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Sample records for detection ldrd project

  1. Final report for LDRD project 11-0029 : high-interest event detection in large-scale multi-modal data sets : proof of concept.

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    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson

    2011-09-01

    Events of interest to data analysts are sometimes difficult to characterize in detail. Rather, they consist of anomalies, events that are unpredicted, unusual, or otherwise incongruent. The purpose of this LDRD was to test the hypothesis that a biologically-inspired anomaly detection algorithm could be used to detect contextual, multi-modal anomalies. There currently is no other solution to this problem, but the existence of a solution would have a great national security impact. The technical focus of this research was the application of a brain-emulating cognition and control architecture (BECCA) to the problem of anomaly detection. One aspect of BECCA in particular was discovered to be critical to improved anomaly detection capabilities: it's feature creator. During the course of this project the feature creator was developed and tested against multiple data types. Development direction was drawn from psychological and neurophysiological measurements. Major technical achievements include the creation of hierarchical feature sets created from both audio and imagery data.

  2. FY 2014 LDRD Annual Report Project Summaries

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    Tomchak, Dena [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The FY 2014 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Annual Report is a compendium of the diverse research performed to develop and ensure the INL's technical capabilities can support future DOE missions and national research priorities. LDRD is essential to INL - it provides a means for the laboratory to pursue novel scientific and engineering research in areas that are deemed too basic or risky for programmatic investments. This research enahnces technical capabilities at the laboratory, providing scientific and engineering staff with opportunities for skill building and partnership development.

  3. Final LDRD report : advanced plastic scintillators for neutron detection.

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    Vance, Andrew L.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; O' Bryan, Greg; Mrowka, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a one-year, feasibility-scale LDRD project that was conducted with the goal of developing new plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for neutron detection. Copolymers composed of matrix materials such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and blocks containing trans-stilbene (tSB) as the scintillator component were prepared and tested for gamma/neutron response. Block copolymer synthesis utilizing tSBMA proved unsuccessful so random copolymers containing up to 30% tSB were prepared. These copolymers were found to function as scintillators upon exposure to gamma radiation; however, they did not exhibit PSD when exposed to a neutron source. This project, while falling short of its ultimate goal, demonstrated the possible utility of single-component, undoped plastics as scintillators for applications that do not require PSD.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Annual Report FY 2013 LDRD Project Summaries

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    Dena Tomchak

    2014-03-01

    The FY 2013 LDRD Annual Report is a compendium of the diverse research performed to develop and ensure the INL’s technical capabilities support the current and future DOE missions and national research priorities. LDRD is essential to INL—it provides a means for the Laboratory to maintain scientific and technical vitality while funding highly innovative, high-risk science and technology research and development (R&D) projects. The program enhances technical capabilities at the Laboratory, providing scientific and engineering staff with opportunities to explore proof-of-principle ideas, advanced studies of innovative concepts, and preliminary technical analyses. Established by Congress in 1991, the LDRD Program proves its benefit each year through new programs, intellectual property, patents, copyrights, national and international awards, and publications.

  5. Obstacle detection for autonomous navigation : an LDRD final report.

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    Padilla, Denise D.

    2004-03-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Navigation'. The principal goal of this project was to develop a mathematical framework for obstacle detection. The framework provides a basis for solutions to many complex obstacle detection problems critical to successful autonomous navigation. Another goal of this project was to characterize sensing requirements in terms of physical characteristics of obstacles, vehicles, and terrain. For example, a specific vehicle traveling at a specific velocity over a specific terrain requires a sensor with a certain range of detection, resolution, field-of-view, and sufficient sensitivity to specific obstacle characteristics. In some cases, combinations of sensors were required to distinguish between different hazardous obstacles and benign terrain. In our framework, the problem was posed as a multidimensional, multiple-hypothesis, pattern recognition problem. Features were extracted from selected sensors that allow hazardous obstacles to be distinguished from benign terrain and other types of obstacles. Another unique thrust of this project was to characterize different terrain classes with respect to both positive (e.g., rocks, trees, fences) and negative (e.g., holes, ditches, drop-offs) obstacles. The density of various hazards per square kilometer was statistically quantified for different terrain categories (e.g., high desert, ponderosa forest, and prairie). This quantification reflects the scale, or size, and mobility of different types of vehicles. The tradeoffs between obstacle detection, position location, path planning, and vehicle mobility capabilities were also to be characterized.

  6. LDRD project 151362 : low energy electron-photon transport.

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    Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Bondi, Robert James; Crawford, Martin James

    2013-09-01

    At sufficiently high energies, the wavelengths of electrons and photons are short enough to only interact with one atom at time, leading to the popular %E2%80%9Cindependent-atom approximation%E2%80%9D. We attempted to incorporate atomic structure in the generation of cross sections (which embody the modeled physics) to improve transport at lower energies. We document our successes and failures. This was a three-year LDRD project. The core team consisted of a radiation-transport expert, a solid-state physicist, and two DFT experts.

  7. THz transceiver characterization : LDRD project 139363 final report.

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    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement; Cich, Michael Joseph; Reno, John Louis; Fuller, Charles T.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Lee, Mark; Grine, Albert D.

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 139363 supported experiments to quantify the performance characteristics of monolithically integrated Schottky diode + quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterodyne mixers at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These integrated mixers are the first all-semiconductor THz devices to successfully incorporate a rectifying diode directly into the optical waveguide of a QCL, obviating the conventional optical coupling between a THz local oscillator and rectifier in a heterodyne mixer system. This integrated mixer was shown to function as a true heterodyne receiver of an externally received THz signal, a breakthrough which may lead to more widespread acceptance of this new THz technology paradigm. In addition, questions about QCL mode shifting in response to temperature, bias, and external feedback, and to what extent internal frequency locking can improve stability have been answered under this project.

  8. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

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    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  9. Final report on LDRD project : advanced optical trigger systems.

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    Roose, Lars D.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Mar, Alan; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas M. (LMATA Government Services, LLC., Albuquerque, NM); Peake, Gregory Merwin; Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Montano, Victoria A. (LMATA Government Services, LLC., Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-01

    are difficult to scale and manufacture with the required uniformity. As a promising alternative to multiple discrete edge-emitting lasers, a single wafer of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be lithographically patterned to achieve the desired layout of parallel line-shaped emitters, in which adjacent lasers utilize identical semiconductor material and thereby achieve a degree of intrinsic optical uniformity. Under this LDRD project, we have fabricated arrays of uncoupled circular-aperture VCSELs to approximate a line-shaped illumination pattern, achieving optical fill factors ranging from 2% to 30%. We have applied these VCSEL arrays to demonstrate single and dual parallel line-filament triggering of PCSS devices. Moreover, we have developed a better understanding of the illumination requirements for stable triggering of multiple-filament PCSS devices using VCSEL arrays. We have found that reliable triggering of multiple filaments requires matching of the turn-on time of adjacent VCSEL line-shaped-arrays to within approximately 1 ns. Additionally, we discovered that reliable triggering of PCSS devices at low voltages requires more optical power than we obtained with our first generation of VCSEL arrays. A second generation of higher-power VCSEL arrays was designed and fabricated at the end of this LDRD project, and testing with PCSS devices is currently underway (as of September 2008).

  10. Final LDRD report : development of advanced UV light emitters and biological agent detection strategies.

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    Figiel, Jeffrey James; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Banas, Michael Anthony; Farrow, Darcie; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project which has focused on the development of novel, compact, ultraviolet solid-state sources and fluorescence-based sensing platforms that apply such devices to the sensing of biological and nuclear materials. We describe our development of 270-280 nm AlGaN-based semiconductor UV LEDs with performance suitable for evaluation in biosensor platforms as well as our development efforts towards the realization of a 340 nm AlGaN-based laser diode technology. We further review our sensor development efforts, including evaluation of the efficacy of using modulated LED excitation and phase sensitive detection techniques for fluorescence detection of bio molecules and uranyl-containing compounds.

  11. FY05 LDRD Final Report Molecular Radiation Biodosimetry LDRD Project Tracking Code: 04-ERD-076

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    Jones, I M; A.Coleman, M; Lehmann, J; Manohar, C F; Marchetti, F; Mariella, R; Miles, R; Nelson, D O; Wyrobek, A J

    2006-02-03

    been, these methods are not suitable. The best current option for triage radiation biodosimetry is self-report of time to onset of emesis after the event, a biomarker that is subject to many false positives. The premise of this project is that greatly improved radiation dosimetry can be achieved by research and development directed toward detection of molecular changes induced by radiation in cells or other biological materials. Basic research on the responses of cells to radiation at the molecular level, particularly of message RNA and proteins, has identified biomolecules whose levels increase (or decrease) as part of cellular responses to radiation. Concerted efforts to identify markers useful for triage and clinical applications have not been reported as yet. Such studies would scan responses over a broad range of doses, below, at and above the threshold of clinical significance in the first weeks after exposure, and would collect global proteome and/or transcriptome information on all tissue samples accessible to either first responders or clinicians. For triage, the goal is to identify those needing medical treatment. Treatment will be guided by refined dosimetry. Achieving this goal entails determining whether radiation exposure was below or above the threshold of concern, using one sample collected within days of an event, with simple devices that first responders either use or distribute for self-testing. For the clinic, better resolution of dose and tissue damage is needed to determine the nature and time sensitivity of therapy, but multiple sampling times may be acceptable and clinical staff and equipment can be utilized. Two complementary areas of research and development are needed once candidate biomarkers are identified, validation of the biomarker responses and validation of devices/instrumentation for detection of responses. Validation of biomarkers per se is confirmation that the dose, time, and tissue specific responses meet the reporting

  12. A configuration space toolkit for automated spatial reasoning: Technical results and LDRD project final report

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    Xavier, P.G.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1997-02-01

    A robot`s configuration space (c-space) is the space of its kinematic degrees of freedom, e.g., the joint-space of an arm. Sets in c-space can be defined that characterize a variety of spatial relationships, such as contact between the robot and its environment. C-space techniques have been fundamental to research progress in areas such as motion planning and physically-based reasoning. However, practical progress has been slowed by the difficulty of implementing the c-space abstraction inside each application. For this reason, we proposed a Configuration Space Toolkit of high-performance algorithms and data structures meeting these needs. Our intent was to develop this robotics software to provide enabling technology to emerging applications that apply the c-space abstraction, such as advanced motion planning, teleoperation supervision, mechanism functional analysis, and design tools. This final report presents the research results and technical achievements of this LDRD project. Key results and achievements included (1) a hybrid Common LISP/C prototype that implements the basic C-Space abstraction, (2) a new, generic, algorithm for constructing hierarchical geometric representations, and (3) a C++ implementation of an algorithm for fast distance computation, interference detection, and c-space point-classification. Since the project conclusion, motion planning researchers in Sandia`s Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center have been using the CSTk libcstk.so C++ library. The code continues to be used, supported, and improved by projects in the ISRC.

  13. Diode Laser Diagnostics for Gas Species and Soot in Large Fires: LDRD Project Final Report

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    Christopher R. Shaddix; Sarah W. Allendorf; Gary L. Hubbard; David K. Ottesen; Louis A. Gritzo

    2001-06-01

    The thermal hazard posed by a fire to a weapon or other engineered system is a consequence of combined radiation and convection from high-temperature soot and gases. The development of advanced, predictive models of this hazard requires detailed knowledge of the transient chemical structure and soot distributions within real-scale fires. At present, there are no measurements, and hence limited understanding, of transient gaseous species generation and transport in large, fully turbulent fires. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop such an experimental capability, near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been identified as the most promising diagnostic technique for making these measurements. In order to develop this capability, significant efforts were applied to choosing optimal species and transitions for detection, to developing an effective multiplexing strategy for several lasers undergoing wavelength modulation spectroscopy with fast laser ramp scans, to developing a methodology for multipassing the TDL beams across a small probe volume, and finally, to designing a water-cooled, fiber-coupled probe for performing these measurements locally within large pool fires. All of these challenges were surmounted during the course of this project, and in the end a preliminary, unique dataset of combined water vapor, acetylene, and soot concentrations was obtained from a 1-m diameter JP-8 pool fire.

  14. Final report on LDRD project 52722 : radiation hardened optoelectronic components for space-based applications.

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    Hargett, Terry W. (L& M Technologies, Inc.); Serkland, Darwin Keith; Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Wrobel, Theodore Frank; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Medrano, Melissa R.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Karpen, Gary D.; Montano, Victoria A. (L& M Technologies, Inc.)

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project 'Radiation Hardened Optoelectronic Components for Space-Based Applications.' The aim of this LDRD has been to investigate the radiation hardness of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photodiodes by looking at both the effects of total dose and of single-event upsets on the electrical and optical characteristics of VCSELs and photodiodes. These investigations were intended to provide guidance for the eventual integration of radiation hardened VCSELs and photodiodes with rad-hard driver and receiver electronics from an external vendor for space applications. During this one-year project, we have fabricated GaAs-based VCSELs and photodiodes, investigated ionization-induced transient effects due to high-energy protons, and measured the degradation of performance from both high-energy protons and neutrons.

  15. Final LDRD report : infrared detection and power generation using self-assembled quantum dots.

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    Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Ellis, Robert; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2008-02-01

    Alternative solutions are desired for mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared radiation detection and imaging arrays. We have investigated quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) as a possible solution for long-wavelength infrared (8 to 12 {mu}m) radiation sensing. This document provides a summary for work done under the LDRD 'Infrared Detection and Power Generation Using Self-Assembled Quantum Dots'. Under this LDRD, we have developed QDIP sensors and made efforts to improve these devices. While the sensors fabricated show good responsivity at 80 K, their detectivity is limited by high noise current. Following efforts concentrated on how to reduce or eliminate this problem, but with no clear path was identified to the desired performance improvements.

  16. FPGAs in High Perfomance Computing: Results from Two LDRD Projects.

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    Underwood, Keith D; Ulmer, Craig D.; Thompson, David; Hemmert, Karl Scott

    2006-11-01

    Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been used as alternative computational de-vices for over a decade; however, they have not been used for traditional scientific com-puting due to their perceived lack of floating-point performance. In recent years, there hasbeen a surge of interest in alternatives to traditional microprocessors for high performancecomputing. Sandia National Labs began two projects to determine whether FPGAs wouldbe a suitable alternative to microprocessors for high performance scientific computing and,if so, how they should be integrated into the system. We present results that indicate thatFPGAs could have a significant impact on future systems. FPGAs have thepotentialtohave order of magnitude levels of performance wins on several key algorithms; however,there are serious questions as to whether the system integration challenge can be met. Fur-thermore, there remain challenges in FPGA programming and system level reliability whenusing FPGA devices.4 AcknowledgmentArun Rodrigues provided valuable support and assistance in the use of the Structural Sim-ulation Toolkit within an FPGA context. Curtis Janssen and Steve Plimpton provided valu-able insights into the workings of two Sandia applications (MPQC and LAMMPS, respec-tively).5

  17. FY08 LDRD Final Report A New Method for Wave Propagation in Elastic Media LDRD Project Tracking Code: 05-ERD-079

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    Petersson, A

    2009-01-29

    The LDRD project 'A New Method for Wave Propagation in Elastic Media' developed several improvements to the traditional finite difference technique for seismic wave propagation, including a summation-by-parts discretization which is provably stable for arbitrary heterogeneous materials, an accurate treatment of non-planar topography, local mesh refinement, and stable outflow boundary conditions. This project also implemented these techniques in a parallel open source computer code called WPP, and participated in several seismic modeling efforts to simulate ground motion due to earthquakes in Northern California. This research has been documented in six individual publications which are summarized in this report. Of these publications, four are published refereed journal articles, one is an accepted refereed journal article which has not yet been published, and one is a non-refereed software manual. The report concludes with a discussion of future research directions and exit plan.

  18. Final report on LDRD project: Simulation/optimization tools for system variability analysis

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    R. L. Bierbaum; R. F. Billau; J. E. Campbell; K. D. Marx; R. J. Sikorski; B. M. Thompson; S. D. Wix

    1999-10-01

    >This work was conducted during FY98 (Proposal Number 98-0036) and FY99 (Proposal Number 99-0818) under the auspices of the Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program. Electrical simulation typically treats a single data point in the very large input space of component properties. For electrical simulation to reach its full potential as a design tool, it must be able to address the unavoidable variability and uncertainty in component properties. Component viability is strongly related to the design margin (and reliability) of the end product. During the course of this project, both tools and methodologies were developed to enable analysis of variability in the context of electrical simulation tools. Two avenues to link relevant tools were also developed, and the resultant toolset was applied to a major component.

  19. Final LDRD Report for Projects # 52797 and # 93362: Rational Understanding and Control of the Magnetic Behavior of Nanoparticles.

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    Zhang, Z. John

    2006-11-01

    This is the final LDRD report for projects # 52797 and # 93362 that funded a five year research program directed by Prof. Z. John Zhang at the Georgia Institute of Technology Chemistry Department. Prof. Zhang was awarded this funding after winning a Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering (PECASE) in 2001 with Sandia as the DOE sponsoring lab. The project PI was Blake Simmons and the PM was Alfredo Morales. The page intentionally left blank

  20. Bioagent detection using miniaturized NMR and nanoparticle amplification : final LDRD report.

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    Clewett, C. F. M.; Adams, David Price; Fan, Hongyou; Williams, John D.; Sillerud, Laurel O.; Alam, Todd Michael; Aldophi, Natalie L. (New Mexico Resonance, Albuquerque, NM); McDowell, Andrew F. (New Mexico Resonance, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-11-01

    This LDRD program was directed towards the development of a portable micro-nuclear magnetic resonance ({micro}-NMR) spectrometer for the detection of bioagents via induced amplification of solvent relaxation based on superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The first component of this research was the fabrication and testing of two different micro-coil ({micro}-coil) platforms: namely a planar spiral NMR {micro}-coil and a cylindrical solenoid NMR {micro}-coil. These fabrication techniques are described along with the testing of the NMR performance for the individual coils. The NMR relaxivity for a series of water soluble FeMn oxide nanoparticles was also determined to explore the influence of the nanoparticle size on the observed NMR relaxation properties. In addition, The use of commercially produced superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for amplification via NMR based relaxation mechanisms was also demonstrated, with the lower detection limit in number of SPIONs per nanoliter (nL) being determined.

  1. Final Report for LDRD Project on Rapid Problem Setup for Mesh-Based Simulation (Rapsodi)

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    Brown, D L; Henshaw, W; Petersson, N A; Fast, P; Chand, K

    2003-02-07

    Under LLNL Exploratory Research LDRD funding, the Rapsodi project developed rapid setup technology for computational physics and engineering problems that require computational representations of complex geometry. Many simulation projects at LLNL involve the solution of partial differential equations in complex 3-D geometries. A significant bottleneck in carrying out these simulations arises in converting some specification of a geometry, such as a computer-aided design (CAD) drawing to a computationally appropriate 3-D mesh that can be used for simulation and analysis. Even using state-of-the-art mesh generation software, this problem setup step typically has required weeks or months, which is often much longer than required to carry out the computational simulation itself. The Rapsodi project built computational tools and designed algorithms that help to significantly reduce this setup time to less than a day for many realistic problems. The project targeted rapid setup technology for computational physics and engineering problems that use mixed-element unstructured meshes, overset meshes or Cartesian-embedded boundary (EB) meshes to represent complex geometry. It also built tools that aid in constructing computational representations of geometry for problems that do not require a mesh. While completely automatic mesh generation is extremely difficult, the amount of manual labor required can be significantly reduced. By developing novel, automated, component-based mesh construction procedures and automated CAD geometry repair and cleanup tools, Rapsodi has significantly reduced the amount of hand crafting required to generate geometry and meshes for scientific simulation codes.

  2. RF/microwave properties of nanotubes and nanowires : LDRD Project 105876 final report.

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    Scrymgeour, David; Lee, Mark; Hsu, Julia W. P.; Highstrete, Clark

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 105876 was a research project whose primary goal was to discover the currently unknown science underlying the basic linear and nonlinear electrodynamic response of nanotubes and nanowires in a manner that will support future efforts aimed at converting forefront nanoscience into innovative new high-frequency nanodevices. The project involved experimental and theoretical efforts to discover and understand high frequency (MHz through tens of GHz) electrodynamic response properties of nanomaterials, emphasizing nanowires of silicon, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes. While there is much research on DC electrical properties of nanowires, electrodynamic characteristics still represent a major new frontier in nanotechnology. We generated world-leading insight into how the low dimensionality of these nanomaterials yields sometimes desirable and sometimes problematic high-frequency properties that are outside standard model electron dynamics. In the cases of silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes, evidence of strong disorder or glass-like charge dynamics was measured, indicating that these materials still suffer from serious inhomogeneities that limit there high frequency performance. Zinc oxide nanowires were found to obey conventional Drude dynamics. In all cases, a significant practical problem involving large impedance mismatch between the high intrinsic impedance of all nanowires and nanotubes and high-frequency test equipment had to be overcome.

  3. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

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    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  4. Biomimetic air sampling for detection of low concentrations of molecules and bioagents : LDRD 52744 final report.

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    Hughes, Robert Clark

    2003-12-01

    Present methods of air sampling for low concentrations of chemicals like explosives and bioagents involve noisy and power hungry collectors with mechanical parts for moving large volumes of air. However there are biological systems that are capable of detecting very low concentrations of molecules with no mechanical moving parts. An example is the silkworm moth antenna which is a highly branched structure where each of 100 branches contains about 200 sensory 'hairs' which have dimensions of 2 microns wide by 100 microns long. The hairs contain about 3000 pores which is where the gas phase molecules enter the aqueous (lymph) phase for detection. Simulations of diffusion of molecules indicate that this 'forest' of hairs is 'designed' to maximize the extraction of the vapor phase molecules. Since typical molecules lose about 4 decades in diffusion constant upon entering the liquid phase, it is important to allow air diffusion to bring the molecule as close to the 'sensor' as possible. The moth acts on concentrations as low as 1000 molecules per cubic cm. (one part in 1e16). A 3-D collection system of these dimensions could be fabricated by micromachining techniques available at Sandia. This LDRD addresses the issues involved with extracting molecules from air onto micromachined structures and then delivering those molecules to microsensors for detection.

  5. LDRD final report backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections LDRD Project (FY98 and FY 99)

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    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Tangyunyong, P.; Benson, D.A.; Barton, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two new failure analysis techniques have been developed for backside and front side localization of open and shorted interconnections on ICs. These scanning optical microscopy techniques take advantage of the interactions between IC defects and localized heating using a focused infrared laser ({lambda} = 1,340 nm). Images are produced by monitoring the voltage changes across a constant current supply used to power the IC as the laser beam is scanned across the sample. The methods utilize the Seebeck Effect to localize open interconnections and Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) to detect shorts. Initial investigations demonstrated the feasibility of TIVA and Seebeck Effect Imaging (SEI). Subsequent improvements have greatly increased the sensitivity of the TIVA/SEI system, reducing the acquisition times by more than 20X and localizing previously unobserved defects. The interaction physics describing the signal generation process and several examples demonstrating the localization of opens and shorts are described. Operational guidelines and limitations are also discussed. The system improvements, non-linear response of IC defects to heating, modeling of laser heating and examples using the improved system for failure analysis are presented.

  6. Final Report for LDRD Project 02-FS-009 Gigapixel Surveillance Camera

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    Marrs, R E; Bennett, C L

    2010-04-20

    The threats of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction add urgency to the development of new techniques for surveillance and intelligence collection. For example, the United States faces a serious and growing threat from adversaries who locate key facilities underground, hide them within other facilities, or otherwise conceal their location and function. Reconnaissance photographs are one of the most important tools for uncovering the capabilities of adversaries. However, current imaging technology provides only infrequent static images of a large area, or occasional video of a small area. We are attempting to add a new dimension to reconnaissance by introducing a capability for large area video surveillance. This capability would enable tracking of all vehicle movements within a very large area. The goal of our project is the development of a gigapixel video surveillance camera for high altitude aircraft or balloon platforms. From very high altitude platforms (20-40 km altitude) it would be possible to track every moving vehicle within an area of roughly 100 km x 100 km, about the size of the San Francisco Bay region, with a gigapixel camera. Reliable tracking of vehicles requires a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 0.5 to 1 m and a framing rate of approximately two frames per second (fps). For a 100 km x 100 km area the corresponding pixel count is 10 gigapixels for a 1-m GSD and 40 gigapixels for a 0.5-m GSD. This is an order of magnitude beyond the 1 gigapixel camera envisioned in our LDRD proposal. We have determined that an instrument of this capacity is feasible.

  7. Reduced order models for thermal analysis : final report : LDRD Project No. 137807.

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    Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD Senior's Council Project is focused on the development, implementation and evaluation of Reduced Order Models (ROM) for application in the thermal analysis of complex engineering problems. Two basic approaches to developing a ROM for combined thermal conduction and enclosure radiation problems are considered. As a prerequisite to a ROM a fully coupled solution method for conduction/radiation models is required; a parallel implementation is explored for this class of problems. High-fidelity models of large, complex systems are now used routinely to verify design and performance. However, there are applications where the high-fidelity model is too large to be used repetitively in a design mode. One such application is the design of a control system that oversees the functioning of the complex, high-fidelity model. Examples include control systems for manufacturing processes such as brazing and annealing furnaces as well as control systems for the thermal management of optical systems. A reduced order model (ROM) seeks to reduce the number of degrees of freedom needed to represent the overall behavior of the large system without a significant loss in accuracy. The reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of the ROM leads to immediate increases in computational efficiency and allows many design parameters and perturbations to be quickly and effectively evaluated. Reduced order models are routinely used in solid mechanics where techniques such as modal analysis have reached a high state of refinement. Similar techniques have recently been applied in standard thermal conduction problems e.g. though the general use of ROM for heat transfer is not yet widespread. One major difficulty with the development of ROM for general thermal analysis is the need to include the very nonlinear effects of enclosure radiation in many applications. Many ROM methods have considered only linear or mildly nonlinear problems. In the present study a reduced order model is

  8. LDRD FY2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotta, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kline, K. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2005-02-28

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program is our primary means for pursuing innovative, long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research that supports the missions of the Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and the National Nuclear Security Administration in national security, homeland security, energy security, environmental management, bioscience and healthcare technology, and breakthroughs in fundamental science and technology. The LDRD Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 and is administered by the Laboratory Science and Technology Office. The accomplishments described in this Annual Report demonstrate how the LDRD portfolio is strongly aligned with these missions and contributes to the Laboratory’s success in meeting its goals. The LDRD budget of $69.8 million for FY2004 sponsored 220 projects. These projects were selected through an extensive peer-review process to ensure the highest scientific and technical quality and mission relevance. Each year, the number of meritorious proposals far exceeds the funding available, making the selection a challenging one indeed. Our ongoing investments in LDRD have reaped long-term rewards for the Laboratory and the Nation. Many Laboratory programs trace their roots to research thrusts that began several years ago under LDRD sponsorship. In addition, many LDRD projects contribute to more than one mission area, leveraging the Laboratory’s multidisciplinary team approach to science and technology. Safeguarding the Nation from terrorist activity and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction will be an enduring mission of this Laboratory, for which LDRD will continue to play a vital role. The LDRD Program is a success story. Our projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published in peer-reviewed journals, and patents granted. With its reputation for sponsoring innovative projects, the LDRD Program is also a major vehicle

  9. LDRD Annual Report FY2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sketchley, J A; Kotta, P; De Yoreo, J; Jackson, K; van Bibber, K

    2007-03-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, authorized by Congress in 1991 and administered by the Laboratory Science and Technology Office, is our primary means for pursuing innovative, long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research that supports the missions of the Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and National Nuclear Security Administration in national security, energy security, environmental management, bioscience and technology to improve human health, and breakthroughs in fundamental science and technology. The accomplishments described in this Annual Report demonstrate the strong alignment of the LDRD portfolio with these missions and contribute to the Laboratory's success in meeting its goals. The LDRD budget of $92 million for FY2006 sponsored 188 projects. These projects were selected through an extensive peer-review process to ensure the highest scientific quality and mission relevance. Each year, the number of deserving proposals far exceeds the funding available, making the selection a tough one indeed. Our ongoing investments in LDRD have reaped long-term rewards for the Laboratory and the nation. Many Laboratory programs trace their roots to research thrusts that began several years ago under LDRD sponsorship. In addition, many LDRD projects contribute to more than one mission area, leveraging the Laboratory's multidisciplinary team approach to science and technology. Safeguarding the nation from terrorist activity and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction will be an enduring mission of this Laboratory, for which LDRD will continue to play a vital role. The LDRD Program is a success story. Our projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published in peer-reviewed journals, and patents granted. With its reputation for sponsoring innovative projects, the LDRD Program is also a major vehicle for attracting and retaining the best and the

  10. Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.

    2007-11-01

    Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.

  11. Final report on LDRD Project: Quantum confinement and light emission in silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilinger, T.R.; Kelly, M.J.; Follstaedt, D.M. [and others

    1995-02-01

    Electrochemically formed porous silicon (PS) was reported in 1991 to exhibit visible photoluminescence. This discovery could lead to the use of integrated silicon-based optoelectronic devices. This LDRD addressed two general goals for optical emission from Si: (1) investigate the mechanisms responsible for light emission, and (2) tailor the microstructure and composition of the Si to obtain photoemission suitable for working devices. PS formation, composition, morphology, and microstructure have been under investigation at Sandia for the past ten years for applications in silicon-on-insulator microelectronics, micromachining, and chemical sensors. The authors used this expertise to form luminescent PS at a variety of wavelengths and have used analytical techniques such as in situ Raman and X-ray reflectivity to investigate the luminescence mechanism and quantify the properties of the porous silicon layer. Further, their experience with ion implantation in Si lead to an investigation into alternate methods of producing Si nanostructures that visibly luminesce.

  12. Final report for LDRD project 11-0783 : directed robots for increased military manpower effectiveness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Wagner, John S.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Morrow, James Dan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this LDRD is to develop technology allowing warfighters to provide high-level commands to their unmanned assets, freeing them to command a group of them or commit the bulk of their attention elsewhere. To this end, a brain-emulating cognition and control architecture (BECCA) was developed, incorporating novel and uniquely capable feature creation and reinforcement learning algorithms. BECCA was demonstrated on both a mobile manipulator platform and on a seven degree of freedom serial link robot arm. Existing military ground robots are almost universally teleoperated and occupy the complete attention of an operator. They may remove a soldier from harm's way, but they do not necessarily reduce manpower requirements. Current research efforts to solve the problem of autonomous operation in an unstructured, dynamic environment fall short of the desired performance. In order to increase the effectiveness of unmanned vehicle (UV) operators, we proposed to develop robots that can be 'directed' rather than remote-controlled. They are instructed and trained by human operators, rather than driven. The technical approach is modeled closely on psychological and neuroscientific models of human learning. Two Sandia-developed models are utilized in this effort: the Sandia Cognitive Framework (SCF), a cognitive psychology-based model of human processes, and BECCA, a psychophysical-based model of learning, motor control, and conceptualization. Together, these models span the functional space from perceptuo-motor abilities, to high-level motivational and attentional processes.

  13. LDRD project final report : hybrid AI/cognitive tactical behavior framework for LVC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevich, Donna D.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Brannon, Nathan Gregory; Hart, Brian E.; Hart, Derek H.; Little, Charles Quentin; Oppel, Fred John III; Linebarger, John Michael; Parker, Eric Paul

    2012-01-01

    This Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) sought to develop technology that enhances scenario construction speed, entity behavior robustness, and scalability in Live-Virtual-Constructive (LVC) simulation. We investigated issues in both simulation architecture and behavior modeling. We developed path-planning technology that improves the ability to express intent in the planning task while still permitting an efficient search algorithm. An LVC simulation demonstrated how this enables 'one-click' layout of squad tactical paths, as well as dynamic re-planning for simulated squads and for real and simulated mobile robots. We identified human response latencies that can be exploited in parallel/distributed architectures. We did an experimental study to determine where parallelization would be productive in Umbra-based force-on-force (FOF) simulations. We developed and implemented a data-driven simulation composition approach that solves entity class hierarchy issues and supports assurance of simulation fairness. Finally, we proposed a flexible framework to enable integration of multiple behavior modeling components that model working memory phenomena with different degrees of sophistication.

  14. LDRD FY 2014 Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Gianotto; Dena Tomchak

    2013-08-01

    As required by DOE Order 413.2B the FY 2014 Program Plan is written to communicate ares of investment and approximate amounts being requested for the upcoming fiscal year. The program plan also includes brief highlights of current or previous LDRD projects that have an opportunity to impact our Nation's current and future energy challenges.

  15. Final report on LDRD project : single-photon-sensitive imaging detector arrays at 1600 nm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Kenton David; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Geib, Kent Martin; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Klem, John Frederick; Sheng, Josephine Juin-Jye; Patel, Rupal K.; Bolles, Desta; Bauer, Tom M.; Koudelka, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The key need that this project has addressed is a short-wave infrared light detector for ranging (LIDAR) imaging at temperatures greater than 100K, as desired by nonproliferation and work for other customers. Several novel device structures to improve avalanche photodiodes (APDs) were fabricated to achieve the desired APD performance. A primary challenge to achieving high sensitivity APDs at 1550 nm is that the small band-gap materials (e.g., InGaAs or Ge) necessary to detect low-energy photons exhibit higher dark counts and higher multiplication noise compared to materials like silicon. To overcome these historical problems APDs were designed and fabricated using separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) regions. The absorption regions used (InGaAs or Ge) to leverage these materials 1550 nm sensitivity. Geiger mode detection was chosen to circumvent gain noise issues in the III-V and Ge multiplication regions, while a novel Ge/Si device was built to examine the utility of transferring photoelectrons in a silicon multiplication region. Silicon is known to have very good analog and GM multiplication properties. The proposed devices represented a high-risk for high-reward approach. Therefore one primary goal of this work was to experimentally resolve uncertainty about the novel APD structures. This work specifically examined three different designs. An InGaAs/InAlAs Geiger mode (GM) structure was proposed for the superior multiplication properties of the InAlAs. The hypothesis to be tested in this structure was whether InAlAs really presented an advantage in GM. A Ge/Si SAM was proposed representing the best possible multiplication material (i.e., silicon), however, significant uncertainty existed about both the Ge material quality and the ability to transfer photoelectrons across the Ge/Si interface. Finally a third pure germanium GM structure was proposed because bulk germanium has been reported to have better dark count properties. However, significant

  16. Dynamic compression of synthetic diamond windows (final report for LDRD project 93531).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2008-09-01

    Diamond is an attractive dynamic compression window for many reasons: high elastic limit,large mechanical impedance, and broad transparency range. Natural diamonds, however, aretoo expensive to be used in destructive experiments. Chemical vapor deposition techniquesare now able to produce large single-crystal windows, opening up many potential dynamiccompression applications. This project studied the behavior of synthetic diamond undershock wave compression. The results suggest that synthetic diamond could be a usefulwindow in this field, though complete characterization proved elusive.3

  17. FY2014 LBNL LDRD Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Darren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE’s National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE’s missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation. The LDRD program supports Berkeley Lab’s mission in many ways. First, because LDRD funds can be allocated within a relatively short time frame, Berkeley Lab researchers can support the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and serve the needs of the nation by quickly responding to forefront scientific problems. Second, LDRD enables Berkeley Lab to attract and retain highly qualified scientists and to support their efforts to carry out worldleading research. In addition, the LDRD program also supports new projects that involve graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, thus contributing to the education mission of Berkeley Lab.

  18. Coordinating robot motion, sensing, and control in plans. LDRD project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, P.G.; Brown, R.G.; Watterberg, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    1997-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a framework for robotic planning and execution that provides a continuum of adaptability with respect to model incompleteness, model error, and sensing error. For example, dividing robot motion into gross-motion planning, fine-motion planning, and sensor-augmented control had yielded productive research and solutions to individual problems. Unfortunately, these techniques could only be combined by hand with ad hoc methods and were restricted to systems where all kinematics are completely modeled in planning. The original intent was to develop methods for understanding and autonomously synthesizing plans that coordinate motion, sensing, and control. The project considered this problem from several perspectives. Results included (1) theoretical methods to combine and extend gross-motion and fine-motion planning; (2) preliminary work in flexible-object manipulation and an implementable algorithm for planning shortest paths through obstacles for the free-end of an anchored cable; (3) development and implementation of a fast swept-body distance algorithm; and (4) integration of Sandia`s C-Space Toolkit geometry engine and SANDROS motion planer and improvements, which yielded a system practical for everyday motion planning, with path-segment planning at interactive speeds. Results (3) and (4) have either led to follow-on work or are being used in current projects, and they believe that (2) will eventually be also.

  19. Characterizing the emissivity of materials under dynamic compression (final report for LDRD project 79877).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.

    2007-10-01

    Temperature measurements are crucial to equation of state development, but difficult to perform reliably. In the case of infrared pyrometry, a large uncertainty comes from the fact that sample emissivity (the deviation from a blackbody) is unknown. In this project, a method for characterizing the emissivity of shocked materials was developed. By coupling infrared radiation from the National Synchrotron Light Source to a gas gun system, broad spectrum emissivity changes were studied to a peak stress of 8 GPa. Emissivity measurements were performed on standard metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Pt) as well as a high emissivity coating developed at Sandia.

  20. Final LDRD report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Blythe G.; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Enos, David George; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Weiner, Ruth F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a three-year LDRD project focused on understanding microstructural evolution and related property changes in Zr-based nuclear cladding materials towards the development of high fidelity predictive simulations for long term dry storage. Experiments and modeling efforts have focused on the effects of hydride formation and accumulation of irradiation defects. Key results include: determination of the influence of composition and defect structures on hydride formation; measurement of the electrochemical property differences between hydride and parent material for understanding and predicting corrosion resistance; in situ environmental transmission electron microscope observation of hydride formation; development of a predictive simulation for mechanical property changes as a function of irradiation dose; novel test method development for microtensile testing of ionirradiated material to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties; and successful demonstration of an Idaho National Labs-based sample preparation and shipping method for subsequent Sandia-based analysis of post-reactor cladding.

  1. Intelligent tools and process development for robotic edge finishing: LDRD project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.L.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes a project undertaken to develop an agile automated, high-precision edge finishing system, for fabricating precision parts. The project involved re-designing and adding additional capabilities to an existing finishing work-cell. The resulting work-cell may serve as prototype for production systems to be integrated in highly flexible automated production lines. The system removes burrs formed in the machining process and produces precision chamfers. The system uses an expert system to predict the burr size from the machining history. Within the CAD system, tool paths are generated for burr removal and chamfer formation. Then, the optimal grinding process is automatically selected from a database of processes. The tool trajectory and the selected process definition is then downloaded to a robotic control system to execute the operation. The robotic control system implements a hybrid fuzzy logic-classical control scheme to achieve the desired performance goals regardless of tolerance and fixturing errors. This report describes the system architecture and the system`s performance.

  2. LDRD Final Report - Investigations of the impact of the process integration of deposited magnetic films for magnetic memory technologies on radiation-hardened CMOS devices and circuits - LDRD Project (FY99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS,DAVID R.; JESSING,JEFFREY R.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.

    2000-01-01

    This project represented a coordinated LLNL-SNL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of developing radiation-hardened magnetic non-volatile memories using giant magnetoresistance (GMR) materials. The intent of this limited-duration study was to investigate whether giant magnetoresistance (GMR) materials similar to those used for magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) were process compatible with functioning CMOS circuits. Sandia's work on this project demonstrated that deposition of GMR materials did not affect the operation nor the radiation hardness of Sandia's rad-hard CMOS technology, nor did the integration of GMR materials and exposure to ionizing radiation affect the magnetic properties of the GMR films. Thus, following deposition of GMR films on rad-hard integrated circuits, both the circuits and the films survived ionizing radiation levels consistent with DOE mission requirements. Furthermore, Sandia developed techniques to pattern deposited GMR films without degrading the completed integrated circuits upon which they were deposited. The present feasibility study demonstrated all the necessary processing elements to allow fabrication of the non-volatile memory elements onto an existing CMOS chip, and even allow the use of embedded (on-chip) non-volatile memories for system-on-a-chip applications, even in demanding radiation environments. However, funding agencies DTRA, AIM, and DARPA did not have any funds available to support the required follow-on technology development projects that would have been required to develop functioning prototype circuits, nor were such funds available from LDRD nor from other DOE program funds.

  3. Final report : LDRD project 79824 carbon nanotube sorting via DNA-directed self-assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David B; Leung, Kevin; Rempe, Susan B.; Dossa, Paul D.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Martin, Marcus Gary

    2007-10-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have shown great promise in novel applications in molecular electronics, biohazard detection, and composite materials. Commercially synthesized nanotubes exhibit a wide dispersion of geometries and conductivities, and tend to aggregate. Hence the key to using these materials is the ability to solubilize and sort carbon nanotubes according to their geometric/electronic properties. One of the most effective dispersants is single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), but there are many outstanding questions regarding the interaction between nucleic acids and SWNTs. In this work we focus on the interactions of SWNTs with single monomers of nucleic acids, as a first step to answering these outstanding questions. We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the binding energy of six different nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) to a (6,0) single-wall carbon nanotube in aqueous solution. We find that the binding energies are generally favorable, of the order of a few kcal/mol. The binding energies of the different NMPs were very similar in salt solution, whereas we found a range of binding energies for NMPs in pure water. The binding energies are sensitive to the details of the association of the sodium ions with the phosphate groups and also to the average conformations of the nucleotides. We use electronic structure (Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Moller-Plesset second order perturbation to uncorrelated Hartree Fock theory (MP2)) methods to complement the classical force field study. With judicious choices of DFT exchange correlation functionals, we find that DFT, MP2, and classical force field predictions are in qualitative and even quantitative agreement; all three methods should give reliable and valid predictions. However, in one important case, the interactions between ions and metallic carbon nanotubes--the SWNT polarization-induced affinity for ions, neglected in most classical force field studies, is found to be extremely

  4. 1999 LDRD Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rita Spencer; Kyle Wheeler

    2000-06-01

    This is the FY 1999 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  5. LDRD final report on enhanced edge detection techniques for manufacturing quality control and materials characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osbourn, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    Detecting object boundaries in the presence of cast shadows is a difficult task for machine vision systems. A new edge detector is presented which responds to shadow penumbras and abrupt object edges with distinguishable signals. The detector requires the use of spatially extended light sources and sufficient video resolution to resolve the shadow penumbras of interest. Detection of high frequency noise is suppressed without requiring image-dependent adjustment of signal thresholds. The ability of the edge operator to distinguish shadow penumbras from abrupt object boundaries while suppressing responses to high frequency noise and texture is illustrated with idealized shadow and object edge intensity profiles. Selective detection of object boundaries in a video scene with a cast shadow has also been demonstrated with this operator.

  6. Tiger LDRD final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steich, D J; Brugger, S T; Kallman, J S; White, D A

    2000-02-01

    This final report describes our efforts on the Three-Dimensional Massively Parallel CEM Technologies LDRD project (97-ERD-009). Significant need exists for more advanced time domain computational electromagnetics modeling. Bookkeeping details and modifying inflexible software constitute a vast majority of the effort required to address such needs. The required effort escalates rapidly as problem complexity increases. For example, hybrid meshes requiring hybrid numerics on massively parallel platforms (MPPs). This project attempts to alleviate the above limitations by investigating flexible abstractions for these numerical algorithms on MPPs using object-oriented methods, providing a programming environment insulating physics from bookkeeping. The three major design iterations during the project, known as TIGER-I to TIGER-III, are discussed. Each version of TIGER is briefly discussed along with lessons learned during the development and implementation. An Application Programming Interface (API) of the object-oriented interface for Tiger-III is included in three appendices. The three appendices contain the Utilities, Entity-Attribute, and Mesh libraries developed during the project. The API libraries represent a snapshot of our latest attempt at insulated the physics from the bookkeeping.

  7. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  8. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  9. Hardness Assurance for Low-Energy Proton-Induced Single-Event Effects: Final report for LDRD Project 173134

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report briefly summarizes three publications that resulted from a two-year LDRD. The three publications address a recently emerging reliability issue: namely, that low-energy protons (LEPs) can cause single-event effects (SEEs) in highly scaled microelectronics. These publications span from low to high technology readiness levels. In the first, novel experiments were used to prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for LEP-induced SEEs. In the second, a simple method was developed to calculate expected on-orbit error rates for LEP effects. This simplification was enabled by creating (and characterizing) an accelerated space-like LEP environment in the laboratory. In the third publication, this new method was applied to many memory circuits from the 20-90 nm technology nodes to study the general importance of LEP effects, in terms of their contribution to the total on-orbit SEE rate.

  10. 2007 LDRD ANNUAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, T

    2008-12-16

    I am pleased to present the fiscal year 2007 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This represents the first year that SRNL has been eligible for LDRD participation and our results to date demonstrate we are off to an excellent start. SRNL became a National Laboratory in 2004, and was designated the 'Corporate Laboratory' for the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in 2006. As you will see, we have made great progress since these designations. The LDRD program is one of the tools SRNL is using to enable achievement of our strategic goals for the DOE. The LDRD program allows the laboratory to blend a strong basic science component into our applied technical portfolio. This blending of science with applied technology provides opportunities for our scientists to strengthen our capabilities and delivery. The LDRD program is vital to help SRNL attract and retain leading scientists and engineers who will help build SRNL's future and achieve DOE mission objectives. This program has stimulated our research staff creativity, while realizing benefits from their participation. This investment will yield long term dividends to the DOE in its Environmental Management, Energy, and National Security missions.

  11. 2013 SRNL LDRD Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWhorter, S.

    2014-03-07

    This report demonstrates the execution of our LDRD program within the objectives and guidelines outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the DOE Order 413.2b. The projects described within the report align purposefully with SRNL’s strategic vision and provide great value to the DOE. The diversity exhibited in the research and development projects underscores the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) mission and enhances that mission by developing the technical capabilities and human capital necessary to support future DOE-EM national needs. As a multiprogram national laboratory, SRNL is applying those capabilities to achieve tangible results for the nation in National Security, Environmental Stewardship, Clean Energy and Nuclear Materials Management.

  12. LDRD Report: Scheduling Irregular Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Erik G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This LDRD project was a campus exec fellowship to fund (in part) Donald Nguyen’s PhD research at UT-Austin. His work has focused on parallel programming models, and scheduling irregular algorithms on shared-memory systems using the Galois framework. Galois provides a simple but powerful way for users and applications to automatically obtain good parallel performance using certain supported data containers. The naïve user can write serial code, while advanced users can optimize performance by advanced features, such as specifying the scheduling policy. Galois was used to parallelize two sparse matrix reordering schemes: RCM and Sloan. Such reordering is important in high-performance computing to obtain better data locality and thus reduce run times.

  13. Final Report for LDRD Project 05-ERD-050: "Developing a Reactive Chemistry Capability for the NARAC Operational Model (LODI)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Grant, K; Connell, P

    2008-02-11

    In support of the National Security efforts of LLNL, this project addressed the existing imbalance between dispersion and chemical capabilities of LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator--the NARAC operational dispersion model). We have demonstrated potentially large effects of atmospheric chemistry on the impact of chemical releases (e.g., industrial chemicals and nerve agents). Prior to our work, LODI could only handle chains of first-order losses (exponential decays) that were independent of time and space, limiting NARAC's capability to respond when reactive chemistry is important. We significantly upgraded the chemistry and aerosol capability of LODI to handle (1) arbitrary networks of chemical reactions, (2) mixing and reactions with ambient species, (3) evaporation and condensation of aerosols, and (4) heat liberated from chemical reactions and aerosol condensation (which can cause a cold and dense plume hugging the ground to rise into the atmosphere, then descend to the ground again as droplets). When this is made operational, it will significantly improve NARAC's ability to respond to terrorist attacks and industrial accidents that involve reactive chemistry, including many chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals (TICS). As a dual-use, the resulting model also has the potential to be a state-of-the-art air-quality model. Chemical releases are the most common type of airborne hazardous release and many operational applications involve such scenarios. The new capability we developed is therefore relevant to the needs of the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Department of Defense (DoD).

  14. Tracking of Nuclear Production using Indigenous Species: Final LDRD Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electronic and Nanostructured Materials; Alam, Mary Kathleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetics Characterization Dept.; McIntyre, Sarah K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electronic and Nanostructured Materials; Volk, David [Univ. of Texas, Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy [Univ. of Texas, Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Luxon, Bruce A. [Univ. of Texas, Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Ansari, G. A. Shakeel [Univ. of Texas, Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch

    2009-10-01

    Our LDRD research project sought to develop an analytical method for detection of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Our approach is distinctly different than current research involving hardware-based sensors. By utilizing the response of indigenous species of plants and/or animals surrounding (or within) a nuclear processing facility, we propose tracking 'suspicious molecules' relevant to nuclear materials processing. As proof of concept, we have examined TBP, tributylphosphate, used in uranium enrichment as well as plutonium extraction from spent nuclear fuels. We will compare TBP to the TPP (triphenylphosphate) analog to determine the uniqueness of the metabonomic response. We show that there is a unique metabonomic response within our animal model to TBP. The TBP signature can further be delineated from that of TPP. We have also developed unique methods of instrumental transfer for metabonomic data sets.

  15. Tracking of Nuclear Production using Indigenous Species: Final LDRD Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electronic and Nanostructured Materials; Alam, Mary Kathleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetics Characterization Dept.; McIntyre, Sarah K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electronic and Nanostructured Materials; Volk, David [Univ. of Texas, Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy [Univ. of Texas, Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Luxon, Bruce A. [Univ. of Texas, Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Ansari, G. A. Shakeel [Univ. of Texas, Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch

    2009-10-01

    Our LDRD research project sought to develop an analytical method for detection of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Our approach is distinctly different than current research involving hardware based sensors. By utilizing the response of indigenous species of plants and/or animals surrounding (or within) a nuclear processing facility, we propose tracking 'suspicious molecules' relevant to nuclear materials processing. As proof of concept, we have examined TBP, tributylphosphate, used in uranium enrichment as well as plutonium extraction from spent nuclear fuels. We will compare TBP to the TPP (triphenylphosphate) analog to determine the uniqueness of the metabonomic response. We show that there is a unique metabonomic response within our animal model to TBP. The TBP signature can further be delineated from that of TPP. We have also developed unique methods of instrumental transfer for metabonomic data sets.

  16. Final report on grand challenge LDRD project : a revolution in lighting : building the science and technology base for ultra-efficient solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Robert Guild; Mitchell, Christine Charlotte; Follstaedt, David Martin; Lee, Stephen Roger; Shul, Randy John; Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Chow, Weng Wah Dr.; Myers, Samuel Maxwell, Jr.; Thoma, Steven George; Gee, James Martin; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Burdick, Brent A.; Salamone, Angelo, L., Jr.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Elliott, Russell D.; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Abrams, Billie Lynn; Wendt, Joel Robert; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Simpson, Regina Lynn; Kurtz, Steven Ross; Cole, Phillip James; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta; Seager, Carleton Hoover; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Biefeld, Robert Malcolm; Kerley, Thomas M.; Norman, Adam K.; Tallant, David Robert; Woessner, Stephen Matthew; Figiel, Jeffrey James; Moffat, Harry K.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Emerson, John Allen; Kaplar, Robert James; Wilcoxon, Jess Patrick; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea; Cross, Karen Charlene; Wright, Alan Francis; Gonzales, Rene Marie; Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Garcia, Marie L.; Allen, Mark S.; Southwell, Edwin T. (Perspectives, Sedona, AZ); Bauer, Tom M.; Monson, Mary Ann; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Creighton, James Randall; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Simmons, Jerry A.; Boyack, Kevin W.; Jones, Eric Daniel; Moran, Michael P.; Pinzon, Marcia J. (Perspectives, Sedona, AZ); Pinson, Ariane O. (Perspectives, Sedona, AZ); Miksovic, Ann E. (Perspectives, Sedona, AZ); Wang, George T.; Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Missert, Nancy A.; Koleske, Daniel David; Rahal, Nabeel M.

    2004-06-01

    This SAND report is the final report on Sandia's Grand Challenge LDRD Project 27328, 'A Revolution in Lighting -- Building the Science and Technology Base for Ultra-Efficient Solid-state Lighting.' This project, which for brevity we refer to as the SSL GCLDRD, is considered one of Sandia's most successful GCLDRDs. As a result, this report reviews not only technical highlights, but also the genesis of the idea for Solid-state Lighting (SSL), the initiation of the SSL GCLDRD, and the goals, scope, success metrics, and evolution of the SSL GCLDRD over the course of its life. One way in which the SSL GCLDRD was different from other GCLDRDs was that it coincided with a larger effort by the SSL community - primarily industrial companies investing in SSL, but also universities, trade organizations, and other Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories - to support a national initiative in SSL R&D. Sandia was a major player in publicizing the tremendous energy savings potential of SSL, and in helping to develop, unify and support community consensus for such an initiative. Hence, our activities in this area, discussed in Chapter 6, were substantial: white papers; SSL technology workshops and roadmaps; support for the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA), DOE and Senator Bingaman's office; extensive public relations and media activities; and a worldwide SSL community website. Many science and technology advances and breakthroughs were also enabled under this GCLDRD, resulting in: 55 publications; 124 presentations; 10 book chapters and reports; 5 U.S. patent applications including 1 already issued; and 14 patent disclosures not yet applied for. Twenty-six invited talks were given, at prestigious venues such as the American Physical Society Meeting, the Materials Research Society Meeting, the AVS International Symposium, and the Electrochemical Society Meeting. This report contains a summary of these science and technology

  17. LDRD 2014 Annual Report: Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, Diane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Order 413.2B dated April 19, 2006. This report provides a detailed look at the scientific and technical activities for each of the LDRD projects funded by BNL in FY 2014, as required. In FY 2014, the BNL LDRD Program funded 40 projects, 8 of which were new starts, at a total cost of $9.6M.

  18. LDRD 2015 Annual Report: Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Order 413.2B dated April 19, 2006. This report provides a detailed look at the scientific and technical activities for each of the LDRD projects funded by BNL in FY 2015, as required. In FY 2015, the BNL LDRD Program funded 43 projects, 12 of which were new starts, at a total cost of $9.5M.

  19. Computational Biology: A Strategic Initiative LDRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barksy, D; Colvin, M

    2002-02-07

    The goal of this Strategic Initiative LDRD project was to establish at LLNL a new core capability in computational biology, combining laboratory strengths in high performance computing, molecular biology, and computational chemistry and physics. As described in this report, this project has been very successful in achieving this goal. This success is demonstrated by the large number of referred publications, invited talks, and follow-on research grants that have resulted from this project. Additionally, this project has helped build connections to internal and external collaborators and funding agencies that will be critical to the long-term vitality of LLNL programs in computational biology. Most importantly, this project has helped establish on-going research groups in the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, the Physics and Applied Technology Directorate, and the Computation Directorate. These groups include three laboratory staff members originally hired as post-doctoral researchers for this strategic initiative.

  20. FY05 LDRD Final Report A Computational Design Tool for Microdevices and Components in Pathogen Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebotich, D

    2006-02-07

    We have developed new algorithms to model complex biological flows in integrated biodetection microdevice components. The proposed work is important because the design strategy for the next-generation Autonomous Pathogen Detection System at LLNL is the microfluidic-based Biobriefcase, being developed under the Chemical and Biological Countermeasures Program in the Homeland Security Organization. This miniaturization strategy introduces a new flow regime to systems where biological flow is already complex and not well understood. Also, design and fabrication of MEMS devices is time-consuming and costly due to the current trial-and-error approach. Furthermore, existing devices, in general, are not optimized. There are several MEMS CAD capabilities currently available, but their computational fluid dynamics modeling capabilities are rudimentary at best. Therefore, we proposed a collaboration to develop computational tools at LLNL which will (1) provide critical understanding of the fundamental flow physics involved in bioMEMS devices, (2) shorten the design and fabrication process, and thus reduce costs, (3) optimize current prototypes and (4) provide a prediction capability for the design of new, more advanced microfluidic systems. Computational expertise was provided by Comp-CASC and UC Davis-DAS. The simulation work was supported by key experiments for guidance and validation at UC Berkeley-BioE.

  1. SRNL LDRD ANNUAL REPORT 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, T

    2008-12-29

    The Laboratory Director is pleased to have the opportunity to present the 2008 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This is my first opportunity to do so, and only the second such report that has been issued. As will be obvious, SRNL has built upon the excellent start that was made with the LDRD program last year, and researchers have broken new ground in some important areas. In reviewing the output of this program this year, it is clear that the researchers implemented their ideas with creativity, skill and enthusiasm. It is gratifying to see this level of participation, because the LDRD program remains a key part of meeting SRNL's and DOE's strategic goals, and helps lay a solid scientific foundation for SRNL as the premier applied science laboratory. I also believe that the LDRD program's results this year have demonstrated SRNL's value as the EM Corporate Laboratory, having advanced knowledge in a spectrum of areas, including reduction of the technical risks of cleanup, separations science, packaging and transportation of nuclear materials, and many others. The research in support of Energy Security and National and Homeland Security has been no less notable. SRNL' s researchers have shown again that the nascent LDRD program is a sound investment for DOE that will pay off handsomely for the nation as time goes on.

  2. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  3. LDRD 2016 Annual Report: Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Order 413.2C dated October 22, 2015. This report provides a detailed look at the scientific and technical activities for each of the LDRD projects funded by BNL in FY 2016, as required. In FY 2016, the BNL LDRD Program funded 48 projects, 21 of which were new starts, at a total cost of $11.5M. The investments that BNL makes in its LDRD program support the Laboratory’s strategic goals. BNL has identified four Critical Outcomes that define the Laboratory’s scientific future and that will enable it to realize its overall vision. Two operational Critical Outcomes address essential operational support for that future: renewal of the BNL campus; and safe, efficient laboratory operations.

  4. Neurons to algorithms LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Aimone, James Bradley; Warrender, Christina E.; Trumbo, Derek

    2013-09-01

    Over the last three years the Neurons to Algorithms (N2A) LDRD project teams has built infrastructure to discover computational structures in the brain. This consists of a modeling language, a tool that enables model development and simulation in that language, and initial connections with the Neuroinformatics community, a group working toward similar goals. The approach of N2A is to express large complex systems like the brain as populations of a discrete part types that have specific structural relationships with each other, along with internal and structural dynamics. Such an evolving mathematical system may be able to capture the essence of neural processing, and ultimately of thought itself. This final report is a cover for the actual products of the project: the N2A Language Specification, the N2A Application, and a journal paper summarizing our methods.

  5. Final report for %22High performance computing for advanced national electric power grid modeling and integration of solar generation resources%22, LDRD Project No. 149016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Riehm, Andrew Charles; Hoekstra, Robert John; Munoz-Ramirez, Karina; Stamp, Jason Edwin; Phillips, Laurence R.; Adams, Brian M.; Russo, Thomas V.; Oldfield, Ron A.; McLendon, William Clarence, III; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Hansen, Clifford W.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stein, Joshua S.; Schoenwald, David Alan; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.

    2011-02-01

    Design and operation of the electric power grid (EPG) relies heavily on computational models. High-fidelity, full-order models are used to study transient phenomena on only a small part of the network. Reduced-order dynamic and power flow models are used when analysis involving thousands of nodes are required due to the computational demands when simulating large numbers of nodes. The level of complexity of the future EPG will dramatically increase due to large-scale deployment of variable renewable generation, active load and distributed generation resources, adaptive protection and control systems, and price-responsive demand. High-fidelity modeling of this future grid will require significant advances in coupled, multi-scale tools and their use on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. This LDRD report demonstrates SNL's capability to apply HPC resources to these 3 tasks: (1) High-fidelity, large-scale modeling of power system dynamics; (2) Statistical assessment of grid security via Monte-Carlo simulations of cyber attacks; and (3) Development of models to predict variability of solar resources at locations where little or no ground-based measurements are available.

  6. Shock compression of liquid helium and helium-hydrogen mixtures : development of a cryogenic capability for shock compression of liquid helium on Z, final report for LDRD Project 141536.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Andrew J.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Shelton, Keegan P.; Hanson, David Lester

    2010-10-01

    This final report on SNL/NM LDRD Project 141536 summarizes progress made toward the development of a cryogenic capability to generate liquid helium (LHe) samples for high accuracy equation-of-state (EOS) measurements on the Z current drive. Accurate data on He properties at Mbar pressures are critical to understanding giant planetary interiors and for validating first principles density functional simulations, but it is difficult to condense LHe samples at very low temperatures (<3.5 K) for experimental studies on gas guns, magnetic and explosive compression devices, and lasers. We have developed a conceptual design for a cryogenic LHe sample system to generate quiescent superfluid LHe samples at 1.5-1.8 K. This cryogenic system adapts the basic elements of a continuously operating, self-regulating {sup 4}He evaporation refrigerator to the constraints of shock compression experiments on Z. To minimize heat load, the sample holder is surrounded by a double layer of thermal radiation shields cooled with LHe to 5 K. Delivery of LHe to the pumped-He evaporator bath is controlled by a flow impedance. The LHe sample holder assembly features modular components and simplified fabrication techniques to reduce cost and complexity to levels required of an expendable device. Prototypes have been fabricated, assembled, and instrumented for initial testing.

  7. Multi-target camera tracking, hand-off and display LDRD 158819 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Modern security control rooms gather video and sensor feeds from tens to hundreds of cameras. Advanced camera analytics can detect motion from individual video streams and convert unexpected motion into alarms, but the interpretation of these alarms depends heavily upon human operators. Unfortunately, these operators can be overwhelmed when a large number of events happen simultaneously, or lulled into complacency due to frequent false alarms. This LDRD project has focused on improving video surveillance-based security systems by changing the fundamental focus from the cameras to the targets being tracked. If properly integrated, more cameras shouldn't lead to more alarms, more monitors, more operators, and increased response latency but instead should lead to better information and more rapid response times. For the course of the LDRD we have been developing algorithms that take live video imagery from multiple video cameras, identifies individual moving targets from the background imagery, and then displays the results in a single 3D interactive video. In this document we summarize the work in developing this multi-camera, multi-target system, including lessons learned, tools developed, technologies explored, and a description of current capability.

  8. Multi-Target Camera Tracking, Hand-off and Display LDRD 158819 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Robotic and Security Systems Dept.

    2014-10-01

    Modern security control rooms gather video and sensor feeds from tens to hundreds of cameras. Advanced camera analytics can detect motion from individual video streams and convert unexpected motion into alarms, but the interpretation of these alarms depends heavily upon human operators. Unfortunately, these operators can be overwhelmed when a large number of events happen simultaneously, or lulled into complacency due to frequent false alarms. This LDRD project has focused on improving video surveillance-based security systems by changing the fundamental focus from the cameras to the targets being tracked. If properly integrated, more cameras shouldn’t lead to more alarms, more monitors, more operators, and increased response latency but instead should lead to better information and more rapid response times. For the course of the LDRD we have been developing algorithms that take live video imagery from multiple video cameras, identify individual moving targets from the background imagery, and then display the results in a single 3D interactive video. In this document we summarize the work in developing this multi-camera, multi-target system, including lessons learned, tools developed, technologies explored, and a description of current capability.

  9. Multi-Target Camera Tracking, Hand-off and Display LDRD 158819 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Robotic and Security Systems Dept.

    2014-10-01

    Modern security control rooms gather video and sensor feeds from tens to hundreds of cameras. Advanced camera analytics can detect motion from individual video streams and convert unexpected motion into alarms, but the interpretation of these alarms depends heavily upon human operators. Unfortunately, these operators can be overwhelmed when a large number of events happen simultaneously, or lulled into complacency due to frequent false alarms. This LDRD project has focused on improving video surveillance based security systems by changing the fundamental focus from the cameras to the targets being tracked. If properly integrated, more cameras shouldn’t lead to more alarms, more monitors, more operators, and increased response latency but instead should lead to better information and more rapid response times. For the course of the LDRD we have been developing algorithms that takes live video imagery from multiple video cameras, identifies individual moving targets from the background imagery, and then displays the results in a single 3D interactive video. In this document we summarize the work in developing this multi-camera, multi-target system, including lessons learned, tools developed, technologies explored, and a description of currently capability.

  10. Multi-target camera tracking, hand-off and display LDRD 158819 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Modern security control rooms gather video and sensor feeds from tens to hundreds of cameras. Advanced camera analytics can detect motion from individual video streams and convert unexpected motion into alarms, but the interpretation of these alarms depends heavily upon human operators. Unfortunately, these operators can be overwhelmed when a large number of events happen simultaneously, or lulled into complacency due to frequent false alarms. This LDRD project has focused on improving video surveillance-based security systems by changing the fundamental focus from the cameras to the targets being tracked. If properly integrated, more cameras shouldn't lead to more alarms, more monitors, more operators, and increased response latency but instead should lead to better information and more rapid response times. For the course of the LDRD we have been developing algorithms that takes live video imagery from multiple video cameras, identifies individual moving targets from the background imagery, and then displays the results in a single 3D interactive video. In this document we summarize the work in developing this multi-camera, multi-target system, including lessons learned, tools developed, technologies explored, and a description of currently capability.

  11. Final LDRD report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Andrea; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Ermanoski, Ivan; Hogan, Roy E.,; McDaniel, Anthony H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid progress, solar thermochemistry remains high risk; improvements in both active materials and reactor systems are needed. This claim is supported by studies conducted both prior to and as part of this project. Materials offer a particular large opportunity space as, until recently, very little effort apart from basic thermodynamic analysis was extended towards understanding this most fundamental component of a metal oxide thermochemical cycle. Without this knowledge, system design was hampered, but more importantly, advances in these crucial materials were rare and resulted more from intuition rather than detailed insight. As a result, only two basic families of potentially viable solid materials have been widely considered, each of which has significant challenges. Recent efforts towards applying an increased level of scientific rigor to the study of thermochemical materials have provided a much needed framework and insights toward developing the next generation of highly improved thermochemically active materials. The primary goal of this project was to apply this hard-won knowledge to rapidly advance the field of thermochemistry to produce a material within 2 years that is capable of yielding CO from CO2 at a 12.5 % reactor efficiency. Three principal approaches spanning a range of risk and potential rewards were pursued: modification of known materials, structuring known materials, and identifying/developing new materials for the application. A newly developed best-of-class material produces more fuel (9x more H2, 6x more CO) under milder conditions than the previous state of the art. Analyses of thermochemical reactor and system efficiencies and economics were performed and a new hybrid concept was reported. The larger case for solar fuels was also further refined and documented.

  12. Transportation Energy Pathways LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barter, Garrett.; Reichmuth, David.; Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Yoshimura, Ann S.; Peterson, Meghan B.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Guzman, Katherine Dunphy; Edwards, Donna M.; Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters

    2012-09-01

    This report presents a system dynamics based model of the supply-demand interactions between the USlight-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet, its fuels, and the corresponding primary energy sources through the year2050. An important capability of our model is the ability to conduct parametric analyses. Others have reliedupon scenario-based analysis, where one discrete set of values is assigned to the input variables and used togenerate one possible realization of the future. While these scenarios can be illustrative of dominant trendsand tradeoffs under certain circumstances, changes in input values or assumptions can have a significantimpact on results, especially when output metrics are associated with projections far into the future. Thistype of uncertainty can be addressed by using a parametric study to examine a range of values for the inputvariables, offering a richer source of data to an analyst.The parametric analysis featured here focuses on a trade space exploration, with emphasis on factors thatinfluence the adoption rates of electric vehicles (EVs), the reduction of GHG emissions, and the reduction ofpetroleum consumption within the US LDV fleet. The underlying model emphasizes competition between13 different types of powertrains, including conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs), conventional hybrids(HEVs), plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles(BEVs).We find that many factors contribute to the adoption rates of EVs. These include the pace of technologicaldevelopment for the electric powertrain, battery performance, as well as the efficiency improvements inconventional vehicles. Policy initiatives can also have a dramatic impact on the degree of EV adoption. Theconsumer effective payback period, in particular, can significantly increase the market penetration rates ifextended towards the vehicle lifetime.Widespread EV adoption can have noticeable impact on petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas

  13. Enhanced Micellar Catalysis LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D; Taggart, Gretchen; Kinnan, Mark K.; Glen, Crystal Chanea; Rivera, Danielle; Sanchez, Andres; Alam, Todd Michael

    2012-12-01

    The primary goals of the Enhanced Micellar Catalysis project were to gain an understanding of the micellar environment of DF-200, or similar liquid CBW surfactant-based decontaminants, as well as characterize the aerosolized DF-200 droplet distribution and droplet chemistry under baseline ITW rotary atomization conditions. Micellar characterization of limited surfactant solutions was performed externally through the collection and measurement of Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) images and Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) images. Micellar characterization was performed externally at the University of Minnesotas Characterization Facility Center, and at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source facility. A micellar diffusion study was conducted internally at Sandia to measure diffusion constants of surfactants over a concentration range, to estimate the effective micelle diameter, to determine the impact of individual components to the micellar environment in solution, and the impact of combined components to surfactant phase behavior. Aerosolized DF-200 sprays were characterized for particle size and distribution and limited chemical composition. Evaporation rates of aerosolized DF-200 sprays were estimated under a set of baseline ITW nozzle test system parameters.

  14. LDRD final report : autotuning for scalable linear algebra.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Marker, Bryan (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress made as part of a one year lab-directed research and development (LDRD) project to fund the research efforts of Bryan Marker at the University of Texas at Austin. The goal of the project was to develop new techniques for automatically tuning the performance of dense linear algebra kernels. These kernels often represent the majority of computational time in an application. The primary outcome from this work is a demonstration of the value of model driven engineering as an approach to accurately predict and study performance trade-offs for dense linear algebra computations.

  15. ICF Program: LDRD-ER Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H

    2004-02-05

    In the 01-ERD-107 LDRD-ER project, we have performed novel Thomson scattering experiments at the Trident and Omega laser facilities and provided high quality spectral data. These results have led to the development of the first quantitative understanding of laser-plasma interactions for NIF plasmas. For this purpose an green/ultraviolet probe laser, built for Nova in 1998 [1] and successfully used to measure both temperature and plasma wave amplitudes [2], has been deployed on Omega. The Thomson scattering diagnostics has been used twofold: (1) it provided independent measurements of the plasma electron and ion temperature, the plasma flow velocity, or the electron distribution function; (2) it provided measurements of the primary plasma wave and their secondary non-linear decay wave products. These experiments at Omega provide definitive quantitative results on the nonlinear saturation of stimulated Raman scattering for green (2{omega}) beams. In addition, the experiments on the Trident laser have led to a quantitative understanding of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in low-Z plasmas. A nonlinear frequency detuning model has successfully explained all the experimental observable including the SBS reflectivity. This model has been implemented into the laser-plasma interaction code pF3D as a tool to design and optimize NIF target experiments with SBS and SRS losses included. The development of quantitative models for SBS and SRS for various regimes has now been adopted as part of the WBS1 project within the ICF program.

  16. Advancing the Fundamental Understanding of Fission: 2014 LDRD 20120077DR Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tovesson, Fredrik K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sierk, Arnold John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-06

    The following slides were presented as part of the LDRD 20120077DR Progress Appraisal Review held Tuesday, February 4, 2014. This is part of an ongoing project assessment the previous of which was documented in LA-UR-13-21182. This presentation documents the progress made against the goals agreed to as part of the 2013 review.

  17. A progress report on the LDRD project entitled {open_quotes}Microelectronic silicon-based chemical sensors: Ultradetection of high value molecules{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    This work addresses a new kind of silicon based chemical sensor that combines the reliability and stability of silicon microelectronic field effect devices with the highly selective and sensitive immunoassay. The sensor works on the principle that thin SiN layers on lightly doped Si can detect pH changes rapidly and reversibly. The pH changes affect the surface potential, and that can be quickly determined by pulsed photovoltage measurements. To detect other species, chemically sensitive films were deposited on the SiN where the presence of the chosen analyte results in pH changes through chemical reactions. A invention of a cell sorting device based on these principles is also described. A new method of immobilizing enzymes using Sandia`s sol-gel glasses is documented and biosensors based on the silicon wafer and an amperometric technique are detailed.

  18. Final Report of LDRD Project Number 34693: Building Conscious Machines Based Upon the Architecture of Visual Cortex in the Primate Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, CHRISTOF

    2003-01-01

    Our research plan is two-fold: first, we have extended our biological model of bottom-up visual attention with several recently characterized cortical interactions that are known to be responsible for human performance in certain visual tasks, and second, we have used an eyetracking system for collecting human eye movement data, from which we can calibrate the new additions to the model. We acquired an infrared video eyetracking system, which we are using to record observers' eye position with high temporal (120Hz) and spatial ({+-} 0.25 deg visual angle) accuracy. We collected eye movement scan paths from observers as they view computer-generated fractals, rural and urban outdoor scenes, and overhead satellite imagery. We found that, with very high statistical significance (10 to 12 z-scores), the saliency model accurately predicts locations that human observers will find interesting. We adopted our model of short-range interactions among overlapping spatial orientation channels to better predict bottom-up stimulus-driven attention in humans. This enhanced model is even more accurate in its predictions of human observers' eye movements. We are currently incorporating biologically plausible long-range interactions among orientation channels, which will aid in the detection of elongated contours such as rivers, roads, airstrips, and other man-made structures.

  19. Final Report for LDRD Project 02-ERD-069: Discovering the Unknown Mechanism(s) of Virulence in a BW, Class A Select Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, P; Garcia, E

    2003-02-06

    The goal of this proposed effort was to assess the difficulty in identifying and characterizing virulence candidate genes in an organism for which very limited data exists. This was accomplished by first addressing the finishing phase of draft-sequenced F. tularensis genomes and conducting comparative analyses to determine the coding potential of each genome; to discover the differences in genome structure and content, and to identify potential genes whose products may be involved in the F. tularensis virulence process. The project was divided into three parts: (1) Genome finishing: This part involves determining the order and orientation of the consensus sequences of contigs obtained from Phrap assemblies of random draft genomic sequences. This tedious process consists of linking contig ends using information embedded in each sequence file that relates the sequence to the original cloned insert. Since inserts are sequenced from both ends, we can establish a link between these paired-ends in different contigs and thus order and orient contigs. Since these genomes carry numerous copies of insertion sequences, these repeated elements ''confuse'' the Phrap assembly program. It is thus necessary to break these contigs apart at the repeated sequences and individually join the proper flanking regions using paired-end information, or using results of comparisons against a similar genome. Larger repeated elements such as the small subunit ribosomal RNA operon require verification with PCR. Tandem repeats require manual intervention and typically rely on single nucleotide polymorphisms to be resolved. Remaining gaps require PCR reactions and sequencing. Once the genomes have been ''closed'', low quality regions are addressed by resequencing reactions. (2) Genome analysis: The final consensus sequences are processed by combining the results of three gene modelers: Glimmer, Critica and Generation. The final gene models are submitted to

  20. Final report on LDRD project : elucidating performance of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells via computational modeling with experimental discovery and validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao Yang (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Pasaogullari, Ugur (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Noble, David R.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Hickner, Michael A.; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2006-11-01

    In this report, we document the accomplishments in our Laboratory Directed Research and Development project in which we employed a technical approach of combining experiments with computational modeling and analyses to elucidate the performance of hydrogen-fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In the first part of this report, we document our focused efforts on understanding water transport in and removal from a hydrogen-fed PEMFC. Using a transparent cell, we directly visualized the evolution and growth of liquid-water droplets at the gas diffusion layer (GDL)/gas flow channel (GFC) interface. We further carried out a detailed experimental study to observe, via direct visualization, the formation, growth, and instability of water droplets at the GDL/GFC interface using a specially-designed apparatus, which simulates the cathode operation of a PEMFC. We developed a simplified model, based on our experimental observation and data, for predicting the onset of water-droplet instability at the GDL/GFC interface. Using a state-of-the-art neutron imaging instrument available at NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology), we probed liquid-water distribution inside an operating PEMFC under a variety of operating conditions and investigated effects of evaporation due to local heating by waste heat on water removal. Moreover, we developed computational models for analyzing the effects of micro-porous layer on net water transport across the membrane and GDL anisotropy on the temperature and water distributions in the cathode of a PEMFC. We further developed a two-phase model based on the multiphase mixture formulation for predicting the liquid saturation, pressure drop, and flow maldistribution across the PEMFC cathode channels. In the second part of this report, we document our efforts on modeling the electrochemical performance of PEMFCs. We developed a constitutive model for predicting proton conductivity in polymer electrolyte membranes and compared

  1. Efficient Probability of Failure Calculations for QMU using Computational Geometry LDRD 13-0144 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebeida, Mohamed Salah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rushdi, Ahmad A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Abdelkader, Ahmad [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This SAND report summarizes our work on the Sandia National Laboratory LDRD project titled "Efficient Probability of Failure Calculations for QMU using Computational Geometry" which was project #165617 and proposal #13-0144. This report merely summarizes our work. Those interested in the technical details are encouraged to read the full published results, and contact the report authors for the status of the software and follow-on projects.

  2. Distributed Impact Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated impact detection and characterization on manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal due to the transitory nature of the detectable high-frequency signals....

  3. Nanoporous Silica Templated HeteroEpitaxy: Final LDRD Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Koleske, Daniel; Rowen, Adam M.; Williams, John Dalton; Fan, Hongyou; Arrington, Christian Lew

    2006-11-01

    This one-year out-of-the-box LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, and the UV curable epoxy, SU-8. Use of SU-8 as a growth mask represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist patterns and pilot work on using SU-8 as a DUV negative resist, another significant potential result. While the late start nature of this project pushed some of the initial research goals out of the time table, significant progress was made. 3 Acknowledgements This work was performed in part at the Nanoscience @ UNM facility, a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant ECS 03-35765). Sandia is multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United Stated Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported under the Sandia LDRD program (Project 99405). 4

  4. Real-time discriminatory sensors for water contamination events :LDRD 52595 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III (; ); Carrejo-Simpkins, Kimberly; Wheeler, David Roger; Adkins, Douglas Ray; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Lewis, Patrick Raymond; Goodin, Andrew M.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Chambers, William Clayton; Mowry, Curtis Dale (1722 Micro-Total-Analytical Systems); Showalter, Steven Kedrick

    2005-10-01

    The gas-phase {mu}ChemLab{trademark} developed by Sandia can detect volatile organics and semi-volatiles organics via gas phase sampling . The goal of this three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project was to adapt the components and concepts used by the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} system towards the analysis of water-borne chemicals of current concern. In essence, interfacing the gas-phase {mu}ChemLab{trademark} with water to bring the significant prior investment of Sandia and the advantages of microfabrication and portable analysis to a whole new world of important analytes. These include both chemical weapons agents and their hydrolysis products and disinfection by-products such as Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). THMs and HAAs are currently regulated by EPA due to health issues, yet water utilities do not have rapid on-site methods of detection that would allow them to adjust their processes quickly; protecting consumers, meeting water quality standards, and obeying regulations more easily and with greater confidence. This report documents the results, unique hardware and devices, and methods designed during the project toward the goal stated above. It also presents and discusses the portable field system to measure THMs developed in the course of this project.

  5. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  6. Detection of Life Forms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gaia Genomics proposes to develop an instrument for the detection of earthborn and/or planetary life forms that are based on a nucleic acid paradigm. Highly...

  7. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for

  8. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for t

  9. LDRD Highlights at the National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alayat, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-10

    To meet the nation’s critical challenges, the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories have always pushed the boundaries of science, technology, and engineering. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 provided the basis for these laboratories to engage in the cutting edge of science and technology and respond to technological surprises, while retaining the best scientific and technological minds. To help re-energize this commitment, in 1991 the U.S. Congress authorized the national laboratories to devote a relatively small percentage of their budget to creative and innovative work that serves to maintain their vitality in disciplines relevant to DOE missions. Since then, this effort has been formally called the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. LDRD has been an essential mechanism to enable the laboratories to address DOE’s current and future missions with leading-edge research proposed independently by laboratory technical staff, evaluated through expert peer-review committees, and funded by the individual laboratories consistent with the authorizing legislation and the DOE LDRD Order 413.2C.

  10. LDRD final report : robust analysis of large-scale combinatorial applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Robert D.; Morrison, Todd (University of Colorado, Denver, CO); Hart, William Eugene; Benavides, Nicolas L. (Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA); Greenberg, Harvey J. (University of Colorado, Denver, CO); Watson, Jean-Paul; Phillips, Cynthia Ann

    2007-09-01

    Discrete models of large, complex systems like national infrastructures and complex logistics frameworks naturally incorporate many modeling uncertainties. Consequently, there is a clear need for optimization techniques that can robustly account for risks associated with modeling uncertainties. This report summarizes the progress of the Late-Start LDRD 'Robust Analysis of Largescale Combinatorial Applications'. This project developed new heuristics for solving robust optimization models, and developed new robust optimization models for describing uncertainty scenarios.

  11. Multi-attribute criteria applied to electric generation energy system analysis LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Drennen, Thomas E.; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Paananen, Orman Henrie; Jones, Scott A.; Ortner, Juergen G. (DLR, German Aerospace, Cologne); Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Valdez, Maximo M.

    2005-10-01

    This report began with a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve Sandia National Laboratories multidisciplinary capabilities in energy systems analysis. The aim is to understand how various electricity generating options can best serve needs in the United States. The initial product is documented in a series of white papers that span a broad range of topics, including the successes and failures of past modeling studies, sustainability, oil dependence, energy security, and nuclear power. Summaries of these projects are included here. These projects have provided a background and discussion framework for the Energy Systems Analysis LDRD team to carry out an inter-comparison of many of the commonly available electric power sources in present use, comparisons of those options, and efforts needed to realize progress towards those options. A computer aid has been developed to compare various options based on cost and other attributes such as technological, social, and policy constraints. The Energy Systems Analysis team has developed a multi-criteria framework that will allow comparison of energy options with a set of metrics that can be used across all technologies. This report discusses several evaluation techniques and introduces the set of criteria developed for this LDRD.

  12. FY07 LDRD Final Report Precision, Split Beam, Chirped-Pulse, Seed Laser Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-11-12

    The goal of this LDRD ER was to develop a robust and reliable technology to seed high-energy laser systems with chirped pulses that can be amplified to kilo-Joule energies and recompressed to sub-picosecond pulse widths creating extremely high peak powers suitable for petawatt class physics experiments. This LDRD project focused on the development of optical fiber laser technologies compatible with the current long pulse National Ignition Facility (NIF) seed laser. New technologies developed under this project include, high stability mode-locked fiber lasers, fiber based techniques for reduction of compressed pulse pedestals and prepulses, new compact stretchers based on chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs), new techniques for manipulation of chirped pulses prior to amplification and new high-energy fiber amplifiers. This project was highly successful and met virtually all of its goals. The National Ignition Campaign has found the results of this work to be very helpful. The LDRD developed system is being employed in experiments to engineer the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) front end and the fully engineered version of the ARC Front End will employ much of the technology and techniques developed here.

  13. Laser Spray Fabrication for Net-Shape Rapid Product Realization LDRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, C.L.; Ensz, M.T.; Greene, D.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.; Jeantette, F.P.; Keicher, D.M.; Oliver, M.S.; Reckaway, D.E.; Romero, J.A.; Schlienger, M.E.; Smugeresky, J.D.

    1999-04-01

    The primary purpose of this LDRD project was to characterize the laser deposition process and determine the feasibility of fabricating complex near-net shapes directly from a CAD solid model. Process characterization provided direction in developing a system to fabricate complex shapes directly from a CAD solid model. Our goal for this LDRD was to develop a system that is robust and provides a significant advancement to existing technologies (e.g., polymeric-based rapid prototyping, laser welding). Development of the process will allow design engineers to produce functional models of their designs directly from CAD files. The turnaround time for complex geometrical shaped parts will be hours instead of days and days instead of months. With reduced turnaround time, more time can be spent on the product-design phase to ensure that the best component design is achieved. Maturation of this technology will revolutionize the way the world produces structural components.

  14. 2014 SRNL LDRD Annual Report, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwhorter, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-15

    Laboratory Directed Research and Development is a congressionally authorized program that provides the ‘innovation inspiration’ from which many of the Laboratory’s multi-discipline advancements are made in both science and engineering technology. The program is the backbone for insuring that scientific, technical and engineering capabilities can meet current and future needs. It is an important tool in reducing the probability of technological surprise by allowing laboratory technical staff room to innovate and keep abreast of scientific breakthroughs. Drawing from the synergism among the EM and NNSA missions, and work from other federal agencies ensures that LDRD is the key element in maintaining the vitality of SRNL’s technical programs. The LDRD program aims to position the Laboratory for new business in clean energy, national security, nuclear materials management and environmental stewardship by leveraging the unique capabilities of the Laboratory to yield foundational scientific research in core business areas, while aligning with SRS strategic initiatives and maintaining a vision for ultimate DOE applications.

  15. Universal bioprocessor LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luongo, Kenneth N., 1960- (.,; -); Reichmuth, David S.; Cummings, Eric B.; Krafcik, Karen L.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Sabounchi, Poorya; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Syed, Yusef; Ponce, Pierre; Salmi, Allen J.; VandeVreugde, James E.

    2006-11-01

    Microsystems pose unparalleled opportunity in the realm of real-time sample analysis for multiple applications, including Homeland Security monitoring devices, environmental monitoring, and biomedical diagnostics. The need for a universal means of processing, separating, and delivering a sample within these devices is a critical need if these systems are to receive widespread implementation in the industry and government sectors. Efficient particle separation and enrichment techniques are critical for a range of analytical functions including pathogen detection, sample preparation, high-throughput particle sorting, and biomedical diagnostics. Previously, using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) in microfluidic glass devices, we demonstrated simultaneous particle separation and concentration. As an alternative to glass, we evaluate the performance of similar iDEP structures produced in polymer-based microdevices and their enhancement through dynamic surface coatings. There are numerous processing and operational advantages that motivate our transition to polymers such as the availability of numerous innate chemical compositions for tailoring performance, mechanical robustness, economy of scale, and ease of thermoforming and mass manufacturing. The polymer chips we have evaluated are fabricated through an injection molding process of the commercially available cyclic olefin copolymer Zeonor{reg_sign}. We demonstrate that the polymer devices achieve the same performance metrics as glass devices. Additionally, we show that the nonionic block copolymer surfactant Pluronic F127 has a strong interaction with the cyclic olefin copolymer at very low concentrations, positively impacting performance by decreasing the magnitude of the applied electric field necessary to achieve particle trapping. The presence of these dynamic surface coatings, therefore, lowers the power required to operate such devices and minimizes Joule heating. The results of this study demonstrate

  16. LDRD Final Report: Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements (04-ERD-057)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D; Burke, J; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Forssen, C; Gueorguiev, V; Hoffman, R D

    2007-02-23

    Research carried out in the framework of the LDRD project ''Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements'' (04-ERD-057) is summarized. The project was designed to address the challenge of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions involving unstable targets, with a particular emphasis on reactions that play a key role in the production of the elements between Iron and Uranium. This report reviews the motivation for the research, introduces the approach employed to address the problem, and summarizes the resulting scientific insights, technical findings, and related accomplishments.

  17. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  18. Precision guided parachute LDRD final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkey, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Aided Navigation and Remote Sensing Dept.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Precision Guided Parachute LDRD, a two year program at Sandia National Laboratories which developed a Global Positioning System (GPS) guided parachute capable of autonomous flight and landings. A detailed computer model of a gliding parachute was developed for software only simulations. A hardware in-the-loop simulator was developed and used for flight package system integration and design validation. Initial parachute drop tests were conducted at Sandia`s Coyote Canyon Cable Facility, followed by a series of airdrops using Ross Aircraft`s Twin Otter at the Burris Ranch Drop Zone. Final flights demonstrated in-flight wind estimation and the capability to fly a commanded heading. In the past, the cost and logistical complexity of an initial navigation system ruled out actively guiding a parachute. The advent of the low-cost, light-weight Global Positioning System (GPS) has eliminated this barrier. By using GPS position and velocity measurements, a guided parachute can autonomously steer itself to a targeted point on the ground through the use of control drums attached to the control lanyards of the parachute. By actively correcting for drop point errors and wind drift, the guidance accuracy of this system should be on the order of GPS position errors. This would be a significant improvement over unguided airdrops which may have errors of a mile or more.

  19. Self organizing software research : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2004-01-01

    We have made progress in developing a new statistical mechanics approach to designing self organizing systems that is unique to SNL. The primary application target for this ongoing research has been the development of new kinds of nanoscale components and hardware systems. However, this research also enables an out of the box connection to the field of software development. With appropriate modification, the collective behavior physics ideas for enabling simple hardware components to self organize may also provide design methods for a new class of software modules. Our current physics simulations suggest that populations of these special software components would be able to self assemble into a variety of much larger and more complex software systems. If successful, this would provide a radical (disruptive technology) path to developing complex, high reliability software unlike any known today. This high risk, high payoff opportunity does not fit well into existing SNL funding categories, as it is well outside of the mainstreams of both conventional software development practices and the nanoscience research area that spawned it. This LDRD effort was aimed at developing and extending the capabilities of self organizing/assembling software systems, and to demonstrate the unique capabilities and advantages of this radical new approach for software development.

  20. LDRD final report : a lightweight operating system for multi-core capability class supercomputers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Hudson, Trammell B. (OS Research); Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2010-09-01

    The two primary objectives of this LDRD project were to create a lightweight kernel (LWK) operating system(OS) designed to take maximum advantage of multi-core processors, and to leverage the virtualization capabilities in modern multi-core processors to create a more flexible and adaptable LWK environment. The most significant technical accomplishments of this project were the development of the Kitten lightweight kernel, the co-development of the SMARTMAP intra-node memory mapping technique, and the development and demonstration of a scalable virtualization environment for HPC. Each of these topics is presented in this report by the inclusion of a published or submitted research paper. The results of this project are being leveraged by several ongoing and new research projects.

  1. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  2. LDRD Final Report: Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HART,WILLIAM E.

    1999-12-01

    For a wide variety of scientific and engineering problems the desired solution corresponds to an optimal set of objective function parameters, where the objective function measures a solution's quality. The main goal of the LDRD ''Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems'' was the development of new robust and efficient optimization algorithms that can be used to find globally optimal solutions to complex optimization problems. This SAND report summarizes the technical accomplishments of this LDRD, discusses lessons learned and describes open research issues.

  3. Building more powerful less expensive supercomputers using Processing-In-Memory (PIM) LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2009-09-01

    This report details the accomplishments of the 'Building More Powerful Less Expensive Supercomputers Using Processing-In-Memory (PIM)' LDRD ('PIM LDRD', number 105809) for FY07-FY09. Latency dominates all levels of supercomputer design. Within a node, increasing memory latency, relative to processor cycle time, limits CPU performance. Between nodes, the same increase in relative latency impacts scalability. Processing-In-Memory (PIM) is an architecture that directly addresses this problem using enhanced chip fabrication technology and machine organization. PIMs combine high-speed logic and dense, low-latency, high-bandwidth DRAM, and lightweight threads that tolerate latency by performing useful work during memory transactions. This work examines the potential of PIM-based architectures to support mission critical Sandia applications and an emerging class of more data intensive informatics applications. This work has resulted in a stronger architecture/implementation collaboration between 1400 and 1700. Additionally, key technology components have impacted vendor roadmaps, and we are in the process of pursuing these new collaborations. This work has the potential to impact future supercomputer design and construction, reducing power and increasing performance. This final report is organized as follow: this summary chapter discusses the impact of the project (Section 1), provides an enumeration of publications and other public discussion of the work (Section 1), and concludes with a discussion of future work and impact from the project (Section 1). The appendix contains reprints of the refereed publications resulting from this work.

  4. Biomarker Detection using PS2-Thioaptamers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a system to detect and quantify bone demineralization biomarkers as outlined in SBIR Topic "Technologies to Detect Biomarkers"....

  5. Interface physics in microporous media : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Knutson, Chad E.; Noble, David R.; Aragon, Alicia R.; Chen, Ken Shuang; Giordano, Nicholas J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Brooks, Carlton, F.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Liu, Yihong (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2008-09-01

    This document contains a summary of the work performed under the LDRD project entitled 'Interface Physics in Microporous Media'. The presence of fluid-fluid interfaces, which can carry non-zero stresses, distinguishes multiphase flows from more readily understood single-phase flows. In this work the physics active at these interfaces has been examined via a combined experimental and computational approach. One of the major difficulties of examining true microporous systems of the type found in filters, membranes, geologic media, etc. is the geometric uncertainty. To help facilitate the examination of transport at the pore-scale without this complication, a significant effort has been made in the area of fabrication of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional micromodels. Using these micromodels, multiphase flow experiments have been performed for liquid-liquid and liquid-gas systems. Laser scanning confocal microscopy has been utilized to provide high resolution, three-dimensional reconstructions as well as time resolved, two-dimensional reconstructions. Computational work has focused on extending lattice Boltzmann (LB) and finite element methods for probing the interface physics at the pore scale. A new LB technique has been developed that provides over 100x speed up for steady flows in complex geometries. A new LB model has been developed that allows for arbitrary density ratios, which has been a significant obstacle in applying LB to air-water flows. A new reduced order model has been developed and implemented in finite element code for examining non-equilibrium wetting in microchannel systems. These advances will enhance Sandia's ability to quantitatively probe the rich interfacial physics present in microporous systems.

  6. LDRD final report: Physical simulation of nonisothermal multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.J.; Hopkins, P.L.; Shadid, J.N.

    1997-07-01

    This document reports on the accomplishments of a laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project whose objective was to initiate a research program for developing a fundamental understanding of multiphase multicomponent subsurface transport in heterogeneous porous media and to develop parallel processing computational tools for numerical simulation of such problems. The main achievement of this project was the successful development of a general-purpose, unstructured grid, multiphase thermal simulator for subsurface transport in heterogeneous porous media implemented for use on massively parallel (MP) computers via message-passing and domain decomposition techniques. The numerical platform provides an excellent base for new and continuing project development in areas of current interest to SNL and the DOE complex including, subsurface nuclear waste disposal and cleanup, groundwater availability and contamination studies, fuel-spill transport for accident analysis, and DNAPL transport and remediation.

  7. MEMS Gyroscope with Interferometric Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop a MEMS gyroscope that uses an ultra high resolution sensing technique for measuring proof mass motion. The goal is to...

  8. Adverse event detection, monitoring, and evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers a single-sensor structural health-monitoring (SHM) system that uses the impedance method to monitor structural integrity, wave propagation...

  9. Idaho National Laboratory LDRD Annual Report FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dena Tomchak

    2013-03-01

    This report provides a glimpse into our diverse research and development portfolio, wwhich encompasses both advanced nuclear science and technology and underlying technologies. IN keeping with the mission, INL's LDRD program fosters technical capabilities necessary to support current and future DOE-Office of Nuclear Energy research and development needs.

  10. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  11. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  12. Detection of surfaces for projection of texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinier, Thierry; Fofi, David; Gorria, Patrick; Salvi, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    Augmented reality is used to improve color segmentation on human's body or on precious no touch artefacts. We propose a technique based on structured light to project texture on a real object without any contact with it. Such techniques can be apply on medical application, archeology, industrial inspection and augmented prototyping. Coded structured light is an optical technique based on active stereovision which allows shape acquisition. By projecting a light pattern onto the surface of an object and capturing images with a camera, a large number of correspondences can be found and 3D points can be reconstructed by means of triangulation.

  13. MEMS Gyroscope with Interferometric Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a novel MEMS gyroscope that uses micro-interferometric detection to measure the motion of the proof mass. Using an interferometric...

  14. High Throughput Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lite Cycles, Inc. (LCI) proposes to develop a direct-detection Doppler lidar (D3L) technology called ELITE that improves the system optical throughput by more than...

  15. Retrospective on the Seniors' Council Tier 1 LDRD portfolio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the Tier 1 LDRD portfolio, administered by the Seniors Council between 2003 and 2011. 73 projects were sponsored over the 9 years of the portfolio at a cost of $10.5 million which includes $1.9M of a special effort in directed innovation targeted at climate change and cyber security. Two of these Tier 1 efforts were the seeds for the Grand Challenge LDRDs in Quantum Computing and Next Generation Photovoltaic conversion. A few LDRDs were terminated early when it appeared clear that the research was not going to succeed. A great many more were successful and led to full Tier 2 LDRDs or direct customer sponsorship. Over a dozen patents are in various stages of prosecution from this work, and one project is being submitted for an R and D 100 award.

  16. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced airborne imaging system for fire detection/mapping is proposed. The goal of the project is to improve control and management of wildfires in order to...

  17. LDRD final report on new homogeneous catalysts for direct olefin epoxidation (LDRD 52591).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Karen (University of Washington); Smythe, Nicole A. (University of Washington); Moore, Joshua T.; Stewart, Constantine A.; Kemp, Richard Alan; Miller, James Edward; Kornienko, Alexander (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology); Denney, Melanie C. (University of Washington); Cetto, Kara L. (University of Washington)

    2006-02-01

    This report summarizes our findings during the study of a novel homogeneous epoxidation catalyst system that uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant, a ''Holy Grail'' in catalysis. While olefins (alkenes) that do not contain allylic hydrogens can be epoxidized directly using heterogeneous catalysts, most olefins cannot, and so a general, atom-efficient route is desired. While most of the work performed on this LDRD has been on pincer complexes of late transition metals, we also scouted out metal/ligand combinations that were significantly different, and unfortunately, less successful. Most of the work reported here deals with phosphorus-ligated Pd hydrides [(PCP)Pd-H]. We have demonstrated that molecular oxygen gas can insert into the Pd-H bond, giving a structurally characterized Pd-OOH species. This species reacts with oxygen acceptors such as olefins to donate an oxygen atom, although in various levels of selectivity, and to generate a [(PCP)Pd-OH] molecule. We discovered that the active [(PCP)Pd-H] active catalyst can be regenerated by addition of either CO or hydrogen. The demonstration of each step of the catalytic cycle is quite significant. Extensions to the pincer-Pd chemistry by attaching a fluorinated tail to the pincer designed to be used in solvents with higher oxygen solubilities are also presented.

  18. LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, Joshua; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Furnish, Michael David

    2013-12-01

    Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure (grain structure, porosity, inclusions, defects). An example critically important to Sandia's mission is dynamic strength of polycrystalline metals where heterogeneities lead to localization of deformation and loss of shear strength. Microstructural effects are of broad importance to the scientific community and several institutions within DoD and DOE; however, current models rely on inaccurate assumptions about mechanisms at the sub-continuum or mesoscale. Consequently, there is a critical need for accurate and robust methods for modeling heterogeneous material response at this lower length scale. This report summarizes work performed as part of an LDRD effort (FY11 to FY13; project number 151364) to meet these needs.

  19. Nanoporous films for epitaxial growth of single crystal semiconductor materials : final LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowen, Adam M.; Koleske, Daniel David; Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Burckel, David Bruce; Williams, John Dalton; Arrington, Christian L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2007-10-01

    This senior council Tier 1 LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, photolithographically patterned SU-8 and carbonized SU-8 structures. Use of photolithographically defined growth templates represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

  20. Final LDRD report :ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, Michael Anthony; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Ross, Michael P.; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Boucher, Ray

    2005-11-01

    We present the results of a one year LDRD program that has focused on evaluating the use of newly developed deep ultraviolet LEDs in water purification. We describe our development efforts that have produced an LED-based water exposure set-up and enumerate the advances that have been made in deep UV LED performance throughout the project. The results of E. coli inactivation with 270-295 nm LEDs are presented along with an assessment of the potential for applying deep ultraviolet LED-based water purification to mobile point-of-use applications as well as to rural and international environments where the benefits of photovoltaic-powered systems can be realized.

  1. Precision formed micro magnets: LDRD project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHRISTENSON,TODD R.; GARINO,TERRY J.; VENTURINI,EUGENE L.

    2000-02-01

    A microfabrication process is described that provides for the batch realization of miniature rare earth based permanent magnets. Prismatic geometry with features as small as 5 microns, thicknesses up through several hundred microns and with submicron tolerances may be accommodated. The processing is based on a molding technique using deep x-ray lithography as a means to generate high aspect-ratio precision molds from PMMA (poly methyl methacrylate) used as an x-ray photoresist. Subsequent molding of rare-earth permanent magnet (REPM) powder combined with a thermosetting plastic binder may take place directly in the PMMA mold. Further approaches generate an alumina form replicated from the PMMA mold that becomes an intermediate mold for pressing higher density REPM material and allows for higher process temperatures. Maximum energy products of 3--8 MGOe (Mega Gauss Oersted, 1 MGOe = 100/4{pi} kJ/m{sup 3}) are obtained for bonded isotropic forms of REPM with dimensions on the scale of 100 microns and up to 23 MGOe for more dense anisotropic REPM material using higher temperature processing. The utility of miniature precision REPMs is revealed by the demonstration of a miniature multipole brushless DC motor that possesses a pole-anisotropic rotor with dimensions that would otherwise prohibit multipole magnetization using a multipole magnetizing fixture at this scale. Subsequent multipole assembly also leads to miniaturized Halbach arrays, efficient magnetic microactuators, and mechanical spring-like elements which can offset miniaturized mechanical scaling behavior.

  2. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  3. LDRD final report on new homogeneous and supported oligomerization catalysts (LDRD 42461).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hascall, Anthony G.; Kemp, Richard Alan

    2004-11-01

    The overall purpose of this LDRD is multifold. First, we are interested in preparing new homogeneous catalysts that can be used in the oligomerization of ethylene and in understanding commercially important systems better. Second, we are interested in attempting to support these new homogeneous catalysts in the pores of nano- or mesoporous materials in order to force new and unusual distributions of a-olefins to be formed during the oligomerization. Thus the overall purpose is to try to prepare new catalytic species and to possibly control the active site architecture in order to yield certain desired products during a catalytic reaction, much like nature does with enzymes. In order to rationally synthesize catalysts it is imperative to comprehend the function of the various components of the catalyst. In heterogeneous systems, it is of utmost importance to know how a support interacts with the active site of the catalyst. In fact, in the catalysis world this lack of fundamental understanding of the relationship between active site and support is the single largest reason catalysis is considered an 'empirical' or 'black box' science rather than a well-understood one. In this work we will be preparing novel ethylene oligomerization catalysts, which are normally P-O chelated homogeneous complexes, with new ligands that replace P with a stable carbene. We will also examine a commercially catalyst system and investigate the active site in it via X-ray crystallography. We will also attempt to support these materials inside the pores of nano- and mesoporous materials. Essentially, we will be tailoring the size and scale of the catalyst active site and its surrounding environment to match the size of the molecular product(s) we wish to make. The overall purpose of the study will be to prepare new homogeneous catalysts, and if successful in supporting them to examine the effects that steric constraints and pore structures can have on growing oligomer

  4. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas : final report for LDRD 105749.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-09-01

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  5. Risk assessment meta tool LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a risk analysis meta tool--a tool that enables security analysts both to combine and analyze data from multiple other risk assessment tools on demand. Our approach was based on the innovative self-assembling software technology under development by the project team. This technology provides a mechanism for the user to specify his intentions at a very high level (e.g., equations or English-like text), and then the code self-assembles itself, taking care of the implementation details. The first version of the meta tool focused specifically in importing and analyzing data from Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS) force-on-force simulation. We discuss the problem, our approach, technical risk, and accomplishments on this project, and outline next steps to be addressed with follow-on funding.

  6. Vapor-liquid phase behavior of the iodine-sulfur water-splitting process : LDRD final report for FY03.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Larson, Richard S.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a one-year LDRD project that was undertaken to better understand the equilibrium behavior of the iodine-water-hydriodic acid system at elevated temperature and pressure. We attempted to extend the phase equilibrium database for this system in order to facilitate development of the iodine-sulfur water-splitting process to produce hydrogen to a commercial scale. The iodine-sulfur cycle for thermochemical splitting of water is recognized as the most efficient such process and is particularly well suited to coupling to a high-temperature source of process heat. This study intended to combine experimental measurements of vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium and equation-of-state modeling of equilibrium solutions using Sandia's Chernkin software. Vapor-liquid equilibrium experiments were conducted to a limited extent. The Liquid Chernkin software that was developed as part of an earlier LDRD project was enhanced and applied to model the non-ideal behavior of the liquid phases.

  7. Development of a portable preconcentrator/ion mobility spectrometer system for the trace detection of narcotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeter, J.E.; Custer, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    This project was supported by LDRD funding for the development and preliminary testing of a portable narcotics detection system. The system developed combines a commercial trace detector known as an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a preconcentrator originally designed by Department 5848 for the collection of explosives molecules. The detector and preconcentrator were combined along with all necessary accessories onto a push cart, thus yielding a fully portable detection unit. Preliminary testing with both explosives and narcotics molecules shown that the system is operational, and that it can successfully detect drugs as marijuana, methamphetamine (speed), and cocaine based on their characteristics IMS signatures.

  8. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  9. Automated visual direction : LDRD 38623 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Mobile manipulator systems used by emergency response operators consist of an articulated robot arm, a remotely driven base, a collection of cameras, and a remote communications link. Typically the system is completely teleoperated, with the operator using live video feedback to monitor and assess the environment, plan task activities, and to conduct the operations via remote control input devices. The capabilities of these systems are limited, and operators rarely attempt sophisticated operations such as retrieving and utilizing tools, deploying sensors, or building up world models. This project has focused on methods to utilize this video information to enable monitored autonomous behaviors for the mobile manipulator system, with the goal of improving the overall effectiveness of the human/robot system. Work includes visual servoing, visual targeting, utilization of embedded video in 3-D models, and improved methods of camera utilization and calibration.

  10. Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELLIN, THEODORE A.; HENDERSON, CHRISTOPHER L.; O' TOOLE, EDWARD J.

    2000-12-01

    Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.

  11. Robust Planning for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots in Unstructured, Dynamic Environments: An LDRD Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EISLER, G. RICHARD

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Robust Planning for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots In Unstructured, Dynamic Environments (AutoNav)''. The project goal was to develop an algorithmic-driven, multi-spectral approach to point-to-point navigation characterized by: segmented on-board trajectory planning, self-contained operation without human support for mission duration, and the development of appropriate sensors and algorithms to navigate unattended. The project was partially successful in achieving gains in sensing, path planning, navigation, and guidance. One of three experimental platforms, the Minimalist Autonomous Testbed, used a repetitive sense-and-re-plan combination to demonstrate the majority of elements necessary for autonomous navigation. However, a critical goal for overall success in arbitrary terrain, that of developing a sensor that is able to distinguish true obstacles that need to be avoided as a function of vehicle scale, still needs substantial research to bring to fruition.

  12. Massive graph visualization : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, Brian Neil; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2007-10-01

    Graphs are a vital way of organizing data with complex correlations. A good visualization of a graph can fundamentally change human understanding of the data. Consequently, there is a rich body of work on graph visualization. Although there are many techniques that are effective on small to medium sized graphs (tens of thousands of nodes), there is a void in the research for visualizing massive graphs containing millions of nodes. Sandia is one of the few entities in the world that has the means and motivation to handle data on such a massive scale. For example, homeland security generates graphs from prolific media sources such as television, telephone, and the Internet. The purpose of this project is to provide the groundwork for visualizing such massive graphs. The research provides for two major feature gaps: a parallel, interactive visualization framework and scalable algorithms to make the framework usable to a practical application. Both the frameworks and algorithms are designed to run on distributed parallel computers, which are already available at Sandia. Some features are integrated into the ThreatView{trademark} application and future work will integrate further parallel algorithms.

  13. Covert air vehicle 2003 LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Callow, Diane Schafer; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-11-01

    This report describes the technical work carried out under a 2003 Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a covert air vehicle. A mesoscale air vehicle that mimics a bird offers exceptional mobility and the possibility of remaining undetected during flight. Although some such vehicles exist, they are lacking in key areas: unassisted landing and launching, true mimicry of bird flight to remain covert, and a flapping flight time of any real duration. Current mainstream technology does not have the energy or power density necessary to achieve bird like flight for any meaningful length of time; however, Sandia has unique combustion powered linear actuators with the unprecedented high energy and power density needed for bird like flight. The small-scale, high-pressure valves and small-scale ignition to make this work have been developed at Sandia. We will study the feasibility of using this to achieve vehicle takeoff and wing flapping for sustained flight. This type of vehicle has broad applications for reconnaissance and communications networks, and could prove invaluable for military and intelligence operations throughout the world. Initial tests were conducted on scaled versions of the combustion-powered linear actuator. The tests results showed that heat transfer and friction effects dominate the combustion process at 'bird-like' sizes. The problems associated with micro-combustion must be solved before a true bird-like ornithopter can be developed.

  14. FY08 LDRD Final Report Regional Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, D C; Chin, H; Caldwell, P M

    2009-05-19

    An integrated, multi-model capability for regional climate change simulation is needed to perform original analyses to understand and prepare for the impacts of climate change on the time and space scales that are critical to California's future environmental quality and economic prosperity. Our intent was to develop a very high resolution regional simulation capability to address consequences of climate change in California to complement the global modeling capability that is supported by DOE at LLNL and other institutions to inform national and international energy policies. The California state government, through the California Energy Commission (CEC), institutionalized the State's climate change assessment process through its biennial climate change reports. The bases for these reports, however, are global climate change simulations for future scenarios designed to inform international policy negotiations, and are primarily focused on the global to continental scale impacts of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. These simulations do not meet the needs of California public and private officials who will make major decisions in the next decade that require an understanding of climate change in California for the next thirty to fifty years and its effects on energy use, water utilization, air quality, agriculture and natural ecosystems. With the additional development of regional dynamical climate modeling capability, LLNL will be able to design and execute global simulations specifically for scenarios important to the state, then use those results to drive regional simulations of the impacts of the simulated climate change for regions as small as individual cities or watersheds. Through this project, we systematically studied the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling global model results with a regional mesoscale model to guide others, particularly university researchers, who are using the technique based on models with less complete

  15. Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes - FY-98 Final Report for LDRD 2349

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, Glen Frank; Nelson, Lee Orville; Grandy, Jon Drue; Zuck, Larry Douglas; Kong, Peter Chuen Sun; Anderson, Gail

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of LDRD #2349, Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes, was to develop a set of tools that would allow the user to, based on the chemical composition of a waste stream to be immobilized, predict the durability (leach behavior) of the final waste form and the phase assemblages present in the final waste form. The objectives of the project were: • investigation, testing and selection of thermochemical code • development of auxiliary thermochemical database • synthesis of materials for leach testing • collection of leach data • using leach data for leach model development • thermochemical modeling The progress toward completion of these objectives and a discussion of work that needs to be completed to arrive at a logical finishing point for this project will be presented.

  16. Automated Algorithms for Quantum-Level Accuracy in Atomistic Simulations: LDRD Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Crozier, Paul; Moore, Stan Gerald; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Trott, Christian Robert; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Tucker, Garritt J. (Drexel University)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the result of LDRD project 12-0395, titled "Automated Algorithms for Quantum-level Accuracy in Atomistic Simulations." During the course of this LDRD, we have developed an interatomic potential for solids and liquids called Spectral Neighbor Analysis Poten- tial (SNAP). The SNAP potential has a very general form and uses machine-learning techniques to reproduce the energies, forces, and stress tensors of a large set of small configurations of atoms, which are obtained using high-accuracy quantum electronic structure (QM) calculations. The local environment of each atom is characterized by a set of bispectrum components of the local neighbor density projected on to a basis of hyperspherical harmonics in four dimensions. The SNAP coef- ficients are determined using weighted least-squares linear regression against the full QM training set. This allows the SNAP potential to be fit in a robust, automated manner to large QM data sets using many bispectrum components. The calculation of the bispectrum components and the SNAP potential are implemented in the LAMMPS parallel molecular dynamics code. Global optimization methods in the DAKOTA software package are used to seek out good choices of hyperparameters that define the overall structure of the SNAP potential. FitSnap.py, a Python-based software pack- age interfacing to both LAMMPS and DAKOTA is used to formulate the linear regression problem, solve it, and analyze the accuracy of the resultant SNAP potential. We describe a SNAP potential for tantalum that accurately reproduces a variety of solid and liquid properties. Most significantly, in contrast to existing tantalum potentials, SNAP correctly predicts the Peierls barrier for screw dislocation motion. We also present results from SNAP potentials generated for indium phosphide (InP) and silica (SiO 2 ). We describe efficient algorithms for calculating SNAP forces and energies in molecular dynamics simulations using massively parallel computers

  17. Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr. (.; .); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous

  18. Quantitative adaptation analytics for assessing dynamic systems of systems: LDRD Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Readiness & Sustainment Technologies (6133, M/S 1188); Miner, Nadine E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Military & Energy Systems Analysis (6114, M/S 1188); Wilson, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Resilience and Regulatory Effects (6921, M/S 1138); Le, Hai D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Readiness & Sustainment Technologies (6133, M/S 1188); Kao, Gio K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Networked System Survivability & Assurance (5629, M/S 0671); Melander, Darryl J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Software Systems R& D (9525, M/S 1188); Longsine, Dennis Earl [Sandia National Laboratories, Unknown, Unknown; Vander Meer, Jr., Robert C. [SAIC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  19. Soot formation, transport, and radiation in unsteady diffusion flames : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Jensen, Kirk A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Blevins, Linda Gail; Kearney, Sean Patrick (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Schefer, Robert W.

    2004-10-01

    Fires pose the dominant risk to the safety and security of nuclear weapons, nuclear transport containers, and DOE and DoD facilities. The thermal hazard from these fires primarily results from radiant emission from high-temperature flame soot. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the local transport and chemical phenomena that determine the distributions of soot concentration, optical properties, and temperature in order to develop and validate constitutive models for large-scale, high-fidelity fire simulations. This report summarizes the findings of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project devoted to obtaining the critical experimental information needed to develop such constitutive models. A combination of laser diagnostics and extractive measurement techniques have been employed in both steady and pulsed laminar diffusion flames of methane, ethylene, and JP-8 surrogate burning in air. For methane and ethylene, both slot and coannular flame geometries were investigated, as well as normal and inverse diffusion flame geometries. For the JP-8 surrogate, coannular normal diffusion flames were investigated. Soot concentrations, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals, hydroxyl radical (OH) LIF, acetylene and water vapor concentrations, soot zone temperatures, and the velocity field were all successfully measured in both steady and unsteady versions of these various flames. In addition, measurements were made of the soot microstructure, soot dimensionless extinction coefficient (&), and the local radiant heat flux. Taken together, these measurements comprise a unique, extensive database for future development and validation of models of soot formation, transport, and radiation.

  20. Filtered Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for multi-parameter thermal-fluids measurements : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresh, Steven Jay; Grasser, Thomas W.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Schefer, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation-based life-cycle-engineering and the ASCI program have resulted in models of unprecedented size and fidelity. The validation of these models requires high-resolution, multi-parameter diagnostics. Within the thermal-fluids disciplines, the need for detailed, high-fidelity measurements exceeds the limits of current engineering sciences capabilities and severely tests the state of the art. The focus of this LDRD is the development and application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for high-resolution, nonintrusive measurement of gas-phase velocity and temperature. With FRS, the flow is laser-illuminated and Rayleigh scattering from naturally occurring sources is detected through a molecular filter. The filtered transmission may be interpreted to yield point or planar measurements of three-component velocities and/or thermodynamic state. Different experimental configurations may be employed to obtain compromises between spatial resolution, time resolution, and the quantity of simultaneously measured flow variables. In this report, we present the results of a three-year LDRD-funded effort to develop FRS combustion thermometry and Aerosciences velocity measurement systems. The working principles and details of our FRS opto-electronic system are presented in detail. For combustion thermometry we present 2-D, spatially correlated FRS results from nonsooting premixed and diffusion flames and from a sooting premixed flame. The FRS-measured temperatures are accurate to within {+-}50 K (3%) in a premixed CH4-air flame and within {+-}100 K for a vortex-strained diluted CH4-air diffusion flame where the FRS technique is severely tested by large variation in scattering cross section. In the diffusion flame work, FRS has been combined with Raman imaging of the CH4 fuel molecule to correct for the local light scattering properties of the combustion gases. To our knowledge, this is the first extension of FRS to nonpremixed combustion and the first use of joint FRS

  1. Final LDRD report : development of sample preparation methods for ChIPMA-based imaging mass spectrometry of tissue samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this short-term LDRD project was to acquire the tools needed to use our chemical imaging precision mass analyzer (ChIPMA) instrument to analyze tissue samples. This effort was an outgrowth of discussions with oncologists on the need to find the cellular origin of signals in mass spectra of serum samples, which provide biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The ultimate goal would be to collect chemical images of biopsy samples allowing the chemical images of diseased and nondiseased sections of a sample to be compared. The equipment needed to prepare tissue samples have been acquired and built. This equipment includes an cyro-ultramicrotome for preparing thin sections of samples and a coating unit. The coating unit uses an electrospray system to deposit small droplets of a UV-photo absorbing compound on the surface of the tissue samples. Both units are operational. The tissue sample must be coated with the organic compound to enable matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and matrix enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) measurements with the ChIPMA instrument Initial plans to test the sample preparation using human tissue samples required development of administrative procedures beyond the scope of this LDRD. Hence, it was decided to make two types of measurements: (1) Testing the spatial resolution of ME-SIMS by preparing a substrate coated with a mixture of an organic matrix and a bio standard and etching a defined pattern in the coating using a liquid metal ion beam, and (2) preparing and imaging C. elegans worms. Difficulties arose in sectioning the C. elegans for analysis and funds and time to overcome these difficulties were not available in this project. The facilities are now available for preparing biological samples for analysis with the ChIPMA instrument. Some further investment of time and resources in sample preparation should make this a useful tool for chemical imaging applications.

  2. Low-Altitude Airbursts and the Impact Threat - Final LDRD Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Crawford, David A.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this nine-week project was to advance the understanding of low-altitude airbursts by developing the means to model them at extremely high resolution in order to span the scales of entry physics as well as blast wave and plume formation. Small asteroid impacts on Earth are a recognized hazard, but the full nature of the threat is still not well understood. We used shock physics codes to discover emergent phenomena associated with low-altitude airbursts such as the Siberian Tunguska event of 1908 and the Egyptian glass-forming event 29 million years ago. The planetary defense community is beginning to recognize the significant threat from such airbursts. Low-altitude airbursts are the only class of impacts that have a significant probability of occurring within a planning time horizon. There is roughly a 10% chance of a megaton-scale low-altitude airburst event in the next decade.The first part of this LDRD final project report is a preprint of our proceedings paper associated with the plenary presentation at the Hypervelocity Impact Society 2007 Symposium in Williamsburg, Virginia (International Journal of Impact Engineering, in press). The paper summarizes discoveries associated with a series of 2D axially-symmetric CTH simulations. The second part of the report contains slides from an invited presentation at the American Geophysical Union Fall 2007 meeting in San Francisco. The presentation summarizes the results of a series of 3D oblique impact simulations of the 1908 Tunguska explosion. Because of the brevity of this late-start project, the 3D results have not yet been written up for a peer-reviewed publication. We anticipate the opportunity to eventually run simulations that include the actual topography at Tunguska, at which time these results will be published.3

  3. High accuracy integrated global positioning system/inertial navigation system LDRD: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A.; Fellerhoff, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report contains the results of a Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) technologies toward the goal of optimizing the navigational accuracy of the combined GPSANS system. The approach undertaken is to integrate the data from an INS, which has long term drifts, but excellent short term accuracy, with GPS carrier phase signal information, which is accurate to the sub-centimeter level, but requires continuous tracking of the GPS signals. The goal is to maintain a sub-meter accurate navigation solution while the vehicle is in motion by using the GPS measurements to estimate the INS navigation errors and then using the refined INS data to aid the GPS carrier phase cycle slip detection and correction and bridge dropouts in the GPS data. The work was expanded to look at GPS-based attitude determination, using multiple GPS receivers and antennas on a single platform, as a possible navigation aid. Efforts included not only the development of data processing algorithms and software, but also the collection and analysis of GPS and INS flight data aboard a Twin Otter aircraft. Finally, the application of improved navigation system accuracy to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target location is examined.

  4. Iris detection based on pupil prospect point and horizontal projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Nawaz, Tabassam

    2010-02-01

    Iris is one of the most discriminating human physiological traits being used for personal human identification. The success of iris based system is highly relied on the accurately captured and precisely segmented iris image. False rejection rate has been a major challenge in the success of such system which primarily results from inaccurate iris segmentation. Most of the presented algorithms on iris segmentation considers pupil as perfect circle. However, according to observation this is not true in all the cases. In addition, a little angular shift in position of subject iris can further deteriorate the performance of algorithms based on circular assumption. To improve the quality of segmentation, an effective algorithm is proposed for iris segmentation which takes into consideration issues related to irregular pupil boundary as well as computation intensive nature of the prevailing algorithms. Contrary to all the previous approaches, the proposed algorithm is based on detection of pupil prospect point within the pupil region and utilizes bi-directional horizontal projections and distance parameters to detect the pupillary as well as limbus boundaries. The processing involved is linear in nature. Simulation of the proposed algorithm is done in Matlab.

  5. Spatial and temporal resolution of fluid flows: LDRD final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieszen, S.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Schefer, R.W.; Perea, L.D.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) activity to develop a diagnostic technique for simultaneous temporal and spatial resolution of fluid flows. The goal is to obtain two orders of magnitude resolution in two spatial dimensions and time simultaneously. The approach used in this study is to scale up Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) to acquire meter-size images at up to 200 frames/sec. Experiments were conducted in buoyant, fully turbulent, non-reacting and reacting plumes with a base diameter of one meter. The PIV results were successful in the ambient gas for all flows, and in the plume for non-reacting helium and reacting methane, but not reacting hydrogen. No PIV was obtained in the hot combustion product region as the seed particles chosen vaporized. Weak signals prevented PLIF in the helium. However, in reacting methane flows, PLIF images speculated to be from Poly-Aromatic-Hydrocarbons were obtained which mark the flame sheets. The results were unexpected and very insightful. A natural fluorescence from the seed particle vapor was also noted in the hydrogen tests.

  6. FY2011 Annual Report for the Actinide Isomer Detection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Glen A.; Francy, Christopher J.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Hatarik, R.

    2011-10-01

    This project seeks to identify a new signature for actinide element detection in active interrogation. This technique works by exciting and identifying long-lived nuclear excited states (isomers) in the actinide isotopes and/or primary fission products. Observation of isomers in the fission products will provide a signature for fissile material. For the actinide isomers, the decay time and energy of the isomeric state is unique to a particular isotope, providing an unambiguous signature for SNM. This project entails isomer identification and characterization and neutron population studies. This document summarizes activities from its third year - completion of the isomer identification characterization experiments and initialization of the neutron population experiments. The population and decay of the isomeric state in 235U remain elusive, although a number of candidate gamma rays have been identified. In the course of the experiments, a number of fission fragment isomers were populated and measured [Ressler 2010]. The decays from these isomers may also provide a suitable signature for the presence of fissile material. Several measurements were conducted throughout this project. This report focuses on the results of an experiment conducted collaboratively by PNNL, LLNL and LBNL in December 2010 at LBNL. The measurement involved measuring the gamma-rays emitted from an HEU target when bombarded with 11 MeV neutrons. This report discussed the analysis and resulting conclusions from those measurements. There was one strong candidate, at 1204 keV, of an isomeric signature of 235U. The half-life of the state is estimated to be 9.3 {mu}s. The measured time dependence fits the decay time structure very well. Other possible explanations for the 1204-keV state were investigated, but they could not explain the gamma ray. Unfortunately, the relatively limited statistics of the measurement limit, and the lack of understanding of some of the systematic of the experiment, limit

  7. Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

    2003-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

  8. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY2016 Annual Summary of Completed Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-30

    ORNL FY 2016 Annual Summary of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Completed Projects. The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at ORNL operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2C, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (October 22, 2015), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. The LDRD program funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. ORNL reports its status to DOE in March of each year.

  9. From Idea to Innovation: The Role of LDRD Investments in Sandia's Recent Successful B61 Experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowsmith, Marie Danielle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, authorized by U.S. Congress in 1991, enables Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to devote a small portion of their research funding to high-risk and potentially high-payoff research. Because it is high-risk, LDRD-supported research may not lead to immediate mission impacts; however, many successes at DOE labs can be traced back to investments in LDRD. LDRD investments have a history of enabling significant payoffs for long-running DOE and NNSA missions and for providing anticipatory new technologies that ultimately become critical to future missions. Many of Sandia National Laboratories’ successes can be traced back to investments in LDRD. Capabilities from three LDRDs were critical to recent tests of the B61-12 gravity bomb—tests that would previously have only been performed experimentally.

  10. AsteroidZoo: A New Zooniverse project to detect asteroids and improve asteroid detection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, M.; Lewicki, C. A.; Smith, A.; Lintott, C.; Christensen, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new citizen science project: AsteroidZoo. A collaboration between Planetary Resources, Inc., the Zooniverse Team, and the Catalina Sky Survey, we will bring the science of asteroid identification to the citizen scientist. Volunteer astronomers have proved to be a critical asset in identification and characterization of asteroids, especially potentially hazardous objects. These contributions, to date, have required that the volunteer possess a moderate telescope and the ability and willingness to be responsive to observing requests. Our new project will use data collected by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), currently the most productive asteroid survey, to be used by anyone with sufficient interest and an internet connection. As previous work by the Zooniverse has demonstrated, the capability of the citizen scientist is superb at classification of objects. Even the best automated searches require human intervention to identify new objects. These searches are optimized to reduce false positive rates and to prevent a single operator from being overloaded with requests. With access to the large number of people in Zooniverse, we will be able to avoid that problem and instead work to produce a complete detection list. Each frame from CSS will be searched in detail, generating a large number of new detections. We will be able to evaluate the completeness of the CSS data set and potentially provide improvements to the automated pipeline. The data corpus produced by AsteroidZoo will be used as a training environment for machine learning challenges in the future. Our goals include a more complete asteroid detection algorithm and a minimum computation program that skims the cream of the data suitable for implemention on small spacecraft. Our goal is to have the site become live in the Fall 2013.

  11. Intelligent Flamefinder Detection and Alert System (IFDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current hydrogen flame detection systems exhibit shortcomings ranging from limited detection range, to localization inaccuracy, limited sensitivity, false alarms,...

  12. Integrated superhard and metallic coatings for MEMS : LDRD 57300 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Maboudian, Roya (University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.)

    2004-12-01

    Two major research areas pertinent to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials and material surfaces were explored and developed in this 5-year PECASE LDRD project carried out by Professor Roya Maboudian and her collaborators at the University of California at Berkeley. In the first research area, polycrystalline silicon carbide (poly-SiC) was developed as a structural material for MEMS. This material is potentially interesting for MEMS because compared to polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon), the structural material in Sandia National Laboratories' SUMMiTV process, it may exhibit high wear resistance, high temperature operation and a high Young's modulus to density ratio. Each of these characteristics may extend the usefulness of MEMS in Sandia National Laboratories' applications. For example, using polycrystalline silicon, wear is an important issue in microengines, temperature degradation is of concern in thermal actuators and the characteristics of resonators can be extended with the same lithography technology. Two methods of depositing poly-SiC from a 1,3-disilabutane source at 650 C to 800 C by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) were demonstrated. These include a blanket method in which the material is made entirely out of poly-SiC and a method to coat previously released and fabricated polysilicon MEMS. This deposition method is much simpler to use than previous methods such as high temperature LPCVD and atmospheric CVD. Other major processing issues that were surmounted in this LDRD with the poly-SiC film include etching, doping, and residual strain control. SiC is inert and as such is notoriously difficult to etch. Here, an HBr-based chemistry was demonstrated for the first time to make highly selective etching of SiC at high etch rates. Nitrogen was incorporated from an NH3 gas source, resulting in high conductivity films. Residual strain and strain gradient were shown to depend on deposition parameters, and can be made

  13. Network discovery, characterization, and prediction : a grand challenge LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    This report is the final summation of Sandia's Grand Challenge LDRD project No.119351, 'Network Discovery, Characterization and Prediction' (the 'NGC') which ran from FY08 to FY10. The aim of the NGC, in a nutshell, was to research, develop, and evaluate relevant analysis capabilities that address adversarial networks. Unlike some Grand Challenge efforts, that ambition created cultural subgoals, as well as technical and programmatic ones, as the insistence on 'relevancy' required that the Sandia informatics research communities and the analyst user communities come to appreciate each others needs and capabilities in a very deep and concrete way. The NGC generated a number of technical, programmatic, and cultural advances, detailed in this report. There were new algorithmic insights and research that resulted in fifty-three refereed publications and presentations; this report concludes with an abstract-annotated bibliography pointing to them all. The NGC generated three substantial prototypes that not only achieved their intended goals of testing our algorithmic integration, but which also served as vehicles for customer education and program development. The NGC, as intended, has catalyzed future work in this domain; by the end it had already brought in, in new funding, as much funding as had been invested in it. Finally, the NGC knit together previously disparate research staff and user expertise in a fashion that not only addressed our immediate research goals, but which promises to have created an enduring cultural legacy of mutual understanding, in service of Sandia's national security responsibilities in cybersecurity and counter proliferation.

  14. An electromagnetic induction method for underground target detection and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartel, L.C.; Cress, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    An improved capability for subsurface structure detection is needed to support military and nonproliferation requirements for inspection and for surveillance of activities of threatening nations. As part of the DOE/NN-20 program to apply geophysical methods to detect and characterize underground facilities, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated an electromagnetic induction (EMI) project to evaluate low frequency electromagnetic (EM) techniques for subsurface structure detection. Low frequency, in this case, extended from kilohertz to hundreds of kilohertz. An EMI survey procedure had already been developed for borehole imaging of coal seams and had successfully been applied in a surface mode to detect a drug smuggling tunnel. The SNL project has focused on building upon the success of that procedure and applying it to surface and low altitude airborne platforms. Part of SNL`s work has focused on improving that technology through improved hardware and data processing. The improved hardware development has been performed utilizing Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. In addition, SNL`s effort focused on: (1) improvements in modeling of the basic geophysics of the illuminating electromagnetic field and its coupling to the underground target (partially funded using LDRD funds) and (2) development of techniques for phase-based and multi-frequency processing and spatial processing to support subsurface target detection and characterization. The products of this project are: (1) an evaluation of an improved EM gradiometer, (2) an improved gradiometer concept for possible future development, (3) an improved modeling capability, (4) demonstration of an EM wave migration method for target recognition, and a demonstration that the technology is capable of detecting targets to depths exceeding 25 meters.

  15. An electromagnetic induction method for underground target detection and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartel, L.C.; Cress, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    An improved capability for subsurface structure detection is needed to support military and nonproliferation requirements for inspection and for surveillance of activities of threatening nations. As part of the DOE/NN-20 program to apply geophysical methods to detect and characterize underground facilities, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated an electromagnetic induction (EMI) project to evaluate low frequency electromagnetic (EM) techniques for subsurface structure detection. Low frequency, in this case, extended from kilohertz to hundreds of kilohertz. An EMI survey procedure had already been developed for borehole imaging of coal seams and had successfully been applied in a surface mode to detect a drug smuggling tunnel. The SNL project has focused on building upon the success of that procedure and applying it to surface and low altitude airborne platforms. Part of SNL`s work has focused on improving that technology through improved hardware and data processing. The improved hardware development has been performed utilizing Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. In addition, SNL`s effort focused on: (1) improvements in modeling of the basic geophysics of the illuminating electromagnetic field and its coupling to the underground target (partially funded using LDRD funds) and (2) development of techniques for phase-based and multi-frequency processing and spatial processing to support subsurface target detection and characterization. The products of this project are: (1) an evaluation of an improved EM gradiometer, (2) an improved gradiometer concept for possible future development, (3) an improved modeling capability, (4) demonstration of an EM wave migration method for target recognition, and a demonstration that the technology is capable of detecting targets to depths exceeding 25 meters.

  16. Detecting Einstein geodesics: Einstein metrics in projective and conformal geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2013-01-01

    Here we treat the problem: given a torsion-free connection do its geodesics, as unparametrised curves, coincide with the geodesics of an Einstein metric? We find projective invariants such that the vanishing of these is necessary for the existence of such a metric, and in generic settings the vanishing of these is also sufficient. We also obtain results for the problem of metrisability (without the Einstein condition): We show that the odd Chern type invariants of an affine connection are projective invariants that obstruct the existence of a projectively related Levi-Civita connection. In addition we discuss a concrete link between projective and conformal geometry and the application of this to the projective-Einstein problem.

  17. Sensor Based Process Control (SBPC) Laboratories Directed Research and Development (LDRD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronosky, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the activities and results of an LDRD entitled Sensor Based Process Control. This research examined the needs of the plating industry for monitor and control capabilities with particular emphasis on water effluent from rinse baths. A personal computer-based monitor and control development system was used as a test bed.

  18. High-efficiency high-energy Ka source for the critically-required maximum illumination of x-ray optics on Z using Z-petawatt-driven laser-breakout-afterburner accelerated ultrarelativistic electrons LDRD .

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefkow, Adam B.; Bennett, Guy R.

    2010-09-01

    Under the auspices of the Science of Extreme Environments LDRD program, a <2 year theoretical- and computational-physics study was performed (LDRD Project 130805) by Guy R Bennett (formally in Center-01600) and Adam B. Sefkow (Center-01600): To investigate novel target designs by which a short-pulse, PW-class beam could create a brighter K{alpha} x-ray source than by simple, direct-laser-irradiation of a flat foil; Direct-Foil-Irradiation (DFI). The computational studies - which are still ongoing at this writing - were performed primarily on the RedStorm supercomputer at Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque site. The motivation for a higher efficiency K{alpha} emitter was very clear: as the backlighter flux for any x-ray imaging technique on the Z accelerator increases, the signal-to-noise and signal-to-background ratios improve. This ultimately allows the imaging system to reach its full quantitative potential as a diagnostic. Depending on the particular application/experiment this would imply, for example, that the system would have reached its full design spatial resolution and thus the capability to see features that might otherwise be indiscernible with a traditional DFI-like x-ray source. This LDRD began FY09 and ended FY10.

  19. Noncontact surface thermometry for microsystems: LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Mark (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Beecham, Thomas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Graham, Samuel (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kearney, Sean Patrick; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-10-01

    We describe a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort to develop and apply laser-based thermometry diagnostics for obtaining spatially resolved temperature maps on working microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal of the effort was to cultivate diagnostic approaches that could adequately resolve the extremely fine MEMS device features, required no modifications to MEMS device design, and which did not perturb the delicate operation of these extremely small devices. Two optical diagnostics were used in this study: microscale Raman spectroscopy and microscale thermoreflectance. Both methods use a low-energy, nonperturbing probe laser beam, whose arbitrary wavelength can be selected for a diffraction-limited focus that meets the need for micron-scale spatial resolution. Raman is exploited most frequently, as this technique provides a simple and unambiguous measure of the absolute device temperature for most any MEMS semiconductor or insulator material under steady state operation. Temperatures are obtained from the spectral position and width of readily isolated peaks in the measured Raman spectra with a maximum uncertainty near {+-}10 K and a spatial resolution of about 1 micron. Application of the Raman technique is demonstrated for V-shaped and flexure-style polycrystalline silicon electrothermal actuators, and for a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor. The potential of the Raman technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and in-plane stress in silicon MEMS is also demonstrated and future Raman-variant diagnostics for ultra spatio-temporal resolution probing are discussed. Microscale thermoreflectance has been developed as a complement for the primary Raman diagnostic. Thermoreflectance exploits the small-but-measurable temperature dependence of surface optical reflectivity for diagnostic purposes. The temperature-dependent reflectance behavior of bulk silicon, SUMMiT-V polycrystalline silicon films and metal surfaces is

  20. Crucial Component Damage Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers an on-board structural health-monitoring (SHM) system with embedded sensors that sense mechanical impedance deviations to flag incipient...

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Micro-Sensor for Biomass Fouling Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)is the leading chemical agent causing human fatalities following inhalation exposures. The overall aim of this project is to develop and...

  2. Direct Write Lightning Protection and Damage Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to improve conventional lightning strike protection in composite aircraft and proposes a novel method to monitor structures for damage upon...

  3. Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Mono-uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J; Ebbinghaus, B; Meiers, T; Ahn, J

    2006-02-09

    The US National Energy Policy of 2001 advocated the development of advanced fuel and fuel cycle technologies that are cleaner, more efficient, less waste-intensive, and more proliferation resistant. The need for advanced fuel development is emphasized in on-going DOE-supported programs, e.g., Global Nuclear Energy Initiative (GNEI), Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and GEN-IV Technology Development. The Directorates of Energy & Environment (E&E) and Chemistry & Material Sciences (C&MS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are interested in advanced fuel research and manufacturing using its multi-disciplinary capability and facilities to support a design concept of a small, secure, transportable, and autonomous reactor (SSTAR). The E&E and C&MS Directorates co-sponsored this Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) Project on Mono-Uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications. In fact, three out of the six GEN-IV reactor concepts consider using the nitride-based fuel, as shown in Table 1. SSTAR is a liquid-metal cooled, fast reactor. It uses nitride fuel in a sealed reactor vessel that could be shipped to the user and returned to the supplier having never been opened in its long operating lifetime. This sealed reactor concept envisions no fuel refueling nor on-site storage of spent fuel, and as a result, can greatly enhance proliferation resistance. However, the requirement for a sealed, long-life core imposes great challenges to research and development of the nitride fuel and its cladding. Cladding is an important interface between the fuel and coolant and a barrier to prevent fission gas release during normal and accidental conditions. In fabricating the nitride fuel rods and assemblies, the cladding material should be selected based on its the coolant-side corrosion properties, the chemical/physical interaction with the nitride fuel, as well as their thermal and neutronic properties. The US NASA space reactor, the

  4. A Fiber Raman Spectrometer for Field Detecting Geological Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High throughput, fast detection and characterization of geological materials have become important challenge for future lunar robotic rover exploration and planetary...

  5. Model Based Aircraft Upset Detection and Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a system for detecting upset conditions and providing the corresponding control recovery actions to maintain flight integrity for general...

  6. Integral Histogram with Random Projection for Pedestrian Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Hua; Lin, Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we give a systematic study to report several deep insights into the HOG, one of the most widely used features in the modern computer vision and image processing applications. We first show that, its magnitudes of gradient can be randomly projected with random matrix. To handle over-fitting, an integral histogram based on the differences of randomly selected blocks is proposed. The experiments show that both the random projection and integral histogram outperform the HOG feature obviously. Finally, the two ideas are combined into a new descriptor termed IHRP, which outperforms the HOG feature with less dimensions and higher speed. PMID:26569486

  7. FY07 LDRD Final Report Synthesis under High Pressure and Temperature of New Metal Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowhurst, J C; Sadigh, B; Aberg, D; Zaug, J M; Goncharov, A F

    2008-09-23

    The original aim of this LDRD was to determine with unprecedented precision the melting curve of iron to geophysically relevant pressures. In the course of developing much of the technology and techniques required to obtain this information we have encountered and studied novel chemical reactions some of whose products are stable or metastable under ambient conditions. Specifically we have synthesized nitrides of the platinum group metals including platinum, iridium, and palladium. We have also carried out in depth first principles theoretical investigations into the nature of these materials. We believed that the scientific impact of continuing this work would be greater than that of the original goals of this project. Indeed the work has led to a number of high profile publications with additional publications in preparation. While nitrides of the transition metals are generally of tremendous technological importance, those of the noble metals in particular have enjoyed much experimental and theoretical attention in the very short time since they were first synthesized. The field was and clearly remains open for further study. While the scientific motivation for this research is different from that originally proposed, many of the associated methods in which we have now gained experience are similar or identical. These include use of the diamond anvil cell combined with technologies to generate high temperatures, the in-situ technique of Raman scattering using our purpose-built, state-of-the-art system, analytical techniques for determining the composition of recovered samples such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and finally synchrotron-based techniques such as x-ray diffraction for structural and equation of state determinations. Close interactions between theorists and experimentalists has and will continue to allow our group to rapidly and reliably interpret complicated results on the structure and dynamics of these compounds and also additional novel

  8. Detecting security attacks with SIEM : SERCO project report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paassen R.J.G. van; Hut, D.H.; Boltjes, B.; Trichias, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Critical ICT Infrastructures’ program managed by prof. dr. ir. Rob Kooij is a strategic research program that aims to improve the quality of ICT infrastructures. The red line for all projects within this program is quality and dependability for all information and communication technology. Espe

  9. Novel Tunable Dye Laser for Lidar Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A tunable dye laser for Lidar detection will be fabricated based on the innovative dye-doped Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (HPDLC) technology. The...

  10. Mobile Passive Optical Imager for Remote Gas Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tunable filters based on electro-optic effect have shown great potential in detecting gas concentration through obtaining its absorption spectrum. In filter-based...

  11. Quantitative Emboli Detection Using Nonlinear Ultrasound Technique Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new and innovative method for the detection and classification of emboli flowing into the brain through Carotid arteries, specifically for...

  12. In-Flight Diagnosis and Anomaly Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In flight diagnosis and anomaly detection is a difficult challenge that requires sufficient observation and real-time processing of health information. Our approach...

  13. Online Real-Time Tribology Failure Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under NASA Phase I funding, we have developed a system for the ball bearing fault detection and identification. Our system can effectively identify multiple fault...

  14. Fault Management: Degradation Signature Detection, Modeling, and Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fault to Failure Progression (FFP) signature modeling and processing is a new method for applying condition-based signal data to detect degradation, to identify...

  15. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An autonomous airborne imaging system for earth science research, disaster response, and fire detection is proposed. The primary goal is to improve information to...

  16. Distributed Leak Detection System Using Structure-Borne Noise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned spacecraft are vulnerable to air leaks caused by micrometeorite and space debris impact. The ability to detect and quickly locate and mitigate a pressure...

  17. Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for Aviation Hazard Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc (PSI) proposes the development of a longwave infrared (LWIR) imaging spatial heterodyne spectrometer (I-SHS) for standoff detection of clear...

  18. Distributed Leak Detection System Using Structure-Borne Noise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned spacecraft are vulnerable to air leaks caused by micrometeoroid and space debris impact. The ability to detect and quickly locate and mitigate a pressure...

  19. Convective Induced Turbulence (CIT) Detection via Total Lightning Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We proposes to build a prototype Convective-Induced Turbulence (CIT) hazard detection system based on total lightning sensing as an indicator of the location and...

  20. Space Applications for Ensemble Detection and Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Detection is both a measurement technique and analysis tool. Like a prism that separates light into spectral bands, an ensemble detector mixes a signal with...

  1. Versatile Sensor for Transition, Separation, and Shock Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a simple, robust, sensor array for the detection of laminar/turbulent transition location, areas of flowfield separation, and shock wave...

  2. Atom Interferometry for detection of Gravity Waves-a Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atom interferometers are more sensitive to inertial effects. This is because atoms in their inertial frame are ideal test masses for detection of gravity effects...

  3. Detecting user needs for new online dictionary projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This contribution first refers to one of the problems affecting modern e-lexicography, viz. information overload, and proposes six general principles which could guide the design of future online dictionaries. It then discusses some of the techniques and methods which can be used in order to apply......, it then discusses various methods to determine these needs which are considered the point of departure of any new dictionary project. Finally it argues that although the required specific knowledge may be achieved by means of some of the old and new methods used in lexicographical user research, these methods...... are nonetheless too time-consuming and costly to be applied to each and every new dictionary project. It therefore recommends the deductive method, which is embedded in the function theory, as an efficient, cheap and easy method in this regards....

  4. The First Monolithic Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor Array for Solar Blind UV Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will address the needs of space astronomy, military threat detection, and scientific research for image...

  5. Eye and Iris Detection Using Projection and Radial Symmetry Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Shu-lan; CAO Cheng; Aishy Amer

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an eye and iris detection algorithm for human facial images. The authors combine three features of the eye to develop the algorithm: 1) the pixels surrounding the eyes are more variable than other parts of the face; 2) eye pixels are darker than their neighbors; 3) eyes often exhibit radial symmetric properties. Through the first feature, two rough regions of both eyes are detected on the face. Eye masks are then formed based on the second feature, and a fast radial symmetry transform is applied to the two rough regions of both eyes. Finally, accurate iris centers are located by searching the maximum value of the radial symmetry transform results. Using 450 human facial images from the Caltech face database, experiments show that the success rate of the proposed method is 91.7%. The effectiveness of the method was also verified through detection of video frames.

  6. Folded Compact Range Development and Coherent Change Detection Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K.W.

    1995-03-01

    A novel, folded compact range configuration has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories compact range antenna and radar cross section measurement facility, operated by the Radar/Antenna Department 2343, as a means of performing indoor, environmentally-controlled, far-field simulations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD) measurements. This report describes the development of the folded compact range configuration, as well as the initial set of coherent change detection measurements made with the system. These measurements have been highly successful, and have demonstrated the viability of the folded compact range concept in simulating SAR CCD measurements. It is felt that follow-on measurements have the potential of contributing significantly to the body of knowledge available to the scientific community involved in CCD image generation and processing, and that this tool will be a significant aid in the research and development of change detection methodologies.

  7. REPPlab: An R package for detecting clusters and outliers using exploratory projection pursuit

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Daniel; Berro, Alain; Nordhausen, Klaus; Ruiz-Gazen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The R-package REPPlab is designed to explore multivariate data sets using one-dimensional unsupervised projection pursuit. It is useful in practice as a preprocessing step to find clusters or as an outlier detection tool for multivariate numerical data. Except from the package tourr that implements smooth sequences of projection matrices and rggobi that provides an interface to a dynamic graphics package called GGobi, there is no implementation of exploratory projection pursuit tools availabl...

  8. LDRD final report on massively-parallel linear programming : the parPCx system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, Ojas (Emory University, Atlanta, GA); Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Boman, Erik Gunnar

    2005-02-01

    This report summarizes the research and development performed from October 2002 to September 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories under the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project ''Massively-Parallel Linear Programming''. We developed a linear programming (LP) solver designed to use a large number of processors. LP is the optimization of a linear objective function subject to linear constraints. Companies and universities have expended huge efforts over decades to produce fast, stable serial LP solvers. Previous parallel codes run on shared-memory systems and have little or no distribution of the constraint matrix. We have seen no reports of general LP solver runs on large numbers of processors. Our parallel LP code is based on an efficient serial implementation of Mehrotra's interior-point predictor-corrector algorithm (PCx). The computational core of this algorithm is the assembly and solution of a sparse linear system. We have substantially rewritten the PCx code and based it on Trilinos, the parallel linear algebra library developed at Sandia. Our interior-point method can use either direct or iterative solvers for the linear system. To achieve a good parallel data distribution of the constraint matrix, we use a (pre-release) version of a hypergraph partitioner from the Zoltan partitioning library. We describe the design and implementation of our new LP solver called parPCx and give preliminary computational results. We summarize a number of issues related to efficient parallel solution of LPs with interior-point methods including data distribution, numerical stability, and solving the core linear system using both direct and iterative methods. We describe a number of applications of LP specific to US Department of Energy mission areas and we summarize our efforts to integrate parPCx (and parallel LP solvers in general) into Sandia's massively-parallel integer programming solver PICO (Parallel Interger and

  9. Exploration of cloud computing late start LDRD #149630 : Raincoat. v. 2.1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeverria, Victor T.; Metral, Michael David; Leger, Michelle A.; Gabert, Kasimir Georg; Edgett, Patrick Garrett; Thai, Tan Q.

    2010-09-01

    This report contains documentation from an interoperability study conducted under the Late Start LDRD 149630, Exploration of Cloud Computing. A small late-start LDRD from last year resulted in a study (Raincoat) on using Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) to enhance security in a hybrid cloud environment. Raincoat initially explored the use of OpenVPN on IPv4 and demonstrates that it is possible to secure the communication channel between two small 'test' clouds (a few nodes each) at New Mexico Tech and Sandia. We extended the Raincoat study to add IPSec support via Vyatta routers, to interface with a public cloud (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)), and to be significantly more scalable than the previous iteration. The study contributed to our understanding of interoperability in a hybrid cloud.

  10. Development of highly integrated magetically and electrostatically actuated micropumps : LDRD 64709 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnowchik, Brian D. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Galambos, Paul C.; Hendrix, Jason R. (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL); Zwolinski, Andrew (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL)

    2003-12-01

    The pump and actuator systems designed and built in the SUMMiT{trademark} process, Sandia's surface micromachining polysilicon MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication technology, on the previous campus executive program LDRD (SAND2002-0704P) with FSU/FAMU (Florida State University/Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University) were characterized in this LDRD. These results demonstrated that the device would pump liquid against the flow resistance of a microfabricated channel, but the devices were determined to be underpowered for reliable pumping. As a result a new set of SUMMiT{trademark} pumps with actuators that generate greater torque will be designed and submitted for fabrication. In this document we will report details of dry actuator/pump assembly testing, wet actuator/pump testing, channel resistance characterization, and new pump/actuator design recommendations.

  11. Project of the underwater system for chemical threat detection

    CERN Document Server

    Silarski, M; Moskal, P; Smolis, M; Tadeja, S

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe a novel method for the detection of explosives and other hazardous substances in the marine environment using neutron activation. Unlike the other considered methods based on this technique we propose to use guides forneutron and gamma quanta which speeds up and simplifies identification. Moreover, it may provide a determination of the density distribution of a dangerous substance. First preliminary results of Monte Carlo simulations dedicated for design of a device exploiting this method are also presented.

  12. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  13. Injection-locked composite lasers for mm-wave modulation : LDRD 117819 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Raring, James; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Alford, Charles Fred (Sandia Staffing Alliance, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Skogen, Erik J.; Chow, Weng Wah; Cajas, Florante G. (LMATA Government Services, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Overberg, Mark E.; Torres, David L. (LMATA Government Services, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring mutual injection locking of composite-cavity lasers for enhanced modulation responses. The program focused on developing a fundamental understanding of the frequency enhancement previously demonstrated for optically injection locked lasers. This was then applied to the development of a theoretical description of strongly coupled laser microsystems. This understanding was validated experimentally with a novel 'photonic lab bench on a chip'.

  14. Increasing computer-aided detection specificity by projection features for CT colonography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongbin; Liang, Zhengrong; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Barish, Matthew A.; You, Jiangsheng; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Posniak, Erica J.; Richards, Robert J.; Cohen, Harris L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A large number of false positives (FPs) generated by computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes is likely to distract radiologists’ attention and decrease their interpretation efficiency. This study aims to develop projection-based features which characterize true and false positives to increase the specificity while maintaining high sensitivity in detecting colonic polyps.

  15. Robust automatic detection and removal of fiducial projections in fluoroscopy images: an integrated solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Guoyan

    2008-01-01

    Automatic detection and removal of fiducial projections in fluoroscopy images is an essential prerequisite for fluoroscopy-based navigation and image-based 3D-2D registration. This paper presents an integrated solution to fulfill this task. A custom-designed calibration cage with a two-plane pattern of fiducials is utilized in our solution. The cage is attached to the C-arm image intensifier and the projections of the fiducials are automatically detected and removed by an on-line algorithm consisting of following 6 steps: image binarization, connected-component labeling, region classification, adaptive template matching, shape analysis, and fiducial projection removal. A similarity measure which is proposed previously for image-based 3D-2D registration is employed in the adaptive template matching to improve the accuracy of the detection. Shape analysis based on the geometrical constraints satisfied by those fiducials in the calibration cage is used to further improve the robustness of the detection. An image inpainting technique based on the fast marching method for level set applications is used to remove the detected fiducial projections. Our in vitro experiments show on average 4 seconds execution time on a Pentium IV machine, a zero false-detection rate, a miss-detection rate of 1.6+/-2.3%, and a sub-pixel localization error.

  16. Detection of buried objects using ultra-wideband radar: newly launched mine detection project in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kyungryul; Kim, Kangwook

    2008-04-01

    Korea is one of the heavily mined countries in the world. The demand for mine detection and clearance techniques has always been high in South Korea. In support of this, a new project on ground penetrating radar (GPR) for landmine detection has been launched in South Korea. The GPR under development is an ultra wideband sensor system that requires high-resolution imaging of buried targets and database construction based on target signals in various ground conditions. For initial experiments, a simple GPR has been built using a resistive vee dipole antenna and a vector network analyzer. The GPR is scanned over a sand tank with an area of 2.5m × 2.5m and a depth of 1.5m, which is used for target burial. During the first stage of the project, the data obtained by scanning the GPR antenna over a target are processed to evaluate various radar signal waveforms, performance of various antennas, and other system configurations. Based on the evaluation, an advanced GPR system will be built and used to construct the database during the second stage of the project. A description for motivation for the GPR project, overview of the GPR project, experiment setup, and initial experiment results are presented in this paper.

  17. Detecting Warming Hiatus Periods in CMIP5 Climate Model Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony W. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The observed slow-down in the global-mean surface temperature (GST warming from 1998 to 2012 has been called a “warming hiatus.” Certain climate models, operating under experiments which simulate warming by increasing radiative forcing, have been shown to reproduce periods which resemble the observed hiatus. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of 38 CMIP5 climate models to provide further evidence that models produce warming hiatus periods during warming experiments. GST rates are simulated in each model for the 21st century using two experiments: a moderate warming scenario (RCP4.5 and high-end scenario (RCP8.5. Warming hiatus periods are identified in model simulations by detecting (1 ≥15-year periods lacking a statistically meaningful trend and (2 rapid changes in the GST rate which resemble the observed 1998–2012 hiatus. Under the RCP4.5 experiment, all tested models produce warming hiatus periods. However, once radiative forcing exceeds 5 W/m2—about 2°C GST increase—as simulated in the RCP8.5 experiment after 2050, nearly all models produce only positive warming trends. All models show evidence of rapid changes in the GST rate resembling the observed hiatus, showing that the climate variations associated with warming hiatus periods are still evident in the models, even under accelerated warming conditions.

  18. Final Technical Report for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, James H.; Bliss, Mary; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Robinson, Sean M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2013-11-01

    This report details the results of the research and development work accomplished for the ‘Neutron Detection without Helium-3’ project conducted during the 2011-2013 fiscal years. The primary focus of the project was to investigate commercially available technologies that might be used in safeguards applications in the relatively near term. Other technologies that are being developed may be more applicable in the future, but were outside the scope of this study.

  19. Modeling and Simulation Optimization and Feasibility Studies for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.

    2013-01-01

    This report details the results of the modeling and simulation work accomplished for the ‘Neutron Detection without Helium-3’ project during the 2011 and 2012 fiscal years. The primary focus of the project is to investigate commercially available technologies that might be used in safeguards applications in the relatively near term. Other technologies that are being developed may be more applicable in the future, but are outside the scope of this study.

  20. Staff line detection and revision algorithm based on subsection projection and correlation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yin-xian; Yang, Ding-li

    2013-03-01

    Staff line detection plays a key role in OMR technology, and is the precon-ditions of subsequent segmentation 1& recognition of music sheets. For the phenomena of horizontal inclination & curvature of staff lines and vertical inclination of image, which often occur in music scores, an improved approach based on subsection projection is put forward to realize the detection of original staff lines and revision in an effect to implement staff line detection more successfully. Experimental results show the presented algorithm can detect and revise staff lines fast and effectively.

  1. LDRD final report on a unified linear reference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Mackoy, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Decision Support Systems Software Engineering Dept.; Fletcher, D.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Alliance for Transportation Research

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the project was to describe existing deficiencies in Geographic Information Systems for transportation (GIS-T) applications and prescribe solutions that would benefit the transportation community in general. After an in-depth literature search and much consultation with noted transportation experts, the need for a common linear reference system that integrated and supported the planning and operational needs of the transportation community became very apparent. The focus of the project was set on a unified linear reference system and how to go about its requirements definition, design, implementation, and promulgation to the transportation community.

  2. Towards the installation and use of an extended array for cosmic ray detection The EEE Project

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; An, S; Antolini, R; Badala, A; Baek, Y W; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Blanco, F; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Chiri,C; Cicalò, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; Coccetti, F; De Caro, A; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; D'Incecco, M; Fabbri, F L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Garnaccia, C; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Imponente, G; Kim, J S; Kim, M M; La Rocca, P; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Menghetti, H; Miozzi, S; Moro, R; Noferini, F; Pagano, P; Panareo, M; Pappalardo, G S; Petta, C; Piragino, G; Preghenella, R; Riggi, F; Romano, F; Russo, G; Sartorelli, G; Sbarra, C; Scioli, G; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Wenninger, H; Williams, M C S; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2009-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project started to use an array of cosmic ray telescopes for muon detection, distributed over the italian territory. The use of such telescopes, based on Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) allows the study of the local muon flux, the detection of cosmic ray showers and the search for correlations between distant showers. The project is also intended to involve high school teams in an advanced research work. The present status of the installation and the first physics results are discussed here.

  3. Towards the installation and use of an extended array for cosmic ray detection: The EEE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Alici, A.; An, S.; Antolini, R.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Blanco, F.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Chiri, C.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Coccetti, F.; de Caro, A.; de Gruttola, D.; de Pasquale, S.; D'Incecco, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Guarnaccia, C.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Imponente, G.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M. M.; La Rocca, P.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Menghetti, H.; Miozzi, S.; Moro, R.; Noferini, F.; Pagano, P.; Panareo, M.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Petta, C.; Piragino, G.; Preghenella, R.; Riggi, F.; Romano, F.; Russo, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Sbarra, C.; Scioli, G.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Wenninger, H.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zampolli, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2009-05-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project started to use an array of cosmic ray telescopes for muon detection, distributed over the italian territory. The use of such telescopes, based on Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) allows the study of the local muon flux, the detection of cosmic ray showers and the search for correlations between distant showers. The project is also intended to involve high school teams in an advanced research work. The present status of the installation and the first physics results are discussed here.

  4. Advances in radiation modeling in ALEGRA :a final report for LDRD-67120, efficient implicit mulitgroup radiation calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Kurecka, Christopher J. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); McClarren, Ryan (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)

    2005-11-01

    The original LDRD proposal was to use a nonlinear diffusion solver to compute estimates for the material temperature that could then be used in a Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) calculation. At the end of the first year of the project, it was determined that this was not going to be effective, partially due to the concept, and partially due to the fact that the radiation diffusion package was not as efficient as it could be. The second, and final year, of the project focused on improving the robustness and computational efficiency of the radiation diffusion package in ALEGRA. To this end, several new multigroup diffusion methods have been developed and implemented in ALEGRA. While these methods have been implemented, their effectiveness of reducing overall simulation run time has not been fully tested. Additionally a comprehensive suite of verification problems has been developed for the diffusion package to ensure that it has been implemented correctly. This process took considerable time, but exposed significant bugs in both the previous and new diffusion packages, the linear solve packages, and even the NEVADA Framework's parser. In order to manage this large suite of problem, a new tool called Tampa has been developed. It is a general tool for automating the process of running and analyzing many simulations. Ryan McClarren, at the University of Michigan has been developing a Spherical Harmonics capability for unstructured meshes. While still in the early phases of development, this promises to bridge the gap in accuracy between a full transport solution using IMC and the diffusion approximation.

  5. Advances in radiation modeling in ALEGRA :a final report for LDRD-67120, efficient implicit mulitgroup radiation calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Kurecka, Christopher J. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); McClarren, Ryan (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)

    2005-11-01

    The original LDRD proposal was to use a nonlinear diffusion solver to compute estimates for the material temperature that could then be used in a Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) calculation. At the end of the first year of the project, it was determined that this was not going to be effective, partially due to the concept, and partially due to the fact that the radiation diffusion package was not as efficient as it could be. The second, and final year, of the project focused on improving the robustness and computational efficiency of the radiation diffusion package in ALEGRA. To this end, several new multigroup diffusion methods have been developed and implemented in ALEGRA. While these methods have been implemented, their effectiveness of reducing overall simulation run time has not been fully tested. Additionally a comprehensive suite of verification problems has been developed for the diffusion package to ensure that it has been implemented correctly. This process took considerable time, but exposed significant bugs in both the previous and new diffusion packages, the linear solve packages, and even the NEVADA Framework's parser. In order to manage this large suite of problem, a new tool called Tampa has been developed. It is a general tool for automating the process of running and analyzing many simulations. Ryan McClarren, at the University of Michigan has been developing a Spherical Harmonics capability for unstructured meshes. While still in the early phases of development, this promises to bridge the gap in accuracy between a full transport solution using IMC and the diffusion approximation.

  6. FY04 LDRD Final Report Stroke Sensor Development Using Microdot Sensor Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J C; Wilson, T S; Alvis, R M; Paulson, C N; Setlur, U S; McBride, M T; Brown, S B; Bearinger, J P; Colston, B W

    2005-11-15

    major thrust area for the Medical Technology Program (M-division). Through MTP, LLNL has a sizable investment and recognizable expertise in stroke treatment research. The proposed microdot array sensor for stroke will complement this existing program in which mechanical devices are being designed for removing the thrombus. The following list of stroke projects and their relative status shows that MTP has a proven track record of taking ideas to industry: The goal of this LDRD funded project was to develop and demonstrate a minimally invasive optical fiber-based sensor for rapid and in-vivo measurements of multiple stroke biomarkers (e.g. pH and enzyme). The development of this sensor also required the development of a new fabrication technology for attaching indicator chemistries to optical fibers. A benefit of this work is to provide clinicians with a tool to assess vascular integrity of the region beyond the thrombus to determine whether or not it is safe to proceed with the removal of the clot. Such an assessment could extend the use of thrombolytic drug treatment to acute stroke victims outside the current rigid temporal limitation of 3 hours. Furthermore, this sensor would also provide a tool for use with emerging treatments involving the use of mechanical devices for removing the thrombus. The sensor effectively assesses the risk for reperfusion injury.

  7. Detection of scintillation light in coincidence with ionizing tracks in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, P; Rubbia, Carlo; Sergiampietri, F; Bueno, A G; Campanelli, M; Goudsmit, P; Rubbia, André; Periale, L; Suzuki, S; Chen, C; Chen, Y; He, K; Huang, X; Li, Z; Lu, F; Ma, J; Xu, G; Xu, Z; Zhang, C; Zhang, Q; Zheng, S; Cavanna, F; Mazza, D; Piano Mortari, G; Petrera, S; Rossi, C; Mannocchi, G; Picchi, P; Arneodo, F; De Mitri, I; Palamara, O; Cavalli, D; Ferrari, A; Sala, P R; Borio di Tigliole, A A; Cesana, A; Terrani, M; Zavattari, C; Baibusinov, S; Bettini, A; Carpanese, C; Centro, Sandro; Favaretto, D; Pascoli, D; Pepato, Adriano; Pietropaolo, F; Ventura, Sandro; Benetti, P; Calligarich, E; Campo, S; Coco, S; Dolfini, R; Ghedi, B; Gigli-Berzolari, A; Mauri, F; Mazzone, L; Montanari, C; Piazzoli, A; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rebuzzi, D; Rossella, M; Scannicchio, D A; Torre, P; Vignoli, C; Cline, D; Otwinowski, S; Wang, H; Woo, J

    1999-01-01

    A system to detect light from liquid argon scintillation has been implemented in a small, ICARUS-like, liquid argon time projection chamber. The system, which uses a VUV-sensitive photomultiplier to collect the light, has recorded many ionizing tracks from cosmic-rays in coincidence with scintillation signals. Our measurements demonstrate that scintillation light detection can provide an effective method for absolute time measurement of events and eventually a useful trigger signal. (19 refs).

  8. Accelerated SPECT Monte Carlo Simulation Using Multiple Projection Sampling and Convolution-Based Forced Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoying; King, Michael A.; Brill, Aaron B.; Stabin, Michael G.; Farncombe, Troy H.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) is a well-utilized tool for simulating photon transport in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) due to its ability to accurately model physical processes of photon transport. As a consequence of this accuracy, it suffers from a relatively low detection efficiency and long computation time. One technique used to improve the speed of MC modeling is the effective and well-established variance reduction technique (VRT) known as forced detection (FD). With this method, photons are followed as they traverse the object under study but are then forced to travel in the direction of the detector surface, whereby they are detected at a single detector location. Another method, called convolution-based forced detection (CFD), is based on the fundamental idea of FD with the exception that detected photons are detected at multiple detector locations and determined with a distance-dependent blurring kernel. In order to further increase the speed of MC, a method named multiple projection convolution-based forced detection (MP-CFD) is presented. Rather than forcing photons to hit a single detector, the MP-CFD method follows the photon transport through the object but then, at each scatter site, forces the photon to interact with a number of detectors at a variety of angles surrounding the object. This way, it is possible to simulate all the projection images of a SPECT simulation in parallel, rather than as independent projections. The result of this is vastly improved simulation time as much of the computation load of simulating photon transport through the object is done only once for all projection angles. The results of the proposed MP-CFD method agrees well with the experimental data in measurements of point spread function (PSF), producing a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.99 compared to experimental data. The speed of MP-CFD is shown to be about 60 times faster than a regular forced detection MC program with similar results. PMID:20811587

  9. Eyeglass Large Aperture, Lightweight Space Optics FY2000 - FY2002 LDRD Strategic Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R

    2003-02-10

    A series of studies by the Air Force, the National Reconnaissance Office and NASA have identified the critical role played by large optics in fulfilling many of the space related missions of these agencies. Whether it is the Next Generation Space Telescope for NASA, high resolution imaging systems for NRO, or beam weaponry for the Air Force, the diameter of the primary optic is central to achieving high resolution (imaging) or a small spot size on target (lethality). While the detailed requirements differ for each application (high resolution imaging over the visible and near-infrared for earth observation, high damage threshold but single-wavelength operation for directed energy), the challenges of a large, lightweight primary optic which is space compatible and operates with high efficiency are the same. The advantage of such large optics to national surveillance applications is that it permits these observations to be carried-out with much greater effectiveness than with smaller optics. For laser weapons, the advantage is that it permits more tightly focused beams which can be leveraged into either greater effective range, reduced laser power, and/or smaller on-target spot-sizes; weapon systems can be made either much more effective or much less expensive. This application requires only single-wavelength capability, but places an emphasis upon robust, rapidly targetable optics. The advantages of large aperture optics to astronomy are that it increases the sensitivity and resolution with which we can view the universe. This can be utilized either for general purpose astronomy, allowing us to examine greater numbers of objects in more detail and at greater range, or it can enable the direct detection and detailed examination of extra-solar planets. This application requires large apertures (for both light-gathering and resolution reasons), with broad-band spectral capability, but does not emphasize either large fields-of-view or pointing agility. Despite

  10. Behavior-aware decision support systems : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.; Homer, Jack (Homer Consulting); Chenoweth, Brooke N.; Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.

    2007-11-01

    As Sandia National Laboratories serves its mission to provide support for the security-related interests of the United States, it is faced with considering the behavioral responses that drive problems, mitigate interventions, or lead to unintended consequences. The effort described here expands earlier works in using healthcare simulation to develop behavior-aware decision support systems. This report focuses on using qualitative choice techniques and enhancing two analysis models developed in a sister project.

  11. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  12. Computer-aided detection of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT): a multichannel signal detection approach on projection views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.; Zhou, Chuan; Lu, Yao

    2012-03-01

    DBT is one of the promising imaging modalities that may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer detection. We are developing a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications (MC) in DBT. A data set of two-view DBTs from 42 breasts was collected with a GE prototype system. We investigated a 2D approach to MC detection using projection view (PV) images rather than reconstructed 3D DBT volume. Our 2D approach consisted of two major stages: 1) detecting individual MC candidates on each PV, and 2) correlating the MC candidates from the different PVs and detecting clusters in the breast volume. With the MC candidates detected by prescreening on PVs, a trained multi-channel (MCH) filter bank was used to extract signal response from each MC candidate. A ray-tracing process was performed to fuse the MCH responses and localize the MC candidates in 3D using the geometrical information of the DBT system. Potential MC clusters were then identified by dynamic clustering of the MCs in 3D. A two-fold cross-validation method was used to train and test the CADe system. The detection performance of clustered MCs was assessed by free receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. It was found that the CADe system achieved a case-based sensitivity of 90% at an average false positive rate of 2.1 clusters per DBT volume. Our study demonstrated that the CADe system using 2D MCH filter bank is promising for detection of clustered MCs in DBT.

  13. Data-driven fault detection for industrial processes canonical correlation analysis and projection based methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Zhiwen Chen aims to develop advanced fault detection (FD) methods for the monitoring of industrial processes. With the ever increasing demands on reliability and safety in industrial processes, fault detection has become an important issue. Although the model-based fault detection theory has been well studied in the past decades, its applications are limited to large-scale industrial processes because it is difficult to build accurate models. Furthermore, motivated by the limitations of existing data-driven FD methods, novel canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and projection-based methods are proposed from the perspectives of process input and output data, less engineering effort and wide application scope. For performance evaluation of FD methods, a new index is also developed. Contents A New Index for Performance Evaluation of FD Methods CCA-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Stationary Processes Projection-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Dynamic Processes Benchmark Study and Real-Time Implementat...

  14. FY05 LDRD Final Report, A Revolution in Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Balhorn, R; Barty, A; Barsky, D; Bogan, M; Chung, S; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S; Ishii, H; London, R; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Segelke, B; Szoke, A; Szoke, H; Trebes, J; Wootton, A; Hajdu, J; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Huldt, G; Lejon, S; der Spoel, D v; Howells, M; He, H; Spence, J; Nugent, K; Ingerman, E

    2006-01-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are currently under development and will provide a peak brightness more than 10 orders of magnitude higher than modern synchrotrons. The goal of this project was to perform the fundamental research to evaluate the possibility of harnessing these unique x-ray sources to image single biological particles and molecules at atomic resolution. Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental verification where possible, they showed that it should indeed be possible to record coherent scattering patterns from single molecules with pulses that are shorter than the timescales for the degradation of the structure due to the interaction with those pulses. They used these models to determine the effectiveness of strategies to allow imaging using longer XFEL pulses and to design validation experiments to be carried out at interim ultrafast sources. They also developed and demonstrated methods to recover three-dimensional (3D) images from coherent diffraction patterns, similar to those expected from XFELs. The images of micron-sized test objects are the highest-resolution 3D images of any noncrystalline material ever formed with x-rays. The project resulted in 14 publications in peer-reviewed journals and four records of invention.

  15. LDRD final report on continuous wave intersubband terahertz sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samora, Sally; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.; Young, Erik W.; Fuller, Charles T.; Stephenson, Larry L.; Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Hudgens, James J.

    2005-02-01

    There is a general lack of compact electromagnetic radiation sources between 1 and 10 terahertz (THz). This a challenging spectral region lying between optical devices at high frequencies and electronic devices at low frequencies. While technologically very underdeveloped the THz region has the promise to be of significant technological importance, yet demonstrating its relevance has proven difficult due to the immaturity of the area. While the last decade has seen much experimental work in ultra-short pulsed terahertz sources, many applications will require continuous wave (cw) sources, which are just beginning to demonstrate adequate performance for application use. In this project, we proposed examination of two potential THz sources based on intersubband semiconductor transitions, which were as yet unproven. In particular we wished to explore quantum cascade lasers based sources and electronic based harmonic generators. Shortly after the beginning of the project, we shifted our emphasis to the quantum cascade lasers due to two events; the publication of the first THz quantum cascade laser by another group thereby proving feasibility, and the temporary shut down of the UC Santa Barbara free-electron lasers which were to be used as the pump source for the harmonic generation. The development efforts focused on two separate cascade laser thrusts. The ultimate goal of the first thrust was for a quantum cascade laser to simultaneously emit two mid-infrared frequencies differing by a few THz and to use these to pump a non-linear optical material to generate THz radiation via parametric interactions in a specifically engineered intersubband transition. While the final goal was not realized by the end of the project, many of the completed steps leading to the goal will be described in the report. The second thrust was to develop direct THz QC lasers operating at terahertz frequencies. This is simpler than a mixing approach, and has now been demonstrated by a few groups

  16. Autonomous intelligent assembly systems LDRD 105746 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert J.

    2013-04-01

    This report documents a three-year to develop technology that enables mobile robots to perform autonomous assembly tasks in unstructured outdoor environments. This is a multi-tier problem that requires an integration of a large number of different software technologies including: command and control, estimation and localization, distributed communications, object recognition, pose estimation, real-time scanning, and scene interpretation. Although ultimately unsuccessful in achieving a target brick stacking task autonomously, numerous important component technologies were nevertheless developed. Such technologies include: a patent-pending polygon snake algorithm for robust feature tracking, a color grid algorithm for uniquely identification and calibration, a command and control framework for abstracting robot commands, a scanning capability that utilizes a compact robot portable scanner, and more. This report describes this project and these developed technologies.

  17. Detection-Guided Fast Affine Projection Channel Estimator for Speech Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In various adaptive estimation applications, such as acoustic echo cancellation within teleconferencing systems, the input signal is a highly correlated speech. This, in general, leads to extremely slow convergence of the NLMS adaptive FIR estimator. As a result, for such applications, the affine projection algorithm (APA or the low-complexity version, the fast affine projection (FAP algorithm, is commonly employed instead of the NLMS algorithm. In such applications, the signal propagation channel may have a relatively low-dimensional impulse response structure, that is, the number m of active or significant taps within the (discrete-time modelled channel impulse response is much less than the overall tap length n of the channel impulse response. For such cases, we investigate the inclusion of an active-parameter detection-guided concept within the fast affine projection FIR channel estimator. Simulation results indicate that the proposed detection-guided fast affine projection channel estimator has improved convergence speed and has lead to better steady-state performance than the standard fast affine projection channel estimator, especially in the important case of highly correlated speech input signals.

  18. Eyeglass Large Aperture, Lightweight Space Optics FY2000 - FY2002 LDRD Strategic Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R

    2003-02-10

    A series of studies by the Air Force, the National Reconnaissance Office and NASA have identified the critical role played by large optics in fulfilling many of the space related missions of these agencies. Whether it is the Next Generation Space Telescope for NASA, high resolution imaging systems for NRO, or beam weaponry for the Air Force, the diameter of the primary optic is central to achieving high resolution (imaging) or a small spot size on target (lethality). While the detailed requirements differ for each application (high resolution imaging over the visible and near-infrared for earth observation, high damage threshold but single-wavelength operation for directed energy), the challenges of a large, lightweight primary optic which is space compatible and operates with high efficiency are the same. The advantage of such large optics to national surveillance applications is that it permits these observations to be carried-out with much greater effectiveness than with smaller optics. For laser weapons, the advantage is that it permits more tightly focused beams which can be leveraged into either greater effective range, reduced laser power, and/or smaller on-target spot-sizes; weapon systems can be made either much more effective or much less expensive. This application requires only single-wavelength capability, but places an emphasis upon robust, rapidly targetable optics. The advantages of large aperture optics to astronomy are that it increases the sensitivity and resolution with which we can view the universe. This can be utilized either for general purpose astronomy, allowing us to examine greater numbers of objects in more detail and at greater range, or it can enable the direct detection and detailed examination of extra-solar planets. This application requires large apertures (for both light-gathering and resolution reasons), with broad-band spectral capability, but does not emphasize either large fields-of-view or pointing agility. Despite

  19. FY07 LDRD Final Report Neutron Capture Cross-Section Measurements at DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Wilk, P; Becker, J; Wang, T

    2008-02-08

    We have measured neutron capture cross sections intended to address defense science problems including mix and the Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU), and provide details about statistical decay of excited nuclei. A major part of this project included developing the ability to produce radioactive targets. The cross-section measurements were made using the white neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, the detector array called DANCE (The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) and targets important for astrophysics and stockpile stewardship. DANCE is at the leading edge of neutron capture physics and represents a major leap forward in capability. The detector array was recently built with LDRD money. Our measurements are a significant part of the early results from the new experimental DANCE facility. Neutron capture reactions are important for basic nuclear science, including astrophysics and the statistics of the {gamma}-ray cascades, and for applied science, including stockpile science and technology. We were most interested in neutron capture with neutron energies in the range between 1 eV and a few hundred keV, with targets important to basic science, and the s-process in particular. Of particular interest were neutron capture cross-section measurements of rare isotopes, especially radioactive isotopes. A strong collaboration between universities and Los Alamos due to the Academic Alliance was in place at the start of our project. Our project gave Livermore leverage in focusing on Livermore interests. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory did not have a resident expert in cross-section measurements; this project allowed us to develop this expertise. For many radionuclides, the cross sections for destruction, especially (n,{gamma}), are not well known, and there is no adequate model that describes neutron capture. The modeling problem is significant because, at low energies where capture reactions are important, the neutron

  20. The NINJA-2 project: Detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C -H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Roux, A Le; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Brügmann, B; Buchman, L T; Campanelli, M; Chu, T; Etienne, Z B; Hannam, M; Healy, J; Hinder, I; Kidder, L E; Laguna, P; Liu, Y T; London, L; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; MacDonald, I; Marronetti, P; Mösta, P; Müller, D; Mundim, B C; Nakano, H; Paschalidis, V; Pekowsky, L; Pollney, D; Pfeiffer, H P; Ponce, M; Pürrer, M; Reifenberger, G; Reisswig, C; Santamaría, L; Scheel, M A; Shapiro, S L; Shoemaker, D; Sopuerta, C F; Sperhake, U; Szilágyi, B; Taylor, N W; Tichy, W; Tsatsin, P; Zlochower, Y

    2014-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect gravitational waves emitted from merging binary black holes and recover their parameters with next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete binary black hole hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a "blind injection challenge" similar to that conducted in recent LIGO and Virgo science runs, we added 7 hybrid waveforms to two months of data recolored to predictions of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analyzed by gravitational-wave detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered w...

  1. A virtual trial framework for quantifying the detectability of masses in breast tomosynthesis projection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stefano [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Bakic, Predrag R. [Radiology Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Myers, Kyle J.; Jennings, Robert J.; Park, Subok [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a promising breast cancer screening tool that has already begun making inroads into clinical practice. However, there is ongoing debate over how to quantitatively evaluate and optimize these systems, because different definitions of image quality can lead to different optimal design strategies. Powerful and accurate tools are desired to extend our understanding of DBT system optimization and validate published design principles. Methods: The authors developed a virtual trial framework for task-specific DBT assessment that uses digital phantoms, open-source x-ray transport codes, and a projection-space, spatial-domain observer model for quantitative system evaluation. The authors considered evaluation of reconstruction algorithms as a separate problem and focused on the information content in the raw, unfiltered projection images. Specifically, the authors investigated the effects of scan angle and number of angular projections on detectability of a small (3 mm diameter) signal embedded in randomly-varying anatomical backgrounds. Detectability was measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Experiments were repeated for three test cases where the detectability-limiting factor was anatomical variability, quantum noise, or electronic noise. The authors also juxtaposed the virtual trial framework with other published studies to illustrate its advantages and disadvantages. Results: The large number of variables in a virtual DBT study make it difficult to directly compare different authors' results, so each result must be interpreted within the context of the specific virtual trial framework. The following results apply to 25% density phantoms with 5.15 cm compressed thickness and 500 {mu}m{sup 3} voxels (larger 500 {mu}m{sup 2} detector pixels were used to avoid voxel-edge artifacts): 1. For raw, unfiltered projection images in the anatomical-variability-limited regime, AUC appeared to

  2. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: Results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J G; Gómez, H; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Luzón, G; Mirallas, H; Ruiz, E; Seguí, L; Tomás, A

    2015-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R&D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Micromegas-read TPCs in rare event searches like double beta decay (DBD), axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the DBD of $^{136}$Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + TMA mixtures with microbulk Micromegas, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at pressures up to 10 bar. TMA at levels of $\\sim$1\\% reduces electron diffusion by a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination...

  3. Development of efficient, integrated cellulosic biorefineries : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Buffleben, George M.; Dibble, Dean C.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2010-09-01

    Cellulosic ethanol, generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources such as grasses and trees, is a promising alternative to conventional starch- and sugar-based ethanol production in terms of potential production quantities, CO{sub 2} impact, and economic competitiveness. In addition, cellulosic ethanol can be generated (at least in principle) without competing with food production. However, approximately 1/3 of the lignocellulosic biomass material (including all of the lignin) cannot be converted to ethanol through biochemical means and must be extracted at some point in the biochemical process. In this project we gathered basic information on the prospects for utilizing this lignin residue material in thermochemical conversion processes to improve the overall energy efficiency or liquid fuel production capacity of cellulosic biorefineries. Two existing pretreatment approaches, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and the Arkenol (strong sulfuric acid) process, were implemented at Sandia and used to generated suitable quantities of residue material from corn stover and eucalyptus feedstocks for subsequent thermochemical research. A third, novel technique, using ionic liquids (IL) was investigated by Sandia researchers at the Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), but was not successful in isolating sufficient lignin residue. Additional residue material for thermochemical research was supplied from the dilute-acid simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) pilot-scale process at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The high-temperature volatiles yields of the different residues were measured, as were the char combustion reactivities. The residue chars showed slightly lower reactivity than raw biomass char, except for the SSF residue, which had substantially lower reactivity. Exergy analysis was applied to the NREL standard process design model for thermochemical ethanol production and from a prototypical dedicated biochemical process, with process data

  4. LDRD Project 52523 final report :Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal tribological coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungk, John Michael (University of Minnesota); Dugger, Michael Thomas; George, Steve M. (University of Colorado); Prasad, Somuri V.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mayer, Thomas Michael; Scharf, Thomas W.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Gerberich, William W. (University of Minnesota)

    2005-10-01

    Friction and wear are major concerns in the performance and reliability of micromechanical (MEMS) devices. While a variety of lubricant and wear resistant coatings are known which we might consider for application to MEMS devices, the severe geometric constraints of many micromechanical systems (high aspect ratios, shadowed surfaces) make most deposition methods for friction and wear-resistance coatings impossible. In this program we have produced and evaluate highly conformal, tribological coatings, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), for use on surface micromachined (SMM) and LIGA structures. ALD is a chemical vapor deposition process using sequential exposure of reagents and self-limiting surface chemistry, saturating at a maximum of one monolayer per exposure cycle. The self-limiting chemistry results in conformal coating of high aspect ratio structures, with monolayer precision. ALD of a wide variety of materials is possible, but there have been no studies of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of these films. We have developed processes for depositing thin (<100 nm) conformal coatings of selected hard and lubricious films (Al2O3, ZnO, WS2, W, and W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates), and measured their chemical, physical, mechanical and tribological properties. A significant challenge in this program was to develop instrumentation and quantitative test procedures, which did not exist, for friction, wear, film/substrate adhesion, elastic properties, stress, etc., of extremely thin films and nanolaminates. New scanning probe and nanoindentation techniques have been employed along with detailed mechanics-based models to evaluate these properties at small loads characteristic of microsystem operation. We emphasize deposition processes and fundamental properties of ALD materials, however we have also evaluated applications and film performance for model SMM and LIGA devices.

  5. Final report for the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) control plane security LDRD project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Michalski, John T.; Tarman, Thomas David; Black, Stephen P.; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2003-09-01

    As rapid Internet growth continues, global communications becomes more dependent on Internet availability for information transfer. Recently, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) introduced a new protocol, Multiple Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), to provide high-performance data flows within the Internet. MPLS emulates two major aspects of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology. First, each initial IP packet is 'routed' to its destination based on previously known delay and congestion avoidance mechanisms. This allows for effective distribution of network resources and reduces the probability of congestion. Second, after route selection each subsequent packet is assigned a label at each hop, which determines the output port for the packet to reach its final destination. These labels guide the forwarding of each packet at routing nodes more efficiently and with more control than traditional IP forwarding (based on complete address information in each packet) for high-performance data flows. Label assignment is critical in the prompt and accurate delivery of user data. However, the protocols for label distribution were not adequately secured. Thus, if an adversary compromises a node by intercepting and modifying, or more simply injecting false labels into the packet-forwarding engine, the propagation of improperly labeled data flows could create instability in the entire network. In addition, some Virtual Private Network (VPN) solutions take advantage of this 'virtual channel' configuration to eliminate the need for user data encryption to provide privacy. VPN's relying on MPLS require accurate label assignment to maintain user data protection. This research developed a working distributive trust model that demonstrated how to deploy confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation in the global network label switching control plane. Simulation models and laboratory testbed implementations that demonstrated this concept were developed, and results from this research were transferred to industry via standards in the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF).

  6. Two dimensional point of use fuel cell : a final LDRD project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Hickner, Michael A. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Gross, Matthew L. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2011-03-01

    The Proliferation Assessment (program area - Things Thin) within the Defense Systems and Assessment Investment Area desires high energy density and long-lived power sources with moderate currents (mA) that can be used as building blocks in platforms for the continuous monitoring of chemical, biological, and radiological agents. Fuel cells can be an optimum choice for a power source because of the high energy densities that are possible with liquid fuels. Additionally, power generation and fuel storage can be decoupled in a fuel cell for independent control of energy and power density for customized, application-driven power solutions. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are explored as a possible concept to develop into ultrathin or two-dimensional power sources. New developments in nanotechnology, advanced fabrication techniques, and materials science are exploited to create a planar DMFC that could be co-located with electronics in a chip format. Carbon nanotubes and pyrolyzed polymers are used as building block electrodes - porous, mechanically compliant current collectors. Directed assembly methods including surface functionalization and layer-by-layer deposition with polyelectrolytes are used to pattern, build, and add functionality to these electrodes. These same techniques are used to incorporate nanoscale selective electrocatalyst into the carbon electrodes to provide a high density of active electron transfer sites for the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting electrodes are characterized in terms of their physical properties, electrocatalytic function, and selectivity to better understand how processing impacts their performance attributes. The basic function of a membrane electrode assembly is demonstrated for several prototype devices.

  7. Molecular dynamics of gases and vapors in nanoporous solids. Final LDRD project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, P.I.

    1996-08-01

    This report provides a study of gases in microporous solids using molecular modeling. The theory of gas transport in porous materials as well as the molecular modeling literature is briefly reviewed. Work complete is described and analyzed with retard to the prevailing theory. The work covers two simple subjects, construction of porous solid models and diffusion of He, H{sub 2}, Ar and CH{sub 4} down a pressure gradient across the material models as in typical membrane permeation experiments. The broader objective is to enhance our capability to efficiently and accurately develop, produce and apply microporous materials.

  8. Final report for LDRD Project 93633 : new hash function for data protection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, Timothy John; Dautenhahn, Nathan; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tolk, Keith Michael; Orman, Hilarie (PurpleStreak, Inc.); Walker, Andrea Mae; Malone, Sean; Lee, Eric; Neumann, William Douglas; Cordwell, William R.; Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Anderson, Eric; Lanzone, Andrew J.; Collins, Michael Joseph; McDonald, Timothy Scott; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2009-03-01

    The security of the widely-used cryptographic hash function SHA1 has been impugned. We have developed two replacement hash functions. The first, SHA1X, is a drop-in replacement for SHA1. The second, SANDstorm, has been submitted as a candidate to the NIST-sponsored SHA3 Hash Function competition.

  9. Geomechanics of penetration : experimental and computational approaches : final report for LDRD project 38718.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Gettemy, Glen L.; Fossum, Arlo Frederick; Rivas, Raul R.; Bronowski, David R.; Preece, Dale S.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the present work is to increase our understanding of which properties of geomaterials most influence the penetration process with a goal of improving our predictive ability. Two primary approaches were followed: development of a realistic, constitutive model for geomaterials and designing an experimental approach to study penetration from the target's point of view. A realistic constitutive model, with parameters based on measurable properties, can be used for sensitivity analysis to determine the properties that are most important in influencing the penetration process. An immense literature exists that is devoted to the problem of predicting penetration into geomaterials or similar man-made materials such as concrete. Various formulations have been developed that use an analytic or more commonly, numerical, solution for the spherical or cylindrical cavity expansion as a sort of Green's function to establish the forces acting on a penetrator. This approach has had considerable success in modeling the behavior of penetrators, both as to path and depth of penetration. However the approach is not well adapted to the problem of understanding what is happening to the material being penetrated. Without a picture of the stress and strain state imposed on the highly deformed target material, it is not easy to determine what properties of the target are important in influencing the penetration process. We developed an experimental arrangement that allows greater control of the deformation than is possible in actual penetrator tests, yet approximates the deformation processes imposed by a penetrator. Using explosive line charges placed in a central borehole, we loaded cylindrical specimens in a manner equivalent to an increment of penetration, allowing the measurement of the associated strains and accelerations and the retrieval of specimens from the more-or-less intact cylinder. Results show clearly that the deformation zone is highly concentrated near the borehole, with almost no damage occurring beyond 1/2 a borehole diameter. This implies penetration is not strongly influenced by anything but the material within a diameter or so of the penetration. For penetrator tests, target size should not matter strongly once target diameters exceed some small multiple of the penetrator diameter. Penetration into jointed rock should not be much affected unless a discontinuity is within a similar range. Accelerations measured at several points along a radius from the borehole are consistent with highly-concentrated damage and energy absorption; At the borehole wall, accelerations were an order of magnitude higher than at 1/2 a diameter, but at the outer surface, 8 diameters away, accelerations were as expected for propagation through an elastic medium. Accelerations measured at the outer surface of the cylinders increased significantly with cure time for the concrete. As strength increased, less damage was observed near the explosively-driven borehole wall consistent with the lower energy absorption expected and observed for stronger concrete. As it is the energy absorbing properties of a target that ultimately stop a penetrator, we believe this may point the way to a more readily determined equivalent of the S number.

  10. Final report LDRD project 105816 : model reduction of large dynamic systems with localized nonlinearities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Hetmaniuk, Ulrich L. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Dohrmann, Clark R.

    2009-10-01

    Advanced computing hardware and software written to exploit massively parallel architectures greatly facilitate the computation of extremely large problems. On the other hand, these tools, though enabling higher fidelity models, have often resulted in much longer run-times and turn-around-times in providing answers to engineering problems. The impediments include smaller elements and consequently smaller time steps, much larger systems of equations to solve, and the inclusion of nonlinearities that had been ignored in days when lower fidelity models were the norm. The research effort reported focuses on the accelerating the analysis process for structural dynamics though combinations of model reduction and mitigation of some factors that lead to over-meshing.

  11. FY09 Final Report for LDRD Project: Understanding Viral Quasispecies Evolution through Computation and Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C

    2009-11-12

    In FY09 they will (1) complete the implementation, verification, calibration, and sensitivity and scalability analysis of the in-cell virus replication model; (2) complete the design of the cell culture (cell-to-cell infection) model; (3) continue the research, design, and development of their bioinformatics tools: the Web-based structure-alignment-based sequence variability tool and the functional annotation of the genome database; (4) collaborate with the University of California at San Francisco on areas of common interest; and (5) submit journal articles that describe the in-cell model with simulations and the bioinformatics approaches to evaluation of genome variability and fitness.

  12. Final report on LDRD project : narrow-linewidth VCSELs for atomic microsystems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Weng Wah; Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2011-09-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are well suited for emerging photonic microsystems due to their low power consumption, ease of integration with other optical components, and single frequency operation. However, the typical VCSEL linewidth of 100 MHz is approximately ten times wider than the natural linewidth of atoms used in atomic beam clocks and trapped atom research, which degrades or completely destroys performance in those systems. This report documents our efforts to reduce VCSEL linewidths below 10 MHz to meet the needs of advanced sub-Doppler atomic microsystems, such as cold-atom traps. We have investigated two complementary approaches to reduce VCSEL linewidth: (A) increasing the laser-cavity quality factor, and (B) decreasing the linewidth enhancement factor (alpha) of the optical gain medium. We have developed two new VCSEL devices that achieved increased cavity quality factors: (1) all-semiconductor extended-cavity VCSELs, and (2) micro-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MECSELs). These new VCSEL devices have demonstrated linewidths below 10 MHz, and linewidths below 1 MHz seem feasible with further optimization.

  13. The Detection and Attribution Model Intercomparison Project (DAMIP v1.0) contribution to CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Nathan P.; Shiogama, Hideo; Funke, Bernd; Hegerl, Gabriele; Knutti, Reto; Matthes, Katja; Santer, Benjamin D.; Stone, Daithi; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Detection and attribution (D&A) simulations were important components of CMIP5 and underpinned the climate change detection and attribution assessments of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The primary goals of the Detection and Attribution Model Intercomparison Project (DAMIP) are to facilitate improved estimation of the contributions of anthropogenic and natural forcing changes to observed global warming as well as to observed global and regional changes in other climate variables; to contribute to the estimation of how historical emissions have altered and are altering contemporary climate risk; and to facilitate improved observationally constrained projections of future climate change. D&A studies typically require unforced control simulations and historical simulations including all major anthropogenic and natural forcings. Such simulations will be carried out as part of the DECK and the CMIP6 historical simulation. In addition D&A studies require simulations covering the historical period driven by individual forcings or subsets of forcings only: such simulations are proposed here. Key novel features of the experimental design presented here include firstly new historical simulations with aerosols-only, stratospheric-ozone-only, CO2-only, solar-only, and volcanic-only forcing, facilitating an improved estimation of the climate response to individual forcing, secondly future single forcing experiments, allowing observationally constrained projections of future climate change, and thirdly an experimental design which allows models with and without coupled atmospheric chemistry to be compared on an equal footing.

  14. Estimation of seismically detectable portion of a gas plume: CO2CRC Otway project case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, Roman; Caspari, Eva; Bona, Andrej; Galvin, Robert; Gurevich, Boris

    2013-04-01

    CO2CRC Otway project comprises of several experiments involving CO2/CH4 or pure CO2 gas injection into different geological formations at the Otway test site (Victoria, Australia). During the first stage of the project, which was finished in 2010, more than 64,000 t of gas were injected into the depleted gas reservoir at ~2 km depth. At the moment, preparations for the next stage of the project aiming to examine capabilities of seismic monitoring of small scale injection (up to 15,000 t) into saline formation are ongoing. Time-lapse seismic is one of the most typical methods for CO2 geosequestration monitoring. Significant experience was gained during the first stage of the project through acquisition and analysis of the 4D surface seismic and numerous time-lapse VSP surveys. In order to justify the second stage of the project and optimise parameters of the experiment, several modelling studies were conducted. In order to predict seismic signal we populate realistic geological model with elastic properties, model their changes using fluid substitution technique applied to the fluid flow simulation results and compute synthetic seismic baseline and monitor volumes. To assess detectability of the time-lapse signal caused by the injection, we assume that the time-lapse noise level will be equivalent to the level of difference between the last two Otway 3D surveys acquired in 2009 and 2010 using conventional surface technique (15,000 lbs vibroseis sources and single geophones as the receivers). In order to quantify the uncertainties in plume imaging/visualisation due to the time-lapse noise realisation we propose to use multiple noise realisations with the same F-Kx-Ky amplitude spectra as the field noise for each synthetic signal volume. Having signal detection criterion defined in the terms of signal/time- lapse noise level on a single trace we estimate visible portion of the plume as a function of this criterion. This approach also gives an opportunity to attempt to

  15. Main group adducts of carbon dioxide and related chemistry (LDRD 149938).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Brian M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.; Dickie, Diane A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-01

    This late-start LDRD was broadly focused on the synthetic attempts to prepare novel ligands as complexing agents for main group metals for the sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In prior work we have shown that certain main group (p block elements) metals such as tin and zinc, when ligated to phosphinoamido- ligands, can bind CO{sub 2} in a novel fashion. Rather than simple insertion into the metal-nitrogen bonds to form carbamates, we have seen the highly unusual complexation of CO{sub 2} in a mode that is more similar to a chemical 'adduct' rather than complexation schemes that have been observed previously. The overarching goal in this work is to prepare more of these complexes that can (a) sequester (or bind) CO{sub 2} easily in this adduct form, and (b) be stable to chemical or electrochemical reduction designed to convert the CO{sub 2} to useful fuels or fuel precursors. The currently used phosphinoamido- ligands appear at this point to be less-stable than desired under electrochemical reduction conditions. This instability is believed due to the more delicate, reactive nature of the ligand framework system. In order to successfully capture and convert CO{sub 2} to useful organics, this instability must be addressed and solved. Work described in the late-start LDRD was designed to screen a variety of ligand/metal complexes that a priori are believed to be more stable to polar solvents and possible mild hydrolytic conditions than are the phosphinoamido-ligands. Results from ligand syntheses and metal complexation studies are reported.

  16. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power

  17. Contour-Based Corner Detection and Classification by Using Mean Projection Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mousavi Kahaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Image corner detection is a fundamental task in computer vision. Many applications require reliable detectors to accurately detect corner points, commonly achieved by using image contour information. The curvature definition is sensitive to local variation and edge aliasing, and available smoothing methods are not sufficient to address these problems properly. Hence, we propose Mean Projection Transform (MPT as a corner classifier and parabolic fit approximation to form a robust detector. The first step is to extract corner candidates using MPT based on the integral properties of the local contours in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Then, an approximation of the parabolic fit is calculated to localize the candidate corner points. The proposed method presents fewer false-positive (FP and false-negative (FN points compared with recent standard corner detection techniques, especially in comparison with curvature scale space (CSS methods. Moreover, a new evaluation metric, called accuracy of repeatability (AR, is introduced. AR combines repeatability and the localization error (Le for finding the probability of correct detection in the target image. The output results exhibit better repeatability, localization, and AR for the detected points compared with the criteria in original and transformed images.

  18. Breast mass detection in tomosynthesis projection images using information-theoretic similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swatee; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to study Computer Aided Detection (CADe) of breast masses for digital tomosynthesis. It is believed that tomosynthesis will show improvement over conventional mammography in detection and characterization of breast masses by removing overlapping dense fibroglandular tissue. This study used the 60 human subject cases collected as part of on-going clinical trials at Duke University. Raw projections images were used to identify suspicious regions in the algorithm's high-sensitivity, low-specificity stage using a Difference of Gaussian (DoG) filter. The filtered images were thresholded to yield initial CADe hits that were then shifted and added to yield a 3D distribution of suspicious regions. These were further summed in the depth direction to yield a flattened probability map of suspicious hits for ease of scoring. To reduce false positives, we developed an algorithm based on information theory where similarity metrics were calculated using knowledge databases consisting of tomosynthesis regions of interest (ROIs) obtained from projection images. We evaluated 5 similarity metrics to test the false positive reduction performance of our algorithm, specifically joint entropy, mutual information, Jensen difference divergence, symmetric Kullback-Liebler divergence, and conditional entropy. The best performance was achieved using the joint entropy similarity metric, resulting in ROC A z of 0.87 +/- 0.01. As a whole, the CADe system can detect breast masses in this data set with 79% sensitivity and 6.8 false positives per scan. In comparison, the original radiologists performed with only 65% sensitivity when using mammography alone, and 91% sensitivity when using tomosynthesis alone.

  19. An optimized outlier detection algorithm for jury-based grading of engineering design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Espensen, Christina; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes and optimizes an outlier detection algorithm to identify potentially invalid scores produced by jury members while grading engineering design projects. The paper describes the original algorithm and the associated adjudication process in detail. The impact of the various......, but no true optimum seems to exist. The performance of the best optimizations and the original algorithm are similar. Therefore, it should be possible to choose new coefficient values for jury populations in other cultures and contexts logically and empirically without a full optimization as long...

  20. Risk pre-warning of tender evaluation for civil projects:an outlier detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The marking scheme method removes the low scores of the contractor's attributes given by experts when the overall score is calculated, which may result in that a contractor with some latent risks will win the project. In order to remedy the above defect of the marking scheme method, an outlier detection model, which is one mission of knowledge discovery in data, is established on the basis of the sum of similar coefficients. Then, the model is applied to the historical score data of tender evaluation for ci...

  1. Advanced conceptual design report: T Plant secondary containment and leak detection upgrades. Project W-259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hookfin, J.D.

    1995-05-12

    The T Plant facilities in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were constructed in the early 1940s to produce nuclear materials in support of national defense activities. T Plant includes the 271-T facility, the 221-T facility, and several support facilities (eg, 2706-T), utilities, and tanks/piping systems. T Plant has been recommended as the primary interim decontamination facility for the Hanford site. Project W-259 will provide capital upgrades to the T Plant facilities to comply with Federal and State of Washington environmental regulations for secondary containment and leak detection. This document provides an advanced conceptual design concept that complies with functional requirements for the T Plant Secondary Containment and Leak Detection upgrades.

  2. Materials, instrumentation and techniques for the detection of Special Nuclear Material and Radioactive Sources: EU project MODES SNM

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    MODES SNM project is part of the European Union effort to promote research and innovation in strategic topics; it includes seven participants from five different countries. The project aimed to carry out technical research in order to develop a prototype for a mobile, modular detection system for radioactive sources and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). The project’s main goal was to deliver a tested prototype of a modular mobile system capable of passively detecting weak or shielded radioacti...

  3. Computer-aided detection of breast carcinoma in standard mammographic projections with digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destounis, S.; Hanson, S. [Elizabeth Wende Breast Clinic, Rochester (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was conducted to retrospectively evaluate a computer-aided detection system's ability to detect breast carcinoma in multiple standard mammographic projections. Forty-five lesions in 44 patients imaged with digital mammography (Selenia {sup registered}, Hologic, Bedford, MA; Senographe {sup registered}, GE, Milwaukee, WI) and had computer-aided detection (CAD, Image-checker {sup registered} V 8.3.15, Hologic/R2, Santa Clara, CA) applied at the time of examination were identified for review; all were subsequently recommended to biopsy where cancer was revealed. These lesions were determined by the study Radiologist to be visible in both standard mammographic images (mediolateral oblique, MLO; craniocaudal, CC). For each patient, case data included patient age, tissue density, lesion type, BIRADS {sup registered} assessment, lesion size, lesion visibility-visible on MLO and/or CC view, ability of CAD to correctly mark the cancerous lesion, number of CAD marks per image, needle core biopsy results and surgical pathologic correlation. For this study cohort. CAD lesion/case sensitivity of 87% (n = 39) was found and image sensitivity was found to be 69% (n = 31) for MLO view and 78% (n = 35) for the CC view. For the study cohort, cases presented with a median of four marks per cases (range 0-13). Eighty-four percent (n = 38) of lesions proceeded to excision; initial needle biopsy pathology was upgraded at surgical excision from in situ disease to invasive for 24% (n = 9) lesions. CAD has demonstrated the potential to detect mammographically visible cancers in multiple standard mammographic projections in all categories of lesions in this study cohort. (orig.)

  4. Optical detection of metastatic cancer cells using a scanned laser pico-projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Ling; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Lo, Yu-Lung; Chuang, Chin-Ho; Chen, Yu-Bin; Chang, Shu-Jing; Ke, Tung-Ting; Cheng, Hung-Chi; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Metastasis is responsible for 90% of all cancer-related deaths in humans. As a result, reliable techniques for detecting metastatic cells are urgently required. Although various techniques have been proposed for metastasis detection, they are generally capable of detecting metastatic cells only once migration has already occurred. Accordingly, the present study proposes an optical method for physical characterization of metastatic cancer cells using a scanned laser pico-projection system (SLPP). The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using five pairs of cancer cell lines and two pairs of non-cancer cell lines treated by IPTG induction in order to mimic normal cells with an overexpression of oncogene. The results show that for all of the considered cell lines, the SLPP speckle contrast of the high-metastatic cells is significantly higher than that of the low-metastatic cells. As a result, the speckle contrast measurement provides a reliable means of distinguishing quantitatively between low- and high-metastatic cells of the same origin. Compared to existing metastasis detection methods, the proposed SLPP approach has many advantages, including a higher throughput, a lower cost, a larger sample size and a more reliable diagnostic performance. As a result, it provides a highly promising solution for physical characterization of metastatic cancer cells in vitro.

  5. Final Report: Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression Project, Exploration Technology Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression (FPDS) project is a technology development effort within the Exploration Technology Development Program of the Exploration System Missions Directorate (ESMD) that addresses all aspects of fire safety aboard manned exploration systems. The overarching goal for work in the FPDS area is to develop technologies that will ensure crew health and safety on exploration missions by reducing the likelihood of a fire, or, if one does occur, minimizing the risk to the crew, mission, or system. This is accomplished by addressing the areas of (1) fire prevention and material flammability, (2) fire signatures and detection, and (3) fire suppression and response. This report describes the outcomes of this project from the formation of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) in October 2005 to September 31, 2010 when the Exploration Technology Development Program was replaced by the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program. NASA s fire safety work will continue under this new program and will build upon the accomplishments described herein.

  6. Computer-aided detection of breast carcinoma in standard mammographic projections with digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destounis, Stamatia [Elizabeth Wende Breast Care, LLC, Rochester, NY (United States); University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Hanson, Sarah; Morgan, Renee; Murphy, Philip; Somerville, Patricia; Seifert, Posy; Andolina, Valerie; Arieno, Andrea; Skolny, Melissa; Logan-Young, Wende [Elizabeth Wende Breast Care, LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A retrospective evaluation of the ability of computer-aided detection (CAD) ability to identify breast carcinoma in standard mammographic projections. Forty-five biopsy proven lesions in 44 patients imaged digitally with CAD applied at examination were reviewed. Forty-four screening BIRADS {sup registered} category 1 digital mammography examinations were randomly identified to serve as a comparative normal/control population. Data included patient age; BIRADS {sup registered} breast density; lesion type, size, and visibility; number, type, and location of CAD marks per image; CAD ability to mark lesions; needle core and surgical pathologic correlation. The CAD lesion/case sensitivity of 87% (n=39), image sensitivity of 69% (n=31) for mediolateral oblique view and 78% (n=35) for the craniocaudal view was found. The average false positive rate in 44 normal screening cases was 2.0 (range 1-8). The 2.0 figure is based on 88 reported false positive CAD marks in 44 normal screening exams: 98% (n=44) lesions proceeded to excision; initial pathology upgraded at surgical excision from in situ to invasive disease in 24% (n=9) lesions. CAD demonstrated potential to detect mammographically visible cancers in standard projections for all lesion types. (orig.)

  7. 340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Detection Project W-302 Functional Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1995-03-01

    This functional design criteria for the upgrade to the 340 radioactive liquid waste storage facility (Project W-302) specifically addresses the secondary containment issues at the current vault facility of the 340 Complex. This vault serves as the terminus for the Radioactive Liquid Waste System (RLWS). Project W-302 is necessary in order to bring this portion of the Complex into full regulatory compliance. The project title, ``340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Detection``, illustrates preliminary thoughts of taking corrective action directly upon the existing vault (such as removing the tanks, lining the vault, and replacing tanks). However, based on the conclusion of the engineering study, ``Engineering Study of the 300 Area Process Wastewater Handling System``, WHC-SD-WM-ER-277 (as well as numerous follow-up meetings with cognizant staff), this FDC prescribes a complete replacement of the current tank/vault system. This offers a greater array of tanks, and provides greater operating flexibility and ease of maintenance. This approach also minimizes disruption to RLWS services during ``tie-in``, as compared to the alternative of trying to renovate the old vault. The proposed site is within the current Complex area, and maintains the receipt of RLWS solutions through gravity flow.

  8. The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Kendrew, Sarah; Williams, Jonathan P.; Simpson, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10%-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid-plane, and display a stronger excess of young stellar objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches—particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machine learning techniques. In cases where "untrained" citizens can identify patterns that machines cannot detect without training, machine learning algorithms like Brut can use the output of citizen science projects as input training sets, offering tremendous opportunities to speed the pace of scientific discovery. A hybrid model of machine learning combined with crowdsourced training data from citizen scientists can not only classify large quantities of data, but also address the weakness of each approach if deployed alone.

  9. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: LEVERAGING CITIZEN SCIENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING TO DETECT INTERSTELLAR BUBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Goodman, Alyssa A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert, E-mail: beaumont@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10%-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid-plane, and display a stronger excess of young stellar objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches—particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machine learning techniques. In cases where ''untrained' citizens can identify patterns that machines cannot detect without training, machine learning algorithms like Brut can use the output of citizen science projects as input training sets, offering tremendous opportunities to speed the pace of scientific discovery. A hybrid model of machine learning combined with crowdsourced training data from citizen scientists can not only classify large quantities of data, but also address the weakness of each approach if deployed alone.

  10. Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J T

    2005-11-08

    In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats include people as well as weapons. In most cases, security personnel must make very fast assessments of a threat based upon limited amount of data. Among other attributes, UWB has been shown and quantified to penetrate and propagate through many materials (wood, some concretes, non-metallic building materials, some soils, etc.) while maintaining high range resolution. We have build collaborations with university partners and government agencies. We have considered the impact of psychometrics on target recognition and identification. Specifically we have formulated images in real-time that will engage the user's vision system in a more active way to enhance image interpretation capabilities. In this project, we are researching the use of real time (field programmable gate arrays) integrated with high resolution (cm scale), ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic signals for imaging personnel through smoke and walls. We evaluated the ability of real-time UWB imaging for detecting smaller objects, such as concealed weapons that are carried by the obscured personnel. We also examined the cognitive interpretation process of real time UWB electromagnetic images.

  11. MIMAC: A micro-tpc matrix project for directional detection of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, D; Bosson, G; Bouly, J L; Bourrion, O; Fourel, Ch; Guillaudin, O; Mayet, F; Richer, J P; Delbart, A; Ferrer, E; Giomataris, I; Iguaz, F J; Mols, J P; Golabek, C; Lebreton, L

    2011-01-01

    Directional detection of non-baryonic DarkMatter is a promising search strategy for discriminating WIMP events from background ones. This strategy requires both a measurement of the recoil energy down to a few keV and 3D reconstruction of tracks down to a few mm. The MIMAC project, based on a micro-TPC matrix, filled with CF4 and CHF3 is being developed. The first results of a chamber prototype of this matrix, on low energy nuclear recoils (1H and 19F) obtained with mono-energetic neutron fields are presented. The discovery potential of this search strategy is illustrated by a realistic case accessible to MIMAC.

  12. An optimized outlier detection algorithm for jury-based grading of engineering design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Espensen, Christina; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes and optimizes an outlier detection algorithm to identify potentially invalid scores produced by jury members while grading engineering design projects. The paper describes the original algorithm and the associated adjudication process in detail. The impact of the various...... conditions in the algorithm on the false positive and false negative rates is explored. Aresponse surface design is performed to optimize the algorithm using a data set from Fall 2010. Finally, the results are tested against a data set from Fall 2011. It is shown that all elements of the original algorithm......, but no true optimum seems to exist. The performance of the best optimizations and the original algorithm are similar. Therefore, it should be possible to choose new coefficient values for jury populations in other cultures and contexts logically and empirically without a full optimization as long...

  13. Fire and Gas Detection in the LHC Experiments The Sniffer Project

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, R W

    2001-01-01

    The LHC experiments, due to their complexity and size, present many safety challenges. Cryogenic gases are used in large quantities as well as certain flammable mixtures. The electrical power involved calls for analysis of the fire risks. Access is restricted to the minimum and environmental conditions are extremely harsh, due to strong magnetic fields and ionising radiation. This paper will describe the Combined Fire/Gas/Oxygen deficiency Detection systems proposed for inside the ATLAS and CMS Experiments and possibly for the two others, if they deem it necessary. The requirements of the experiments and the development and implementation of such a system will be discussed. In parallel, commercial procedures to implement these systems by industry shall be described, taking into consideration that a previous development has already been undertaken by CERN for the LEP experiments. The stage is set for inter-divisional collaboration in a project of utmost importance for the safety of people and protection of the...

  14. The DLR project Wirbelschleppe. Detecting, characterizing, controlling, attenuating, understanding, and predicting aircraft wake vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzaepfel, F. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    This collection of reports presents an excerpt of the investigations that were performed in the framework of the DLR Projekt Wirbelschleppe. A similar sample of reports was presented as part of three dedicated wake vortex sessions accomplished at the 1{sup st} European Air and Space Conference (CEAS 2007) and Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2007 in Berlin. The Projekt Wirbelschleppe was conducted in two phases in the time frame from 1999 to 2007 with the five contributing DLR Institutes: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Institute of Flight Systems, Institute of Flight Guidance, Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics and the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics of the University of Technology Berlin. The project unified a multitude of different aspects and disciplines of wake vortex research which can be characterized by four main themes: - minimization of wake vortices by measures at the aircraft; - development and demonstration of a system for wake vortex prediction and observation; - airborne wake vortex detection and active control; - integration of systems into air traffic control. The Projekt Wirbelschleppe greatly benefited from the European projects AWIATOR, ATC-Wake, Credos, C-Wake, Eurowake, FAR-Wake, FLYSAFE, I-Wake, S-Wake, WakeNet, WakeNet2-Europe, WakeNet3-Europe, and Wavenc. DLR's wake vortex activities will be continued in the Projekt Wetter and Fliegen (2008-2011): Because the current compilation represents only a limited extract of the accomplished work, it is completed by a list of references emerging from the project. (orig.)

  15. SIM PlanetQuest Key Project Precursor Observations to Detect Gas Giant Planets Around Young Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Angelle; Beichman, Charles; Akeson, Rachel; Ghez, Andrea; Grankin, Konstantin N.; Herbst, William; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Huerta, Marcos; Konopacky, Quinn; Metchev, Stanimir; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Prato, L.; Simon, Michal

    2008-01-01

    We present a review of precursor observing programs for the SIM PlanetQuest Key project devoted to detecting Jupiter mass planets around young stars. In order to ensure that the stars in the sample are free of various sources of astrometric noise that might impede the detection of planets, we have initiated programs to collect photometry, high contrast images, interferometric data and radial velocities for stars in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We have completed a high contrast imaging survey of target stars in Taurus and the Pleiades and found no definitive common proper motion companions within one arcsecond (140 AU) of the SIM targets. Our radial velocity surveys have shown that many of the target stars in Sco-Cen are fast rotators and a few stars in Taurus and the Pleiades may have sub-stellar companions. Interferometric data of a few stars in Taurus show no signs of stellar or sub-stellar companions with separations of 0.1 mag) that would degrade the astrometric accuracy achievable for that star. While the precursor programs are still a work in progress, we provide a comprehensive list of all targets ranked according to their viability as a result of the observations taken to date. By far, the observable that removes the most targets from the SIM-YSO program is photometric variability.

  16. CT-maximum intensity projection is a clinically useful modality for the detection of gastric varices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Ishikawa; Tomoteru Kamimura; Takashi Ushiki; Ken-ichi Mizuno; Tadayuki Togashi; Kouji Watanabe; Kei-ichi Seki; Hironobu Ohta; Toshiaki Yoshida; Keiko Takeda

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of CT-maximum intensity projection (CT-MIP) in the detection of gastric varicesand their inflowing and outflowing vessels in patientswith gastric varices scheduled to undergo balloonoccluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). METHODS: Sixteen patients with endoscopicallyconfirmed gastric varices were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with CT-MIP using threedimensional reconstructions, before and after B-RTO. RESULTS: CT-MIP clearly depicted gastric varices in 16 patients (100%), the left gastric vein in 6 (32.5%),the posterior gastric vein in 12 (75.0%), the short gastric veins in 13 (81.3%), gastrorenal shunts in 16 (100%), the hemiazygos vein (HAZV) in 4 (25.0%), the pericardiophrenic vein (PCPV) in 9 (56.3%), and the left inferior phrenic vein in 9 patients (56.3%). Although flow direction itself cannot be determined from CT-MIP,this modality provided clear images of the inflowing and the outflowing vessels. Moreover, in one patient, short gastric veins were not seen on conventional angiographic portography images of the spleen, but were clearly revealed on CT-MIP,CONCLUSION: We suggest that CT-MIP should be considered as a routine method for detecting and diagnosing collateral veins in patients with gastric varices scheduled for B-RTO. Furthermore, CT-MIP is more useful than endoscopy in verifying the early therapeutic effects of B-RTO.

  17. Detection of pulmonary nodules at paediatric CT: maximum intensity projections and axial source images are complementary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Arthurs, Owen J.; Tasker, Angela D.; Set, Patricia A.K. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Box 219, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images might be useful in helping to differentiate small pulmonary nodules from adjacent vessels on thoracic multidetector CT (MDCT). The aim was to evaluate the benefits of axial MIP images over axial source images for the paediatric chest in an interobserver variability study. We included 46 children with extra-pulmonary solid organ malignancy who had undergone thoracic MDCT. Three radiologists independently read 2-mm axial and 10-mm MIP image datasets, recording the number of nodules, size and location, overall time taken and confidence. There were 83 nodules (249 total reads among three readers) in 46 children (mean age 10.4 {+-} 4.98 years, range 0.3-15.9 years; 24 boys). Consensus read was used as the reference standard. Overall, three readers recorded significantly more nodules on MIP images (228 vs. 174; P < 0.05), improving sensitivity from 67% to 77.5% (P < 0.05) but with lower positive predictive value (96% vs. 85%, P < 0.005). MIP images took significantly less time to read (71.6 {+-} 43.7 s vs. 92.9 {+-} 48.7 s; P < 0.005) but did not improve confidence levels. Using 10-mm axial MIP images for nodule detection in the paediatric chest enhances diagnostic performance, improving sensitivity and reducing reading time when compared with conventional axial thin-slice images. Axial MIP and axial source images are complementary in thoracic nodule detection. (orig.)

  18. The Primi Project: August-September 2009 Validation Cruise On Oil Spill Detection And Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoleri, R.; Bignami, F.; Bohm, E.; Nichio, F.; De Dominicis, M.; Ruggieri, G.; Marulllo, S.; Trivero, P.; Zambianchi, E.; Archetti, R.; Adamo, M.; Biamino, W.; Borasi, M.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Cavagnero, M.; Colao, F.; Colella, S.; Coppini, G.; Debettio, V.; De Carolis, G.; Forneris, V.; Griffa, A.; Iacono, R.; Lombardi, E.; Manzella, G.; Mercantini, A.; Napolitano, E.; Pinardi, N.; Pandiscia, G.; Pisano, A.; Rupolo, V.; Reseghetti, F.; Sabia, L.; Sorgente, R.; Sprovieri, M.; Terranova, G.; Trani, M.; Volpe, G.

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of the ASI PRIMI Project, CNR- ISAC, in collaboration with the PRIMI partners, organized a validation cruise for the PRIMI oil spill monitoring and forecasting system on board the CNR R/V Urania. The cruise (Aug. 6 - Sept. 7 2009) took place in the Sicily Strait, an area affected by large oil tanker traffic. The cruise plan was organized in order to have the ship within the selected SAR image frames at acquisition time so that the ship could move toward the oil slick and verify it via visual and instrumental inspection. During the cruise, several oil spills, presumably being the result of illegal tank washing, were detected by the PRIMI system and were verified in situ. Preliminary results indicate that SAR and optical satellites are able to detect heavy and thin film oil spills, the maturity of oil spill forecasting models and that further work combining satellite, model and in situ data is necessary to assess the spill severity from the signature in satellite imagery.

  19. Synthesis report of the step project detection of germ cell mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I D; Anderson, D; Benigni, R; Ehling, U H; Laehdetie, J; Pacchierotti, F; Russo, A; Tates, A D

    1996-06-12

    The project 'Detection of Germ Cell Mutagens' was designed with three major goals: (1) Detection and characterization of germ-cell mutagens; (2) standardization and validation of new germ-cell tests; and (3) development of a data base on germ-cell mutagenicity. All three goals were achieved. The classical germ-cell tests were applied to characterize the genetic effects of acrylamide (AA), 1,3-butadiene (BD), trophosphamide (TP) and urethane (UR). All but UR were found to cause heritable genetic damage. The experimental data obtained for AA and BD were the basis for genetic risk evaluations during the EC/US Workshop on Risk Assessment 'Human Genetic Risk from Exposure to Chemicals, Focusing on the Feasibility of the Parallelogram Approach'. Nine chemicals were employed to validate the spermatid micronucleus assay with mice and rats: AA, BD and its metabolites 1,2-epoxybutene-3 and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, chlorambucil, mitomycin C, methylnitrosourea, TP and UR. The spermatid micronucleus test was combined with micronucleus tests in somatic cells such as bone marrow or peripheral blood erythrocytes, and splenocytes which allowed a comparison of effects in somatic and germinal cells. Improvements of the spermatid micronucleus test included BrdU-labelling of premeiotic S-phase for the determination of stage sensitivity and fluorescence in situ hybridization with pancentromeric DNA-probes to distinguish between clastogenic and aneugenic events. The results indicate that the spermatid micronucleus test with its improvements is an adequate procedure to detect germ-cell clastogenicity and to compare the activity of chemicals in different tissues and between species, i.e., rats and mice. Other germ cell methods under study were the flow cytometric measurement of testicular sperm DNA and the cytogenetic analysis of preimplantation embryos for chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei. The collection of a reliable germ-cell data base was accomplished through a critical evaluation

  20. Final Report on Institutional Computing Project s15_hilaserion, “Kinetic Modeling of Next-Generation High-Energy, High-Intensity Laser-Ion Accelerators as an Enabling Capability”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Brian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yin, Lin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stark, David James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    This proposal sought of order 1M core-hours of Institutional Computing time intended to enable computing by a new LANL Postdoc (David Stark) working under LDRD ER project 20160472ER (PI: Lin Yin) on laser-ion acceleration. The project was “off-cycle,” initiating in June of 2016 with a postdoc hire.

  1. The NINJA-2 project: detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th S.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Donath, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dossa, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hooper, S.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Ji, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave (GW) astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect GWs emitted from merging binary black holes (BBH) and recover their parameters with next-generation GW observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete BBH hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a ‘blind injection challenge’ similar to that conducted in recent Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo science runs, we added seven hybrid waveforms to two months of data recoloured to predictions of Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Advanced Virgo (AdV) sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analysed by GW detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered with false alarm rates smaller than 1 in a thousand years. Parameter-estimation algorithms were run on each of these waveforms to explore the ability to constrain the masses, component angular momenta and sky position of these waveforms. We find that the strong degeneracy between the mass ratio and the BHs’ angular momenta will make it difficult to precisely estimate these parameters with aLIGO and AdV. We also perform a large-scale Monte Carlo study to assess the ability to recover each of the 60 hybrid waveforms with early aLIGO and AdV sensitivity curves. Our results predict that early aLIGO and AdV will have a volume-weighted average sensitive distance of 300 Mpc (1 Gpc) for 10M⊙ + 10M⊙ (50M⊙ + 50M⊙) BBH coalescences. We demonstrate that neglecting the component angular momenta in the waveform models used in matched-filtering will result in a reduction in sensitivity for systems with large component angular momenta. This

  2. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moysey, Stephen [Clemson University; Dean, Delphine [Clemson University; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis [Rutgers University

    2013-11-13

    variety of different ways to investigate the grain surfaces throughout the course of the project. Standard imaging methods were used to evaluate surface roughness and charge density, which showed that these data could provide qualitative insights about consistency between surface trends and the electrical behavior at the column scale (for the case of glass beads). Polarization and conductive force microscopy (PCFM) measurements were developed by the original project PI (Treavor Kendall), which illustrated the importance of the initial few monolayers of water on the mineral surface for producing surface conductivity. The technique allowed for initial local estimates of complex electrical conductivity on mineral surfaces, but could not be pursued after Kendall left the project due to phase locking limitations with the AFM instrument at Clemson and an inability to perform measurements in solution, which limited their value for linking the measurements to column-scale SIP responses. As a result, co-PI Dean developed a new methodology for making AFM measurements within an externally applied electric field. In this method, the charged tip of an AFM probe is brought within the proximity of a polarization domain while an external electric field is applied to the sample. The premise of the approach is that the tip will be attracted to or rebound from charge accumulations on the surface, which allow for detection of the local polarization response. Initial experiments showed promise in terms of the general trends of responses observed, though we have not yet been able to develop a quantitative interpretation technique that can be applied to predicting column scale responses.

  3. Detection and visualization of non-linear structures in large datasets using Exploratory Projection Pursuit Laboratory (EPP-Lab software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Larabi Marie-Sainte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article consists of using biologically inspired algorithms in order to detect potentially interesting structures in large and multidimensional data sets. Data exploration and the detection of interesting structures are based on the use of Projection Pursuit that involves the definition and the optimization of an index associated with each direction or projection. The optimization of a projection index should provide a set of multiple optima that is expected to correspond to interesting graphical representations in low dimensional space. The implementation of the bio-inspired algorithms along with the projection pursuit develops a new software called EPP-Lab. Projection pursuit is widely used in different scientific domains (biology, pharmacy, bioinformatics, biometry, etc but not widely present in the well-known softwares. EPP-Lab is dedicated to recognize and visualize clusters and outlying observations on one dimension from high dimensional and multivariate data sets. It includes different statistical techniques for results analysis. It provides several features and gives the user the option to adjust the parameters of the selected bio-inspired methods or to use defaults values. EPP-Lab is a unique software for detection, visualization and analysis of non-linear structures. The performance of this tool has been validated by testing different real and simulated data sets.

  4. The MicroActive project: automatic detection of disease-related molecular cell activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuberg, Liv; Mielnik, Michal; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Voitel, Jörg; Gulliksen, Anja; Solli, Lars; Karlsen, Frank; Bayer, Tobias; Schönfeld, Friedhelm; Drese, Klaus; Keegan, Helen; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John; Riegger, Lutz; Koltay, Peter

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the MicroActive project is to develop an instrument for molecular diagnostics. The instrument will first be tested for patient screening for a group of viruses causing cervical cancer. Two disposable polymer chips with reagents stored on-chip will be inserted into the instrument for each patient sample. The first chip performs sample preparation of the epithelial cervical cells while mRNA amplification and fluorescent detection takes place in the second chip. More than 10 different virus markers will be analysed in one chip. We report results on sub-functions of the amplification chip. The sample is split into smaller droplets, and the droplets move in parallel channels containing different dried reagents for the different analyses. We report experimental results on parallel droplet movement control using one external pump only, combined with hydrophobic valves. Valve burst pressures are controlled by geometry. We show droplet control using valves with burst pressures between 800 and 4500 Pa. We also monitored the re-hydration times for two necessary dried reagents. After sample insertion, uniform concentration of the reagents in the droplet was reached after respectively 60 s and 10 min. These times are acceptable for successful amplification. Finally we have shown positive amplification of HPV type 16 using dried enzymes stored in micro chambers.

  5. Lesion detectability in stereoscopically viewed digital breast tomosynthesis projection images: a model observer study with anthropomorphic computational breast phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Jacob; Wen, Gezheng; Lo, Joseph Y.; Markey, Mia K.

    2017-03-01

    Stereoscopic views of 3D breast imaging data may better reveal the 3D structures of breasts, and potentially improve the detection of breast lesions. The imaging geometry of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) lends itself naturally to stereo viewing because a stereo pair can be easily formed by two projection images with a reasonable separation angle for perceiving depth. This simulation study attempts to mimic breast lesion detection on stereo viewing of a sequence of stereo pairs of DBT projection images. 3D anthropomorphic computational breast phantoms were scanned by a simulated DBT system, and spherical signals were inserted into different breast regions to imitate the presence of breast lesions. The regions of interest (ROI) had different local anatomical structures and consequently different background statistics. The projection images were combined into a sequence of stereo pairs, and then presented to a stereo matching model observer for determining lesion presence. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was used as the figure of merit in evaluation, and the SNR from the stack of reconstructed slices was considered as the benchmark. We have shown that: 1) incorporating local anatomical backgrounds may improve lesion detectability relative to ignoring location-dependent image characteristics. The SNR was lower for the ROIs with the higher local power-law-noise coefficient β. 2) Lesion detectability may be inferior on stereo viewing of projection images relative to conventional viewing of reconstructed slices, but further studies are needed to confirm this observation.

  6. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering by nearly periodic structures: an LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William Arthur; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wilton, Donald R. (University of Houston, Houston, TX); Basilio, Lorena I.; Peters, David William; Capolino, F. (University of Houston, Houston, TX)

    2006-10-01

    In this LDRD we examine techniques to analyze the electromagnetic scattering from structures that are nearly periodic. Nearly periodic could mean that one of the structure's unit cells is different from all the others--a defect. It could also mean that the structure is truncated, or butted up against another periodic structure to form a seam. Straightforward electromagnetic analysis of these nearly periodic structures requires us to grid the entire structure, which would overwhelm today's computers and the computers in the foreseeable future. In this report we will examine various approximations that allow us to continue to exploit some aspects of the structure's periodicity and thereby reduce the number of unknowns required for analysis. We will use the Green's Function Interpolation with a Fast Fourier Transform (GIFFT) to examine isolated defects both in the form of a source dipole over a meta-material slab and as a rotated dipole in a finite array of dipoles. We will look at the numerically exact solution of a one-dimensional seam. In order to solve a two-dimensional seam, we formulate an efficient way to calculate the Green's function of a 1d array of point sources. We next formulate ways of calculating the far-field due to a seam and due to array truncation based on both array theory and high-frequency asymptotic methods. We compare the high-frequency and GIFFT results. Finally, we use GIFFT to solve a simple, two-dimensional seam problem.

  7. Detection,Causes and Projection of Climate Change over China:An Overview of Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the main results and findings of studies conducted by Chinese scientists in the past five years.It is shown that observed climate change in China bears a strong similarity with the global average.The country-averaged annual mean surface air temperature has increased by 1.1℃over the past 50 years and 0.5-0.8℃ over the past 100 years.slightly higher than the global temperature increase for the same periods.Northern China and winter have experienced the greatest increases in surface air temperature.Although no significant trend has been found in country-averaged annual precipitation,interdecadal variability and obvious trends on regional scales are detectable,with northwestern China and the mid and lower Yangtze River basin having undergone an obvious increase,and North China a severe drought.Some analyses show that frequency and magnitude of extreme weather and climate events have also undergone significant changes in the past 50 years or so.Studies of the causes of regional climate change through the use of climate models and consideration of various forcings,show that the warming of the last 50 years could possibly be attributed to an increased atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases,while the temperature change of the first half of the 20th century may be due to solar activity,volcanic eruptions and sea surface temperature change.A significant decline in sunshine duration and solar radiation at the surface in eastern China has been attributed to the increased emission of pollutants.Projections of future climate by models of the NCC(National Climate Center,China Meteorological Administration)and the IAP(Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences),as well as 40 modeis developed overseas,indicate a potential significant warming in China in the 21st century,with the largest warming set to occur in winter months and in northern China.Under varied emission scenarios,the country-averaged annual mean temperature is

  8. Validation of CME Detection Software (CACTus) by Means of Simulated Data, and Analysis of Projection Effects on CME Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, K.; Jacobs, C.; Robbrecht, E.; de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Poedts, S.

    2011-05-01

    In the context of space weather forecasting, an automated detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) becomes more and more important for efficiently handling a large data flow which is expected from recently-launched and future solar missions. In this paper we validate the detection software package "CACTus" by applying the program to synthetic data from our 3D time-dependent CME simulations instead of observational data. The main strength of this study is that we know in advance what should be detected. We describe the sensitivities and strengths of automated detection, more specific for the CACTus program, resulting in a better understanding of CME detection on one hand and the calibration of the CACTus software on the other hand, suggesting possible improvements of the package. In addition, the simulation is an ideal tool to investigate projection effects on CME velocity measurements.

  9. Development and testing of biosensors that quantitatively and specifically detect organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.; Keim, P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Kuske, C.; Willardson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to develop a more sensitive and less expensive method of detecting organic contaminants. Assaying complex environmental samples for organic contaminant content is costly and labor intensive. This often limits extensive testing. Sensitive microbial biosensors that detect specific organic contaminants in complex waste mixtures without prior separation from other waste components have been developed. Some soil microbes degrade organic compounds that contaminate the environment. These bacteria sense minute quantities of particular organic compounds then respond by activating genes encoding enzymes that degrade these molecules. Genetic manipulation of these gene regulatory processes has been employed to develop unique biosensors that detect specific organic compounds using standard biochemical assays. Such biosensors allow rapid, sensitive testing of environmental samples for selected organic contaminants. The cost of biosensor assays is at least 100-fold less than present methods, allowing more rapid and extensive testing and site characterization.

  10. Final report for the endowment of simulator agents with human-like episodic memory LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Lippitt, Carl Edward; Thomas, Edward Victor; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schaller, Mark J.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2003-12-01

    This report documents work undertaken to endow the cognitive framework currently under development at Sandia National Laboratories with a human-like memory for specific life episodes. Capabilities have been demonstrated within the context of three separate problem areas. The first year of the project developed a capability whereby simulated robots were able to utilize a record of shared experience to perform surveillance of a building to detect a source of smoke. The second year focused on simulations of social interactions providing a queriable record of interactions such that a time series of events could be constructed and reconstructed. The third year addressed tools to promote desktop productivity, creating a capability to query episodic logs in real time allowing the model of a user to build on itself based on observations of the user's behavior.

  11. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: Results from the T-REX project. II. Dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J G; Gómez, H; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Luzón, G; Mirallas, H; Ruiz, E; Seguí, L; Tomás, A

    2015-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R&D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of Micromegas-read gaseous TPCs in rare event searches like double beta decay (DBD), axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. While in the companion paper we focus on DBD, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the search for dark matter candidates, both axions and WIMPs. Small ultra-low background Micromegas detectors are used to image the x-ray signal expected in axion helioscopes like CAST at CERN. Background levels as low as $0.8\\times 10^{-6}$ c keV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ have already been achieved in CAST while values down to $\\sim10^{-7}$ c keV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ have been obtained in a test bench placed underground in the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc. Prospects to consolidate and further reduce these values down to $\\sim10^{-8}$ c keV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$will be described. Such detectors, placed at the focal point of x-ray te...

  12. The FIDIAS project: Development of a Micromegas TPC for the detection of low-energy heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguaz, Francisco José; Panebianco, Stefano; Axiotis, Michael; Druillole, Frédéric; Fanourakis, George; Geralis, Theodoros; Giomataris, Ioannis; Harissopulos, Sotirios; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Papaevangelou, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Time Projection Chambers are widely used since many years for tracking and identification of charged particles in high energy physics. We present here a new R&D project, called FIDIAS, meant to investigate the feasibility of a Micromegas TPC for low energy heavy ions detection. In this framework, a TPC prototype based on Micromegas bulk technique has been extensively tested with spontaneous fission source. A deep analysis of the experimental results has been realized leading to a full characterization of the prototype in terms of gain, energy resolution and track reconstruction as a function of three working gas: helium, neon and argon. The encouraging results have also been compared to simulations, showing the Micromegas TPC is a very well suited detector for the detection of heavy ions in nuclear reactions at low energy.

  13. The FIDIAS project: Development of a Micromegas TPC for the detection of low-energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguaz, Francisco José [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Panebianco, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.panebianco@cea.fr [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Axiotis, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCRS Demokritos, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Druillole, Frédéric [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fanourakis, George; Geralis, Theodoros [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCRS Demokritos, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Giomataris, Ioannis [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Harissopulos, Sotirios; Lagoyannis, Anastasios [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCRS Demokritos, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Papaevangelou, Thomas [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-21

    Time Projection Chambers are widely used since many years for tracking and identification of charged particles in high energy physics. We present here a new R and D project, called FIDIAS, meant to investigate the feasibility of a Micromegas TPC for low energy heavy ions detection. In this framework, a TPC prototype based on Micromegas bulk technique has been extensively tested with spontaneous fission source. A deep analysis of the experimental results has been realized leading to a full characterization of the prototype in terms of gain, energy resolution and track reconstruction as a function of three working gas: helium, neon and argon. The encouraging results have also been compared to simulations, showing the Micromegas TPC is a very well suited detector for the detection of heavy ions in nuclear reactions at low energy.

  14. New idea of geomagnetic monitoring through ENA detection from the International Space Station: ENAMISS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Anna; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Orsini, Stefano; Rubini, Alda; Evangelista, Yuri; Mura, Alessandro; Rispoli, Rosanna; Vertolli, Nello; Carrubba, Elisa; Donati, Alessandro; Di Lellis, Andrea Maria; Plainaki, Christina; Lazzarotto, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) in the Earth's environment has been proven to be a successful technique able to provide detailed information on the ring current plasma population at energies below 100 keV. Indeed, the existing space weather databases usually include a good coverage of Sun and solar wind monitoring. The global imaging of the Earth's magnetosphere/ ionosphere is usually obtained by the high-latitudes monitoring of aurorae, ground magnetic field variations and high-latitude radio emissions. The equatorial magnetic field variations on ground, from which the geomagnetic indices like Dst, Sym-H and Asym-H are derived, include the effects of all current systems (i.e. ring current, Chapman -Ferraro current, tails currents, etc...) providing a kind of global information. Nevertheless, the specific information related to the ring current cannot be easily derived from such indices. Only occasional local plasma data are available by orbiting spacecraft. ENA detection is the only way to globally view the ring current populations. Up-to-now this technique has been used mainly from dedicated high altitude polar orbiting spacecraft, which do not allow a continuous and systematic monitoring, and a discrimination of the particle latitude distribution. The Energetic Neutral Atoms Monitor on the International space Station (ENAMISS) project intends to develop an ENA imager and install it on the ISS for continuous monitoring of the spatially distributed ring current plasma population. ISS is the ideal platform to perform continuous ENA monitoring since its particular low altitude and medium/low latitude orbit allows wide-field ENA images of various magnetospheric regions. The calibrated ENA data, the deconvolved ion distributions and ad-hoc ENA-based new geomagnetic indices will be freely distributed to the space weather community. Furthermore, new services based on plasma circulation models, spacecraft surface charging models and radiation dose models

  15. Did FIDELIS projects contribute to the detection of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Chiang, C-Y; Rusen, I D; Hinderaker, S G; Roldan, A; Heldal, E; Enarson, D A; Zhang, L-X

    2016-09-01

    Setting: The first phase of the Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion through Local Initiatives to Stop TB (FIDELIS) projects in China started in 2003. Objective: To determine whether the FIDELIS projects contributed to the increased case detection rate for new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in China. Methods: We compared the case notification rates (CNRs) in the intervention year with those of the previous year in the FIDELIS areas, then compared the difference between the CNRs of the intervention year and the previous year in the FIDELIS areas with those in the non-FI-DELIS areas within the province. Results: There was an increase in the CNR in the intervention year compared with the previous year for all the project sites. The differences between the CNR in the intervention year and the previous year ranged from 6.4 to 31.1 per 100 000 population in the FIDELIS areas and from 2.9 to 20.4/100 000 in the non-FIDELIS areas. Differences-in-differences analysis shows that the differences in the CNRs in the FIDELIS areas were not statistically significantly different from those in the non-FIDELIS areas (P = 0.393). Conclusion: The FIDELIS projects may have contributed to the increase in case detection of new smear-positive PTB in China, but the level of evidence is low.

  16. Integrated separation and optical detection for novel on-chip chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.E.; Anex, D.S.; Rakestraw, D.; Gourley, P.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report represents the completion of a two years Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate miniaturized systems for chemical detection and analysis. The future of advanced chemical detection and analysis is in miniature devices that are able to characterize increasingly complex samples, a laboratory on a chip. In this concept, chemical operations used to analyze complicated samples in a chemical laboratory sample handling, species separation, chemical derivitization and detection are incorporated into a miniature device. By using electrokinetic flow, this approach does not require pumps or valves, as fluids in microfabricated channels can be driven by externally applied voltages. This is ideal for sample handling in miniature devices. This project was to develop truly miniature on-chip optical systems based on Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and diffractive optics. These can be built into a complete system that also has on-chip electrokinetic fluid handling and chemical separation in a microfabricated column. The primary goal was the design and fabrication of an on-chip separation column with fluorescence sources and detectors that, using electrokinetic flow, can be used as the basis of an automated chemical analysis system. Secondary goals involved investigation of a dispersed fluorescence module that can be used to extend the versatility of the basic system and on chip, intracavity laser absorption as a high sensitivity detection technique.

  17. ISS Leak Detection and Astrophysics with Lobster-Eye X-Ray Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lobster X-Ray Imaging technology gives high sensitivity and source localization.The project consist of the following:Demonstrate angular resolution and sensitivity....

  18. An Intelligent Strain Gauge with Debond Detection and Temperature Compensation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To improve instruments functionality in a harsh rocket propulsion test environment, this project developed an intelligent strain gauge.  The initial design for...

  19. A Low Cost, Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Technology for Aviation Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase II project includes the design, fabrication, and testing of a fully-functional 320 element X-band antenna which will serve dual-roles as both the...

  20. A Low Cost, Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Technology for Aviation Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will investigate the feasibility of utilizing ThinKom's low cost electronically scanned array (ESA) antenna concepts to enable affordable...

  1. Optical Sensors for Hydrogen and Oxygen for Unambiguous Detection in Their Mutual Presence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase I SBIR project is to develop sensors that can discriminate the presence of combustible gases like oxygen (O2) in hydrogen (H2) or H2 in O2...

  2. The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Kendrew, Sarah; Williams, Jonathan P.; Simpson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find ...

  3. An Infrared Fiber-Optic Raman Sensor for Field Detecting of Organic Biomarkers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High throughput, fast detection and characterization of inorganic and organic biomarkers have become important challenge for future lunar robotic rover exploration...

  4. Remark on the Regularities of Kato's Solutions to Navier-Stokes Equations with Initial Data in Ld(Rd)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the results of J.Y.Chemin in "J.Anal.Math.,77,1999,27-50" and G.Furioli et al in "Revista Mat.Iberoamer.,16,2002,605-667",the author considers further regularities of the mild solutions to Navier-Stokes equation with initial data u0∈Ld(Rd).In particular,it is proved that if u∈C([0,T*); Ld(Rd)) is a mild solution of (NSv),then u(t,x) -evt△u0∈(L)∞ ((0,T); (B)1/d/2,∞)∩(L)1((0,T);(B)3/d/2,∞) for any T<T*.

  5. Simulations of the interaction of intense petawatt laser pulses with dense Z-pinch plasmas : final report LDRD 39670.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Dale Robert (Mission Research Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); MacFarlane, Joseph John (Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, WI); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Campbell, Robert B.

    2004-11-01

    We have studied the feasibility of using the 3D fully electromagnetic implicit hybrid particle code LSP (Large Scale Plasma) to study laser plasma interactions with dense, compressed plasmas like those created with Z, and which might be created with the planned ZR. We have determined that with the proper additional physics and numerical algorithms developed during the LDRD period, LSP was transformed into a unique platform for studying such interactions. Its uniqueness stems from its ability to consider realistic compressed densities and low initial target temperatures (if required), an ability that conventional PIC codes do not possess. Through several test cases, validations, and applications to next generation machines described in this report, we have established the suitability of the code to look at fast ignition issues for ZR, as well as other high-density laser plasma interaction problems relevant to the HEDP program at Sandia (e.g. backlighting).

  6. Final LDRD report : enhanced spontaneous emission rate in visible III-nitride LEDs using 3D photonic crystal cavities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Coley, Anthony J.; Lee, Yun-Ju; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Luk, Ting Shan; Koleske, Daniel David; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta

    2009-09-01

    The fundamental spontaneous emission rate for a photon source can be modified by placing the emitter inside a periodic dielectric structure allowing the emission to be dramatically enhanced or suppressed depending on the intended application. We have investigated the relatively unexplored realm of interaction between semiconductor emitters and three dimensional photonic crystals in the visible spectrum. Although this interaction has been investigated at longer wavelengths, very little work has been done in the visible spectrum. During the course of this LDRD, we have fabricated TiO{sub 2} logpile photonic crystal structures with the shortest wavelength band gap ever demonstrated. A variety of different emitters with emission between 365 nm and 700 nm were incorporated into photonic crystal structures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were performed to measure changes to the spontaneous emission rate. Both enhanced and suppressed emission were demonstrated and attributed to changes to the photonic density of states.

  7. 4-wave mixing for phase-matching free nonlinear optics in quantum cascade structures : LDRD 08-0346 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, Dan G.; Yang, Zhenshan; Waldmueller, Ines

    2010-10-01

    Optical nonlinearities and quantum coherences have the potential to enable efficient, high-temperature generation of coherent THz radiation. This LDRD proposal involves the exploration of the underlying physics using intersubband transitions in a quantum cascade structure. Success in the device physics aspect will give Sandia the state-of-the-art technology for high-temperature THz quantum cascade lasers. These lasers are useful for imaging and spectroscopy in medicine and national defense. Success may have other far-reaching consequences. Results from the in-depth study of coherences, dephasing and dynamics will eventually impact the fields of quantum computing, optical communication and cryptology, especially if we are successful in demonstrating entangled photons or slow light. An even farther reaching development is if we can show that the QC nanostructure, with its discrete atom-like intersubband resonances, can replace the atom in quantum optics experiments. Having such an 'artificial atom' will greatly improve flexibility and preciseness in experiments, thereby enhancing the discovery of new physics. This is because we will no longer be constrained by what natural can provide. Rather, one will be able to tailor transition energies and optical matrix elements to enhance the physics of interest. This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring optical nonlinearities in intersubband devices. Experimental and theoretical investigations were made to develop a fundamental understanding of light-matter interaction in a semiconductor system and to explore how this understanding can be used to develop mid-IR to THz emitters and nonclassical light sources.

  8. Towards Acoustic Detection of UHE Neutrinos in the Mediterranean Sea - The AMADEUS Project in ANTARES

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Lahmann, R; Naumann, C; Salomon, K

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic detection method is a promising option for future neutrino telescopes operating in the ultra-high energy regime. It utilises the effect that a cascade evolving from a neutrino interaction generates a sound wave, and is applicable in different target materials like water, ice and salt. Described here are the developments in and the plans for the research on acoustic particle detection in water performed by the ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen within the framework of the ANTARES experiment in the Mediterranean Sea. A set of acoustic sensors will be integrated into this optical neutrino telescope to test acoustic particle detection methods and perform background studies.

  9. Simultaneous projection and detection system of four different frequencies for microwave imaging reflectometry in Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kuwahara, D.; Tsuji-Iio, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro 152-8550 (Japan); Yamaguchi, S. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate, Suita 564-8680 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-Higashi, Fukuoka 811- 0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga 816-8680 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A simultaneous projection/detection system of four different frequencies for microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) was developed for three-dimensional observation of electron density fluctuations in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The microwave with four frequency components at 60.410, 61.808, 63.008, and 64.610 GHz is projected in a continuous-wave mode to illuminate the target LHD plasma. A two-dimensional horn-antenna mixer array (2D HMA) receives the reflected wave from the plasma as well as the wave from the local oscillator operating at 55.800 GHz. The first intermediate frequency (IF) signals at 4.610, 6.008, 7.208, and 8.810 GHz were confirmed to be obtained by downconversion of these microwaves using the 2D HMA. Each of these first IF components is filtered from each other and downconverted again for the superheterodyne detection. It was confirmed that both the amplitudes and the phases of the detected signals reflect the fluctuations in LHD plasmas.

  10. Precise Automatic Image Coregistration Tools to Enable Pixel-Level Change Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images (i.e., images captured at different times) has long been a goal of the remote sensing...

  11. Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceiver for Space Based Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravity wave detection using space-based long-baseline laser interferometric sensors imposes stringent noise requirements on the system components, including the...

  12. Fiber Laser Coherent Lidar for Wake-Vortex Hazard Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a 1.5um fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar as a highly effective sensor sub-system for airborne wake-vortex hazard detection. The proposed design is based...

  13. Framework for the Design and Implementation of Fault Detection and Isolation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SySense, Inc. proposes to develop a framework for the design and implementation of fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems. The framework will include protocols...

  14. An Optical Wake Vortex Detection System for Super-Density Airport Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OSI proposes to develop a wake vortex detection system including a group of double-ended and single-ended optical scintillometers properly deployed in the airfield...

  15. High Performance and Accurate Change Detection System for HyspIRI Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose novel and high performance change detection algorithms to process HyspIRI data, which have been used for monitoring changes in vegetation, climate,...

  16. Non-Destructive Detection and Separation of Radiation Damaged Cells in Miniaturized, Inexpensive Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a clear and well-identified need for rapid, efficient, non-destructive detection and isolation of radiation damaged cells. Available commercial technologies...

  17. Precise automatic image coregistration tools to enable pixel-level change detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images has long been a goal of the remote sensing discipline. Most research in this area has focused...

  18. Fiber Laser Coherent Lidar for Wake-Vortex Hazard Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a 1.5um fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar as a highly effective sensor sub-system for airborne wake-vortex hazard detection. The proposed design is based...

  19. A Novel Approach of Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an innovative approach to overcome the infrared signal detection difficulties.  In this investigation, a Periodical Poled MgO Lithium Niobate...

  20. Fault Detection and Isolation of Satellite Formations using a Ground Station Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development a fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm for a formation of satellites but processed at a ground station. The algorithm...

  1. A Pulsed Nonlinear Raman Detection of Trace Organics with SERS Enhanced Sensitivity Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A significant technology gap for NASA astrobiology missions is the detection of organics at the sub ppm level without sampling. Currently, NASA uses different...

  2. Small Submersible Robust Microflow Cytometer for Quantitative Detection of Phytoplankton Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Translume will develop an extremely robust, inexpensive micro flow cytometer (mFCM) for quantitative detection of phytoplankton. This device will be designed to be...

  3. Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) systems have proven their value in the remote measurement of spatially resolved atmospheric wind velocities in a number of...

  4. Fabry-Perot for the Integrated Direct Detection Lidar (FIDDL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an etalon front end receiver (FIDDL) and combine it with the Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar (OAWL) for an integrated direct detection (IDD) wind lidar....

  5. Multifunctional Integrated Optic Sensor for Detection of Cracks and Corrosion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a new nondestructive inspection sensor system, capable of simultaneously measuring strain-based load and detecting crack,...

  6. Optics Performance at 1(omega), 2 (omega), and 3 (omega): Final Report on LDRD Project 03-ERD-071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, J; Adams, J; Carr, C; Demos, S; Feit, M; Mehta, N; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; Rubenchik, A; Spaeth, M

    2006-02-08

    The interaction of intense laser light with dielectric materials is a fundamental applied science problem that is becoming increasingly important with the rapid development of ever more powerful lasers. To better understand the behavior of optical components in large fusion-class laser systems, we are systematically studying the interaction of high-fluence, high-power laser light with high-quality optical components, with particular interest on polishing/finishing and stress-induced defects and surface contamination. We focus on obtaining comparable measurements at three different wavelengths, 1{omega} (1053 nm), 2{omega} (527 nm), and 3{omega} (351 nm).

  7. Metastability and Delta-Phase Retention in Plutonium Alloys Final Report of LDRD Project 01-ERD-029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J; Schwartz, A J; Blobaum, K M; Krenn, C R; Wall, M A; Wolfer, W G; Haslam, J J; Moore, K T

    2004-02-11

    The {delta} to {alpha}' phase transformation in Pu-Ga alloys is intriguing for both scientific and technological reasons. On cooling, the ductile fcc {delta}-phase transforms martensitically to the brittle monoclinic {alpha}'-phase at approximately -120 C (depending on composition). This exothermic transformation involves a 20% volume contraction and a significant increase in resistivity. The reversion of {alpha}' to {delta} involves a large temperature hysteresis beginning just above room temperature. In an attempt to better understand the underlying thermodynamics and kinetics responsible for these unusual features, we have investigated the {delta} {leftrightarrow} {alpha}' phase transformations in a Pu-0.6 wt% Ga alloy using a combination of experimental and modeling techniques.

  8. Final report on LDRD project: A phenomenological model for multicomponent transport with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHEN,KEN S.; EVANS,GREGORY H.; LARSON,RICHARD S.; NOBLE,DAVID R.; HOUF,WILLIAM G.

    2000-01-01

    A phenomenological model was developed for multicomponent transport of charged species with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions, and was applied to model processes in a thermal battery cell. A new general framework was formulated and implemented in GOMA (a multidimensional, multiphysics, finite-element computer code developed and being enhanced at Sandia) for modeling multidimensional, multicomponent transport of neutral and charged species in concentrated solutions. The new framework utilizes the Stefan-Maxwell equations that describe multicomponent diffusion of interacting species using composition-insensitive binary diffusion coefficients. The new GOMA capability for modeling multicomponent transport of neutral species was verified and validated using the model problem of ternary gaseous diffusion in a Stefan tube. The new GOMA-based thermal battery computer model was verified using an idealized battery cell in which concentration gradients are absent; the full model was verified by comparing with that of Bernardi and Newman (1987) and validated using limited thermal battery discharge-performance data from the open literature (Dunning 1981) and from Sandia (Guidotti 1996). Moreover, a new Liquid Chemkin Software Package was developed, which allows the user to handle manly aspects of liquid-phase kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport (particularly in terms of computing properties). Lastly, a Lattice-Boltzmann-based capability was developed for modeling pore- or micro-scale phenomena involving convection, diffusion, and simplified chemistry; this capability was demonstrated by modeling phenomena in the cathode region of a thermal battery cell.

  9. A complexity science-based framework for global joint operations analysis to support force projection: LDRD Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Sustainment & Readiness Technologies Dept.

    2015-01-01

    The military is undergoing a significant transformation as it modernizes for the information age and adapts to address an emerging asymmetric threat beyond traditional cold war era adversaries. Techniques such as traditional large-scale, joint services war gaming analysis are no longer adequate to support program evaluation activities and mission planning analysis at the enterprise level because the operating environment is evolving too quickly. New analytical capabilities are necessary to address modernization of the Department of Defense (DoD) enterprise. This presents significant opportunity to Sandia in supporting the nation at this transformational enterprise scale. Although Sandia has significant experience with engineering system of systems (SoS) and Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS), significant fundamental research is required to develop modeling, simulation and analysis capabilities at the enterprise scale. This report documents an enterprise modeling framework which will enable senior level decision makers to better understand their enterprise and required future investments.

  10. Adaptive Optics Views of the Hubble Deep Fields Final report on LLNL LDRD Project 03-ERD-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C E; Gavel, D; Pennington, D; Gibbard, S; van Dam, M; Larkin, J; Koo, D; Raschke, L; Melbourne, J

    2007-02-17

    We used laser guide star adaptive optics at the Lick and Keck Observatories to study active galactic nuclei and galaxies, with emphasis on those in the early Universe. The goals were to observe large galaxies like our own Milky Way in the process of their initial assembly from sub-components, to identify central active galactic nuclei due to accreting black holes in galaxy cores, and to measure rates of star formation and evolution in galaxies. In the distant universe our focus was on the GOODS and GEMS fields (regions in the Northern and Southern sky that include the Hubble Deep Fields) as well as the Extended Groth Strip and COSMOS fields. Each of these parts of the sky has been intensively studied at multiple wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the XMM Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and several ground-based telescopes including the Very Large Array radio interferometer, in order to gain an unbiased view of a significant statistical sample of galaxies in the early universe.

  11. Exploring pulse shaping for Z using graded-density impactors on gas guns (final report for LDRD project 79879).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Reinhart, William Dodd; Anderson, William W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Hixson, Rob (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kipp, Marlin E.

    2005-10-01

    While isentropic compression experiment (ICE) techniques have proved useful in deducing the high-pressure compressibility of a wide range of materials, they have encountered difficulties where large-volume phase transitions exist. The present study sought to apply graded-density impactor methods for producing isentropic loading to planar impact experiments to selected such problems. Cerium was chosen due to its 20% compression between 0.7 and 1.0 GPa. A model was constructed based on limited earlier dynamic data, and applied to the design of a suite of experiments. A capability for handling this material was installed. Two experiments were executed using shock/reload techniques with available samples, loading initially to near the gamma-alpha transition, then reloading. As well, two graded-density impactor experiments were conducted with alumina. A method for interpreting ICE data was developed and validated; this uses a wavelet construction for the ramp wave and includes corrections for the ''diffraction'' of wavelets by releases or reloads reflected from the sample/window interface. Alternate methods for constructing graded-density impactors are discussed.

  12. Final Report on LDRD project 130784 : functional brain imaging by tunable multi-spectral Event-Related Optical Signal (EROS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Spahn, Olga Blum; Hsu, Alan Yuan-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Functional brain imaging is of great interest for understanding correlations between specific cognitive processes and underlying neural activity. This understanding can provide the foundation for developing enhanced human-machine interfaces, decision aides, and enhanced cognition at the physiological level. The functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based event-related optical signal (EROS) technique can provide direct, high-fidelity measures of temporal and spatial characteristics of neural networks underlying cognitive behavior. However, current EROS systems are hampered by poor signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and depth of measure, limiting areas of the brain and associated cognitive processes that can be investigated. We propose to investigate a flexible, tunable, multi-spectral fNIRS EROS system which will provide up to 10x greater SNR as well as improved spatial and temporal resolution through significant improvements in electronics, optoelectronics and optics, as well as contribute to the physiological foundation of higher-order cognitive processes and provide the technical foundation for miniaturized portable neuroimaging systems.

  13. A Complexity Science-Based Framework for Global Joint Operations Analysis to Support Force Projection: LDRD Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The military is undergoing a significant transformation as it modernizes for the information age and adapts to address an emerging asymmetric threat beyond traditional cold war era adversaries. Techniques such as traditional large-scale, joint services war gaming analysis are no longer adequate to support program evaluation activities and mission planning analysis at the enterprise level because the operating environment is evolving too quickly. New analytical capabilities are necessary to address modernization of the Department of Defense (DoD) enterprise. This presents significant opportunity to Sandia in supporting the nation at this transformational enterprise scale. Although Sandia has significant experience with engineering system of systems (SoS) and Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS), significant fundamental research is required to develop modeling, simulation and analysis capabilities at the enterprise scale. This report documents an enterprise modeling framework which will enable senior level decision makers to better understand their enterprise and required future investments.

  14. Final report on LDRD project: Semiconductor surface-emitting microcavity laser spectroscopy for analysis of biological cells and microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; McDonald, A.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure and Semiconductor Physics Dept.; Gourley, M.F. [Washington Hospital Center, DC (United States); Bellum, J. [Coherent Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This article discusses a new intracavity laser technique that uses living or fixed cells as an integral part of the laser. The cells are placed on a GaAs based semiconductor wafer comprising one half of a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser. After placement, the cells are covered with a dielectric mirror to close the laser cavity. When photo-pumped with an external laser, this hybrid laser emits coherent light images and spectra that depend sensitively on the cell size, shape, and dielectric properties. The light spectra can be used to identify different cell types and distinguish normal and abnormal cells. The laser can be used to study single cells in real time as a cell-biology lab-on-a-chip, or to study large populations of cells by scanning the pump laser at high speed. The laser is well-suited to be integrated with other micro-optical or micro-fluidic components to lead to micro-optical-mechanical systems for analysis of fluids, particulates, and biological cells.

  15. The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Beaumont, Christopher; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid plane, and display a stronger excess of Young Stellar Objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches -- particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machi...

  16. The Angstrom Project Alert System: real-time detection of extragalactic microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Darnley, M J; Newsam, A; Duke, J P; Gould, A; Han, C; Ibrahimov, M A; Im, M; Jeon, Y B; Karimov, R G; Lee, C U; Park, B G

    2006-01-01

    The Angstrom Project is undertaking an optical survey of stellar microlensing events across the bulge region of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) using a distributed network of two-meter class telescopes. The Angstrom Project Alert System (APAS) has been developed to identify in real time candidate microlensing and transient events using data from the Liverpool and Faulkes North robotic telescopes. This is the first time that real-time microlensing discovery has been attempted outside of the Milky Way and its satellite galaxies. The APAS is designed to enable follow-up studies of M31 microlensing systems, including searches for gas giant planets in M31. Here we describe the APAS and we present a few example light curves obtained during its commissioning phase which clearly demonstrate its real-time capability to identify microlensing candidates as well as other transient sources.

  17. Completion report for Early Detection Rapid Response Projects : Inventory and control of yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) on Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Completion report for Early Detection Rapid Response Project (EDRR) "Inventory and control of yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) on Kulm Wetland Management District"...

  18. Conceptual design report for the project to install leak detection in FAST-FT-534/548/549

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, K.J.

    1992-07-01

    This report provides conceptual designs and design recommendations for installing secondary containment and leak detection systems for three sumps at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST), CPP-666. The FAST facility is located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The three sumps receive various materials from the FAST water treatment process. This project involves sump upgrades to meet appropriate environmental requirements. The steps include: providing sump modifications or designs for the installation of leak chases and/or leakage accumulation, coating the sump concrete with a chemical resistant sealant (except for sump VES-FT-534 which is already lined with stainless steel) to act as secondary containment, lining the sumps with a primary containment system, and providing a means to detect and remove primary containment leakage that may occur.

  19. Early detection of COPD in primary care--the Copenhagen COPD Screening Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Backer, Vibeke; Gottlieb, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality are predicted. Delay in diagnosing COPD appears frequently even though current consensus guidelines emphasize the importance of early detection...

  20. Final report of DOE project "Detection, Localization and Diagnosis of Performance Problems Using PerfSONAR"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovrolis, Konstantinos [Georgia Tech

    2014-04-15

    We present the development of a middleware service, called Pythia, that is able to detect, localize, and diagnose performance problems in the network paths that interconnect research sites that are of interest to DOE. The proposed service can analyze perfSONAR data collected from all participating sites.

  1. Rapid, Sensitive, Enzyme-Immunodotting Assay for Detecting Cow Milk Adulteration in Sheep Milk: A Modern Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Luis A.; Razquín, Pedro; Lampreave, Fermín; Alava, María A.; Calvo, Miguel

    1998-12-01

    Specificity, sensitivity, and experimental simplicity make the immunoenzymatic assay suitable for a variety of laboratories dedicated to diverse activities such as research, quality control in food analysis, or clinical biochemistry. In these assays, the antibody that specifically recognizes the antigen is covalently attached to an enzyme. Once the antigen-antibody immunocomplex is formed, the enzymatic reaction gives a colored product that allows the detection of the initial antigen. The aim of this work was the design of a new laboratory project appropriate for use in courses of biochemistry, immunochemistry, or analytical chemistry. The assay described here detects the presence of cow milk in milk of other species. The main application is the detection of cow milk in sheep milk and cheese. Specific proteins, immunoglobulins (IgG) of the fraudulent bovine milk, are specifically recognized and retained by antibodies immobilized on a membrane. The binding of a second antibody covalently attached to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) allows the development of a visible signal. Thus, students can rapidly detect milk adulterations using a specific, sensitive, and safe experimental approach. The experiment allows students to apply their theoretical knowledge, resulting in a stimulating experience of solving a real problem during a 4-hour laboratory period.

  2. Successive Projections Algorithm-Multivariable Linear Regression Classifier for the Detection of Contaminants on Chicken Carcasses in Hyperspectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Chen, G. Y.; Kang, R.; Xia, J. C.; Huang, Y. P.; Chen, K. J.

    2017-07-01

    During slaughtering and further processing, chicken carcasses are inevitably contaminated by microbial pathogen contaminants. Due to food safety concerns, many countries implement a zero-tolerance policy that forbids the placement of visibly contaminated carcasses in ice-water chiller tanks during processing. Manual detection of contaminants is labor consuming and imprecise. Here, a successive projections algorithm (SPA)-multivariable linear regression (MLR) classifier based on an optimal performance threshold was developed for automatic detection of contaminants on chicken carcasses. Hyperspectral images were obtained using a hyperspectral imaging system. A regression model of the classifier was established by MLR based on twelve characteristic wavelengths (505, 537, 561, 562, 564, 575, 604, 627, 656, 665, 670, and 689 nm) selected by SPA , and the optimal threshold T = 1 was obtained from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The SPA-MLR classifier provided the best detection results when compared with the SPA-partial least squares (PLS) regression classifier and the SPA-least squares supported vector machine (LS-SVM) classifier. The true positive rate (TPR) of 100% and the false positive rate (FPR) of 0.392% indicate that the SPA-MLR classifier can utilize spatial and spectral information to effectively detect contaminants on chicken carcasses.

  3. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  4. The COSINUS project - a NaI-based cryogenic calorimeter for direct dark matter detection

    CERN Document Server

    Angloher, G; Cassina, L; Gironi, L; Gotti, C; Gütlein, A; Hauff, D; Maino, M; Nagorny, S S; Pagnanini, L; Pessina, G; Petricca, F; Pirro, S; Pröbst, F; Reindl, F; Schäffner, K; Schieck, J; Seidel, W

    2016-01-01

    At present the results in the field of direct dark matter search are in tension: the positive claim of DAMA/LIBRA versus null results from other experiments. However, the comparison of the results of different experiments involves model dependencies, in particular because of the different target materials in use. The COSINUS R&D project aims to operate NaI as a cryogenic calorimeter. Such a detector would not only allow for a direct comparison to DAMA/LIBRA, but would also provide a low(er) nuclear recoil threshold and particle discrimination.

  5. Sismosima: A pioneer project for earthquake detection; Sismosima: un proyecto pionero para la deteccion de Terremotos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echague, C. de

    2015-07-01

    Currently you can only study how earthquakes occur and minimizing their consequences, but in Sismosima are studied earthquakes for if possible issue a pre-alert. Geological and Mining Institute of Spain (IGME) launched this project that has already achieved in test the caves in which you installed meters an increase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) that match the shot earthquake. Now, it remains check if gas emission occurs simultaneously, before or after. If were before, a couple of minutes would be enough to give an early warning with which save lives and ensure facilities. (Author)

  6. Project Integration Architecture: Distributed Lock Management, Deadlock Detection, and Set Iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The migration of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) to the distributed object environment of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) brings with it the nearly unavoidable requirements of multiaccessor, asynchronous operations. In order to maintain the integrity of data structures in such an environment, it is necessary to provide a locking mechanism capable of protecting the complex operations typical of the PIA architecture. This paper reports on the implementation of a locking mechanism to treat that need. Additionally, the ancillary features necessary to make the distributed lock mechanism work are discussed.

  7. Searching for the Unknowable: A Process of Detection — Abductive Research Generated by Projective Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Levin-Rozalis

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the process of doing research ‘from scratch.’ The author began a project investigating children of Ethiopian origin living in Israel to see how ones who attended a kindergartern program years earlier differed from those who had not attended. However, the problem from the outset was that there may not be a difference to find. In this article, the author compares inductive, deductive, and abductive reasoning, and argues that abductive reasoning is the proper technique when nothing is known about the research at the outset.

  8. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moysey, Stephen [Clemson University; Dean, Delphine [Clemson University; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis [Rutgers University

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  9. The Winter 2010 and 2011 FRONT/NIRSS In-Flight Icing Hazard Detection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serke, David; Hubbert, John; Reehorst, Andrew; Kennedy, Patrick; Politovich, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System (NIRSS) deploys a vertically-pointing K-band radar, a lidar ceiliometer, and a profiling microwave radiometer to obtain measurements for diagnosing local inflight icing conditions. RAL is working with NASA GRC to develop algorithms and data ingest and display software for the system. NASA has an ongoing activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. As part of that effort NASA teamed with NCAR to develop software that fuses data from multiple instruments into a single detected icing condition product. The multiple instrument approach, which is the current emphasis of this activity, utilizes a K-band vertical staring radar, a microwave radiometer that detects twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data is post-processed in C++ program with a Java-based web display of resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. In 2010, a multi-channel scanning radiometer, designed and built by Radiometrics, Inc. under a SBIR grant,,was added to the system to assess its utility in improving icing diagnoses.

  10. Cavitation-enhanced back projection for acoustic detection of attenuating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Pascal; de Greef, Martijn; Moonen, Chrit T. W.; Ries, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Current methodology for the detection of attenuating structures in abdominal HIFU interventions requires lengthy, elaborate image analysis, which is undesired in a clinical setting. In this work, a method for the acoustic detection of attenuating structures in the beam path of the therapeutic HIFU array is described. The proposed method is used to determine binary apodizations that can be applied to the HIFU transducer for intercostal shot positions. Such a binary apodization was determined in vivo on an anesthetized pig under controlled breathing. Validation of the proposed method was done by comparing the binary apodization based on the proposed method to a binary apodization obtained using methodology based on MR image analysis and a collision detection algorithm. The proposed acoustical method provided a binary apodization that was over 90% similar to the apodization obtained using the image analysis-based method. Additionally, the proposed method can provide a measure of the amount of attenuation that each respective transducer element encounters in its beam path towards the focus.

  11. Neural network based pattern matching and spike detection tools and services--in the CARMEN neuroinformatics project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Martyn; Liang, Bojian; Smith, Leslie; Knowles, Alastair; Jackson, Tom; Jessop, Mark; Austin, Jim

    2008-10-01

    In the study of information flow in the nervous system, component processes can be investigated using a range of electrophysiological and imaging techniques. Although data is difficult and expensive to produce, it is rarely shared and collaboratively exploited. The Code Analysis, Repository and Modelling for e-Neuroscience (CARMEN) project addresses this challenge through the provision of a virtual neuroscience laboratory: an infrastructure for sharing data, tools and services. Central to the CARMEN concept are federated CARMEN nodes, which provide: data and metadata storage, new, thirdparty and legacy services, and tools. In this paper, we describe the CARMEN project as well as the node infrastructure and an associated thick client tool for pattern visualisation and searching, the Signal Data Explorer (SDE). We also discuss new spike detection methods, which are central to the services provided by CARMEN. The SDE is a client application which can be used to explore data in the CARMEN repository, providing data visualization, signal processing and a pattern matching capability. It performs extremely fast pattern matching and can be used to search for complex conditions composed of many different patterns across the large datasets that are typical in neuroinformatics. Searches can also be constrained by specifying text based metadata filters. Spike detection services which use wavelet and morphology techniques are discussed, and have been shown to outperform traditional thresholding and template based systems. A number of different spike detection and sorting techniques will be deployed as services within the CARMEN infrastructure, to allow users to benchmark their performance against a wide range of reference datasets.

  12. Consistent Practices for the Probability of Detection (POD) of Fracture Critical Metallic Components Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward (Principal Investigator); Nichols, Charles; Myers, Mika (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Floyd (Principal Investigator); Waller, Jess (Principal Investigator); Wladyka, Jordan (Principal Investigator); Aldrin, John; Burke, Eric; Cerecerez, Laura; Corbett, Judy; George, Jill; Hodges, Kenneth; Jones, Justin; Parker, Bradford; Petry, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    NASA-STD-5009 requires that successful flaw detection by NDE methods be statistically qualified for use on fracture critical metallic components, but does not standardize practices. This task works towards standardizing calculations and record retention with a web-based tool, the NNWG POD Standards Library or NPSL. Test methods will also be standardized with an appropriately flexible appendix to -5009 identifying best practices. Additionally, this appendix will describe how specimens used to qualify NDE systems will be cataloged, stored and protected from corrosion, damage, or loss.

  13. Comissioning of TREX-DM, a low background Micromegas-based Time Projection Chamber for low mass WIMP detection

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Cebrian, S; Dafni, T; Garcia, J A; Irastorza, I G; Lagraba, A; Luzon, G; Peiro, A

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter experiments are recently focusing their detection techniques in low-mass WIMPs, which requires the use of light elements and low energy threshold. In this context, we describe the TREX-DM experiment, a low background Micromegas-based Time Projection Chamber for low-mass WIMP detection. Its main goal is the operation of an active detection mass $\\sim$0.3 kg, with an energy threshold below 0.4~keVee and fully built with previously selected radiopure materials. This work focuses on the commissioning of the actual setup situated in a laboratory on surface. A preliminary background model of the experiment is also presented, based on Geant4 simulations and two discrimination methods: a conservative muon/electron and one based on a $^{252}$Cf source. Based on this model, TREX-DM could be competitive in the search for low mass WIMPs and, in particular, it could be sensitive to the WIMP interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA hint.

  14. Comparing genetic variants detected in the 1000 genomes project with SNPs determined by the International HapMap Consortium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenqian Zhang; Hui Wen Ng; Mao Shu; Heng Luo; Zhenqiang Su; Weigong Ge; Roger Perkins; Weida Tong; Huixiao Hong

    2015-12-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determined based on SNP arrays from the international HapMap consortium (HapMap) and the genetic variants detected in the 1000 genomes project (1KGP) can serve as two references for genomewide association studies (GWAS). We conducted comparative analyses to provide a means for assessing concerns regarding SNP array-based GWAS findings as well as for realistically bounding expectations for next generation sequencing (NGS)-based GWAS. We calculated and compared base composition, transitions to transversions ratio, minor allele frequency and heterozygous rate for SNPs from HapMap and 1KGP for the 622 common individuals. We analysed the genotype discordance between HapMap and 1KGP to assess consistency in the SNPs from the two references. In 1KGP, 90.58% of 36,817,799 SNPs detected were not measured in HapMap. More SNPs with minor allele frequencies less than 0.01 were found in 1KGP than HapMap. The two references have low discordance (generally smaller than 0.02) in genotypes of common SNPs, with most discordance from heterozygous SNPs. Our study demonstrated that SNP array-based GWAS findings were reliable and useful, although only a small portion of genetic variances were explained. NGS can detect not only common but also rare variants, supporting the expectation that NGS-based GWAS will be able to incorporate a much larger portion of genetic variance than SNP arrays-based GWAS.

  15. Multi-sensor Efforts to Detect Oil slicks at the Ocean Surface — An Applied Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, S. C.; Pichel, W. G.; Hu, Y.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Kukhtarev, N.; Lewis, D.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, The Naval Research Laboratory at Stennis Space Center (NRL-SSC), NASA-Langley Space Center (LaRC) and NOAA Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) with the support of the NASA Applied Science Program developed the concept for an operational oil detection system to support NOAA's mission of oil spill monitoring and response. Due to the current lack of a spaceborne sensor specifically designed for oil detection, this project relied on data and algorithms for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). NOAA/Satellite Analyses Branch (NOAA/SAB) was the transition point of those algorithms. Part of the research also included the evaluation of the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) capabilities for detection of surface and subsurface oil. In April 2010, while conducting the research in the Gulf of Mexico, the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil spill, the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry impacted our area. This incident provided opportunities to expand our efforts to the field, the laboratory, and to the data of other sensors such as the Hyperspectral Imager of the Coastal Zone (HICO). We summarize the results of our initial effort and describe in detail those efforts carried out during the DWH oil spill.

  16. Comparing genetic variants detected in the 1000 genomes project with SNPs determined by the International HapMap Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqian; Ng, Hui Wen; Shu, Mao; Luo, Heng; Su, ZhenQiang; Ge, Weigong; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2015-12-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determined based on SNP arrays from the international HapMap consortium (HapMap) and the genetic variants detected in the 1000 genomes project (1KGP) can serve as two references for genomewide association studies (GWAS). We conducted comparative analyses to provide a means for assessing concerns regarding SNP array-based GWAS findings as well as for realistically bounding expectations for next generation sequencing (NGS)-based GWAS. We calculated and compared base composition, transitions to transversions ratio, minor allele frequency and heterozygous rate for SNPs from HapMap and 1KGP for the 622 common individuals. We analysed the genotype discordance between HapMap and 1KGP to assess consistency in the SNPs from the two references. In 1KGP, 90.58% of 36,817,799 SNPs detected were not measured in HapMap. More SNPs with minor allele frequencies less than 0.01 were found in 1KGP than HapMap. The two references have low disc ordance (generally smaller than 0.02) in genotypes of common SNPs, with most discordance from heterozygous SNPs. Our study demonstrated that SNP array-based GWAS findings were reliable and useful, although only a small portion of genetic variances were explained. NGS can detect not only common but also rare variants, supporting the expectation that NGS-based GWAS will be able to incorporate a much larger portion of genetic variance than SNP arrays-based GWAS.

  17. Detection of active corrosion in reinforced and prestressed concrete: overview of NIST TIP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Nunez, M. A.; Nanni, A.; Matta, F.; Ziehl, P.

    2011-04-01

    The US transportation infrastructure has been receiving intensive public and private attention in recent years. The Federal Highway Administration estimates that 42 percent of the nearly 600,000 bridges in the Unites States are in need of structural or functional rehabilitation1. Corrosion of reinforcement steel is the main durability issue for reinforced and prestressed concrete structures, especially in coastal areas and in regions where de-icing salts are regularly used. Acoustic Emission (AE) has proved to be a promising method for detecting corrosion in steel reinforced and prestressed concrete members. This type of non-destructive test method primarily measures the magnitude of energy released within a material when physically strained. The expansive ferrous byproducts resulting from corrosion induce pressure at the steel-concrete interface, producing longitudinal and radial microcracks that can be detected by AE sensors. In the experimental study presented herein, concrete block specimens with embedded steel reinforcing bars and strands were tested under accelerated corrosion to relate the AE activity with the onset and propagation stages of corrosion. AE data along with half cell potential measurements and galvanic current were recorded to examine the deterioration process. Finally, the steel strands and bars were removed from the specimens, cleaned and weighed. The results were compared vis-à-vis Faraday's law to correlate AE measurements with degree of corrosion in each block.

  18. Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor Project: Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program FY 2002 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Dolan, Thomas James; Miller, Gregory Kent; Moore, Richard Leroy; Terry, William Knox; Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami; Oh, Chang H; Gougar, Hans D

    2002-11-01

    This report documents the results of our research in FY-02 on pebble-bed reactor technology under our Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled the Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor. The MPBR is an advanced reactor concept that can meet the energy and environmental needs of future generations under DOE’s Generation IV initiative. Our work is focused in three areas: neutronics, core design and fuel cycle; reactor safety and thermal hydraulics; and fuel performance.

  19. Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor Project: Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program FY 2002 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Dolan, Thomas James; Miller, Gregory Kent; Moore, Richard Leroy; Terry, William Knox; Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami; Oh, Chang H; Gougar, Hans D

    2002-11-01

    This report documents the results of our research in FY-02 on pebble-bed reactor technology under our Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled the Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor. The MPBR is an advanced reactor concept that can meet the energy and environmental needs of future generations under DOE’s Generation IV initiative. Our work is focused in three areas: neutronics, core design and fuel cycle; reactor safety and thermal hydraulics; and fuel performance.

  20. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Barbara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mayo Lung Project (MLP, a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer mortality. Whether this result necessarily indicates a lack of mortality benefit for screening remains controversial. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed outcome, including over-diagnosis, screening sensitivity, and population heterogeneity (initial difference in lung cancer risks between the two trial arms. This study is intended to provide model-based testing for some of these important arguments. Method Using a micro-simulation model, the MISCAN-lung model, we explore the possible influence of screening sensitivity, systematic error, over-diagnosis and population heterogeneity. Results Calibrating screening sensitivity, systematic error, or over-diagnosis does not noticeably improve the fit of the model, whereas calibrating population heterogeneity helps the model predict lung cancer incidence better. Conclusions Our conclusion is that the hypothesized imperfection in screening sensitivity, systematic error, and over-diagnosis do not in themselves explain the observed trial results. Model fit improvement achieved by accounting for population heterogeneity suggests a higher risk of cancer incidence in the intervention group as compared with the control group.

  1. Detection and Projection of Forest Changes by Using the Markov Chain Model and Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Vázquez-Quintero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal analysis of land use changes could provide basic information for managing the protection, conservation and production of forestlands, which promotes a sustainable resource use of temperate ecosystems. In this study we modeled and analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of land use of a temperate forests in the region of Pueblo Nuevo, Durango, Mexico. Data from the Landsat images Multispectral Scanner (MSS 1973, Thematic Mapper (TM 1990, and Operational Land Imager (OLI 2014 were used. Supervised classification methods were then applied to generate the land use for these years. To validate the land use classifications on the images, the Kappa coefficient was used. The resulting Kappa coefficients were 91%, 92% and 90% for 1973, 1990 and 2014, respectively. The analysis of the change dynamics was assessed with Markov Chains and Cellular Automata (CA, which are based on probabilistic modeling techniques. The Markov Chains and CA show constant changes in land use. The class most affected by these changes is the pine forest. Changes in the extent of temperate forest of the study area were further projected until 2028, indicating that the area of pine forest could be continuously reduced. The results of this study could provide quantitative information, which represents a base for assessing the sustainability in the management of these temperate forest ecosystems and for taking actions to mitigate their degradation.

  2. An Ensemble Successive Project Algorithm for Liquor Detection Using Near Infrared Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral analysis technique based on near infrared (NIR sensor is a powerful tool for complex information processing and high precision recognition, and it has been widely applied to quality analysis and online inspection of agricultural products. This paper proposes a new method to address the instability of small sample sizes in the successive projections algorithm (SPA as well as the lack of association between selected variables and the analyte. The proposed method is an evaluated bootstrap ensemble SPA method (EBSPA based on a variable evaluation index (EI for variable selection, and is applied to the quantitative prediction of alcohol concentrations in liquor using NIR sensor. In the experiment, the proposed EBSPA with three kinds of modeling methods are established to test their performance. In addition, the proposed EBSPA combined with partial least square is compared with other state-of-the-art variable selection methods. The results show that the proposed method can solve the defects of SPA and it has the best generalization performance and stability. Furthermore, the physical meaning of the selected variables from the near infrared sensor data is clear, which can effectively reduce the variables and improve their prediction accuracy.

  3. The TAOS Project Stellar Variability II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, S; Lin, C C; Zhang, Z W; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Bianco, F B; Byun, Y I; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; Kim, D W; King, S K; Lee, T; Lehner, M J; Lin, H C; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, J H; Wang, S Y; Wen, C Y

    2010-01-28

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data - covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days - are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (RA = 17{sup h} 30{sup m} 6.67{sup s}, Dec = 27 degrees, 17 minutes, 30 seconds, J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 square degree field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the lightcurves, 32 variables, 18 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular and eclipsing binaries.

  4. Detection and Characterization of Exoplanets using Projections on Karhunen-Lo`eve Eigenimages: Forward Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Pueyo, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A new class of high-contrast image analysis algorithms that empirically fit and subtract systematic noise has lead to recent discoveries of faint exoplanet /substellar companions and scattered light images of circumstellar disks. These methods are extremely efficient at enhancing the detectability of faint astrophysical signal, but they do generally create systematic biases in their observed properties. This paper provides a general solution for this outstanding problem. We present the analytical derivation of a linear expansion that captures the impact of astrophysical over-subtraction and/or self-subtraction these image analysis techniques. We examine the general case for which the reference images of the astrophysical scene move azimuthally and/or radially across the field of view as a result of the observation strategy. Our new method is based on perturbing the covariance matrix underlying any least-squares speckles problem, and propagating this perturbation through the data analysis algorithm. We then de...

  5. Detection and Characterization of Exoplanets using Projections on Karhunen Loeve Eigenimages: Forward Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    A new class of high-contrast image analysis algorithms that empirically fit and subtract systematic noise has lead to recent discoveries of faint exoplanet/substellar companions and scattered light images of circumstellar disks. These methods are extremely efficient at enhancing the detectability of a faint astrophysical signal, but they generally create systematic biases in their observed properties. This paper provides a general solution for this outstanding problem. We present an analytical derivation of a linear expansion that captures the impact of astrophysical over-subtraction or self-subtraction in current image analysis techniques. We examine the general case for which the reference images of the astrophysical scene move azimuthally and/or radially across the field of view as a result of the observation strategy. Our new method is based on perturbing the covariance matrix underlying any least-squares speckles problem, and propagating this perturbation through the data analysis algorithm. Most of the work in this paper is presented in the Principal Component Analysis framework, but it can be easily generalized to methods relying on the linear combination of images (instead of eigenmodes). Based on this linear expansion, which is obtained in the most general case, we then demonstrate practical applications of this new algorithm. We first consider the spectral extraction of faint point sources in IFS data and illustrate, using public Gemini Planet Imager commissioning data, that our novel perturbation-based Forward Modeling, which we named Karhunen Loeve Image Processing (KLIP-FM), can indeed alleviate algorithmic biases. We then apply KLIP-FM to the detection of point sources and show how it decreases the rate of false negatives while keeping the rate of false positives unchanged when compared to classical KLIP. This can potentially have important consequences on the design of follow-up strategies of ongoing direct imaging surveys.

  6. Discrimination Report: A Multisensor system for detection andcharacterization of UXO, ESTCP Project MM-0437,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H.Frank; Becker,Alex

    2008-01-14

    The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. BUD was designed to detect UXO in the 20 mm to 155 mm size range for depths between 0 and 1.5 m, and to characterize them in a depth range from 0 to 1.1 m. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. Eight receiver coils are placed horizontally along the two diagonals of the upper and lower planes of the two horizontal transmitter loops. These receiver coil pairs are located on symmetry lines through the center of the system and each pair sees identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They are wired in opposition to produce zero output during the on-time of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform over the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt motion of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and greatly enhances receiver sensitivity to the gradients of the target response. BUD is mounted on a small cart to assure system mobility. System positioning is provided by a Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS receiver. The system has two modes of operation: (1) the search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) the discrimination mode, in which BUD is stationary above a target, and determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation from a single position of the system. The detection performance of the system is governed by a size-depth curve shown in Figure

  7. Pulmonary nodule detection with digital projection radiography: an ex-vivo study on increased latitude post-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederer, Juergen; Gottwald, Tobias; Bolte, Hendrik; Riedel, Christian; Freitag, Sandra; Van Metter, Richard; Heller, Martin

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate increased image latitude post-processing of digital projection radiograms for the detection of pulmonary nodules. 20 porcine lungs were inflated inside a chest phantom, prepared with 280 solid nodules of 4-8 mm in diameter and examined with direct radiography (3.0x2.5 k detector, 125 kVp, 4 mAs). Nodule position and size were documented by CT controls and dissection. Four intact lungs served as negative controls. Image post-processing included standard tone scales and increased latitude with detail contrast enhancement (log-factors 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0). 1280 sub-images (512x512 pixel) were centred on nodules or controls, behind the diaphragm and over free parenchyma, randomized and presented to six readers. Confidence in the decision was recorded with a scale of 0-100%. Sensitivity and specificity for nodules behind the diaphragm were 0.87/0.97 at standard tone scale and 0.92/0.92 with increased latitude (log factor 2.0). The fraction of "not diagnostic" readings was reduced (from 208/1920 to 52/1920). As an indicator of increased detection confidence, the median of the ratings behind the diaphragm approached 100 and 0, respectively, and the inter-quartile width decreased (controls: pimage latitude. Above the diaphragm, accuracy and detection confidence remained unchanged. Here, the sensitivity for nodules was 0.94 with a specificity from 0.96 to 0.97 (all p>0.05). Increased latitude post-processing has minimal effects on the overall accuracy, but improves the detection confidence for sub-centimeter nodules in the posterior recesses of the lung.

  8. Study of SiPM custom arrays for scintillation light detection in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervi, T.; Babicz, M. E.; Bonesini, M.; Falcone, A.; Kose, U.; Nessi, M.; Menegolli, A.; Pietropaolo, F.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Torti, M.; Zani, A.

    2017-03-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) technique has been established as one of the most promising for the next generation of experiments dedicated to neutrino and rare-event physics. LAr-TPCs have the fundamental feature to be able to both collect the charge and the scintillation light produced after the passage of a ionizing particle inside the Argon volume. Scintillation light is traditionally detected by large surface Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMTs) working at cryogenic temperature. Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are semiconductor-based devices with performances comparable to the PMT ones, but with very small active areas. For this reason we built a prototype array composed by SiPMs connected in different electrical configurations. We present results on preliminary tests made with four SiPMs, connected both in parallel and in series configurations, deployed into a 50 liters LAr-TPC exposed to cosmic rays at CERN.

  9. Online Adaptive Decision Fusion Framework Based on Entropic Projections onto Convex Sets with Application to Wildfire Detection in Video

    CERN Document Server

    Gunay, Osman; Kose, Kivanc; Cetin, A Enis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an Entropy functional based online Adaptive Decision Fusion (EADF) framework is developed for image analysis and computer vision applications. In this framework, it is assumed that the compound algorithm consists of several sub-algorithms each of which yielding its own decision as a real number centered around zero, representing the confidence level of that particular sub-algorithm. Decision values are linearly combined with weights which are updated online according to an active fusion method based on performing entropic projections onto convex sets describing sub-algorithms. It is assumed that there is an oracle, who is usually a human operator, providing feedback to the decision fusion method. A video based wildfire detection system is developed to evaluate the performance of the algorithm in handling the problems where data arrives sequentially. In this case, the oracle is the security guard of the forest lookout tower verifying the decision of the combined algorithm. Simulation results are...

  10. PROJECTION BASED STALTISTICAL FEATURE EXTRACTION WITH MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES AND ITS APPLICATIONS ON THE YELLOW RIVER MAINSTREAM LINE DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanning; Zhang Haichao; Duan Feng; Liu Xuegong; Han Lin

    2009-01-01

    Mainstream line is significant for the Yellow River situation forecasting and flood control. An effective statistical feature extraction method is proposed in this paper.In this method,a be tween-class scattering matrix based projection algorithm is performed to maximize between-class dif ferences,obtaining effective component for classification;then high-order statistics are utilized as the features to describe the mainstream line in the principal component obtained.Experiments are per formed to verify the applicability of the algorithm.The results both on synthesized and real scenes indicate that this approach could extract the mainstream line of the Yellow River automatically,and has a high precision in mainstream line detection.

  11. Ldrd-2015-00076 -- Validation Study Of The SRNL Vacuum Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegfried, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-14

    SRNL recently developed a prototype device for the IAEA to prepare particulate samples collected on swipes for laboratory analysis. The Vacuum Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (VacACE) utilizes electrostatic precipitation in lieu of the impaction or ultrasonic solvent extraction methods presently employed by the IAEA to place particles of interest on carbon planchets for investigation. The project was funded by the Intentional Safeguards Projects Office (ISPO) with scope for device design and fabrication, but no scope for validation or testing. Without documented validation of the tool, sample processing and subsequent analysis fidelity cannot be assured. The goal of this project was to determine collection efficacy in a rigorous fashion, demonstrate proof of concept with standardized particulates, and produce a validated VacACE sampling protocol.

  12. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  13. Patterns of cross-contamination in a multispecies population genomic project: detection, quantification, impact, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenghien, Marion; Faivre, Nicolas; Galtier, Nicolas

    2017-03-29

    Contamination is a well-known but often neglected problem in molecular biology. Here, we investigated the prevalence of cross-contamination among 446 samples from 116 distinct species of animals, which were processed in the same laboratory and subjected to subcontracted transcriptome sequencing. Using cytochrome oxidase 1 as a barcode, we identified a minimum of 782 events of between-species contamination, with approximately 80% of our samples being affected. An analysis of laboratory metadata revealed a strong effect of the sequencing center: nearly all the detected events of between-species contamination involved species that were sent the same day to the same company. We introduce new methods to address the amount of within-species, between-individual contamination, and to correct for this problem when calling genotypes from base read counts. We report evidence for pervasive within-species contamination in this data set, and show that classical population genomic statistics, such as synonymous diversity, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous diversity, inbreeding coefficient FIT, and Tajima's D, are sensitive to this problem to various extents. Control analyses suggest that our published results are probably robust to the problem of contamination. Recommendations on how to prevent or avoid contamination in large-scale population genomics/molecular ecology are provided based on this analysis.

  14. SNiPlay: a web-based tool for detection, management and analysis of SNPs. Application to grapevine diversity projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereeper, Alexis; Nicolas, Stéphane; Le Cunff, Loïc; Bacilieri, Roberto; Doligez, Agnès; Peros, Jean-Pierre; Ruiz, Manuel; This, Patrice

    2011-05-05

    High-throughput re-sequencing, new genotyping technologies and the availability of reference genomes allow the extensive characterization of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletion events (indels) in many plant species. The rapidly increasing amount of re-sequencing and genotyping data generated by large-scale genetic diversity projects requires the development of integrated bioinformatics tools able to efficiently manage, analyze, and combine these genetic data with genome structure and external data. In this context, we developed SNiPlay, a flexible, user-friendly and integrative web-based tool dedicated to polymorphism discovery and analysis. It integrates:1) a pipeline, freely accessible through the internet, combining existing softwares with new tools to detect SNPs and to compute different types of statistical indices and graphical layouts for SNP data. From standard sequence alignments, genotyping data or Sanger sequencing traces given as input, SNiPlay detects SNPs and indels events and outputs submission files for the design of Illumina's SNP chips. Subsequently, it sends sequences and genotyping data into a series of modules in charge of various processes: physical mapping to a reference genome, annotation (genomic position, intron/exon location, synonymous/non-synonymous substitutions), SNP frequency determination in user-defined groups, haplotype reconstruction and network, linkage disequilibrium evaluation, and diversity analysis (Pi, Watterson's Theta, Tajima's D).Furthermore, the pipeline allows the use of external data (such as phenotype, geographic origin, taxa, stratification) to define groups and compare statistical indices.2) a database storing polymorphisms, genotyping data and grapevine sequences released by public and private projects. It allows the user to retrieve SNPs using various filters (such as genomic position, missing data, polymorphism type, allele frequency), to compare SNP patterns between populations, and to

  15. Enabling the Direct Detection of Earth-Sized Exoplanets with the LBTI HOSTS Project: A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, W.; Bailey, V.; Bryden, G.; Defrere, D.; Ertel, S.; Haniff, C.; Hinz, P.; Kennedy, G.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA has funded a project called the Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems (HOSTS) to survey nearby solar type stars to determine the amount of warm zodiacal dust in their habitable zones. The goal is not only to determine the luminosity distribution function but also to know which individual stars have the least amount of zodiacal dust. It is important to have this information for future missions that directly image exoplanets as this dust is the main source of astrophysical noise for them. The HOSTS project utilizes the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), which consists of two 8.4-m apertures separated by a 14.4-m baseline on Mt. Graham, Arizona. The LBTI operates in a nulling mode in the mid-infrared spectral window (8-13 micrometers), in which light from the two telescopes is coherently combined with a 180 degree phase shift between them, producing a dark fringe at the location of the target star. In doing so the starlight is greatly reduced, increasing the contrast, analogous to a coronagraph operating at shorter wavelengths. The LBTI is a unique instrument, having only three warm reflections before the starlight reaches cold mirrors, giving it the best photometric sensitivity of any interferometer operating in the mid-infrared. It also has a superb Adaptive Optics (AO) system giving it Strehl ratios greater than 98% at 10 micrometers. In 2014 into early 2015 LBTI was undergoing commissioning. The HOSTS. project team passed its Operational Readiness Review (ORR) in April 2015. The team recently published papers on the target sample, modeling of the nulled disk images, and initial results such as the detection of warm dust around eta Corvi. Recently a paper was published on the data pipeline and on-sky performance. An additional paper is in preparation on Beta Leo. We will discuss the scientific and programmatic context for the LBTI project, and we will report recent progress, new results, and plans for the science verification

  16. Enabling the direct detection of earth-sized exoplanets with the LBTI HOSTS project: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, W.; Bailey, V.; Bryden, G.; Defrère, D.; Ertel, S.; Haniff, C.; Hinz, P.; Kennedy, G.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Rieke, G.; Roberge, A.; Serabyn, E.; Skemer, A.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Weinberger, A.; Wyatt, M.; Vaz, A.

    2016-08-01

    NASA has funded a project called the Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems (HOSTS) to survey nearby solar type stars to determine the amount of warm zodiacal dust in their habitable zones. The goal is not only to determine the luminosity distribution function but also to know which individual stars have the least amount of zodiacal dust. It is important to have this information for future missions that directly image exoplanets as this dust is the main source of astrophysical noise for them. The HOSTS project utilizes the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), which consists of two 8.4-m apertures separated by a 14.4-m baseline on Mt. Graham, Arizona. The LBTI operates in a nulling mode in the mid-infrared spectral window (8-13 μm), in which light from the two telescopes is coherently combined with a 180 degree phase shift between them, producing a dark fringe at the location of the target star. In doing so the starlight is greatly reduced, increasing the contrast, analogous to a coronagraph operating at shorter wavelengths. The LBTI is a unique instrument, having only three warm reflections before the starlight reaches cold mirrors, giving it the best photometric sensitivity of any interferometer operating in the mid-infrared. It also has a superb Adaptive Optics (AO) system giving it Strehl ratios greater than 98% at 10 μm. In 2014 into early 2015 LBTI was undergoing commissioning. The HOSTS project team passed its Operational Readiness Review (ORR) in April 2015. The team recently published papers on the target sample, modeling of the nulled disk images, and initial results such as the detection of warm dust around η Corvi. Recently a paper was published on the data pipeline and on-sky performance. An additional paper is in preparation on β Leo. We will discuss the scientific and programmatic context for the LBTI project, and we will report recent progress, new results, and plans for the science verification phase that started in

  17. Strategic partnerships final LDRD report : nanocomposite materials for efficient solar hydrogen production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corral, Erica L. (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Miller, James Edward; Walker, Luke S. (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Evans, Lindsey R.

    2012-05-01

    This 'campus executive' project sought to advance solar thermochemical technology for producing the chemical fuels. The project advanced the common interest of Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Arizona in creating a sustainable and viable alternative to fossil fuels. The focus of this effort was in developing new methods for creating unique monolithic composite structures and characterizing their performance in thermochemical production of hydrogen from water. The development and processing of the materials was undertaken in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at the University of Arizona; Sandia National Laboratories performed the thermochemical characterization. Ferrite/yttria-stabilized zirconia composite monoliths were fabricated and shown to have exceptionally high utilization of the ferrite for splitting CO{sub 2} to obtain CO (a process analogous to splitting H{sub 2}O to obtain H{sub 2}).

  18. Confined cooperative self-assembly and synthesis of optically and electrically active nanostructures : final LDRD report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas; Haddad, Raid Edward (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Fan, Hongyou; Ta, Anh (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bai, Feng (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Huang, Jian Yu

    2011-10-01

    In this project, we developed a confined cooperative self-assembly process to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) j-aggregates including nanowires and nanorods with controlled diameters and aspect ratios. The facile and versatile aqueous solution process assimilates photo-active macrocyclic building blocks inside surfactant micelles, forming stable single-crystalline high surface area nanoporous frameworks with well-defined external morphology defined by the building block packing. Characterizations using TEM, SEM, XRD, N{sub 2} and NO sorption isotherms, TGA, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy indicate that the j-aggregate nanostructures are monodisperse and may further assemble into hierarchical arrays with multi-modal functional pores. The nanostructures exhibit enhanced and collective optical properties over the individual chromophores. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

  19. LDRD final report : leveraging multi-way linkages on heterogeneous data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Leveraging Multi-way Linkages on Heterogeneous Data' which ran from FY08 through FY10. The goal was to investigate scalable and robust methods for multi-way data analysis. We developed a new optimization-based method called CPOPT for fitting a particular type of tensor factorization to data; CPOPT was compared against existing methods and found to be more accurate than any faster method and faster than any equally accurate method. We extended this method to computing tensor factorizations for problems with incomplete data; our results show that you can recover scientifically meaningfully factorizations with large amounts of missing data (50% or more). The project has involved 5 members of the technical staff, 2 postdocs, and 1 summer intern. It has resulted in a total of 13 publications, 2 software releases, and over 30 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun, with more potential projects in development.

  20. NA22 Model Cities Project - LL244T An Intelligent Transportation System-Based Radiation Alert and Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peglow, S

    2004-02-24

    The purpose of this project was twofold: first, provide an understanding of the technical foundation and planning required for deployment of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)-based system architectures for the protection of New York City from a terrorist attack using a vehicle-deployed nuclear device; second, work with stakeholders to develop mutual understanding of the technologies and tactics required for threat detection/identification and establish guidelines for designing operational systems and procedures. During the course of this project we interviewed and coordinated analysis with people from the New Jersey State Attorney General's office, the New Jersey State Police, the Port Authority of New York/New Jersey, the Counterterrorism Division of the New York City Police Department, the New Jersey Transit Authority, the State of New Jersey Department of Transportation, TRANSCOM and a number of contractors involved with state and federal intelligent transportation development and implementation. The basic system architecture is shown in the figure below. In an actual system deployment, radiation sensors would be co-located with existing ITS elements and the data will be sent to the Traffic Operations Center. A key element of successful system operation is the integration of vehicle data, such as license plate, EZ pass ID, vehicle type/color and radiation signature. A threat data base can also be implemented and utilized in cases where there is a suspect vehicle identified from other intelligence sources or a mobile detector system. Another key aspect of an operational architecture is the procedures used to verify the threat and plan interdiction. This was a major focus of our work and discussed later in detail. In support of the operational analysis, we developed a detailed traffic simulation model that is described extensively in the body of the report.

  1. High frequency based detection of TIDs in the Net-TIDE project: challenges and opportunities for long HF paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Tobias

    2016-07-01

    Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) are the ionospheric signatures of atmospheric gravity waves. TIDs carry along information about their sources of excitations which may be either natural (energy input from the auroral region, earthquakes/tsunamis, hurricanes, solar terminator, and others) or artificial (ionospheric modification experiments, nuclear explosions, and other powerful blasts like industrial accidents). TIDs contribute to the energy and momentum exchange between different regions of the ionosphere, especially during geomagnetic storms. Their tracking is important because the TIDs affect all services that rely on predictable ionospheric radio wave propagation. Although a number of methods have been proposed to measure TID characteristics, none is able to operate in real time for monitoring purposes. In the framework of a new NATO Science for Peace and Security multi-year project (2014--2017) we are exploiting for the first time the European network of high precision ionospheric DPS4D sounders and the related software to directly identify TIDs over Europe and specify in real-time the gravity wave parameters based on measuring the variations of the angles-of-arrival and Doppler frequencies of ionospherically reflected HF radio signals. The project will run until 2017 and is expected to result in a pilot network of DPS4D ionospheric sounders in Europe, enhanced with a system to process the TID observations for real-time diagnostics and issue warnings for TIDs and the potential disturbance over the area. Based on these warnings the end-users can put in action specific mitigation techniques to protect their systems. The technical challenges of operating long distance ionospheric HF radio links for the detection of TIDs will be discussed.

  2. FY05 LDRD Fianl Report Investigation of AAA+ protein machines that participate in DNA replication, recombination, and in response to DNA damage LDRD Project Tracking Code: 04-LW-049

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicka, D; de Carvalho-Kavanagh, M S; Barsky, D; Venclovas, C

    2006-12-04

    The AAA+ proteins are remarkable macromolecules that are able to self-assemble into nanoscale machines. These protein machines play critical roles in many cellular processes, including the processes that manage a cell's genetic material, but the mechanism at the molecular level has remained elusive. We applied computational molecular modeling, combined with advanced sequence analysis and available biochemical and genetic data, to structurally characterize eukaryotic AAA+ proteins and the protein machines they form. With these models we have examined intermolecular interactions in three-dimensions (3D), including both interactions between the components of the AAA+ complexes and the interactions of these protein machines with their partners. These computational studies have provided new insights into the molecular structure and the mechanism of action for AAA+ protein machines, thereby facilitating a deeper understanding of processes involved in DNA metabolism.

  3. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC MODELING OF ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUELS - FINAL LDRD-ER REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, P

    2011-11-28

    This project enhanced our theoretical capabilities geared towards establishing the basic science of a high-throughput protocol for the development of advanced nuclear fuel that should couple modern computational materials modeling and simulation tools, fabrication and characterization capabilities, and targeted high throughput performance testing experiments. The successful conclusion of this ER project allowed us to upgrade state-of-the-art modeling codes, and apply these modeling tools to ab initio energetics and thermodynamic assessments of phase diagrams of various mixtures of actinide alloys, propose a tool for optimizing composition of complex alloys for specific properties, predict diffusion behavior in diffusion couples made of actinide and transition metals, include one new equation in the LLNL phase-field AMPE code, and predict microstructure evolution during alloy coring. In FY11, despite limited funding, the team also initiated an experimental activity, with collaboration from Texas A&M University by preparing samples of nuclear fuels in bulk forms and for diffusion couple studies and metallic matrices, and performing preliminary characterization.

  4. LDRD final report : energy conversion using chromophore-functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Andrew L.; Zifer, Thomas; Zhou, Xinjian; Leonard, Francois Leonard; Wong, Bryan Matthew; Kane, Alexander; Katzenmeyer, Aaron Michael; Krafcik, Karen Lee

    2010-09-01

    With the goal of studying the conversion of optical energy to electrical energy at the nanoscale, we developed and tested devices based on single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with azobenzene chromophores, where the chromophores serve as photoabsorbers and the nanotube as the electronic read-out. By synthesizing chromophores with specific absorption windows in the visible spectrum and anchoring them to the nanotube surface, we demonstrated the controlled detection of visible light of low intensity in narrow ranges of wavelengths. Our measurements suggested that upon photoabsorption, the chromophores isomerize to give a large change in dipole moment, changing the electrostatic environment of the nanotube. All-electron ab initio calculations were used to study the chromophore-nanotube hybrids, and show that the chromophores bind strongly to the nanotubes without disturbing the electronic structure of either species. Calculated values of the dipole moments supported the notion of dipole changes as the optical detection mechanism.

  5. Automatic oil slick detection from SAR images: Results and improvements in the framework of the PRIMI pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivero, Paolo; Adamo, Maria; Biamino, Walter; Borasi, Maria; Cavagnero, Marco; De Carolis, Giacomo; Di Matteo, Lorenza; Fontebasso, Fabio; Nirchio, Francesco; Tataranni, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    An automatic system capable of discriminating oil spills from other similar sea surface features in Synthetic Aperture Radar images has been developed and tested. This system, called Oil Spill Automatic Detector (OSAD), was originally conceived for C-band SAR images (mostly ERS PRI) and afterward adapted to ENVISAT data. In the framework of the Progetto pilota Rilevamento Inquinamento Marino da Idrocarburi (PRIMI) national project sponsored by the Italian Space Agency, the OSAD system has been greatly improved and is now able to process L- and X-band images from various satellites as well. OSAD performance, confirmed using a different dataset of verified slicks, shows an a priori overall correct classification of 80%. Moreover, new features have been added, such as an enhanced land masking algorithm, a built-in wind and wave extraction module, and oil spill characterization. OSAD has been integrated into a complex hardware and software architecture for operational sea monitoring, alarm generation, and oil slick drift forecasting. The system's detection capabilities have been validated during a measurement campaign in the Mediterranean Sea. The new improved system is described herein, with special attention to latest enhancements.

  6. LDRD final report on Bloch Oscillations in two-dimensional nanostructure arrays for high frequency applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Pan, Wei; Reno, John Louis; Wendt, Joel Robert; Barton, Daniel Lee

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the physics of Bloch oscillations (BO) of electrons, engineered in high mobility quantum wells patterned into lateral periodic arrays of nanostructures, i.e. two-dimensional (2D) quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs). A BO occurs when an electron moves out of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in response to a DC electric field, passing back into the BZ on the opposite side. This results in quantum oscillations of the electron--i.e., a high frequency AC current in response to a DC voltage. Thus, engineering a BO will yield continuously electrically tunable high-frequency sources (and detectors) for sensor applications, and be a physics tour-de-force. More than a decade ago, Bloch oscillation (BO) was observed in a quantum well superlattice (QWSL) in short-pulse optical experiments. However, its potential as electrically biased high frequency source and detector so far has not been realized. This is partially due to fast damping of BO in QWSLs. In this project, we have investigated the possibility of improving the stability of BO by fabricating lateral superlattices of periodic coupled nanostructures, such as metal grid, quantum (anti)dots arrays, in high quality GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As heterostructures. In these nanostructures, the lateral quantum confinement has been shown theoretically to suppress the optical-phonon scattering, believed to be the main mechanism for fast damping of BO in QWSLs. Over the last three years, we have made great progress toward demonstrating Bloch oscillations in QDSLs. In the first two years of this project, we studied the negative differential conductance and the Bloch radiation induced edge-magnetoplasmon resonance. Recently, in collaboration with Prof. Kono's group at Rice University, we investigated the time-domain THz magneto-spectroscopy measurements in QDSLs and two-dimensional electron systems. A surprising DC electrical field induced THz phase flip was observed. More measurements are planned to investigate this

  7. Scalable Entity-Based Modeling of Population-Based Systems, Final LDRD Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, A J; Smith, S G; Vassilevska, T K; Jefferson, D R

    2005-01-27

    The goal of this project has been to develop tools, capabilities and expertise in the modeling of complex population-based systems via scalable entity-based modeling (EBM). Our initial focal application domain has been the dynamics of large populations exposed to disease-causing agents, a topic of interest to the Department of Homeland Security in the context of bioterrorism. In the academic community, discrete simulation technology based on individual entities has shown initial success, but the technology has not been scaled to the problem sizes or computational resources of LLNL. Our developmental emphasis has been on the extension of this technology to parallel computers and maturation of the technology from an academic to a lab setting.

  8. FY08 LDRD Final Report LOCAL: Locality-Optimizing Caching Algorithms and Layouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P

    2009-02-27

    This project investigated layout and compression techniques for large, unstructured simulation data to reduce bandwidth requirements and latency in simulation I/O and subsequent post-processing, e.g. data analysis and visualization. The main goal was to eliminate the data-transfer bottleneck - for example, from disk to memory and from central processing unit to graphics processing unit - through coherent data access and by trading underutilized compute power for effective bandwidth and storage. This was accomplished by (1) designing algorithms that both enforce and exploit compactness and locality in unstructured data, and (2) adapting offline computations to a novel stream processing framework that supports pipelining and low-latency sequential access to compressed data. This report summarizes the techniques developed and results achieved, and includes references to publications that elaborate on the technical details of these methods.

  9. Designed supramolecular assemblies for biosensors and photoactive devices. LDRD final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, X.Z.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Hobbs, J.D.; Cesarano, J.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a new class of supramolecular assemblies for applications in biosensors and biodevices. The supramolecular assemblies are based on membranes and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films composed of naturally-occurring or synthetic lipids, which contain electrically and/or photochemically active components. The LB films are deposited onto electrically-active materials (metal, semiconductors). The active components film components (lipo-porphyrins) at the surface function as molecular recognition sites for sensing proteins and other biomolecules, and the porphyrins and other components (e.g., fullerenes) incorporated into the films serve as photocatalysts and vectorial electron-transport agents. Computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) methods are used to tailor the structure of these film components to optimize function. Molecular modeling is also used to predict the location, orientation, and motion of these molecular components within the films. The result is a variety of extended, self-assembled molecular structures that serve as devices for sensing proteins and biochemicals or as other bioelectronic devices.

  10. Mesoscale wide-bandwidth linear magnetic actuators : an LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence Anthony

    2004-02-01

    As MEMS transducers are scaled up in size, the threshold is quickly crossed to where magnetoquasistatic (MQS) transducers are superior for force production compared to electroquasistatic (EQS) transducers. Considerable progress has been made increasing the force output of MEMS EQS transducers, but progress with MEMS MQS transducers has been more modest. A key reason for this has been the difficulty implementing efficient lithographically-fabricated magnetic coil structures. The contribution of this study is a planar multilayer polyphase coil architecture which provides for the lithographic implementation of efficient stator windings suitable for linear magnetic machines. A millimeter-scale linear actuator with complex stator windings was fabricated using this architecture. The stators of the actuator were fabricated using a BCB/Cu process, which does not require replanarization of the wafer between layers. The prototype stator was limited to thin copper layers (3 {micro}m) due to the use of evaporated metal at the time of fabrication. Two layers of metal were implemented in the prototype, but the winding architecture naturally supports additional metal layer pairs. It was found in laboratory tests that the windings can support very high current densities of 4 x 10{sup 9}A/m{sup 2} without damage. Force production normal to the stator was calculated to be 0.54 N/A. For thin stators such as this one, force production increases approximately linearly with the thickness of the windings and a six-layer stator fabricated using a newly implemented electroplated BCB/Cu process (six layers of 15 {micro}m thick metal) is projected to produce approximately 8.8 N/A.

  11. Detection of Factor XIII deficiency: data from multicentre exercises amongst UK NEQAS and PRO-RBDD project laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, I; Kitchen, S; Menegatti, M; Palla, R; Walker, I; Makris, M; Peyvandi, F

    2017-08-01

    FXIII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorders, and specific FXIII assays are recommended to detect this deficiency. We investigated the performance and accuracy of FXIII investigations in two exercises, comparing centres enrolled in the PRO-RBDD project (prospective data collection on patients with fibrinogen and Factor XIII deficiencies), and UK NEQAS BC centres. Samples from a FXIII deficient subject and a normal donor were sent to participating centres, to investigate for FXIII deficiency, and interpret their results. Median, coefficient of variation and range were determined. Results were returned from 98 UK NEQAS BC and 28 PRO-RBDD centres. Up to 40% of UK NEQAS BC and 52% of PRO-RBDD centres reported clot solubility results - with diagnostic errors by two NEQAS BC centres (false negatives for the FXIII deficient sample) and one PRO-RBDD centre (false positive for the normal sample). Over 70% of UK NEQAS BC centres and PRO-RBDD centres performed FXIII assays. Median results were similar between the two groups, with the exception of sample 3 in survey 2 (5.5 vs. 14.0 μ/dl for UK NEQAS BC and PRO-RBDD centres respectively, P UK NEQAS BC centres. Approximately 70% of centres now employ FXIII assays, complying with international recommendations. However, solubility tests continue to be used. Our data show this can be successful, depending on the sensitivity of the method in use. Diagnostic errors are made by centres using both solubility screens and FXIII assays, and laboratories should ensure good quality assurance procedures to improve diagnostic accuracy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. LDRD final report on adaptive-responsive nanostructures for sensing applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John Allen; van Swol, Frank B.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2005-11-01

    Functional organic nanostructures such as well-formed tubes or fibers that can easily be fabricated into electronic and photonic devices are needed in many applications. Especially desirable from a national security standpoint are nanostructures that have enhanced sensitivity for the detection of chemicals and biological (CB) agents and other environmental stimuli. We recently discovered the first class of highly responsive and adaptive porphyrin-based nanostructures that may satisfy these requirements. These novel porphyrin nanostructures, which are formed by ionic self-assembly of two oppositely charged porphyrins, may function as conductors, semiconductors, or photoconductors, and they have additional properties that make them suitable for device fabrication (e.g., as ultrasensitive colorimetric CB microsensors). Preliminary studies with porphyrin nanotubes have shown that these nanostructures have novel optical and electronic properties, including strong resonant light scattering, quenched fluorescence, and electrical conductivity. In addition, they are photochemically active and capable of light-harvesting and photosynthesis; they may also have nonlinear optical properties. Remarkably, the nanotubes and potentially other porphyrin nanostructure are mechanically responsive and adaptive (e.g., the rigidity of the micrometers-long nanotubes is altered by light, ultrasound, or chemicals) and they self-heal upon removal the environmental stimulus. Given the tremendous degree of structural variation possible in the porphyrin subunits, additional types of nanostructures and greater control over their morphology can be anticipated. Molecular modification also provides a means of controlling their electronic, photonic, and other functional properties. In this work, we have greatly broadened the range of ionic porphyrin nanostructures that can be made, and determined the optical and responsivity properties of the nanotubes and other porphyrin nanostructures. We have

  13. Peer-to-peer architectures for exascale computing : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Minnich, Ronald G.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Rudish, Donald W.

    2010-09-01

    platforms. P2P architectures give us a starting point for crafting applications and system software for exascale. In the context of the Internet, P2P applications (e.g., file sharing, botnets) have already solved this problem for 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} nodes. Usually based on a fractal distributed hash table structure, these systems have proven robust in practice to constant and unpredictable outages, failures, and even subversion. For example, a recent estimate of botnet turnover (i.e., the number of machines leaving and joining) is about 11% per week. Nonetheless, P2P networks remain effective despite these failures: The Conficker botnet has grown to {approx} 5 x 10{sup 6} peers. Unlike today's system software and applications, those for next-generation exascale machines cannot assume a static structure and, to be scalable over millions of nodes, must be decentralized. P2P architectures achieve both, and provide a promising model for 'fault-oblivious computing'. This project aimed to study the dynamics of P2P networks in the context of a design for exascale systems and applications. Having no single point of failure, the most successful P2P architectures are adaptive and self-organizing. While there has been some previous work applying P2P to message passing, little attention has been previously paid to the tightly coupled exascale domain. Typically, the per-node footprint of P2P systems is small, making them ideal for HPC use. The implementation on each peer node cooperates en masse to 'heal' disruptions rather than relying on a controlling 'master' node. Understanding this cooperative behavior from a complex systems viewpoint is essential to predicting useful environments for the inextricably unreliable exascale platforms of the future. We sought to obtain theoretical insight into the stability and large-scale behavior of candidate architectures, and to work toward leveraging Sandia's Emulytics platform to test promising candidates

  14. Peer-to-peer architectures for exascale computing : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Minnich, Ronald G.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Rudish, Donald W.

    2010-09-01

    platforms. P2P architectures give us a starting point for crafting applications and system software for exascale. In the context of the Internet, P2P applications (e.g., file sharing, botnets) have already solved this problem for 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} nodes. Usually based on a fractal distributed hash table structure, these systems have proven robust in practice to constant and unpredictable outages, failures, and even subversion. For example, a recent estimate of botnet turnover (i.e., the number of machines leaving and joining) is about 11% per week. Nonetheless, P2P networks remain effective despite these failures: The Conficker botnet has grown to {approx} 5 x 10{sup 6} peers. Unlike today's system software and applications, those for next-generation exascale machines cannot assume a static structure and, to be scalable over millions of nodes, must be decentralized. P2P architectures achieve both, and provide a promising model for 'fault-oblivious computing'. This project aimed to study the dynamics of P2P networks in the context of a design for exascale systems and applications. Having no single point of failure, the most successful P2P architectures are adaptive and self-organizing. While there has been some previous work applying P2P to message passing, little attention has been previously paid to the tightly coupled exascale domain. Typically, the per-node footprint of P2P systems is small, making them ideal for HPC use. The implementation on each peer node cooperates en masse to 'heal' disruptions rather than relying on a controlling 'master' node. Understanding this cooperative behavior from a complex systems viewpoint is essential to predicting useful environments for the inextricably unreliable exascale platforms of the future. We sought to obtain theoretical insight into the stability and large-scale behavior of candidate architectures, and to work toward leveraging Sandia's Emulytics platform to test promising candidates

  15. “Watching the Detectives” Report of the general assembly of the EU project DETECTIVE Brussels, 24-25 November, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Ruani N.; Chaudhari, Umesh; Escher, Sylvia E.; Hengstler, Jan G.; Hescheler, Jürgen; Jennings, Paul; Keun, Hector C.; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.; Kolde, Raivo; Kollipara, Laxmikanth; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Limonciel, Alice; Nemade, Harshal; Nguemo, Filomain; Peterson, Hedi; Prieto, Pilar; Rodrigues, Robim M.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Schäfer, Christoph; Sickmann, Albert; Spitkovsky, Dimitry; Stöber, Regina; van Breda, Simone G.J.; van de Water, Bob; Vivier, Manon; Zahedi, René P.

    2017-01-01

    SEURAT-1 is a joint research initiative between the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe aiming to develop in vitro and in silico based methods to replace the in vivo repeated dose systemic toxicity test used for the assessment of human safety. As one of the building blocks of SEURAT-1, the DETECTIVE project focused on a key element on which in vitro toxicity testing relies: the development of robust and reliable, sensitive and specific in vitro biomarkers and surrogate endpoints that can be used for safety assessments of chronically acting toxicants, relevant for humans. The work conducted by the DETECTIVE consortium partners has established a screening pipeline of functional and “-omics” technologies, including high-content and high-throughput screening platforms, to develop and investigate human biomarkers for repeated dose toxicity in cellular in vitro models. Identification and statistical selection of highly predictive biomarkers in a pathway- and evidence-based approach constitutes a major step in an integrated approach towards the replacement of animal testing in human safety assessment. To discuss the final outcomes and achievements of the consortium, a meeting was organized in Brussels. This meeting brought together data-producing and supporting consortium partners. The presentations focused on the current state of ongoing and concluding projects and the strategies employed to identify new relevant biomarkers of toxicity. The outcomes and deliverables, including the dissemination of results in data-rich “-omics” databases, were discussed as were the future perspectives of the work completed under the DETECTIVE project. Although some projects were still in progress and required continued data analysis, this report summarizes the presentations, discussions and the outcomes of the project. PMID:27129694

  16. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project: Detect and Avoid Display Evaluations in Support of SC-228 Minimum Operational Performance Standards Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    2017-01-01

    The primary activity for the UAS-NAS Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project in Phase 1 was support of RTCA Special Committee 228 Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS). We provide data on the effect of various Detect and Avoid (DAA) display features with respect to pilot performance of the remain well clear function in order to determine the minimum requirements for DAA displays.

  17. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  18. Detection of gaps in the spatial coverage of coral reef monitoring projects in the US Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, R G; Turgeon, D D

    2003-06-01

    As part of the US Coral Reef Task Force's National Program to Map, Assess, Inventory, and Monitor US Coral Reef Ecosystems, a comprehensive survey of projects/programs monitoring coral reef ecosystems and related habitats (i.e., seagrass beds and mangroves) in the US Caribbean and Pacific was undertaken. Information was gathered on a total of 296 monitoring and assessment projects conducted since 1990 in the US Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Substantial gaps in monitoring coverage of US coral reef ecosystems were revealed through geographic information system (GIS) analysis of survey metadata. Although southern Florida contains approximately two-thirds of all marine monitoring projects found in the US Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, we were unable to identify any ongoing projects that monitor coral reefs along Florida's western coast and off of the Florida Middle Grounds. Additionally, Florida is covered by approximately 1 900 km2 of mangroves, yet there were only four ongoing projects that monitor this ecosystem, leaving gaps in coverage in the Lower and Middle Keys and along the eastern and western coasts. The Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, located offshore of the Texas/Louisiana border, has an integral long-term monitoring program, but lacks a monitoring project that gathers long-term, quantitative data on reef lish abundance and certain water quality parameters. Numerous coral reef monitoring projects in Puerto Rico are concentrated on the island's southwestern coast surrounding La Parguera, while far fewer monitoring projects are conducted along the northern and southeastern coasts and around Vieques Island. In the US Virgin Islands, the paucity of monitoring projects in large areas of St. Croix and St. Thomas contrasts with monitoring activity in three marine protected areas (MPAs), where 66% of the US Virgin Islands' coral reef monitoring sites were found. Only a series of assessments have been conducted at Navassa, a small, uninhabited

  19. Sensitivity of whole-body CT and MRI versus projection radiography in the detection of osteolyses in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Maya B., E-mail: m.mueller-wolf@dkfz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg Germany (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (Dkfz), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Murray, Fritz, E-mail: fritz.murray@hotmail.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg Germany (Germany); Kilk, Kerstin, E-mail: k_fechtner@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg Germany (Germany); Hillengass, Jens, E-mail: jens.hillengass@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Haematology, Oncology, Rheumatology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan, E-mail: s.delorme@dkfz-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (Dkfz), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Heiss, Christiane, E-mail: c.heiss@dkfz-heidelberg.de [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center (Dkfz), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Neben, Kai, E-mail: k.neben@klinikum-mittelbaden.de [Department of Haematology, Oncology, Rheumatology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut, E-mail: hartmut.goldschmidt@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Haematology, Oncology, Rheumatology, University Hospital Heidelberg and National Center for Tumour Diseases, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich, E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg Germany (Germany); and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To compare sensitivity of whole-body Computed Tomography (wb-CT) and whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (wb-MRI) with Projection Radiography (PR) regarding each method's ability to detect osteolyses in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease. Patients and methods: The bone status of 171 patients was evaluated. All patients presented with multiple myeloma (MM) of all stages, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) or solitary plasmacytoma. Two groups were formed. Group A consisted of 52 patients (26 females, 26 males) with an average age of 62 years (range, 45–89 years) who received, both, PR and wb-CT as part of their diagnostic work-up. Group B comprised 119 patients (58 females, 61 males) averaging 57 years of age (range, 20–80 years) who received, both, PR and wb-MRI. Two experienced radiologists were blinded regarding the disease status and assessed the number and location of osteolyses in consensus. A distinction was made between axial and extra-axial lesions. Results: In group A, wb-CT revealed osteolyses in 12 patients (23%) that were not detected in PR. CT was superior in detecting lesions in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Compared with PR, wb-CT was significantly more sensitive in detecting osteolyses than PR (p < 0.001). This was particularly true for axial lesions. Additionally, CT revealed clinically relevant incidental findings in 33 patients (63%). In group B, wb-MRI revealed lesions in 19 patients (16%) that were not detected in PR. All lesions detected by PR were also detected by wb-MRI and wb-CT. Wb-MRI and wb-CT are each superior to PR in detecting axial lesions. Conclusion: Wb-CT can detect 23% more focal lesions than PR, especially in the axial skeleton. Therefore, this imaging method should be preferred over PR in the diagnostic work-up and staging of patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease.

  20. Caltech campus executive LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Knudsen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The environment most brain systems of humans and other animals are almost constantly confronted with is complex and continuously changing, with each time step updating a potentially bewildering set of opportunities and demands for action. Far from the controlled, discrete trials used in most neuro- and psychological investigations, behavior outside the lab at Caltech is a seamless and continuous process of monitoring (and error correction) of ongoing action, and of evaluating persistence in the current activity with respect to opportunities to switch tasks as alternatives become available. Prior work on frontopolar and prefrontal task switching, use tasks within the same modality (View a stream of symbols on a screen and perform certain response mappings depending on task rules). However, in these task switches the effector is constant: only the mapping of visual symbols to the specific button changes. In this task, the subjects are choosing what kinds of future action decisions they want to perform, where they can control either which body part will act, or which direction they will orient an instructed body action. An effector choice task presents a single target and the subject selects which effector to use to reach the target (eye or hand). While the techniques available for humans can be less spatially resolved compared to non-human primate neural data, they do allow for experimentation on multiple brain areas with relative ease. Thus, we address a broader network of areas involved in motor decisions. We aim to resolve a current dispute regarding the specific functional roles of brain areas that are often co-activated in studies of decision tasks, dorsal premotor cortex(PMd) and posterior parietal cortex(PPC). In one model, the PPC distinctly drives intentions for action selection, whereas PMd stimulation results in complex multi-joint movements without any awareness of, nor subjective feeling of, willing the elicited movement, thus seems to merely help execute the chosen action.

  1. Final LDRD report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2012-01-01

    The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuelsthose chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

  2. LDRD final report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brost, Randolph C.; McLendon, William Clarence,

    2013-01-01

    Modeling geospatial information with semantic graphs enables search for sites of interest based on relationships between features, without requiring strong a priori models of feature shape or other intrinsic properties. Geospatial semantic graphs can be constructed from raw sensor data with suitable preprocessing to obtain a discretized representation. This report describes initial work toward extending geospatial semantic graphs to include temporal information, and initial results applying semantic graph techniques to SAR image data. We describe an efficient graph structure that includes geospatial and temporal information, which is designed to support simultaneous spatial and temporal search queries. We also report a preliminary implementation of feature recognition, semantic graph modeling, and graph search based on input SAR data. The report concludes with lessons learned and suggestions for future improvements.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of VIA and HPV detection as primary and sequential screening tests in a cervical cancer screening demonstration project in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Singh, Priyanka; Panda, Chinmay; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Mandal, Ranajit; Das, Pradip; Biswas, Jaydip; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Visual inspection after acetic acid application (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection tests have been recommended to screen women for cervical cancer in low and middle income countries. A demonstration project in rural India screened 39,740 women with both the tests to compare their accuracies in real population setting. The project also evaluated the model of screening women in the existing primary health care facilities, evaluating the screen positive women with colposcopy (and biopsy) in the same setup and recalling the women diagnosed to have disease for treatment at tertiary center. Accuracy of VIA and HPV test used sequentially was also studied. VIA was performed by trained health workers and Hybrid Capture II (HC II) assay was used for oncogenic HPV detection. Test positivity was 7.1% for VIA and 4.7% for HC II. Detection rate of CIN 3+ disease was significantly higher with HC II than VIA. Sensitivities of VIA and HC II to detect 162 histology proved CIN 3+ lesions were 67.9 and 91.2%, respectively after adjusting for verification bias. Specificity for the same disease outcome and verification bias correction was 93.2% for VIA and 96.9% for HC II. Triaging of VIA positive women with HPV test would have considerably improved the positive predictive value (4.0 to 37.5% to detect CIN 3+) without significant drop in sensitivity. All VIA positive women and 74.0% of HC II positive women had colposcopy. There was high compliance to treatment and significant stage-shift of the screen-detected cancers towards more early stage.

  4. Development and validation of HELLAZ1 detector, contribution to the project HELLAZ concerning the detection of solar neutrinos; Developpement et mise au point du detecteur HELLAZ1: elaboration du projet HELLAZ pour la detection des neutrinos solaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, N

    2001-09-01

    The HELLAZ project is dedicated to the measurement of low energy solar neutrinos, this neutrino detection is based on the measurement of the characteristics of all the ionization electrons produced by the recoil of the electron with which the solar neutrino has collided. The detector is made of a tank full of gaseous helium whose conditions of temperature and pressure (77 K and 5 bar) are important to assure a sufficient statistic. 11 events a day are expected to be detected. In this work we present the preliminary results obtained on the first prototype (HELLAZ0) that has allowed us to test 2 types of chambers: multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) and a micro gas chamber combined to a gas electron multiplier (MGC+GEM). A new prototype (HELLAZ1) has been designed, its aim is to measure an elementary track of only 2 ionization electrons and to test 2 new chambers: micro gas wire chamber (MGWC) and Micromegas. The first chapter deals with the sun, solar neutrinos, and the neutrino characteristics that are expected from the sun standard model. The second chapter is dedicated to the various experiments of solar neutrino detection and to their experimental result disagreement. The HELLAZ project is described in the third chapter. The fourth chapter presents the different experimental constraints, particularly the processing of the background noise and the counting of each electron of the ionization cloud. In the last chapter HELLAZ0 and HELLAZ1 projects are described and we show that microstructure-type chambers are the best suitable for this kind of detection. (A.C.)

  5. Quality Assurance Project Plan: Suitability of Leak Detection Technology for Use In Ethanol-Blended Fuel Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversight of this investigation will be provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. This project will be performed by Battelle, which manages the ETV Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) Center through a coop...

  6. Cartographic aspects of land cover change detection (over- and underestimation in the I&CORINE Land Cover 2000 project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feranec, J.; Hazeu, G.W.; Jaffrain, G.; Cebecauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis of the data obtained by the method of computer-aided visual interpretation of satellite images used for identification of changes in land cover within the framework of the Image and CORINE Land Cover 2000 (I&CLC2000) Project (jointly managed by the Eur

  7. Quality Assurance Project Plan: Suitability of Leak Detection Technology for Use In Ethanol-Blended Fuel Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversight of this investigation will be provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. This project will be performed by Battelle, which manages the ETV Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) Center through a coop...

  8. Viral RNA testing and automation on the bead-based CBNE detection microsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Farrell, Cara M.; Rossito, Paul (University of California at Davis); McClain, Jaime L.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Cullor, James Sterling (University of California at Davis); Rahimian, Kamayar

    2008-09-01

    We developed prototype chemistry for nucleic acid hybridization on our bead-based diagnostics platform and we established an automatable bead handling protocol capable of 50 part-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity. We are working towards a platform capable of parallel, rapid (10 minute), raw sample testing for orthogonal (in this case nucleic acid and immunoassays) identification of biological (and other) threats in a single sensor microsystem. In this LDRD we developed the nucleic acid chemistry required for nucleic acid hybridization. Our goal is to place a non-cell associated RNA virus (Bovine Viral Diarrhea, BVD) on the beads for raw sample testing. This key pre-requisite to showing orthogonality (nucleic acid measurements can be performed in parallel with immunoassay measurements). Orthogonal detection dramatically reduces false positives. We chose BVD because our collaborators (UC-Davis) can supply samples from persistently infected animals; and because proof-of-concept field testing can be performed with modification of the current technology platform at the UC Davis research station. Since BVD is a cattle-prone disease this research dovetails with earlier immunoassay work on Botulinum toxin simulant testing in raw milk samples. Demonstration of BVD RNA detection expands the repertoire of biological macromolecules that can be adapted to our bead-based detection. The resources of this late start LDRD were adequate to partially demonstrate the conjugation of the beads to the nucleic acids. It was never expected to be adequate for a full live virus test but to motivate that additional investment. In addition, we were able to reduce the LOD (Limit of Detection) for the botulinum toxin stimulant to 50 ppb from the earlier LOD of 1 ppm. A low LOD combined with orthogonal detection provides both low false negatives and low false positives. The logical follow-on steps to this LDRD research are to perform live virus identification as well as concurrent nucleic acid and

  9. Scanning of Open Data for Detection of Emerging Organized Crime Threats—The ePOOLICE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    in the solution include a central information and knowledge repository; information and knowledge management, including uncertainty management and traceability support; application methodology involving the analyst user in the loop; information fusion; and a comprehensive analysis of legal and ethical issues....... A vital part of a system supporting the police analysts for this purpose is an efficient and effective system for scanning the open data providing information about the relevant factors in the environment. This chapter presents the ePOOLICE project, aimed at developing a solution, the “ePOOLICE system......”, for such a scanning system. Through a prototype demonstrated with use cases, the project provided a proof of concept of an efficient and effective environmental scanning system as part of the early warning system for discovering emerging, as well as likely future, organized crime threats. Main elements...

  10. The Contribution of National Spontaneous Reporting Systems to Detect Signals of Torsadogenicity: Issues Emerging from the ARITMO Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Raschi (Emanuel); E. Poluzzi (Elisabetta); F. Salvo (Francesco); A. Koci (Ariola); M. Suling (Marc); S. Antoniazzi (Stefania); L. Perina (Luisella); L. Hazell (Lorna); U. Moretti (Ugo); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); C. Garbe (Claus); A. Pariente (Antoine); F. de Ponti (Fabrizio)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) are pivotal for signal detection, especially for rare events with a high drug-attributable component, such as torsade de pointes (TdP). Use of different national SRSs is rarely attempted because of inherent difficulties, but should be

  11. The Contribution of National Spontaneous Reporting Systems to Detect Signals of Torsadogenicity: Issues Emerging from the ARITMO Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Raschi (Emanuel); E. Poluzzi (Elisabetta); F. Salvo (Francesco); A. Koci (Ariola); M. Suling (Marc); S. Antoniazzi (Stefania); L. Perina (Luisella); L. Hazell (Lorna); U. Moretti (Ugo); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); C. Garbe (Claus); A. Pariente (Antoine); F. de Ponti (Fabrizio)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) are pivotal for signal detection, especially for rare events with a high drug-attributable component, such as torsade de pointes (TdP). Use of different national SRSs is rarely attempted because of inherent difficulties, but should be co

  12. Characteristics of Surface Deformation Detected by X-band SAR Interferometry over Sichuan-Tibet Grid Connection Project Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunshan Meng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan-Tibet grid connection project is a national key project implemented in accordance with the developmental needs of Tibet and the living requirements of 700 thousand local residents. It is the first grid project with special high voltage that passes through eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The ground deformation due to widely distributed landslides and debris flow in this area is the major concern to the safety of the project. The multi-temporal interferometry technique is applied to retrieve the surface deformation information using high resolution X-band SAR imagery. The time series of surface deformation is obtained through the sequential high spatial and temporal resolution TerraSAR images (20 scenes of X-band TerraSAR SLC images acquired from 5 January 2014 to 12 December 2014. The results have been correlated with the permafrost activities and intensive precipitation. They show that the study area is prone to slow to moderate ground motion with the range of −30 to +30 mm/year. Seasonal movement is observed due to the freeze-thaw cycle effect and intensive precipitation weather condition. Typical region analysis suggests that the deformation rate tends to increase dramatically during the late spring and late autumn while slightly during the winter time. The correlations of surface deformations with these two main trigger factors were further discussed. The deformation curves of persistent scatterers in the study area showing the distinct seasonal characteristics coincide well with the effect of freeze-thaw cycle and intensive precipitation. The movement occurring at late spring is dominated by the freeze-thaw cycle which is a common phenomenon in such a high-elevated area as the Tibetan Plateau. Intensive precipitation plays more important role in triggering landsides in the summer season. The combining effect of both factors results in fast slope movement in May. The results also suggest that the movement often occur at

  13. Improved detection of axillary hot nodes in lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer located in the upper lateral quadrant with additional projection imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Nomura, Etsuji; Yamada, Yasuhiko; Takiguchi, Tohohiro; Ishii, Motoki; Yamashita, Takashi; Tada, Keiichiro; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Makita, Masujiro; Iwase, Takuji; Yoshimoto, Masataka; Kasumi, Fujio

    2004-12-01

    Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has been becoming a standard method for early stage breast cancer. Scintigraphic image of SN helps the biopsy procedure. It is reported that the scintigraphic detection rate is not 100%. The value of taking additional projection view in SN detection was assessed in breast cancer patients. Consecutive 114 breast cancer patients with upper lateral quadrant tumor were included in this study. After injection of 99mTc-phytate, scintigram was taken at the projection of anterior oblique (AO) 30 degrees view and an additional AO 60 degrees view. Images were evaluated visually. In 7 of 114 patients, an axillary hot node was hidden on the activity at the injected site on AO 30 degrees view, and was visualized on AO 60 degrees view. In 17 of 114 patients, the axillary hot node was seen as a hump from the injected activity, and was separate on AO 60 degrees view. In 90 of 114 patients, the axillary hot node was separately seen on AO 30 degrees view. Multi-directional views are helpful to depict the axillary sentinel nodes that are concealed behind the injected radioactivity.

  14. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huajie [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  15. Reliability considerations of NDT by probability of detection (POD). Determination using ultrasound phased array. Results from a project in frame of the German nuclear safety research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Jochen H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren (IZEP), Saarbruecken (Germany); Dugan, Sandra; Juengert, Anne [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2013-07-01

    Reliable assessment procedures are an important aspect of maintenance concepts. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods are an essential part of a variety of maintenance plans. Fracture mechanical assessments require knowledge of flaw dimensions, loads and material parameters. NDT methods are able to acquire information on all of these areas. However, it has to be considered that the level of detail information depends on the case investigated and therefore on the applicable methods. Reliability aspects of NDT methods are of importance if quantitative information is required. Different design concepts e.g. the damage tolerance approach in aerospace already include reliability criteria of NDT methods applied in maintenance plans. NDT is also an essential part during construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants. In Germany, type and extent of inspection are specified in Safety Standards of the Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA). Only certified inspections are allowed in the nuclear industry. The qualification of NDT is carried out in form of performance demonstrations of the inspection teams and the equipment, witnessed by an authorized inspector. The results of these tests are mainly statements regarding the detection capabilities of certain artificial flaws. In other countries, e.g. the U.S., additional blind tests on test blocks with hidden and unknown flaws may be required, in which a certain percentage of these flaws has to be detected. The knowledge of the probability of detection (POD) curves of specific flaws in specific testing conditions is often not present. This paper shows the results of a research project designed for POD determination of ultrasound phased array inspections of real and artificial cracks. The continuative objective of this project was to generate quantitative POD results. The distribution of the crack sizes of the specimens and the inspection planning is discussed, and results of the ultrasound inspections are presented. In

  16. Research progress of depth detection in vision measurement: a novel project of bifocal imaging system for 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anhu; Ding, Ye; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yongjian; Li, Zhizhong

    2013-09-01

    The paper reviews the recent research progresses of vision measurement. The general methods of the depth detection used in the monocular stereo vision are compared with each other. As a result, a novel bifocal imaging measurement system based on the zoom method is proposed to solve the problem of the online 3D measurement. This system consists of a primary lens and a secondary one with the different focal length matching to meet the large-range and high-resolution imaging requirements without time delay and imaging errors, which has an important significance for the industry application.

  17. Portable Wideband Microwave Imaging System for Intracranial Hemorrhage Detection Using Improved Back-projection Algorithm with Model of Effective Head Permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobashsher, Ahmed Toaha; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires rapid detection and medication to restrict any brain damage to minimal. Here, an effective wideband microwave head imaging system for on-the-spot detection of intracranial hemorrhage is presented. The operation of the system relies on the dielectric contrast between healthy brain tissues and a hemorrhage that causes a strong microwave scattering. The system uses a compact sensing antenna, which has an ultra-wideband operation with directional radiation, and a portable, compact microwave transceiver for signal transmission and data acquisition. The collected data is processed to create a clear image of the brain using an improved back projection algorithm, which is based on a novel effective head permittivity model. The system is verified in realistic simulation and experimental environments using anatomically and electrically realistic human head phantoms. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons between the images from the proposed and existing algorithms demonstrate significant improvements in detection and localization accuracy. The radiation and thermal safety of the system are examined and verified. Initial human tests are conducted on healthy subjects with different head sizes. The reconstructed images are statistically analyzed and absence of false positive results indicate the efficacy of the proposed system in future preclinical trials.

  18. Modeling the Production of Beta-Delayed Gamma Rays for the Detection of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J M; Pruet, J A; Brown, D A; Descalle, M; Hedstrom, G W; Prussin, S G

    2005-02-14

    The objective of this LDRD project was to develop one or more models for the production of {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays following neutron-induced fission of a special nuclear material (SNM) and to define a standardized formatting scheme which will allow them to be incorporated into some of the modern, general-purpose Monte Carlo transport codes currently being used to simulate inspection techniques proposed for detecting fissionable material hidden in sea-going cargo containers. In this report, we will describe a Monte Carlo model for {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray emission following the fission of SNM that can accommodate arbitrary time-dependent fission rates and photon collection histories. The model involves direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and spectral distributions representing photon emission from each fission product and for each decay mode. While computationally intensive, it will be shown that this model can provide reasonably detailed estimates of the spectra that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer and may prove quite useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries and identifying gaps in the libraries. The accuracy of the model will be illustrated by comparing calculated and experimental spectra from the decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general-purpose transport calculations, where a detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may not be necessary, it will be shown that a simple parameterization of the {gamma}-ray source function can be defined which provides high-quality average spectral distributions that should suffice for calculations describing photons being transported through thick attenuating media. Finally, a proposal for ENDF-compatible formats that describe each of the models and

  19. Magnetically applied pressure-shear : a new technique for direct strength measurement at high pressure (final report for LDRD project 117856).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamppa, Derek C.; Haill, Thomas A.; Alexander, C. Scott; Asay, James Russell

    2010-09-01

    A new experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures has been developed for use on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms. By applying an external static magnetic field to the sample region, the MHD drive directly induces a shear stress wave in addition to the usual longitudinal stress wave. Strength is probed by passing this shear wave through a sample material where the transmissible shear stress is limited to the sample strength. The magnitude of the transmitted shear wave is measured via a transverse VISAR system from which the sample strength is determined.

  20. Final report on LDRD project: Low-cost Pd-catalyzed metallization technology for rapid prototyping of electronic substrates and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.S.; Morgan, W.P.; Zich, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    A low-cost, thermally-activated, palladium-catalyzed metallization process was developed for rapid prototyping of polymeric electronic substrates and devices. The process was successfully applied in producing adhesiveless copper/polyimide laminates with high peel strengths and thick copper coating; copper/polyimide laminates are widely used in fabricating interconnects such as printed wiring boards (PWBs) and flexible circuits. Also successfully metallized using this low-cost metallization process were: (1) scaled-down models of radar-and-communication antenna and waveguide; (2) scaled-down model of pulsed-power-accelerator electrode; (3) three-dimensional micro-porous, open-cell vitreous carbon foams. Moreover, additive patterned metallization was successfully achieved by selectively printing or plotting the catalyst ink only on areas where metallization is desired, and by uniform thermal activation. Additive patterned metallization eliminates the time-consuming, costly and environmentally-unfriendly etching process that is routinely carried out in conventional subtractive patterned metallization. A metallization process via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation activation was also demonstrated. In this process palladium-catalyst solution is first uniformly coated onto the substrate. A masking pattern is used to cover the areas where metallization is not wanted. UV irradiation is applied uniformly to activate the palladium catalyst and to cure the polymer carrier in areas that are not covered by the mask. Metal is then deposited by electroless plating only or by a combination of electroless and electrolytic plating. This UV-activation technique is particularly useful in additive fine-line patterned metallization. Lastly, computer models for electrolytic and electroless plating processes were developed to provide guidance in plating-process design.

  1. Final report on LDRD project: Low-cost Pd-catalyzed metallization technology for rapid prototyping of electronic substrates and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.S.; Morgan, W.P.; Zich, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    A low-cost, thermally-activated, palladium-catalyzed metallization process was developed for rapid prototyping of polymeric electronic substrates and devices. The process was successfully applied in producing adhesiveless copper/polyimide laminates with high peel strengths and thick copper coating; copper/polyimide laminates are widely used in fabricating interconnects such as printed wiring boards (PWBs) and flexible circuits. Also successfully metallized using this low-cost metallization process were: (1) scaled-down models of radar-and-communication antenna and waveguide; (2) scaled-down model of pulsed-power-accelerator electrode; (3) three-dimensional micro-porous, open-cell vitreous carbon foams. Moreover, additive patterned metallization was successfully achieved by selectively printing or plotting the catalyst ink only on areas where metallization is desired, and by uniform thermal activation. Additive patterned metallization eliminates the time-consuming, costly and environmentally-unfriendly etching process that is routinely carried out in conventional subtractive patterned metallization. A metallization process via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation activation was also demonstrated. In this process palladium-catalyst solution is first uniformly coated onto the substrate. A masking pattern is used to cover the areas where metallization is not wanted. UV irradiation is applied uniformly to activate the palladium catalyst and to cure the polymer carrier in areas that are not covered by the mask. Metal is then deposited by electroless plating only or by a combination of electroless and electrolytic plating. This UV-activation technique is particularly useful in additive fine-line patterned metallization. Lastly, computer models for electrolytic and electroless plating processes were developed to provide guidance in plating-process design.

  2. Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilot Project, Canada: Implications for Detection of Wellbore Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bohnhoff, Marco; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Zambrano-Narváez, Gonzalo; Chalaturnyk, Rick

    2013-01-01

    A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection. PMID:24002229

  3. Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilot Project, Canada: Implications for Detection of Wellbore Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Zambrano-Narváez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection.

  4. Microseismic monitoring of CO2 injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery pilot project, Canada: implications for detection of wellbore leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bohnhoff, Marco; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Zambrano-Narváez, Gonzalo; Chalaturnyk, Rick

    2013-09-02

    A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection.

  5. An Efficient, FPGA-Based, Cluster Detection Algorithm Implementation for a Strip Detector Readout System in a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E. (Editor); Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photoelectron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  6. HELICoiD project: a new use of hyperspectral imaging for brain cancer detection in real-time during neurosurgical operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabelo, Himar; Ortega, Samuel; Kabwama, Silvester; Callico, Gustavo M.; Bulters, Diederik; Szolna, Adam; Pineiro, Juan F.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral images allow obtaining large amounts of information about the surface of the scene that is captured by the sensor. Using this information and a set of complex classification algorithms is possible to determine which material or substance is located in each pixel. The HELICoiD (HypErspectraL Imaging Cancer Detection) project is a European FET project that has the goal to develop a demonstrator capable to discriminate, with high precision, between normal and tumour tissues, operating in real-time, during neurosurgical operations. This demonstrator could help the neurosurgeons in the process of brain tumour resection, avoiding the excessive extraction of normal tissue and unintentionally leaving small remnants of tumour. Such precise delimitation of the tumour boundaries will improve the results of the surgery. The HELICoiD demonstrator is composed of two hyperspectral cameras obtained from Headwall. The first one in the spectral range from 400 to 1000 nm (visible and near infrared) and the second one in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm (near infrared). The demonstrator also includes an illumination system that covers the spectral range from 400 nm to 2200 nm. A data processing unit is in charge of managing all the parts of the demonstrator, and a high performance platform aims to accelerate the hyperspectral image classification process. Each one of these elements is installed in a customized structure specially designed for surgical environments. Preliminary results of the classification algorithms offer high accuracy (over 95%) in the discrimination between normal and tumour tissues.

  7. A digital accelerometer array utilizing suprathreshold stochastic resonance for detection of sub-Brownian noise floor accelerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Dustin Wade; Olsson, Roy H.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD project was to evaluate the possibilities of utilizing Stochastic resonance in micromechanical sensor systems as a means for increasing signal to noise for physical sensors. A careful study of this field reveals that in the case of a single sensing element, stochastic resonance offers no real advantage. We have, however, identified a system that can utilize very similar concepts to stochastic resonance in order to achieve an arrayed sensor system that could be superior to existing technologies in the field of inertial sensors, and could offer a very low power technique for achieving navigation grade inertial measurement units.

  8. Comparison of differential mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry for gas chromatographic detection of ignitable liquids from fire debris using projected difference resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Chen, Ping; Harrington, Peter B

    2009-08-01

    The significance of forensic arson analysis accelerates the applications of new technologies in this area. Based on the previously reported application of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) as a detection method for gas chromatography (GC) in arson analysis, the performances of DMS and mass spectrometry (MS) were compared using a novel chemometric tool, projected difference resolutions (PDRs). The PDR results show that one-way mass spectra data exhibit higher resolution than DMS data, while total ion chromatograms from GC-DMS show higher resolution than that from GC/MS for differentiating seven kinds of ignitable liquids. Combining the information from both chromatography and spectra, two-way data always have higher resolution than one-way data for these two detection methods, and GC/MS would exhibit better performance than GC-DMS according to the minimum resolution value. To verify the PDR results, a fuzzy rule-building expert system was applied for classifying these seven kinds of ignitable liquids from fire debris based on GC-DMS and GC/MS data, respectively. The prediction accuracies were consistent with PDR results, which proved that PDR is a powerful tool in comparing the performances of different analysis methods for pattern recognition.

  9. Evaluation of epidemic intelligence systems integrated in the early alerting and reporting project for the detection of A/H5N1 influenza events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Mawudeku, Abla; Nelson, Noele P; Hartley, David M; Madoff, Lawrence C; Linge, Jens P; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S; Yangarber, Roman; Astagneau, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Web-based expert epidemic intelligence systems is to detect health threats. The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project was launched to assess the feasibility and opportunity for pooling epidemic intelligence data from seven expert systems. EAR participants completed a qualitative survey to document epidemic intelligence strategies and to assess perceptions regarding the systems performance. Timeliness and sensitivity were rated highly illustrating the value of the systems for epidemic intelligence. Weaknesses identified included representativeness, completeness and flexibility. These findings were corroborated by the quantitative analysis performed on signals potentially related to influenza A/H5N1 events occurring in March 2010. For the six systems for which this information was available, the detection rate ranged from 31% to 38%, and increased to 72% when considering the virtual combined system. The effective positive predictive values ranged from 3% to 24% and F1-scores ranged from 6% to 27%. System sensitivity ranged from 38% to 72%. An average difference of 23% was observed between the sensitivities calculated for human cases and epizootics, underlining the difficulties in developing an efficient algorithm for a single pathology. However, the sensitivity increased to 93% when the virtual combined system was considered, clearly illustrating complementarities between individual systems. The average delay between the detection of A/H5N1 events by the systems and their official reporting by WHO or OIE was 10.2 days (95% CI: 6.7-13.8). This work illustrates the diversity in implemented epidemic intelligence activities, differences in system's designs, and the potential added values and opportunities for synergy between systems, between users and between systems and users.

  10. 基于投影寻踪分析的芯片硬件木马检测%Hardware Trojans detection based on projection pursuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 王新成; 周庆

    2013-01-01

      提出一种利用芯片旁路泄漏信息的硬件木马无损检测方法,通过基于绝对信息散度指标的投影寻踪技术,将芯片运行过程中产生的高维旁路信号投影变换到低维子空间,在信息损失尽量小的前提下发现原始数据中的分布特征,从而实现芯片旁路信号特征提取与识别。针对示例性高级加密标准(AES-128)木马电路的检测实验表明,该技术可以有效分辨基准芯片与硬件木马测试芯片之间的旁路信号特征差异,实现硬件木马检测。%A novel hardware Trojans detection technique using the side channel signals of chips was proposed. Based on the projection pursuit with absolute information divergence index, this technique could find out the data structure enables reflect high dimension special rules without obvious information loss, so as to attain the goal of feature abstraction and identification on side channel signals of IC chips. The detection experiment against an exemplary AES-128 hardware Trojan circuit showed that the technique could distinguish the difference of side channel signal’s feature between the ge-nuine chip and tested chip, and consequently could detect the existence of the hardware Trojan.

  11. Project 2010 Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Happy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for project managers who use Microsoft Project 2010. This must-have guide to using Microsoft Project 2010 is written from a real project manager's perspective and is packed with information you can use on the job. The book explores using Project 2010 during phases of project management, reveals best practices, and walks you through project flow from planning through tracking to closure. This valuable book follows the processes defined in the PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition , and also provides exam prep for Microsoft's MCTS: Project 2010 certification.: Explains

  12. R&D for computational cognitive and social models : foundations for model evaluation through verification and validation (final LDRD report).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepoy, Alexander; Mitchell, Scott A.; Backus, George A.; McNamara, Laura A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2008-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investing in projects that aim to develop computational modeling and simulation applications that explore human cognitive and social phenomena. While some of these modeling and simulation projects are explicitly research oriented, others are intended to support or provide insight for people involved in high consequence decision-making. This raises the issue of how to evaluate computational modeling and simulation applications in both research and applied settings where human behavior is the focus of the model: when is a simulation 'good enough' for the goals its designers want to achieve? In this report, we discuss two years' worth of review and assessment of the ASC program's approach to computational model verification and validation, uncertainty quantification, and decision making. We present a framework that extends the principles of the ASC approach into the area of computational social and cognitive modeling and simulation. In doing so, we argue that the potential for evaluation is a function of how the modeling and simulation software will be used in a particular setting. In making this argument, we move from strict, engineering and physics oriented approaches to V&V to a broader project of model evaluation, which asserts that the systematic, rigorous, and transparent accumulation of evidence about a model's performance under conditions of uncertainty is a reasonable and necessary goal for model evaluation, regardless of discipline. How to achieve the accumulation of evidence in areas outside physics and engineering is a significant research challenge, but one that requires addressing as modeling and simulation tools move out of research laboratories and into the hands of decision makers. This report provides an assessment of our thinking on ASC Verification and Validation, and argues for further extending V&V research in the physical and engineering sciences toward a broader program of model

  13. Comparison between human and model observer performance in low-contrast detection tasks in CT images: application to images reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, A; Geleijns, J; Joemai, R M S; Veldkamp, W J H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare low-contrast detectability (LCDet) performance between a model [non–pre-whitening matched filter with an eye filter (NPWE)] and human observers in CT images reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative [adaptive iterative dose reduction three-dimensional (AIDR 3D; Toshiba Medical Systems, Zoetermeer, Netherlands)] algorithms. Methods: Images of the Catphan® phantom (Phantom Laboratories, New York, NY) were acquired with Aquilion ONE™ 320-detector row CT (Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) at five tube current levels (20–500 mA range) and reconstructed with FBP and AIDR 3D. Samples containing either low-contrast objects (diameters, 2–15 mm) or background were extracted and analysed by the NPWE model and four human observers in a two-alternative forced choice detection task study. Proportion correct (PC) values were obtained for each analysed object and used to compare human and model observer performances. An efficiency factor (η) was calculated to normalize NPWE to human results. Results: Human and NPWE model PC values (normalized by the efficiency, η = 0.44) were highly correlated for the whole dose range. The Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) between human and NPWE were 0.984 (0.972–0.991) for AIDR 3D and 0.984 (0.971–0.991) for FBP, respectively. Bland–Altman plots based on PC results showed excellent agreement between human and NPWE [mean absolute difference 0.5 ± 0.4%; range of differences (−4.7%, 5.6%)]. Conclusion: The NPWE model observer can predict human performance in LCDet tasks in phantom CT images reconstructed with FBP and AIDR 3D algorithms at different dose levels. Advances in knowledge: Quantitative assessment of LCDet in CT can accurately be performed using software based on a model observer. PMID:24837275

  14. Individualized Stress Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme and confined environments, there is the possibility that stress-related behavioral...

  15. Individualized Stress Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that stress-related behavioral...

  16. Early lung cancer detection project: Evaluation of 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine (H{sub 2}TCPP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tockman, M.S.

    1998-10-01

    The author evaluated a synthetic porphyrin, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP) as a marker of carcinogenesis. H{sub 2}TCPP was compared with two other carcinogenesis markers evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to detect exfoliated sputum cells undergoing transformation to lung cancer. In the present project the authors first established optimal conditions for cultured neoplastic and non-neoplastic (sputum) cells to take up H{sub 2}TCPP. This was accomplished using spectrofluorimetry and video-enhanced fluorescent microscopy to maximize H{sub 2}TCPP auto-fluorescence across a matrix of substrate conditions, including; reagent concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. The second aim was to validate H{sub 2}TCPP on clinical material obtained from subjects monitored in advance of clinical cancer and link those marker results with subsequent histologic confirmation of disease. This was accomplished by applying H{sub 2}TCPP to sputum specimens archived by the Frost Center at Johns Hopkins which maintains a record of the clinical course and long-term follow-up for the patients from whom the specimens were obtained. The authors have used fluorescent immunostaining and flow cytometry to compare uptake of these cytoplasmic Mabs to that of a potential new marker of carcinogenesis, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4 carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP). The nuclear uptake of H{sub 2}TCPP was compared to a standard quantitative fluorescent DNA marker (7-AAD).

  17. 多项目联合检测法在细菌性阴道病诊断中的应用%Application of multi-project joint detection method in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅丽

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨多项目联合检测法在细菌性阴道病诊断中的应用。方法556例进行阴道分泌物检查患者,分别采用多项目联合检测法和Amsel法检测。结果多项目联合检测法阳性检测率(18.35%)高于Amsel法阳性检测率(12.05%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论多项目联合检测法诊断妇科阴道疾病简便客观,适用于临床快速诊断细菌性阴道病。%Objective To discuss the application of multi-project joint detection method in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Methods 556 patients with vaginal discharge check were used multi-project joint detection method and Amsel detection method respectively. Results The positive detection rate of multi-project joint detection method(18.35%) was higher than that of Amsel detection method(12.05%),and the difference was significant(P<0.01). Conclusion Multi-project joint detection method is simple and objective in the diagnosis of gynecological vaginal diseases,and suitable for clinical rapid diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

  18. The Pierre Auger observatory's project of detecting photons and neutrinos at very high energies; L'observatoire Pierre Auger vers la detection de photons et neutrinos a ultra haute energies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertou, X

    2001-11-01

    Cosmic radiations of ultra high energy (RCUHE, beyond 10{sup 18} eV) are difficult to study because of their low flux on the earth surface: about 1 photon per year and per km{sup 2}. The observatory Pierre Auger proposes to study RCUHE by designing 2 sites of 3000 km{sup 2} (one in each hemisphere) allowing the observation of the shower initiated by cosmic radiation by using 4 fluorescence telescopes and a network of 1600 Cherenkov detectors. The identification of the primary particle is a very delicate point, the detection of neutrino or photon at these energies would bring valuable information for the understanding of potential sources of RCUHE. The first part of this work presents the project and its assets to perform its task. The second part is dedicated to the description of the Cherenkov detectors, of the trigger system, and of the centralized data acquisition system. The last part present the prototype installation that is under construction at Macargue in Argentina. (A.C.)

  19. FY06 LDRD Final Report Next-generation x-ray optics: focusing hard x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovaroff, M; Soufli, R

    2007-03-01

    The original goal of our research was to open up a new class of scientific experiments by increasing the power of newly available x-ray sources by orders of magnitude. This was accomplished by developing a new generation of x-ray optics, based on hard x-ray (10-200 keV) reflective and diffractive focusing elements. The optical systems we envision begin with a core reflective optic, which has the ability to capture and concentrate x-rays across a wide range of energies and angles band, combined with diffractive optics, based on large-scale multilayer structures, that will further enhance the spatial, spectral and temporal resolving power of the system. Enabling technologies developed at LLNL such as precise mounting of thermally formed substrates, smoothing techniques and multilayer films of ultra-high reflectance and precision were crucial in the development and demonstration of our research objectives. Highlights of this phase of the project include: the design and fabrication of a concentrator optic for the Pleiades Thomson X-ray source located at LLNL, smoothing of glass substrates through application of polyimide films, and the design, fabrication and testing of novel volume multilayers structures. Part of our research into substrate smooth led to the development of a new technique (patent pending) to construct high-quality, inexpensive x-ray optics. This innovation resulted in LLNL constructing a x-ray optic for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and allowed LLNL to join the international experiment.

  20. Status of LDRD-DR 20070518 development of a magnetically driven target for thermo-nuclear burn studies (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, Robert G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, W L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colgate, S A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goforth, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Idzorek, G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kirkpatrick, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menikoff, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meyer, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oona, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reardon, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, C L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sgro, A G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-20

    This project is developing a magnetically driven cylindrical confinement system for the creation of a small region of material existing under extreme conditions. Using a Ranchero High Explosive Pulsed Power generator (HEPP) with maximum current ranging from 25- 50 MA depending on the load, a current driven Al cylinder will impact a series of nested, less massive Au shells. Each subsequent shell's inner surface velocity will increase due to it's smaller mass by the ratio 2.01( 1+ m{sub i+ 1}/m i), along with radial convergence. Attaining this ideal result requires highly efficient energy transfer which in turn requires plastic cushions. The final velocity of the last sequential shell will be used to drive a central experimental package in which extreme material conditions will be produced. The inexpensive nature of HEPP and the extreme conditions attainable allow many studies to be conducted in regimes not currently available in the laboratory. One potential central experimental package consists of a cylindrical Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target; a cylindrical Au pusher surrounding frozen DT. This target is used as a design tool. The ICF conditions achieved with such a target would be similar to those created in a double shell ignition capsule at the National Ignition Facility. The system being developed has a range of potential applications.

  1. LDRD final report on imaging self-organization of proteins in membranes by photocatalytic nano-tagging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Shelnutt, John Allen; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Song, Yujiang; Medforth, Craig J.

    2005-11-01

    We have developed a new nanotagging technology for detecting and imaging the self-organization of proteins and other components of membranes at nanometer resolution for the purpose of investigating cell signaling and other membrane-mediated biological processes. We used protein-, lipid-, or drug-bound porphyrin photocatalysts to grow in-situ nanometer-sized metal particles, which reveal the location of the porphyrin-labeled molecules by electron microscopy. We initially used photocatalytic nanotagging to image assembled multi-component proteins and to monitor the distribution of lipids and porphyrin labels in liposomes. For example, by exchanging the heme molecules in hemoproteins with a photocatalytic tin porphyrin, a nanoparticle was grown at each heme site of the protein. The result obtained from electron microscopy for a tagged multi-subunit protein such as hemoglobin is a symmetric constellation of a specific number of nanoparticle tags, four in the case of the hemoglobin tetramer. Methods for covalently linking photocatalytic porphyrin labels to lipids and proteins were also developed to detect and image the self-organization of lipids, protein-protein supercomplexes, and membrane-protein complexes. Procedures for making photocatalytic porphyrin-drug, porphyrin-lipid, and porphyrin-protein hybrids for non-porphyrin-binding proteins and membrane components were pursued and the first porphyrin-labeled lipids was investigated in liposomal membrane models. Our photocatalytic nanotagging technique may ultimately allow membrane self-organization and cell signaling processes to be imaged in living cells. Fluorescence and plasmonic spectra of the tagged proteins might also provide additional information about protein association and membrane organization. In addition, a porphyrin-aspirin or other NSAID hybrid may be used to grow metal nanotags for the pharmacologically important COX enzymes in membranes so that the distribution of the protein can be imaged at the

  2. Detecting and assessing Saharan dust contribution to PM10 loads: A pilot study within the EU-Life+10 project DIAPASON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Barnaba, Francesca; Bolignano, Andrea; Costabile, Francesca; Di Liberto, Luca; Dionisi, Davide; Drewnick, Frank; Lucarelli, Franco; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Nava, Silvia; Sauvage, Laurent; Sozzi, Roberto; Struckmeier, Caroline; Wille, Holger

    2015-04-01

    The EC LIFE+2010 DIAPASON Project (Desert dust Impact on Air quality through model-Predictions and Advanced Sensors ObservatioNs, www.diapason-life.eu) intends to contribute new methodologies to assess the role of aerosol advections of Saharan dust to the local PM loads recorded in Europe. To this goal, automated Polarization Lidar-Ceilometers (PLCs) were prototyped within DIAPASON to certify the presence of Saharan dust plumes and support evaluating their mass loadings in the lowermost atmosphere. The whole process also involves operational dust forecasts, as well as satellite and in-situ observations. Demonstration of the Project is implemented in the pilot region of Rome (Central Italy) where three networked DIAPASON PLCs started, in October 2013 a year-round, 24h/day monitoring of the altitude-resolved aerosol backscatter and depolarization profiles. Two intensive observational periods (IOPs) involving chemical analysis and detailed physical characterization of aerosol samples have also been carried out in this year-long campaign, namely in Fall 2013 and Spring 2014. These allowed for an extensive interpretation of the PLC observations, highlighting important synergies between the PLC and the in situ data. The presentation will address capabilities of the employed PLCs, observations agreement with model forecasts of dust advections, retrievals of aerosol properties and methodologies developed to detect Saharan advections and to evaluate the relevant mass contribution to PM10. This latter task is intended to provide suggestions on possible improvements to the current EC Guidelines (2011) on this matter. In fact, specific Guidelines are delivered by the European Commission to provide the Member States a common method to asses the Saharan dust contribution to the currently legislated PM-related Air Quality metrics. The DIAPASON experience shows that improvements can be proposed to make the current EC Methodology more robust and flexible. The methodology DIAPASON

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Cyber Security Discrete Dynamic Event Tree Analysis (LDRD 17-0958) FY17 Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Denman, Matthew R; Williams, R. A.; Martin, Nevin; Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle

    2017-09-01

    Instrumentation and control of nuclear power is transforming from analog to modern digital assets. These control systems perform key safety and security functions. This transformation is occurring in new plant designs as well as in the existing fleet of plants as the operation of those plants is extended to 60 years. This transformation introduces new and unknown issues involving both digital asset induced safety issues and security issues. Traditional nuclear power risk assessment tools and cyber security assessment methods have not been modified or developed to address the unique nature of cyber failure modes and of cyber security threat vulnerabilities. iii This Lab-Directed Research and Development project has developed a dynamic cyber-risk in- formed tool to facilitate the analysis of unique cyber failure modes and the time sequencing of cyber faults, both malicious and non-malicious, and impose those cyber exploits and cyber faults onto a nuclear power plant accident sequence simulator code to assess how cyber ex- ploits and cyber faults could interact with a plants digital instrumentation and control (DI&C) system and defeat or circumvent a plants cyber security controls. This was achieved by cou- pling an existing Sandia National Laboratories nuclear accident dynamic simulator code with a cyber emulytics code to demonstrate real-time simulation of cyber exploits and their impact on automatic DI&C responses. Studying such potential time-sequenced cyber-attacks and their risks (i.e., the associated im- pact and the associated degree of difficulty to achieve the attack vector) on accident manage- ment establishes a technical risk informed framework for developing effective cyber security controls for nuclear power. iv

  4. Segal's Law, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the perils of foodborne pathogen detection within the American Gut Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, James B; Rand, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining human population level estimates of the prevalence of foodborne pathogens is critical for understanding outbreaks and ameliorating such threats to public health. Estimates are difficult to obtain due to logistic and financial constraints, but citizen science initiatives like that of the American Gut Project (AGP) represent a potential source of information concerning enteric pathogens. With an emphasis on genera Listeria and Salmonella, we sought to document the prevalence of those two taxa within the AGP samples. The results provided by AGP suggest a surprising 14% and 2% of samples contained Salmonella and Listeria, respectively. However, a reanalysis of those AGP sequences described here indicated that results depend greatly on the algorithm for assigning taxonomy and differences persisted across both a range of parameter settings and different reference databases (i.e., Greengenes and HITdb). These results are perhaps to be expected given that AGP sequenced the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, which may not provide good resolution at the lower taxonomic levels (e.g., species), but it was surprising how often methods differ in classifying reads-even at higher taxonomic ranks (e.g., family). This highlights the misleading conclusions that can be reached when relying on a single method that is not a gold standard; this is the essence of Segal's Law: an individual with one watch knows what time it is but an individual with two is never sure. Our results point to the need for an appropriate molecular marker for the taxonomic resolution of interest, and calls for the development of more conservative classification methods that are fit for purpose. Thus, with 16S rRNA gene datasets, one must be cautious regarding the detection of taxonomic groups of public health interest (e.g., culture independent identification of foodborne pathogens or taxa associated with a given phenotype).

  5. Segal’s Law, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the perils of foodborne pathogen detection within the American Gut Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Pettengill

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining human population level estimates of the prevalence of foodborne pathogens is critical for understanding outbreaks and ameliorating such threats to public health. Estimates are difficult to obtain due to logistic and financial constraints, but citizen science initiatives like that of the American Gut Project (AGP represent a potential source of information concerning enteric pathogens. With an emphasis on genera Listeria and Salmonella, we sought to document the prevalence of those two taxa within the AGP samples. The results provided by AGP suggest a surprising 14% and 2% of samples contained Salmonella and Listeria, respectively. However, a reanalysis of those AGP sequences described here indicated that results depend greatly on the algorithm for assigning taxonomy and differences persisted across both a range of parameter settings and different reference databases (i.e., Greengenes and HITdb. These results are perhaps to be expected given that AGP sequenced the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, which may not provide good resolution at the lower taxonomic levels (e.g., species, but it was surprising how often methods differ in classifying reads—even at higher taxonomic ranks (e.g., family. This highlights the misleading conclusions that can be reached when relying on a single method that is not a gold standard; this is the essence of Segal’s Law: an individual with one watch knows what time it is but an individual with two is never sure. Our results point to the need for an appropriate molecular marker for the taxonomic resolution of interest, and calls for the development of more conservative classification methods that are fit for purpose. Thus, with 16S rRNA gene datasets, one must be cautious regarding the detection of taxonomic groups of public health interest (e.g., culture independent identification of foodborne pathogens or taxa associated with a given phenotype.

  6. Final report and documentation for the security enabled programmable switch for protection of distributed internetworked computers LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Robertson, Perry J.; Durgin, Nancy Ann; Toole, Timothy J.; Kucera, Brent D.; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2010-02-01

    An increasing number of corporate security policies make it desirable to push security closer to the desktop. It is not practical or feasible to place security and monitoring software on all computing devices (e.g. printers, personal digital assistants, copy machines, legacy hardware). We have begun to prototype a hardware and software architecture that will enforce security policies by pushing security functions closer to the end user, whether in the office or home, without interfering with users' desktop environments. We are developing a specialized programmable Ethernet network switch to achieve this. Embodied in this device is the ability to detect and mitigate network attacks that would otherwise disable or compromise the end user's computing nodes. We call this device a 'Secure Programmable Switch' (SPS). The SPS is designed with the ability to be securely reprogrammed in real time to counter rapidly evolving threats such as fast moving worms, etc. This ability to remotely update the functionality of the SPS protection device is cryptographically protected from subversion. With this concept, the user cannot turn off or fail to update virus scanning and personal firewall filtering in the SPS device as he/she could if implemented on the end host. The SPS concept also provides protection to simple/dumb devices such as printers, scanners, legacy hardware, etc. This report also describes the development of a cryptographically protected processor and its internal architecture in which the SPS device is implemented. This processor executes code correctly even if an adversary holds the processor. The processor guarantees both the integrity and the confidentiality of the code: the adversary cannot determine the sequence of instructions, nor can the adversary change the instruction sequence in a goal-oriented way.

  7. Fabrication of large-volume, low-cost ceramic lanthanum halide scintillators for gamma ray detection : final report for DHS/DNDO/TRDD project TA-01-SL01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ottley, Leigh Anna M.; Yang, Pin; Chen, Ching-Fong; Sanchez, Margaret R.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2008-10-01

    This project uses advanced ceramic processes to fabricate large, optical-quality, polycrystalline lanthanum halide scintillators to replace small single crystals produced by the conventional Bridgman growth method. The new approach not only removes the size constraint imposed by the growth method, but also offers the potential advantages of both reducing manufacturing cost and increasing production rate. The project goal is to fabricate dense lanthanum halide ceramics with a preferred crystal orientation by applying texture engineering and solid-state conversion to reduce the thermal mechanical stress in the ceramic and minimize scintillation light scattering at grain boundaries. Ultimately, this method could deliver the sought-after high sensitivity and <3% energy resolution at 662 keV of lanthanum halide scintillators and unleash their full potential for advanced gamma ray detection, enabling rapid identification of radioactive materials in a variety of practical applications. This report documents processing details from powder synthesis, seed particle growth, to final densification and texture development of cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3}) ceramics. This investigation demonstrated that: (1) A rapid, flexible, cost efficient synthesis method of anhydrous lanthanum halides and their solid solutions was developed. Several batches of ultrafine LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3} powder, free of oxyhalide, were produced by a rigorously controlled process. (2) Micron size ({approx} 5 {micro}m), platelet shape LaBr{sub 3} seed particles of high purity can be synthesized by a vapor phase transport process. (3) High aspect-ratio seed particles can be effectively aligned in the shear direction in the ceramic matrix, using a rotational shear-forming process. (4) Small size, highly translucent LaBr{sub 3} (0.25-inch diameter, 0.08-inch thick) samples were successfully fabricated by the equal channel angular consolidation process. (5) Large size, high density

  8. Favorable Cardiovascular Health, Compression of Morbidity, and Healthcare Costs: Forty-Year Follow-Up of the CHA Study (Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Norrina B; Zhao, Lihui; Liu, Lei; Daviglus, Martha; Liu, Kiang; Fries, James; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Garside, Daniel; Vu, Thanh-Huyen; Stamler, Jeremiah; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2017-05-02

    We examined the association of cardiovascular health at younger ages with the proportion of life lived free of morbidity, the cumulative burden of morbidity, and average healthcare costs at older ages. The CHA study (Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry) is a longitudinal cohort of employed men and women 18 to 74 years of age at baseline examination in 1967 to 1973. Baseline measurements included blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and smoking. Individuals were classified into 1 of 4 strata of cardiovascular health: favorable levels of all factors, 0 factors high but ≥1 elevated risk factors, 1 high risk factor, and ≥2 high risk factors. Linked Medicare and National Death Index data from 1984 to 2010 were used to determine morbidity in older age. An individual's all-cause morbidity score and cardiovascular morbidity score were calculated from International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes for each year of follow-up. We included 25 804 participants who became ≥65 years of age by 2010, representing 65% of all original CHA participants (43% female; 90% white; mean age, 44 years at baseline); 6% had favorable levels of all factors, 19% had ≥1 risk factors at elevated levels, 40% had 1 high risk factor, and 35% had ≥2 high risk factors. Favorable cardiovascular health at younger ages extended survival by almost 4 years and postponed the onset of all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity by 4.5 and 7 years, respectively, resulting in compression of morbidity in both absolute and relative terms. This translated to lower cumulative and annual healthcare costs for those in favorable cardiovascular health (P<0.001) during Medicare eligibility. Individuals in favorable cardiovascular health in early middle age live a longer, healthier life free of all types of morbidity. These findings provide strong support for prevention efforts earlier in life aimed at preserving cardiovascular health and reducing the

  9. Isolated systolic hypertension in young and middle-aged adults and 31-year risk for cardiovascular mortality: the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Stamler, Jeremiah; Garside, Daniel B; Daviglus, Martha L; Franklin, Stanley S; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2015-02-03

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) adults is increasing in prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with ISH in younger and middle-aged adults. CVD risks were explored in 15,868 men and 11,213 women 18 to 49 years of age (mean age 34 years) at baseline, 85% non-Hispanic white, free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and antihypertensive therapy, from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study. Participant classifications were as follows: 1) optimal-normal blood pressure (BP) (SBP hypertension (SBP hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg). During a 31-year average follow-up period (842,600 person-years), there were 1,728 deaths from CVD, 1,168 from CHD, and 223 from stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, race, education, body mass index, current smoking, total cholesterol, and diabetes. In men, with optimal-normal BP as the reference stratum, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk for those with ISH were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.46) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.58), respectively. ISH risks were similar to those with high-normal BP and less than those associated with isolated diastolic hypertension and systolic diastolic hypertension. In women with ISH, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.18 to 2.05) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.49 to 3.01), respectively. ISH risks were higher than in those with high-normal BP or isolated diastolic hypertension and less than those associated with systolic diastolic hypertension. Over long-term follow-up, younger and middle-aged adults with ISH had higher relative risk for CVD and CHD mortality than those with optimal-normal BP. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiye [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatch, Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  11. Grating light reflection spectroelectrochemistry for detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY,MICHAEL J.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; KEMME,SHANALYN A.; KASUNIC,K.J.; BLAIR,DIANNA S.; ZAIDI,S.H.; MCNEIL,J.R.; BURGESS,L.W.; BRODSKY,A.M.; SMITH,S.A.

    2000-04-01

    50 parts per million (ppm). The possible factors contributing to the differences in LLD for these analytes are discussed. This is the final report for a Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project conducted during fiscal years 1998 and 1999 (case number 3518.190).

  12. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  13. SDN Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-12-23

    technology and operational technology engineers, to be the ones centrally administering the technology and responding to events; Simplifies network configuration, improving deterministic Ethernet transport times, and providing instant visualization on where the communication circuits are and how all circuits are impacted when changes (e.g., configuration changes, failures or intrusions) happen, allowing operators to minimize downtime; and Improves the ability to identify deviations in network behavior resulting in detection and analysis of potential cyber intrusions and faster response times Results: This project has forever changed the way critical infrastructure networks are designed, secured, deployed and maintained. The cybersecurity and performance advantages achieved are significant, simply put traditional networking has been obsoleted while the team maintained Ethernet interoperability avoiding any legacy concerns. The team commercially released technology that accomplished all the cybersecurity goals outlined in the SOPO and completed it by executing the project management plan approved in the initial contract. The resulting Energy sector SDN flow controller model number is SEL-5056 and can be freely downloaded from the www.SELinc.com website. This technology not only improves the cybersecurity of control systems but has measured results that it improves the performance and reliability of the control system as well. This means the system owners can confidently apply it to their systems knowing that it will, “first do no harm” but actually improve the system as well. Success of the project is best measured by the sales and deployment of the technology. System owners in industrial, electric, defense, and oil and gas only months after commercial release have approved plans for deployment.

  14. Overview of the SHIELDS Project at LANL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, V.; Delzanno, G. L.; Henderson, M. G.; Godinez, H. C.; Jeffery, C. A.; Lawrence, E. C.; Meierbachtol, C.; Moulton, D.; Vernon, L.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Toth, G.; Welling, D. T.; Yu, Y.; Birn, J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Borovsky, J.; Denton, M.; Albert, J.; Horne, R. B.; Lemon, C. L.; Markidis, S.; Young, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The near-Earth space environment is a highly dynamic and coupled system through a complex set of physical processes over a large range of scales, which responds nonlinearly to driving by the time-varying solar wind. Predicting variations in this environment that can affect technologies in space and on Earth, i.e. "space weather", remains a big space physics challenge. We present a recently funded project through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program that is developing a new capability to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. The project goals are to specify the dynamics of the hot (keV) particles (the seed population for the radiation belts) on both macro- and micro-scale, including important physics of rapid particle injection and acceleration associated with magnetospheric storms/substorms and plasma waves. This challenging problem is addressed using a team of world-class experts in the fields of space science and computational plasma physics and state-of-the-art models and computational facilities. New data assimilation techniques employing data from LANL instruments on the Van Allen Probes and geosynchronous satellites are developed in addition to physics-based models. This research will provide a framework for understanding of key radiation belt drivers that may accelerate particles to relativistic energies and lead to spacecraft damage and failure. The ability to reliably distinguish between various modes of failure is critically important in anomaly resolution and forensics. SHIELDS will enhance our capability to accurately specify and predict the near-Earth space environment where operational satellites reside.

  15. Landscape Measures of Rangeland Condition in the BLM Owyhee Pilot Project: Shrub Canopy Mapping, Vegetation Classification, and Detection of Anomalous Land Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-12-28

    In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.

  16. Intending Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Project name: 90,000t/a BR device and auxiliary projects Construction unit: Sinopec Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Company Total investment: 2.257 billion yuan Project description: It will cover an area of 14. lha.

  17. DFT及多投影分析的织物纬斜检测方法研究%Fabric Skew Detection Method Based on DFT and Multi-projection Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董燕; 朱永胜; 张晓慧

    2013-01-01

    For fabric image skew detection,the detection accuracy is vulnerable to light and fabric texture complexity.If process the image with a lot of redundant information directly,it needs a large amount of calculation,which is not suitable for real-time detection system.This paper proposed a novel method based on DFT and multi-projection analysis on the grounds of the DFT spectrum binarization and morphological filtering experiments.This method was used to remove the redundant information of DFT spectrum of the fabric image,rotate and projecte the spectrum in small step,then detected the skew angle of the fabric image based on the fact that a maximum of projection pixels appears in the center of the spectrum if the longitudinal centerline of the spectrum is vertical to the transverse axis.The experimental results show that this algorithm has high accuracy in detecting small amount of fabric skew and better adaptability of the fabric density.%研究织物图像纬斜准确检测的问题,检测精度易受光线及织物纹理复杂性的影响,如将存在着大量冗余信息的图像直接进行处理,计算量大,不适合用实时检测系统.在对织物的DFT谱进行二值化、形态学滤波等一系列实验的基础上,提出了一种基于DFT及多投影分析的纬斜量检测方法.方法将织物图像的DFT变换谱去除冗余信息,再以较小的步长进行旋转投影,根据频谱图的纵轴与横坐标垂直时在频谱图的中心位置会出现投影像素的最大值的原理,检测出织物图像的倾斜角度.实验结果证明该算法在对小角度的纬斜量检测时,具有较高的精度,且对织物的疏密度适应性较强.

  18. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. (I): Implementation of electronic-based malaria information system for early case detection and individual case management in provinces along the Thai-Cambodian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Sudathip, Prayuth; Sawang, Surasak; Vijakadge, Saowanit; Potithavoranan, Thanapon; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Satimai, Wichai; Delacollette, Charles; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit

    2012-07-29

    The Bureau of Vector-borne Diseases, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has implemented an electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) as part of a strategy to contain artemisinin resistance. The attempt corresponds to the WHO initiative, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, to contain anti-malarial drug resistance in Southeast Asia. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the eMIS' functionality and outputs after implementation for use in the Thailand artemisinin-resistance containment project. The eMIS had been functioning since 2009 in seven Thai-Cambodian border provinces. The eMIS has covered 61 malaria posts/clinics, 27 Vector-borne Disease Units covering 12,508 hamlets at risk of malaria infections. The eMIS was designed as an evidence-based and near real-time system to capture data for early case detection, intensive case investigation, monitoring drug compliance and on/off-site tracking of malarial patients, as well as collecting data indicating potential drug resistance among patients. Data captured by the eMIS in 2008-2011 were extracted and presented. The core functionalities of the eMIS have been utilized by malaria staff at all levels, from local operational units to ministerial management. The eMIS case detection module suggested decreasing trends during 2009-2011; the number of malaria cases detected in the project areas over the years studied were 3818, 2695, and 2566, with sero-positive rates of 1.24, 0.98, and 1.16%, respectively. The eMIS case investigation module revealed different trends in weekly Plasmodium falciparum case numbers, when classified by responsible operational unit, local and migrant status, and case-detection type. It was shown that most Thai patients were infected within their own residential district, while migrants were infected either at their working village or from across the border. The data mapped in the system suggested that P. falciparum-infected cases and potential drug-resistant cases were

  19. Determination of the age of oil palm from crown projection area detected from WorldView-2 multispectral remote sensing data: The case of Ejisu-Juaben district, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemura, Abel; van Duren, Iris; van Leeuwen, Louise M.

    2015-02-01

    Information about age of oil palm is important in sustainability assessments, carbon mapping, yield projections and precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to develop and test an approach to determine the age of oil palm plantations (years after planting) by combining high resolution multispectral remote sensing data and regression techniques using a case study of Ejisu-Juaben district of Ghana. Firstly, we determined the relationship between age and crown projection area of oil palms from sample fields. Secondly, we did hierarchical classification using object based image analysis techniques on WorldView-2 multispectral data to determine the crown projection areas of oil palms from remote sensing data. Finally, the crown projection areas obtained from the hierarchical classification were combined with the field-developed regression model to determine the age of oil palms at field level for a wider area. Field collected data showed a strong linear relationship between age and crown area of oil palm up to 13 years beyond which no relationship was observed. A user's accuracy of 80.6% and a producer's accuracy of 68.4% were obtained for the delineation of oil palm crowns while for delineation of non-crown objects a user's accuracy of 65.6% and a producer's accuracy of 78.6% were obtained, with an overall accuracy of 72.8% for the OBIA delineation. Automatic crown projection area delineation from remote sensing data produced crown projection areas which closely matched the field measured crown areas except for older oil palms (13+ years) where the error was greatest. Combining the remote sensing detected crown projection area and the regression model accurately estimated oil palm ages for 27.9% of the fields and had an estimation error of 1 year or less for 74.6% of the fields and an error of a maximum 2 years for 92.4% of the fields. The results showed that 6 and 11 year old oil palm stands were dominating age categories in the study area. Although the method

  20. Project Lyman

    CERN Document Server

    McCandliss, Stephan R; Blair, William P; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Feldman, Paul D; Meurer, Gerhardt R; Dixon, William V; Sahnow, David J; Neufeld, David A; Lupu, Roxana E; Fleming, Brian; Smee, Stephen A; Andersson, B G; Moseley, Samuel H; Kutyrev, Alexander S; Li, Mary J; Sonneborn, George; Siegmund, Oswald H W; Vallerga, John V; Welsh, Barry Y; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier A; Shapley, Alice E

    2008-01-01

    We explore the design of a space mission, Project Lyman, which has the goal of quantifying the ionization history of the universe from the present epoch to a redshift of z ~ 3. Observations from WMAP and SDSS show that before a redshift of z >~ 6 the first collapsed objects, possibly dwarf galaxies, emitted Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation shortward of 912 A, reionizing most of the universe. How LyC escapes from galactic environments, whether it induces positive or negative feedback on the local and global collapse of structures, and the role played by clumping, molecules, metallicity and dust are major unanswered theoretical questions, requiring observational constraint. Numerous intervening Lyman limit systems, which frustrate the detection of LyC from high z objects, thin below z ~ 3 where there are a few objects with apparently very high fesc. At low z there are only controversial detections and a handful of upper limits. A wide-field multi-object spectroscopic survey with moderate spectral and spatial res...

  1. The Hubble space telescope UV legacy survey of galactic globular clusters. I. Overview of the project and detection of multiple stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotto, G.; Nardiello, D.; Cunial, A., E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: domenico.nardiello@studenti.unipd.it, E-mail: andrea.cunial@studenti.unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,” Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we describe a new UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope project (GO-13297) that will complement the existing F606W and F814W database of the Advanced Camera for Surveys Globular Cluster (GC) Treasury by imaging most of its clusters through UV/blue WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. This “magic trio” of filters has shown an uncanny ability to disentangle and characterize multiple population (MP) patterns in GCs in a way that is exquisitely sensitive to C, N, and O abundance variations. Combination of these passbands with those in the optical also gives the best leverage for measuring helium enrichment. The dozen clusters that had previously been observed in these bands exhibit a bewildering variety of MP patterns, and the new survey will map the full variance of the phenomenon. The ubiquity of multiple stellar generations in GCs has made the formation of these cornerstone objects more intriguing than ever; GC formation and the origin of their MPs have now become one and the same problem. In this paper we will describe the database and our data reduction strategy, as well as the uses we intend to make of the final photometry, astrometry, and PMs. We will also present preliminary color–magnitude diagrams from the data so far collected. These diagrams also draw on data from GO-12605 and GO-12311, which served as a pilot project for the present GO-13297.

  2. High sensitive reflection type long period fiber grating biosensor for real time detection of thyroglobulin, a differentiated thyroid cancer biomarker: the Smart Health project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, G.; Severino, R.; Vaiano, P.; Consales, M.; Ruvo, M.; Sandomenico, A.; Borriello, A.; Giordano, M.; Zuppolini, S.; Diodato, L.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a reflection-type long period fiber grating (LPG) biosensor able to perform the real time detection of thyroid cancer markers in the needle washout of fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A standard LPG is first transformed in a practical probe working in reflection mode, then it is coated by an atactic-polystyrene overlay in order to increase its surrounding refractive index sensitivity and to provide, at the same time, the desired interfacial properties for a stable bioreceptor immobilization. The results provide a clear demonstration of the effectiveness and sensitivity of the developed biosensing platform, allowing the in vitro detection of human Thyroglobulin at sub-nanomolar concentrations.

  3. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  4. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  5. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  6. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  7. Research project RoboGas{sup Inspector}. Gas leak detection with autonomous mobile robots; Forschungsprojekt RoboGas{sup Inspector}. Gaslecksuche mit autonomen mobilen Robotern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Abdelkarim [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Bonow, Gero; Kroll, Andreas [Fachgebiet Mess- und Regelungstechnik, Universitaet Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Hegenberg, Jens; Schmidt, Ludger [Fachgebiet Mensch-Maschine-Systemtechnik, Universitaet Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Barz, Thomas; Schulz, Dirk [Fraunhofer FKIE, Unbemannte Systeme, Wachtberg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    As part of the promotional program AUTONOMIK of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) a consortium of nine project partners developed a prototype of an autonomous mobile robot looking for gas leaks in extended industrial equipment. The autonomous mobility of the system for any systems was implemented using different types of sensors for self-localization and navigation. The tele-operation enables a manual intervention in the process. The robot performs inspection tasks in industrial plants by means of video technology and remote gas measurement technology without driving into the possible risk areas and without the presence of humans. The robot can be used for routine inspections of facilities or for the targeted inspection of specific plant components. Thanks to the remote sensing technique also plant components can be inspected which are difficult to be inspected due to their limited accessibility by conventional measurement techniques.

  8. 基于视频投影法的交通拥挤实时检测算法%Video-based projecting algorithm for real-time traffic congestion detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新; 常云涛; 郭佳宁; 谢平红

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the growing problem of urban traffic congestion,a video-based projecting algorithm to detect the real-time traffic congestion on the urban road is proposed.Firstly by video projecting method,two-dimensional lane is transformed into one-dimensional line segment,the scanning line method is used to obtain lane occupation rate,and the exponential smoothing formula is used to remove the noise in the source data.Then considering the lane occupation rate and its variance as the traffic characteristic parameters,the traffic congestion detection model is established and used to process three sections of traffic video.The results detected by the model are compared with those detected by artificial judgment,and it is showed that the correct detecting rate is above 92% by the proposed algorithm,thus demonstrating the validity of the algorithm.%针对日益严重的城市道路交通拥挤问题,文章提出了基于视频检测技术实时判断道路交通拥挤的算法.首先通过视频投影法将二维车道转化为一维线段,再通过扫描线段方法获取车道占有率,然后用指数平滑公式对提取出的车道占有率进行去噪处理,接着以道路占有率、占有率方差为交通特征参数,建立交通拥挤识别模型,最后使用模型对3段实例视频进行处理,用模型识别出的结果与人工判断的结果进行对比分析,得出使用模型进行拥挤识别的正确率在92%以上,证明了模型的有效性.

  9. 面曝光快速成形激光液位检测系统的研究%Research of laser liquid level detection system of mask projection stereolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫达海; 胥光申

    2013-01-01

    为了精确地掌握和控制面曝光快速成形系统中的树脂液位,使其保持在工作面上,设计了激光液位检测系统;根据激光三角法测量原理,选用红光半导体激光器为光源,利用位置传感器(PSD)获取反射光斑位置变化的信号来检测液位高度.实验表明:在量程为6 mm时,误差仅为0.34%,可以精确地检测树脂液面.%In order to control accurately the resin liquid level of mask projection stereolithography system, the laser liquid level detection system is designed. According to the measuring principle of laser triangulation, the system chooses the red light semiconductor lasers as the light source and use Position Sensitive Detectors (PSD) to detect liquid level height with the changing signal of reflection flare's position. The experimental result indicates that in the range of 6 mm, deviation is just 0.34%, which can accurately detect resin liquid surface.

  10. Poor man’s 1000 genome project: Recent human population expansion confounds the detection of disease alleles in 7,098 complete mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hie Lim eKim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of the human population has caused the accumulation of rare genetic variants that may play a role in the origin of genetic diseases. However, it is challenging to identify those rare variants responsible for specific diseases without genetic data from an extraordinarily large population sample. Here we focused on the accumulated data from the human mitochondrial (mt genome sequences because this data provided 7,098 whole genomes for analysis. In this dataset we identified 6,110 single nucleotide variants (SNVs and their frequency and determined that the best-fit demographic model for the 7,098 genomes included severe population bottlenecks and exponential expansions of the non-African population. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of mt genomes in order to ascertain the behavior of deleterious mutations. We found that such deleterious mutations barely survived during population expansion. We derived the threshold frequency of a deleterious mutation in separate African, Asian, and European populations and used it to identify pathogenic mutations in our dataset. Although threshold frequency was very low, the proportion of variants showing a lower frequency than that threshold was 82%, 83%, and 91% of the total variants for the African, Asian, and European populations, respectively. Within these variants, only 18 known pathogenic mutations were detected in the 7,098 genomes. This result showed the difficulty of detecting a pathogenic mutation within an abundance of rare variants in the human population, even with a large number of genomes available for study.

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. I. Overview of the Project and Detection of Multiple Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Piotto, G; Bedin, L R; Anderson, J; King, I R; Marino, A; Nardiello, D; Aparicio, A; Barbuy, B; Bellini, A; Brown, T M; Cassisi, S; Cunial, A; Dalessandro, E; D'Antona, F; Ferraro, F R; Hidalgo, S; Lanzoni, B; Monelli, M; Ortolani, S; Renzini, A; Salaris, M; Sarajedini, A; van der Marel, R P; Vesperini, E; Zoccali, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new UV-initiative HST project (GO-13297) that will complement the existing F606W and F814W database of the ACS Globular Cluster (GC) Treasury by imaging most of its clusters through UV/blue WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W and F438W. This "magic trio" of filters has shown an uncanny ability to disentangle and characterize multiple-population (MP) patterns in GCs in a way that is exquisitely sensitive to C, N, and O abundance variations. Combination of these passbands with those in the optical also gives the best leverage for measuring helium enrichment. The dozen clusters that had previously been observed in these bands exhibit a bewildering variety of MP patterns, and the new survey will map the full variance of the phenomenon. The ubiquity of multiple stellar generations in GCs has made the formation of these cornerstone objects more intriguing than ever; GC formation and the origin of their MPs have now become one and the same problem. In the present paper we will describe the dat...

  12. Influence of x-ray energy spectrum, contrasting detail and detector on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in projection radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandborg, Michael; Carlsson, G.A. (Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics)

    1992-06-01

    A lower limit to patient irradiation in diagnostic radiology is set by the fundamental stochastics of the energy imparted to the image receptor (quantum noise). Image quality is investigated here and expressed in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio due to quantum noise. The Monte Carlo method is used to calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNR{sub {Delta}S}) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQE{sub {Delta}S}) in imaging thin contrasting details of air, fat, bone and iodine within a water phantom using x-ray spectra (40-140 kV) and detectors of CsI, BaFCl and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S. The atomic composition of the contrasting detail influences considerably the values of SNR{sub {Delta}S} due to the different modulations of the energy spectra of primary photons passing beside and through the contrasting detail. (author).

  13. Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, β expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, γs expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

  14. Edge Detection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  15. Alzheimer's Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... state Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End Alzheimer's Upcoming ... Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project MAKE A DONATION Your gift will help us ...

  16. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Momentum in Science, Part 2" (70 minutes) Be a part of something big. HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" ... vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National ...

  17. PROJECT REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    report. Details on the background of the project, the fieldwork, the work completed, the projected end ... Studies, University of Ghana, with a starting date of 01/01/12 and an expected completion of ..... de Bondoukou. Paris: Editions Ernest Leroux.

  18. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Momentum in Science, Part 2" (70 minutes) Be a part of something big. HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" ... vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National ...

  19. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...

  20. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  1. Microsoft project

    OpenAIRE

    Markić, Lucija; Mandušić, Dubravka; Grbavac, Vitomir

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft Project je alat čije su prednosti u svakodnevnom radu nezamjenjive. Pomoću Microsoft Projecta omogućeno je upravljanje resursima, stvaranje izvještaja o projektima u vremenu, te analize različitih scenarija. Pojavljuje u tri verzije: Microsoft Project Professional, Microsoft Project Server i Microsoft Project Server Client Access Licenses. Upravo je trend da suvremeni poslovni ljudi zadatke povjeravaju Microsoft Projectu jer on znatno povećava produktivnost rada. Te prednos...

  2. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  3. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  4. Map Projection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce some known map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for these projections. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  5. International Projects

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Description of co-operation projects implemented with the help of Sweden is presented. Information on performance of Phare and IAEA Regional and National Technical Cooperation projects is provided. Phare project 'Creation of Radiation Protection Infrastructure and Development of Supporting Services' was started in 2002

  6. Project STAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    Project STAY (Scholarships to Able Youth), located in the barrio of San Antonio, Texas, helps young people stay in school beyond the secondary grades. The project provides outreach services to meet the needs of the students. Its primary service is to act as an advocate for these young people. The project recruits all types of youth from families…

  7. ATCA observations of the MACS-Planck Radio Halo Cluster Project - I. New detection of a radio halo in PLCK G285.0-23.7

    CERN Document Server

    Aviles, Gerardo Martinez; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Pratley, Luke; Macario, Giulia; Venturi, Tiziana; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Cassano, Rossella; Dallacasa, Daniele; Intema, Huib; Giacintucci, Simona; Hurier, Guillaume; Aghanim, Nabila; Douspis, Marian; Langer, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possible presence of diffuse radio emission in the intermediate redshift, massive cluster PLCK G285.0-23.7 (z=0.39, M_500 = 8.39 x 10^(14) M_Sun). Our 16cm-band ATCA observations of PLCK G285.0-23.7 allow us to reach a rms noise level of ~11 microJy/beam on the wide-band (1.1-3.1 GHz), full-resolution (~5 arcsec) image of the cluster, making it one of the deepest ATCA images yet published. We also re-image visibilities at lower resolution in order to achieve a better sensitivity to low-surface-brightness extended radio sources. We detect one of the lowest luminosity radio halos known at z>0.35, characterised by a slight offset from the well-studied 1.4 GHz radio power vs. cluster mass correlation. Similarly to most known radio-loud clusters (i.e. those hosting diffuse non-thermal sources), PLCK G285.0-23.7 has a disturbed dynamical state. Our analysis reveals a similarly elongated X-ray and radio morphology. While the size of the radio halo in PLCK G285.0-23.7 is smaller than lower redshift...

  8. A new, very massive modular Liquid Argon Imaging Chamber to detect low energy off-axis neutrinos from the CNGS beam. (Project MODULAr)

    CERN Document Server

    Baibussinov, B; Battistoni, G; Benetti, P; Borio, A; Calligarich, E; Cambiaghi, M; Cavanna, F; Centro, Sandro; Cocco, A G; Dolfini, R; Berzolari, A Gigli; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Ferrari, A; Fiorillo, G; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A M; Mannocchi, G; Mauri, F; Menegolli, A; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Palamara, O; Periale, L; Piazzoli, A; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rubbia, Carlo; Sala, P; Satta, G; Varanini, F; Ventura, Sandro; Vignoli, C

    2007-01-01

    The paper is considering an opportunity for the CERN/GranSasso (CNGS) neutrino complex, concurrent time-wise with T2K and NOvA, to search for theta_13 oscillations and CP violation. Compared with large water Cherenkov (T2K) and fine grained scintillators (NOvA), the LAr-TPC offers a higher detection efficiency and a lower backgrounds, since virtually all channels may be unambiguously recognized. The present proposal, called MODULAr, describes a 20 kt fiducial volume LAr-TPC, following very closely the technology developed for the ICARUS-T60o, and is focused on the following activities, for which we seek an extended international collaboration: (1) the neutrino beam from the CERN 400 GeV proton beam and an optimised horn focussing, eventually with an increased intensity in the framework of the LHC accelerator improvement program; (2) A new experimental area LNGS-B, of at least 50000 m3 at 10 km off-axis from the main Laboratory, eventually upgradable to larger sizes. A location is under consideration at about ...

  9. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. (I: Implementation of electronic-based malaria information system for early case detection and individual case management in provinces along the Thai-Cambodian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamsiriwatchara Amnat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bureau of Vector-borne Diseases, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has implemented an electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS as part of a strategy to contain artemisinin resistance. The attempt corresponds to the WHO initiative, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, to contain anti-malarial drug resistance in Southeast Asia. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the eMIS’ functionality and outputs after implementation for use in the Thailand artemisinin-resistance containment project. Methods The eMIS had been functioning since 2009 in seven Thai-Cambodian border provinces. The eMIS has covered 61 malaria posts/clinics, 27 Vector-borne Disease Units covering 12,508 hamlets at risk of malaria infections. The eMIS was designed as an evidence-based and near real-time system to capture data for early case detection, intensive case investigation, monitoring drug compliance and on/off-site tracking of malarial patients, as well as collecting data indicating potential drug resistance among patients. Data captured by the eMIS in 2008–2011 were extracted and presented. Results The core functionalities of the eMIS have been utilized by malaria staff at all levels, from local operational units to ministerial management. The eMIS case detection module suggested decreasing trends during 2009–2011; the number of malaria cases detected in the project areas over the years studied were 3818, 2695, and 2566, with sero-positive rates of 1.24, 0.98, and 1.16%, respectively. The eMIS case investigation module revealed different trends in weekly Plasmodium falciparum case numbers, when classified by responsible operational unit, local and migrant status, and case-detection type. It was shown that most Thai patients were infected within their own residential district, while migrants were infected either at their working village or from across the border. The data mapped in the system suggested that P

  10. Studies of the LHC detection systems: scintillating fibers projective electromagnetic calorimeter prototype and light reading by avalanche photodiodes; Etudes de systemes de detection pour LHC: prototype d`un calorimetre electromagnetique projectif a fibres scintillantes et lecture de la lumiere par des photodiodes a avalanches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhemaid, N.

    1995-09-22

    In this thesis a study concerning the hardware detection system of ATLAS experiment in preparation for L.H.C. is presented. The study is divided in two parts. After a general introduction of the L.H.C. and the ATLAS detector, the first part concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter, and the second part concerning the readout with avalanche photodiodes, are discussed. For both subjects the basic principles are presented before various test results are described. Within the RD1 program three different electromagnetic calorimeter prototypes, which all use the lead scintillating fibres technique, have been built. The first is a non-projective, compensating calorimeter called ``500{mu}m``, the second is a pseudo projective, non-compensating, called ``1 mm``, and the third is fully projective, called ``Radial``. The last prototype is discussed in more detail. Avalanches photodiodes which are used as readout of the ``1 mm`` calorimeter, have been exposed to both, a dedicated test bench in the laboratory as well as to test beams. The results of these tests are also presented. (author). 35 refs., 96 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. Mini Project Programming Exams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Lone Leth; Torp, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    A number of different types of final programming exams used or considered at the Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, are identified and analyzed. Based on this analysis, a new type of programming exam is introduced called a Mini Project Programming (MIP) exam. MIP is a group-based...... of MIP is how to detect fraud....

  12. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...... for performing these projects. This paper compares best practices with practiced practices for virtual projects and discusses ways to bridge the gap between them. We have studied eleven virtual projects in five Danish organizations and compared them with a predefined list of best practices compiled from...... that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects...

  13. Discussion on The Method of Component Detection For Biogas in Bioenergy Cogeneration Project%生物能源沼气发电热电联产项目中沼气成分检测方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉亚辉; 邱惠珍; 俞建龙; 杨遂平

    2015-01-01

    主要介绍了生物能源沼气主要成分分析方法及热值的计算,为沼气发电热电联产项目提供了技术依据。使用TCD+FID+PFPD等检测器对煤气中无机和有机部分进行检测,使用气质联用仪、离子色谱和原子吸收分光光度法对煤气中微量元素进行检测。%This paper describes the calculation of bioenergy gas main component analysis and thermal values for biogas power cogeneration project provides a technical basis.Use TCD+FID+PFPD detector for gas and other inorganic and or-ganic fraction were detected using GC-MS, ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the detection of trace elements in the gas.

  14. Research of Investment Projects Searching technology based on Images change detection%基于变化检测的投资项目搜索技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 李万茂; 高连如; 向冬梅; 倪金生

    2011-01-01

    一些露于地表的固定资产投资项目可用遥感影像变化检测的方法自动的搜索并检测出来。其间需要完成对两幅不同时向的影像完成几何校正、影像配准、直方图匹配、影像做差、二值化、小斑去除、搜索结果修正等一系列工作。如果算法参数设置合理,其中大部分操作流程可以使用计算机自动实现。本文详细描述了本智能搜索技术的核心算法与技术流程,并通过基于TitanImage二次开发工具实验证明了其可行性。%Some Fixed Assets Investment Projects which are exposed on the land surface can be automatically detected by change detection methods of remote sensing images. A series of operations on two images of different times must be finished before detections, such as the Geometry Correction, Image Registration, Histogram Matching, Image Subtraction, Image Binarization and Spot Reduction and so on. All these can be automatic performed by computers if proper algorithm parameters are set. The kernel algorithms and technological flow are discussed in this paper, and it was implemented in the statistic system by using Titan Image Software Tool kit, which proved the application feasibility.

  15. Projecte Delorean

    OpenAIRE

    Rigual Martínez, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of my project is to draw up a Business Plan to set up an audiovisual production company in partnership with my University Tecnocampus Mataró-Maresme. A production company which is intended for the formation of new professionals as well as the continued development of quality audiovisual projects. I want to make a feasibility project to show that this production company can be created and be a useful element for my University, particularly for students.

  16. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research, the Alzheimer's Association has been an active partner in "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT," ... (48 minutes) "Momentum ...

  17. A dynamically-coupled groundwater, land surface and regional climate model to predict seasonal watershed flow and groundwater response, FINAL LDRD REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R; Kollet, S; Chow, F; Granvold, P; Duan, Q

    2007-02-23

    This final report is organized in four sections. Section 1 is the project summary (below), Section 2 is a submitted manuscript that describes the offline, or spinup simulations in detail, Section 3 is also a submitted manuscript that describes the online, or fully-coupled simulations in detail and Section 3, which is report that describes work done via a subcontract with UC Berkeley. The goal of this project was to develop and apply a coupled regional climate, land-surface, groundwater flow model as a means to further understand important mass and energy couplings between regional climate, the land surface, and groundwater. The project involved coupling three distinct submodels that are traditionally used independently with abstracted and potentially oversimplified (inter-model) boundary conditions. This coupled model lead to (1) an improved understanding of the sensitivity and importance of coupled physical processes from the subsurface to the atmosphere; (2) a new tool for predicting hydrologic conditions (rainfall, temperature, snowfall, snowmelt, runoff, infiltration and groundwater flow) at the watershed scale over a range of timeframes; (3) a simulation of hydrologic response of a characteristic watershed that will provide insight into the certainty of hydrologic forecasting, dominance and sensitivity of groundwater dynamics on land-surface fluxes; and (4) a more realistic model representation of weather predictions, precipitation and temperature, at the regional scale. Regional climate models are typically used for the simulation of weather, precipitation and temperature behavior over 10-1000 km domains for weather or climate prediction purposes, and are typically driven by boundary conditions derived from global climate models (GCMs), observations or both. The land or ocean surface typically represents a bottom boundary condition of these models, where important mass (water) and energy fluxes are approximated. The viability and influence of these

  18. LDRD Final Report for''Tactical Laser Weapons for Defense'' SI (Tracking Code 01-SI-011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R; Zapata, L

    2002-01-30

    The focus of this project was a convincing demonstration of two new technological approaches to high beam quality; high average power solid-state laser systems that would be of interest for tactical laser weapon applications. Two pathways had been identified to such systems that built on existing thin disk and fiber laser technologies. This SI was used as seed funding to further develop and vet these ideas. Significantly, the LLNL specific enhancements to these proposed technology paths were specifically addressed for devising systems scaleable to the 100 kW average power level. In the course of performing this work we have established an intellectual property base that protects and distinguishes us from other competitive approaches to the same end.

  19. A dynamically-coupled groundwater, land surface and regional climate model to predict seasonal watershed flow and groundwater response, FINAL LDRD REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R; Kollet, S; Chow, F; Granvold, P; Duan, Q

    2007-02-23

    This final report is organized in four sections. Section 1 is the project summary (below), Section 2 is a submitted manuscript that describes the offline, or spinup simulations in detail, Section 3 is also a submitted manuscript that describes the online, or fully-coupled simulations in detail and Section 3, which is report that describes work done via a subcontract with UC Berkeley. The goal of this project was to develop and apply a coupled regional climate, land-surface, groundwater flow model as a means to further understand important mass and energy couplings between regional climate, the land surface, and groundwater. The project involved coupling three distinct submodels that are traditionally used independently with abstracted and potentially oversimplified (inter-model) boundary conditions. This coupled model lead to (1) an improved understanding of the sensitivity and importance of coupled physical processes from the subsurface to the atmosphere; (2) a new tool for predicting hydrologic conditions (rainfall, temperature, snowfall, snowmelt, runoff, infiltration and groundwater flow) at the watershed scale over a range of timeframes; (3) a simulation of hydrologic response of a characteristic watershed that will provide insight into the certainty of hydrologic forecasting, dominance and sensitivity of groundwater dynamics on land-surface fluxes; and (4) a more realistic model representation of weather predictions, precipitation and temperature, at the regional scale. Regional climate models are typically used for the simulation of weather, precipitation and temperature behavior over 10-1000 km domains for weather or climate prediction purposes, and are typically driven by boundary conditions derived from global climate models (GCMs), observations or both. The land or ocean surface typically represents a bottom boundary condition of these models, where important mass (water) and energy fluxes are approximated. The viability and influence of these

  20. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  1. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  2. The MODES_SNM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioni, A.

    2013-05-01

    MODES SNM is a collaborative project (funded under the FP7 - Security program), aimed at developing a prototype for a mobile, modular detection system for radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To maximize the detection capability for SNM, the prototype will combine detectors for fast and thermal neutrons, as well as for gamma-rays. The key detector technology in the development is high pressure scintillation cells filled with noble gases, as recently developed by ARKTIS. The project started officially at the beginning of 2012, for a duration of 30 months. The goal of the project is to deliver a fully integrated and field tested prototype of a modular mobile system capable of passively detecting weak or shielded radioactive sources with accuracy higher than currently available systems. We will present the status of the project, preliminary results and future prospects.

  3. Comprehensive management of project changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž Stare

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine how project changes can be prevented, and how to reduce their negative impact. Theoretical research examined risk management, project control and change management. Based on the study a “Comprehensive Change Management Model” was developed and verified after conducting empirical research in Slovenian enterprises. The research confirmed that risk management identifies possible changes and reduces their impact; project control ensures the timely detection of changes and an efficient response, while formal change management ensures the effective implementation of changes. The combined functioning of all three areas ensures effective project execution.

  4. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  5. LDRD final report on synthesis of shape-and size-controlled platinum and platinum alloy nanostructures on carbon with improved durability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John Allen; Garcia, Robert M.; Song, Yujiang; Moreno, Andres M.; Stanis, Ronald J.

    2008-10-01

    This project is aimed to gain added durability by supporting ripening-resistant dendritic platinum and/or platinum-based alloy nanostructures on carbon. We have developed a new synthetic approach suitable for directly supporting dendritic nanostructures on VXC-72 carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The key of the synthesis is to creating a unique supporting/confining reaction environment by incorporating carbon within lipid bilayer relying on a hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction. In order to realize size uniformity control over the supported dendritic nanostructures, a fast photocatalytic seeding method based on tin(IV) porphyrins (SnP) developed at Sandia was applied to the synthesis by using SnP-containing liposomes under tungsten light irradiation. For concept approval, one created dendritic platinum nanostructure supported on CB was fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for durability examination via potential cycling. It appears that carbon supporting is essentially beneficial to an enhanced durability according to our preliminary results.

  6. Familiarization and Detection of Green Monopropellants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ADN was developed by the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), while HAN was developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory to be a propellant. Alliant Techsystems Inc...

  7. RIDES: Raman Icing Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Michigan Aerospace Corporation proposes to develop an integrated LIDAR instrument capable of identifying icing conditions while also providing air data sensing...

  8. RIDES: Raman Icing Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inflight icing of engines and airframe presents a significant hazard to air transport, especially at lower flight elevations during take-off or on approach. Ice...

  9. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  10. TIARA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, P.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - the TIARA project[1] is to consolidate and support the European R&D program in the field of physics and techniques of particle accelerators. This project, partially funded by the European Commission, groups 11 participants from 8 European countries, including Poland. Its present, threeyear (2011-2013) preparatory phase (PP) is shortly described in this paper. The project is divided into 9 work packages (WP). We will concentrate on four of them dedicated to governance, R&D infrastructures, joint R&D programming, and education and training, in which Polish participants are actively involved.

  11. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the ... Grandpa? by Maria Shriver Maria Shriver's children's book is about a grandparent with Alzheimer's. A great resource ...

  12. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's Gala A Night at Sardi's Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project MAKE ... for kids Learn how Maria Shriver is raising awareness FIND YOUR WALK Get help and support I ...

  13. Intending Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Project name:Jintan tire production base project (the first-phase project) Construction site:Jintan Economic Development Zone, Jiangsu Province Construction unit:Zhongce Rubber (Jintan) Co., Ltd. Total investment:RMB 2.42 billion yuan Project description:It is planned to cover an area of 3,000 mu. In the first phase, it will cover an area of 520.43 mu with designed staff of 4,500 people. It will mix 150,000 tons of rubber and produce 10 million u- nits of high-performance semi-steel-wire saloon car and light truck radial tires, 500,000 units of OTR tires and 100,000 tons of carbon black per year.

  14. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the films on our message board . Watch films free online now "The Memory Loss Tapes" (85 ... ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National Institute on Aging at the ...

  15. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two Creative Arts Emmys Two installments of the multi-part HBO ... from the Alzheimer's Association and others, won Creative Arts Emmy awards. "The Memory Loss Tapes" was honored ...

  16. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End Alzheimer's Upcoming Events ... Memory Loss Tapes" was honored for Exceptional Merit in Nonfiction Filmmaking, while "Grandpa, Do You Know Who ...

  17. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program. - Emmys.com As the leading voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research, the Alzheimer's Association has been an active partner in "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT," providing expert insight ...

  18. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available | News | Events | Press | Contact 24/7 Helpline: 1.800.272.3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News ...

  19. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease has on those with Alzheimer's and their families. September 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two ... way Americans thinks about Alzheimer's disease. Tell your family and friends. Post info on your Web site . ...

  20. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" will expose the Alzheimer's crisis facing our nation and drive concerned citizens to ... Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health in association with the Alzheimer's Association, The Fidelity ® ...