (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GA), were analyzed by this method. The optimized nanoflow-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS method showed ca. 5-10-fold greater sensitivity than capillary-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) of several plant hormones were in the sub-fmol range. The results showed excellent linearity (R 2 values of 0.9937-1.0000) and reproducibility of elution times (relative standard deviations, RSDs, <1.1%) and peak areas (RSDs, <10.7%) for all target compounds. Further, sample purification using Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX cartridges significantly decreased the ion-suppressing effects of biological matrix as compared to the purification using only Oasis HLB cartridge. The optimized nanoflow-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS method was successfully used to analyze endogenous plant hormones in Arabidopsis and tobacco samples. The samples used in this analysis were extracted from only 17 tobacco dry seeds (1 mg DW), indicating that the efficiency of analysis of endogenous plant hormones strongly depends on the detection sensitivity of the method. Our analytical approach will be useful for in-depth studies on complex plant hormonal metabolism.

  6. Development of a method for comprehensive and quantitative analysis of plant hormones by highly sensitive nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yoshihiro; Okazawa, Atsushi; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fukusaki, Eiichiro, E-mail: fukusaki@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-08-26

    In recent plant hormone research, there is an increased demand for a highly sensitive and comprehensive analytical approach to elucidate the hormonal signaling networks, functions, and dynamics. We have demonstrated the high sensitivity of a comprehensive and quantitative analytical method developed with nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS) under multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in plant hormone profiling. Unlabeled and deuterium-labeled isotopomers of four classes of plant hormones and their derivatives, auxins, cytokinins (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GA), were analyzed by this method. The optimized nanoflow-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS method showed ca. 5-10-fold greater sensitivity than capillary-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) of several plant hormones were in the sub-fmol range. The results showed excellent linearity (R{sup 2} values of 0.9937-1.0000) and reproducibility of elution times (relative standard deviations, RSDs, <1.1%) and peak areas (RSDs, <10.7%) for all target compounds. Further, sample purification using Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX cartridges significantly decreased the ion-suppressing effects of biological matrix as compared to the purification using only Oasis HLB cartridge. The optimized nanoflow-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS method was successfully used to analyze endogenous plant hormones in Arabidopsis and tobacco samples. The samples used in this analysis were extracted from only 17 tobacco dry seeds (1 mg DW), indicating that the efficiency of analysis of endogenous plant hormones strongly depends on the detection sensitivity of the method. Our analytical approach will be useful for in-depth studies on complex plant hormonal metabolism.

  7. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beinhauer, Jana; Bian, Liangqiao; Fan, Hui; Šebela, Marek; Kukula, Maciej; Barrera, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL −1 , and demonstrated good linearity of R 2 from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL −1 . Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified

  8. Control of the environmental inluences on THe-Trap on the example of the determination of the mass ratio of carbon-12 to oxygen-16; Kontrolle der Umwelteinfluesse auf THe-Trap am Beispiel der Bestimmung des Massenverhaeltnisses von Kohlenstoff-12 zu Sauerstoff-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian Dennis

    2014-04-16

    Tritium-Helium-3-Trap (THe-Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10{sup -11}. This is 40 times more precise than the currently adopted value and, thus, will help to investigate possible systematic uncertainties of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). To achieve the desired level of uncertainty, several environmental influences such as atmospheric pressure shifts and magnetic field fluctuations have to be suppressed. With the implemented stabilization system, the relative magnetic field drift could be reduced to a few 10{sup -12}/h for a time span of several weeks. Within the context of this thesis a mass ratio measurement of {sup 12}C{sup 4+} to {sup 16}O{sup 5+} was performed to characterize systematic effects. This measurement yielded a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 x 10{sup -11}, which can easily be improved with more statistics, i.e. a longer measurement time. While the systematic uncertainty for {sup 12}C{sup 4+}-ions were under control at the 10{sup -11} level, the systematic shifts could not be quantified for {sup 16}O{sup 5+} due to poor vacuum conditions. Without these corrections, a systematic uncertainty of 1.2.10{sup -10} could be achieved for the {sup 12}C/{sup 16}O mass ratio measurement.

  9. Status of THe-trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketter, Jochen; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Originally developed at the University of Washington and relocated to the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in 2008, the Penning-trap spectrometer THe-Trap is specially tailored for a {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He mass-ratio measurement, from which the Q-value of the beta-decay of {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He can be derived. Improving the current best value by at least an order of magnitude will provide an important independent test parameter for the determination of the electron-antineutrino's mass by the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). However, Penning-trap mass spectrometry has to be pushed to its limits in a dedicated experiment for a sufficiently accurate mass-ratio measurement with a relative uncertainty of 10{sup -11}. Unlike the closed-envelope, single-trap predecessor, the new spectrometer features an external ion source, owing to the radioactive nature of tritium, and two traps in order to speed up the measurement cycle. While the double-trap technique holds great promise, it also calls for more intricate procedures, such as ion transfer. Details about the recent progress of the experiment are given.

  10. Trace detection of organic compounds in complex sample matrixes by single photon ionization ion trap mass spectrometry: real-time detection of security-relevant compounds and online analysis of the coffee-roasting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Kürten, Andreas; Hölzer, Jasper; Mitschke, Stefan; Mühlberger, Fabian; Sklorz, Martin; Wieser, Jochen; Ulrich, Andreas; Pütz, Michael; Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Schultze, Rainer; Curtius, Joachim; Borrmann, Stephan; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2009-06-01

    An in-house-built ion trap mass spectrometer combined with a soft ionization source has been set up and tested. As ionization source, an electron beam pumped vacuum UV (VUV) excimer lamp (EBEL) was used for single-photon ionization. It was shown that soft ionization allows the reduction of fragmentation of the target analytes and the suppression of most matrix components. Therefore, the combination of photon ionization with the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) capability of an ion trap yields a powerful tool for molecular ion peak detection and identification of organic trace compounds in complex matrixes. This setup was successfully tested for two different applications. The first one is the detection of security-relevant substances like explosives, narcotics, and chemical warfare agents. One test substance from each of these groups was chosen and detected successfully with single photon ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (SPI-ITMS) MS/MS measurements. Additionally, first tests were performed, demonstrating that this method is not influenced by matrix compounds. The second field of application is the detection of process gases. Here, exhaust gas from coffee roasting was analyzed in real time, and some of its compounds were identified using MS/MS studies.

  11. Ripple Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    3 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the margin of a lava flow on a cratered plain in the Athabasca Vallis region of Mars. Remarkably, the cratered plain in this scene is essentially free of bright, windblown ripples. Conversely, the lava flow apparently acted as a trap for windblown materials, illustrated by the presence of the light-toned, wave-like texture over much of the flow. That the lava flow surface trapped windblown sand and granules better than the cratered plain indicates that the flow surface has a rougher texture at a scale too small to resolve in this image. Location near: 10.7oN, 204.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  12. Trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, E; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jonsell, S; Jørgensen, L V; Kemp, S L; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ∼1 T (∼0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be ‘born’ inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been ...

  13. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beinhauer, Jana [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Bian, Liangqiao [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Fan, Hui [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Šebela, Marek [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kukula, Maciej [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Barrera, Jose A. [Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); and others

    2015-02-09

    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL{sup −1}, and demonstrated good linearity of R{sup 2} from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL{sup −1}. Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Bioactive Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids in Ethanolic Extract of Seven Rauvolfia Species using UHPLC with Hybrid Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Srivastava, Mukesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Ojha, Sanjeev; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-09-01

    Rauvolfia serpentina is an endangered plant species due to its over-exploitation. It has highly commercial and economic importance due to the presence of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as ajmaline, yohimbine, ajmalicine, serpentine and reserpine. To develop a validated, rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQLIT -MS/MS) method in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for simultaneous determination of bioactive MIAs in ethanolic extract of seven Rauvolfia species and herbal formulations. The separation of MIAs was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH™ C18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) using a gradient mobile phase (0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile) at flow rate 0.3 μL/min in 7 min. The validated method showed good linearity (r(2)  ≥ 0.9999), limit of detection (LOD) (0.06-0.15 ng/mL), limit of quantitation (LOQ) (0.18-0.44 ng/mL), precisions [intraday: relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 2.24%, interday: RSD ≤ 2.74%], stability (RSD ≤ 1.53%) and overall recovery (RSD ≤ 2.23%). The validated method was applied to quantitate MIAs. Root of Rauvolfia vomitoria showed a high content of ajmaline (48.43 mg/g), serpentine (87.77 mg/g) whereas high quantities of yohimbine (100.21 mg/g) and ajmalicine (120.51 mg/g) were detected in R. tetraphylla. High content of reserpine was detected in R. micrantha (35.18 mg/g) and R. serpentina (32.38 mg/g). The encouraging results of this study may lead to easy selection of suitable Rauvolfia species according to the abundance of MIAs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Methylene-transfer reactions of benzylium/tropylium ions with neutral toluene studied by means of ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zins, E. L.; Pepe, C.; Schröder, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 145, - (2010), s. 157-169 E-ISSN 1364-5498 Grant - others: ERC (XE) HORIZOMS AdG226373 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : benzylium * electrospray ionization * infrared spectroscopy * ion trap * tropylium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.538, year: 2010

  16. Development and characterization of a novel plug and play liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) source that automates connections between the capillary trap, column, and emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereman, Michael S; Hsieh, Edward J; Corso, Thomas N; Van Pelt, Colleen K; Maccoss, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    We report the development and characterization of a novel, vendor-neutral ultra-high pressure-compatible (~10,000 p.s.i.) LC-MS source. This device is the first to make automated connections with user-packed capillary traps, columns, and capillary emitters. The source uses plastic rectangular inserts (referred to here as cartridges) where individual components (i.e. trap, column, or emitter) can be exchanged independent of one another in a plug and play manner. Automated robotic connections are made between the three cartridges using linear translation powered by stepper motors to axially compress each cartridge by applying a well controlled constant compression force to each commercial LC fitting. The user has the versatility to tailor the separation (e.g. the length of the column, type of stationary phase, and mode of separation) to the experimental design of interest in a cost-effective manner. The source is described in detail, and several experiments are performed to evaluate the robustness of both the system and the exchange of the individual trap and emitter cartridges. The standard deviation in the retention time of four targeted peptides from a standard digest interlaced with a soluble Caenorhabditis elegans lysate ranged between 3.1 and 5.3 s over 3 days of analyses. Exchange of the emitter cartridge was found to have an insignificant effect on the abundance of various peptides. In addition, the trap cartridge can be replaced with minimal effects on retention time (<20 s).

  17. The LEBIT 9.4 T Penning trap system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringle, R.; Bollen, G.; Schury, P.; Sun, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Lawton, D.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The initial experimental program with the Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap Facility, or LEBIT, will concentrate on Penning trap mass measurements of rare isotopes, delivered by the Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF) of the NSCL. The LEBIT Penning trap system has been optimized for high-accuracy mass measurements of very short-lived isotopes. (orig.)

  18. The LEBIT 9.4 T Penning trap system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringle, R.; Bollen, G.; Schury, P.; Sun, T.; Lawton, D.; Schwarz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The initial experimental program with the Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap Facility, or LEBIT, will concentrate on Penning trap mass measurements of rare isotopes, delivered by the Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF) of the NSCL. The LEBIT Penning trap system has been optimized for high-accuracy mass measurements of very short-lived isotopes. (orig.)

  19. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  20. Charged particle traps II applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werth, Günther; Major, Fouad G

    2009-01-01

    This, the second volume of Charged Particle Traps, is devoted to applications, complementing the first volume’s comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice of charged particle traps, their many variants and refinements. In recent years, applications of far reaching importance have emerged ranging from the ultra-precise mass determinations of elementary particles and their antiparticles and short-lived isotopes, to high-resolution Zeeman spectroscopy on multiply-charged ions, to microwave and optical spectroscopy, some involving "forbidden" transitions from metastable states of such high resolution that optical frequency standards are realized by locking lasers to them. Further the potential application of trapped ions to quantum computing is explored, based on the extraordinary quantum state coherence made possible by the particle isolation. Consideration is given to the Paul and Penning traps as potential quantum information processors.

  1. Globalisation Trapped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Caraça

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The promise of making society progress through the direct applications of science was finally fulfilled in the mid-20th century. Science progressed immensely, propelled by the effects of the two world wars. The first science-based technologies saw the daylight during the 1940s and their transformative power was such that neither the military, nor subsequently the markets, allowed science to return intact to its curiosity-driven nest. Technoscience was born then and (being progressively pulled away from curiosity-driven science was able to grow enormously, erecting a formidable structure of networks of institutions that impacted decisively on the economy. It is a paradox, or maybe a trap, that the fulfillment of science’s solemn promise of ‘transforming nature’ means seeing ourselves and our Western societies entangled in crises after crises with no clear outcome in view. A redistribution of geopolitical power is under way, along with the deployment of information and communication technologies, forcing dominant structures to oscillate, as knowledge about organization and methods, marketing, design, and software begins to challenge the role of technoscience as the main vector of economic growth and wealth accumulation. What ought to be done?

  2. Spin polarized atom traps and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1994-10-01

    Plans are described to couple a neutral atom trap to an upgraded version of TRIUMF's TISOL on-line mass separator. The unique properties of trapped and cooled atoms promise improvements of some symmetry tests of the Standard Model of the electroweak and strong interactions. (author). 33 refs., 3 figs

  3. In situ measurements of krypton in xenon gas with a quadrupole mass spectrometer following a cold-trap at a temporarily reduced pumping speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E; Rosendahl, S; Huhmann, C; Weinheimer, C; Kettling, H

    2013-01-01

    A new method for measuring trace amounts of krypton in xenon using a cold trap with a residual gas analyzer has been developed, which achieves an increased sensitivity by temporarily reducing the pumping speed while expending a minimal amount of xenon. By partially closing a custom built butterfly valve between the measurement chamber and the turbomolecular pump, a sensitivity of 40 ppt has been reached. This method has been tested on an ultra-pure gas sample from Air Liquide with an unknown intrinsic krypton concentration, yielding a krypton concentration of 330±200 ppt.

  4. Rapid and sensitive determination of major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and UHPLC with hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Atul S; Sathiyanarayanan, L; Deshpande, Shreekant; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the extraction and determination of four major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds is presented for the first time based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Matrix solid-phase dispersion method was designed for the extraction of Euphoria longana seed constituents and compared with microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods. An Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative analysis in multiple-reaction monitoring mode in negative electrospray ionization. The chromatographic separation was accomplished using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column with gradient elution of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. The developed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r 2 > 0.999), precision (RSD ≤ 2.22%) and recovery (RSD ≤ 2.35%). The results indicated that matrix solid-phase dispersion produced comparable extraction efficiency compared with other methods nevertheless was more convenient and time-saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent volumes. The proposed method is rapid and sensitive in providing a promising alternative for extraction and comprehensive determination of active components for quality control of Euphoria longana products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Simultaneous quantification of poly-dispersed anionic, amphoteric and nonionic surfactants in simulated wastewater samples using C18 high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Garland, Jay L.; Johnson, Jodie V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a guantitative method for direct and simultaneous determination of three frequently encountered surfactants, amphoteric (cocoamphoacetate, CAA), anionic (sodium laureth sulfate, SLES), and nonionic (alcohol ethoxylate, AE) using a reversed-phase C18 HPLC coupled with an ESI ion-trap mass spectrometer (MS). Chemical composition, ionization characteristics and fragmentation pathways of the surfactants are presented. Positive ESI was effective for all three surfactants in agueous methanol buffered with ammonium acetate. The method enables rapid determinations in small sample volumes containing inorganic salts (up to 3.5 g L(-1)) and multiple classes of surfactants with high specificity by applying surfactant specific tandem mass spectrometric strategies. It has dynamic linear ranges of 2-60, 1.5-40, 0.8-56 mg L(-1) with R2 egual or greater than 0.999, 0.98 and 0.999 (10 microL injection) for CAA, SLES, and AE, respectively.

  6. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and nano-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric characterization of 1-cyano-2-substituted-benz[f]isoindole derivatives of peptides for fluorescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnemayr, K; Brückner, A; Körner, R

    1999-01-01

    A series of hexa- to decapeptides (molecular mass range 800-1200) were labeled with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde, which preferentially reacts with the primary amino groups of a peptide. A highly stable peptide conjugate is formed, which allows selective analysis by fluorescence at excitation...... and emission wavelengths of 420 and 490 nm, respectively. After removal of unreacted compounds, the peptide conjugates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight and nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry. They readily form both [M + H]+ ions...... by MALDI and both [M + H]+ and [M + 2H]2+ ions by ESI. Furthermore, the fragmentation behavior of the N-terminally tagged peptides, exhibiting an uncharged N-terminus, was investigated applying post-source decay fragmentation with a curved field reflector and collision-induced dissociation...

  7. Cryogenic surface ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, M.

    2015-01-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are a promising architecture to realize a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions. In principle, hundreds or thousands of surface traps can be located on a single substrate in order to provide large arrays of interacting ions. To this end, trap designs and fabrication methods are required that provide scalable, stable and reproducible ion traps. This work presents a novel surface-trap design developed for cryogenic applications. Intrinsic silicon is used as the substrate material of the traps. The well-developed microfabrication and structuring methods of silicon are utilized to create simple and reproducible traps. The traps were tested and characterized in a cryogenic setup. Ions could be trapped and their life time and motional heating were investigated. Long ion lifetimes of several hours were observed and the measured heating rates were reproducibly low at around 1 phonon per second at a trap frequency of 1 MHz. (author) [de

  8. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references

  9. Active stabilization of ion trap radiofrequency potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K. G.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Restelli, A.; Landsman, K. A.; Neyenhuis, B.; Mizrahi, J.; Monroe, C. [Joint Quantum Institute and University of Maryland Department of Physics, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We actively stabilize the harmonic oscillation frequency of a laser-cooled atomic ion confined in a radiofrequency (rf) Paul trap by sampling and rectifying the high voltage rf applied to the trap electrodes. We are able to stabilize the 1 MHz atomic oscillation frequency to be better than 10 Hz or 10 ppm. This represents a suppression of ambient noise on the rf circuit by 34 dB. This technique could impact the sensitivity of ion trap mass spectrometry and the fidelity of quantum operations in ion trap quantum information applications.

  10. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references.

  11. In situ measurements of krypton in xenon gas with a quadrupole mass spectrometer following a cold-trap at a temporarily reduced pumping speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ethan; Rosendahl, Stephan; Huhmann, Christian; Kettling, Hans; Schlak, Martin; Weinheimer, Christian [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2013-07-01

    Liquid xenon detectors have risen to be extremely competitive for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay searches. In order to achieve the required sensitivity, backgrounds must be reduced substantially. One important background is the beta-decay of {sup 85}Kr, which constitutes a uniform internal background in liquid xenon detectors. Cryogenic distillation can be used to reduce the krypton concentration to acceptable levels, but gas diagnostics become incredibly difficult at these ultra-pure levels. A new method for measuring the concentration of krypton in xenon has been developed, expanding on the existing technique of a cold trap and a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). By using a liquid nitrogen cold trap, one can take advantage of the difference in vapor pressures of krypton in xenon to freeze most of the xenon gas while allowing the krypton to pass to the measurement chamber. Here, only a few milliliters of xenon is expended in the measurement, while achieving a sensitivity of sub ppb (parts per billion). The key change is the use of a butterfly valve to partially close the opening in front of the turbomolecular pump, thereby reducing the effective pumping speed and enhancing the RGA signal.

  12. Rapid Quantification of Four Anthocyanins in Red Grape Wine by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongming; Xia, Biqi; Chen, Xiangzhun; Duanmu, Chuansong; Li, Denghao; Han, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The identification and quantification of four anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and malvidin-3-O-glucoside) in red grape wine were carried out by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole linear ion trap MS (HILIC/QTrap-MS/MS). Samples were diluted directly and separated on a Merck ZIC HILIC column with 20 mM ammonium acetate solution-acetonitrile mobile phase. Quantitative data acquisition was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion mode of the linear ion trap. The LOQs were in the range 0.05-1.0 ng/mL. The average recoveries were in the range 94.6 to 104.5%. The HILIC/QTrap-MS/MS platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of the four anthocyanins in red grape wines and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  13. Characterization of oligosaccharides with capillary high performance anion exchange chromatography hyphenated to pulsed amperometric detection and ion trap mass spectrometry : application to the analysis of human lysosomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Cornelis

    The development of a capillary ion chromatograph is described together with a matching desalter. This desalter made it possible to use on-line a mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer enables partly to characterize carbohydrates eluting from the anion exchange column. This separation technology is

  14. Control of Strobilurin Fungicides in Wheat Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Accurate Time-of-Flight and Desorption Electrospray Ionization Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurek, J.; Vaclavik, L.; Hooijerink, H.; Lacina, O.; Poustka, J.; Sharman, M.; Caldow, M.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Hajslova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry has been used for the analysis of strobilurin residues in wheat. The use of this novel, challenging technique, employing a direct analysis in a real time (DART) ion-source coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) and a desorption electrospray ionization

  15. Trapping, self-trapping and the polaron family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, A M; Gavartin, J; Shluger, A L; Kimmel, A V; Ramo, D Munoz; Roennow, H M; Aeppli, G; Renner, C

    2007-01-01

    The earliest ideas of the polaron recognized that the coupling of an electron to ionic vibrations would affect its apparent mass and could effectively immobilize the carrier (self-trapping). We discuss how these basic ideas have been generalized to recognize new materials and new phenomena. First, there is an interplay between self-trapping and trapping associated with defects or with fluctuations in an amorphous solid. In high dielectric constant oxides, like HfO 2 , this leads to oxygen vacancies having as many as five charge states. In colossal magnetoresistance manganites, this interplay makes possible the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) observation of polarons. Second, excitons can self-trap and, by doing so, localize energy in ways that can modify the material properties. Third, new materials introduce new features, with polaron-related ideas emerging for uranium dioxide, gate dielectric oxides, Jahn-Teller systems, semiconducting polymers and biological systems. The phonon modes that initiate self-trapping can be quite different from the longitudinal optic modes usually assumed to dominate. Fourth, there are new phenomena, like possible magnetism in simple oxides, or with the evolution of short-lived polarons, like muons or excitons. The central idea remains that of a particle whose properties are modified by polarizing or deforming its host solid, sometimes profoundly. However, some of the simpler standard assumptions can give a limited, indeed misleading, description of real systems, with qualitative inconsistencies. We discuss representative cases for which theory and experiment can be compared in detail

  16. A Micro-Cylindrical Ion Trap (µ-CIT) Micro-Mass Spectrometer Instrument System (µ-MSIS) for NASA Planetary Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this follow-on early stage innovation activity is to advance the development of new, extremely small, low power, and low cost "micro" mass spectrometer...

  17. Investigation of two-frequency Paul traps for antihydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leefer, Nathan; Krimmel, Kai, E-mail: kkrimmel@students.uni-mainz.de [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Bertsche, William [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Budker, Dmitry [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Fajans, Joel [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Folman, Ron [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics (Israel); Häffner, Hartmut [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Radio-frequency (rf) Paul traps operated with multifrequency rf trapping potentials provide the ability to independently confine charged particle species with widely different charge-to-mass ratios. In particular, these traps may find use in the field of antihydrogen recombination, allowing antiproton and positron clouds to be trapped and confined in the same volume without the use of large superconducting magnets. We explore the stability regions of two-frequency Paul traps and perform numerical simulations of small samples of multispecies charged-particle mixtures of up to twelve particles that indicate the promise of these traps for antihydrogen recombination.

  18. Effects of neutrino trapping on supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Mariko; Sato, Katsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    Effects of neutrino trapping on the mass ejection from the stellar cores are investigated with the aid of a simplified equation of state under the assumption of adiabatic collapse. It is found that mass ejection becomes violent only if the ratio of the trapped leptons to baryons, Y sub(L), lies in an appropriate range. If the value of Y sub(L) lies out of this range, mass ejection is difficult. It is also shown that as the thermal stiffness of the shocked matter increases, the range necessary for the violent mass ejection becomes wider. Possibilities of supernova explosion are discussed on the basis of these results. (author)

  19. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap......, our results indicate that pitfall traps are the most efficient for capturing shrews: not only do they have a higher efficiency (yield), but the taxonomic diversity of shrews is also higher when pitfall traps are used....

  20. Determination of tylosins A, B, C and D in bee larvae by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J; Martín, Ma T; Toribio, L; Martín-Hernández, R; Higes, M; Bernal, J L; Nozal, M J

    2011-06-01

    A LC-MS/MS method has been developed to simultaneously quantify tylosins A, B, C and D in bee larvae, compounds currently used to treat one of the most lethal diseases affecting honey bees around the world, American Foulbrood (AFB). The influence of different aqueous media, temperature and light exposure on the stability of these four compounds was studied. The analytes were extracted from bee larvae with methanol and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Luna C(18) (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.) using a ternary gradient composed of a diluted formic acid, methanol and acetonitrile mobile phase. To facilitate sampling, bee larvae were initially dried at 60°C for 4h and afterwards, they were diluted to avoid problems of pressure. MSD-Ion Trap detection was employed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The calibration curves were linear over a wide range of concentrations and the method was validated as sensitive, precise and accurate within the limits of quantification (LOQ, 1.4-4.0 ng/g). The validated method was successfully employed to study bee larvae in field tests of bee hives treated with two formulations containing tylosin. In both cases it was evident that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) had been reached. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of eight pesticides of varying polarity in surface waters using solid phase extraction with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahane, Soraya; Derdour, Aicha; García, María Dolores Gil; Moreno, Ana Uclés; Galera, María Martínez; Viciana, María del Mar Socías

    2015-01-01

    We describe a MWCNT-based method for the solid-phase extraction of eight pesticides from environmental water samples. The analytes are extracted from 100 mL samples at pH 5.0 (containing 5 mmol L −1 of KCl) by passing the solution through a column filled with 20 mg of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Following elution, the pesticides were determined by LC and electrospray ionization hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap MS. Two selected reaction monitoring transitions were monitored per compound, the most intense one being used for quantification and the second one for confirmation. In addition, an information-dependent acquisition experiment was performed for unequivocal confirmation of positive findings. Matrix effect was not found in real waters and therefore the quantitation was carried out with calibration graphs built with solvent based standards. Except for cymoxanil, the detection and quantitation limits in surface waters are in the range from 0.3 to 9.5 ng L −1 and 1.6 to 45.2 ng L −1 , respectively. Recoveries from spiked ultrapure water are ∼100 %, except for the most polar pesticides methomyl and cymoxanil. The same behavior is found for real water samples (except for phosalone). The relative standard deviation is <10 % in all cases. (author)

  2. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry characterization of the steroidal saponins of Dioscorea panthaica Prain et Burkill and its application for accelerating the isolation and structural elucidation of steroidal saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weihao; Zhao, Ye; Jing, Wenguang; Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Hui; Zha, Qin; Liu, An

    2015-03-01

    Dioscorea panthaica is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used in the treatment of various physiological conditions, including cardiovascular disease, gastropathy and hypertension. Steroidal saponins (SS) are the main active ingredients of this herb and have effects on myocardial ischemia and cancer. The phytochemical evaluation of SS is both time-consuming and laborious, and the isolation and structural determination steps can be especially demanding. For this reason, the development of new methods to accelerate the processes involved in the identification, isolation and structural elucidation of SS is highly desirable. In this study, a new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IT/MS(n)) method has been developed for the identification of the SS in D. panthaica Prain et Burkill. Notably, the current method can distinguish between spirostanol and furostanol-type compounds based on the fragmentation patterns observed by electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT/MS(n)) analysis. UHPLC-IT/MS(n) was used to conduct a detailed investigation of the number, structural class and order of the sugar moieties in the sugar chains of the SS present in D. panthaica. The established fragmentation features were used to analyze the compounds found in the 65% ethanol fraction of the water extracts of D. panthaica. Twenty-three SS were identified, including 11 potential new compounds and six groups of isomers. Two of these newly identified SS were selected as representative examples, and their chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. This newly developed UHPLC-IT/MS(n) method therefore allowed for the efficient identification, isolation and structural determination of the SS in D. panthaica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of three barbiturates in pork by ion trap gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) following microwave assisted derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Haixiang [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Inspection Technology and Equipment Institute, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100025 (China); Department of Basic Agricultural Science, Hebei North College, Zhangjiakou Hebei 075131 (China); Wang Liping [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Qiu Yueming [Inspection Technology and Equipment Institute, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100025 (China); Zhou Zhiqiang [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)]. E-mail: zqzhou@cau.edu.cn; Zhong Weike [Inspection Technology and Equipment Institute, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100025 (China); Li Xiang [Inspection Technology and Equipment Institute, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100025 (China)

    2007-03-14

    A new method was developed for the rapid screening and confirmation analysis of barbital, amobarbital and phenobarbital residues in pork by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) with ion trap MSD. The residual barbiturates in pork were extracted by ultrasonic extraction, cleaned up on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) packed solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and applied acetone-ethyl acetate (3:7, v/v) mixture as eluting solvent and derivatized with CH{sub 3}I under microwave irradiation. The methylated barbiturates were separated on a TR-5MS capillary column and detected with an ion trap mass detector. Electron impact ion source (EI) operating MS/MS mode was adopted for identification and external standard method was employed for quantification. One precursor ion m/z 169 was selected for analysis of barbital and amobarbital and m/z 232 was selected for phenobarbital. The product ions were obtained under 1.0 V excitation voltage. Good linearities (linear coefficient R > 0.99) were obtained at the range of 0.5-50 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. Limit of detection (LOD) of barbital was 0.2 {mu}g kg{sup -1} and that of amobarbital and phenobarbital were both 0.1 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (S/N {>=} 3). Limit of quatification (LOQ) was 0.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for three barbiturates (S/N {>=} 10). Satisfying recoveries ranging from 75% to 96% of the three barbiturates spiked in pork were obtained, with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) in the range of 2.1-7.8%.

  4. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of three barbiturates in pork by ion trap gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) following microwave assisted derivatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haixiang; Wang Liping; Qiu Yueming; Zhou Zhiqiang; Zhong Weike; Li Xiang

    2007-01-01

    A new method was developed for the rapid screening and confirmation analysis of barbital, amobarbital and phenobarbital residues in pork by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) with ion trap MSD. The residual barbiturates in pork were extracted by ultrasonic extraction, cleaned up on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) packed solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and applied acetone-ethyl acetate (3:7, v/v) mixture as eluting solvent and derivatized with CH 3 I under microwave irradiation. The methylated barbiturates were separated on a TR-5MS capillary column and detected with an ion trap mass detector. Electron impact ion source (EI) operating MS/MS mode was adopted for identification and external standard method was employed for quantification. One precursor ion m/z 169 was selected for analysis of barbital and amobarbital and m/z 232 was selected for phenobarbital. The product ions were obtained under 1.0 V excitation voltage. Good linearities (linear coefficient R > 0.99) were obtained at the range of 0.5-50 μg kg -1 . Limit of detection (LOD) of barbital was 0.2 μg kg -1 and that of amobarbital and phenobarbital were both 0.1 μg kg -1 (S/N ≥ 3). Limit of quatification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg kg -1 for three barbiturates (S/N ≥ 10). Satisfying recoveries ranging from 75% to 96% of the three barbiturates spiked in pork were obtained, with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) in the range of 2.1-7.8%

  5. Analysis of carbonyl compounds via headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization and gas chromatographic-ion trap tandem mass spectrometric determination of their O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)oxime derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmarr, Hans-Georg [Dienstleistungszentrum Laendlicher Raum (DLR) Rheinpfalz, Breitenweg 71, D-67435 Neustadt an der Weinstrasse (Germany)], E-mail: hans-georg.schmarr@dlr.rlp.de; Potouridis, Theodoros; Ganss, Sebastian; Sang, Wei; Koepp, Benedikt; Bokuz, Ursula; Fischer, Ulrich [Dienstleistungszentrum Laendlicher Raum (DLR) Rheinpfalz, Breitenweg 71, D-67435 Neustadt an der Weinstrasse (Germany)

    2008-06-09

    An improved method for the analysis of carbonyls is described utilizing a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) step and on-fiber derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) hydrochloride. Thermal desorption of the oxime derivatives formed on the fiber is followed by gas chromatographic separation coupled to an ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (GC-ITMS). Selecting specific fragment ions within the electron ionization (EI{sup +}) mass spectra of these oxime derivatives as precursor ions for MS-MS fragmentation provides a suitable method for the target analysis of individual carbonyl classes, such as alkanals, (E)-2-alkenals, (E,E)-2,4-alkadienals, and others. Retention indices on polar as well as on apolar stationary phases along with EI{sup +} mass spectra patterns are presented for a large set of oxime derivatives, giving valuable information needed for unambiguous assignment of substances in complex sample matrices. The fast sample preparation and derivatization step via HS-SPME can be automated and is applicable to a variety of biological samples and foodstuffs, allowing rapid and sensitive screening analyses of important aldehydic biomarkers and aroma active compounds.

  6. Use of a hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer for self-chemical ionization identification of degradation products related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip A., E-mail: Smith.Philip.A@dol.gov [Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States); Lepage, Carmela R. Jackson [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Box 400, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6 (Canada); Savage, Paul B. [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Provo, UT, 84602 (United States); Bowerbank, Christopher R.; Lee, Edgar D. [Torion Technologies Inc., 796 East Utah Valley Drive, Suite 200, American Fork, UT, 84003 (United States); Lukacs, Michael J. [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Box 400, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6 (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H]{sup +}) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H]{sup +} ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d{sub 15} provided evidence that [M+H]{sup +} production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H]{sup +} ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample.

  7. Use of a hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer for self-chemical ionization identification of degradation products related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip A.; Lepage, Carmela R. Jackson; Savage, Paul B.; Bowerbank, Christopher R.; Lee, Edgar D.; Lukacs, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H] + ) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H] + ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d 15 provided evidence that [M+H] + production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H] + ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample.

  8. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of “arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle” biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Pirillo, Paola; Carraro, Silvia; Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro; Baraldi, Eugenio; Giordano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous quantification of “arginine-ADMA cycle” metabolites developed in EBC. ► EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. ► Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. ► Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC–MS/MS method. ► EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC–MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to “Arginine-ADMA cycle”, using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r 2 ) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was −1 ), measured in EBC samples of asthmatic adolescents are significantly increased (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls (0.0040 ± 0.0021 vs. 0.0012 ± 0.0005 and 0.0020 ± 0.0015 vs. 0.0002 ± 0.0001, respectively), as well the ADMA/Tyr (0.34 ± 0.09 vs. 0.12 ± 0.02, p < 0.0001) and the SDMA/Tyr ratio (0.10 ± 0.04 vs. 0.015 ± 0.004, p < 0.0001). Conclusions

  9. Structural analysis and differentiation of reducing and nonreducing neutral model starch oligosaccharides by negative-ion electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čmelík, Richard; Chmelík, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 291, 1-2 (2010), s. 33-40 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : structural analysis * oligosaccharides * electrospray mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.009, year: 2010

  10. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  11. Angular trap for macroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksyonov, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    Properties of angular macroparticle traps were investigated in this work. These properties are required to design vacuum arc plasma filters. The correlation between trap geometry parameters and its ability to absorb macroparticles were found. Calculations allow one to predict the behaviour of filtering abilities of separators which contain such traps in their design. Recommendations regarding the use of angular traps in filters of different builds are given.

  12. Effect of Pheromone Trap Density on Mass Trapping of Male Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, and Level of Damage on Potato Tubers Efecto de la Densidad de Trampas de Feromona en Masiva de Machos de Polilla de la Papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, y en el Nivel de Daño a los Tubérculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere with insect mating for pest control has been widely demonstrated in numerous Lepidoptera and other insect species. An experiment was carried out during the 2004-2005 season in Valle del Elqui, Coquimbo Region, Chile, to evaluate the effectiveness of different pheromone trap densities to capture P. operculella males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. The study evaluated densities of 10, 20, and 40 traps ha-1, baited with 0.2 mg of PTM sexual pheromone, and water-detergent for captures. Results indicated that larger numbers of male PTM were captured per trap with densities of 20 and 40 traps per hectare, resulting in a significant reduction (P La polilla de la papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, es una de las plagas que causan mayor daño a la papa (Solanum tuberosum L., tanto a los cultivos en campo como a los tubérculos almacenados, especialmente en zonas de climas cálidos y secos. Las larvas de este insecto se desarrollan en el follaje y tubérculos de papa causando pérdidas directas del producto a comercializar. La utilización de feromonas sintéticas, como una herramienta que interfiere con el apareamiento, ha sido ampliamente demostrada en innumerables especies de polillas y otros insectos. Con el fin de evaluar la efectividad de diferentes densidades de trampas de feromona en la captura de machos de P. operculella, para su futura utilizacióncomo técnica de trampeo masivo y consecuente disminución de la reproducción del insecto, se realizó un estudio durante la temporada 2004-2005, en el Valle del Elqui

  13. A new approach in proteomics of wheat gluten: combining chymotrypsin cleavage and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap reflectron tandem mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Marchetti, M.; Chmelík, Josef; Allmaier, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 18 (2005), s. 2725-2728 ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1023 Grant - others:Austrian Science Foundation(AT) P14181; Austrian Science Foundation;(AT) P15008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : wheat gluten * mass spectrometry * chymotrypsin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.087, year: 2005

  14. Organic environments on Saturn's moon, Titan: simulating chemical reactions and analyzing products by FT-ICR and ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Arpad; Oh, Chu-Ha; Smith, Mark A; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2005-06-01

    Laboratory simulations have been carried out to model chemical reactions that possibly take place in the stratosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. The aerosol products of these reactions (tholin samples) have been systematically analyzed by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (ESI) and laser desorption (LD). A wide variety of ions with a general formula C(x)H(y)N(z) detected by ultrahigh resolution and accurate mass measurements in a Fourier transform/ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) cell reflect the complexity of these polymeric products, both in chemical compositions and isomeric distributions. As a common feature, however, tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) data and H/D exchange products in the solution phase support the presence of amino and nitrile functionalities in these (highly unsaturated) "tholin" compounds. The present work demonstrates that ESI-MS coupled with FT-ICR is a suitable and "intact" method to analyze tholin components formed under anaerobic conditions; only species with C(x)H(y)N(z) are detected for freshly prepared and harvested samples. However, when intentionally exposed to water, oxygen-containing compounds are unambiguously detected.

  15. Quantitative determination of sotolon, maltol and free furaneol in wine by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Jarauta, Idoia; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan

    2003-08-22

    A method for the analytical determination of sotolon [4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone], maltol [3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one] and free furaneol [2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone] in wine has been developed. The analytes are extracted from 50 ml of wine in a solid-phase extraction cartridge filled with 800 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Interferences are removed with 15 ml of a pentane-dichloromethane (20:1) solution, and analytes are recovered with 6 ml of dichloromethane. The extract is concentrated up to 0.1 ml and analyzed by GC-ion trap MS. Maltol and sotolon were determined by selected ion storage of ions in the m/z ranges 120-153 and 79-95, using the ions m/z 126 and 83 for quantitation, respectively. Furaneol was determined by non-resonant fragmentation of the m/z 128 mother ion and subsequent analysis of the m/z 81 ion. The detection limits of the method are in all cases between 0.5 and 1 microg l(-1), well below the olfactory thresholds of the compounds. The precision of the method is in the 4-5% range for levels in wine around 20 microg l(-1). Linearity holds at least up to 400 microg l(-1), and is satisfactory in all cases. The recoveries of maltol and sotolon are constant (70 and 64%, respectively) and do not depend on the type of wine. On the contrary, in the case of furaneol, red wines show constant and high recoveries (97%), while the recoveries on white wines range between 30 and 80%. Different experiments showed that this behavior is probably due to the existence of complexes formed between furaneol and sulphur dioxide or catechols. Sensory experiments confirmed that the complexed forms found in white wines are not perceived by orthonasal olfaction, and that the furaneol determined by the method can be considered as the free and odor-active fraction.

  16. Comprehensive speciation of low-molecular weight selenium metabolites in mustard seeds using HPLC-electrospray linear trap/Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerdane, Laurent; Aureli, Federica; Flis, Paulina; Bierla, Katarzyna; Preud'homme, Hugues; Cubadda, Francesco; Szpunar, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    An analytical methodology based on high-resolution high mass accuracy electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem MS assisted by Se-specific detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was developed for speciation of selenium (Se) in seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra) grown on Se-rich soil. Size-exclusion LC-ICP MS allowed the determination of the Se distribution according to the molecular mass and the control of the species stability during extraction. The optimization of hydrophilic interaction of LC and cation-exchange HPLC resulted in analytical conditions making it possible to detect and characterize over 30 Se species using ESI MS, including a number of minor (<0.5%) metabolites. Selenoglucosinolates were found to be the most important class of species accounting for at least 15% of the total Se present and over 50% of all the metabolites. They were found particularly unstable during aqueous extraction leading to the loss of Se by volatilization as methylselenonitriles and methylselenoisothiocyanates identified using gas chromatography (GC) with the parallel ICP MS and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS/MS detection. However, selenoglucosinolates could be efficiently recovered by extraction with 70% methanol. Other classes of identified species included selenoamino acids, selenosugars, selenosinapine and selenourea derivatives. The three types of reactions leading to the formation of selenometabolites were: the Se-S substitution in the metabolic pathway, oxidative reactions of -SeH groups with endogenous biomolecules, and chemical reactions, e.g., esterification, of Se-containing molecules and other biomolecules through functional groups not involving Se.

  17. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  18. Progress at THe-trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, Martin; Eronen, Tommi; Ketter, Jochen; Schuh, Marc; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    THe-Trap is a Penning-trap mass spectrometry experiment that is currently being set up to measure the atomic mass ratio of tritium and helium-3 with a relative uncertainty of 10{sup -11}. In 2013, the experiment's first high-precision mass ratio measurement was performed on the ions {sup 12}C{sup 4+} and {sup 16}O{sup 5+}. The carbon-12/oxygen-16 mass ratio is one of the most precisely determined mass ratios and serves as a benchmark for the experiment. This measurement reached a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 . 10{sup -11} and was limited by systematic frequency shifts due to too high motional amplitudes. In the following service cycle, the experiment was modified to address the shortcomings that were discovered in the 2013 ratio measurements. This talk summarizes the results of the 2013 measurements and introduces the upgrades to the experiment, including a new amplifier, a modified ion source, and an improved vacuum system.

  19. Rapid Characterization and Identification of Flavonoids in Radix Astragali by Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Jie; Xu, Wen; Huang, Juan; Zhu, Da-yuan; Qiu, Xiao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    A simple and effective method was established for separation and characterization of flavonoid constituents in Radix Astragali (RA) by combination of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with LTQ-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (u-HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS(n)). For three major structural types of flavonoids, the proposed fragmentation pathways and major diagnostic fragment ions of isoflavones, pterocarpans and isoflavans were investigated to trace isoflavonoid derivatives in crude plant extracts. Based on the systematic identification strategy, 48 constituents were rapidly detected and characterized or tentatively identified, many of which were first reported in RA. The u-PHLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS(n) platform was proved as an effective tool for rapid qualitative analysis of secondary metabolite productions from natural resources. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Differential quantitative proteomics of Porphyromonas gingivalis by linear ion trap mass spectrometry: Non-label methods comparison, q-values and LOWESS curve fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiangwei; Wang, Tiansong; Park, Yoonsuk; Lamont, Richard J.; Hackett, Murray

    2007-01-01

    Differential analysis of whole cell proteomes by mass spectrometry has largely been applied using various forms of stable isotope labeling. While metabolic stable isotope labeling has been the method of choice, it is often not possible to apply such an approach. Four different label free ways of calculating expression ratios in a classic "two-state" experiment are compared: signal intensity at the peptide level, signal intensity at the protein level, spectral counting at the peptide level, and spectral counting at the protein level. The quantitative data were mined from a dataset of 1245 qualitatively identified proteins, about 56% of the protein encoding open reading frames from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen being studied under extracellular and intracellular conditions. Two different control populations were compared against P. gingivalis internalized within a model human target cell line. The q-value statistic, a measure of false discovery rate previously applied to transcription microarrays, was applied to proteomics data. For spectral counting, the most logically consistent estimate of random error came from applying the locally weighted scatter plot smoothing procedure (LOWESS) to the most extreme ratios generated from a control technical replicate, thus setting upper and lower bounds for the region of experimentally observed random error.

  1. A label-free internal standard method for the differential analysis of bioactive lupin proteins using nano HPLC-Chip coupled with Ion Trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Francesca; Resta, Donatella; Isak, Ilena; Zanotti, Marco; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics based on MS is useful for pointing out the differences in some food proteomes relevant to human nutrition. Stable isotope label-free (SIF) techniques are suitable for comparing an unlimited number of samples by the use of relatively simple experimental workflows. We have developed an internal standard label-free method based on the intensities of peptide precursor ions from MS/MS spectra, collected in data dependent runs, for the simultaneous qualitative characterization and relative quantification of storage proteins of Lupinus albus seeds in protein extracts of four lupin cultivars (cv Adam, Arés, Lucky, Multitalia). The use of an innovative microfluidic system, the HPLC-Chip, coupled with a classical IT mass spectrometer, has allowed a complete qualitative characterization of all proteins. In particular, the homology search mode has permitted to identify single amino acid substitutions in the sequences of vicilins (beta-conglutin precursor and vicilin-like protein). The MS/MS sequencing of substituted peptides confirms the high heterogeneity of vicilins according to the peculiar characteristics of the vicilin-encoding gene family. Two suitable bioinformatics parameters were optimized for the differential analyses of the main bioactive proteins: the "normalized protein average of common reproducible peptides" (N-ACRP) for gamma-conglutin, which is a homogeneous protein, and the "normalized protein mean peptide spectral intensity" (N-MEAN) for the highly heterogenous class of the vicilins.

  2. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  3. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. G. Don. (Fabaceae by Flow Injection Analysis — Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Vilegas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the chemical composition of the African plant Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae roots and barks by Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization and Direct Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis. Mass spectral data indicated that B-type oligomers are present, namely procyanidins and prodelphinidins, with their gallate and glucuronide derivatives, some of them in different isomeric forms. The analysis evidenced the presence of up to 40 proanthocyanidins, some of which are reported for the first time. In this study, the antiradical activity of extracts of roots and barks from Parkia biglobosa was evaluated using DPPH method and they showed satisfactory activities.

  4. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    variations of ion traps, including (1) the cylindrically symmetric 3D ring trap; (2) the linear trap with a combination of cavity QED; (#) the symmetric...concepts of quantum information. The major demonstration has been the test of a Bell inequality as demonstrated by Rowe et al. [50] and a decoherence...famous physics experiment [62]. Wolfgang Paul demonstrated a similar apparatus during his Nobel Prize speech [63]. This device is hyperbolic- parabolic

  5. Towards trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, L V; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the last few years in the nascent field of antihydrogen physics. The next big step forward is expected to be the trapping of the formed antihydrogen atoms using a magnetic multipole trap. ALPHA is a new international project that started to take data in 2006 at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms to facilitate measurements of its properties. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  6. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  7. Determination and fingerprint analysis of steroidal saponins in roots of Liriope muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Wei; Qi, Jin; Wen-Zhang; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Yan-Wu; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2014-07-01

    Liriope muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used for treating cough and insomnia. There are few reports on the quality evaluation of this herb partly because the major steroid saponins are not readily identified by UV detectors and are not easily isolated due to the existence of many similar isomers. In this study, a qualitative and quantitative method was developed to analyze the major components in L. muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey roots. Sixteen components were deduced and identified primarily by the information obtained from ultra high performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method demonstrated the desired specificity, linearity, stability, precision, and accuracy for simultaneous determination of 15 constituents (13 steroidal glycosides, 25(R)-ruscogenin, and pentylbenzoate) in 26 samples from different origins. The fingerprint was established, and the evaluation was achieved using similarity analysis and principal component analysis of 15 fingerprint peaks from 26 samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography. The results from similarity analysis were consistent with those of principal component analysis. All results suggest that the established method could be applied effectively to the determination of multi-ingredients and fingerprint analysis of steroid saponins for quality assessment and control of L. muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-amyl methyl ether by purge and trap-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry: method evaluation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Stephan, Manuel; Jochmann, Maik A; Krajenke, Karen; Haas, Joe; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2010-01-01

    In order to monitor the behaviour of contaminants in the aqueous environment effective enrichment techniques often have to be employed due to their low concentrations. In this work a robust and sensitive purge and trap-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of fuel oxygenates in water is presented. The method evaluation included the determination of method detection limits, accuracy and reproducibility of deltaD and delta(13)C values. Lowest concentrations at which reliable delta(13)C values could be determined were 5 microg L(-1) and 28 microg L(-1) for TAME and MTBE, respectively. Stable deltaD values for MTBE and TAME could be achieved for concentrations as low as 25 and 50 microg L(-1). Good long-term reproducibility of delta(13)C and deltaD values was obtained for all target compounds. But deltaD values varying more than 5 per thousand were observed using different thermal conversion tubes. Thus, a correction of deltaD values in the analysis of groundwater samples was necessary to guarantee comparability of the results. The applicability of this method was shown by the analysis of groundwater samples from a gasoline contaminated site. By two dimensional isotope analysis two locations within this site were identified at which anaerobic and aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether occurred.

  9. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-05-09

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides.

  10. Determination of eugenol in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry using a simple off-line dansyl chloride derivatization reaction to enhance signal intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Francis; Guénette, Sarah Annie; Vachon, Pascal

    2006-11-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive method was developed for the determination of eugenol concentration using an off-line dansyl chloride derivatization step to enhance signal intensity. The method consisted of a protein precipitation extraction followed by derivatization with dansyl chloride and analysis by full scan liquid chromatography electrospray quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QIT). The separation was achieved using a 100 x 2 mm C(8) analytical column combined with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 75:25 acetonitrile: 0.1% formic acid in water set at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Signal intensity of the eugenol-dansyl chloride derivative was increased up to 100-fold as compared with the underivatized eugenol in positive electrospray mode. An analytical range of 100-20,000 ng/mL was used in the calibration curve of plasma and blood samples. The LOD observed was 0.5 pg injected on column. The novel method met all requirements of specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability. In conclusion, a rapid and sensitive LC-ESI/MS/MS method using a derivatization agent was developed to enhance signal intensity of eugenol. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Lithium adduct as precursor ion for sensitive and rapid quantification of 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol in rat plasma by liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry and application to rat pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuanwu; Wang, Quanying; Tang, Pingming

    2013-03-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry [LC-ESI-(QqLIT)MS/MS] method was developed and validated for the quantification of protopanaxadiol (PPD) in rat plasma. Oleanolic acid (OA) was used as internal standard (IS). A simple protein precipitation based on acetonitrile (ACN) was employed. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Sepax GP-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 5 μM) with a mobile phase consisting of ACN-water and 1.5 μM formic acid and 25 mM lithium acetate (90 : 10, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min for 3.0 min. Multiple-reaction-monitoring mode was performed using lithium adduct ion as precursor ion of m/z 467.5/449.4 and 455.6/407.4 for the drug and IS, respectively. Calibration curve was recovered over a concentration range of 0.5-100 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient >0.99. The limit of detection was 0.2 ng/ml in rat plasma for PPD. The results of the intraday and interday precision and accuracy studies were well within the acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetic study of PPD after intravenous and gavage administration to rat. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9952 and acceptable recovery of 91.8%–104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%, indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM.

  13. Use of experimental design for the purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of methyl tert.-butyl ether, tert.-butyl alcohol and BTEX in groundwater at trace level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Careri, M; Marengo, E; Musci, M

    2002-10-25

    An efficient method for the simultaneous determination of methyl tert.-butyl ether, tert.-butyl alcohol, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers in groundwater by purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Experimental design was used to investigate the effects of temperature of extraction, time of extraction and percentage of salt added to the water samples. Regression models and desirability functions were applied to find the experimental conditions providing the highest global extraction yield. Validation was carried out in terms of limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantitation (LOQ), linearity and precision. LOD values ranging from 2.6 to 23 ng l(-1) were achieved, whereas linearity was statistically verified over two orders of magnitude for each compound. Precision was evaluated testing two concentration levels. Good results were obtained both in terms of intra-day repeatability and intermediate precision: RSD% lower than 4.5% at the highest concentration and lower than 13% at the lowest one were calculated for intra-day repeatability. A groundwater sample suspected of contamination by leaking underground petroleum storage tanks was analysed and some of the analytes were detected and quantitated.

  14. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Approach to the study of flavone di-C-glycosides by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem ion trap mass spectrometry and its application to characterization of flavonoid composition in Viola yedoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Yin, Chengle; Qin, Yan; Cheng, Zhihong; Chen, Daofeng

    2014-10-01

    The mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of flavone di-C-glycosides has been a difficult task due to pure standards being unavailable commercially and to that the reported relative intensities of some diagnostic ions varied with MS instruments. In this study, five flavone di-C-glycoside standards from Viola yedoensis have been systematically studied by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT-MS(n)) in the negative ion mode to analyze their fragmentation patterns. A new MS(2) and MS(3) hierarchical fragmentation for the identification of the sugar nature (hexoses or pentoses) at C-6 and C-8 is presented based on previously established rules of fragmentation. Here, for the first time, we report that the MS(2) and MS(3) structure-diagnostic fragments about the glycosylation types and positions are highly dependent on the configuration of the sugars at C-6 and C-8. The base peak ((0,2) X1 (0,2) X(2)(-) ion) in MS(3) spectra of di-C-glycosides could be used as a diagnostic ion for flavone aglycones. These newly proposed fragmentation behaviors have been successfully applied to the characterization of flavone di-C-glycosides found in V. yedoensis. A total of 35 flavonoid glycosides, including 1 flavone mono-C-hexoside, 2 flavone 6,8-di-C-hexosides, 11 flavone 6,8-di-C-pentosides, 13 flavone 6,8-C-hexosyl-C-pentosides, 5 acetylated flavone C-glycosides and 3 flavonol O-glycosides, were identified or tentatively identified on the base of their UV profiles, MS and MS(n) (n = 5) data, or by comparing with reference substances. Among these, the acetylated flavone C-glycosides were reported from V. yedoensis for the first time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Determination of interglycosidic linkages in O-glycosyl flavones by high-performance liquid chromatography/photodiode-array detection coupled to electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry. Its application to Tetragonula carbonaria honey from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchado, Pilar; Vit, Patricia; Heard, Tim A; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Ferreres, Federico

    2015-05-30

    Tetragonula carbonaria pot-honeys are highly valued as a food source and for their biological activities in Australia, and there is a growing interest to know its composition. Phenolic metabolites, which could be related to their beneficial properties, have not been studied in depth yet. Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to liquid chromatography (LC) is an advanced technique for the study of complex flavonoids present in difficult food matrices that hampers their isolation and purification. This allows the tentative characterization of diglycosides/triglycosides establishing the position of the O-glycosylation on the sugar moiety by the study of the MS data in T. carbonaria pot-honeys from Australia. Their spectra obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography/photodiode-array detection/electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ) revealed for the first time 19 quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin O-glycosides. These compounds were clustered in flavonoid triglycosides, diglycosides and monoglycosides. The first cluster contained one flavonoid trihexoside, two -3-O-(2-hexosyl, 6-rhamnosyl)hexosides and their isomers and two -3-O-(2,6-di-rhamnosyl)hexosides. In the second cluster, eleven flavonoid diglycosides such as three -3-O-(2-hexosyl)hexosides, four -3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)hexosides and one -3-O-(6-rhamnosyl)hexoside as well as two -3-O-(2-pentosyl)hexosides and one tentative -3-O-(3-pentosyl)hexoside were detected. In the monoglycoside group, only one flavonoid -3-O-hexoside was identified. The occurrence of this large number of flavonoid glycosides could be due to the low glucosidase activity previously reported in stingless bee honey. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Versatile electrostatic trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhoven, J.; Bethlem, H.L.; Schnell, M.; Meijer, G.

    2006-01-01

    A four electrode electrostatic trap geometry is demonstrated that can be used to combine a dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole field. A cold packet of ND315 molecules is confined in both a purely quadrupolar and hexapolar trapping field and additionally, a dipole field is added to a hexapole field to

  18. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  19. Application of liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry for the evaluation of global nucleic acids: methylation in garden cress under exposure to CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcazar Magana, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2016-01-15

    A full understanding of the biological impact of nanomaterials demands analytical procedures suitable for the detection/quantification of epigenetic changes that occur in the exposed organisms. Here, the effect of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) on global methylation of nucleic acids in Lepidium sativum was evaluated by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Enhanced selectivity toward cytosine-containing nucleosides was achieved by using their proton-bound dimers formed in positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) as precursor ions for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantification based on one or two ion transitions. Plants were exposed to CuO NPs (0-1000 mg L(-1)); nucleic acid extracts were washed with bathocuproine disulfate; nucleosides were separated on a Luna C18 column coupled via ESI(+) to an AmaZon SL mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics). Cytidine, 2´-deoxycytidine, 5-methylcytidine, 5-methyl-2´-deoxycytidine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2´-deoxycytidine were quantified by MRM based on MS(3) ([2M+H](+)/[M+H](+)/[M+H-132](+) or [M+H-116](+)) and MS(2) ([2M+H](+)/[M+H](+) ). Bathocuproine disulfate, added as Cu(I) complexing agent, allowed for elimination of [2M+Cu](+) adducts from the mass spectra. Poorer instrumental detection limits were obtained for MS(3) (20-120 fmol) as compared to MS(2) (9.0-41 fmol); however, two ion transitions helped to eliminate matrix effects in plant extracts. The procedure was tested by analyzing salmon sperm DNA (Sigma) and applied for the evaluation of DNA and RNA methylation in plants; in the absence of NPs, 13.03% and 0.92% methylated cytosines were found in DNA and RNA, respectively; for NPs concentration >50 mg L(-1), DNA hypomethylation was observed with respect to unexposed plants. RNA methylation did not present significant changes upon plant exposure; 5-hydroxymethyl-2´-deoxycytidine was not detected in any sample. The MRM quantification proposed here of cytosine-containing nucleosides using their proton-bound homo

  20. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  1. The quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) in human urine specimens, a metabolite of LSD: comparative analysis using liquid chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, G K; Klette, K L; Anderson, C

    2000-04-01

    This paper compares the potential forensic application of two sensitive and rapid procedures (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry) for the detection and quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) a major LSD metabolite. O-H-LSD calibration curves for both procedures were linear over the concentration range 0-8,000 pg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.99. The observed limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for O-H-LSD in both procedures was 400 pg/mL. Sixty-eight human urine specimens that had previously been found to contain LSD by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were reanalyzed by both procedures for LSD and O-H-LSD. These specimens contained a mean concentration of O-H-LSD approximately 16 times higher than the LSD concentration. Because both LC methods produce similar results, either procedure can be readily adapted to O-H-LSD analysis for use in high-volume drug-testing laboratories. In addition, the possibility of significantly increasing the LSD detection time window by targeting this major LSD metabolite for analysis may influence other drug-free workplace programs to test for LSD.

  2. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  3. A strategy for comprehensive identification of sequential constituents using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer, application study on chlorogenic acids in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-yu; Wang, Zi-jian; Li, Yun; Liu, Ying; Cai, Wei; Li, Chen; Lu, Jian-qiu; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2016-01-15

    The analytical methodologies for evaluation of multi-component system in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been inadequate or unacceptable. As a result, the unclarity of multi-component hinders the sufficient interpretation of their bioactivities. In this paper, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap (UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap)-based strategy focused on the comprehensive identification of TCM sequential constituents was developed. The strategy was characterized by molecular design, multiple ion monitoring (MIM), targeted database hits and mass spectral trees similarity filter (MTSF), and even more isomerism discrimination. It was successfully applied in the HRMS data-acquisition and processing of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ), and a total of 115 chromatographic peaks attributed to 18 categories were characterized, allowing a comprehensive revelation of CGAs in FLJ for the first time. This demonstrated that MIM based on molecular design could improve the efficiency to trigger MS/MS fragmentation reactions. Targeted database hits and MTSF searching greatly facilitated the processing of extremely large information data. Besides, the introduction of diagnostic product ions (DPIs) discrimination, ClogP analysis, and molecular simulation, raised the efficiency and accuracy to characterize sequential constituents especially position and geometric isomers. In conclusion, the results expanded our understanding on CGAs in FLJ, and the strategy could be exemplary for future research on the comprehensive identification of sequential constituents in TCMs. Meanwhile, it may propose a novel idea for analyzing sequential constituents, and is promising for quality control and evaluation of TCMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chunlin; Guo Bin; Wang Xiaoying; Li Jie; Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo; Ouyang Shan; Yao Shouzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. ► Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. ► Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N 4 -acetyl and N-OH metabolites. ► PreS–IDA–EPI in LC–QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography–hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC–QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71–109% with RSDs 4 -acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC–QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67–116%), precision (RSDs −1 ) to meet the acceptance criteria for all the sulfonamide–tissue combinations. Thus, the integration of the matrix-independent SEP/MAC procedure and the multiparameter matching algorithm with the unit-resolution LC–QqLIT instrument can serve as a valuable semi-targeted discovery strategy for rapid screening and reliable quantitative/confirmatory analysis of real samples.

  5. Application of a hybrid ordered mesoporous silica as sorbent for solid-phase multi-residue extraction of veterinary drugs in meat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    A quick, sensitive and selective analytical reversed-phase multi-residue method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-IT-MS/MS) operating in both positive and negative ion mode was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues (β-blockers, β-agonists and Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)) in meat samples. The sample treatment involved a liquid-solid extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthetized and modified with octadecylsilane, and the resulting hybrid material (denoted as SBA-15-C18) was applied and evaluated as SPE sorbent in the purification of samples. The materials were comprehensively characterized, and they showed a high surface area, high pore volume and a homogeneous distribution of the pores. Chromatographic conditions and extraction procedure were optimized, and the method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method detection limits (MDLs) and the method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined for all the analytes in meat samples and found to range between 0.01-18.75μg/kg and 0.02-62.50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries for 15 of the target analytes ranged from 71 to 98%. In addition, for comparative purpose SBA-15-C18 was evaluated towards commercial C18 amorphous silica. Results revealed that SBA-15-C18 was clearly more successful in the multi-residue extraction of the 23 mentioned analytes with higher recovery values. The method was successfully tested to analyze prepacked preparations of mince bovine meat. Traces of propranolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac were detected in some samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved sensitivity of ochratoxin A analysis in coffee using high-performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokina, Aija; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2016-01-01

    A novel and sensitive method utilising high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS) was developed in order to analyse the content of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee samples. The introduction of the triple-stage MS scanning mode (MS(3)) has been shown to increase greatly sensitivity and selectivity by eliminating the high chromatographic baseline caused by interference of complex coffee matrices. The analysis included the sample preparation procedure involving extraction of OTA using a methanol-water mixture and clean-up by immunoaffinity columns and detection using the MS(3) scanning mode of LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. The proposed method offered a good linear correlation (r(2) > 0.998), excellent precision (RSD coffee beans and espresso beverages was 0.010 and 0.003 µg kg(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was compared with traditional methods employing liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescent and tandem quadrupole detectors in conjunction with QuEChERS and solid-phase extraction. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of OTA in 15 samples of coffee beans and in 15 samples of espresso coffee beverages obtained from the Latvian market. OTA was found in 10 samples of coffee beans and in two samples of espresso in the ranges of 0.018-1.80 µg kg(-1) and 0.020-0.440 µg l(-1), respectively. No samples exceeded the maximum permitted level of OTA in the European Union (5.0 µg kg(-1)).

  7. Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan [UC Berkeley and LBNL

    2013-03-27

    Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.

  8. EBIT trapping program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Beck, B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Church, D.; DeWitt, D.; Knapp, D.K.; Marrs, R.E.; Schneider, D.; Schweikhard, L.

    1993-01-01

    The LLNL electron beam ion trap provides the world's only source of stationary highly charged ions up to bare U. This unique capability makes many new atomic and nuclear physics experiments possible. (orig.)

  9. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  10. Structural elucidation of AgAsS2 glass by the analysis of clusters formed during laser desorption ionisation applying quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawale, Ravi Madhukar; Alberti, Milan; Zhang, Bo; Fraenkl, Max; Wagner, Tomas; Havel, Josef

    2016-03-15

    The structure of AgA(s)S2 glass, which has a broad range of applications, is still not well understood and a systematic mass spectrometric analysis of AgA(s)S2 glass is currently not available. Elucidation of the structure should help in the development of this material. The AgA(s)S2 glass was prepared by the melt-quenched technique. Laser desorption ionisation (LDI) using quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QIT-TOFMS) was used to follow the generation of Ag(m)As(n)S(x) clusters. The stoichiometry of the clusters generated was determined via collision-induced dissociation (CID) and modelling of isotopic patterns. The AgA(s)S2 glass was characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The LDI of AgA(s)S2 glass leads to the formation of unary (Ag+/− and As(3+)) species, 38 binary (As(n)S(x), Ag(m)S(x)), and 98 ternary (Ag(m)As(n)S(x)) singly charged clusters. The formation of silver-rich nano-grains during AgA(s)S2 glass synthesis has been identified using TEM analysis and also verified by QIT-TOFMS. TOFMS was shown to be a useful technique to study the generation of Ag(m)As(n)S(x )clusters. SEM, TEM and EDX analysis proved that the structure of AgA(s)S2 glass is ‘grain-like’ where grains are either: (1) Silver-rich ‘islands’ (Ag(m,) m up to 39) connected by arsenic and/or sulfur or arsenic sulfide chains or (2) silver sulfide (Ag2S)m (m = 9-20) clusters also similarly inter-connected. This obtained structural information may be useful for the development of ultra-high-density phase-change storage and memory devices using this kind of glass as a base.

  11. Search For Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B.; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D.; Bray, Crystal C.; Butler, Eoin; Cesar, Claudio L.; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C.; Gill, David R.; Hangst, Jeffrey S.; Hardy, Walter N.; Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hayden, Michael E.; Humphries, Andrew J.; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Jorgensen, Lars V.; Kurchaninov, Lenoid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Nasr, Sarah Seif El; Silveira, Daniel M.; So, Chukman; Storey, James W.; Thompson, Robert I.; van der Werf, Dirk P.; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ~30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10^7 antiprotons with 1.3 10^9 positrons to produce 6 10^5 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consist...

  12. Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...

  13. Optimization and simulation of MEMS rectilinear ion trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Gang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of a MEMS rectilinear ion trap was optimized under simulated conditions. The size range of the MEMS rectilinear ion trap’s electrodes studied in this paper is measured at micron scale. SIMION software was used to simulate the MEMS rectilinear ion trap with different sizes and different radio-frequency signals. The ion-trapping efficiencies of the ion trap under these different simulation conditions were obtained. The ion-trapping efficiencies were compared to determine the performance of the MEMS rectilinear ion trap in different conditions and to find the optimum conditions. The simulation results show that for the ion trap at micron scale or smaller, the optimized length–width ratio was 0.8, and a higher frequency of radio-frequency signal is necessary to obtain a higher ion-trapping efficiency. These results have a guiding role in the process of developing MEMS rectilinear ion traps, and great application prospects in the research fields of the MEMS rectilinear ion trap and the MEMS mass spectrometer.

  14. Status of the Penning trap project in Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szerypo, J.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Gartzke, E.; Habs, D.; Neumayr, J.; Schuermann, C.; Sewtz, M.; Thirolf, P.G.; Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.

    2009-01-01

    The MLLTRAP at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (Garching) is a new Penning trap facility designed to combine several novel technologies to decelerate, charge breed, cool, bunch and purify the reaction products and perform high-accuracy nuclear and atomic mass measurements. It is now in the commissioning phase, achieving a mass-resolving power of about 10 5 in the purification trap for stable ions. (orig.)

  15. Status of the Penning trap project in Munich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szerypo, J.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Gartzke, E.; Habs, D.; Neumayr, J.; Schuermann, C.; Sewtz, M.; Thirolf, P.G. [University of Munich (LMU) and Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL), Faculty of Physics, Garching (Germany); Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U. [University of Munich (LMU) and Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL), Faculty of Physics, Garching (Germany); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The MLLTRAP at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (Garching) is a new Penning trap facility designed to combine several novel technologies to decelerate, charge breed, cool, bunch and purify the reaction products and perform high-accuracy nuclear and atomic mass measurements. It is now in the commissioning phase, achieving a mass-resolving power of about 10{sup 5} in the purification trap for stable ions. (orig.)

  16. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Chunlin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Guo Bin, E-mail: binnguo@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Wang Xiaoying [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li Jie [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Ouyang Shan [Food Inspection and Quarantine Center, Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of the People' s Republic of China, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Yao Shouzhuo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2012-08-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N{sup 4}-acetyl and N-OH metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PreS-IDA-EPI in LC-QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography-hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71-109% with RSDs < 20%) and decreased matrix interferences (-9 to 19%) of multiresidual sulfonamide extraction from different tissue samples. The novel use of neutral loss scan of 66 Da (NLS) or precursor ion scanning of m/z 108 (PreS) in positive ion mode was found to achieve more comprehensive coverage of protonated molecular ions of a wide array of sulfonamides including N{sup 4}-acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC-QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67-116%), precision (RSDs < 25%), and sensitivity (LOQs {<=} 7.5 ng

  17. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  18. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  19. Rotational states of Bose gases with attractive interactions in anharmonic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundh, Emil; Collin, Anssi; Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2004-01-01

    A rotated and harmonically trapped Bose gas with attractive interactions is expected to either remain stationary or escape from the trap. Here we report that, on the contrary, in an anharmonic trapping potential the Bose gas with attractive interactions responds to external rotation very differently, namely, through center-of-mass motion or by formation of vortices

  20. Physics with Trapped Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Michael

    2017-04-01

    For more than a decade antihydrogen atoms have been formed by mixing antiprotons and positrons held in arrangements of charged particle (Penning) traps. More recently, magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been superimposed upon the anti-atom production region, promoting the trapping of a small quantity of the antihydrogen yield. We will review these advances, and describe some of the first physics experiments performed on anrtihydrogen including the observation of the two-photon 1S-2S transition, invesigation of the charge neutrailty of the anti-atom and studies of the ground state hyperfine splitting. We will discuss the physics motivations for undertaking these experiments and describe some near-future initiatives.

  1. Ion trap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  2. Asymmetric ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Alexander, Michael L.; Follansbee, James C.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  3. Electron scattering by trapped fermionic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; Jhe, Wonho

    2002-01-01

    Considering the Fermi gases of alkali-metal atoms that are trapped in a harmonic potential, we study theoretically the elastic and inelastic scattering of the electrons by the trapped Fermi atoms and present the corresponding differential cross sections. We also obtain the stopping power for the cases that the electronic state as well as the center-of-mass state are excited both separately and simultaneously. It is shown that the elastic scattering process is no longer coherent in contrast to the electron scattering by the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). For the inelastic scattering process, on the other hand, the differential cross section is found to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the number of the trapped atoms. In particular, the trapped fermionic atoms display the effect of ''Fermi surface,'' that is, only the energy levels near the Fermi energy have dominant contributions to the scattering process. Moreover, it is found that the stopping power scales as the 7/6 power of the atomic number. These results are fundamentally different from those of the electron scattering by the atomic BEC, mainly due to the different statistics obeyed by the trapped atomic systems

  4. Commissioning of the double Penning trap system MLLTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhinen, V.S.; Bussmann, M.; Gartzke, E.; Habs, D.; Neumayr, J.B.; Schuermann, C.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical double Penning trap system has been installed and commissioned at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) in Garching. This trap system has been designed to isobarically purify low-energy ion beams and perform highly accurate mass measurements. Technical details of the device and the first results of the commissioning measurements will be presented. The mass resolving power achieved in the first trap for 85 Rb ions is R=139(2)x10 3 , while a relative mass uncertainty of δm/m=2.9x10 -8 was reached with the second trap (no analysis of systematic uncertainties included) when using 87 Rb as a reference ion for 85 Rb.

  5. Commissioning of the double Penning trap system MLLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen and Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: veli.kolhinen@physik.uni-muenchen.de; Bussmann, M. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen and Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Gartzke, E.; Habs, D.; Neumayr, J.B.; Schuermann, C.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P.G. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen and Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    A cylindrical double Penning trap system has been installed and commissioned at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) in Garching. This trap system has been designed to isobarically purify low-energy ion beams and perform highly accurate mass measurements. Technical details of the device and the first results of the commissioning measurements will be presented. The mass resolving power achieved in the first trap for {sup 85}Rb ions is R=139(2)x10{sup 3}, while a relative mass uncertainty of {delta}m/m=2.9x10{sup -8} was reached with the second trap (no analysis of systematic uncertainties included) when using {sup 87}Rb as a reference ion for {sup 85}Rb.

  6. Utilization of the ion traps by SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, C.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Tamain, B.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap is a device capable of confine particles, ions or atoms in a well-controlled environment isolated from any exterior perturbations. There are different traps. They are utilized to collect or stock ions, to cool them after in order to subject them to high precision measurement of masses, magnetic moments, hyperfine properties, beta decay properties, etc. Some dozen of traps are currently used all over the world to study stable or radioactive ions.. SPIRAL has been designed and built to produce radioactive ions starting from various heavy ion beams. SPIRAL has the advantage that the projectile parameters, the target and the energy can be chosen to optimize the production in various regions of the nuclear chart. Also, in SPIRAL it is possible to extract more rapidly the radioactive ions formed in the targets. In addition, in SPIRAL the multicharged ion production in a ECR source is possible. The utilization of multicharged ions is indeed very useful for fast mass measurements or for the study of the interaction between the nucleus and the electronic cloud. Finally, utilization of a ion trap on SPIRAL can be designed first at the level of production target by installing a low energy output line. Than, the trap system could be up-graded and brought to its full utilization behind of the recoil spectrometer. It must be capable of selecting and slowing down the ions produced in the reactions (fusion transfer, very inelastic collisions, etc.) induced by the radioactive ions accelerated in CIME. At present, the collaboration is debating on the most favored subject to study and the most suited experimental setups. The following subjects were selected: ion capture, purification and manipulation; isomers (separation and utilization); mass measurements; hyperfine interactions; lifetimes, nuclear electric cloud; β decays; study of the N = Z nuclei close to the proton drip line; physical and chemical properties of transuranium systems

  7. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO 2 as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe

  8. Redesigning octopus traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In order to minimise the identified problems in the actual traps, the present work proposes a new design with the aim of reducing the volume and weight during transport, and also during onshore storage. Alternative materials to avoid corrosion and formation of encrustations were also proposed.

  9. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  10. Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic mirror trap

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbusch, M; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Schweikhard, L; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N

    2014-01-01

    The success of many measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics is handicapped when the ion sources deliver ``contaminations'', i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors-if the measurements are possible at all. We present a solution for such cases: The ions from a quasi-continuous source are bunched in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap, separated by a multi-reflection time-of-flight section followed by a Bradbury-Nielsen gate, and then captured in a Penning trap. Buffer-gas cooling is used to damp the ion motion in the latter, which allows a repeated opening of the Penning trap for a stacking of mass-selected ion bunches. Proof-of-principle demonstrations have been performed with the ISOLTRAP setup at ISOLDE/CERN, both with Cs-133(+) ions from an off-line ion source and by applicati...

  11. [Trapping techniques for Solenopsis invicta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-song; Zhang, Qiang; Zhuang, Yiong-lin; Li, Gui-wen; Ji, Lin-peng; Wang, Jian-guo; Dai, Hua-guo

    2007-06-01

    A field study was made to investigate the trapping effects of different attractants, traps, and wind directions on Solenopsis invicta. The results showed that among the test attractants, TB1 (50 g fishmeal, 40 g peptone, 10 ml 10% sucrose water solution and 20 ml soybean oil) had the best effect, followed by TB2 (ham), TB6 (100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB4 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g sugarcane powder and 20 ml soybean oil), with a mean capture efficiency being 77.6, 58.7, 29 and 7.7 individuals per trap, respectively. No S. invicta was trapped with TB3 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB5 (honey). Tube trap was superior to dish trap, with a trapping efficiency of 75.2 and 35 individuals per trap, respectively. The attractants had better effects in leeward than in windward.

  12. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  13. Laser spectroscopy with an electrostatic ConeTrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, S., E-mail: sam.kelly@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Campbell, P. [University of Manchester, Nuclear Physics Group, Schuster Laboratory, Brunswick Street (United Kingdom); Cheal, B., E-mail: Bradley.Cheal@Liverpool.ac.uk [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory (United Kingdom); Eronen, T.; Geldhof, S.; Jokinen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilä, H.; Pohjalainen, I.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Voss, A. [JYFL, University of Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2017-11-15

    A compact electrostatic trap has been designed and installed as part of the recent upgrades to the IGISOL IV facility. The ConeTrap provides an in vacuo optical pumping site for low energy (800 eV) ionic ensembles available for interaction periods of 10-100 ms. At present, 6.7(3) % of injected mass A=98 ions can be trapped, stored for 5 ms, extracted and transported to a laser-ion interaction region. This fraction represents those ions for which no perturbation to total energy or energy spread is observed. Proposed enhancements to the trap are designed to improve the trapping efficiency by up to a factor of 5. Differential pumping and reduction in background pressure below the present 10{sup −6} mbar will extend storage times beyond 100 ms.

  14. Magnetic field stabilization in THe-Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    THe-Trap is a Penning trap mass spectrometer dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass ratio aiming to a relative mass uncertainty better than 10{sup -11}. The most vital prerequisite for this measurement is a stable magnetic field: The relative temporal fluctuations during a measurement cycle of typically 1 hour, should be better than 10{sup -11}. The 5.26 T field is provided by a superconducting magnet. Unfortunately, the materials within the cryostat have a temperature-dependent susceptibility which necessitates a temperature stabilization. The stabilization is achieved by controlling the liquid helium level above the traps, and by keeping the pressure of the liquid helium constant. An important part of the system is the pressure reference, which is stable at a 0.04 Pa level. In addition to the stabilization of the field fluctuations within the cryostat itself, a system to cancel external fluctuations is set up consisting of a passive coil with a shielding factor of up to 180 build into the cryostat. Furthermore, a Helmholtz coil pair is placed around the cryostat. The compensation signal is provided by a custom-built flux-gate magnetometer. Technical details about the stabilization systems are given.

  15. Escaping the tolerance trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine the implications of the weakening of OPEC's responsiveness in adjusting its production levels, this paper explicitly incorporates rigidity in the quantity adjustment mechanism, thereby extending previous research which assumed smooth quantity adjustments. The rigidity is manifested in a tolerance range for the discrepancy between the declared target price and that of the market. This environment gives rise to a 'tolerance trap' which impedes the convergence process and inevitably brings the market to a standstill before its reaches the targeted price and revenue objectives. OPEC's reaction to the standstill has important implications for the achievement of the target-based equilibrium and for the potential collapse of the market price. This paper examines OPEC's policy options in the tolerance trap and reveals that the optional policy in order to break this impasse and move closer to the equilibrium point is gradually to reduce output and not to flood the market. (Author)

  16. Trapped Ion Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Qubits can be encoded in clock states of trapped ions. These states are well isolated from the environment resulting in long coherence times [1] while enabling efficient high-fidelity qubit interactions mediated by the Coulomb coupled motion of the ions in the trap. Quantum states can be prepared with high fidelity and measured efficiently using fluorescence detection. State preparation and detection with 99.93% fidelity have been realized in multiple systems [1,2]. Single qubit gates have been demonstrated below rigorous fault-tolerance thresholds [1,3]. Two qubit gates have been realized with more than 99.9% fidelity [4,5]. Quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on systems of 5 to 15 qubits [6–8].

  17. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.

    2018-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  18. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-28

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  19. Atomic and nuclear physics with stored particles in ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Herfurth, F; Quint, W

    2002-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques play an increasingly important role in many areas of science. This review concentrates on recent applications of ion traps installed at accelerator facilities to atomic and nuclear physics such as mass spectrometry of radioactive isotopes, weak interaction studies, symmetry tests, determination of fundamental constants, laser spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of highly-charged ions. In addition, ion traps are proven to be extremely efficient devices for (radioactive) ion beam manipulation as, for example, retardation, accumulation, cooling, beam cleaning, charge-breeding, and bunching.

  20. Cylindrical Penning traps with dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation for precision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Xiang; Snow, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Harmonic potentials can be produced in cylindrical ion traps by means of dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation with use of two (or multiple) sets of compensation electrodes. One special example is for traps with multiple identical electrodes which are not only easy to construct and allow access to the center region of the trap for particle loading and releasing, laser beams, and microwaves, but also flexible in forming harmonic potential wells in many locations. The nested trap configuration and the side-by-side trap configuration are readily available in this special scheme. Analytical solutions for cylindrical traps with multiple sets of compensation potentials are presented. This work will be useful for studies involving Penning trap diagnostics, atomic and molecular interactions (including the production of antihydrogen atoms), accurate mass measurements of exotic particles, and precision measurements of the spin precession frequencies of trapped particles

  1. Cylindrical Penning traps with dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation for precision experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fei Xiang

    1999-01-01

    Harmonic potentials can be produced in cylindrical ion traps by means of dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation with use of two (or multiple) sets of compensation electrodes. One special example is for traps with multiple identical electrodes which are not only easy to construct and allow access to the center region of the trap for particle loading and releasing, laser beams, and microwaves, but also flexible in forming harmonic potential wells in many locations. The nested trap configuration and the side-by-side trap configuration are readily available in this special scheme. Analytical solutions for cylindrical traps with multiple sets of compensation potentials are presented. This work will be useful for studies involving Penning trap diagnostics, atomic and molecular interactions (including the production of antihydrogen atoms), accurate mass measurements of exotic particles, and precision measurements of the spin precession frequencies of trapped particles.

  2. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  3. Atom trap trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications

  4. Magnetic traps with a sperical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1979-11-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphesis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasmas in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In additio, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is being described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps for the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (author)

  5. Magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphasis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasms in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In addition, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps in the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (orig.)

  6. Characteristics of trapped electrons and electron traps in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, E.E.; Potter, W.R.; Potienko, G.; Box, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two additional carbohydrates are reported whose crystal structures trap electrons intermolecularly in single crystals x irradiated at low temperature, namely sucrose and rhamnose. Five carbohydrate and polyhydroxy compounds are now known which exhibit this phenomenon. The following characteristics of the phenomenon were investigated: (1) the hyperfine couplings of the electron with protons of the polarized hydroxy groups forming the trap; (2) the distances between these protons and the trapped electron; (3) the spin density of the electron at the protons and (4) the relative stabilities of the electron trapped in various crystal structures

  7. Development of an in-house mixed-mode solid-phase extraction for the determination of 16 basic drugs in urine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musile, Giacomo; Cenci, Lucia; Piletska, Elena; Gottardo, Rossella; Bossi, Alessandra M; Bortolotti, Federica

    2018-07-27

    The aim of the present work was to develop a novel in-house mixed-mode SPE sorbent to be used for the HPLC-Ion TrapMS determination of 16 basic drugs in urine. By using a computational modelling, a virtual monomer library was screened identifying three suitable functional monomers, methacrylic acid (MAA), itaconic acid (IA) and 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPSA), respectively. Three different sorbents were then synthetized based on these monomers, and using as cross-linker trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA). The sorbent characterization analyses brought to the selection of the AMPSA based phase. Using this novel in-house sorbent, a SPE-HPLC-Ion TrapMS method for drug analysis in urine was validated proving to be selective and accurate and showing a sensitivity adequate for toxicological urine analysis. The comparison of the in-house mixed-mode SPE sorbent with two analogous commercial mixed-mode SPE phases showed that the first one was better not only in terms of process efficiency, but also in terms of quality-price rate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which an in-house SPE procedure has been applied to the toxicological analysis of a complex matrix, such as urine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ATRAP - Progress Towards Trapped Antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzonka, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E.A.; Storry, C.H.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Lesage, D.; Levitt, B.; Speck, A.; Haensch, T.W.; Pittner, H.; Walz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom.Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen.For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trapping tests of charged particles within a combined magnetic/Penning trap have started at ATRAP

  9. ATRAP Progress Towards Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grzonka, D; Gabrielse, G; Goldenbaum, F; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Oelert, W; Pittner, H; Sefzick, T; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Walz, J; Zhang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s‐2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom. Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen. For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trapping tests of charged particles within a combined magnetic/Penning trap have started at ATRAP.

  10. Calibration of optically trapped nanotools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carberry, D M; Simpson, S H; Grieve, J A; Hanna, S; Miles, M J [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wang, Y; Schaefer, H; Steinhart, M [Institute for Chemistry, University of Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck (Germany); Bowman, R; Gibson, G M; Padgett, M J, E-mail: m.j.miles@bristol.ac.uk [SUPA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Science Road, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-30

    Holographically trapped nanotools can be used in a novel form of force microscopy. By measuring the displacement of the tool in the optical traps, the contact force experienced by the probe can be inferred. In the following paper we experimentally demonstrate the calibration of such a device and show that its behaviour is independent of small changes in the relative position of the optical traps. Furthermore, we explore more general aspects of the thermal motion of the tool.

  11. Optical traps with geometric aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G.

    2006-01-01

    We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems

  12. Multiresidue analysis of 22 sulfonamides and their metabolites in animal tissues using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and high resolution mass spectrometry (hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, H; Arnaudguilhem, C; Jaber, F; Lobinski, R

    2014-08-15

    A new high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method was developed for a simultaneous multi-residue analysis of 22 sulfonamides (SAs) and their metabolites in edible animal (pig, beef, sheep and chicken) tissues. Sample preparation was optimized on the basis of the "QuEChERS" protocol. The analytes were identified using their LC retention times and accurate mass; the identification was further confirmed by multi-stage high mass accuracy (Pig kidney" with ǀ Z-scoreǀpig, beef, sheep, and chicken) allowing the simultaneous quantification of target sulfonamides at concentration levels above the MRL/2 and the identification of untargeted compounds such as N(4)-acetyl metabolites using multi-stage high mass accuracy mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A live-trap and trapping technique for fossorial mammals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mammals. G.C. Hickman. An effective live-trap was designed for Cryptomys hottentotus .... that there is an animal in the burrow system, and to lessen the likelihood of the .... the further testing and modification of existing trap types. Not only is it ...

  14. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers : Exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H. T.; Mandoc, M. M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  15. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers: exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H.T.; Mandoc, M.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  16. Developing optical traps for ultra-sensitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.; Vieira, D.J.; Guckert, R.; Crane, S.

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe the coupling of a magneto-optical trap to a mass separator for the ultra-sensitive detection of selected radioactive species. As a proof of principle test, they have demonstrated the trapping of ∼ 6 million 82 Rb (t 1/2 = 75 s) atoms using an ion implantation and heated foil release method for introducing the sample into a trapping cell with minimal gas loading. Gamma-ray counting techniques were used to determine the efficiencies of each step in the process. By far the weakest step in the process is the efficiency of the optical trap itself (0.3%). Further improvements in the quality of the nonstick dryfilm coating on the inside of the trapping cell and the possible use of larger diameter laser beams are indicated. In the presence of a large background of scattered light, this initial work achieved a detection sensitivity of ∼ 4,000 trapped atoms. Improved detection schemes using a pulsed trap and gated photon detection method are outlined. Application of this technology to the areas of environmental monitoring and nuclear proliferation are foreseen

  17. Weak Interaction Measurements with Optically Trapped Radioactive Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Crane, S.G.; Guckert, R.; Zhao, X.; Brice, S.J.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; Tupa, D.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project is to apply the latest in magneto-optical and pure magnetic trapping technology to concentrate, cool, confine, and polarize radioactive atoms for precise electroweak interaction measurements. In particular, the authors have concentrated their efforts on the trapping of 82 Rb for a parity-violating, beta-asymmetry measurement. Progress has been made in successfully trapping of up to 6 million 82 Rb(t 1/2 =75s) atoms in a magneto-optical trap coupled to a mass separator. This represents a two order of magnitude improvement in the number trapped radioactive atoms over all previous work. They have also measured the atomic hyperfine structure of 82 Rb and demonstrated the MOT-to-MOT transfer and accumulation of atoms in a second trap. Finally, they have constructed and tested a time-orbiting-potential magnetic trap that will serve as a rotating beacon of spin-polarized nuclei and a beta-telescope detection system. Prototype experiments are now underway with the initial goal of making a 1% measurements of the beta-asymmetry parameter A which would match the world's best measurements

  18. Sympathetic cooling of ions in a hybrid atom ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeltkemeier, Bastian

    2016-10-27

    In this thesis the dynamics of a trapped ion immersed in a spatially localized buffer gas is investigated. For a homogeneous buffer gas, the ion's energy distribution reaches a stable equilibrium only if the mass of the buffer gas atoms is below a critical value. This limitation can be overcome by using multipole traps in combination and/or a spatially confined buffer gas. Using a generalized model for elastic collisions of the ion with the buffer gas atoms, the ion's energy distribution is numerically determined for arbitrary buffer gas distributions and trap parameters. Three regimes characterized by the respective analytic form of the ion's equilibrium energy distribution are found. One of these is a novel regime at large atom-to-ion mass ratios where the final ion temperature can tuned by adiabatically decreasing the spatial extension of the buffer gas and the effective ion trap depth (forced sympathetic cooling). The second part of the thesis presents a hybrid atom ion trap designed for sympathetic cooling of hydroxide anions. In this hybrid trap the anions are immersed in a cloud of laser cooled rubidium atoms. The translational and rovibrational temperatures of the anions is probed by photodetachment tomography and spectroscopy which shows the first ever indication of sympathetic cooling of anions by laser cooled atoms.

  19. Non-target screening of Allura Red AC photodegradation products in a beverage through ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Calabrese, Giorgio; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio

    2013-01-15

    The study deals with the identification of the degradation products formed by simulated sunlight photoirradiation in a commercial beverage that contains Allura Red AC dye. An UHPLC-MS/MS method, that makes use of hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap, was developed. In the identification step the software tool information dependent acquisition (IDA) was used to automatically obtain information about the species present and to build a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method with the MS/MS fragmentation pattern of the species considered. The results indicate that the identified degradation products are formed from side-reactions and/or interactions among the dye and other ingredients present in the beverage (ascorbic acid, citric acid, sucrose, aromas, strawberry juice, and extract of chamomile flowers). The presence of aromatic amine or amide functionalities in the chemical structures proposed for the degradation products might suggest potential hazards to consumer health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  1. Detection of trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydomako, Richard [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2013-02-01

    A landmark thesis describing the first ever trapping of antihydrogen atoms in CERN's ALPHA apparatus. Opens the way to crucial tests of fundamental theories. Nominated as an outstanding contribution by the University of Calgary. In 2010, the ALPHA collaboration achieved a first for mankind: the stable, long-term storage of atomic antimatter, a project carried out a the Antiproton Decelerator facility at CERN. A crucial element of this observation was a dedicated silicon vertexing detector used to identify and analyze antihydrogen annihilations. This thesis reports the methods used to reconstruct the annihilation location. Specifically, the methods used to identify and extrapolate charged particle tracks and estimate the originating annihilation location are outlined. Finally, the experimental results demonstrating the first-ever magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms are presented. These results rely heavily on the silicon detector, and as such, the role of the annihilation vertex reconstruction is emphasized.

  2. The Penning trap system used by the BASE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of the Penning trap system used by BASE. The experiment receives antiprotons from CERN's AD; negative hydrogen ions are formed during injection into the apparatus. The set-up works with only a pair of particles at a time, while a cloud of a few hundred others are held in the reservoir trap, for future use. Here, an antiproton is in the measurement trap, while the negative hydyrogen ion is in held by the downstream park electrode. When the antiproton has been measured, it is moved to the upstream park electrode and the hydrogen ion is brought in to the measurement trap. This is repeated thousands of times, enabling a high-precision comparison of the charge-to-mass ratios of the two particles.

  3. Flux trapping in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, C.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Charrier, J.P.; Daillant, B.; Gratadour, J.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1992-01-01

    The flux trapped in various field cooled Nb and Pb samples has been measured. For ambient fields smaller than 3 Gauss, 100% of the flux is trapped. The consequences of this result on the behavior of superconducting RF cavities are discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  4. Injection into electron plasma traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgadze, Vladimir; Pasquini, Thomas A.; Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Computational studies and experimental measurements of plasma injection into a Malmberg-Penning trap reveal that the number of trapped particles can be an order of magnitude higher than predicted by a simple estimates based on a ballistic trapping model. Enhanced trapping is associated with a rich nonlinear dynamics generated by the space-charge forces of the evolving trapped electron density. A particle-in-cell simulation is used to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to the increase in trapped electrons. The simulations initially show strong two-stream interactions between the electrons emitted from the cathode and those reflected off the end plug of the trap. This is followed by virtual cathode oscillations near the injection region. As electrons are trapped, the initially hollow longitudinal phase-space is filled, and the transverse radial density profile evolves so that the plasma potential matches that of the cathode. Simple theoretical arguments are given that describe the different dynamical regimes. Good agreement is found between simulation and theory

  5. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  6. Electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is a new branch of applied physics that has potential for application in many areas. The authors present an introduction to laser cooling and magnetic trapping. Some basic ideas and fundamental limitations are discussed, and the first successful experiments are reviewed. Trapping a neutral object depends on the interaction between an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field and a multiple moment that results in the exchange of kinetic for potential energy. In neutral atom traps, the potential energy must be stored as internal atomic energy, resulting in two immediate and extremely important consequences. First, the atomic energy levels will necessarily shift as the atoms move in the trap, and, second, practical traps for ground state neutral atoms atr necessarily very shallow compared to thermal energy. This small depth also dictates stringent vacuum requirements because a trapped atom cannot survive a single collision with a thermal energy background gas molecule. Neutral trapping, therefore, depends on substantial cooling of a thermal atomic sample and is inextricably connected with the cooling process

  7. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  8. Trapped surfaces in spherical stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, P.; Malec, E.; O'Murchadha, N.

    1988-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric spacetimes. These conditions show that the formation of trapped surfaces depends on both the degree of concentration and the average flow of the matter. The result can be considered as a partial validation of the cosmic-censorship hypothesis

  9. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to do precision spectroscopic measurements on these ions. ... Bonn, investigated the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter, .... the details of which will be discussed in the subse- ... the radial plane the ion undergoes a circular motion with the.

  10. Spin resonance with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-03-14

    A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +}, we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states.

  11. Spin resonance with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E

    2003-01-01

    A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped 171 Yb + , we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states

  12. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare Louise

    2004-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...... tumbling radicals are often broad and relatively poor in distinctive features, a number of techniques have been developed that allow a wealth of information to be obtained about the nature, site, and reactions of such radicals. This article summarizes recent developments in this area and reviews selected...... examples of radical formation on proteins....

  13. Quadrupole deflector of the double Penning trap system MLLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartzke, Eva; Kolhinen, Veli; Habs, Dietrich; Neumayr, Juergen; Schuermann, Christian; Szerypo, Jerzy; Thirolf, Peter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A cylindrical double Penning trap has been installed and successfully commissioned at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory in Garching. This trap system has been designed to isobarically purify low energy ion beams and perform highly accurate mass measurements. An electrostatic quadrupole deflector has been designed and installed at the injection line of the Penning trap system enabling a simultaneous use of an online ion beam with reference ions from an offline ion source. Alternatively two offline sources can be used concurrently e.g. an {alpha} recoil sources providing heavy radioactive species (e.g {sup 240}U) together with reference mass ions (which in the future will be e.g. a carbon cluster ion source). The bender has been designed for beam energies up to 1 keV with q/A ratios 1/1-1/250. This presentation shows the technical design and the operating parameters of the quadrupole beam bender and its implementation at the MLLTRAP system.

  14. Direct detection of dark matter with the EDELWEISS-III experiment: signals induced by charge trapping, data analysis and characterization of cryogenic detector sensitivity to low-mass WIMPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    The EDELWEISS-III experiment is dedicated to direct dark matter searches aiming at detecting WIMPS. These massive particles should account for more than 80% of the mass of the Universe and be detectable through their elastic scattering on nuclei constituting the absorber of a detector. As the expected WIMP event rate is extremely low ( 20 GeV). Finally, a study dedicated to the optimization of solid cryogenic detectors to low mass WIMP searches is presented. This study is performed on simulated data using a statistical test based on a profiled likelihood ratio that allows for statistical background subtraction and spectral shape discrimination. This study combined with results from Run308, has lead the EDELWEISS experiment to favor low mass WIMP searches ( [fr

  15. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  16. Development of an efficient pheromone-based trapping method for the banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Cruz, Z T; Guerrero, A

    2009-01-01

    The banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of bananas throughout the world. Chemical control is both undesirable and expensive, where biological control alternatives are limited, and pheromone-based trapping results in low captures. In this study, several important factors that affect pheromone-based catches, such as trap type, trap dimensions, and color and position of the traps, were optimized. Ground traps were found to be superior to ramp and pitfall traps, and larger traps (40 x 25 cm and above) were more efficient than smaller ones (30 x 15 cm). In a color-choice test, the banana weevil clearly preferred brown traps over yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green, with mahogany being more attractive than other shades of brown. In addition, pheromone baited ground traps positioned in the shade of the canopy caught significantly more adults than those placed in sunlight. Therefore, mahogany-brown ground traps 40 x 25 cm appear to be the most efficient at catching C. sordidus adults and have the greatest potential for use in mass trapping and programs for eradication of this pest.

  17. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  18. Development of medfly female attractant systems for trapping in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    attractants (P+AA+TMA), used with the new Tephri Trap produced very good results in 1996. There were no doubt about the results of the different traps and attractants in this year. At last, the experiment of 1997 demonstrated the efficiency of both traps (Tephri and IPMT) with or without water inside the trap. The choice of which trap to use will depend, perhaps, on the temperature or humidity of the local climate, but both always gave excellent results. We now have an excellent trap and attractant to capture medfly females to assure good control of the pest. Killing the first overwintering generation of medfly females by a mass trapping method will provide a powerful tool to avoid big populations in the summer and fall in countries with moderate climates. (author)

  19. Trapped surfaces due to concentration of gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.; O Murchadha, N.

    1991-01-01

    Sequences of global, asympotically flat solutions to the time-symmetric initial value constraints of general relativity in vacuo are constructed which develop outer trapped surfaces for large values of the argument. Thus all such configurations must gravitationally collapse. A new proof of the positivity of mass in the strong-field regime is also found. (Authors) 22 refs

  20. Urban fall traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia de Almeida Valsecchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the repercussion of falls in the elderly peoplewho live in the city of São Paulo and address - though synthetically- some questions regarding the city and its relation to aging and thequality of life of the elderly. Methods: This is a qualitative study. As fordata collection, “in-depth individual interviews” were applied. Selectionof subjects was guided by a procedure named as “network”. Results:Ten interviews were performed, nine with elderly individuals who werevictims of falls and one with a public authority representative. Dataresulting from interviews confirmed that significant changes occurin live of the elderly, who are victims of what has been called “urbantraps”, and that, by extrapolating mobility and dependence contexts,invade feelings, emotions and desires. The inappropriate environmentprovided by the city of São Paulo is confirmed by absence of adequateurban planning and lack of commitment of public authorities. It alsorevealed that the particular way of being old and living an elderlylife, in addition to right to citizenship, is reflected by major or lesserdifficulties imposed to the elderly to fight for their rights and have theirpublic space respected. Conclusion: The city of São Paulo is not anideal locus for an older person to live in. To the traps that are found inpublic places one can add those that are found in private places andthat contribute to the hard experience of falls among the elderly, anexperience that is sometimes fatal. In Brazil, the attention is basicallyfocused on the consequences of falls and not on prevention, by meansof urban planning that should meet the needs of the most vulnerablegroups - the physically disabled and the elderly.

  1. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    these traps.

  2. Holes in magneto electrostatic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    1996-01-01

    We observe that in magneto electrostatic confinement (MEC) devices the magnetic surfaces are not always equipotentials. The lack of symmetry in the equipotential surfaces can result in holes in MEC plasma traps. (author)

  3. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  4. Cyclotron Phase-Coherent Ion Spatial Dispersion in a Non-Quadratic Trapping Potential is Responsible for FT-ICR MS at the Cyclotron Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2018-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells. During ion detection, ions of the same m/z move in phase for cyclotron ion motion but out of phase for magnetron (drift) ion motion destroying signals at the fundamental and high order harmonics that comprise reduced cyclotron frequency components. After an initial magnetron motion period, ion clouds distribute into a novel type of structures - ion slabs, elliptical cylinders, or star-like structures. These structures rotate at the Larmor (half-cyclotron) frequency on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, inducing signals at the true cyclotron frequency on each of the narrow aperture detection electrodes. To eliminate the reduced cyclotron frequency peak upon dipolar ion detection, a number of slabs or elliptical cylinders organizing a star-like configuration are formed. In a NADEL ICR cell with quadrupolar ion detection, a single slab or an elliptical cylinder is sufficient to minimize the intensity of the reduced cyclotron frequency components, particularly the second harmonic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Matrix Assisted and/or Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry of WO3 Clusters Formation in Gas Phase. Nanodiamonds, Fullerene, and Graphene Oxide Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausekar, Mayuri Vilas; Mawale, Ravi Madhukar; Pazdera, Pavel; Havel, Josef

    2018-03-01

    The formation of W x O y +●/-● clusters in the gas phase was studied by laser desorption ionization (LDI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) of solid WO3. LDI produced (WO3) n + ●/- ● ( n = 1-7) clusters. In MALDI, when using nano-diamonds (NDs), graphene oxide (GO), or fullerene (C60) matrices, higher mass clusters were generated. In addition to (WO3) n -● clusters, oxygen-rich or -deficient species were found in both LDI and MALDI (with the total number of clusters exceeding one hundred ≈ 137). This is the first time that such matrices have been used for the generation of(WO3) n + ●/-● clusters in the gas phase, while new high mass clusters (WO3) n -● ( n = 12-19) were also detected. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Efficacy of two synthetic food-odor lures for Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) is determined by trap type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, David C; Czokajlo, Darek

    2005-10-01

    Sterile mass-reared Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), were trapped in a citrus orchard by using multilure traps and cylindrical sticky traps baited with Advanced Pheromone Technologies Anastrepha fruit fly (AFF) lures or Suterra BioLure two-component (ammonium acetate and putrescine) MFF lures (BioLures). The cylinder trap/AFF lure combination was the best trap over the first 6 wk, the multilure trap/BioLure combination was best during weeks 6-12, and the multilure trap/AFF lure combination was best during the last 6 wk. The multilure trap/BioLure combination was best overall by 36% over the cylinder trap/AFF lure combination, and 57% over the multilure trap/AFF lure combination. Cylinder traps with BioLures were the least effective trap/lure combination throughout the experiment, capturing only half as many flies as cylinder traps with AFF lures. Captures with cylinder traps baited with either lure and multilure traps with BioLures were female biased. For the most part, both lures remained highly attractive and emitted detectable amounts of attractive components under hot field conditions for the duration of the 18-wk experiment. Total emission of ammonia was 4 times greater and 1-pyrroline at least 10 times greater from AFF lures compared with BioLures. Correlations of trap and lure performance with ammonia emission and weather were determined, but no conclusions were possible. Results indicate that BioLures would be the lure of choice in multilure or other McPhail-type traps and AFF lures would be superior with most sticky traps or kill stations that attract flies to outer (not enclosed) surfaces.

  7. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  8. TAMU-TRAP facility - program for the study of fundamental weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidling, P.D.; Mehlman, M.; Melconian, Dan; Fenker, Ben; Behling, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Primary goal of the TAMU-TRAP facility is to test the Standard Model (SM) for a possible admixture of a scalar (S) or tensor (T) type of interaction in T = 2 superallowed β-delayed proton emitters. This information will be inferred from the shape of the proton energy spectrum. The main component of the facility are an RFQ cooler/buncher for cooling and bunching the ions, a Penning trap system with two cylindrical Penning traps. Additional goals for this system are mass measurements, lifetime measurements, and ft-values. A brief overview of the TAMU-TRAP set-up and T-REX upgrade facility will be presented. (author)

  9. Rapid, high performance method for the determination of vitamin K(1), menaquinone-4 and vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide in human serum and plasma using liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Cafolla, Arturo; Gasperi, Tecla; Bellante, Simona; Caretti, Fulvia; Curini, Roberta; Fernández, Virginia Pérez

    2014-04-18

    Unlike the other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K circulates in the human bloodstream at very low levels because of a low intake in the diet. Mammals have developed an efficient recycling system, known as vitamin K-epoxide cycle, which involve quinone, hydroquinone and epoxide forms of the vitamin. Phylloquinone (K(1)) is the main homologue, while menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is both a member of the vitamin K(2) family and metabolite of K(1) in extra-hepatic tissues. Notwithstanding the recent advances, many aspects of the complex vitamin K physiology still remain to be investigated. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more reliable analytical methods for determining the vitamin K and its metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. Nevertheless, relatively low concentrations, unavailability of some authentic standards and occurrence of interfering lipids make this a challenging task. The method proposed in the present paper can directly and accurately estimate K(1), K(1) 2,3-epoxide (K(1)O), and MK-4 in human serum and plasma at concentrations in the ng/L-μg/L range, using labelled internal standards and a quadrupole linear ion trap instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. High sensitivity was achieved by removing signal "endogenous suppressors" and making the composition of the non-aqueous mobile phase suitable to support the positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes. An excellent selectivity resulted from the combination of some factors: the MRM acquisition, the adoption of an identification point system, an extraction optimized to remove most of the lipids and a tandem-C18 column-system necessary to separate isobaric interferences from analytes. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and its accuracy was assessed by analysing 9 samples from the Vitamin K External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS). Its feasibility in evaluating vitamin K status in human serum was

  10. Effects of oxide traps, interface traps, and ''border traps'' on metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Reber, R.A. Jr.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Riewe, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have identified several features of the 1/f noise and radiation response of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices that are difficult to explain with standard defect models. To address this issue, and in response to ambiguities in the literature, we have developed a revised nomenclature for defects in MOS devices that clearly distinguishes the language used to describe the physical location of defects from that used to describe their electrical response. In this nomenclature, ''oxide traps'' are simply defects in the SiO 2 layer of the MOS structure, and ''interface traps'' are defects at the Si/SiO 2 interface. Nothing is presumed about how either type of defect communicates with the underlying Si. Electrically, ''fixed states'' are defined as trap levels that do not communicate with the Si on the time scale of the measurements, but ''switching states'' can exchange charge with the Si. Fixed states presumably are oxide traps in most types of measurements, but switching states can either be interface traps or near-interfacial oxide traps that can communicate with the Si, i.e., ''border traps'' [D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-39, 269 (1992)]. The effective density of border traps depends on the time scale and bias conditions of the measurements. We show the revised nomenclature can provide focus to discussions of the buildup and annealing of radiation-induced charge in non-radiation-hardened MOS transistors, and to changes in the 1/f noise of MOS devices through irradiation and elevated-temperature annealing

  11. Mass measurements on radioactive isotopes using the ISOLTRAP spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Dilling, J; Kluge, H J; Kohl, A; Lamour, E; Marx, G; Schwarz, S C; Bollen, G; Kellerbauer, A G; Moore, R B; Henry, S

    2000-01-01

    ISOLTRAP is a Penning trap mass spectrometer installed at the on line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. Direct measurements of the masses of short lived radio isotopes are performed using the existing triple trap system. This consists of three electromagnetic traps in tandem: a Paul trap to accumulate and bunch the 60 keV dc beam, a Penning trap for cooling and isobar separation, and a precision Penning trap for the determination of the masses by cyclotron resonance. Measurements of masses of unknown mercury isotopes and in the vicinity of doubly magic /sup 208/Pb are presented, all with an accuracy of delta m/m approximately=1*10/sup -7/. Developments to replace the Paul trap by a radiofrequency quadrupole ion guide system to increase the collection efficiency are presently under way and the status is presented. (10 refs).

  12. Estimation of Ion Competition via Correlated Responsivity Offset in Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Analysis: Theory and Practical Use in the Analysis of Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxin Microcystin-LR in Extracts of Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrouzek, Pavel; Štys, Dalibor; Martens, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Responsivity is a conversion qualification of a measurement device given by the functional dependence between the input and output quantities. A concentration-response-dependent calibration curve represents the most simple experiment for the measurement of responsivity in mass spectrometry. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR content in complex biological matrices of food additives was chosen as a model example of a typical problem. The calibration curves for pure microcystin and its mixtures with extracts of green alga and fish meat were reconstructed from the series of measurement. A novel approach for the quantitative estimation of ion competition in ESI is proposed in this paper. We define the correlated responsivity offset in the intensity values using the approximation of minimal correlation given by the matrix to the target mass values of the analyte. The estimation of the matrix influence enables the approximation of the position of a priori unknown responsivity and was easily evaluated using a simple algorithm. The method itself is directly derived from the basic attributes of the theory of measurements. There is sufficient agreement between the theoretical and experimental values. However, some theoretical issues are discussed to avoid misinterpretations and excessive expectations. PMID:23586036

  13. Estimation of Ion Competition via Correlated Responsivity Offset in Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Analysis: Theory and Practical Use in the Analysis of Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxin Microcystin-LR in Extracts of Food Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Urban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Responsivity is a conversion qualification of a measurement device given by the functional dependence between the input and output quantities. A concentration-response-dependent calibration curve represents the most simple experiment for the measurement of responsivity in mass spectrometry. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR content in complex biological matrices of food additives was chosen as a model example of a typical problem. The calibration curves for pure microcystin and its mixtures with extracts of green alga and fish meat were reconstructed from the series of measurement. A novel approach for the quantitative estimation of ion competition in ESI is proposed in this paper. We define the correlated responsivity offset in the intensity values using the approximation of minimal correlation given by the matrix to the target mass values of the analyte. The estimation of the matrix influence enables the approximation of the position of a priori unknown responsivity and was easily evaluated using a simple algorithm. The method itself is directly derived from the basic attributes of the theory of measurements. There is sufficient agreement between the theoretical and experimental values. However, some theoretical issues are discussed to avoid misinterpretations and excessive expectations.

  14. Estimation of ion competition via correlated responsivity offset in linear ion trap mass spectrometry analysis: theory and practical use in the analysis of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR in extracts of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jan; Hrouzek, Pavel; Stys, Dalibor; Martens, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Responsivity is a conversion qualification of a measurement device given by the functional dependence between the input and output quantities. A concentration-response-dependent calibration curve represents the most simple experiment for the measurement of responsivity in mass spectrometry. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR content in complex biological matrices of food additives was chosen as a model example of a typical problem. The calibration curves for pure microcystin and its mixtures with extracts of green alga and fish meat were reconstructed from the series of measurement. A novel approach for the quantitative estimation of ion competition in ESI is proposed in this paper. We define the correlated responsivity offset in the intensity values using the approximation of minimal correlation given by the matrix to the target mass values of the analyte. The estimation of the matrix influence enables the approximation of the position of a priori unknown responsivity and was easily evaluated using a simple algorithm. The method itself is directly derived from the basic attributes of the theory of measurements. There is sufficient agreement between the theoretical and experimental values. However, some theoretical issues are discussed to avoid misinterpretations and excessive expectations.

  15. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2012-01-08

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  16. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Liang, Cai; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  17. Particle trapping in stimulated scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.J.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Particle trapping effects on stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are investigated. A time and space dependent model assumes a Maxwellian plasma which is taken to be homogeneous in the interaction region. Ion trapping has a rather weak effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering and large reflectivities are obtained even in strong trapping regime. Stimulated Raman scattering is considerably reduced by electron trapping. Typically 15-20 times larger laser intensities are required to obtain same reflectivity levels than without trapping. (author)

  18. A multi-residue method for the analysis of pesticides and pesticide degradates in water using HLB solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, M.L.; Smalling, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of over 60 pesticides and degradates in water by HLB solid-phase extraction and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Method recoveries and detection limits were determined using two surface waters with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. In the lower DOC water, recoveries and detection limits were 80%-108% and 1-12 ng/L, respectively. In the higher DOC water, the detection limits were slightly higher (1-15 ng/L). Additionally, surface water samples from four sites were analyzed and 14 pesticides were detected with concentrations ranging from 4 to 1,200 ng/L. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na 2 O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions

  20. Capture of a quantum particle by a moving trapping potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shegelski, Mark R A; Poole, Tyler; Thompson, Cole

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the capture of a quantum particle in free space by a moving trapping potential. The capture is investigated for various initial conditions. We examine the dependence of the probability of capture on the shape and depth of the trapping potential, initial speed and mass of the particle, and other parameters. We take the trapping potential to move with an initial speed v 0 and to decelerate with constant acceleration a c until the well stops moving. We study the motion during the time the well is moving and after the well has stopped. We compare the probability of capture to the probability that the particle is in a stationary state (while the well is moving) and the probability the particle is in a bound state (after the well's motion has stopped). Our work could be of interest to instructors and students in upper-year undergraduate quantum mechanics courses. (paper)

  1. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRAPPING IONS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.

    1962-04-17

    A method and apparatus are described for trapping ions within an evacuated container and within a magnetic field utilizing dissociation and/or ionization of molecular ions to form atomic ions and energetic neutral particles. The atomic ions are magnetically trapped as a result of a change of charge-to- mass ratio. The molecular ions are injected into the container and into the path of an energetic carbon arc discharge which dissociates and/or ionizes a portion of the molecular ions into atomic ions and energetic neutrals. The resulting atomic ions are trapped by the magnetic field to form a circulating beam of atomic ions, and the energetic neutrals pass out of the system and may be utilized in a particle accelerator. (AEC)

  2. Efficacy of female attractant trapping systems for medfly for use in suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seewooruthun, S.I.; Permalloo, S.; Sookar, P.

    1999-01-01

    Several species of fruit flies cause serious losses to fleshy fruits in Mauritius. Due to fruit production being confined mainly to backyard gardens, traditional methods of control do not give satisfactory results. Full cover sprays with chemicals also pose potential environmental and health risks. Alternative control methods were developed and an area-wide control programme was conceived, using bait application to bring down fruit fly population, followed by intensive trapping of males, using pheromones, to keep the population at low levels. An effective attractant system for mass trapping of females integrated into the wide area programme would greatly enhance control. The use of synthetic food-based attractants for trapping Ceratitis capitata and other fruit fly species was investigated in two phases and compared with different trapping systems. In the Phase III experiments, a two component lure, ammonium acetate + putrescine (FA-2) and a three component lure, ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine (FA-3) were tested in different traps and compared with standard liquid protein-baited International Pheromone's McPhail Trap (IPMT). Frutect trap, Tephri-trap and Jackson trap with Trimedlure were also used. The medfly female catch with the FA-3 lure used in the Open Bottom Dry Trap outnumbered the catches in other traps. In Phase IV, the final year of the trial, the FA-3 lure was tested in wet and dry IPMT and Tephri traps. These were compared with IPMT containing NuLure + borax (NU+B) as standard and with locally developed traps. The FA-3 lure gave the highest catches of female medflies in the IPMT with water as retaining device followed by IPMT with DDVP, although catches were not significantly different from IPMT with NU+B. (author)

  3. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear β decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left up to other presenters

  4. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, J A

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear beta decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left...

  5. Trapped atoms along nanophotonic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Brian; Kim, May; Chang, Tzu-Han; Hung, Chen-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Many-body systems subject to long-range interactions have remained a very challenging topic experimentally. Ultracold atoms trapped in extreme proximity to the surface of nanophotonic structures provides a dynamic system combining the strong atom-atom interactions mediated by guided mode photons with the exquisite control implemented with trapped atom systems. The hybrid system promises pair-wise tunability of long-range interactions between atomic pseudo spins, allowing studies of quantum magnetism extending far beyond nearest neighbor interactions. In this talk, we will discuss our current status developing high quality nanophotonic ring resonators, engineered on CMOS compatible optical chips with integrated nanostructures that, in combination with a side illuminating beam, can realize stable atom traps approximately 100nm above the surface. We will report on our progress towards loading arrays of cold atoms near the surface of these structures and studying atom-atom interaction mediated by photons with high cooperativity.

  6. Quantized motion of trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a theoretical and numerical study of the preparation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in the external and internal degrees of freedom of trapped ions. In its first part, this thesis proposes and investigates schemes for generating several nonclassical states for the quantized vibrational motion of a trapped ion. Based on dark state preparation specific laser excitation configurations are presented which, given appropriately chosen initial states, realize the desired motional states in the steady-state, indicated by the cessation of the fluorescence emitted by the ion. The focus is on the SU(1,1) intelligent states in both their single- and two-mode realization, corresponding to one- and two-dimensional motion of the ion. The presented schemes are also studied numerically using a Monte-Carlo state-vector method. The second part of the thesis describes how two vibrational degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion can be coupled through the action of suitably chosen laser excitation. Concentrating on a two-dimensional ion trap with dissimilar vibrational frequencies a variety of quantized two-mode couplings are derived. The focus is on a linear coupling that takes excitations from one mode to another. It is demonstrated how this can result in a state rotation, in which it is possible to coherently transfer the motional state of the ion between orthogonal directions without prior knowledge of that motional state. The third part of this thesis presents a new efficient method for generating maximally entangled internal states of a collection of trapped ions. The method is deterministic and independent of the number of ions in the trap. As the essential element of the scheme a mechanism for the realization of a controlled NOT operation that can operate on multiple ions is proposed. The potential application of the scheme for high-precision frequency standards is explored. (author)

  7. Open trap with ambipolar mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, G.I.; Zakajdakov, V.V.; Kishinevskij, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of numerical calculations on the behaviour of a thermonuclear plasma, allowing for α-particles in a trap with longitudinal confinement of the main ions by ambipolar electric fields are presented. This trap is formed by connecting two small-volume ''mirrortrons'' to an ordinary open trap. Into the extreme mirrortrons, approximately 1-MeV ions are introduced continuously by ionization of atomic beams on the plasma, and approximately 10-keV ions are similarly introduced into the main central region of the trap. By a suitable choice of injection currents, the plasma density established in the extreme mirrortrons is higher than in the central region. As a result of the quasi-neutrality condition, a longitudinal ambipolar field forming a potential well not only for electrons but also for the central ions is formed in the plasma. When the depth of the well for the central ions is much greater than their temperature, their life-time considerably exceeds the time of confinement by the magnetic mirrors. As a result, the plasma density is constant over the entire length of the central mirrortron, including the regions near the mirrors, and an ambipolar field is formed only in the extreme mirrortrons. The distribution of central ions and ambipolar potential in the extreme mirrortrons is uniquely determined by the density distribution of fast extreme ions. It is shown in the present study that an amplification coefficient Q as high as desired can, in principle, be reached in the trap under consideration, allowing for α-particles. However, this requires high magnetic fields in the mirrors and a sufficient length of the central mirrotron. It is shown that for moderate values of Q=3-8, it is desirable not to confine the central fast α-particles. To achieve a coefficient of Q=5, it is necessary to create fields of 250 kG in the mirrors, and the length of the trap must not be greater than 100 m. (author)

  8. Characteristics of trapped proton anisotropy at Space Station Freedom altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The ionizing radiation dose for spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) is produced mainly by protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Current data bases describing this trapped radiation environment assume the protons to have an isotropic angular distribution, although the fluxes are actually highly anisotropic in LEO. The general nature of this directionality is understood theoretically and has been observed by several satellites. The anisotropy of the trapped proton exposure has not been an important practical consideration for most previous LEO missions because the random spacecraft orientation during passage through the radiation belt 'averages out' the anisotropy. Thus, in spite of the actual exposure anisotropy, cumulative radiation effects over many orbits can be predicted as if the environment were isotropic when the spacecraft orientation is variable during exposure. However, Space Station Freedom will be gravity gradient stabilized to reduce drag, and, due to this fixed orientation, the cumulative incident proton flux will remain anisotropic. The anisotropy could potentially influence several aspects of Space Station design and operation, such as the appropriate location for radiation sensitive components and experiments, location of workstations and sleeping quarters, and the design and placement of radiation monitors. Also, on-board mass could possible be utilized to counteract the anisotropy effects and reduce the dose exposure. Until recently only omnidirectional data bases for the trapped proton environment were available. However, a method to predict orbit-average, angular dependent ('vector') trapped proton flux spectra has been developed from the standard omnidirectional trapped proton data bases. This method was used to characterize the trapped proton anisotropy for the Space Station orbit (28.5 degree inclination, circular) in terms of its dependence on altitude, solar cycle modulation (solar minimum vs. solar maximum), shielding thickness

  9. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap......, Orbitrap and ion mobility instruments. Together they offer various and complementary capabilities in terms of ionization, sensitivity, speed, resolution, mass accuracy, dynamic range and methods of fragmentation. Mass spectrometers can acquire qualitative and quantitative information on a large scale...

  10. A Simple Defined Medium for the Production of True Diketopiperazines in Xylella fastidiosa and Their Identification by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Michelli Massaroli da; Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Bauermeister, Anelize; Merfa, Marcus Vinícius; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Machado, Marcos Antônio; Souza, Alessandra Alves de

    2017-06-13

    Diketopiperazines can be generated by non-enzymatic cyclization of linear dipeptides at extreme temperature or pH, and the complex medium used to culture bacteria and fungi including phytone peptone and trypticase peptone, can also produce cyclic peptides by heat sterilization. As a result, it is not always clear if many diketopiperazines reported in the literature are artifacts formed by the different complex media used in microorganism growth. An ideal method for analysis of these compounds should identify whether they are either synthesized de novo from the products of primary metabolism and deliver true diketopiperazines. A simple defined medium ( X. fastidiosa medium or XFM) containing a single carbon source and no preformed amino acids has emerged as a method with a particularly high potential for the grown of X. fastidiosa and to produce genuine natural products. In this work, we identified a range of diketopiperazines from X. fastidiosa 9a5c growth in XFM, using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Diketopiperazines are reported for the first time from X. fastidiosa , which is responsible for citrus variegated chlorosis. We also report here fatty acids from X. fastidiosa , which were not biologically active as diffusible signals, and the role of diketopiperazines in signal transduction still remains unknown.

  11. Quantitative determination of multi markers in five varieties of Withania somnifera using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer combined with multivariate analysis: Application to pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Preeti; Kannujia, Rekha; Saxena, Ankita; Srivastava, Mukesh; Bahadur, Lal; Pal, Mahesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Kumar Ojha, Sanjeev; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-09-10

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of six major bioactive compounds in five varieties of Withania somnifera in various plant parts (leaf, stem and root). The analysis was accomplished on Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with linear gradient elution of water/formic acid (0.1%) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1). The proposed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r(2), 0.9989-0.9998), precision (RSD, 0.16-2.01%), stability (RSD, 1.04-1.62%) and recovery (RSD ≤2.45%), under optimum conditions. The method was also successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of six marker compounds in twenty-six marketed formulations. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to discriminate these twenty-six batches based on characteristics of the bioactive compounds. The results indicated that this method is advance, rapid, sensitive and suitable to reveal the quality of Withania somnifera and also capable of performing quality evaluation of polyherbal formulations having similar markers/raw herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Simple Defined Medium for the Production of True Diketopiperazines in Xylella fastidiosa and Their Identification by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Massaroli da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diketopiperazines can be generated by non-enzymatic cyclization of linear dipeptides at extreme temperature or pH, and the complex medium used to culture bacteria and fungi including phytone peptone and trypticase peptone, can also produce cyclic peptides by heat sterilization. As a result, it is not always clear if many diketopiperazines reported in the literature are artifacts formed by the different complex media used in microorganism growth. An ideal method for analysis of these compounds should identify whether they are either synthesized de novo from the products of primary metabolism and deliver true diketopiperazines. A simple defined medium (X. fastidiosa medium or XFM containing a single carbon source and no preformed amino acids has emerged as a method with a particularly high potential for the grown of X. fastidiosa and to produce genuine natural products. In this work, we identified a range of diketopiperazines from X. fastidiosa 9a5c growth in XFM, using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Diketopiperazines are reported for the first time from X. fastidiosa, which is responsible for citrus variegated chlorosis. We also report here fatty acids from X. fastidiosa, which were not biologically active as diffusible signals, and the role of diketopiperazines in signal transduction still remains unknown.

  13. Ion trap architectures and new directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverns, James D.; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2017-12-01

    Trapped ion technology has seen advances in performance, robustness and versatility over the last decade. With increasing numbers of trapped ion groups worldwide, a myriad of trap architectures are currently in use. Applications of trapped ions include: quantum simulation, computing and networking, time standards and fundamental studies in quantum dynamics. Design of such traps is driven by these various research aims, but some universally desirable properties have lead to the development of ion trap foundries. Additionally, the excellent control achievable with trapped ions and the ability to do photonic readout has allowed progress on quantum networking using entanglement between remotely situated ion-based nodes. Here, we present a selection of trap architectures currently in use by the community and present their most salient characteristics, identifying features particularly suited for quantum networking. We also discuss our own in-house research efforts aimed at long-distance trapped ion networking.

  14. Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Hisatomo; Kevan, Peter G.; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Silva, Fabiana O.; Buck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 225-229 To evaluate the role that a trap-nest cover might have on sampling methodologies, the abundance of each species of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and the parasitism rate in a Canadian forest were compared between artificially covered and uncovered traps. Of trap tubes exposed at eight forest sites in six trap-nest boxes, 531 trap tubes were occupied and 1216 individuals of 12 wasp species of four predatory families, Vespidae (Eumeninae), Crabronidae...

  15. Ion detection in mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolbach, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    This course aims at providing some elements for a better understanding of ion detectors used in mass spectrometers, of their operations, and of their limitations. A first part addresses the functions and properties of an ideal detector, how to detect ions in gas phase, and particle detectors and ion detectors used in mass spectrometry. The second part proposes an overview of currently used detectors with respect to their operation principle: detection from the ion charge (Faraday cylinder), detection by inductive effects (FTICR, Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance), and detection by secondary electron emission. The third part discusses the specificities of secondary electron emission. The fourth one addresses operating modes and parameters related to detectors. The sixth part proposes a prospective view on future detectors by addressing the following issues: cryo-detector, inductive effect and charge detectors, ion detection and nano materials

  16. The Multipole Plasma Trap-PIC Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Nathaniel; Bowman, Amanda; Godden, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) multipole structure is studied via particle-in-cell computer modeling, to assess the response of quasi-neutral plasma to the imposed RF fields. Several regimes, such as pair plasma, antimatter plasma, and conventional (ion-electron) plasma are considered. In the case of equal charge-to-mass ratio of plasma species, the effects of the multipole field are symmetric between positive and negative particles. In the case of a charge-to-mass disparity, the multipole RF parameters (frequency, voltage, structure size) may be chosen such that the light species (e.g. electrons) is strongly confined, while the heavy species (e.g. positive ions) does not respond to the RF field. In this case, the trapped negative space charge creates a potential well that then traps the positive species. 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of this concept are presented, to assess plasma response and trapping dependences on multipole order, consequences of the formation of an RF plasma sheath, and the effects of an axial magnetic field. The scalings of trapped plasma parameters are explored in each of the mentioned regimes, to guide the design of prospective experiments investigating each. Supported by U.S. NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering Grant PHY-1619615.

  17. Lifetime measurement of trapped staus using ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sibley, Logan

    I study the creation of long-lived staus at a 14 TeV centre of mass energy in proton-proton collisions at the LHC using both the ATLAS and ACME detectors. The ATLAS overburden or underburden, or even ATLAS itself, may trap the semi-stable staus at that place where they will remain until the time at which they decay, where the stau lifetime ranges between seven days and one year. Using a novel method, one may count the number of muons and pions originating from the stau decay using the standard ATLAS cosmic ray trigger. Using an idealized detector model, I find that this method can lead to measurements of the stau lifetime and SUSY cross-section to within statistical uncertainties of 6% and 1% of their actual values, respectively.

  18. Classification of jet fuels by fuzzy rule-building expert systems applied to three-way data by fast gas chromatography--fast scanning quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zimmermann, Carolyn M; Jackson, Glen P; Bunker, Christopher E; Harrington, Peter B

    2011-01-30

    A fast method that can be used to classify unknown jet fuel types or detect possible property changes in jet fuel physical properties is of paramount interest to national defense and the airline industries. While fast gas chromatography (GC) has been used with conventional mass spectrometry (MS) to study jet fuels, fast GC was combined with fast scanning MS and used to classify jet fuels into lot numbers or origin for the first time by using fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classifiers. In the process of building classifiers, the data were pretreated with and without wavelet transformation and evaluated with respect to performance. Principal component transformation was used to compress the two-way data images prior to classification. Jet fuel samples were successfully classified with 99.8 ± 0.5% accuracy for both with and without wavelet compression. Ten bootstrapped Latin partitions were used to validate the generalized prediction accuracy. Optimized partial least squares (o-PLS) regression results were used as positively biased references for comparing the FuRES prediction results. The prediction results for the jet fuel samples obtained with these two methods were compared statistically. The projected difference resolution (PDR) method was also used to evaluate the fast GC and fast MS data. Two batches of aliquots of ten new samples were prepared and run independently 4 days apart to evaluate the robustness of the method. The only change in classification parameters was the use of polynomial retention time alignment to correct for drift that occurred during the 4-day span of the two collections. FuRES achieved perfect classifications for four models of uncompressed three-way data. This fast GC/fast MS method furnishes characteristics of high speed, accuracy, and robustness. This mode of measurement may be useful as a monitoring tool to track changes in the chemical composition of fuels that may also lead to property changes. Copyright © 2010

  19. Asymmetric Penning trap coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernandez, David J.

    2010-01-01

    By using a matrix technique, which allows to identify directly the ladder operators, the coherent states of the asymmetric Penning trap are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. They are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator method.

  20. Indeterminacy, sunspots, and development traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodyan, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2005), s. 159-185 ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : indeterminacy * development trap * stochastic stability Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jedc.2003.04.011

  1. Efficiency of subaquatic light traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditrich, Tomáš; Čihák, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2017), s. 171-184 ISSN 0165-0424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29857S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Heteroptera * Diptera * light trap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2016

  2. The rise of trapped populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April T Humble

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As border security increases and borders become less permeable, cross-border migration is becoming increasingly difficult, selective and dangerous. Growing numbers of people are becoming trapped in their own countries or in transit countries, or being forced to roam border areas, unable to access legal protection or basic social necessities.

  3. Magnetic trapping of Rydberg atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niestadt, D.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic trapping is a well-established technique for ground state atoms. We seek to extend this concept to Rydberg atoms. Rydberg atoms are important for current visions of quantum simulators that will be used in the near future to simulate and analyse quantum problems. Current efforts in Amsterdam

  4. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeffner, H.; Roos, C.F.; Blatt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum computers hold the promise of solving certain computational tasks much more efficiently than classical computers. We review recent experimental advances towards a quantum computer with trapped ions. In particular, various implementations of qubits, quantum gates and some key experiments are discussed. Furthermore, we review some implementations of quantum algorithms such as a deterministic teleportation of quantum information and an error correction scheme

  5. Application of multisorbent traps to characterization and quantification of workplace exposure source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dindal, A.B.; Ma, Cheng-Yu; Jenkins, R.A.; Higgins, C.E.; Skeen, J.T.; Bayne, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    Multisorbent traps have been used for several years to characterize complex atmospheres. Only more recently have multisorbent traps been used for quantitative analysis. The traps provide an effective method for retaining a wide range of airborne Organic contaminants, since these carbonaceous sorbents are relatively hydrophobic, have large surface areas, do not have active functional groups, and have fewer chemical artifacts than other sorbents. Multisorbent traps, which are 76 mm in length and have a 6 mm outside diameter, contain sequentially loaded beds of Carbotrap C, Carbotrap, and Carbosieve SIII, similar to a commercially available trap. The injection port of a gas chromatograph is configured for thermal desorption analysis of the traps via an in-house modification. Currently, multisorbent traps are being used to sample the headspace of underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The analyses are performed by flame ionization or mass spectrometric detection. Target organic analytes include C 6 to C 13 alkanes, nitriles, alkyl ketones, dibutyl butyl phosphonate and tributyl phosphate. Pre-analytical holding times or practical reporting times for many target analytes are at least 84 days under either refrigerated or ambient conditions. Traps are fabricated, conditioned, and spiked with three surrogate standards in the vapor phase prior to shipment to the site. Recovery of the surrogates from the multisorbent traps serve as a statistical process control. Source concentrations of Hanford underground storage tank headspaces range from 0.96 mg/m 3 to 1200 mg/m 3

  6. The profiling of the metabolites of hirsutine in rat by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometry: An improved strategy for the systematic screening and identification of metabolites in multi-samples in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwei; Qi, Peng; Hou, Jinjun; Shen, Yao; Yang, Min; Bi, Qirui; Deng, Yanping; Shi, Xiaojian; Feng, Ruihong; Feng, Zijin; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2017-02-05

    Drug metabolites identification and construction of metabolic profile are meaningful work for the drug discovery and development. The great challenge during this process is the work of the structural clarification of possible metabolites in the complicated biological matrix, which often resulting in a huge amount data sets, especially in multi-samples in vivo. Analyzing these complex data manually is time-consuming and laborious. The object of this study was to develop a practical strategy for screening and identifying of metabolites from multiple biological samples efficiently. Using hirsutine (HTI), an active components of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng in Chinese) as a model and its plasma, urine, bile, feces and various tissues were analyzed with data processing software (Metwork), data mining tool (Progenesis QI), and HR-MS n data by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (U-HPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). A total of 67 metabolites of HTI in rat biological samples were tentatively identified with established library, and to our knowledge most of which were reported for the first time. The possible metabolic pathways were subsequently proposed, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, oxidation, N-oxidation, hydrolysis, reduction and glucuronide conjugation were mainly involved according to metabolic profile. The result proved application of this improved strategy was efficient, rapid, and reliable for metabolic profiling of components in multiple biological samples and could significantly expand our understanding of metabolic situation of TCM in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one or...

  8. Single-run determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) di- to deca-brominated in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed by isotope dilution: Application of automated sample purification and gas chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Sonia Lucia; Vieites, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes the application of automated cleanup and fractionation procedures of the Power Prep system (Fluid Management Systems) for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in feeding stuffs and fish meal and oil. Gas chromatography (GC) separation followed by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry detection in EI mode (ITMS) allowed the analysis of di- to deca-BDEs in the samples matrices used in fish aquaculture. The method developed enabled the determination of 26 native PBDE congeners and 11 13 C 12 -labelled congeners, including deca-BDE 209, in a single-run analysis, using isotope dilution. The automated cleanup, consisting of a succession of multilayer silica and basic alumina columns previously applied by Wyrzykowska et al. (2009) in combustion flue gas, was succesfully applied in our complex matrices. The method allowed an increase in productivity, i.e. lower time was required to process samples, and simultaneous purification of several samples was achieved at a time, reducing analyst dedication and human error input. Average recoveries of 43-96% were obtained. GC/ITMS can overcome the complexity originating from the sample matrix, eliminating matrix effects by tandem MS, to enable the detection of congeners penta- to nona-BDEs where interferent masses were present. The provisional detection limits, estimated in the samples, were 5-30 pg for di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-BDEs, 20-65 pg for hexa-, hepta-, octa- and nona-BDEs, and 105 pg for deca-BDE. Reduction of deca-BDE 209 blank values is of concern to ongoing research. Good accuracy was obtained by application of the whole procedure, representing an efficient, low-cost and fast alternative for routine analyses.

  9. Single-run determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) di- to deca-brominated in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed by isotope dilution: application of automated sample purification and gas chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Sonia Lucía; Vieites, Juan M

    2010-07-05

    The present paper describes the application of automated cleanup and fractionation procedures of the Power Prep system (Fluid Management Systems) for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in feeding stuffs and fish meal and oil. Gas chromatography (GC) separation followed by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry detection in EI mode (ITMS) allowed the analysis of di- to deca-BDEs in the samples matrices used in fish aquaculture. The method developed enabled the determination of 26 native PBDE congeners and 11 (13)C(12)-labelled congeners, including deca-BDE 209, in a single-run analysis, using isotope dilution. The automated cleanup, consisting of a succession of multilayer silica and basic alumina columns previously applied by Wyrzykowska et al. (2009) [28] in combustion flue gas, was successfully applied in our complex matrices. The method allowed an increase in productivity, i.e. lower time was required to process samples, and simultaneous purification of several samples was achieved at a time, reducing analyst dedication and human error input. Average recoveries of 43-96% were obtained. GC/ITMS can overcome the complexity originating from the sample matrix, eliminating matrix effects by tandem MS, to enable the detection of congeners penta- to nona-BDEs where interferent masses were present. The provisional detection limits, estimated in the samples, were 5-30 pg for di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-BDEs, 20-65 pg for hexa-, hepta-, octa- and nona-BDEs, and 105 pg for deca-BDE. Reduction of deca-BDE 209 blank values is of concern to ongoing research. Good accuracy was obtained by application of the whole procedure, representing an efficient, low-cost and fast alternative for routine analyses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Scaling ion traps for quantum computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a chipscale, multi-zone, surface electrode ion trap is reported. The modular design and fabrication techniques used are anticipated to advance scalability of ion trap quantum computing architectures...

  11. Servo control of an optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Kurt D; Cole, Daniel G; Clark, Robert L

    2007-08-01

    A versatile optical trap has been constructed to control the position of trapped objects and ultimately to apply specified forces using feedback control. While the design, development, and use of optical traps has been extensive and feedback control has played a critical role in pushing the state of the art, few comprehensive examinations of feedback control of optical traps have been undertaken. Furthermore, as the requirements are pushed to ever smaller distances and forces, the performance of optical traps reaches limits. It is well understood that feedback control can result in both positive and negative effects in controlled systems. We give an analysis of the trapping limits as well as introducing an optical trap with a feedback control scheme that dramatically improves an optical trap's sensitivity at low frequencies.

  12. Two-baffle trap for macroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksyonov, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, properties of two-baffle macroparticle traps were investigated. These properties are needed for designing and optimization of vacuum arc plasma filters. The dependencies between trap geometry parameters and its ability to absorb macroparticles were found. Calculations made allow one to predict the behaviour of filtering abilities of separators containing such traps in their design. Recommendations regarding the use of two-baffle traps in filters of different builds are given

  13. Quantum Impurity in a One-dimensional Trapped Bose Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new theoretical framework for describing an impurity in a trapped Bose system in one spatial dimension. The theory handles any external confinement, arbitrary mass ratios, and a weak interaction may be included between the Bose particles. To demonstrate our technique, we calculate th...... the ground state energy and properties of a sample system with eight bosons and find an excellent agreement with numerically exact results. Our theory can thus provide definite predictions for experiments in cold atomic gases....

  14. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Morigi, Giovanna; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping

  15. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrester, Tavis; O'Brien, Tim; Fegraus, Eric; Jansen, P.A.; Palmer, Jonathan; Kays, Roland; Ahumada, Jorge; Stern, Beth; McShea, William

    2016-01-01

    Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an

  16. Lifetime measurements in an electrostatic ion beam trap using image charge monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahinov, Igor; Toker, Yoni; Heber, Oded; Rappaport, Michael; Zajfman, Daniel; Strasser, Daniel; Schwalm, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    A technique for mass-selective lifetime measurements of keV ions in a linear electrostatic ion beam trap is presented. The technique is based on bunching the ions using a weak RF potential and non-destructive ion detection by a pick-up electrode. This method has no mass-limitation, possesses the advantage of inherent mass-selectivity, and offers a possibility of measuring simultaneously the lifetimes of different ion species with no need for prior mass-selection.

  17. Influence of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2013-03-07

    The trapping process in polymer systems constitutes a fundamental mechanism for various other dynamical processes taking place in these systems. In this paper, we study the trapping problem in two representative polymer networks, Cayley trees and Vicsek fractals, which separately model dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers. Our goal is to explore the impact of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in these two important polymer systems, with the efficiency being measured by the average trapping time (ATT) that is the average of source-to-trap mean first-passage time over every staring point in the whole networks. For Cayley trees, we derive an exact analytic formula for the ATT to an arbitrary trap node, based on which we further obtain the explicit expression of ATT for the case that the trap is uniformly distributed. For Vicsek fractals, we provide the closed-form solution for ATT to a peripheral node farthest from the central node, as well as the numerical solutions for the case when the trap is placed on other nodes. Moreover, we derive the exact formula for the ATT corresponding to the trapping problem when the trap has a uniform distribution over all nodes. Our results show that the influence of trap location on the trapping efficiency is completely different for the two polymer networks. In Cayley trees, the leading scaling of ATT increases with the shortest distance between the trap and the central node, implying that trap's position has an essential impact on the trapping efficiency; while in Vicsek fractals, the effect of location of the trap is negligible, since the dominant behavior of ATT is identical, respective of the location where the trap is placed. We also present that for all cases of trapping problems being studied, the trapping process is more efficient in Cayley trees than in Vicsek fractals. We demonstrate that all differences related to trapping in the two polymer systems are rooted in their underlying topological structures.

  18. MIGRATION TRAPS IN DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20–300R g , where R g  = 2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations

  19. MIGRATION TRAPS IN DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, NY 10024 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20–300R{sub g}, where R{sub g} = 2GM/c{sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations.

  20. Trapping and spectroscopy of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, Claudio Lenz

    1997-01-01

    I review the results and techniques used by the MIT H↑ group to achieve a fractional resolution of 2 parts in 10 12 in the 1S-2S transition in hydrogen [Cesar, D. Fried, T. Killian, A. Polcyn, J. Sandberg, I.A. Yu, T. Greytak, D. Kleppner and J. Doyle, Two-photon spectroscopy of trapped atomic hydrogen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 255.] With some improvements, this system should deliver 100 times higher resolution with an improved signal count rate getting us closer to an old advertised goal of a precision of 1 part in 10 18 . While these developments are very important for the proposed test of the CPT theorem through the comparison with anti-hydrogen, some of the techniques used with hydrogen are not applicable to anti-hydrogen and I discuss some difficulties and alternatives for the trapping and spectroscopy of anti-hydrogen

  1. Centrifugal trapping in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    Full Text Available Particles leaving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E×B drift. This effect which we refer to as "centrifugal trapping" appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E×B drift speed plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.

  2. Centrifugal trapping in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Particles leaving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E×B drift. This effect which we refer to as "centrifugal trapping" appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E×B drift speed plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.

  3. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  4. Optical trapping for analytical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-02-01

    We describe the exciting advances of using optical trapping in the field of analytical biotechnology. This technique has opened up opportunities to manipulate biological particles at the single cell or even at subcellular levels which has allowed an insight into the physical and chemical mechanisms of many biological processes. The ability of this technique to manipulate microparticles and measure pico-Newton forces has found several applications such as understanding the dynamics of biological macromolecules, cell-cell interactions and the micro-rheology of both cells and fluids. Furthermore we may probe and analyse the biological world when combining trapping with analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy and imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  6. Antihydrogen Formation, Dynamics and Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Eoin; Charlton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Antihydrogen, the simplest pure-antimatter atomic system, holds the promise of direct tests of matter-antimatter equivalence and CPT invariance, two of the outstanding unanswered questions in modern physics. Antihydrogen is now routinely produced in charged-particle traps through the combination of plasmas of antiprotons and positrons, but the atoms escape and are destroyed in a minuscule fraction of a second. The focus of this work is the production of a sample of cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic atom trap. This poses an extreme challenge, because the state-of-the-art atom traps are only approximately 0.5 K deep for ground-state antihydrogen atoms, much shallower than the energies of particles stored in the plasmas. This thesis will outline the main parts of the ALPHA experiment, with an overview of the important physical processes at work. Antihydrogen production techniques will be described, and an analysis of the spatial annihilation distribution to give indications of the temperature and binding ene...

  7. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard; Sartakov, Boris G.

    2009-01-01

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  8. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  9. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  10. Sognenavne, Albertslund Kommune (3 artikler). trap.dk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kællerød, Lars-Jakob Harding

    2019-01-01

    Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Herstedvester, Herstedøster og Opstandelseskirkens Sogn......Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Herstedvester, Herstedøster og Opstandelseskirkens Sogn...

  11. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  12. Vapor generation and atom traps: Atomic absorption spectrometry at the ng/L level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataman, O. Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    Atom-trapping atomic absorption spectrometry is a technique that allows detection at the ng/L level for several analytes such as As, Se, Sb, Pb, Bi, Cd, In, Tl, Te, Sn and Hg. The principle involves generation of volatile species, usually hydrides, trapping these species on the surface of an atom trap held at an optimized temperature and, finally, revolatilizing the analyte species by rapid heating of the trap and transporting them in a carrier gas to a heated quartz tube, as commonly used with hydride generation AAS systems. A transient signal having, in most cases, a full width at half maximum of less than 1 s is obtained. The atom trap may be a quartz surface or a W-coil; the former is heated externally and the latter is heated resistively. Both collection and revolatilization temperatures are optimized. In some cases, the W-coil itself is used as an electrothermal atomizer and a heated quartz tube is then not needed. The evolution of these traps starts with the well-known Watling's slotted quartz tube (SQT), continues with atom trapping SQT and finally reaches the present traps mentioned above. The analytical figures of merit for these traps need to be standardized. Naturally, enhancement is on characteristic concentration, C 0 , where the change in characteristic mass, m 0 , can be related to trapping efficiency. Novel terms are suggested for E, enhancement factor; such as E max , maximum enhancement factor; E t , enhancement for 1.0 minute sampling and E v , enhancement for 1.0 mL of sample. These figures will allow easy comparison of results from different laboratories as well as different analytes and/or traps

  13. Vapor generation and atom traps: Atomic absorption spectrometry at the ng/L level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataman, O. Yavuz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    Atom-trapping atomic absorption spectrometry is a technique that allows detection at the ng/L level for several analytes such as As, Se, Sb, Pb, Bi, Cd, In, Tl, Te, Sn and Hg. The principle involves generation of volatile species, usually hydrides, trapping these species on the surface of an atom trap held at an optimized temperature and, finally, revolatilizing the analyte species by rapid heating of the trap and transporting them in a carrier gas to a heated quartz tube, as commonly used with hydride generation AAS systems. A transient signal having, in most cases, a full width at half maximum of less than 1 s is obtained. The atom trap may be a quartz surface or a W-coil; the former is heated externally and the latter is heated resistively. Both collection and revolatilization temperatures are optimized. In some cases, the W-coil itself is used as an electrothermal atomizer and a heated quartz tube is then not needed. The evolution of these traps starts with the well-known Watling's slotted quartz tube (SQT), continues with atom trapping SQT and finally reaches the present traps mentioned above. The analytical figures of merit for these traps need to be standardized. Naturally, enhancement is on characteristic concentration, C{sub 0}, where the change in characteristic mass, m{sub 0}, can be related to trapping efficiency. Novel terms are suggested for E, enhancement factor; such as E{sub max}, maximum enhancement factor; E{sub t}, enhancement for 1.0 minute sampling and E{sub v}, enhancement for 1.0 mL of sample. These figures will allow easy comparison of results from different laboratories as well as different analytes and/or traps.

  14. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M., E-mail: jsage@ll.mit.edu; Chiaverini, J., E-mail: john.chiaverini@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  15. Trapping Dust to Form Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Growing a planet from a dust grain is hard work! A new study explores how vortices in protoplanetary disks can assist this process.When Dust Growth FailsTop: ALMA image of the protoplanetary disk of V1247 Orionis, with different emission components labeled. Bottom: Synthetic image constructed from the best-fit model. [Kraus et al. 2017]Gradual accretion onto a seed particle seems like a reasonable way to grow a planet from a grain of dust; after all, planetary embryos orbit within dusty protoplanetary disks, which provides them with plenty of fuel to accrete so they can grow. Theres a challenge to this picture, though: the radial drift problem.The radial drift problem acknowledges that, as growing dust grains orbit within the disk, the drag force on them continues to grow as well. For large enough dust grains perhaps around 1 millimeter the drag force will cause the grains orbits to decay, and the particles drift into the star before they are able to grow into planetesimals and planets.A Close-Up Look with ALMASo how do we overcome the radial drift problem in order to form planets? A commonly proposed mechanism is dust trapping, in which long-lived vortices in the disk trap the dust particles, preventing them from falling inwards. This allows the particles to persist for millions of years long enough to grow beyond the radial drift barrier.Observationally, these dust-trapping vortices should have signatures: we would expect to see, at millimeter wavelengths, specific bright, asymmetric structures where the trapping occurs in protoplanetary disks. Such disk structures have been difficult to spot with past instrumentation, but the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has made some new observations of the disk V1247 Orionis that might be just what were looking for.Schematic of the authors model for the disk of V1247 Orionis. [Kraus et al. 2017]Trapped in a Vortex?ALMAs observations of V1247 Orionis are reported by a team of scientists led by Stefan

  16. Trapped

    OpenAIRE

    Storvik, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the Muslim Sunni Women in the city of Tripoli- Lebanon perceive the the inequity in the rights of women in terms of those of men within the Personal Status codes practiced today in the Sunni Muslim Sharīʻa Courts in the country. Lebanese women and men in general are subject to an imbalanced patronage as a result of the patriarchal conditions dominating the Lebanese society and its various communities. This project further explores the factors that have led to the failu...

  17. Rarefaction shock waves and Hugoniot curve in the presence of free and trapped particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Shokri, B.; Rouhani, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles in the presence of ponderomotive force on the rarefaction shock waves are investigated. The ponderomotive force alters the electron density distribution. This force and relativistic mass affect the plasma frequency. These physical parameters modify the total pressure and the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. Furthermore, the trapping of particles by the high frequency electromagnetic field considerably changes the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. The total pressure and Hugoniot curve are obtained by considering the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles.

  18. Rarefaction shock waves and Hugoniot curve in the presence of free and trapped particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Shokri, B.; Rouhani, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles in the presence of ponderomotive force on the rarefaction shock waves are investigated. The ponderomotive force alters the electron density distribution. This force and relativistic mass affect the plasma frequency. These physical parameters modify the total pressure and the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. Furthermore, the trapping of particles by the high frequency electromagnetic field considerably changes the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. The total pressure and Hugoniot curve are obtained by considering the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles.

  19. Thermodesorption examination of interaction of hydrogen with traps in silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabis, I.E.; Kurdyumov, A.A.; Ovsvannikova, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have previously examined the interaction of hydrogen with silver by the methods of thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) and hydrogen permeability. The results showed that the TDS spectra contained a high-temperature phase linked with hydrogen which left the volume of the specimen during heating. It was assumed that hydrogen was captured and released by structural defects acting as traps. These traps can be represented by vacancies and their clusters. In this work, the high-temperature desorption of hydrogen from silver was studied. The experimental setup consisted of an all-metal vacuum system, a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a DVK-2M computing system, and a Camac system. The described model of a local equilibrium should be regarded only as a first approximation. The results provide unambiguous information on the processes of permeability and desorption, and make it possible to assume that the formation of the high-temperature phase in TD spectra was caused by the generation of hydrogen from the traps. The parameters of the interaction of hydrogen with the traps were determined by the concentration wave method. 7 refs., 2 figs

  20. Discriminating between antihydrogen and mirror-trapped antiprotons in a minimum-B trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Kurchaninov, L; Jonsell, S; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-01-01

    Recently, antihydrogen atoms were trapped at CERN in a magnetic minimum (minimum-B) trap formed by superconducting octupole and mirror magnet coils. The trapped antiatoms were detected by rapidly turning off these magnets, thereby eliminating the magnetic minimum and releasing any antiatoms contained in the trap. Once released, these antiatoms quickly hit the trap wall, whereupon the positrons and antiprotons in the antiatoms annihilated. The antiproton annihilations produce easily detected signals; we used these signals to prove that we trapped antihydrogen. However, our technique could be confounded by mirror-trapped antiprotons, which would produce seemingly-identical annihilation signals upon hitting the trap wall. In this paper, we discuss possible sources of mirror-trapped antiprotons and show that antihydrogen and antiprotons can be readily distinguished, often with the aid of applied electric fields, by analyzing the annihilation locations and times. We further discuss the general properties of antipr...

  1. Portable Pbars, traps that travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Hynes, M.V.; Picklesimer, A.

    1987-10-01

    The advent of antiproton research utilizing relatively small scale storage devices for very large numbers of these particles opens the possibility of transporting these devices to a research site removed from the accelerator center that produced the antiprotons. Such a portable source of antiprotons could open many new areas of research and make antiprotons available to a new research community. At present antiprotons are available at energies down to 1 MeV. From a portable source these particles can be made available at energies ranging from several tens of kilovolts down to a few millielectron volts. These low energies are in the domain of interest to the atomic and condensed matter physicist. In addition such a source can be used as an injector for an accelerator which could increase the energy domain even further. Moreover, the availability of such a source at a university will open research with antiprotons to a broader range of students than possible at a centralized research facility. This report focuses on the use of ion traps, in particular cylindrical traps, for the antiproton storage device. These devices store the charged antiprotons in a combination of electric and magnet fields. At high enough density and low enough temperature the charged cloud will be susceptible to plasma instabilities. Present day ion trap work is just starting to explore this domain. Our assessment of feasibility is based on what could be done with present day technology and what future technology could achieve. We conclude our report with a radiation safety study that shows that about 10 11 antiprotons can be transported safely, however the federal guidelines for this transport must be reviewed in detail. More antiprotons than this will require special transportation arrangements. 28 refs., 8 figs

  2. Trapping molecules in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkse, PW.H.; Junglen, T.; Rieger, T.; Rangwala, S.A.; Windpassinger, P.; Rempe, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Cold molecules offer a new testing ground for quantum-physical effects in nature. For example, producing slow beams of large molecules could push experiments studying the boundary between quantum interference and classical particles up towards ever heavier particles. Moreover, cold molecules, in particular YbF, seem an attractive way to narrow down the constraints on the value of the electron dipole moment and finally, quantum information processing using chains of cold polar molecules or vibrational states in molecules have been proposed. All these proposals rely on advanced production and trapping techniques, most of which are still under development. Therefore, novel production and trapping techniques for cold molecules could offer new possibilities not found in previous methods. Electric traps hold promise for deep trap potentials for neutral molecules. Recently we have demonstrated two-dimensional trapping of polar molecules in a four-wire guide using electrostatic and electrodynamic trapping techniques. Filled from a thermal effusive source, such a guide will deliver a beam of slow molecules, which is an ideal source for interferometry experiments with large molecules, for instance. Here we report about the extension of this work to three-dimensional trapping. Polar molecules with a positive Stark shift can be trapped in the minimum of an electrostatic field. We have successfully tested a large volume electrostatic trap for ND3 molecules. A special feature of this trap is that it can be loaded continuously from an electrostatic guide, at a temperature of a few hundred mK. (author)

  3. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  4. Gyrotactic trapping: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, S.

    2016-04-01

    Gyrotactic trapping is a mechanism proposed by Durham et al. ["Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin Phytoplankton layers," Science 323, 1067-1070 (2009)] to explain the formation of thin phytoplankton layer just below the ocean surface. This mechanism is examined numerically using a rational model based on the generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The crucial role of sedimentation speed in the thin layer formation is demonstrated. The effects of variation in different parameters on the thin layer formation are also investigated.

  5. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  6. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  7. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  8. Micro mass spectrometer on a chip.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Dolores Y.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Fleming, James Grant

    2005-11-01

    The design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, electrical characterization and testing analysis of a microfabricated a cylindrical ion trap ({mu}CIT) array is presented. Several versions of microfabricated cylindrical ion traps were designed and fabricated. The final design of the individual trap array element consisted of two end cap electrodes, one ring electrode, and a detector plate, fabricated in seven tungsten metal layers by molding tungsten around silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) features. Each layer of tungsten is then polished back in damascene fashion. The SiO{sub 2} was removed using a standard release processes to realize a free-hung structure. Five different sized traps were fabricated with inner radii of 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 {micro}m and heights ranging from 3-24 {micro}m. Simulations examined the effects of ion and neutral temperature, the pressure and nature of cooling gas, ion mass, trap voltage and frequency, space-charge, fabrication defects, and other parameters on the ability of micrometer-sized traps to store ions. The electrical characteristics of the ion trap arrays were determined. The capacitance was 2-500 pF for the various sized traps and arrays. The resistance was in the order of 1-2 {Omega}. The inductance of the arrays was calculated to be 10-1500 pH, depending on the trap and array sizes. The ion traps' field emission characteristics were assessed. It was determined that the traps could be operated up to 125 V while maintaining field emission currents below 1 x 10{sup -15} A. The testing focused on using the 5-{micro}m CITs to trap toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}). Ion ejection from the traps was induced by termination of the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode and current measured on the collector electrode suggested trapping of ions in 1-10% of the traps. Improvements to the to the design of the traps were defined to minimize voltage drop to the substrate, thereby increasing trapping voltage applied to the ring electrode, and to

  9. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase......-encoded coherent light source. Two-dimensional input phase distributions corresponding to the trapping patterns are encoded using a computer-programmable spatial light modulator, enabling each trap to be shaped and moved arbitrarily within the plane of observation. We demonstrate the generation of multiple dark...... optical traps for simultaneous manipulation of hollow "air-filled" glass microspheres suspended in an aqueous medium. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  10. Mats and LaSpec: High-precision experiments using ion traps and lasers at Fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D.; Lallena, A.M.; Blaum, K.; Bohm, C.; Cakirli, R.B.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Eliseev, S.; Ketelaer, J.; Kreim, M.S.; Kowalska, M.; Litvinov, Y.A.; Nagy, S.; Neidherr, D.; Repp, J.; Roux, C.; Schabinger, B.; Ullrich, J.; Nortershauser, W.; Eberhardt, K.; Geppert, C.; Kramer, J.; Krieger, A.; Sanchez, R.; Ahammed, M.; Das, P.; Ray, A.; Algora, A.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Naimi, S.; Aysto, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.; Moore, I.; Beck, D.; Block, M.; Geissel, H.; Heinz, S.; Herfurth, F.; Litvinov, Y.A.; Minaya-Ramirez, E.; Plab, W.R.; Quint, W.; Scheidenberger, C.; Winkler, M.; Bender, M.; Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Flanagan, K.T.; Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.; Ferrer, R.; George, S.; Kester, O.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.; Ettenauer, S.; Lapierre, A.; Bushaw, B.A.; Cano-Ott, D.; Martinez, T.; Cortes, G.; Gomez-Hornillos, M.B.; Dax, A.; Herlert, A.; Yordanov, D.; De, A.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Jesch, C.; Kuhl, T.; Petrick, M.; PlaB, W.R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Garcia-Ramos, J.E.; Gartzke, E.; Habs, D.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P.G.; Weber, C.; Gusev, Y.; Nesterenko, D.; Novikov, Y.N.; Popov, A.; Seliverstov, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vorobjev, G.; Heenen, P.H.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Ziegler, F.; Hobein, M.; Schuch, R.; Solders, A.; Suhonen, M.; Huber, G.; Wendt, K.; Huyse, M.; Koudriavtsev, I.; Neyens, G.; Van Duppen, P.; Le Blanc, F.; Matos, M.; Reinhard, P.G.; Schneider, D.

    2010-05-15

    Nuclear ground state properties including mass, charge radii, spins and moments can be determined by applying atomic physics techniques such as Penning-trap based mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy. The MATS and LaSpec setups at the low-energy beamline at FAIR will allow us to extend the knowledge of these properties further into the region far from stability. With MATS (Precision Measurements of very short-lived nuclei using an Advanced Trapping System for highly-charged ions) at FAIR we aim to apply several techniques to very short-lived radionuclides: High-accuracy mass measurements, in-trap conversion electron and alpha spectroscopy, and trap-assisted spectroscopy. The experimental setup of MATS is a unique combination of an electron beam ion trap for charge breeding, ion traps for beam preparation, and a high-precision Penning trap system for mass measurements and decay studies. For the mass measurements, MATS offers both a high accuracy and a high sensitivity. A relative mass uncertainty of 10{sup -9} can be reached by employing highly-charged ions and a non-destructive Fourier-Transform Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique on single stored ions. Decay studies in ion traps will become possible with MATS. Laser spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes and isomers is an efficient and model-independent approach for the determination of nuclear ground and isomeric state properties. Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts in electronic transitions exhibit readily accessible information on the nuclear spin, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments as well as root-mean-square charge radii. The accuracy of laser-spectroscopic-determined nuclear properties is very high while requirements concerning production rates are moderate. This Technical Design Report describes a new Penning trap mass spectrometry setup as well as a number of complementary experimental devices for laser spectroscopy. Since MATS and LaSpec require high-quality low

  11. Mats and LaSpec: High-precision experiments using ion traps and lasers at Fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, D.; Lallena, A.M.; Blaum, K.; Bohm, C.; Cakirli, R.B.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Eliseev, S.; Ketelaer, J.; Kreim, M.S.; Kowalska, M.; Litvinov, Y.A.; Nagy, S.; Neidherr, D.; Repp, J.; Roux, C.; Schabinger, B.; Ullrich, J.; Nortershauser, W.; Eberhardt, K.; Geppert, C.; Kramer, J.; Krieger, A.; Sanchez, R.; Ahammed, M.; Das, P.; Ray, A.; Algora, A.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Naimi, S.; Aysto, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.; Moore, I.; Beck, D.; Block, M.; Geissel, H.; Heinz, S.; Herfurth, F.; Litvinov, Y.A.; Minaya-Ramirez, E.; Plab, W.R.; Quint, W.; Scheidenberger, C.; Winkler, M.; Bender, M.; Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Flanagan, K.T.; Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.; Ferrer, R.; George, S.; Kester, O.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.; Ettenauer, S.; Lapierre, A.; Bushaw, B.A.; Cano-Ott, D.; Martinez, T.; Cortes, G.; Gomez-Hornillos, M.B.; Dax, A.; Herlert, A.; Yordanov, D.; De, A.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Jesch, C.; Kuhl, T.; Petrick, M.; PlaB, W.R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Garcia-Ramos, J.E.; Gartzke, E.; Habs, D.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P.G.; Weber, C.; Gusev, Y.; Nesterenko, D.; Novikov, Y.N.; Popov, A.; Seliverstov, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vorobjev, G.; Heenen, P.H.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Ziegler, F.; Hobein, M.; Schuch, R.; Solders, A.; Suhonen, M.; Huber, G.; Wendt, K.; Huyse, M.; Koudriavtsev, I.; Neyens, G.; Van Duppen, P.; Le Blanc, F.; Matos, M.; Reinhard, P.G.; Schneider, D.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear ground state properties including mass, charge radii, spins and moments can be determined by applying atomic physics techniques such as Penning-trap based mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy. The MATS and LaSpec setups at the low-energy beamline at FAIR will allow us to extend the knowledge of these properties further into the region far from stability. With MATS (Precision Measurements of very short-lived nuclei using an Advanced Trapping System for highly-charged ions) at FAIR we aim to apply several techniques to very short-lived radionuclides: High-accuracy mass measurements, in-trap conversion electron and alpha spectroscopy, and trap-assisted spectroscopy. The experimental setup of MATS is a unique combination of an electron beam ion trap for charge breeding, ion traps for beam preparation, and a high-precision Penning trap system for mass measurements and decay studies. For the mass measurements, MATS offers both a high accuracy and a high sensitivity. A relative mass uncertainty of 10 -9 can be reached by employing highly-charged ions and a non-destructive Fourier-Transform Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique on single stored ions. Decay studies in ion traps will become possible with MATS. Laser spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes and isomers is an efficient and model-independent approach for the determination of nuclear ground and isomeric state properties. Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts in electronic transitions exhibit readily accessible information on the nuclear spin, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments as well as root-mean-square charge radii. The accuracy of laser-spectroscopic-determined nuclear properties is very high while requirements concerning production rates are moderate. This Technical Design Report describes a new Penning trap mass spectrometry setup as well as a number of complementary experimental devices for laser spectroscopy. Since MATS and LaSpec require high-quality low-energy beams

  12. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  13. Diffusion to finite-size traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The survival probability of a random-walking particle is derived for hopping in a random distribution of traps of arbitrary radius and concentration. The single-center approximation is shown to be valid for times of physical interest even when the fraction of volume occupied by traps approaches unity. The theory is based on computation of the number of different potential trap regions sampled in a random walk and is confirmed by simulations on a simple-cubic lattice

  14. Pre-electrospray ionisation manifold methylation and post-electrospray ionisation manifold cleavage/ion cluster formation observed during electrospray ionisation of chloramphenicol in solutions of methanol and acetonitrile for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry employing a commercial quadrupole ion trap mass analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichilongo, Kwenga F; Famuyiwa, Samson O; Kibechu, Rose

    2011-01-01

    We have observed unusual mass spectra of chloramphenicol (CAP) in solutions of methanol or acetonitrile showing intense ions at m/z 297, m/z 311, m/z 325 and m/z 339. The observed ions were different from those which are traditionally observed in the full scan ESI mass spectra of CAP with ions of m/z 321, m/z 323 and m/z 325. We have evidence to show that this process starts with offline methylation of CAP in solutions of methanol or acetonitrile to give m/z 339. Investigations using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that there is a methylene group somewhere within the CAP molecule but not attached to any of the carbon atoms when the CAP is dissolved in methanol or acetonitrile before infusion into the mass spectrometer. The possible locations of attachment were speculated to be the electronegative atoms apart from the chlorine atoms due to valence considerations. The methylene group is attached to the nitrogen atom and forms a bond as observed in the MS/MS spectra of m/z 297, m/z 311, m/z 325 and m/z 339 which give m/z 183 as the base peak in all cases. Further experiments showed that there is cleavage of the methylated CAP molecule followed by cluster ion formation involving addition of methylene groups to the CAP fragment with m/z 183 to produce ions of m/z including m/z 297, m/z 311, m/z 325 and m/z 339. This process occurs in the mass spectrometer in the region housing the tube lens and is triggered when the ions are accelerated through this region by application of a negative tube lens offset voltage. This region affords collision of the charged droplets with a collision gas in this case nitrogen to strip the droplets of their solvent molecules. Experiments to follow the intensities of m/z 183, m/z 311, m/z 321, m/z 323, m/z 325 and m/z 339 as the tube lens offset voltage was varied were done in which the intensities of m/z 311, m/z 325 and m/z 339 were observed to be at their peak when the tube lens offset voltage was set at -40 V. When

  15. How to detect trap cluster systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandowski, Arkadiusz

    2008-01-01

    Spatially correlated traps and recombination centres (trap-recombination centre pairs and larger clusters) are responsible for many anomalous phenomena that are difficult to explain in the framework of both classical models, i.e. model of localized transitions (LT) and the simple trap model (STM), even with a number of discrete energy levels. However, these 'anomalous' effects may provide a good platform for identifying trap cluster systems. This paper considers selected cluster-type effects, mainly relating to an anomalous dependence of TL on absorbed dose in the system of isolated clusters (ICs). Some consequences for interacting cluster (IAC) systems, involving both localized and delocalized transitions occurring simultaneously, are also discussed

  16. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julian; Lambrecht, Alexander; Weckesser, Pascal; Debatin, Markus; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  17. High Optical Access Trap 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-26

    The High Optical Access (HOA) trap was designed in collaboration with the Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer (MUSIQC) team, funded along with Sandia National Laboratories through IARPA's Multi Qubit Coherent Operations (MQCO) program. The design of version 1 of the HOA trap was completed in September 2012 and initial devices were completed and packaged in February 2013. The second version of the High Optical Access Trap (HOA-2) was completed in September 2014 and is available at IARPA's disposal.

  18. Laser cooling and trapping of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.

    1995-01-01

    The basic ideas of laser cooling and atom trapping will be discussed. These techniques have applications in spectroscopy, metrology, nuclear physics, biophysics, geophysics, and polymer science. (author)

  19. Single trapped cold ions: a testing ground for quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, S

    2005-01-01

    In this article I review some results obtained during my PhD work in the group of Professor Messina, at the University of Palermo. I discuss some proposals aimed at exploring fundamental issues of quantum theory, e.g. entanglement and quantum superpositions, in the context of single trapped ions. This physical context turns out to be extremely well suited both for studying fundamental features of quantum mechanics, such as the quantum-classical border, and for technological applications such as quantum logic gates and quantum registers. I focus on some procedures for engineering nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the centre of mass of the ion. I consider both the case in which the ion interacts with classical laser beams and the case of interaction with a quantized mode of light. In particular, I discuss the generation of Schroedinger cat-like states, Bell states and Greenberger-Horn-Zeilinger states. The schemes for generating nonclassical states stem from two different quantum processes: the parity effect and the quantum state manipulation via quantum non-demolition measurement. Finally, I consider a microscopic theory of the interaction of a quantum harmonic oscillator (the centre of mass of the ion in the trapped ion context) with a bosonic thermal environment. Using an exact approach to the dynamics, I discuss a quantum theory of heating of trapped ions able to describe both the short time non-Markovian regime and the thermalization process. I conclude showing briefly how the trapped ion systems can be used as simulators of key models of open quantum systems such as the Caldeira-Leggett model. (phd tutorial)

  20. Phase-Space Density Analyses of the AE-8 Trapped Electron and the AP-8 Trapped Proton Model Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayton, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, μ, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of μ and K, and for 3.5 R E E , the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R E for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits μ-dependent local minima around L = 5 R E . Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K c . Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons

  1. Laser-cooling and electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Migdall, A.L.; Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently it has been impossible to confine and trap neutral atoms using electromagnetic fields. While many proposals for such traps exist, the small potential energy depth of the traps and the high kinetic energy of available atoms prevented trapping. We review various schemes for atom trapping, the advances in laser cooling of atomic beams which have now made trapping possible, and the successful magnetic trapping of cold sodium atoms

  2. Superfluid transition of homogeneous and trapped two-dimensional Bose gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Markus; Baym, Gordon; Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Laloë, Franck

    2007-01-30

    Current experiments on atomic gases in highly anisotropic traps present the opportunity to study in detail the low temperature phases of two-dimensional inhomogeneous systems. Although, in an ideal gas, the trapping potential favors Bose-Einstein condensation at finite temperature, interactions tend to destabilize the condensate, leading to a superfluid Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii phase with a finite superfluid mass density but no long-range order, as in homogeneous fluids. The transition in homogeneous systems is conveniently described in terms of dissociation of topological defects (vortex-antivortex pairs). However, trapped two-dimensional gases are more directly approached by generalizing the microscopic theory of the homogeneous gas. In this paper, we first derive, via a diagrammatic expansion, the scaling structure near the phase transition in a homogeneous system, and then study the effects of a trapping potential in the local density approximation. We find that a weakly interacting trapped gas undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii transition from the normal state at a temperature slightly below the Bose-Einstein transition temperature of the ideal gas. The characteristic finite superfluid mass density of a homogeneous system just below the transition becomes strongly suppressed in a trapped gas.

  3. Chemical characterization of individual microparticles using an ion trap: real-time chemical analysis of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mo; Whitten, W.B.; Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes initial experiments to perform laser ablation mass spectrometry in real time on airborne microparticles. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber of a mass spectrometer. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation/ionization in the mass spectrometer. The initial studies were made with an existing ion trap mass spectrometer with the particle sampling occurring at the center of the trap electrodes. Performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are described

  4. Secretion Trap Tagging of Secreted and Membrane-Spanning Proteins Using Arabidopsis Gene Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Juana M. Arroyo; Cristina Yordan; W. Richard McCombie; Robert A. Martienssen

    2003-01-01

    Secreted and membrane-spanning proteins play fundamental roles in plant development but pose challenges for genetic identification and characterization. We describe a "secretion trap" screen for gene trap insertions in genes encoding proteins routed through the secretory pathway. The gene trap transposon encodes a ß-glucuronidase reporter enzyme...

  5. An ex situ evaluation of TBA- and MTBE-baited bio-traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Katharine P; Mackay, Douglas M; Annable, Michael D; Sublette, Kerry L; Davis, Greg; Holland, Reef B; Petersen, Daniel; Scow, Kate M

    2012-08-01

    Aquifer microbial communities can be investigated using Bio-traps(®) ("bio-traps"), passive samplers containing Bio-Sep(®) beads ("bio-beads") that are deployed in monitoring wells to be colonized by bacteria delivered via groundwater flow through the well. When bio-beads are "baited" with organic contaminants enriched in (13)C, stable isotope probing allows assessment of the composition and activity of the microbial community. This study used an ex situ system fed by groundwater continuously extracted from an adjacent monitoring well within an experimentally-created aerobic zone treating a tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) plume. The goal was to evaluate aspects of bio-trap performance that cannot be studied quantitatively in situ. The measured groundwater flow through a bio-trap housing suggests that such traps might typically "sample" about 1.8 L per month. The desorption of TBA or methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) bait from bio-traps during a typical deployment duration of 6 weeks was approximately 90% and 45%, respectively, of the total initial bait load, with initially high rate of mass loss that decreased markedly after a few days. The concentration of TBA in groundwater flowing by the TBA-baited bio-beads was estimated to be as high as 3400 mg/L during the first few days, which would be expected to inhibit growth of TBA-degrading microbes. Initial inhibition was also implied for the MTBE-baited bio-trap, but at lower concentrations and for a shorter time. After a few days, concentrations in groundwater flowing through the bio-traps dropped below inhibitory concentrations but remained 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than TBA or MTBE concentrations within the aquifer at the experimental site. Desorption from the bio-beads during ex situ deployment occurred at first as predicted by prior sorption analyses of bio-beads but with apparent hysteresis thereafter, possibly due to mass transfer limitations caused by colonizing microbes. These results suggest that TBA- or MTBE

  6. Trapping of positrons in a Penning Malmberg trap in the view of accumulating them with the use of a pulsed beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, P.

    2011-09-01

    The weak equivalence principle, a fundament of Einstein general relativity, states that gravitational mass and inertial mass are equal whatever the body. This equivalence principle has never been directly tested with antimatter. The GBAR (Gravitational Behaviour of Antimatter at Rest) experiment intends to test it by measuring the acceleration of ultra cold anti-hydrogens in free fall. The production of such anti-atoms requires a pulse of about 10 10 positrons in a few tens of nanoseconds. This thesis focuses on the development of a new accumulation technique of positrons in a Penning-Malmberg trap in order to create this pulse. This new method is an improvement of the accumulation technique of Oshima et al.. This technique requires a non-neutral electron plasma to cool down positrons in the trap in order to confine them. A continuous beam delivers positrons and the trapping efficiency is about 0.4%. The new method needs a positron pulsed beam and the method efficiency is estimated at 80%. A part of this thesis was performed at Riken (Tokyo) on the trap of Oshima et al. to study the behavior of non-neutral plasmas in this type of trap and the first accumulation method. A theoretical model was developed to simulate the positron trapping efficiency. The description and the systematic study of the new accumulation technique with a pulsed positron beam are presented. They includes notably the optimization through simulation of the electromagnetic configuration of the trap and of the parameters of the used non-neutral plasmas. (author)

  7. Automated simultaneous measurement of the δ(13) C and δ(2) H values of methane and the δ(13) C and δ(18) O values of carbon dioxide in flask air samples using a new multi cryo-trap/gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A; Rothe, Michael; Sperlich, Peter; Strube, Martin; Wendeberg, Magnus

    2016-07-15

    The isotopic composition of greenhouse gases helps to constrain global budgets and to study sink and source processes. We present a new system for high-precision stable isotope measurements of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide. The design is intended for analyzing flask air samples from existing sampling programs without the need for extra sample air for methane analysis. CO2 and CH4 isotopes are measured simultaneously using two isotope ratio mass spectrometers, one for the analysis of δ(13) C and δ(18) O values and the second one for δ(2) H values. The inlet carousel delivers air from 16 sample positions (glass flasks 1-5 L and high-pressure cylinders). Three 10-port valves take aliquots from the sample stream. CH4 from 100-mL air aliquots is preconcentrated in 0.8-mL sample loops using a new cryo-trap system. A precisely calibrated working reference air is used in parallel with the sample according to the Principle of Identical Treatment. It takes about 36 hours for a fully calibrated analysis of a complete carousel including extractions of four working reference and one quality control reference air. Long-term precision values, as obtained from the quality control reference gas since 2012, account for 0.04 ‰ (δ(13) C values of CO2 ), 0.07 ‰ (δ(18) O values of CO2 ), 0.11 ‰ (δ(13) C values of CH4 ) and 1.0 ‰ (δ(2) H values of CH4 ). Within a single day, the system exhibits a typical methane δ(13) C standard deviation (1σ) of 0.06 ‰ for 10 repeated measurements. The system has been in routine operation at the MPI-BGC since 2012. Consistency of the data and compatibility with results from other laboratories at a high precision level are of utmost importance. A high sample throughput and reliability of operation are important achievements of the presented system to cope with the large number of air samples to be analyzed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Influence of Pheromone Trap Color and Placement on Catch of Male Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato Tuber Moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the damaging pests of potatoes in both field crops and storage worldwide. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of product. Mass trapping application of synthetic pheromone has been found to be effective to control P. operculella; however, several factors have to be optimized for improving its efficiency. This experiment was carried out during the 2012 season, Ardabil province, Iran to evaluate the effectiveness of pheromone trap to capture males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. Particularly, in this experiment the influence of color (yellow, red and green, and height (ground level, 0.3 and 0.6 m of water-pan trap on males captures was tested. The results showed that green traps captured significantly (P < 0.05 more males than red and yellow traps. Water-pan traps placed at 0.6 above plant canopy captured significantly (P < 0.05 the highest number of the moths in comparison to traps placed at ground level and 0.3 m.

  9. Inelastic collision rates of trapped metastable hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landhuis, D; Matos, L; Moss, SC; Steinberger, JK; Vant, K; Willmann, L; Greytak, TJ; Kleppner, D

    We report the first detailed decay studies of trapped metastable (2S) hydrogen. By two-photon excitation of ultracold H samples, we have produced clouds of at least 5x10(7) magnetically trapped 2S atoms at densities greater than 4x10(10) cm(-3) and temperatures below 100 muK. At these densities and

  10. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  11. Modes of oscillation in radiofrequency Paul traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landa, H.; Reznik, B.; Drewsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the time-dependent dynamics of ion crystals in radiofrequency traps. The problem of stable trapping of general threedimensional crystals is considered and the validity of the pseudopotential approximation is discussed. We analytically derive the micromotion amplitude of the ions...

  12. Astroturf seed traps for studying hydrochory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M; Geertsema, J; Chang, ER; Veeneklaas, RM; Carey, PD; Bakker, JP

    1. Astroturf mats can effectively trap diaspores dispersed by tidal water. 2. Within four tidal inundations, up to 745 propagules per m(2) and between three and eight different species per astroturf mat were trapped. Overall, 15 different species were collected on the astroturf mats, 10 of which

  13. An Experimental Analysis of Social Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechner, Kevin C.

    1977-01-01

    Social traps, such as the overgrazing of pasturelands, overpopulation, and the extinction of species, are situations where individuals in a group respond for their own advantage in a manner damaging to the group. Alaboratory analog was devised to simulate conditions that produce social traps. The intent was to cause an immediate positive…

  14. Effect of trapping on transport coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Herman, P.

    1990-10-01

    Influence of a trap (sink) on an exciton transfer in molecular aggregates is investigated. Memory functions entering the generalized master equations are calculated. The presence of the sink changes their analytical form. We used the sink in trimer as example to show that for large trapping rate parameters the rest of the system is decoupled from the sink. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  15. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  16. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  17. Lobster trap detection at the Saba Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    According to previous studies and anecdotal evidence there are a lot of lost lobster traps at the Saba Bank. One study estimated the loss to be between 210 and 795 lobster traps per year. The Saba Bank is an approximately 2,200 km2 submerged area and spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is one of the

  18. Cryptography, quantum computation and trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard J.

    1998-03-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  19. Review of statistical analysis of trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    A review was conducted of trapped gas estimates in Hanford waste tanks. Tank waste levels were found to correlate with barometric pressure changes giving the possibility to infer amounts of trapped gas. Previous models of the tank waste level were extended to include other phenomena such as evaporation in a more complete description of tank level changes

  20. Influence of trap construction on mosquito capture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 209-215 ISSN 1934-7391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : CDC miniature light traps * baited lard-can traps * mosquitoes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. Effect of trap position on the efficiency of trapping in treelike scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongzhi; Lin Yuan; Ma Youjun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that the role and impact of nodes on dynamical processes in scale-free networks are not homogenous, because of the presence of highly connected nodes at the tail of their power-law degree distribution. In this paper, we explore the influence of different nodes as traps on the trapping efficiency of the trapping problem taking place on scale-free networks. To this end, we study in detail the trapping problem in two families of deterministically growing scale-free networks with treelike structure: one family is non-fractal, the other is fractal. In the first part of this work, we attack a special case of random walks on the two network families with a perfect trap located at a hub, i.e. node with the highest degree. The second study addresses the case with trap distributed uniformly over all nodes in the networks. For these two cases, we compute analytically the mean trapping time (MTT), a quantitative indicator characterizing the trapping efficiency of the trapping process. We show that in the non-fractal scale-free networks the MTT for both cases follows different scalings with the network order (number of network nodes), implying that trap's position has a significant effect on the trapping efficiency. In contrast, it is presented that for both cases in the fractal scale-free networks, the two leading scalings exhibit the same dependence on the network order, suggesting that the location of trap has no essential impact on the trapping efficiency. We also show that for both cases of the trapping problem, the trapping efficiency is more efficient in the non-fractal scale-free networks than in their fractal counterparts.

  2. Advanced Quadrupole Ion Trap Instrumentation for Low Level Vehicle Emissions Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amendable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methy-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. All of the ions with potential to serve as parent ions in a tandem mass spectrometry experiment were found to yield parent-to-product conversion efficiencies greater than 75%. The flexibility afforded to the ion trap by use of tailored wave-forms applied to the end-caps allows parallel monitoring schemes to be devised that provide many of the advantages of tandem mass spectrometry without major loss in measurement rate. A large loss in measurement rate would ordinarily result from the use of conventional tandem mass spectrometry experiments carried out in series for a large number of targeted components. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of

  3. Modified semiclassical approximation for trapped Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    A generalization of the semiclassical approximation is suggested allowing for an essential extension of its region of applicability. In particular, it becomes possible to describe Bose-Einstein condensation of a trapped gas in low-dimensional traps and in traps of low confining dimensions, for which the standard semiclassical approximation is not applicable. The result of the modified approach is shown to coincide with purely quantum-mechanical calculations for harmonic traps, including the one-dimensional harmonic trap. The advantage of the semiclassical approximation is in its simplicity and generality. Power-law potentials of arbitrary powers are considered. The effective thermodynamic limit is defined for any confining dimension. The behavior of the specific heat, isothermal compressibility, and density fluctuations is analyzed, with an emphasis on low confining dimensions, where the usual semiclassical method fails. The peculiarities of the thermodynamic characteristics in the effective thermodynamic limit are discussed

  4. Magnetic trapping of cold bromine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, C J; Lam, J; Doherty, W G; Softley, T P

    2014-01-17

    Magnetic trapping of bromine atoms at temperatures in the millikelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br2 molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are lost only by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.

  5. Cold trap disposed within a tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability and the durability of cold traps by simplifying the structure and recycling liquid metals without using electromagnetic pumps. Constitution: The reactor container is partitioned by an intermediate container enhousing primary recycling pumps and cold traps. The inlet and the exit for the liquid metal of each cold trap are opened to the outside and the inside of the intermediate container respectively. In such a structure, the pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the intermediate container is exerted on the cold traps due to the exhaust pressure of the recycling pumps in which the liquid metal flowing into the cold traps is purified through filters, cooled and then discharged from the exit to the cold plenum. In this way, liquid metal can be recycled without using an electromagnetic pump whose reliability has not yet been established. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    As part of our involvement in the EU MICROTRAP project, we have designed, manufactured and assembled a micro-scale ion trap with integrated optical fibers. These prealigned fibers will allow delivering cooling laser light to single ions. Therefore, such a trap will not require any direct optical...... and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...... Thesis (2008). [2] R.J. Hendricks, D.M. Grant, P.F. Herskind, A. Dantan and M. Drewsen, An all-optical ion-loading technique for scalable microtrap architectures, Applied Physics B, 88, 507 (2007)....

  7. The hidden traps in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J S; Keeney, R L; Raiffa, H

    1998-01-01

    Bad decisions can often be traced back to the way the decisions were made--the alternatives were not clearly defined, the right information was not collected, the costs and benefits were not accurately weighted. But sometimes the fault lies not in the decision-making process but rather in the mind of the decision maker. The way the human brain works can sabotage the choices we make. John Hammond, Ralph Keeney, and Howard Raiffa examine eight psychological traps that are particularly likely to affect the way we make business decisions: The anchoring trap leads us to give disproportionate weight to the first information we receive. The statusquo trap biases us toward maintaining the current situation--even when better alternatives exist. The sunk-cost trap inclines us to perpetuate the mistakes of the past. The confirming-evidence trap leads us to seek out information supporting an existing predilection and to discount opposing information. The framing trap occurs when we misstate a problem, undermining the entire decision-making process. The overconfidence trap makes us overestimate the accuracy of our forecasts. The prudence trap leads us to be overcautious when we make estimates about uncertain events. And the recallability trap leads us to give undue weight to recent, dramatic events. The best way to avoid all the traps is awareness--forewarned is forearmed. But executives can also take other simple steps to protect themselves and their organizations from the various kinds of mental lapses. The authors show how to take action to ensure that important business decisions are sound and reliable.

  8. Criticality experiments to provide benchmark data on neutron flux traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    The experimental measurements covered by this report were designed to provide benchmark type data on water moderated LWR type fuel arrays containing neutron flux traps. The experiments were performed at the US Department of Energy Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory, operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The experimental assemblies consisted of 2 /times/ 2 arrays of 4.31 wt % 235 U enriched UO 2 fuel rods, uniformly arranged in water on a 1.891 cm square center-to-center spacing. Neutron flux traps were created between the fuel units using metal plates containing varying amounts of boron. Measurements were made to determine the effect that boron loading and distance between the fuel and flux trap had on the amount of fuel required for criticality. Also, measurements were made, using the pulse neutron source technique, to determine the effect of boron loading on the effective neutron multiplications constant. On two assemblies, reaction rate measurements were made using solid state track recorders to determine absolute fission rates in 235 U and 238 U. 14 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Masses of nuclei close to the dripline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Blaum, K.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Kluge, H.J.; Rodriguez, D.; Sikler, G.; Weber, C.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; Kellerbauer, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mass measurements of radioactive nuclides are one of the cornerstones of our understanding of the nucleus. The Penning trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP performs direct mass measurements far away from the valley of stability, as well as high-precision measurements of key nuclei to anchor long decay chains. Both schemes provide valuable information on the dripline itself and on nuclei in its close vicinity. (orig.)

  10. A quadrupole ion trap as low-energy cluster ion beam source

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, N; Kanayama, T

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic energy distribution of ion beams was measured by a retarding field energy analyzer for a mass-selective cluster ion beam deposition system that uses a quadrupole ion trap as a cluster ion beam source. The results indicated that the system delivers a cluster-ion beam with energy distribution of approx 2 eV, which corresponded well to the calculation results of the trapping potentials in the ion trap. Using this deposition system, mass-selected hydrogenated Si cluster ions Si sub n H sub x sup + were actually deposited on Si(111)-(7x7) surfaces at impact kinetic energy E sub d of 3-30 eV. Observation by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) demonstrated that Si sub 6 H sub x sup + cluster ions landed on the surface without decomposition at E sub d =3 eV, while the deposition was destructive at E sub d>=18 eV. (author)

  11. Nonlinear spectroscopy of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Gessner, Manuel; Mukamel, Shaul; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and it has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity that require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in M. Gessner et al., (arXiv:1312.3365), we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems, and we discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods, in combination with distinct features of ultracold-matter systems, allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and they can therefore reliably probe systems in which, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady-state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  12. An ex situ evaluation of TBA- and MTBE-baited bio-traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Katharine P.; Mackay, Douglas M.; Annable, Michael D.; Sublette, Kerry L.; Davis, Greg; Holland, Reef B.; Petersen, Daniel; Scow, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    Aquifer microbial communities can be investigated using Bio-traps® (“bio-traps”), passive samplers containing Bio-Sep® beads (“bio-beads”) that are deployed in monitoring wells to be colonized by bacteria delivered via groundwater flow through the well. When bio-beads are “baited” with organic contaminants enriched in 13C, stable isotope probing allows assessment of the composition and activity of the microbial community. This study used an ex situ system fed by groundwater continuously extracted from an adjacent monitoring well within an experimentally-created aerobic zone treating a tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) plume. The goal was to evaluate aspects of bio-trap performance that cannot be studied quantitatively in situ. The measured groundwater flow through a bio-trap housing suggests that such traps might typically “sample” about 1.8 L per month. The desorption of TBA or methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) bait from bio-traps during a typical deployment duration of 6 weeks was approximately 90% and 45%, respectively, of the total initial bait load, with initially high rate of mass loss that decreased markedly after a few days. The concentration of TBA in groundwater flowing by the TBA-baited bio-beads was estimated to be as high as 3400 mg/L during the first few days, which would be expected to inhibit growth of TBA-degrading microbes. Initial inhibition was also implied for the MTBE-baited bio-trap, but at lower concentrations and for a shorter time. After a few days, concentrations in groundwater flowing through the bio-traps dropped below inhibitory concentrations but remained 4–5 orders of magnitude higher than TBA or MTBE concentrations within the aquifer at the experimental site. Desorption from the bio-beads during ex situ deployment occurred at first as predicted by prior sorption analyses of bio-beads but with apparent hysteresis thereafter, possibly due to mass transfer limitations caused by colonizing microbes. These results suggest that

  13. Laser trapping of radioactive francium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, G.D.; Orozco, L.A.; Simsarian, J.E.; Shi, W.; Zhao, W.Z.

    1997-01-01

    The difficult problem of quickly slowing and cooling nuclear reaction products so that they can be injected into a laser trap has been solved by several groups and there are now strong efforts to work with the trapped atoms. The atoms are confined in the trap to a small spatial volume of the order of 1 mm 3 , but more importantly, they are also confined in velocity, which makes them an ideal sample for spectroscopic measurements with other lasers. We have recently trapped radioactive francium and have embarked on a program to further study the francium atom as a prelude to a test of the Standard Model analogous to previous work with Cs. Our sample of 3 min 210 Fr now contains over 20 000 atoms, and is readily visible with an ordinary TV camera. We work on-line with the accelerator, and continuously load the trap to replace losses due to decay and collisions with background gas. We have maintained a sample of Fr atoms in the trap for over 10 hours, with occasional adjustment of the trapping laser frequency to account for drifts. The proposed test of the Standard Model will require accurate calculation of its atomic properties. We are currently testing these calculations by measuring other predicted quantities. (orig.)

  14. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis Forrester

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an open data standard for storing and sharing camera trap data, developed by experts from a variety of organizations. The standard captures information necessary to share data between projects and offers a foundation for collecting the more detailed data needed for advanced analysis. The data standard captures information about study design, the type of camera used, and the location and species names for all detections in a standardized way. This information is critical for accurately assessing results from individual camera trapping projects and for combining data from multiple studies for meta-analysis. This data standard is an important step in aligning camera trapping surveys with best practices in data-intensive science. Ecology is moving rapidly into the realm of big data, and central data repositories are becoming a critical tool and are emerging for camera trap data. This data standard will help researchers standardize data terms, align past data to new repositories, and provide a framework for utilizing data across repositories and research projects to advance animal ecology and conservation.

  15. Single-molecule dynamics in nanofabricated traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam

    2009-03-01

    The Anti-Brownian Electrokinetic trap (ABEL trap) provides a means to immobilize a single fluorescent molecule in solution, without surface attachment chemistry. The ABEL trap works by tracking the Brownian motion of a single molecule, and applying feedback electric fields to induce an electrokinetic motion that approximately cancels the Brownian motion. We present a new design for the ABEL trap that allows smaller molecules to be trapped and more information to be extracted from the dynamics of a single molecule than was previously possible. In particular, we present strategies for extracting dynamically fluctuating mobilities and diffusion coefficients, as a means to probe dynamic changes in molecular charge and shape. If one trapped molecule is good, many trapped molecules are better. An array of single molecules in solution, each immobilized without surface attachment chemistry, provides an ideal test-bed for single-molecule analyses of intramolecular dynamics and intermolecular interactions. We present a technology for creating such an array, using a fused silica plate with nanofabricated dimples and a removable cover for sealing single molecules within the dimples. With this device one can watch the shape fluctuations of single molecules of DNA or study cooperative interactions in weakly associating protein complexes.

  16. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-02

    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  17. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Schmidt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  18. Laser trapping of 21Na atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian.

    1994-09-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive 21 Na (t l/2 = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped 21 Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of 21 Na → 21 Ne + Β + + v e , which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, 21 Na atoms were produced by bombarding 24 Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The 21 Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined

  19. Biases in Drosophila melanogaster protein trap screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Ilka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to localise or follow endogenous proteins in real time in vivo is of tremendous utility for cell biology or systems biology studies. Protein trap screens utilise the random genomic insertion of a transposon-borne artificial reporter exon (e.g. encoding the green fluorescent protein, GFP into an intron of an endogenous gene to generate a fluorescent fusion protein. Despite recent efforts aimed at achieving comprehensive coverage of the genes encoded in the Drosophila genome, the repertoire of genes that yield protein traps is still small. Results We analysed the collection of available protein trap lines in Drosophila melanogaster and identified potential biases that are likely to restrict genome coverage in protein trap screens. The protein trap screens investigated here primarily used P-element vectors and thus exhibit some of the same positional biases associated with this transposon that are evident from the comprehensive Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. We further found that protein trap target genes usually exhibit broad and persistent expression during embryonic development, which is likely to facilitate better detection. In addition, we investigated the likely influence of the GFP exon on host protein structure and found that protein trap insertions have a significant bias for exon-exon boundaries that encode disordered protein regions. 38.8% of GFP insertions land in disordered protein regions compared with only 23.4% in the case of non-trapping P-element insertions landing in coding sequence introns (p -4. Interestingly, even in cases where protein domains are predicted, protein trap insertions frequently occur in regions encoding surface exposed areas that are likely to be functionally neutral. Considering the various biases observed, we predict that less than one third of intron-containing genes are likely to be amenable to trapping by the existing methods. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the

  20. An atom trap relying on optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, P.; Lemonde, P.; Ben Dahan, M.; Michaud, A.; Salomon, C.; Dalibard, J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated a new radiation pressure trap which relies on optical pumping and does not require any magnetic field. It employs six circularly polarized divergent beams and works on the red of a J g →J e = J g + 1 atomic transition with J g ≥1/2. We have demonstrated this trap with cesium atoms from a vapour cell using the 852 nm J g = 4→J e = 5 resonance transition. The trap contained up to 3.10 7 atoms in a cloud of 1/√e radius of 330 μm. (orig.)