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Sample records for detecting elements based

  1. Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo

    2014-11-01

    Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. EDGE DETECTION IN MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES BASED ON STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

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    Mehdi Ghasemi Naraghi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the first steps of feature extraction is edge detection. There are various methods for edge detection such as sobel operator, log method and canny operator. These methods have disadvantages such as create noise and discontinues edge and image smoothing. With the notice of the daily growth multi spectral images processing and describe of these images have become very important. Because of the existence of many details of these images, necessity to robust algorithms caused to present a method to extract feature of an object. In this article An improve method for edge detection has been purposed. In this method edge is detected by morphology’s operator and their combination and with the use of various structure elements of images in satellite and remote sensing.

  3. Edge Detection in Multispectral Images Based on Structural Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghasemi Naraghi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the first steps of feature extraction is edge detection. There are various methods for edge detection such as sobel operator, log method and canny operator. These methods have disadvantages such as create noise and discontinues edge and image smoothing. With the notice of the daily growth multi spectral images processing and describe of these images have become very important. Because of the existence of many details of these images, necessity to robust algorithms caused to present a method to extract featureof an object. In this article An improve method for edge detection has been purposed. In this method edge is detected by morphology’s operator and their combination and with the use of various structure elements of images in satellite and remote sensing.

  4. Detecting Different Road Infrastructural Elements Based on the Stochastic Characterization of Speed Patterns

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    Mario Muñoz-Organero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic detection of road related information using data from sensors while driving has many potential applications such as traffic congestion detection or automatic routable map generation. This paper focuses on the automatic detection of road elements based on GPS data from on-vehicle systems. A new algorithm is developed that uses the total variation distance instead of the statistical moments to improve the classification accuracy. The algorithm is validated for detecting traffic lights, roundabouts, and street-crossings in a real scenario and the obtained accuracy (0.75 improves the best results using previous approaches based on statistical moments based features (0.71. Each road element to be detected is characterized as a vector of speeds measured when a driver goes through it. We first eliminate the speed samples in congested traffic conditions which are not comparable with clear traffic conditions and would contaminate the dataset. Then, we calculate the probability mass function for the speed (in 1 m/s intervals at each point. The total variation distance is then used to find the similarity among different points of interest (which can contain a similar road element or a different one. Finally, a k-NN approach is used for assigning a class to each unlabelled element.

  5. EDGE DETECTION METHOD OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BASED ON MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY OF MULTI-STRUCTURE ELEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hui; DU Pei-jun; ZHAO Chang-sheng; SHU Ning

    2004-01-01

    This paper puts forward an effective,specific algorithm for edge detection.Based on multi-structure elements of gray mathematics morphology,in the light of difference between noise and edge shape of RS images,the paper establishes multi-structure elements to detect edge by utilizing the grey form transformation principle.Compared with some classical edge detection operators,such as Sobel Edge Detection Operator,LOG Edge Detection Operator,and Canny Edge Detection Operator,the experiment indicates that this new algorithm possesses very good edge detection ability,which can detect edges more effectively,but its noise-resisting ability is relatively low.Because of the bigger noise of remote sensing image,the authors probe into putting forward other edge detection method based on combination of wavelet directivity checkout technology and small-scale Mathematical Morphology finally.So,position at the edge can be accurately located,the noise can be inhibited to a certain extent and the effect of edge detection is obvious.

  6. Detection of Fingerprints Based on Elemental Composition Using Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence.

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    Worley, C. G. (Christopher G.); Wiltshire, S. (Sara); Miller, T. C. (Thomasin C.); Havrilla, G. J. (George J.); Majidi, V. (Vahid)

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed to detect fingerprints using a technique known as micro-X-ray fluorescence. The traditional method of detecting fingerprints involves treating the sample with certain powders, liquids, or vapors to add color to the fingerprint so that it can be easily seen and photographed for forensic purposes. This is known as contrast enhancement, and a multitude of chemical processing methods have been developed in the past century to render fingerprints visible. However, fingerprints present on certain substances such as fibrous papers and textiles, wood, leather, plastic, adhesives, and human skin can sometimes be difficult to detect by contrast enhancement. Children's fingerprints are also difficult to detect due to the absence of sebum on their skin, and detection of prints left on certain colored backgrounds can sometimes be problematic. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) was studied here as a method to detect fingerprints based on chemical elements present in fingerprint residue. For example, salts such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride excreted in sweat are sometimes present in detectable quantities in fingerprints. We demonstrated that MXRF can be used to detect this sodium, potassium, and chlorine from such salts. Furthermore, using MXRF, each of these elements (and many other elements if present) can be detected as a function of location on a surface, so we were able to 'see' a fingerprint because these salts are deposited mainly along the patterns present in a fingerprint (traditionally called friction ridges in forensic science). MXRF is not a panacea for detecting all fingerprints; some prints will not contain enough detectable material to be 'seen'; however, determining an effective means of coloring a fingerprint with traditional contrast enhancement methods can sometimes be an arduous process with limited success. Thus, MXRF offers a possible alternative for detecting fingerprints, and it does not require any

  7. Nanomaterial-based biosensors using dual transducing elements for solution phase detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Su, Xiaodi; Lu, Yi

    2015-05-07

    Biosensors incorporating nanomaterials have demonstrated superior performance compared to their conventional counterparts. Most reported sensors use nanomaterials as a single transducer of signals, while biosensor designs using dual transducing elements have emerged as new approaches to further improve overall sensing performance. This review focuses on recent developments in nanomaterial-based biosensors using dual transducing elements for solution phase detection. The review begins with a brief introduction of the commonly used nanomaterial transducers suitable for designing dual element sensors, including quantum dots, metal nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles, graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanodots. This is followed by the presentation of the four basic design principles, namely Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), Amplified Fluorescence Polarization (AFP), Bio-barcode Assay (BCA) and Chemiluminescence (CL), involving either two kinds of nanomaterials, or one nanomaterial and an organic luminescent agent (e.g. organic dyes, luminescent polymers) as dual transducers. Biomolecular and chemical analytes or biological interactions are detected by their control of the assembly and disassembly of the two transducing elements that change the distance between them, the size of the fluorophore-containing composite, or the catalytic properties of the nanomaterial transducers, among other property changes. Comparative discussions on their respective design rules and overall performances are presented afterwards. Compared with the single transducer biosensor design, such a dual-transducer configuration exhibits much enhanced flexibility and design versatility, allowing biosensors to be more specifically devised for various purposes. The review ends by highlighting some of the further development opportunities in this field.

  8. Fault Detection Enhancement in Rolling Element Bearings via Peak-Based Multiscale Decomposition and Envelope Demodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Qing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration signals of rolling element bearings faults are usually immersed in background noise, which makes it difficult to detect the faults. Wavelet-based methods being used commonly can reduce some types of noise, but there is still plenty of room for improvement due to the insufficient sparseness of vibration signals in wavelet domain. In this work, in order to eliminate noise and enhance the weak fault detection, a new kind of peak-based approach combined with multiscale decomposition and envelope demodulation is developed. First, to preserve effective middle-low frequency signals while making high frequency noise more significant, a peak-based piecewise recombination is utilized to convert middle frequency components into low frequency ones. The newly generated signal becomes so smoother that it will have a sparser representation in wavelet domain. Then a noise threshold is applied after wavelet multiscale decomposition, followed by inverse wavelet transform and backward peak-based piecewise transform. Finally, the amplitude of fault characteristic frequency is enhanced by means of envelope demodulation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by rolling bearings faults experiments. Compared with traditional wavelet-based analysis, experimental results show that fault features can be enhanced significantly and detected easily by the proposed method.

  9. Sensitive targeted multiple protein quantification based on elemental detection of Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Garcia-Cortes, Marta [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); González-Iglesias, Hector [Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Instituto Oftalmológico Fernandez-Vega, Avenida Doctores Fernández-Vega, 34, Oviedo 33012 (Spain); Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Costa-Fernández, José M. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Coca-Prados, Miguel [Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Instituto Oftalmológico Fernandez-Vega, Avenida Doctores Fernández-Vega, 34, Oviedo 33012 (Spain); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: asm@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain)

    2015-06-16

    Highlights: • Novel generic platform for multiparametric quantification of proteins. • QDs labeling and ICP-MS detection allow significant analytical signal amplification. • ICP-MS mass balances information provided an internal validation of the immunoassay. • Multiparametric determination of 5 proteins in human serum samples. • ICP-MS reduced matrix effects as compared to other conventional detection techniques. - Abstract: A generic strategy based on the use of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs) as elemental labels for protein quantification, using immunoassays with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), detection is presented. In this strategy, streptavidin modified QDs (QDs-SA) are bioconjugated to a biotinylated secondary antibody (b-Ab{sub 2}). After a multi-technique characterization of the synthesized generic platform (QDs-SA-b-Ab{sub 2}) it was applied to the sequential quantification of five proteins (transferrin, complement C3, apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin and apolipoprotein A4) at different concentration levels in human serum samples. It is shown how this generic strategy does only require the appropriate unlabeled primary antibody for each protein to be detected. Therefore, it introduces a way out to the need for the cumbersome and specific bioconjugation of the QDs to the corresponding specific recognition antibody for every target analyte (protein). Results obtained were validated with those obtained using UV–vis spectrophotometry and commercial ELISA Kits. As expected, ICP-MS offered one order of magnitude lower DL (0.23 fmol absolute for transferrin) than the classical spectrophotometric detection (3.2 fmol absolute). ICP-MS precision and detection limits, however turned out to be compromised by procedural blanks. The full analytical performance of the ICP-MS-based immunoassay proposed was assessed for detection of transferrin (Tf), present at the low ng mL{sup −1} range in a complex “model” synthetic matrix, where the total protein

  10. An Architecture for Intrusion Detection Based on an Extension of the Method of Remaining Elements

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    P. Velarde-Alvarado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection architecture based on behavioral traffic profiles createdby using our enhanced version of the Method of Remaining Elements (MRE. This enhanced version includes: aredefinition of the exposure threshold through the entropy and cardinality of residual sequences, a dualcharacterization for two types of traffic slots, the introduction of the Anomaly Level Exposure (ALE that gives a betterquantification of anomalies for a given traffic slot and r-feature, an alternative support that extends its detectioncapabilities, and a new procedure to obtain the exposure threshold through an analysis of outliers on the trainingdataset. Regarding the original MRE, we incorporate the refinements outlined resulting in a reliable method, whichgives an improved sensitivity to the detection of a broader range of attacks. The experiments were conducted on theMIT-DARPA dataset and also on an academic LAN by implementing real attacks. The results show that the proposedarchitecture is effective in early detection of intrusions, as well as some kind of attacks designed to bypass detectionmeasures.

  11. Gold-nanoparticle-based assay for instantaneous detection of nuclear hormone receptor-response elements interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yen Nee; Su, Xiaodi; Liu, Edison T; Thomsen, Jane S

    2010-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are widely used as colorimetric probes for biosensing, relying on their unique particle size-dependent and/or interparticle distance-dependent extinction spectrum and solution color. Herein, we describe an AuNP-based colorimetric assay to detect binding interactions between nuclear hormone receptors and their corresponding DNA-binding elements, particularly the human estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) and their cognate estrogen response elements (EREs). We found that the protein-DNA (ER-ERE) complexes can stabilize citrate anion-capped AuNPs against salt-induced aggregation to a larger extent than the protein (ER) or the DNA (ERE) alone, due to their unique molecular size and charge properties that provide a strong electrosteric protection. Moreover, our results show that the extent of stabilization is sequence-dependent and can distinguish a single base variation in the ERE associated with minor changes in protein-DNA binding affinity. With this assay, many important parameters of protein-DNA binding events (e.g., sequence selectivity, distinct DNA binding properties of protein subtypes, binding stoichiometry, and sequence-independent transient binding) can be determined instantly without using labels, tedious sample preparations, and sophisticated instrumentation. These benefits, in particular the high-throughput potential, could enable this assay to become the assay of choice to complement conventional techniques for large scale characterization of protein-DNA interactions, a key aspect in biological research.

  12. An Automatic Detection Method of Nanocomposite Film Element Based on GLCM and Adaboost M1

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    Hai Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic detection model adopting pattern recognition technology is proposed in this paper; it can realize the measurement to the element of nanocomposite film. The features of gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM can be extracted from different types of surface morphology images of film; after that, the dimension reduction of film can be handled by principal component analysis (PCA. So it is possible to identify the element of film according to the Adaboost M1 algorithm of a strong classifier with ten decision tree classifiers. The experimental result shows that this model is superior to the ones of SVM (support vector machine, NN and BayesNet. The method proposed can be widely applied to the automatic detection of not only nanocomposite film element but also other nanocomposite material elements.

  13. Surface Plasmon Resonance Investigations of Bioselective Element Based on the Recombinant Protein A for Immunoglobulin Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmachuk, A.; Gorbatiuk, O.; Rachkov, A.; Dons'koi, B.; Khristosenko, R.; Ushenin, I.; Peshkova, V.; Soldatkin, A.

    2017-02-01

    The developed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on the recombinant Staphylococcal protein A with an additional cysteine residue (SPA-Cys) used as a biorecognition component showed a good selectivity and sensitivity for the immunoglobulin detection. The developed biosensor with SPA-Cys-based bioselective element can also be used as a first step of immunosensor creation. The successful immobilization of SPA-Cys on the nanolayer gold sensor surface of the SPR spectrometer was performed. The efficiency of blocking nonspecific sorption sites on the sensor surface with milk proteins, gelatin, BSA, and HSA was studied, and a rather high efficiency of using gelatin was confirmed. The SPR biosensor selectively interacted with IgG and did not interact with the control proteins. The linear dependence of the sensor response on the IgG concentration in the range from 2 to 10 μg/ml was shown. Using the calibration curve, the IgG concentration was measured in the model samples. The determined concentrations are in good agreement ( r 2 = 0.97) with the given concentration of IgG.

  14. Compound faults detection of rolling element bearing based on the generalized demodulation algorithm under time-varying rotational speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dezun; Li, Jianyong; Cheng, Weidong; Wen, Weigang

    2016-09-01

    Multi-fault detection of the rolling element bearing under time-varying rotational speed presents a challenging issue due to its complexity, disproportion and interaction. Computed order analysis (COA) is one of the most effective approaches to remove the influences of speed fluctuation, and detect all the features of multi-fault. However, many interference components in the envelope order spectrum may lead to false diagnosis results, in addition, the deficiencies of computational accuracy and efficiency also cannot be neglected. To address these issues, a novel method for compound faults detection of rolling element bearing based on the generalized demodulation (GD) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The main idea of the proposed method is to exploit the unique property of the generalized demodulation algorithm in transforming an interested instantaneous frequency trajectory of compound faults bearing signal into a line paralleling to the time axis, and then the FFT algorithm can be directly applied to the transformed signal. This novel method does not need angular resampling algorithm which is the key step of the computed order analysis, and is hence free from the deficiencies of computational error and efficiency. On the other hand, it only acts on the instantaneous fault characteristic frequency trends in envelope signal of multi-fault bearing which include rich fault information, and is hence free from irrelevant items interferences. Both simulated and experimental faulty bearing signal analysis validate that the proposed method is effective and reliable on the compound faults detection of rolling element bearing under variable rotational speed conditions. The comprehensive comparison with the computed order analysis further shows that the proposed method produces higher accurate results in less computation time.

  15. Metal-core piezoelectric fiber-based smart layer for damage detection using sparse virtual element boundary measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Cheng, Li; Qiu, Jinhao; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-04-01

    Metal-core Piezoelectric Fiber (MPF) was shown to have great potential to be a structurally integrated sensor for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Compared with the typical foil strain gauge, MPF is more suitable for high frequency strain measurement and can create direct conversion of mechanical energy into electric energy without the need for complex signal conditioners or gauge bridges. In this paper, a MPF-based smart layer is developed as an embedded network of distributed strain sensors that can be surface-mounted on a thin-walled structure. Each pair of the adjacent MPFs divides the entire structure into several "virtual elements (VEs)". By exciting the structure at the natural frequency of the VE, a "weak" formulation of the previously developed Pseudo-excitation (PE) approach based on sparse virtual element boundary measurement (VEBM) is proposed to detect the damage. To validate the effectiveness of the VEBM based approach, experiments are conducted to locate a small crack in a cantilever beam by using a MPF- based smart layer and a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). Results demonstrate that the proposed VEBM approach not only inherits the enhanced noise immunity capability of the "weak" formulation of the PE approach, but also allows a significant reduction in the number of measurement points as compared to the original version of the PE approach.

  16. A tactile sensing element based on a hetero-core optical fiber for force measurement and texture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Koyama, Yuya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    Tactile sensing technology can measure a given property of an object through physical contact between a sensing element and the object. Various tactile sensing techniques have been developed for several applications such as intelligent robots, tactile interface, medical support and nursing care support. A desirable tactile sensing element for supporting human daily life can be embedded in the soft material with high sensitivity and accuracy in order to prevent from damaging to human or object physically. This report describes a new tactile sensing element. Hetero-core optical fibers have high sensitivity of macro-bending at local sensor portion and temperature independency, including advantages of optical fiber itself; thin size, light weight, flexible transmission line, and immunity to electro-magnetic interference. The proposed tactile sensing element could detect textures of touched objects through the optical loss caused by the force applied to the sensing element. The characteristics of the sensing element have been evaluated, in which the sensing element has the monotonic and non-linear sensitivity against the normal force ranged from 0 to 5 N with lower accuracy than 0.25 dB. Additionally, texture detection have been successfully demonstrated in which small surface figures of 0.1 mm in height were detected with spatial resolution of 0.4 mm.

  17. Magnetic particle-based sandwich sensor with DNA-modified carbon nanotubes as recognition elements for detection of DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Po; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Yuan Fang; Ling, Jian; Liu, Yu Ling; Fei, Liang Run; Xie, Jian Ping

    2008-03-01

    In this contribution, we design a visual sensor for DNA hybridization with DNA probe-modified magnetic particles (MPs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) without involving a visual recognition element such as fluorescent/chemiluminescent reagents. It was found that DNA probe-modified MWNTs, which could be dispersed in aqueous medium and have strong light scattering signals under the excitation of a light beam in the UV-vis region, could connect with DNA probe-modified MPs together in the presence of perfectly complementary target DNA and form a sandwich structure. In a magnetic field, the formed MP-MWNT species can easily be removed from the solution, resulting in a decrease of light scattering signals. Thus, a magnetic particle-based sandwich sensor could be developed to detect DNA hybridization by measuring the light scattering signals with DNA-modified MWNTs as recognition elements. Experiments showed that the DNA-modified MPs sensor could be reused at least 17 times and was stable for more than 6 months.

  18. New Detection System for Heavy Element Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, Y S; Voinov, A A; Shumeyko, M V

    2015-01-01

    New detection system design for heavy element research with 48Ca projectile has been reported. This system is based on application of 32 position sensitive strip PIPS detector and low pressure pentane filled TOF detector application in 48Ca induced nuclear reactions. To suppress beam associated background products new version of real time method of active correlations has been applied. Examples of applications in 249Bk+48Ca and 243Am+48Ca reactions are presented. The system development to operate together with the digital ORNL detection system to provide a quick search for recoil to alpha correlation chains has been discussed too.

  19. Multi-fault detection of rolling element bearings under harsh working condition using IMF-based adaptive envelope order analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuejun

    2014-10-28

    When operating under harsh condition (e.g., time-varying speed and load, large shocks), the vibration signals of rolling element bearings are always manifested as low signal noise ratio, non-stationary statistical parameters, which cause difficulties for current diagnostic methods. As such, an IMF-based adaptive envelope order analysis (IMF-AEOA) is proposed for bearing fault detection under such conditions. This approach is established through combining the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), envelope order tracking and fault sensitive analysis. In this scheme, EEMD provides an effective way to adaptively decompose the raw vibration signal into IMFs with different frequency bands. The envelope order tracking is further employed to transform the envelope of each IMF to angular domain to eliminate the spectral smearing induced by speed variation, which makes the bearing characteristic frequencies more clear and discernible in the envelope order spectrum. Finally, a fault sensitive matrix is established to select the optimal IMF containing the richest diagnostic information for final decision making. The effectiveness of IMF-AEOA is validated by simulated signal and experimental data from locomotive bearings. The result shows that IMF-AEOA could accurately identify both single and multiple faults of bearing even under time-varying rotating speed and large extraneous shocks.

  20. Detection of weak transient signals based on wavelet packet transform and manifold learning for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Xu, Guanghua; Liang, Lin; Jiang, Kuosheng

    2015-03-01

    The kurtogram-based methods have been proved powerful and practical to detect and characterize transient components in a signal. The basic idea of the kurtogram-based methods is to use the kurtosis as a measure to discover the presence of transient impulse components and to indicate the frequency band where these occur. However, the performance of the kurtogram-based methods is poor due to the low signal-to-noise ratio. As the weak transient signal with a wide spread frequency band can be easily masked by noise. Besides, selecting signal just in one frequency band will leave out some transient features. Aiming at these shortcomings, different frequency bands signal fusion is adopted in this paper. Considering that manifold learning aims at discovering the nonlinear intrinsic structure which embedded in high dimensional data, this paper proposes a waveform feature manifold (WFM) method to extract the weak signature from waveform feature space which obtained by binary wavelet packet transform. Minimum permutation entropy is used to select the optimal parameter in a manifold learning algorithm. A simulated bearing fault signal and two real bearing fault signals are used to validate the improved performance of the proposed method through the comparison with the kurtogram-based methods. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the kurtogram-based methods and is effective in weak signature extraction.

  1. Combining classifiers for robust PICO element detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grad Roland

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formulating a clinical information need in terms of the four atomic parts which are Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome (known as PICO elements facilitates searching for a precise answer within a large medical citation database. However, using PICO defined items in the information retrieval process requires a search engine to be able to detect and index PICO elements in the collection in order for the system to retrieve relevant documents. Methods In this study, we tested multiple supervised classification algorithms and their combinations for detecting PICO elements within medical abstracts. Using the structural descriptors that are embedded in some medical abstracts, we have automatically gathered large training/testing data sets for each PICO element. Results Combining multiple classifiers using a weighted linear combination of their prediction scores achieves promising results with an f-measure score of 86.3% for P, 67% for I and 56.6% for O. Conclusions Our experiments on the identification of PICO elements showed that the task is very challenging. Nevertheless, the performance achieved by our identification method is competitive with previously published results and shows that this task can be achieved with a high accuracy for the P element but lower ones for I and O elements.

  2. A contact detection algorithm for deformable tetrahedral geometries based on a novel approach for general simplices used in the discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stühler, Sven; Fleissner, Florian; Eberhard, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present an extended particle model for the discrete element method that on the one hand is tetrahedral in shape and on the other hand is capable to describe deformations. The deformations of the tetrahedral particles require a framework to interrelate the particle strains and resulting stresses. Hence, adaptations from the finite element method were used. This allows to link the two methods and to adequately describe material and simulation parameters separately in each scope. Due to the complexity arising of the non-spherical tetrahedral geometry, all possible contact combinations of vertices, edges, and surfaces must be considered by the used contact detection algorithm. The deformations of the particles make the contact evaluation even more challenging. Therefore, a robust contact detection algorithm based on an optimization approach that exploits temporal coherence is presented. This algorithm is suitable for general {R}^{{n}} simplices. An evaluation of the robustness of this algorithm is performed using a numerical example. In order to create complex geometries, bonds between these deformable particles are introduced. This coupling via the tetrahedra faces allows the simulation bonding of deformable bodies composed of several particles. Numerical examples are presented and validated with results that are obtained by the same simulation setup modeled with the finite element method. The intention of using these bonds is to be able to model fracture and material failure. Therefore, the bonds between the particles are not lasting and feature a release mechanism based on a predefined criterion.

  3. A Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE)-Based Real-Time PCR Approach to Detect and Quantify Porcine Component in Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Fang, Xin; Qiu, Haopu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PCR amplification of mitochondria gene could not be used for DNA quantification, and that of single copy DNA did not allow an ideal sensitivity. Moreover, cross-reactions among similar species were commonly observed in the published methods amplifying repetitive sequence, which hindered their further application. The purpose of this study was to establish a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-based real-time PCR approach having high specificity for species detection that could be used in DNA quantification. After massive screening of candidate Sus scrofa SINEs, one optimal combination of primers and probe was selected, which had no cross-reaction with other common meat species. LOD of the method was 44 fg DNA/reaction. Further, quantification tests showed this approach was practical in DNA estimation without tissue variance. Thus, this study provided a new tool for qualitative detection of porcine component, which could be promising in the QC of meat products.

  4. Element-Based Computational Model

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    Conrad Mueller

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A variation on the data-flow model is proposed to use for developing parallel architectures. While the model is a data driven model it has significant differences to the data-flow model. The proposed model has an evaluation cycleof processing elements (encapsulated data that is similar to the instruction cycle of the von Neumann model. The elements contain the information required to process them. The model is inherently parallel. An emulation of the model has been implemented. The objective of this paper is to motivate support for taking the research further. Using matrix multiplication as a case study, the element/data-flow based model is compared with the instruction-based model. This is done using complexity analysis followed by empirical testing to verify this analysis. The positive results are given as motivation for the research to be taken to the next stage - that is, implementing the model using FPGAs.

  5. Conductometric Sensors for Detection of Elemental Mercury Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Kisor, A. K.; Manatt, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Several organic and inorganic materials have been tested for possible incorporation into a sensing array in order to add elemental mercury vapor to the suite of chemical species detected. Materials have included gold films, treated gold films, polymer-carbon composite films, gold-polymer-carbon composite films and palladium chloride sintered films. The toxicity of mercury and its adverse effect on human and animal health has made environmental monitoring of mercury in gas and liquid phases important (1,2). As consumer products which contain elemental mercury, such as fluorescent lighting, become more widespread, the need to monitor environments for the presence of vapor phase elemental mercury will increase. Sensors in use today to detect mercury in gaseous streams are generally based on amalgam formation with gold or other metals, including noble metals and aluminum. Recently, NASA has recognized a need to detect elemental mercury vapor in the breathing atmosphere of the crew cabin in spacecraft and has requested that such a capability be incorporated into the JPL Electronic Nose (3). The detection concentration target for this application is 10 parts-per-billion (ppb), or 0.08 mg/m3. In order to respond to the request to incorporate mercury sensing into the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) platform, it was necessary to consider only conductometric methods of sensing, as any other transduction method would have required redesign of the platform. Any mercury detection technique which could not be incorporated into the existing platform, such as an electrochemical technique, could not be considered.

  6. Application of binary optical element to infrared hyperspectral detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Qiang(孙强); YU; Bin(于斌); LIU; Yuling(刘玉玲); LU; Zhenwu(卢振武); CHEN; Bo(陈波); WANG; Zhaoqi(王肇圻); MU; Guoguang(母国光)

    2003-01-01

    Binary optical element (BOE) is applied to infrared hyperspectral detector. A new type of infrared hyperspectral detecting image system is designed based on the characteristics of abundant color-dispersion of BOE, and an example of combining refractive-diffractive zoom optical system with Cassegrain system is presented. The system not only has simple structure, long back-working distance and few requirements for material but also can increase the image resolution, abilities of accepting ray energy and registration. Consequently, by adding an appropriate stare array detector to the system, the detecting precision can be raised.

  7. International Conference on LIght Detection in Noble Elements

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the Light Detection in Noble Elements (LIDINE) 2015 conference is to promote discussion between the members of the particle and nuclear physics communities about light and charge collection in detectors based on liquid or gaseous noble elements, xenon and argon being the most common, but neon and helium also in use, and represented at this conference. The neutrino physics, ultra-cold neutron study, dark matter search, and medical physics communities all utilize noble-based detector technologies, recording UV scintillation and/or ionization. Therefore, this will be an interdisciplinary opportunity for information exchange, and a chance for each of these communities enumerated above, in the U.S. as well as abroad, to expand their technical knowledge bases.

  8. An Airborne Ultrasonic Imaging System Based on 16 Elements: 150 kHz Piezopolymer Transducer Arrays—Preliminary Simulated and Experimental Results for Cylindrical Targets Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capineri, L.; Bulletti, A.; Calzolai, M.; Giannelli, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a 16-element transducer array for airborne ultrasonic imaging operating at 150 kHz, that can operate both at close range (50 mm) in the near field of a synthetic aperture, and up to 250 mm. The proposed imaging technique is based on a modified version of the delay and sum algorithm implemented with a synthetic aperture where each pixel amplitude is determined by the integration of the signal obtained by the coherent summation of the acquired signals over a delayed window with fixed length. The image reconstruction methods using raw data provides the possibility to detect targets with smaller feature size on the order of one wavelength because the coherent signals summation over the selected window length while the image reconstruction methods using the summation of enveloped signals increases the amplitude response at the expenses of a lower spatial resolution. For the implementation of this system it is important to design compact airborne transducers with large field of view and this can be obtained with a new design of hemi-cylindrical polyvinylidene fluoride film transducers directly mounted on a printed circuit board. This new method is low cost and has repeatable transducer characteristics. The complete system is compact, with a modular architecture, in which eight boards with dual ultrasonic channels are mounted on a mother board. Each daughter board hosts a microcontroller unit and can operate with transducers in the bandwidth 40-200 kHz with on-board data acquisition, pre-processing and transfer on a dedicated bus.

  9. New detection method for rolling element and bearing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchill, R. F.; Frarey, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Instrument for detecting defects in rolling elements of bearings is described. Detection depends on rate at which rolling elements impact defect and establishes envelope amplitude of ball resonant frequency. Block diagram of instrument is provided and results obtained in conducting tests are reported.

  10. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section 108.413 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection...

  11. Fluidic Elements based on Coanda Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin OLIVOTTO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains first some definitions and classifications regarding the fluidic elements. Thegeneral current status is presented, nominating the main specific elements based on the Coanda effect developedspecially in Romania. In particularly the development of an original bistable element using industrial compressedair at industrial pressure supply is presented. The function of this element is based on the controlled attachmentof the main jet at a curved wall through the Coanda effect. The methods used for particular calculation andexperiments are nominated. The main application of these elements was to develop a specific execution element:a fluidic step–by-step motor based on the Coanda effect.

  12. A Miniaturized On-Chip Colorimeter for Detecting NPK Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Tao; Tao, Lu-Qi; Liu, Bo; Tian, Xiang-Guang; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Recently, precision agriculture has become a globally attractive topic. As one of the most important factors, the soil nutrients play an important role in estimating the development of precision agriculture. Detecting the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) elements more efficiently is one of the key issues. In this paper, a novel chip-level colorimeter was fabricated to detect the NPK elements for the first time. A light source–microchannel photodetector in a sandwich structure was designed to realize on-chip detection. Compared with a commercial colorimeter, all key parts are based on MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology so that the volume of this on-chip colorimeter can be minimized. Besides, less error and high precision are achieved. The cost of this colorimeter is two orders of magnitude less than that of a commercial one. All these advantages enable a low-cost and high-precision sensing operation in a monitoring network. The colorimeter developed herein has bright prospects for environmental and biological applications. PMID:27527177

  13. [PCR detection of transgenic elements in feed raw material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Dao-Jian; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Jin, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Pei-Qing; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Cheng, Ying-Hui

    2002-05-01

    Based on the heterogeneous genes usually used in transgenic crops, the PCR technique was performed with primers derived from CaMV 35S promoter (35S-promoter,originated from cauliflower mosaic virus), NOS terminator (nopaline synthase-terminator,derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens), EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, and CryIA(b) (delta-endotoxin,evolved from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) gene to detect transgenic agents from feed raw materials of soybean dregs and corn gluten meal, respectively. Endogenous corn Zein (a protein extracted from corn gluten) gene, soybean Lectin (chitin-binding protein) gene and negative, positive control were applied for avoiding false results. The method established here has been successfully applied in detecting transgenic elements in imported feed raw material.

  14. Elements of the tsunami precursors' detection physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Oleg; Ruzhin, Yuri; Ershov, Sergey; Volgin, Max; Smirnov, Fedor

    In accordance with the main physical principles and geophysical data, we formulated a nonlinear mathematical model of seismo-hydro-electromagnetic (EM) geophysical field interaction and calculated generation and propagation of elastic, EM, temperature and hydrodynamic seismically generated disturbances (i.e. signals) in the basin of a marginal sea. We show transferring of seismic and electromagnetic (EM) energy from the upper mantle beneath the sea into its depths and EM emission from the sea surface into the atmosphere. Basing on the calculated characteristics of the signals of different physical nature (computations correspond to measurements of other authors) we develop the project of a Lithosphere-Ocean-Atmosphere Monitoring System (LOAMS) including: a bottom complex, a moored ocean surface buoy complex, an observational balloon complex, and satellite complex. The underwater stations of the bottom complex of the LOAMS will record the earlier signals of seismic activation beneath a seafloor (the ULF EM signals outrun seismic ones, according to the above calculations) and localize the seafloor epicenter of an expected seaquake. These stations will be equipped, in particular, with: magnetometers, the lines for the electric field measurements, and magneto-telluric blocks to discover dynamics of physical parameters beneath a sea floor as signs of a seaquake and/or tsunami preparation process. The buoy and balloon complexes of the LOAMS will record the meteorological and oceanographic parameters' variations including changes of reflection from a sea surface (tsunami ‘shadows’) caused by a tsunami wave propagation. Cables of the balloon and moored buoy will be used as receiving antennas and for multidisciplinary measurements including gradients of the fields (we show the cases are possible when the first seismic EM signal will be registered by an antenna above a sea). Also, the project includes radio-tomography with satellite instrumentation and sounding of the

  15. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  16. Detection of transposable elements by their compositional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxolabéhère Dominique

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TE are mobile genetic entities present in nearly all genomes. Previous work has shown that TEs tend to have a different nucleotide composition than the host genes, either considering codon usage bias or dinucleotide frequencies. We show here how these compositional differences can be used as a tool for detection and analysis of TE sequences. Results We compared the composition of TE sequences and host gene sequences using probabilistic models of nucleotide sequences. We used hidden Markov models (HMM, which take into account the base composition of the sequences (occurrences of words n nucleotides long, with n ranging here from 1 to 4 and the heterogeneity between coding and non-coding parts of sequences. We analyzed three sets of sequences containing class I TEs, class II TEs and genes respectively in three species: Drosophila melanogaster, Cænorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana. Each of these sets had a distinct, homogeneous composition, enabling us to distinguish between the two classes of TE and the genes. However the particular base composition of the TEs differed in the three species studied. Conclusions This approach can be used to detect and annotate TEs in genomic sequences and complements the current homology-based TE detection methods. Furthermore, the HMM method is able to identify the parts of a sequence in which the nucleotide composition resembles that of a coding region of a TE. This is useful for the detailed annotation of TE sequences, which may contain an ancient, highly diverged coding region that is no longer fully functional.

  17. 基于HSL空间彩色图像多结构元形态边缘检测%Edge detection of color image based on multi-structural elements morphology of HSL space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金凤; 焦斌亮

    2011-01-01

    构建了一类在HSL颜色空间基于多结构元彩色形态边缘梯度检测算法实现彩色图像边缘检测新算法,多结构元形态边缘检测有着比单一结构元素形态边缘检测更优越的性能.该方法是把RGB空间的彩色图像转换到HSL空间,并且定义了在HSL空间的彩色形态学基本算子,提出了改进的多结构元彩色形态边缘检测算法.经过大量实验证明,该算法在有噪声的干扰下,比传统的方法能够更好地抑制噪声并提取有用的图像边缘信息,能满足不同的应用需要.%A new method of realizing edge detection for color image is constructed based on the gradient algorithm of multi-structuring elements morphology in HSL space.The ability of edge detection based on multi-structuring elements morphology is superior to single-structuring element.In this method color image of RGB space is converted into image of HSL space, the basic color morphological operators in HSL space are defined and improved multi-structuring elements color morphological operators are proposed.The experiments show that this algorithm can more effectively suppress noise and better extract useful image edge information than traditional methods,and it can meet various requirements in application.

  18. Single Element Excitation and Detection of (Micro-)Mechanical Resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilmans, Harrie A.C.; IJntema, Dominicus .J.; Fluitman, Jan H.J

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a single-element approach for the excitation and detection of the vibrational motion of (micro-)mechanical resonators. An equivalent electrical one-port network is derived for an electrostatically and a piezoelectrically driven resonator. In this way, the effect of the mechanica

  19. Oriented antibodies as versatile detection element in biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore orientation of detection elements on biosensor surfaces. To this end, different strategies were combined such as surface chemistry and protein functionalization, with the aim to generate a platform for oriented immobilization of antibodies in biosensors. Chapte

  20. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  1. Single-atom detection of light elements: Imaging or spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Ryosuke; Suenaga, Kazu

    2017-09-01

    Single-atom imaging and spectroscopy at a lower accelerating voltage (~60kV) has been largely facilitated by the development of aberration correctors for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/ scanning TEM (STEM). Such an STEM condition will reduce beam damage and has therefore been demonstrated capable of detecting individual atoms of light elements including B, C, and N in mono-layered materials. However, other light elements such as Li, O, or F are still difficult to visualise as individual atoms by using conventional STEM/TEM imaging because their extremely weak contrast can be often smeared out by the other atoms nearby. In this paper, we demonstrate the successful detection of these 'hardly visible' atoms in the spectroscopy mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-24

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha.|.noteq.1). A load impedance is located on the traditional Smith chart and projected onto the fractional order Smith chart. A fractional order matching element is determined by transitioning along a matching circle of the fractional order Smith chart based at least in part upon characteristic line impedance. In another embodiment, a system includes a fractional order impedance matching application executed in a computing device. The fractional order impedance matching application includes logic that obtains a first set of Smith chart coordinates at a first order, determines a second set of Smith chart coordinates at a second order, and determines a fractional order matching element from the second set of Smith chart coordinates.

  3. 基于光导毛细管器件的 SPR生物传感器及 IgG检测%SPR biosensor based on light guiding capillary element and IgG detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 李明洋; 程昉; 刘云; 刘秀鑫; 彭伟

    2015-01-01

    光纤表面等离子体共振(surface plasmon resonance,SPR)传感技术具有免标记、灵敏度高、体积小、成本低等优点.在传统的光纤 SPR 传感器件基础上设计制造了光导毛细管SPR 传感器件,利用自行研制的波长调制式 SPR 传感装置,对器件灵敏度、分辨率和检测精密度等方面的性能进行了评价.相比光纤 SPR 传感器件,光导毛细管 SPR 传感器件产生更显著的 SPR 效应,提高系统分辨率达9.6×10-6 RIU(折射率单位).应用光导毛细管 SPR 传感器件可进行 IgG 快速、定量检测,检测线性范围受传感区固定的蛋白 A 疏密程度影响,其中0.01 mg/mL 蛋白 A 修饰条件下检测线性范围是0.33~1.53μmol/L,0.10 mg/mL 蛋白A 修饰条件下检测线性范围是0.20~3.67μmol/L;并进行了蛋白 A-IgG 的解离常数测定, Kd=1.4×10-7 mol/L.相对于现有商业 SPR 仪器,基于光导毛细管器件的 SPR 生物传感器使用成本低、便携性好,具有良好的应用前景.%Fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR)sensing technology has the advantages of label-free,high sensitivity,miniaturization and low cost,etc..The light guiding capillary SPR sensing element was fabricated on the basis of the fiber-optic SPR sensing element.Using the home-built wavelength-modulated SPR sensing apparatus,their sensitivity,resolution and precision of detection were evaluated.Compared with the fiber-optic SPR sensing element,the light guiding capillary SPR sensing element generates a stronger SPR effect and improves the system resolution (9.6×10 -6 refractive index unit).Using the light guiding capillary SPR sensing element to detect IgG could achieve rapid and quantitative detection.The linear detection range of IgG is affected by the density of protein A immobilized on the sensing area,and under 0.01 mg/mL protein A modified condition is 0.33-1.53 μmol/L,under 0.10 mg/mL protein A modified condition is 0.20-3.67 μmol/L.Moreover,the dissociation

  4. Multi-perspectives Algorithm of Edge Detection Based on Real Number Structural Element%基于实数结构元素的多角度边缘检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪宗辉; 刘秉瀚

    2011-01-01

    As the traditional methods such as Sobel, Robert, Prewitt , Log ,Canny and so on are sensitive to noise . And the algorithm of edge detection based on traditional mathematical morphology can not using spatial information effectively, so they are difficult to de-tect complex edge feature. This article proposes multi_ perspectives algorithm of edge detection based on real number structural element, this algorithm can use distance and multiple perspectives completely. At last the experimental results show that this algorithm can filter noise successfully and is efficient for complex edge detection in the processing of images which have complex edge.%由于传统的边缘提取方法如Sobel、Robert、Prewitt、Log和Canny等对噪声十分敏感,而基于传统数学形态学的边缘检测算法又不能很好地利用空间信息,很难对复杂边界进行有效的处理.本文提出基于实数结构元素的多角度边缘检测算法,该算法可以充分地反映空间距离以及各个角度对边缘检测的影响.最后通过实验说明该算法在复杂图像的边缘提取中不仅有很强的抗噪性,而且可以有效地提取图像边缘.

  5. Bacteriophage-Based Pathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Steven

    Considered the most abundant organism on Earth, at a population approaching 1031, bacteriophage, or phage for short, mediate interactions with myriad bacterial hosts that has for decades been exploited in phage typing schemes for signature identification of clinical, food-borne, and water-borne pathogens. With over 5,000 phage being morphologically characterized and grouped as to susceptible host, there exists an enormous cache of bacterial-specific sensors that has more recently been incorporated into novel bio-recognition assays with heightened sensitivity, specificity, and speed. These assays take many forms, ranging from straightforward visualization of labeled phage as they attach to their specific bacterial hosts to reporter phage that genetically deposit trackable signals within their bacterial hosts to the detection of progeny phage or other uniquely identifiable elements released from infected host cells. A comprehensive review of these and other phage-based detection assays, as directed towards the detection and monitoring of bacterial pathogens, will be provided in this chapter.

  6. A functional gene array for detection of bacterial virulence elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Jaing

    Full Text Available Emerging known and unknown pathogens create profound threats to public health. Platforms for rapid detection and characterization of microbial agents are critically needed to prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. Available detection technologies cannot provide broad functional information about known or novel organisms. As a step toward developing such a system, we have produced and tested a series of high-density functional gene arrays to detect elements of virulence and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Our first generation array targets genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined optimal probe design parameters for gene family detection and discrimination. When tested with organisms at varying phylogenetic distances from the four target strains, the array detected orthologs for the majority of targeted gene families present in bacteria belonging to the same taxonomic family. In combination with whole-genome amplification, the array detects femtogram concentrations of purified DNA, either spiked in to an aerosol sample background, or in combinations from one or more of the four target organisms. This is the first report of a high density NimbleGen microarray system targeting microbial antibiotic resistance and virulence mechanisms. By targeting virulence gene families as well as genes unique to specific biothreat agents, these arrays will provide important data about the pathogenic potential and drug resistance profiles of unknown organisms in environmental samples.

  7. Detection of visible and latent fingerprints using micro-X-ray fluorescence elemental imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Christopher G; Wiltshire, Sara S; Miller, Thomasin C; Havrilla, George J; Majidi, Vahid

    2006-01-01

    Using micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF), a novel means of detecting fingerprints was examined in which the prints were imaged based on their elemental composition. MXRF is a nondestructive technique. Although this method requires a priori knowledge about the approximate location of a print, it offers a new and complementary means for detecting fingerprints that are also left pristine for further analysis (including potential DNA extraction) or archiving purposes. Sebaceous fingerprints and those made after perspiring were detected based on elements such as potassium and chlorine present in the print residue. Unique prints were also detected including those containing lotion, saliva, banana, or sunscreen. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the potential for visualizing fingerprints by MXRF on surfaces that can be problematic using current methods.

  8. Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2016-10-20

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.

  9. Phylogeny based discovery of regulatory elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Barak A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algorithms that locate evolutionarily conserved sequences have become powerful tools for finding functional DNA elements, including transcription factor binding sites; however, most methods do not take advantage of an explicit model for the constrained evolution of functional DNA sequences. Results We developed a probabilistic framework that combines an HKY85 model, which assigns probabilities to different base substitutions between species, and weight matrix models of transcription factor binding sites, which describe the probabilities of observing particular nucleotides at specific positions in the binding site. The method incorporates the phylogenies of the species under consideration and takes into account the position specific variation of transcription factor binding sites. Using our framework we assessed the suitability of alignments of genomic sequences from commonly used species as substrates for comparative genomic approaches to regulatory motif finding. We then applied this technique to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species by examining all possible six base pair DNA sequences (hexamers and identifying sequences that are conserved in a significant number of promoters. By combining similar conserved hexamers we reconstructed known cis-regulatory motifs and made predictions of previously unidentified motifs. We tested one prediction experimentally, finding it to be a regulatory element involved in the transcriptional response to glucose. Conclusion The experimental validation of a regulatory element prediction missed by other large-scale motif finding studies demonstrates that our approach is a useful addition to the current suite of tools for finding regulatory motifs.

  10. Immunity Based Worm Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Zheng; WU Li-fa; WANG Yuan-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Current worm detection methods are unable to detect multi-vector polymorphic worms effectively.Based on negative selection mechanism of the immune system,a local network worm detection system that detects worms was proposed.Normal network service requests were represented by self-strings,and the detection system used self-strings to monitor the network for anomaly.According to the properties of worm propagation,a control center correlated the anomalies detected in the form of binary trees to ensure the accuracy of worm detection.Experiments show the system to be effective in detecting the traditional as well as multi-vector polymorphic worms.

  11. Automated muscle wrapping using finite element contact detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Philippe; Gerber, Christian; Snedeker, Jess G

    2010-07-20

    Realistic muscle path representation is essential to musculoskeletal modeling of joint function. Algorithms predicting these muscle paths typically rely on a labor intensive predefinition of via points or underlying geometries to guide wrapping for given joint positions. While muscle wrapping using anatomically precise three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of bone and muscle has been achieved, computational expense and pre-processing associated with this approach exclude its use in applications such as subject-specific modeling. With the intention of combining advantageous features of both approaches, an intermediate technique relying on contact detection capabilities of commercial FE packages is presented. We applied the approach to the glenohumeral joint, and validated the method by comparison against existing experimental data. Individual muscles were modeled as a straight series of deformable beam elements and bones as anatomically precise 3D rigid bodies. Only the attachment locations and a default orientation of the undeformed muscle segment were pre-defined. The joint was then oriented in a static position of interest. The muscle segment free end was then moved along the shortest Euclidean path to its origin on the scapula, wrapping the muscle along bone surfaces by relying on software contact detection. After wrapping for a given position, the resulting moment arm was computed as the perpendicular distance from the line of action vector to the humeral head center of rotation. This approach reasonably predicted muscle length and moment arm for 27 muscle segments when compared to experimental measurements over a wide range of shoulder motion. Artificial via points or underlying contact geometries were avoided, contact detection and multiobject wrapping on the bone surfaces were automatic, and low computational cost permitted wrapping of individual muscles within seconds on a standard desktop PC. These advantages may be valuable for both general

  12. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including tooth elements for alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2016-11-22

    Examples are described including assay platforms having tooth elements. An impinging element may sequentially engage tooth elements on the assay platform to sequentially align corresponding detection regions with a detection unit. In this manner, multiple measurements may be made of detection regions on the assay platform without necessarily requiring the starting and stopping of a motor.

  13. Compute Element and Interface Box for the Hazard Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Khanoyan, Garen; Stern, Ryan A.; Some, Raphael R.; Bailey, Erik S.; Carson, John M.; Vaughan, Geoffrey M.; Werner, Robert A.; Salomon, Phil M.; Martin, Keith E.; Spaulding, Matthew D.; Luna, Michael E.; Motaghedi, Shui H.; Trawny, Nikolas; Johnson, Andrew E.; Ivanov, Tonislav I.; Huertas, Andres; Whitaker, William D.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) program is building a sensor that enables a spacecraft to evaluate autonomously a potential landing area to generate a list of hazardous and safe landing sites. It will also provide navigation inputs relative to those safe sites. The Hazard Detection System Compute Element (HDS-CE) box combines a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board for sensor integration and timing, with a multicore computer board for processing. The FPGA does system-level timing and data aggregation, and acts as a go-between, removing the real-time requirements from the processor and labeling events with a high resolution time. The processor manages the behavior of the system, controls the instruments connected to the HDS-CE, and services the "heavy lifting" computational requirements for analyzing the potential landing spots.

  14. Reliability-Based Optimization of Structural Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    In this paper structural elements from an optimization point of view are considered, i.e. only the geometry of a structural element is optimized. Reliability modelling of the structural element is discussed both from an element point of view and from a system point of view. The optimization...

  15. BLAT-Based Comparative Analysis for Transposable Elements: BLATCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbum Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes.

  16. BLAT-based comparative analysis for transposable elements: BLATCAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangbum; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Han, Kyudong

    2014-01-01

    The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs) is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT) based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT) program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes.

  17. PICO element detection in medical text without metadata: are first sentences enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke-Chun; Chiang, I-Jen; Xiao, Furen; Liao, Chun-Chih; Liu, Charles Chih-Ho; Wong, Jau-Min

    2013-10-01

    Efficient identification of patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) components in medical articles is helpful in evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this study is to clarify whether first sentences of these components are good enough to train naive Bayes classifiers for sentence-level PICO element detection. We extracted 19,854 structured abstracts of randomized controlled trials with any P/I/O label from PubMed for naive Bayes classifiers training. Performances of classifiers trained by first sentences of each section (CF) and those trained by all sentences (CA) were compared using all sentences by ten-fold cross-validation. The results measured by recall, precision, and F-measures show that there are no significant differences in performance between CF and CA for detection of O-element (F-measure=0.731±0.009 vs. 0.738±0.010, p=0.123). However, CA perform better for I-elements, in terms of recall (0.752±0.012 vs. 0.620±0.007, p<0.001) and F-measures (0.728±0.006 vs. 0.662±0.007, p<0.001). For P-elements, CF have higher precision (0.714±0.009 vs. 0.665±0.010, p<0.001), but lower recall (0.766±0.013 vs. 0.811±0.012, p<0.001). CF are not always better than CA in sentence-level PICO element detection. Their performance varies in detecting different elements.

  18. Movable Genetic Elements: Detection of Changes in Maize DNA at the Shrunken Locus Due to the Intervention of Ds Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.A.

    1980-05-28

    This report describes our initial attempts at the molecular characterization of a maize controlling element. We have prepared a cDNA probe and used it to detect changes at a locus where Ds elements are found. Evidence of their presence are indicated by changes in the restriction patterns, but there is as yet no information on the physical nature of the controlling elements nor on the kinds of rearrangements they cause.

  19. Transition elements based on transfinite interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabas, Onur R.; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    1993-01-01

    In this study the transfinite interpolation methodology, a 'blending-function' method in particular, is utilized for the formulation of transition elements. The method offers a formal way of meeting continuity requirements in a transition element. Element shape functions are derived by blending the continuity requirements of individual boundary segments. The blending directions are naturally orthogonal in rectangular domains therefore interpolation of the boundaries over rectangular 2D and 3D elements can be performed with minimal effort. In triangular domains, however, the choice of blending directions and interpolants is not straightforward. For that reason, two interpolation techniques are proposed for blending of the boundaries of triangular domains. A series of transition elements of various classes compatible with elements of different orders and dimensions is developed and the full potential of the transfinite interpolation, as it applies to element formulation, is explored.

  20. Finite Element Response Sensitivity Analysis: a comparison between force-based and Displacement-Based Frame Element Models

    OpenAIRE

    Barbato, Michele; Conte, J P

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on a comparison between displacement-based and force-based elements for static and dynamic response sensitivity analysis of frame type structures. Previous research has shown that force-based frame elements are superior to classical displacement-based elements enabling, at no significant additional computational costs, a drastic reduction in the number of elements required for a given level of accuracy in the simulated response. The present work shows that this advantage of...

  1. Kriging-Based Finite Element Method: Element-By-Element Kriging Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kanok-Nukulchai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhancement of the finite element method with Kriging shape functions (K-FEM was recently proposed. In this method, the field variables of a boundary value problem are approximated using ‘element-by-element’ piecewise Kriging interpolation (el-KI. For each element, the interpolation function is constructed from a set of nodes within a prescribed domain of influence comprising the element and its several layers of neighbouring elements. This paper presents a numerical study on the accuracy and convergence of the el-KI in function fitting problems. Several examples of functions in two-dimensional space are employed in this study. The results show that very accurate function fittings and excellent convergence can be attained by the el-KI.

  2. A review of flexibility-based finite element method for beam-column elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuang; ZHAI Changhai; XIE Lili

    2009-01-01

    For material nonlinear problem, elements derived with the flexibility-based method are more accurate than classical elements derived with the stiffness-based method. A review of the current state of the art of the flexibility-based finite element method is provided to enhance the robustness of structure analysis. The research on beam-column elements is the mainstream in the research on flexibility-based finite element method at present. The original development of flexibility-based finite element method is reviewed, and the further development of this method is then presented in several specific aspects, such as geometrically nonlinear analysis and dynamic analysis. The further research needed to be carried out in the future is finally discussed.

  3. Features Based Text Similarity Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross cultural border by providing different information, plagiarism issue is bound to arise. As a result, plagiarism detection becomes more demanding in overcoming this issue. Different plagiarism detection tools have been developed based on various detection techniques. Nowadays, fingerprint matching technique plays an important role in those detection tools. However, in handling some large content articles, there are some weaknesses in fingerprint matching technique especially in space and time consumption issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect plagiarism which integrates the use of fingerprint matching technique with four key features to assist in the detection process. These proposed features are capable to choose the main point or key sentence in the articles to be compared. Those selected sentence will be undergo the fingerprint matching process in order to detect the similarity between the sentences. Hence, time and space usage for the comparison process is r...

  4. Finite Element Analysis on Nanomechanical Detection of Small Particles: Toward Virus Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Gaku; Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-01-01

    Detection of small particles, including viruses and particulate matter (PM), has been attracting much attention in light of increasing need for environmental monitoring. Owing to their high versatility, a nanomechanical sensor is one of the most promising sensors which can be adapted to various monitoring systems. In this study, we present an optimization strategy to efficiently detect small particles with nanomechanical sensors. Adsorption of particles on the receptor layer of nanomechanical sensors and the resultant signal are analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA). We investigate the effect of structural parameters (e.g., adsorption position and embedded depth of a particle and thickness of the receptor layer) and elastic properties of the receptor layer (e.g., Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) on the sensitivity. It is found that a membrane-type surface stress sensors (MSS) has the potential for robust detection of small particles. PMID:27148181

  5. A functional gene array for detection of bacterial virulence elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C

    2007-11-01

    We report our development of the first of a series of microarrays designed to detect pathogens with known mechanisms of virulence and antibiotic resistance. By targeting virulence gene families as well as genes unique to specific biothreat agents, these arrays will provide important data about the pathogenic potential and drug resistance profiles of unknown organisms in environmental samples. To validate our approach, we developed a first generation array targeting genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined optimal probe design parameters for microorganism detection and discrimination, measured the required target concentration, and assessed tolerance for mismatches between probe and target sequences. Mismatch tolerance is a priority for this application, due to DNA sequence variability among members of gene families. Arrays were created using the NimbleGen Maskless Array Synthesizer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Purified genomic DNA from combinations of one or more of the four target organisms, pure cultures of four related organisms, and environmental aerosol samples with spiked-in genomic DNA were hybridized to the arrays. Based on the success of this prototype, we plan to design further arrays in this series, with the goal of detecting all known virulence and antibiotic resistance gene families in a greatly expanded set of organisms.

  6. A new multiresolution finite element method based on a multiresolution quadrilateral plate element

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, YiMing

    2014-01-01

    A new multiresolution quadrilateral plate element is proposed and a multiresolution finite element method is hence presented. The multiresolution analysis (MRA) framework is formulated out of a mutually nesting displacement subspace sequence, whose basis functions are constructed of scaling and shifting on the element domain of basic node shape function. The basic node shape function is constructed by extending shape function around a specific node. The MRA endows the proposed element with the resolution level (RL) to adjust the element node number, thus modulating structural analysis accuracy accordingly. As a result, the traditional 4-node quadrilateral plate element and method is a monoresolution one and also a special case of the proposed element and method. The meshing for the monoresolution plate element model is based on the empiricism while the RL adjusting for the multiresolution is laid on the rigorous mathematical basis. The accuracy of a structural analysis is fully determined by the RL, not by th...

  7. A multiresolution finite element method based on a new locking-free rectangular Mindlin plate element

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    A locking-free rectangular Mindlin plate element with a new multi-resolution analysis (MRA) is proposed and a multireolution finite element method is hence presented. The MRA framework is formulated out of a mutually nesting displacement subspace sequence. The MRA endows the proposed element with the resolution level (RL) to adjust the element node number, thus modulating structural analysis accuracy accordingly. As a result, the traditional 4-node rectangular Mindlin plate element and method is a mono-resolution one and also a special case of the proposed element and method. The meshing for the monoresolution plate element model is based on the empiricism while the RL adjusting for the multiresolution is laid on the rigorous mathematical basis. The accuracy of a structural analysis is actually determined by the RL, not by the mesh. The rational MRA enables the implementation of the multiresolution Mindlin plate element method to be more rational and efficient than that of the conventional monoresolution or o...

  8. Detection of Elements at All Three r-process Peaks in the Metal-Poor Star HD 160617

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; 10.1088/0004-637X/750/1/76

    2012-01-01

    We report the first detection of elements at all three r-process peaks in the metal-poor halo star HD 160617. These elements include arsenic and selenium, which have not been detected previously in halo stars, and the elements tellurium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, which have been detected previously. Absorption lines of these elements are found in archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We present up-to-date absolute atomic transition probabilities and complete line component patterns for these elements. Additional archival spectra of this star from several ground-based instruments allow us to derive abundances or upper limits of 45 elements in HD 160617, including 27 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. The average abundances of the elements at the three r-process peaks are similar to the predicted solar system r-process residuals when scaled to the abundances in the rare earth element domain. This result for arsenic and selen...

  9. Detection transposable elements in Botrytis cinerea in latent infection stage from symptomless apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G Fernández

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o detect Botrytis cinerea ( B. cinerea latent infections on apples before storage, which is essential for effective control strategies in the fruit postharvest industry. Methods: I n the present study, a polymerase chain reaction detection method, based on primers designed on B. cinerea transposable elements ( boty and flipper and intergenic spacer region as internal control, were utilized to reveal the presence of symptomless infections on apple fruits. T his molecular method proved to be highly specific and sensitive in detecting latent infections. I t revealed the presence of the pathogen in 83 % of the samples from infected apples with 10 4 conidia/ m L , whereas those infected with 10 6 conidia/m L detected 94 % as compared to the traditional method that revealed the pathogen in 40 % and 66 % of the samples inoculated with 10 4 and 10 6 conidia/m L respectively. F urthermore, the method characterized B. cinerea as subpopulation transposa-type by the presence of the transposable elements boty and flipper Results: T he results obtained from DNA quantification method were compared with enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay and these studies showed good correlation. T herefore our method has important advantages compared with others detection methods for B. cinerea, because the proposed methodology allowed distinguishes between its two subpopulations ( vacuma and transposa and this would allow establish possible appropriate control strategies. Conclusions: F inally, the method can be an interesting alternative for its possible application in the phytosanitary programs of the fruit industry worldwide.

  10. Detection transposable elements in Botrytis cinerea in latent infection stage from symptomless apples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge G Fernndez; Martn A Fernndez-Baldo; Claudio Muoz; Eloy Salinas; Julio Raba; Mara I Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To detect Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) latent infections on apples before storage, which is essential for effective control strategies in the fruit postharvest industry. Methods:In the present study, a polymerase chain reaction detection method, based on primers designed on B. cinerea transposable elements (boty and flipper) and intergenic spacer region as internal control, were utilized to reveal the presence of symptomless infections on apple fruits. This molecular method proved to be highly specific and sensitive in detecting latent infections. It revealed the presence of the pathogen in 83%of the samples from infected apples with 104 conidia/mL, whereas those infected with 106 conidia/mL detected 94%as compared to the traditional method that revealed the pathogen in 40%and 66%of the samples inoculated with 104 and 106 conidia/mL respectively. Furthermore, the method characterized B. cinerea as subpopulation transposa-type by the presence of the transposable elements boty and flipper Results:The results obtained from DNA quantification method were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and these studies showed good correlation. Therefore our method has important advantages compared with others detection methods for B. cinerea, because the proposed methodology allowed distinguishes between its two subpopulations (vacuma and transposa) and this would allow establish possible appropriate control strategies. Conclusions:Finally, the method can be an interesting alternative for its possible application in the phytosanitary programs of the fruit industry worldwide.

  11. Detection of and compensation for blocked elements using large coherent apertures: ex vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Marko; Bottenus, Nick; Kuo, Lily; Kumar, Shalki; Dahl, Jeremy; Trahey, Gregg

    2016-04-01

    When imaging with ultrasound through the chest wall, it is not uncommon for parts of the array to get blocked by ribs, which can limit the acoustic window and significantly impede visualization of the structures of interest. With the development of large-aperture, high-element-count, 2-D arrays and their potential use in transthoracic imaging, detecting and compensating for the blocked elements is becoming increasingly important. We synthesized large coherent 2-D apertures and used them to image a point target through excised samples of canine chest wall. Blocked elements are detected based on low amplitude of their signals. As a part of compensation, blocked elements are turned off on transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx), and point-target images are created using: coherent summation of the remaining channels, compounding of intercostal apertures, and adaptive weighting of the available Tx/Rx channel-pairs to recover the desired k-space response. The adaptive compensation method also includes a phase aberration correction to ensure that the non-blocked Tx/Rx channel pairs are summed coherently. To evaluate the methods, we compare the point-spread functions (PSFs) and near-field clutter levels for the transcostal and control acquisitions. Specifically, applying k-space compensation to the sparse aperture data created from the control acquisition reduces sidelobes from -6.6 dB to -12 dB. When applied to the transcostal data in combination with phase-aberration correction, the same method reduces sidelobes only by 3 dB, likely due to significant tissue induced acoustic noise. For the transcostal acquisition, turning off blocked elements and applying uniform weighting results in maximum clutter reduction of 5 dB on average, while the PSF stays intact. Compounding reduces clutter by about 3 dB while the k-space compensation increases clutter magnitude to the non-compensated levels.

  12. Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Detection of Trace Elements in Sophora Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myriam Bossu; HAO Zuo-Qiang; Matthieu Baudelet; YU Jia; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    Sophora leaves from several areas in Beijing are analysed by femtoeecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (femto-LIBS).AIthough the used spectral detection systemis not time-resolved,thespectral lines of trace mineral elements are detected and anallyed.It is proven that the femto-LIBS can be an effcient method to detect mineral trace elements contained in tree leaves which is a biomonitor for atmospheric pollution assessment or botanic studies.An interesting case of correlation between trace elements detected in tree leaves and the pollution of the concerned area is presented,for the first time to our knowledge.

  13. Analysis of Dynamic Modeling Method Based on Boundary Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Sheng Gan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study an improved dynamic modeling method based on a Boundary Element Method (BEM. The dynamic model was composed of the elements such as the beam element, plate element, joint element, lumped mass and spring element by the BEM. An improved dynamic model of a machine structure was established based on plate-beam element system mainly. As a result, the dynamic characteristics of a machine structure were analyzed and the comparison of computational results and experimental’s showed the modeling method was effective. The analyses indicate that the introduced method inaugurates a good way for analyzing dynamic characteristics of a machine structure efficiently.

  14. Affinity sensor based on immobilized molecular imprinted synthetic recognition elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenain, Pieterjan; De Saeger, Sarah; Mattiasson, Bo; Hedström, Martin

    2015-07-15

    An affinity sensor based on capacitive transduction was developed to detect a model compound, metergoline, in a continuous flow system. This system simulates the monitoring of low-molecular weight organic compounds in natural flowing waters, i.e. rivers and streams. During operation in such scenarios, control of the experimental parameters is not possible, which poses a true analytical challenge. A two-step approach was used to produce a sensor for metergoline. Submicron spherical molecularly imprinted polymers, used as recognition elements, were obtained through emulsion polymerization and subsequently coupled to the sensor surface by electropolymerization. This way, a robust and reusable sensor was obtained that regenerated spontaneously under the natural conditions in a river. Small organic compounds could be analyzed in water without manipulating the binding or regeneration conditions, thereby offering a viable tool for on-site application.

  15. Finite Elements on Point Based Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarenz, U.; Rumpf, M.; Telea, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for processing point-based surfaces via partial differential equations (PDEs). Our framework efficiently and effectively brings well-known PDE-based processing techniques to the field of point-based surfaces. Our method is based on the construction of local tangent planes and

  16. Damage Detection and Identification of Finite Element Models Using State-Space Based Signal Processing a Summation of Work Completed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory February 1999 to April 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, G.C.

    2000-04-28

    Until recently, attempts to update Finite Element Models (FEM) of large structures based upon recording structural motions were mostly ad hoc, requiring a large amount of engineering experience and skill. Studies have been undertaken at LLNL to use state-space based signal processing techniques to locate the existence and type of model mismatches common in FEM. Two different methods (Gauss-Newton gradient search and extended Kalman filter) have been explored, and the progress made in each type of algorithm as well as the results from several simulated and one actual building model will be discussed. The algorithms will be examined in detail, and the computer programs written to implement the algorithms will be documented.

  17. A smart nanofibrous material for adsorbing and detecting elemental mercury in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Macagnano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of the affinity of gold for mercury and nanosized frameworks has allowed for the design and fabrication of novel kinds of sensors with promising sensing features for environmental applications. Specifically, conductive sensors based on composite nanofibrous electrospun layers of titania easily decorated with gold nanoparticles were developed to obtain nanostructured hybrid materials capable of entrapping and revealing gaseous elemental mercury (GEM traces from the environment. The electrical properties of the resulting chemosensors were measured. A few minutes of air sampling were sufficient to detect the concentration of mercury in the air, ranging between 20 and 100 ppb, without using traps or gas carriers (LOD: 1.5 ppb. Longer measurements allowed the sensor to detect lower concentrations of GEM. The resulting chemosensors are expected to be low cost and very stable (due to the peculiar structure, requiring low power, low maintenance, and simple equipment.

  18. Sensitive elemental detection using microwave-assisted laser-induced breakdown imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Adeel; Sun, Zhiwei; Wall, Matthew; Alwahabi, Zeyad T.

    2017-10-01

    This study reports a sensitive spectroscopic method for quantitative elemental detection by manipulating the temporal and spatial parameters of laser-induced plasma. The method was tested for indium detection in solid samples, in which laser ablation was used to generate a tiny plasma. The lifetime of the laser-induced plasma can be extended to hundreds of microseconds using microwave injection to remobilize the electrons. In this novel method, temporal integrated signal of indium emission was significantly enhanced. Meanwhile, the projected detectable area of the excited indium atoms was also significantly improved using an interference-, instead of diffraction-, based technique, achieved by directly imaging microwave-enhanced plasma through a novel narrow-bandpass filter, exactly centered at the indium emission line. Quantitative laser-induce breakdown spectroscopy was also recorded simultaneously with the new imaging method. The intensities recorded from both methods exhibit very good mutual linear relationship. The detection intensity was improved to 14-folds because of the combined improvements in the plasma lifetime and the area of detection.

  19. Simulation of the Ill-Posed Problem of Reinforced Concrete Corrosion Detection Using Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarizal Fonna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have suggested that the corrosion detection of reinforced concrete (RC based on electrical potential on concrete surface was an ill-posed problem, and thus it may present an inaccurate interpretation of corrosion. However, it is difficult to prove the ill-posed problem of the RC corrosion detection by experiment. One promising technique is using a numerical method. The objective of this study is to simulate the ill-posed problem of RC corrosion detection based on electrical potential on a concrete surface using the Boundary Element Method (BEM. BEM simulates electrical potential within a concrete domain. In order to simulate the electrical potential, the domain is assumed to be governed by Laplace’s equation. The boundary conditions for the corrosion area and the noncorrosion area of rebar were selected from its polarization curve. A rectangular reinforced concrete model with a single rebar was chosen to be simulated using BEM. The numerical simulation results using BEM showed that the same electrical potential distribution on the concrete surface could be generated from different combinations of parameters. Corresponding to such a phenomenon, this problem can be categorized as an ill-posed problem since it has many solutions. Therefore, BEM successfully simulates the ill-posed problem of reinforced concrete corrosion detection.

  20. 多阵元超声换能器阵列涡轮机全覆盖故障检测研究%Research on Comprehensive Fault Detection of Turbine Engine Based on Ultrasonic Transducer with Multi Array Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高之圣; 王海燕; 张日刚

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种基于多阵元超声换能器阵列的航空涡轮发动机的超声波相控阵故障检测方法,采用面阵列分布设计了36个多阵元的超声换能器阵列,通过多次多方向的检测方法降低虚警概率,一次检测就可全覆盖整个叶片,不用多次检测,提高了检测速度。检测过程中由于有多个超声阵元可以接收到声波,所以检测的增益、信噪比也得到了提高。仿真实验表明,采用新方法检测的对象既可以是整块的平面,又可以覆盖到涡轮叶片中的整个散热管道,检测概率比传统超声故障检测提高了20%以上。%An ultrasonic phased array fault detection method of aviation turbine engine array ultrasound transducer array based, more than 36 ultrasonic transducer array design using area array distribution, detection method by multi direction to reduce the false alarm probability, a test can fully cover the entire leaf, without repeated testing to improve the detec-tion speed. The detection process as a plurality of ultrasound array can receive sound wave, so the gain, signal to noise ratio is improved detection. Simulation results show that, by using object detection method can be the whole plane, and can cover of the turbine blade is the heat pipe, the probability of detection than traditional ultrasonic fault detection in-creased more than 20%.

  1. Structural damage detection using higher-order finite elements and a scanning laser vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Si

    In contrast to conventional non-destructive evaluation methods, dynamics-based damage detection methods are capable of rapid integrity evaluation of large structures and have received considerable attention from aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering communities in recent years. However, the identifiable damage size using dynamics-based methods is determined by the number of sensors used, level of measurement noise, accuracy of structural models, and signal processing techniques. In this thesis we study dynamics of structures with damage and then derive and experimentally verify new model-independent structural damage detection methods that can locate small damage to structures. To find sensitive damage detection parameters we develop a higher-order beam element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, bending moments, and shear forces at all nodes, and a higher-order rectangular plate element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, and bending and twisting moments at all nodes. These two elements are used to study the dynamics of beams and plates. Results show that high-order spatial derivatives of high-frequency modes are important sensitive parameters that can locate small structural damage. Unfortunately the most powerful and popular structural modeling technique, the finite element method, is not accurate in predicting high-frequency responses. Hence, a model-independent method using dynamic responses obtained from high density measurements is concluded to be the best approach. To increase measurement density and reduce noise a Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to provide non-contact, dense, and accurate measurements of structural vibration velocities. To avoid the use of structural models and to extract sensitive detection parameters from experimental data, a brand-new structural damage detection method named BED (Boundary-Effect Detection) is developed for pinpointing damage locations using Operational

  2. Ground-Based Detection of Exoatmospheric Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Patricio M.; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola

    2014-11-01

    Data acquired with HDS@Subaru for HD209458b is re-analyzed. A new pipeline performs an automated search for the exoatmospheric presence of several elements without any a-priori assumptions on its existence or strength. We analyzed thousands of lines in the full spectral range of this optical echelle spectrograph using a robust method to correct for the telluric contamination. We recover previous detections of Sodium and Halpha, and present the first strong detection of Calcium in an Extrasolar Atmosphere as well as the tentative detection of other elements. The Calcium detection is in disagreement with theoretical thermal-equilibrium models.

  3. Gothic elements in contemporary detective story : Matthew Gregory Lewis and Minette Walters compared

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Marinko

    2009-01-01

    One of the most shocking Gothic novels was written by Matthew Gregory Lewis in 1796. His Gothic novel The Monk contains all the typical Gothic elements such as a ruined castle, aggressive villain, women in distress, the atmosphere of terror and horror and a lot more. This article analyses and compares to what extent the Gothic elements of the late 18th century survived in the contemporary detective story The Ice House (1993) written by Minette Walters and how these elements have changed.

  4. A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0457 TITLE: A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Ben Stanger...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0457 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...pancreatic cancer patients. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Pancreatic cancer , metastasis, circulating tumor cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION

  5. A Novel Approach of Impulsive Signal Extraction for Early Fault Detection of Rolling Element Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Aijun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault signals of rolling element bearing are often characterized by the presence of periodic impulses, which are modulated high-frequency harmonic components. The features of early fault in rolling bearing are very weak, which are often masked by background noise. The impulsiveness of the vibration signal has affected the identification of characteristic frequency for the early fault detection of the bearing. In this paper, a novel approach based on morphological operators is presented for impulsive signal extraction of early fault in rolling element bearing. The combination Top-Hat (CTH is proposed to extract the impulsive signal and enhance the impulsiveness of the bearing fault signal, and the envelope analysis is applied to reveal the fault-related signatures. The impulsive extraction performance of the proposed CTH is compared with that of finite impulse response filter (FIR by analyzing the simulated bearing fault signals, and the result indicates that the CTH is more effective in extracting impulsive signals. The method is evaluated using real fault signals from defective bearings with early rolling element fault and early fault located on the outer race. The results show that the proposed method is able to enhance the impulsiveness of early bearing fault signals.

  6. Design of an optical-fiber refractometric transducer with hemispherical detection element

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the performance of the opticalfiber refractometric transducer with hemispherical optical detection element. Specifically, we examined the effect of the light intensity distribution in the optical fibers on the transducer response to the refractive index of the surrounding media. In addition, we accounted for small local imperfections of the optical detection element surface. Accounting for these effects results in a significant accuracy improvement in the modeling of the described...

  7. Fast lane recognition based on morphological multi-struc-ture element model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Tao; FAN Yang-yu; HUANG Lian-bing

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a lane detection algorithm based on multi-structure element model of morphological. The innovative point of the algorithm lies in the facts that the flexible structure has the multi-structure elements that lane model features have, and that the algorithm adopts the morphological filtering principle to extract the pixels in the image, which is similar to the lane model. In the algorithm, the interested area is extracted by a model of trapezium from original image, which is detected by the operator of Canny, and the lanes are extracted by the structure elements, which have similar characteristics to that of lane model. Several lines are detected by Hough transformation, then the traffic lanes are reconstructed. Experi-ments show that this algorithm is simple and robust, and can efficiently detect the lane mask accurately and quickly.

  8. A new strain based brick element for plate bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belounar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a new three-dimensional brick finite element by the use of the strain based approach for the linear analysis of plate bending. The developed element has the three essential external degrees of freedom (U, V and W at each of the eight corner nodes as well as at the centroidal node. The displacement field of the developed element is based on assumed functions for the various strains satisfying the compatibility equations and the static condensation technique is used for the internal node. The performance of this element is evaluated on several problems related to thick and thin plate bending in linear analysis. The obtained results show the good performances and accuracy of the present element.

  9. RESEARCH ON VIRTUAL-PART-BASED CONNECTING ELEMENT MODELING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the inner character analysis of interpart, detail modification and assembly relation of mechanical connecting element, the idea, which extends the feature modeling of part to the interpart feature modeling for assembly purpose, is presented, and virtual-part-based connecting element modeling is proposed. During the assembly modeling, base parts are modified by the Boolean subtraction between the virtual part and the part to be connected. Dynamic matching algorithm, which is based on list database, is designed for dynamic extension and off-line editing of connecting part and virtual part, and design rules of connecting element is encapsulated by the virtual part. A prototyped software module for rapid design of connecting elements is implemented under self-developed CAD/CAM platform-SuperMan.

  10. In situ detection of horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Johansen, Tove;

    2002-01-01

    Plasmid transfer was investigated in microbial populations associated with different types of surfaces. The general strategy behind these investigations was to label the transferable plasmid with a gene encoding a fluorescent protein in order to make it a transfer reporter. This was achieved...... promoters (transfer reporters) it was thus possible to detect transfer events in situ and correlate these with either the location of donor and recipient cells or with the growth activity of the cells. In some cases, expression of unstable Gfp from a growth-controlled promoter, rrnB from Escherichia coli...... by fusing the reporter gene with a lac promoter expression cassette and combining this with a donor cell-associated lacI repressor cassette. After construction of a range of strains and plasmids with combinations of genes expressing fluorescent proteins from constitutive (cell tagging) or regulated...

  11. Theory of fractional order elements based impedance matching networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.

    2011-03-01

    Fractional order circuit elements (inductors and capacitors) based impedance matching networks are introduced for the first time. In comparison to the conventional integer based L-type matching networks, fractional matching networks are much simpler and versatile. Any complex load can be matched utilizing a single series fractional element, which generally requires two elements for matching in the conventional approach. It is shown that all the Smith chart circles (resistance and reactance) are actually pairs of completely identical circles. They appear to be single for the conventional integer order case, where the identical circles completely overlap each other. The concept is supported by design equations and impedance matching examples. © 2010 IEEE.

  12. Research of Stamp Forming Simulation Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xaio-ping; XU Lian

    2008-01-01

    We point out that the finite element method offers a greta functional improvement for analyzing the stamp forming process of an automobile panel. Using the finite element theory and the simulation method of sheet stamping forming, the element model of sheet forming is built based on software HyperMesh,and the simulation of the product's sheet forming process is analyzed based on software Dynaform. A series of simulation results are obtained. It is clear that the simulation results from the theoretical basis for the product's die design and are useful for selecting process parameters.

  13. A refined element-based Lagrangian shell element for geometrically nonlinear analysis of shell structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For the solution of geometrically nonlinear analysis of plates and shells, the formulation of a nonlinear nine-node refined first-order shear deformable element-based Lagrangian shell element is presented. Natural co-ordinate-based higher order transverse shear strains are used in present shell element. Using the assumed natural strain method with proper interpolation functions, the present shell element generates neither membrane nor shear locking behavior even when full integration is used in the formulation. Furthermore, a refined first-order shear deformation theory for thin and thick shells, which results in parabolic through-thickness distribution of the transverse shear strains from the formulation based on the third-order shear deformation theory, is proposed. This formulation eliminates the need for shear correction factors in the first-order theory. To avoid difficulties resulting from large increments of the rotations, a scheme of attached reference system is used for the expression of rotations of shell normal. Numerical examples demonstrate that the present element behaves reasonably satisfactorily either for the linear or for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin and thick plates and shells with large displacement but small strain. Especially, the nonlinear results of slit annular plates with various loads provided the benchmark to test the accuracy of related numerical solutions.

  14. Detection of minor and trace elements in powdered milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive gamma ray spectrometry and neutron capture prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA were used to investigate powdered cow's milk samples [termed optimal (1, optimal (2 and optimal (3] collected from local markets in the city of Cairo, Egypt. Standard material with a total average activity of 0.830 ± 0.2 μCi and a certified reference material [IAEA (A-14] were used to study the accuracy of a passive multi-gamma ray measurement method. Three powdered milk samples of the same geometry and volume were used in this analysis. The specific activity of 226Ra ranged from 24.5 ± 2.1 to 114 ± 1.2 Bq/kg, 232Th from 8 ± 1 to 14 ± 1.2 Bq/kg and 40K from 444 ± 28 to 1826.1 ± 3.1 Bq/kg, all of which were higher than the activities corresponding to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR (50, 50 and 500 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The average dose rate at 1 cm for 40K ranged from 8.21E−02 ± 0.12 to 3.3E−1 ± 0.22 mSv/h/cm. We also showed that 208Tl81, 212Pb82 and 212Bi83 should be considered products of thorium. k0-PGAA was carried out using an integrated and calibrated prompt gamma ray system with a neutron flux of 106 n/cm2 per second. The thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f and cadmium ratio were measured using a thin gold foil technique (ration = 160. Different Cl concentrations were prepared as standards for k0-PGAA. The elemental concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ga, Zn, As, Se, Cs, Cd, In, Th and I were measured in the three powdered milk samples. The mean ± standard deviation ranges of the elements were as follows: Na = 1069 ± 49–1583 ± 53 ppm, Mg = 347 ± 13.64–385 ± 16.71 ppm, Al = 45 ± 1.30–72 ± 2.40 ppm, Fe = 5500 ± 110–7123 ± 130 ppm, Zn = 107 ± 3–123 ± 6 ppm, Ca = 4200 ± 72–5483 ± 81 ppm, Mn = 1269 ± 69–1784 ± 72 ppm, Pr = 1.7 ± 0.02–2.6

  15. Fluorescence particle detection using microfluidics and planar optoelectronic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlitz, Siegfried W.; Moosmann, Carola; Valouch, Sebastian; Lemmer, Uli

    2014-05-01

    Detection of fluorescent particles is an integral part of flow cytometry for analysis of selectively stained cells. Established flow cytometer designs achieve great sensitivity and throughput but require bulky and expensive components which prohibit mass production of small single-use point-of-care devices. The use of a combination of innovative technologies such as roll-to-roll printed microuidics with integrated optoelectronic components such as printed organic light emitting diodes and printed organic photodiodes enables tremendous opportunities in cost reduction, miniaturization and new application areas. In order to harvest these benefits, the optical setup requires a redesign to eliminate the need for lenses, dichroic mirrors and lasers. We investigate the influence of geometric parameters on the performance of a thin planar design which uses a high power LED as planar light source and a PIN-photodiode as planar detector. Due to the lack of focusing optics and inferior optical filters, the device sensitivity is not yet on par with commercial state of the art flow cytometer setups. From noise measurements, electronic and optical considerations we deduce possible pathways of improving the device performance. We identify that the sensitivity is either limited by dark noise for very short apertures or by noise from background light for long apertures. We calculate the corresponding crossover length. For the device design we conclude that a low device thickness, low particle velocity and short aperture length are necessary to obtain optimal sensitivity.

  16. Circle Detection Based on HSI Color Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOXia; LIXing-xin; XUEYu-li

    2005-01-01

    A method based on HSI color space is presented to solve the problem of circle detection from color images. In terms of the evaluation to the edge detection method based on intensity, the edge detection based on hue is chosen to process the color image, and the simplified calculation of hue transform is discussed. Then the algorithm of circle detection based on Canny edge detection is proposed. Due to the dispersive distribution of the detected result, Hough transformation and template smooth are used in circle detection, and the proposed method gives a quite good result.

  17. Application of detecting algorithm based on network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤斌; 杨永田; 江子扬; 孙冰心

    2004-01-01

    Because currently intrusion detection systems cannot detect undefined intrusion behavior effectively,according to the robustness and adaptability of the genetic algorithms, this paper integrates the genetic algorithms into an intrusion detection system, and a detection algorithm based on network traffic is proposed. This algorithm is a real-time and self-study algorithm and can detect undefined intrusion behaviors effectively.

  18. Selective detection of elemental mercury vapor using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, K M Mohibul; Sabri, Ylias M; Matthews, Glenn I; Jones, Lathe A; Ippolito, Samuel J; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2015-08-21

    The detection of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) within industrial processes is extremely important as it is the first major step in ensuring the efficient operation of implemented mercury removal technologies. In this study, a 131 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line sensor with gold electrodes was tested towards Hg(0) vapor (24 to 365 ppbv) with/without the presence of ammonia (NH3) and humidity (H2O), as well as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetaldehyde (MeCHO), ethylmercaptan (EM), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), which are all common interfering gas species that co-exist in many industrial applications requiring mercury monitoring. The developed sensor exhibited a detection limit of 0.7 ppbv and 4.85 ppbv at 35 and 55 °C, respectively. Furthermore, a repeatability of 97% and selectivity of 92% in the presence of contaminant gases was exhibited by the sensor at the chosen operating temperature of 55 °C. The response magnitude of the developed SAW sensor towards different concentrations of Hg(0) vapor fitted well with the Langmuir extension isotherm (otherwise known as loading ratio correlation (LRC)) which is in agreement with our basic finite element method (FEM) work where an LRC isotherm was observed for a simplified model of the SAW sensor responding to different Hg contents deposited on the Au based electrodes. Overall, the results indicate that the developed SAW sensor can be a potential solution for online selective detection of low concentrations of Hg(0) vapor found in industrial stack effluents.

  19. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  20. Rotation angles and angular velocities study of pebble-shaped fuel element based on a detection system%球形燃料元件累积旋转角度和角速度问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵颖; 朱兴望; 曲世祥; 陈堃

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR), most often used in Generation IV high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor, employs pebble-shaped fuel elements. As pebbles flow through the reactor, they will slide and rotate against each other and the wall, causing generation of graphite dust.Purpose:This study aims to investigate the rotation angles and angular velocities of pebble-shaped fuel elements (PSFE). Methods: The rotation angle and angular velocity were studied by using a simulated transparent cylinder to replace the reactor core. A pebble-shaped detection system is employed to test the angular velocities and accumulated rotation angles of PSFEs with wireless interface. The generation of graphite particles by rotational abrasion was also studied.Results:The experimental results show that the initial seeding position has influence on rotation angles and angular velocities. The distribution of rotation angles and angular velocities from the center to the wall can be described as an inverted V-type distribution. The calculation results show that wear mass by rotation accounts for 11%?27% of the total graphite dust.Conclusion: Sliding abrasion is stronger than rotation abrasion in general, graphite generation tends to be overestimated if we only take sliding abrasion into consideration and ignore rotation abrasion.%球床堆采用球形燃料元件,其在循环过程中存在滚动磨损以及滑动磨损并产生石墨粉尘.本文借助一种球形无线探测系统量化了角速度及累计旋转角度,并量化了滚动磨损对石墨粉尘产生的影响.实验结果表明,累计旋转角度和角速度与初始径向位置有关,随着初始径向位置由里向外,呈V字型分布,与仓筒边壁接触的球累计旋转角度和角速度远大于其他位置,边壁滚动效应显著.计算结果表明,滚动磨损对石墨粉尘产生量的贡献在11%?27%,且靠近仓筒边壁处该百分比高于其他位置,边壁效应明显.一般情况下,滚动磨

  1. Research on Knowledge-based Connecting Elements Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Steps of manipulation is required to complete the m od eling of the connection elements such as bolt, pin and the like in commerce CAD system. It leads to low efficiency, difficulty to assure the relative position, impossibility to express rules and knowledge. Based on the inner character analy sis of interpart, detail modification and assembly relation of mechanical connec ting element, the idea, which extends the feature modeling of part to the interp art feature modeling for assembly purpose, is presen...

  2. Compressive sensing holography based on optical heterodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youjun; Zhou, Dingfu; Yuan, Sheng; Wei, Yayun; Wang, Mengting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, compressive sensing holography based on optical heterodyne detection is presented, which can photograph the hologram of an object. The complex hologram is composed of a sine-hologram and a cosine-hologram. A single pixel photoelectric conversion element is used to detect the time-varying optical field which contains the amplitude and phase information of the transmitted light, and a simulation result is demonstrated further by recording the Fresnel hologram of a complex amplitude object.

  3. A computational study of nodal-based tetrahedral element behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullerud, Arne S.

    2010-09-01

    This report explores the behavior of nodal-based tetrahedral elements on six sample problems, and compares their solution to that of a corresponding hexahedral mesh. The problems demonstrate that while certain aspects of the solution field for the nodal-based tetrahedrons provide good quality results, the pressure field tends to be of poor quality. Results appear to be strongly affected by the connectivity of the tetrahedral elements. Simulations that rely on the pressure field, such as those which use material models that are dependent on the pressure (e.g. equation-of-state models), can generate erroneous results. Remeshing can also be strongly affected by these issues. The nodal-based test elements as they currently stand need to be used with caution to ensure that their numerical deficiencies do not adversely affect critical values of interest.

  4. Simultaneous Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis of H and Other Elements in Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiu-Qin; ZHOU Ping; GUO Ji-Yu; ZHANG Xin; ZHAO Kui; NI Mei-Nan; SUI Li; MEI Jun-Ping; LIU Jian-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Hydrogen and other elements in SixNyHz foils have been simultaneously measured by using a single E(gas)- E(PSD) telescope and heavy 127I ion beam in elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Hydrogen is measuredin the non-coincidence spectrum of E(PSD), and other elements from the △E - E coincidence spectrum. Thecomposition and depth profiling of the foils are obtained from the simulated spectra.

  5. COHESIVE ZONE FINITE ELEMENT-BASED MODELING OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuorong Chen; A.P. Bunger; Xi Zhang; Robert G. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a powerful technology used to stimulate fluid production from reservoirs. The fully 3-D numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracturing process is of great importance to the efficient application of this technology, but is also a great challenge because of the strong nonlinear coupling between the viscous flow of fluid and fracture propagation. By taking advantage of a cohesive zone method to simulate the fracture process, a finite element model based on the existing pore pressure cohesive finite elements has been established to investigate the propagation of a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture in an infinite elastic medium. The effect of cohesive material parameters and fluid viscosity on the hydraulic fracture behaviour has been investigated. Excellent agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions for the limiting case where the fracture process is dominated by rock fracture toughness demonstrates the ability of the cohesive zone finite element model in simulating the hydraulic fracture growth for this case.

  6. ICP-MS: Analytical Method for Identification and Detection of Elemental Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mohini; Kumar, Kapil; Anghore, Durgadas; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this article is to review and discuss the currently used quantitative analytical method ICP-MS, which is used for quality control of pharmaceutical products. ICP-MS technique has several applications such as determination of single elements, multi element analysis in synthetic drugs, heavy metals in environmental water, trace element content of selected fertilizers and dairy manures. ICP-MS is also used for determination of toxic and essential elements in different varieties of food samples and metal pollutant present in the environment. The pharmaceuticals may generate impurities at various stages of development, transportation and storage which make them risky to be administered. Thus, it is essential that these impurities must be detected and quantified. ICP-MS plays an important function in the recognition and revealing of elemental impurities. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Can the dietary element content of virgin argan oils really be used for adulteration detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Faez A E; Bchitou, Rahma; Bouhaouss, Ahmed; Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Levels of eight dietary elements were assessed by ICP-AES in virgin edible and beauty argan oil samples prepared from four remote locations of the argan forest, and over a three-year period. The data showed sufficiently little variability to assess that all argan oil samples present, in terms of dietary elements, a similar composition, independently from the tree location within the argan forest. Therefore, adulteration detection by trace element analysis in edible and beauty argan oil is a method that can be generalised. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gothic elements in contemporary detective story : Matthew Gregory Lewis and Minette Walters compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Marinko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most shocking Gothic novels was written by Matthew Gregory Lewis in 1796. His Gothic novel The Monk contains all the typical Gothic elements such as a ruined castle, aggressive villain, women in distress, the atmosphere of terror and horror and a lot more. This article analyses and compares to what extent the Gothic elements of the late 18th century survived in the contemporary detective story The Ice House (1993 written by Minette Walters and how these elements have changed.

  9. High Resolution Euler Solvers Based on the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    1996-01-01

    The I-D, quasi I-D and 2-D Euler solvers based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element are used to simulate various flow phenomena including shock waves, Mach stem, contact surface, expansion waves, and their intersections and reflections. Seven test problems are solved to demonstrate the capability of this method for handling unsteady compressible flows in various configurations. Numerical results so obtained are compared with exact solutions and/or numerical solutions obtained by schemes based on other established computational techniques. Comparisons show that the present Euler solvers can generate highly accurate numerical solutions to complex flow problems in a straightforward manner without using any ad hoc techniques in the scheme.

  10. Farsi License Plate Detection and Recognition Based on Characters Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ghofrani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a license plate detection and recognition system for Iranian private cars is implemented. The proposed license plate localization algorithm is based on region elements analysis which works properly independent of distance (how far a vehicle is, rotation (angle between camera and vehicle, and contrast (being dirty, reflected, or deformed. In addition, more than one car may exist in the image. The proposed method extracts edges and then determines the candidate regions by applying window movement. The region elements analysis includes binarization, character analysis, character continuity analysis and character parallelism analysis. After detecting license plates, we estimate the rotation angle and try to compensate it. In order to identify a detected plate, every character should be recognized. For this purpose, we present 25 features and use them as the input to an artificial neural network classifier. The experimental results show that our proposed method achieves appropriate performance for both detection and recognition of the Iranian license plates.

  11. Development of a laser induced breakdown spectrometer for detection of toxic elements in cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganda, Yasin Wandhami

    In this research work we developed a highly sensitive analytical Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer to detect toxic elements in commercially available cosmetic products. These products are frequently used by many all over the world, therefore there is an increasing demand to determine concentration levels of toxic elements present in them because they cause dangerous diseases and most of them are highly carcinogenic and life threatening. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for spectroscopic analysis of cosmetic products such as tooth paste, synthetic hair dye, kohl eyeliners and talcum powder samples. These samples were purchased from the local market within the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The LIBS method is based on spectroscopic analysis of plasma resulting from the interaction of a high power pulsed laser radiations with a sample medium. In order to improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer, the dependence of the LIBS signal intensity and plasma parameters such as temperature (T) and electron density (ne) on gate/time delay, laser fluence and wavelength of the excitation source for plasma generated under ambient conditions were studied. During this work Nd: YAG lasers having 266nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths operating in Q-switch mode were used as the excitation sources in combination with a spectrograph having a gated ICCD camera. Boltzmann plots and stark broadening for the recorded spectral lines were used to estimate the plasma temperature and electron density respectively. Temporal evolution of the plasma temperature and electron density showed a t-2 dependence. On the other hand plasma temperature and electron density increased with increase in laser fluence but leveled off at higher fluencies. It is worth noting that in both cases 266 nm and 1064 nm excitation wavelengths consistently had the highest and lowest values respectively. Therefore a 266 nm wavelength Nd: YAG laser excitation source was selected to develop a highly

  12. Rare earth element enrichment using membrane based solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Zunita, M.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical, catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of rare earth elements are required in broad applications. Rare earth elements have similar physical and chemical properties thus it is difficult to separate one from each other. Rare earth element is relatively abundant in earth's crust but rarely occur in high concentrated deposits. Traditionally, ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have been developed to separate and purify single rare earth solutions or compounds. Recently, membrane starts to gain attention for rare earth separation by combining membrane and proven technologies such as solvent extraction. Membrane-based process offers selective, reliable, energy efficient and easy to scale up separation. During membrane-based separation process, one phase passes through membrane pores while the other phase is rejected. There is no direct mixing of two phases thus the solvent loss is very low. Membrane can also lower solvent physical properties requirement (viscosity, density) and backmixing, eliminate flooding phenomenon and provide large interfacial area for mass transfer. This paper will summarize research efforts in developing membrane technology for rare earth element separation. Special attention will be given to solvent extraction related process as the commonly used method for rare earth element separation. Furthermore, membrane configuration and its potentials will also be discussed.

  13. An Optimization-Based Approach to Injector Element Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) injector elements. A swirl coaxial element and an unlike impinging element (a fuel-oxidizer-fuel triplet) are used to facilitate the study. The elements are optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, APf, oxidizer pressure drop, deltaP(sub f), combustor length, L(sub comb), and full cone swirl angle, theta, (for the swirl element) or impingement half-angle, alpha, (for the impinging element) at a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w), injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for both element types. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable for both types of elements. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Three examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail for each element type. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the element design is illustrated. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface that includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues

  14. Lane Detection Based on Machine Learning Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao Fan; Jingbo Xu; Shuai Di

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy and robustness of the lane detection in complex conditions, such as the shadows and illumination changing, a novel detection algorithm was proposed based on machine learning...

  15. HBVRegDB: Annotation, comparison, detection and visualization of regulatory elements in hepatitis B virus sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firth Andrew E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The many Hepadnaviridae sequences available have widely varied functional annotation. The genomes are very compact (~3.2 kb but contain multiple layers of functional regulatory elements in addition to coding regions. Key regions are subject to purifying selection, as mutations in these regions will produce non-functional viruses. Results These genomic sequences have been organized into a structured database to facilitate research at the molecular level. HBVRegDB is a comparative genomic analysis tool with an integrated underlying sequence database. The database contains genomic sequence data from representative viruses. In addition to INSDC and RefSeq annotation, HBVRegDB also contains expert and systematically calculated annotations (e.g. promoters and comparative genome analysis results (e.g. blastn, tblastx. It also contains analyses based on curated HBV alignments. Information about conserved regions – including primary conservation (e.g. CDS-Plotcon and RNA secondary structure predictions (e.g. Alidot – is integrated into the database. A large amount of data is graphically presented using the GBrowse (Generic Genome Browser adapted for analysis of viral genomes. Flexible query access is provided based on any annotated genomic feature. Novel regulatory motifs can be found by analysing the annotated sequences. Conclusion HBVRegDB serves as a knowledge database and as a comparative genomic analysis tool for molecular biologists investigating HBV. It is publicly available and complementary to other viral and HBV focused datasets and tools http://hbvregdb.otago.ac.nz. The availability of multiple and highly annotated sequences of viral genomes in one database combined with comparative analysis tools facilitates detection of novel genomic elements.

  16. Wave front sensor based on holographic optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, M. S.; Krasin, G. K.; Malinina, P. I.; Odinokov, S. B.; Sagatelyan, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    A wavefront sensor (WFS) based on holographic optical elements, namely computer generated Fourier holograms is proposed as a perspective alternative to the Shack-Hartmann sensor. A possibility of single and multimode sensor and the dependence of their characteristics were investigated.

  17. Potential fire detection based on Kalman-driven change detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Den Bergh, F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new active fire event detection algorithm for data collected with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor, based on the extended Kalman filter, is introduced. Instead of using the observed temperatures of the spatial...

  18. Quantification of fluorite mass-content in powdered ores using a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy method based on the detection of minor elements and CaF molecular bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez, C.; Pisonero, J., E-mail: pisonerojorge@uniovi.es; Bordel, N., E-mail: bordel@uniovi.es

    2014-10-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is investigated as a fast and robust method to determine the fluorite (CaF{sub 2}) mass-content of powdered ore samples. Calibrating samples covering a wide CaF{sub 2} concentration range (from 2.3 to 97.6%) are employed. LIBS operating conditions are optimized for the analysis of elemental emission lines and molecular bands, respectively. In particular, LIBS emission intensities from different CaF molecular bands are evaluated to calibrate the fluorite concentration as an alternative to the use of atomic fluorine F I emission lines. Furthermore, the determination of LIBS emission signals from minor elements (e.g. Si I and Mg I) is studied to further improve the accuracy and precision of pure fluorite sample analyses (e.g. [CaF{sub 2}] > 75%). The proposed LIBS method avoids the tedious dissolution processes that are required by other analytical methods employed in mining industry for the quantitative analysis of fluorite. - Highlights: • Fluorite ore mass-content is determined using a LIBS system. • F I emission line at 685.60 nm is used to calibrate the fluorite mass-content. • CaF emission bands are used to quantify samples with low CaF2 concentrations. • Minor elements are used to quantify samples with high CaF2 concentrations.

  19. Edge detection based on morphological amoebas

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Won Yeol; Kim, Se Yun; Lim, Jae Young; Lim, Dong Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Detecting the edges of objects within images is critical for quality image processing. We present an edge-detecting technique that uses morphological amoebas that adjust their shape based on variation in image contours. We evaluate the method both quantitatively and qualitatively for edge detection of images, and compare it to classic morphological methods. Our amoeba-based edge-detection system performed better than the classic edge detectors.

  20. On diversity performance of two-element coupling element based antenna structure for mobile terminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah; Toivanen, Juha; Laitinen, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    fading. The main challenge of antenna diversity in practical application is the integration of multiple antennas on a small ground plane. Two-element antenna structure based on coupling element antenna concept for diversity application has been studied in previous work and it has shown to be feasible......In wireless communication systems, multipath interference has a significant impact on system design and performance. Fast fading is caused by the coherent summation of one or more echoes from many reflection points reaching the receive antenna. Antenna diversity can be used to mitigate multipath...... for low frequency diversity application with stable and low envelope correlation across wide frequency range. The studied structure has been tuned to be operating at 1600 MHz for measurement evaluation purpose. This paper presents an analysis of diversity performance of the structure in terms...

  1. Detection of trace elements in DI water and comparison of several water solutions by using EF-FLRD chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M.; Wang, C.

    2017-02-01

    Detection of trace elements in DI water and comparison of several types of water respons such as DI water, tap water, and ocean water were studied by using EF-FLRD chemical sensors. Solutions of Mg, Fe, P, and Cd elements with a concentration of 1000 µg/ml (1 mg/ml) which corresponds to 1000 ppm by weight were tested. DI water, tap water, and real ocean water were utilized as medium to observe refractive index difference of solutions. The EF sensing technique which is based on the EF scattering effect was employed for the detection of trace chemicals and recording of solution responses. Due to the refractive index differences between solutions, optical loss of the sensor was different when the sensor head was immersed into solutions of approximately 10 ml each. The differences of the refractive indices are presented by recording ringdown times when the sensor head was immersed into the solutions. Fast response (˜1s), high sensitive, and reproducible EF-FLRD chemical sensors were fabricated and tested in laboratory conditions. High sensitivity of the sensors due to being capability of detecting smaller differences between measurands without any additional components or treatment makes the EF-FLRD sensors more attractive. Enhanced sensitivity of the EF-FLRD chemical sensors as a result of the multi-pass nature of the FLRD technique has potential application in detecting of trace elements in monitoring of water quality.

  2. Discrete Element Simulation of Asphalt Mastics Based on Burgers Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; FENG Shi-rong; HU Xia-guang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the viscoelastic performance of asphalt mastics, a micro-mechanical model for asphalt mastics was built by applying Burgers model to discrete element simulation and constructing Burgers contact model. Then the numerical simulation of creep tests was conducted, and results from the simulation were compared with the analytical solution for Burgers model. The comparision snowed that the two results agreed well with each other, suggesting that discrete element model based on Burgers model could be employed in the numerical simulation for asphalt mastics.

  3. Splitting extrapolation based on domain decomposition for finite element approximations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕涛; 冯勇

    1997-01-01

    Splitting extrapolation based on domain decomposition for finite element approximations is a new technique for solving large scale scientific and engineering problems in parallel. By means of domain decomposition, a large scale multidimensional problem is turned to many discrete problems involving several grid parameters The multi-variate asymptotic expansions of finite element errors on independent grid parameters are proved for linear and nonlin ear second order elliptic equations as well as eigenvalue problems. Therefore after solving smaller problems with similar sizes in parallel, a global fine grid approximation with higher accuracy is computed by the splitting extrapolation method.

  4. River Health Assessment Based on Fuzzy Matter-element Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to assess the health state of rivers by using fuzzy matter-element model.[Method] Based on fuzzy matter-element analysis theory,the assessment model of river health was established,then a modified method to calculate the superior subordinate degree was put forward according to Hamming distance.Afterwards,a multi-level evaluation model,which contained the assessment indicators about hydrological features,ecological characteristics,environmental traits and service function,was set ...

  5. Convergence of a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Nazarov, Murtazo

    2013-02-01

    We present a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method to solve conservation laws. The Galerkin approximation is stabilized by only residual based artificial viscosity, without any least-squares, SUPG, or streamline diffusion terms. We prove convergence of the method, applied to a scalar conservation law in two space dimensions, toward an unique entropy solution for implicit time stepping schemes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás, F. D.; Abonyi, J.; Puertas, F.

    2001-01-01

    The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory) of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the...

  7. Damage detection and model refinement using elemental stiffness perturbations with constrained connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, S.W.

    1996-04-01

    A new optimal update method for the correlation of dynamic structural finite element models with modal data is presented. The method computes a minimum-rank solution for the perturbations of the elemental stiffness parameters while constraining the connectivity of the global stiffness matrix. The resulting model contains a more accurate representation of the dynamics of the test structure. The changes between the original model and the updated model can be interpreted as modeling errors or as changes in the structure resulting from damage. The motivation for the method is presented in the context of existing optimal matrix update procedures. The method is demonstrated numerically on a spring-mass system and is also applied to experimental data from the NASA Langley 8-bay truss damage detection experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed procedure may be useful for updating elemental stiffness parameters in the context of damage detection and model refinement.

  8. Uncertainties in detecting decadal change in extractable soil elements in Northern Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, O.; Bailey, S. W.; Ducey, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Northern Forest ecosystems have been or are being impacted by land use change, forest harvesting, acid deposition, atmospheric CO2 enrichment, and climate change. Each of these has the potential to modify soil forming processes, and the resulting chemical stocks. Horizontal and vertical variations in concentrations complicate determination of temporal change. This study evaluates sample design, sample size, and differences among observers as sources of uncertainty when quantifying soil temporal change over regional scales. Forty permanent, northern hardwood, monitoring plots were established on the White Mountain National Forest in central New Hampshire and western Maine. Soil pits were characterized and sampled by genetic horizon at plot center in 2001 and resampled again in 2014 two-meters on contour from the original sampling location. Each soil horizon was characterized by depth, color, texture, structure, consistency, boundaries, coarse fragments, and roots from the forest floor to the upper C horizon, the relatively unaltered glacial till parent material. Laboratory analyses included pH in 0.01 M CaCl2 solution and extractable Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, Mn, and P in 1 M NH4OAc solution buffered at pH 4.8. Significant elemental differences were identified by genetic horizon from paired t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) indicate temporal change across the study region. Power analysis, 0.9 power (α = 0.05), revealed sampling size was appropriate within this region to detect concentration change by genetic horizon using a stratified sample design based on topographic metrics. There were no significant differences between observers' descriptions of physical properties. As physical properties would not be expected to change over a decade, this suggests spatial variation in physical properties between the pairs of sampling pits did not detract from our ability to detect temporal change. These results suggest that resampling efforts within a site, repeated across a region, to quantify

  9. Multimineral optimization processing method based on elemental capture spectroscopy logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhou; Li Xin-Tong; Wu Hong-Liang; Xia Shou-Ji; Liu Ying-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Calculating the mineral composition is a critical task in log interpretation. Elemental capture spectroscopy (ECS) log provides the weight percentages of twelve common elements, which lays the foundation for the accurate calculation of mineral compositions. Previous processing methods calculated the formation composition via the conversion relation between the formation chemistry and minerals. Thus, their applicability is limited and the method precision is relatively low. In this study, we present a multimineral optimization processing method based on the ECS log. We derived the ECS response equations for calculating the formation composition, then, determined the logging response values for the elements of common minerals using core data and theoretical calculations. Finally, a software module was developed. The results of the new method are consistent with core data and the mean absolute error is less than 10%.

  10. Finite element method analysis of surface acoustic wave devices with microcavities for detection of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senveli, Sukru U.; Tigli, Onur

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces the use of finite element method analysis tools to investigate the use of a Rayleigh type surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor to interrogate minute amounts of liquids trapped in microcavities placed on the delay line. Launched surface waves in the ST-X quartz substrate couple to the liquid and emit compressional waves. These waves form a resonant cavity condition and interfere with the surface waves in the substrate. Simulations show that the platform operates in a different mechanism than the conventional mass loading of SAW devices. Based on the proposed detection mechanism, it is able to distinguish between variations of 40% and 90% glycerin based on phase relations while using liquid volumes smaller than 10 pl. Results from shallow microcavities show high correlation with sound velocity parameter of the liquid whereas deeper microcavities display high sensitivities with respect to glycerin concentration. Simulated devices yield a maximum sensitivity of -0.77°/(% glycerin) for 16 μm wavelength operation with 8 μm deep, 24 μm wide, and 24 μm long microcavities.

  11. New alternating direction procedures in finite element analysis based upon EBE approximate factorizations. [element-by-element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J.; Levit, I.; Tezduyar, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    Element-by-element approximate factorization procedures are proposed for solving the large finite element equation systems which arise in computational mechanics. A variety of techniques are compared on problems of structural mechanics, heat conduction and fluid mechanics. The results obtained suggest considerable potential for the methods described.

  12. Fabrication of Porous Silicon Based Humidity Sensing Elements on Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Jalkanen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A roll-to-roll compatible fabrication process of porous silicon (pSi based sensing elements for a real-time humidity monitoring is described. The sensing elements, consisting of printed interdigitated silver electrodes and a spray-coated pSi layer, were fabricated on a coated paper substrate by a two-step process. Capacitive and resistive responses of the sensing elements were examined under different concentrations of humidity. More than a three orders of magnitude reproducible decrease in resistance was measured when the relative humidity (RH was increased from 0% to 90%. A relatively fast recovery without the need of any refreshing methods was observed with a change in RH. Humidity background signal and hysteresis arising from the paper substrate were dependent on the thickness of sensing pSi layer. Hysteresis in most optimal sensing element setup (a thick pSi layer was still noticeable but not detrimental for the sensing. In addition to electrical characterization of sensing elements, thermal degradation and moisture adsorption properties of the paper substrate were examined in connection to the fabrication process of the silver electrodes and the moisture sensitivity of the paper. The results pave the way towards the development of low-cost humidity sensors which could be utilized, for example, in smart packaging applications or in smart cities to monitor the environment.

  13. Vision-based Vehicle Detection Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex David S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays thousands of drivers and passengers were losing their lives every year on road accident, due to deadly crashes between more than one vehicle. There are number of many research focuses were dedicated to the development of intellectual driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles over the past decade, which reduces the danger by monitoring the on-road environment. In particular, researchers attracted towards the on-road detection of vehicles in recent years. Different parameters have been analyzed in this paper which includes camera placement and the various applications of monocular vehicle detection, common features and common classification methods, motion- based approaches and nighttime vehicle detection and monocular pose estimation. Previous works on the vehicle detection listed based on camera poisons, feature based detection and motion based detection works and night time detection.

  14. The Development of Conductive Elements for the Selective Detection of Formaldehyde and Cotinine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi-Boampong, Sadik

    The development of new materials and techniques presents an opportunity to revisit old problems. Innovations in materials engineering revolutionize the status quo by expanding the tool kit needed to develop robust solutions to complex problems. Challenges that had hitherto been intractable become surmountable; previously established methods are significantly enhanced; fresh impetus is injected into the materials design engine. In one way or another, every scientist contributes to this dynamic creative process where ideas are incubated and developed through fundamental research that culminates in compelling findings applicable in various realms of science. The work presented herein embodies this ethos. Our investigations have applied the relatively nascent technology of molecular imprinting to develop sensing elements for detection of cotinine and formaldehyde. Additionally, we have used different polymer systems to address the inherent limitations of conventional materials using a simple, cost-effective and efficient materials approach. Specifically, in Part I, we investigate molecular imprinting of nylon-6, polyvinylphenol and ElvamideRTM, with cotinine. We examine the capacity of these materials as polymer hosts for molecular imprinting by studying the effect of cotinine imprinting on their nanomechanical properties. By monitoring variations in mechanical properties induced by cotinine templating, we determine the factors critical for effective imprinting and ultimately demonstrate that polyvinylphenol is the most suitable polymer host. Based on these results, we develop a cotinine-imprinted polyvinylphenol-single walled carbon nanotube sensor that readily detects cotinine. Using electrical, spectral and chromatographic characterization, we rigorously demonstrate the enhanced affinity programmed into the sensing layer via molecular imprinting. Part II is dedicated to a familiar problem: formaldehyde sensing. While this challenge has been a trope of the

  15. COMPLEMENTARY MOLECULAR AND ELEMENTAL DETECTION OF SPECIATED THIOARSENICALS USING ESI-MS IN COMBINATION WITH A XENON-BASED COLLISION-CELL ICP-MS WITH APPLICATION TO FORTIFIED NIST FREEZE-DRIED URINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The simultaneous detection of arsenic and sulfur in thio-arsenicals was achieved using xenonbased collision cell ICP-MS in combination with HPLC. In an attempt to minimize the 16O16O+ interference at m/z 32, both sample introduction and collision cell experimental parameters were...

  16. Linear feature detection based on ridgelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Biao; (侯彪); LIU; Fang; (刘芳); JIAO; Licheng; (焦李成)

    2003-01-01

    Linear feature detection is very important in image processing. The detection efficiency will directly affect the perfomance of pattern recognition and pattern classification. Based on the idea of ridgelet, this paper presents a new discrete localized ridgelet transform and a new method for detecting linear feature in anisotropic images. Experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. N-Reactor co-product target element rupture detection study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, D.O.

    1964-04-27

    At present there seem to be some uncertainties concerning the needs of rupture detection for the co-producer programs Also in question is the method by which ruptures of the target elements should be detected and located. The purpose of this report is to discuss the waste and hazard control of tritium (H{sup 3}) (the product of the co-producer program), which will determine rupture detection needs, and to discuss methods by which rupture detection and location may be accomplished. The scope of the report considers first, adaptation of the present rupture monitoring system, and second, monitoring systems using H{sup 3} analyzers, together with the costs and time required to develop and use each method of rupture detection.

  18. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Li, Ren; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro-resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  19. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-01-11

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  20. Biomimetic visual detection based on insect neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, David C.

    2001-11-01

    With a visual system that accounts for as much as 30% of the lifted mass, flying insects such as dragonflies and hoverflies invest more in vision than any other animal. Impressive visual performance is subserved by a surprisingly simple visual system. In a typical insect eye, between 2,000 and 30,000 pixels in the image are analyzed by fewer than 200,000 neurons in underlying neural circuits. The combination of sophisticated visual processing with an approachable level of complexity has made the insect visual system a leading model for biomimetic approaches to computer vision. Much neurobiological research has focused on neural circuits used for detection of moving patterns (e.g. optical flow during flight) and moving targets (e.g. prey). Research from several labs has led to great advances in our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved, and has spawned neuromorphic hardware based on key processes identified in neurobiological experiments. Despite its attractions, the highly non-linear nature of several key stages in insect visual processing presents a challenge to understanding. I will describe examples of adaptive elements of neural circuits in the fly visual system which analyze the direction and velocity of wide-field optical flow patterns and the result of experiments that suggest that these non-linearities may contribute to robust responses to natural image motion.

  1. Image Edge Detection Based on Oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong; WANG Zhi-jie

    2005-01-01

    A new method for image edge detection based on a pulse neural network is proposed in this paper. The network is locally connected. The external input of each neuron of the network is gray value of the corresponding pixel. The synchrony of the neuron and its neighbors is detected by detection neurons. The edge of the image can be read off at minima of the total activity of the detection neurons.

  2. Signature Based Intrusion Detection System Using SNORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s Intrusion Detection systems plays very important role in Network security. As the use of internet is growing rapidly the possibility of attack is also increasing in that ratio. People are using signature based IDS’s. Snort is mostly used signature based IDS because of it is open source software. World widely it is used in intrusion detection and prevention domain. Basic analysis and security engine (BASE is also used to see the alerts generated by Snort. In the paper we have implementation the signature based intrusion detection using Snort. Our work will help to novel user to understand the concept of Snort based IDS.

  3. Ce-MXRF: the power of separation with bench top element sensitive detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T. C. (Thomasin C.); Joseph, M. R. (Martha R.); Havrilla, G. J. (George J.)

    2002-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a proven separation technique that offers highly efficient separation, rapid analysis, and minute sample consumption. When combined with a element specific detection scheme, it can be used for chemical speciation of biologically and environmentally relevant species such as metal containing proteins. In this study, a new tool was developed for separation and elemental detection. Specifically, a simple CE apparatus was constructed using a thin-walled fused Si capillary and interfaced with a bench top micro x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) system. X-ray excitation and detection of the separated sample volumes was performed using an EDAX Eagle II micro x-ray fluorescence system equipped with a Rh target excitation source and a SiLi detector. It was demonstrated that the system could be used for the separation and detection of two metals from one another, specifically Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. Free Co{sup 2+} could also be isolated from Co{sup 2+} bound to cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12). Other systems that were explored were the separation of two organics, ferritin from cyanocobalamin as well as the separation of the different Cu and Zn isoforms of metallothinein. CE-MXRF was also used to separate the important serum isoforms of transferrin. Direct comparisons were made between CE-MXRF system and other elemental separation techniques such as CE-PIXE, CE-synchrotron-XRF, and CE-ICPMS.

  4. A new parallel algorithm for contact detection in finite element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, B.; Plimpton, S.; Attaway, S.; Vaughan, C.; Gardner, D.

    1996-03-01

    In finite-element, transient dynamics simulations, physical objects are typically modeled as Lagrangian meshes because the meshes can move and deform with the objects as they undergo stress. In many simulations, such as computations of impacts or explosions, portions of the deforming mesh come in contact with each other as the simulation progresses. These contacts must be detected and the forces they impart to the mesh must be computed at each timestep to accurately capture the physics of interest. While the finite-element portion of these computations is readily parallelized, the contact detection problem is difficult to implement efficiently on parallel computers and has been a bottleneck to achieving high performance on large parallel machines. In this paper we describe a new parallel algorithm for detecting contacts. Our approach differs from previous work in that we use two different parallel decompositions, a static one for the finite element analysis and dynamic one for contact detection. We present results for this algorithm in a parallel version of the transient dynamics code PRONTO-3D running on a large Intel Paragon.

  5. Electronic structure of ternary hydrides based on light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, E. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: orgaz@eros.pquim.unam.mx; Membrillo, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castaneda, R. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aburto, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-08

    Ternary hydrides based on light elements are interesting owing to the high available energy density. In this work we focused into the electronic structure of a series of known systems having the general formula AMH{sub 4}(A=Li,Na,M=B,Al). We computed the energy bands and the total and partial density of states using the linear-augmented plane waves method. In this report, we discuss the chemical bonding in this series of complex hydrides.

  6. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Changyong Cao; Qing-Hua Qin

    2015-01-01

    An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM) and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field) are employed. The formulations for...

  7. Calibration of the Failed-Fuel-Element Detection Systems in the Aagesta Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O.

    1966-06-15

    Results from a calibration of the systems for detection of fuel element ruptures in the Aagesta reactor are presented. The calibration was carried out by means of foils of zirconium-uranium alloy which were placed in a special fuel assembly. The release of fission products from these foils is due mainly to recoil and can be accurately calculated. Before the foils were used in the reactor their corrosion behaviour in high temperature water was investigated. The results obtained with the precipitator systems for bulk detection and localization are in good agreement with the expected performance. The sensitivity of these systems was found to be high enough for detection and localization of small defects of pin-hole type ({nu} = 10{sup -8}/s ). The general performance of the systems was satisfactory during the calibration tests, although a few adjustments are desirable. A bulk detecting system for monitoring of activities in the moderator, in which the {gamma}-radiation from coolant samples is measured directly after an ion exchanger, showed lower sensitivity than expected from calculations. It seems that the sensitivity of the latter system has to be improved to admit the detection of small defects. In the ion exchanger system, and to some extent in the precipitator systems, the background from A{sup 41} in the coolant limits the sensitivity. The calibration technique utilized seems to be of great advantage when investigating the performance of failed-fuel-element detection systems.

  8. Single Spring Joint Element Based on the Mixed Coordinate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a FEM for reinforced concrete bond-slip problems, one important feature of the typical double spring joint element method is the selection of the normal stiffness, which may cause the mutual embedding problem and bring challenges to the calculation. In this paper, a novel single spring joint element method based on the mixed coordinate system is proposed to simulate the interaction of two materials. Instead of choosing the normal stiffness arbitrarily, the proposed method makes DOFs of two materials in the normal direction equal to ensure deformation compatibility. And its solid elements for the concrete are solved in global coordinate system, while the beam elements for the steel bar are solved in local coordinate system. In addition, the proposed method can also be applied to RC structures with irregular arrangements of steel bars. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed approach. Furthermore, the bond model is applied to RC beams with the description of the damage process.

  9. Statistical detection of structural damage based on model reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YIN; Heung-fai LAM; Hong-ping ZHU

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical method for damage detection based on the finite element (FE) model reduction technique that utilizes measured modal data with a limited number of sensors.A deterministic damage detection process is formulated based on the model reduction technique.The probabilistic process is integrated into the deterministic damage detection process using a perturbation technique,resulting in a statistical structural damage detection method.This is achieved by deriving the firstand second-order partial derivatives of uncertain parameters,such as elasticity of the damaged member,with respect to the measurement noise,which allows expectation and covariance matrix of the uncertain parameters to be calculated.Besides the theoretical development,this paper reports numerical verification of the proposed method using a portal frame example and Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabig-Ciminska Magdalena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in

  11. Image edge detection based on adaptive weighted morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jiang; Yanying Guo

    2007-01-01

    A novel morphological edge detector based on adaptive weighted morphological operators is presented. It judges image edge and direction by adaptive weighted morphological structuring elements (SEs). If the edge direction exists, a big weight factor in SE is put; if it does not exist, a small weight factor in SE is put. Thus we can achieve an intensified edge detector. Experimental results prove that the new operator's performance dominates those of classical operators for images in edge detection, and obtains superbly detail edges.

  12. Mining key elements for severe convection prediction based on CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Pan, Ning; Zhang, Changan; Sha, Hongzhou; Zhang, Bolei; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Meng

    2017-04-01

    Severe convective weather is a kind of weather disasters accompanied by heavy rainfall, gust wind, hail, etc. Along with recent developments on remote sensing and numerical modeling, there are high-volume and long-term observational and modeling data accumulated to capture massive severe convective events over particular areas and time periods. With those high-volume and high-variety weather data, most of the existing studies and methods carry out the dynamical laws, cause analysis, potential rule study, and prediction enhancement by utilizing the governing equations from fluid dynamics and thermodynamics. In this study, a key-element mining method is proposed for severe convection prediction based on convolution neural network (CNN). It aims to identify the key areas and key elements from huge amounts of historical weather data including conventional measurements, weather radar, satellite, so as numerical modeling and/or reanalysis data. Under this manner, the machine-learning based method could help the human forecasters on their decision-making on operational weather forecasts on severe convective weathers by extracting key information from the real-time and historical weather big data. In this paper, it first utilizes computer vision technology to complete the data preprocessing work of the meteorological variables. Then, it utilizes the information such as radar map and expert knowledge to annotate all images automatically. And finally, by using CNN model, it cloud analyze and evaluate each weather elements (e.g., particular variables, patterns, features, etc.), and identify key areas of those critical weather elements, then help forecasters quickly screen out the key elements from huge amounts of observation data by current weather conditions. Based on the rich weather measurement and model data (up to 10 years) over Fujian province in China, where the severe convective weathers are very active during the summer months, experimental tests are conducted with

  13. Finite element based micro-mechanics modeling of textile composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Textile composites have the advantage over laminated composites of a significantly greater damage tolerance and resistance to delamination. Currently, a disadvantage of textile composites is the inability to examine the details of the internal response of these materials under load. Traditional approaches to the study fo textile based composite materials neglect many of the geometric details that affect the performance of the material. The present three dimensional analysis, based on the representative volume element (RVE) of a plain weave, allows prediction of the internal details of displacement, strain, stress, and failure quantities. Through this analysis, the effect of geometric and material parameters on the aforementioned quantities are studied.

  14. Geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements by terrestrial laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tsung-Chin; Liu, Yu-Wei; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) terrestrial laser scanning technologies with higher precision and higher capability are developing rapidly. The growing maturity of laser scanning has gradually approached the required precision as those have been provided by traditional structural monitoring technologies. Together with widely available fast computation for massive point cloud data processing, 3D laser scanning can serve as an efficient structural monitoring alternative for civil engineering communities. Currently most research efforts have focused on integrating/calculating the measured multi-station point cloud data, as well as modeling/establishing the 3D meshes of the scanned objects. Very little attention has been spent on extracting the information related to health conditions and mechanical states of structures. In this study, an automated numerical approach that integrates various existing algorithms for geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements were established. Specifically, adaptive meshes were employed for classifying the point cloud data of the structural elements, and detecting the associated damages from the calculated eigenvalues in each area of the structural element. Furthermore, kd-tree was used to enhance the searching efficiency of plane fitting which were later used for identifying the boundaries of structural elements. The results of geometric identification were compared with M3C2 algorithm provided by CloudCompare, as well as validated by LVDT measurements of full-scale reinforced concrete beams tested in laboratory. It shows that 3D laser scanning, through the established processing approaches of the point cloud data, can offer a rapid, nondestructive, remote, and accurate solution for geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements.

  15. Detection of Fungal Elements in Atherosclerotic Plaques Using Mycological, Pathological and Molecular Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid MASOUMI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to detect fungi in atherosclerotic plaques and investigate their possible role in atherosclerosis.Methods: Coronary atherosclerotic plaques specimen were obtained from patients with atherosclerosis. Direct exami-nation, culture, histopathology study, PCR and sequencing were performed to detect/identify the mycotic elements in the plaques. Age, sex, smoking, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, family history of heart diseases and diabetes were considered and data were analyzed using Chi Square test by SPSS version 15.Results: A total of 41 specimens were analyzed. Direct examination for fungal elements was negative in all cases but in culture only one specimen grew as a mold colony. The presence of fungal elements were confirmed in 6 and 2 tissue sections stained by Gomori methenamine silver and Hematoxylin and Eosin methods, respectively. Using PCR, 11 cases were positive for fungi. The DNA sequence analysis of six positive specimens which were randomly selected revealed fungi as Candida albicans (n=3, Candida guilliermondii (n=2 and Monilia sp. (n=1.Conclusion: A significant association between the presence of fungi in atherosclerotic plaques and severity of athero-genesis and atherosclerotic disease was not found. This could be due to limited numbers of patients included in our study. However, the presence of fungal elements in 26.8% of our specimens is considerable and the results does not exclude the correlation between the presence of fungi with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

  16. Optical flow based finger stroke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongdi; Li, Bin; Wang, Kongqiao

    2010-07-01

    Finger stroke detection is an important topic in hand based Human Computer Interaction (HCI) system. Few research studies have carried out effective solutions to this problem. In this paper, we present a novel approach for stroke detection based on mono vision. Via analyzing the optical flow field within the finger area, our method is able to detect finger stroke under various camera position and visual angles. We present a thorough evaluation for each component of the algorithm, and show its efficiency and effectiveness on solving difficult stroke detection problems.

  17. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  18. Image edge detection based on beamlet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing; Huang Peikang; Wang Xiaohu; Pan Xudong

    2009-01-01

    Combining beamlet transform with steerable filters, a new edge detection method based on line gra-dient is proposed. Compared with operators based on point local properties, the edge-detection results with this method achieve higher SNR and position accuracy, and are quite helpful for image registration, object identification, etc. Some edge-detection experiments on optical and SAR images that demonstrate the significant improvement over classical edge operators are also presented. Moreover, the template matching result based on edge information of optical reference image and SAR image also proves the validity of this method.

  19. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  20. Adding Social Elements to Game-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Lai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Game-based learning is to present the instruction by games in learning, with the main purpose of triggering learners’ motives instead of instructing the courses. Thus, increasing learning motive by game-based learning becomes a common instructional strategy to enhance learning achievement. However, it is not easy to design interesting games combined with courses. In 2011, Echeverria proposed a design to combine characteristics of games with elements of courses by matching the virtual scenarios in games with proper courses. However, in the past game-based learning, students were gathered in regular places for several times of game-based learning. Students’ learning was limited by time and space. Therefore, for students’ game-based learning at any time and in any places, based on theories of design elements of online community game Aki Järvinen, this study treats Facebook as the platform of games. The development by online community game is easier, faster and cheaper than traditional video games. In 2006, Facebook allowed API program of the third party. Therefore, by Facebook, this study provides the platform for students to learn in social lives to explore students’ activities in online community games. Questionnaire survey is conducted to find out if the design of non-single user game is attractive for students to participate in game-based learning. In order to make sure that the questionnaires can be the criteria to investigate students’ intention to play games, by statistical program of social science; this study validates reliability and validity of items of questionnaire to effectively control the effect of online community games on students’ learning intention.

  1. Sociolect-Based Community Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, William N.; Salter, William J.; Farber, Robert M.; Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Beeman, William O.; Smith-Lovin, Lynn; Choi, Joon Nak

    2013-06-06

    "Sociolects" are specialized vocabularies used by social subgroups defined by common interests or origins. We applied methods to retrieve large quantities of Twitter data based on expert-identified sociolects and then applied and developed network-analysis methods to relate sociolect use to network (sub-) structure. We show that novel methods including consideration of node populations, as well as edge counts, provide substantially enhanced performance compared to standard assortativity. We explain these methods, show their utility in analyzing large corpora of social media data, and discuss their further extensions and potential applications.

  2. Detection of a novel active transposable element in Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis and a new search for elements in this genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daehwan; Farkas, Joel; Westpheling, Janet

    2013-05-01

    We show that a previously annotated hypothetical protein is the transposase of a new and active IS element, ISCahy1, widespread in Caldicellulosiruptor species. Transposition generated an 11-bp direct repeat at the insertion site in Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, suggesting a cut-and-paste mechanism. The discovery of an active insertion sequence in Caldicellulosiruptor species led to a survey of potential IS elements in the genome sequences of eight Caldicellulosiruptor species that identified several new elements, including one novel to this genus.

  3. Statistical Outlier Detection for Jury Based Grading Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Rosas, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that was developed to identify statistical outliers from the scores of grading jury members in a large project-based first year design course. The background and requirements for the outlier detection system are presented. The outlier detection algorithm...... and the follow-up procedures for score validation and appeals are described in detail. Finally, the impact of various elements of the outlier detection algorithm, their interactions, and the sensitivity of their numerical values are investigated. It is shown that the difference in the mean score produced...... by a grading jury before and after a suspected outlier is removed from the mean is the single most effective criterion for identifying potential outliers but that all of the criteria included in the algorithm have an effect on the outlier detection process....

  4. A Method of Image Symmetry Detection Based on Phase Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; YANG Zhaoxuan; FENG Dengchao

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods for detecting symmetry in image suffer greatly from the contrast of image and noise, and they all require some preprocessing. This paper presents a new method of image symmetry detection. This method detects symmetry with phase information utilizing logGabor wavelets, because phase information is stable and significant, while symmetric points produce patterns easy to be recognised and confirmable in local phase. Phase method does not require any preprocessing, and its result is accurate or invariant to contrast, rotation and illumination conditions. This method can detect mirror symmetry, rotating symmetry and curve symmetry at one time. Results of experiment show that, compared with pivotal element algorithm based on intensity information, phase method is more accurate and robust.

  5. Immune based computer virus detection approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ying; ZHANG Pengtao

    2013-01-01

    The computer virus is considered one of the most horrifying threats to the security of computer systems worldwide.The rapid development of evasion techniques used in virus causes the signature based computer virus detection techniques to be ineffective.Many novel computer virus detection approaches have been proposed in the past to cope with the ineffectiveness,mainly classified into three categories:static,dynamic and heuristics techniques.As the natural similarities between the biological immune system (BIS),computer security system (CSS),and the artificial immune system (AIS) were all developed as a new prototype in the community of anti-virus research.The immune mechanisms in the BIS provide the opportunities to construct computer virus detection models that are robust and adaptive with the ability to detect unseen viruses.In this paper,a variety of classic computer virus detection approaches were introduced and reviewed based on the background knowledge of the computer virus history.Next,a variety of immune based computer virus detection approaches were also discussed in detail.Promising experimental results suggest that the immune based computer virus detection approaches were able to detect new variants and unseen viruses at lower false positive rates,which have paved a new way for the anti-virus research.

  6. Photonic crystal fiber based antibody detection

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, A.; Lhoutellier, M; Jensen, J. B.; Hoiby, P E; Missier, V; Pedersen, L. H.; Hansen, Theis Peter; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Bang, Ole

    2004-01-01

    An original approach for detecting labeled antibodies based on strong penetration photonic crystal fibers is introduced. The target antibody is immobilized inside the air-holes of a photonic crystal fiber and the detection is realized by the means of evanescent-wave fluorescence spectroscopy and the use of a transversal illumination setup.

  7. Photonic crystal fiber based antibody detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, A; Lhoutellier, M; Jensen, J B

    2004-01-01

    An original approach for detecting labeled antibodies based on strong penetration photonic crystal fibers is introduced. The target antibody is immobilized inside the air-holes of a photonic crystal fiber and the detection is realized by the means of evanescent-wave fluorescence spectroscopy and ...

  8. Joint Forward Operating Base Elements of Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, William C.

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1986 Goldwater-Nichols Act directed the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to develop doctrine for the joint employment of the armed forces, tactics, techniques, and procedures have evolved at different rates depending on the competency. Whereas the command of joint air forces is well prescribed within the structure of the air operations center and its associated leadership, command of air assets at a joint forward operating base lacks guidance. Today, the United States prosecutes an air war over Afghanistan from bases in Uzbekistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Elements of the United States Army, Air Force, and Marines combine at these geographically minute locations, each bringing a certain complement of support and command and control. Evidence from operations during the 1999 air war for Kosovo at Tirana Rinas Airport in Albania suggests that when these service elements meet at the airfield for the first time, there are problems associated with local procedure. At best, time is wasted creating local joint systems to overcome the difficulties. At worst, safety and mission accomplishment are jeopardized. This thesis will address the need to develop doctrine and a jointly integrated organization to support the command and control function at a forward operating base.

  9. The Research of Welding Residual Stress Based Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Bai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Welding residual stress was caused by local heating during the welding process, tensile residual stress reduce fatigue strength and corrosion resistance, Compressive residual stress decreases stability limit. So it will produce brittle fracture, reduce working life and strength of workpiece; Based on the simulation of welding process with finite element method, calculate the welding temperature field and residual stress, and then measure residual stress in experiments, So as to get the best welding technology and welding parameters, to reduce welding residual stress effective, it has very important significance.

  10. Application of LIBS in Detection of Antihyperglycemic Trace Elements in Momordica charantia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rai, N.K.; Rai, P.K.; Pandhija, S.; Watal, G.; Rai, A.K.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study exploits the information based on concentration of trace elements and minerals in understanding the role/mechanism of action of freeze-dried fruit powder suspended in distilled water of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitaceae) in diabetes treatment. Laser-induced break down

  11. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Power Consumption Based Android Malware Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that Android platform’s sand-box mechanism prevents security protection software from accessing effective information to detect malware, this paper proposes a malicious software detection method based on power consumption. Firstly, the mobile battery consumption status information was obtained, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM was built by using Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC. Then, the GMM was used to analyze power consumption; malicious software can be classified and detected through classification processing. Experiment results demonstrate that the function of an application and its power consumption have a close relationship, and our method can detect some typical malicious application software accurately.

  13. Optical sensing elements for nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) gas detection, a sol-gel method for making the sensing elements and fiber optic sensors incorporating nitrogen dioxide gas optical sensing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechery, Shelly John; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2007-07-03

    A sensing element, a method of making a sensing element, and a fiber optic sensor incorporating the sensing element are described. The sensor can be used for the quantitative detection of NO.sub.2 in a mixture of gases. The sensing element can be made by incorporating a diazotizing reagent which reacts with nitrous ions to produce a diazo compound and a coupling reagent which couples with the diazo compound to produce an azo dye into a sol and allowing the sol to form an optically transparent gel. The sensing element changes color in the presence of NO.sub.2 gas. The temporal response of the absorption spectrum at various NO.sub.2 concentrations has also been recorded and analyzed. Sensors having different design configurations are described. The sensing element can detect NO.sub.2 gas at levels of parts per billion.

  14. Grey-theory based intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Boping; Zhou Xianwei; Yang Jun; Song Cunyi

    2006-01-01

    To solve the problem that current intrusion detection model needs large-scale data in formulating the model in real-time use, an intrusion detection system model based on grey theory (GTIDS) is presented. Grey theory has merits of fewer requirements on original data scale, less limitation of the distribution pattern and simpler algorithm in modeling.With these merits GTIDS constructs model according to partial time sequence for rapid detect on intrusive act in secure system. In this detection model rate of false drop and false retrieval are effectively reduced through twice modeling and repeated detect on target data. Furthermore, GTIDS framework and specific process of modeling algorithm are presented. The affectivity of GTIDS is proved through emulated experiments comparing snort and next-generation intrusion detection expert system (NIDES) in SRI international.

  15. EFFICIENT IRIS SEGMENTATION BASED ON EYELID DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULJALIL RADMAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a computationally efficient eyelid detection algorithm for detecting eyelid boundaries in iris images acquired under less constrained imaging conditions. The proposed eyelid detection algorithm is developed based on the live-wire technique. The major advantage of the proposed algorithm is its computational simplicity as compared to the prior eyelid detection algorithms. The saturation color features of the sclera region of the HSI color space of the iris image are exploited to determine the two intersection points between each eyelid and the outer iris boundary. The strongly connected edges between these two points are detected using the live wire technique that is likely to be the eyelid boundary. The experimental results obtained from UBIRIS.v1 database reveal that the eyelid detection algorithm which proposed in this paper improves the segmentation accuracy for the less constrained iris images.

  16. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndimba, R., E-mail: rminnis@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Institute for Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (South Africa); Grootboom, A.W.; Mehlo, L.; Mkhonza, N.L. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biosciences, Pretoria (South Africa); Kossmann, J. [Institute for Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (South Africa); Barnabas, A.D.; Mtshali, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that poor digestibility in sorghum can be addressed by using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress kafirin synthesis. The approach resulted in a twofold improvement in overall protein digestibility levels. In the present study, the effect of this targeted kafirin suppression on other grain quality parameters was investigated. Several significant changes in the proximate composition, amino acid profile and the bulk mineral content were detected. Importantly, the most limiting amino acid, lysine, was significantly increased in the transgenic grains by up to 39%; whilst mineral elements in the bulk, such as sulphur (S) and zinc (Zn) were reduced by up to 15.8% and 21% respectively. Elemental mapping of the grain tissue, using micro-PIXE, demonstrated a significant decrease in Zn (>75%), which was localised to the outer endosperm region, whilst TEM revealed important changes to the protein body morphology of the transgenic grains.

  17. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, R.; Grootboom, A. W.; Mehlo, L.; Mkhonza, N. L.; Kossmann, J.; Barnabas, A. D.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that poor digestibility in sorghum can be addressed by using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress kafirin synthesis. The approach resulted in a twofold improvement in overall protein digestibility levels. In the present study, the effect of this targeted kafirin suppression on other grain quality parameters was investigated. Several significant changes in the proximate composition, amino acid profile and the bulk mineral content were detected. Importantly, the most limiting amino acid, lysine, was significantly increased in the transgenic grains by up to 39%; whilst mineral elements in the bulk, such as sulphur (S) and zinc (Zn) were reduced by up to 15.8% and 21% respectively. Elemental mapping of the grain tissue, using micro-PIXE, demonstrated a significant decrease in Zn (>75%), which was localised to the outer endosperm region, whilst TEM revealed important changes to the protein body morphology of the transgenic grains.

  18. A Lagrange multiplier based divide and conquer finite element algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, C.

    1991-01-01

    A novel domain decomposition method based on a hybrid variational principle is presented. Prior to any computation, a given finite element mesh is torn into a set of totally disconnected submeshes. First, an incomplete solution is computed in each subdomain. Next, the compatibility of the displacement field at the interface nodes is enforced via discrete, polynomial and/or piecewise polynomial Lagrange multipliers. In the static case, each floating subdomain induces a local singularity that is resolved very efficiently. The interface problem associated with this domain decomposition method is, in general, indefinite and of variable size. A dedicated conjugate projected gradient algorithm is developed for solving the latter problem when it is not feasible to explicitly assemble the interface operator. When implemented on local memory multiprocessors, the proposed methodology requires less interprocessor communication than the classical method of substructuring. It is also suitable for parallel/vector computers with shared memory and compares favorably with factorization based parallel direct methods.

  19. Weak scratch detection and defect classification methods for a large-aperture optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xian; Xu, De; Zhang, Zheng-Tao; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xi-Long; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2017-03-01

    Surface defects on optics cause optic failure and heavy loss to the optical system. Therefore, surface defects on optics must be carefully inspected. This paper proposes a coarse-to-fine detection strategy of weak scratches in complicated dark-field images. First, all possible scratches are detected based on bionic vision. Then, each possible scratch is precisely positioned and connected to a complete scratch by the LSD and a priori knowledge. Finally, multiple scratches with various types can be detected in dark-field images. To classify defects and pollutants, a classification method based on GIST features is proposed. This paper uses many real dark-field images as experimental images. The results show that this method can detect multiple types of weak scratches in complex images and that the defects can be correctly distinguished with interference. This method satisfies the real-time and accurate detection requirements of surface defects.

  20. Elemental detection of arabica and robusta green bean coffee using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Meilina, Hesti; Hedwig, Rinda; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The elemental detection of green bean of arabica and robusta coffee from Gayo Highland, Aceh-Indonesia, has been identified by using fundamental Nd-YAG Laser at 10 Torr of surrounding air gas pressure for distinguishing the characteristics of both coffees. As the preliminary study, we have detected the elements of K 766.49 nm, Na 588.9 nm, Ca 393.3 nm, CN band at 388.3 nm, N 337.13 nm and C 247.8 nm of both coffees. It is noticed that the order of elements concentration from highest to lowest are Ca>K>CN> Na>N> C for arabica and K>Ca>CN >Na>C>N for robusta. The emission intensity of K 766.49 nm is almost same for both of coffee. However, the emission intensity of Na 588.9 nm is lower in Arabica coffee. To distinguish the Arabica coffee and Robusta Coffee, we take the ratio intensity of K/C, Na/C, CN/C, and Ca/C. It is found that the ratio intensities of CN/C and Ca/C in arabica bean are significantly different with robusta bean. That ratio intensities can be used as a marker to discriminate kind of coffee. We also noted that the arabica green bean is 1.3 harder than robusta green bean. These findings prove that the technique of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy can be used to make rapid identification of elements in coffee and can potentially be applied to measure the concentration of blended coffee for the purpose of authentication.

  1. Inorganic elemental determinations of marine traditional Chinese Medicine Meretricis concha from Jiaozhou Bay: The construction of inorganic elemental fingerprint based on chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mingying; Li, Xuejie; Zheng, Kang; Jiang, Man; Yan, Cuiwei; Li, Yantuan

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the relationship between the inorganic elemental fingerprint and the geographical origin identification of Meretricis concha, which is a commonly used marine traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of asthma and scald burns. For that, the inorganic elemental contents of Meretricis concha from five sampling points in Jiaozhou Bay have been determined by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and the comparative investigations based on the contents of 14 inorganic elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) of the samples from Jiaozhou Bay and the previous reported Rushan Bay were performed. It has been found that the samples from the two bays are approximately classified into two kinds using hierarchical cluster analysis, and a four-factor model based on principle component analysis could explain approximately 75% of the detection data, also linear discriminant analysis can be used to develop a prediction model to distinguish the samples from Jiaozhou Bay and Rushan Bay with accuracy of about 93%. The results of the present investigation suggested that the inorganic elemental fingerprint based on the combination of the measured elemental content and chemometric analysis is a promising approach for verifying the geographical origin of Meretricis concha, and this strategy should be valuable for the authenticity discrimination of some marine TCM.

  2. Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; Dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL-1 concentration range with (3.2 +/- 0.3) mV/µg.mL-1 of sensitivity and 0.09 µg.mL-1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue.

  3. A Signal Based Triangular Structuring Element for Mathematical Morphological Analysis and Its Application in Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical morphology (MM is an efficient nonlinear signal processing tool. It can be adopted to extract fault information from bearing signal according to a structuring element (SE. Since the bearing signal features differ for every unique cause of failure, the SEs should be well tailored to extract the fault feature from a particular signal. In the following, a signal based triangular SE according to the statistics of the magnitude of a vibration signal is proposed, together with associated methodology, which processes the bearing signal by MM analysis based on proposed SE to get the morphology spectrum of a signal. A correlation analysis on morphology spectrum is then employed to obtain the final classification of bearing faults. The classification performance of the proposed method is evaluated by a set of bearing vibration signals with inner race, ball, and outer race faults, respectively. Results show that all faults can be detected clearly and correctly. Compared with a commonly used flat SE, the correlation analysis on morphology spectrum with proposed SE gives better performance at fault diagnosis of bearing, especially the identification of the location of outer race fault and the level of fault severity.

  4. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  5. Pedestrian detection based on redundant wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ji, Liping; Hu, Ping; Yang, Tiejun

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent video surveillance is to analysis video or image sequences captured by a fixed or mobile surveillance camera, including moving object detection, segmentation and recognition. By using it, we can be notified immediately in an abnormal situation. Pedestrian detection plays an important role in an intelligent video surveillance system, and it is also a key technology in the field of intelligent vehicle. So pedestrian detection has very vital significance in traffic management optimization, security early warn and abnormal behavior detection. Generally, pedestrian detection can be summarized as: first to estimate moving areas; then to extract features of region of interest; finally to classify using a classifier. Redundant wavelet transform (RWT) overcomes the deficiency of shift variant of discrete wavelet transform, and it has better performance in motion estimation when compared to discrete wavelet transform. Addressing the problem of the detection of multi-pedestrian with different speed, we present an algorithm of pedestrian detection based on motion estimation using RWT, combining histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and support vector machine (SVM). Firstly, three intensities of movement (IoM) are estimated using RWT and the corresponding areas are segmented. According to the different IoM, a region proposal (RP) is generated. Then, the features of a RP is extracted using HOG. Finally, the features are fed into a SVM trained by pedestrian databases and the final detection results are gained. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can detect pedestrians accurately and efficiently.

  6. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the obtained classifier was measured by ten-fold cross validation. The results show that the proposed method is useful to identify an easy-to-use expert system that is able to determine the origin of the clinker based on its trace element content.

    En el presente trabajo se describe el procedimiento de identificación cualitativa de clínkeres españoles con el objeto de determinar su origen (fábrica. Esa clasificación de los clínkeres se basa en el contenido de sus elementos traza. Se analizaron 15 clínkeres diferentes procedentes de 11 fábricas de cemento españolas, determinándose los contenidos en Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn y V. Se ha diseñado un sistema experto mediante un árbol de decisión binario basado en los datos recogidos. La clasificación obtenida fue examinada mediante la validación cruzada de 10 valores. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el modelo propuesto es válido para identificar, de manera fácil, un sistema experto capaz de determinar el origen de un clínker basándose en el contenido de sus elementos traza.

  7. A new wavelet-based thin plate element using B-spline wavelet on the interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiawei, Xiang; Xuefeng, Chen; Zhengjia, He; Yinghong, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    By interacting and synchronizing wavelet theory in mathematics and variational principle in finite element method, a class of wavelet-based plate element is constructed. In the construction of wavelet-based plate element, the element displacement field represented by the coefficients of wavelet expansions in wavelet space is transformed into the physical degree of freedoms in finite element space via the corresponding two-dimensional C1 type transformation matrix. Then, based on the associated generalized function of potential energy of thin plate bending and vibration problems, the scaling functions of B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI) at different scale are employed directly to form the multi-scale finite element approximation basis so as to construct BSWI plate element via variational principle. BSWI plate element combines the accuracy of B-spline functions approximation and various wavelet-based elements for structural analysis. Some static and dynamic numerical examples are studied to demonstrate the performances of the present element.

  8. Motion Structural Optimization Strategy for Rhombic Element Based Foldable Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hyun Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a new systematical design approach of foldable structure composed of several rhombic elements by applying genetic algorithm. As structural shapes represented by a foldable structure can be easily and dramatically morphed by manipulating rotational directions and angle of joints, the foldable structure has been used for various elementary structural members and engineering mechanisms. However a systematic design approach determining detail rotational angle and directions of unit cells for arbitrary shaped target areas has not been proposed yet. This research contributes to it by developing a new structural optimization method determining optimal angle and rotation directions to cover arbitrary shaped target areas of interest with aggregated rhombic elements. To achieve this purpose, we present an optimization formulation minimizing the sum of distances between each reference joint of an arbitrary shaped target area and its closest outer joints of foldable structure. To find out the outer joint set of a given foldable structure, an efficient geometric analysis method based on Delaunay triangulation is also developed and implemented. To show the validity and limitations of the present approach, several foldable structure design problems for two-dimensional arbitrary shaped target areas are solved with the present optimization procedure.

  9. Dictionary based Approach to Edge Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Edge detection is a very essential part of image processing, as quality and accuracy of detection determines the success of further processing. We have developed a new self learning technique for edge detection using dictionary comprised of eigenfilters constructed using features of the input image. The dictionary based method eliminates the need of pre or post processing of the image and accounts for noise, blurriness, class of image and variation of illumination during the detection process itself. Since, this method depends on the characteristics of the image, the new technique can detect edges more accurately and capture greater detail than existing algorithms such as Sobel, Prewitt Laplacian of Gaussian, Canny method etc which use generic filters and operators. We have demonstrated its application on various classes of images such as text, face, barcodes, traffic and cell images. An application of this technique to cell counting in a microscopic image is also presented.

  10. Web Based Cross Language Plagiarism Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2009-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross language and cultural border by providing different types of translation tools, cross language plagiarism, also known as translation plagiarism are bound to arise. Especially among the academic works, such issue will definitely affect the student's works including the quality of their assignments and paper works. In this paper, we propose a new approach in detecting cross language plagiarism. Our web based cross language plagiarism detection system is specially tuned to detect translation plagiarism by implementing different techniques and tools to assist the detection process. Google Translate API is used as our translation tool and Google Search API, which is used in our information retrieval process. Our system is also integrated with the fingerprint matching technique, which is a widely used plagiarism detection technique. In general, our proposed system is started by translating the input documents from Malay to English, followed by removal of stop words and stemming words, ...

  11. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection.

  12. Detection of subsurface defects in metal materials using infrared thermography; Image processing and finite element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Infrared thermography is an emerging approach to non-contact, non-intrusive, and non-destructive inspection of various solid materials such as metals, composites, and semiconductors for industrial and research interests. In this study, data processing was applied to infrared thermography measurements to detect defects in metals that were widely used in industrial fields. When analyzing experimental data from infrared thermographic testing, raw images were often not appropriate. Thus, various data analysis methods were used at the pre-processing and processing levels in data processing programs for quantitative analysis of defect detection and characterization; these increased the infrared non-destructive testing capabilities since subtle defects signature became apparent. A 3D finite element simulation was performed to verify and analyze the data obtained from both the experiment and the image processing techniques.

  13. Finite Element Based Design and Optimization for Piezoelectric Accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Kriegbaum, B.; Yao, Q.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic Finite Element design and optimisation procedure is implemented for the development of piezoelectric accelerometers. Most of the specifications of accelerometers can be obtained using the Finite Element simulations. The deviations between the simulated and calibrated sensitivities...

  14. Nondestructive Damage Detection Based on Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Plachý

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three studies of damage identification and localization based on methods using experimentally estimated modal characteristics are presented. The results of an experimental investigation of simple structural elements (three RC-beams and three RC-slabs obtained in the laboratory are compared with the results obtained on a real structure (a composite bridge – a concrete deck supported by steel girders in situ. 

  15. Cluster based Intrusion Detection System for Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Dang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Manets are the ad hoc networks that are build on demand or instantly when some mobile nodes come in the mobility range of each other and decide to cooperate for data transfer and communication. Therefore there is no defined topology for Manets. They communicate in dynamic topology which continuously changes as nodes are not stable. Due to this lack of infrastructure and distributed nature they are more vulnerable for attacks and provide a good scope to malicious users to become part of the network. To prevent the security of mobile ad hoc networks many security measures are designed such as encryption algorithms, firewalls etc. But still there is some scope of malicious actions. So, Intrusion detection systems are proposed to detect any intruder in the network and its malicious activities. Cluster based intrusion detection system is also designed to restrict the intruders activities in clusters of mobile nodes. In clusters each node run some intrusion detection code to detect local as well as global intrusion. In this paper we have taken insight of intrusion detection systems and different attacks on Manet security. Then we proposed how overhead involved in cluster based intrusion detection system can be reduced.

  16. Plagiarism Detection Based on SCAM Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzelmi, Daniele; Carlone, Domenico; Rizzello, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex problem and considered one of the biggest in publishing of scientific, engineering and other types of documents. Plagiarism has also increased with the widespread use of the Internet as large amount of digital data is available. Plagiarism is not just direct copy but also...... paraphrasing, rewording, adapting parts, missing references or wrong citations. This makes the problem more difficult to handle adequately. Plagiarism detection techniques are applied by making a distinction between natural and programming languages. Our proposed detection process is based on natural language...... document. Our plagiarism detection system, like many Information Retrieval systems, is evaluated with metrics of precision and recall....

  17. Spatio-activity based object detection

    CERN Document Server

    Springett, Jarrad

    2008-01-01

    We present the SAMMI lightweight object detection method which has a high level of accuracy and robustness, and which is able to operate in an environment with a large number of cameras. Background modeling is based on DCT coefficients provided by cameras. Foreground detection uses similarity in temporal characteristics of adjacent blocks of pixels, which is a computationally inexpensive way to make use of object coherence. Scene model updating uses the approximated median method for improved performance. Evaluation at pixel level and application level shows that SAMMI object detection performs better and faster than the conventional Mixture of Gaussians method.

  18. Quantum Endpoint Detection Based on QRDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Han; Song, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Speech recognition technology is widely used in many applications for man - machine interaction. To face more and more speech data, the computation of speech processing needs new approaches. The quantum computation is one of emerging computation technology and has been seen as useful computation model. So we focus on the basic operation of speech recognition processing, the voice activity detection, to present quantum endpoint detection algorithm. In order to achieve this algorithm, the n-bits quantum comparator circuit is given firstly. Then based on QRDA(Quantum Representation of Digital Audio), a quantum endpoint detection algorithm is presented. These quantum circuits could efficient process the audio data in quantum computer.

  19. Quantum Endpoint Detection Based on QRDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Han; Song, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Speech recognition technology is widely used in many applications for man - machine interaction. To face more and more speech data, the computation of speech processing needs new approaches. The quantum computation is one of emerging computation technology and has been seen as useful computation model. So we focus on the basic operation of speech recognition processing, the voice activity detection, to present quantum endpoint detection algorithm. In order to achieve this algorithm, the n-bits quantum comparator circuit is given firstly. Then based on QRDA(Quantum Representation of Digital Audio), a quantum endpoint detection algorithm is presented. These quantum circuits could efficient process the audio data in quantum computer.

  20. Submarine Magnetic Field Extrapolation Based on Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun-ji; LIU Da-ming; YAO Qiong-hui; ZHOU Guo-hua; YAN Hui

    2007-01-01

    In order to master the magnetic field distribution of submarines in the air completely and exactly and study the magnetic stealthy performance of submarine, a mathematic model of submarine magnetic field extrapolation is built based on the boundary element method (BEM). An experiment is designed to measure three components of magnetic field on the envelope surface surrounding a model submarine. The data in differentheights above the model submarine are obtained by use of tri-axial magnetometers. The results show that this extrapolation model has good stabilities and high accuracies compared the measured data with the extrapolated data. Moreover, the model can reflect the submarine magnetic field distribution in the air exactly, and is valuable in practical engineering.

  1. Nanoparticle-labeled DNA capture elements for detection and identification of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Parker, Jill E.; Vivekananda, Jeevalatha; Franz, Veronica

    2004-12-01

    Aptamers, synthetic DNA capture elements (DCEs), can be made chemically or in genetically engineered bacteria. DNA capture elements are artificial DNA sequences, from a random pool of sequences, selected for their specific binding to potential biological warfare or terrorism agents. These sequences were selected by an affinity method using filters to which the target agent was attached and the DNA isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an iterative, increasingly stringent, process. The probes can then be conjugated to Quantum Dots and super paramagnetic nanoparticles. The former provide intense, bleach-resistant fluorescent detection of bioagent and the latter provide a means to collect the bioagents with a magnet. The fluorescence can be detected in a flow cytometer, in a fluorescence plate reader, or with a fluorescence microscope. To date, we have made DCEs to Bacillus anthracis spores, Shiga toxin, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and Francisella tularensis. DCEs can easily distinguish Bacillus anthracis from its nearest relatives, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Development of a high through-put process is currently being investigated.

  2. Seizure detection algorithms based on EMG signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective......: to show whether medical signal processing of EMG data is feasible for detection of epileptic seizures. Methods: EMG signals during generalised seizures were recorded from 3 patients (with 20 seizures in total). Two possible medical signal processing algorithms were tested. The first algorithm was based...... on the amplitude of the signal. The other algorithm was based on information of the signal in the frequency domain, and it focused on synchronisation of the electrical activity in a single muscle during the seizure. Results: The amplitude-based algorithm reliably detected seizures in 2 of the patients, while...

  3. Topology optimization for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves using an edge element-based finite-element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops a topology optimization procedure for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves with an edge element-based finite-element method. In contrast to the two-dimensional case, three-dimensional electromagnetic waves must include an additional divergence-free condition for the field variables. The edge element-based finite-element method is used to both discretize the wave equations and enforce the divergence-free condition. For wave propagation described in terms of the magnetic field in the widely used class of non-magnetic materials, the divergence-free condition is imposed on the magnetic field. This naturally leads to a nodal topology optimization method. When wave propagation is described using the electric field, the divergence-free condition must be imposed on the electric displacement. In this case, the material in the design domain is assumed to be piecewise homogeneous to impose the divergence-free condition on the electric field. This results in an element-wise topology optimization algorithm. The topology optimization problems are regularized using a Helmholtz filter and a threshold projection method and are analysed using a continuous adjoint method. In order to ensure the applicability of the filter in the element-wise topology optimization version, a regularization method is presented to project the nodal into an element-wise physical density variable.

  4. Topology optimization for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves using an edge element-based finite-element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Korvink, Jan G

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops a topology optimization procedure for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves with an edge element-based finite-element method. In contrast to the two-dimensional case, three-dimensional electromagnetic waves must include an additional divergence-free condition for the field variables. The edge element-based finite-element method is used to both discretize the wave equations and enforce the divergence-free condition. For wave propagation described in terms of the magnetic field in the widely used class of non-magnetic materials, the divergence-free condition is imposed on the magnetic field. This naturally leads to a nodal topology optimization method. When wave propagation is described using the electric field, the divergence-free condition must be imposed on the electric displacement. In this case, the material in the design domain is assumed to be piecewise homogeneous to impose the divergence-free condition on the electric field. This results in an element-wise topology optimization algorithm. The topology optimization problems are regularized using a Helmholtz filter and a threshold projection method and are analysed using a continuous adjoint method. In order to ensure the applicability of the filter in the element-wise topology optimization version, a regularization method is presented to project the nodal into an element-wise physical density variable.

  5. Topology optimization for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves using an edge element-based finite-element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a topology optimization procedure for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves with an edge element-based finite-element method. In contrast to the two-dimensional case, three-dimensional electromagnetic waves must include an additional divergence-free condition for the field variables. The edge element-based finite-element method is used to both discretize the wave equations and enforce the divergence-free condition. For wave propagation described in terms of the magnetic field in the widely used class of non-magnetic materials, the divergence-free condition is imposed on the magnetic field. This naturally leads to a nodal topology optimization method. When wave propagation is described using the electric field, the divergence-free condition must be imposed on the electric displacement. In this case, the material in the design domain is assumed to be piecewise homogeneous to impose the divergence-free condition on the electric field. This results in an element-wise topology optimization algorithm. The topology optimization problems are regularized using a Helmholtz filter and a threshold projection method and are analysed using a continuous adjoint method. In order to ensure the applicability of the filter in the element-wise topology optimization version, a regularization method is presented to project the nodal into an element-wise physical density variable. PMID:27279766

  6. Two New Quadrilateral Elements Based on Strain States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaiee-Pajand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two new quadrilateral elements are formulated to solve plane problems. Low sensitivity to geometric distortion, no parasitic shear error, rotational invariance, and satisfying the Felippa pure bending test are characteristics of these suggested elements. One proposed element is formulated by establishing equilibrium equations for the second-order strain field. The other suggested element is obtained by establishing equilibrium equations only for the linear part of the strain field. The number of the strain states decreases when the conditions among strain states are satisfied. Several numerical tests are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed elements. Famous elements, which were suggested by other researchers, are used as a means of comparison. It is shown that these novel elements pass the strong patch tests, even for extremely poor meshes, and one of them has an excellent accuracy and fast convergence in other complicated problems.

  7. Improved biosensor-based detection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Described is a new biosensor-based detection system for effector compounds, useful for in vivo applications in e.g. screening and selecting of cells which produce a small molecule effector compound or which take up a small molecule effector compound from its environment. The detection system...... comprises a protein or RNA-based biosensor for the effector compound which indirectly regulates the expression of a reporter gene via two hybrid proteins, providing for fewer false signals or less 'noise', tuning of sensitivity or other advantages over conventional systems where the biosensor directly...

  8. Recombinations in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements compromise the molecular detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.

    2014-06-27

    Clinical laboratories are increasingly using molecular tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening. However, primers have to be targeted to a variable chromosomal region, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). We initially screened 726 MRSA isolates from a single UK hospital trust by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), a novel, isothermal alternative to PCR. Undetected isolates were further characterised using multilocus sequence, spa typing and whole genome sequencing. 96% of our tested phenotypically MRSA isolates contained one of the six orfX-SCCmec junctions our RPA test and commercially available molecular tests target. However 30 isolates could not be detected. Sequencing of 24 of these isolates demonstrated recombinations within the SCCmec element with novel insertions that interfered with the RPA, preventing identification as MRSA. This result suggests that clinical laboratories cannot rely solely upon molecular assays to reliably detect all methicillin-resistance. The presence of significant recombinations in the SCCmec element, where the majority of assays target their primers, suggests that there will continue to be isolates that escape identification. We caution that dependence on amplification-based molecular assays will continue to result in failure to diagnose a small proportion (?4%) of MRSA isolates, unless the true level of SCCmec natural diversity is determined by whole genome sequencing of a large collection of MRSA isolates. © 2014 Hill-Cawthorne et al.

  9. Recombinations in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements compromise the molecular detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Hill-Cawthorne

    Full Text Available Clinical laboratories are increasingly using molecular tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA screening. However, primers have to be targeted to a variable chromosomal region, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec. We initially screened 726 MRSA isolates from a single UK hospital trust by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA, a novel, isothermal alternative to PCR. Undetected isolates were further characterised using multilocus sequence, spa typing and whole genome sequencing. 96% of our tested phenotypically MRSA isolates contained one of the six orfX-SCCmec junctions our RPA test and commercially available molecular tests target. However 30 isolates could not be detected. Sequencing of 24 of these isolates demonstrated recombinations within the SCCmec element with novel insertions that interfered with the RPA, preventing identification as MRSA. This result suggests that clinical laboratories cannot rely solely upon molecular assays to reliably detect all methicillin-resistance. The presence of significant recombinations in the SCCmec element, where the majority of assays target their primers, suggests that there will continue to be isolates that escape identification. We caution that dependence on amplification-based molecular assays will continue to result in failure to diagnose a small proportion (∼4% of MRSA isolates, unless the true level of SCCmec natural diversity is determined by whole genome sequencing of a large collection of MRSA isolates.

  10. Vibration-based damage detection algorithm for WTT structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan-Cuong; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Joo-Young; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the integrity of a wind turbine tower (WTT) structure is nondestructively estimated using its vibration responses. Firstly, a damage detection algorithm using changes in modal characteristics to predict damage locations and severities in structures is outlined. Secondly, a finite element (FE) model based on a real WTT structure is established by using a commercial software, Midas FEA. Thirdly, forced vibration tests are performed on the FE model of the WTT structure under various damage scenarios. The changes in modal parameters such as natural frequencies and mode shapes are examined for damage monitoring in the structure. Finally, the feasibility of the vibration-based damage detection method is numerically verified by predicting locations and severities of the damage in the FE model of the WTT structure.

  11. Optofluidic elements in liquid-based sensor systems; Optofluidische Komponenten in der Fluessigkeitssensorik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenauer, Michael; Weber, Emanuel; Vellekoop, Michael J. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Sensor- und Aktuatorsysteme; Stampfl, Juergen [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnologie

    2010-07-01

    Adaptive optical components in integrated sensor systems are critical for the excitation and detection of luminescence signals in bioassay applications. In this work two types of optofluidic elements with the ability to increase the sensitivity and applicability of these lab-on-a-chips are discussed. First a hydrodynamic shapeable liquid microlens based on a microfluidic channel structure is presented. It allows a three-dimensional alteration of the focal length in-plane to the substrate. The second sensor system comprises an adaptive liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide. The prototypes are fabricated by micro-stereolithography in a transparent photopolymer. (orig.)

  12. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Xu, J.; Zhao, J.; Sun, J.

    2016-04-01

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m-1 to 697.41 Fμ m-1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m-1 to 566.11 Fμ m-1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis.

  13. Optimization of Detecting Conditions of Cd Element in Root of A maranthus hypochondriacus using Flame Atomic Absorption Based on Response Surface Methodology%火焰原子吸收法检测籽粒苋根中镉含量影响因素的响应面优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋海军; 徐铭键; 陈惠; 张世熔; 布同良; 唐自钟; 孙蓉; 刘默洋

    2015-01-01

    To optimize the detecting conditions of Cd element in root of A maranthus hypochondriacus using flame atomic absorption based on response surface methodology. On the basis of single factor experiment, effects of lamp current, slit width, acetylene/air flow ratio and burner height were investigated based on the Box-Behnken design of Design Expert V 8.0.5b on the absorbance value of Cd element in root of Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The optimal detecting conditions were as follows:lamp current 5.67 mA, slit width 0.62 nm, acetylene/air flow ratio 0.17;burner height 5.14 mm, and the theoretical prediction of the absorbance was 0.209 4. The experimental results showed that the theoretical value of absorbance was close to that of the real detection, and the relative standard deviation was 0.94%, and the recovery rates ranged from 96.3%to 103.7%. This showed that the method had a good reproducibility, and the data was accurate and reliable. This experiment will provide technical data for accurate detection of cadmium content of different parts (roots, stems, leaves and fruits) and screening of new varieties of cadmium resistance in A maranthus hypochondriacus.%采用响应面法优化籽粒苋(Amaranthus hypochondriacus)根中镉元素的火焰原子吸收检测条件。在单因素试验的基础上,本研究利用Design Expert V 8.0.5b软件中的Box-Benhnken试验设计,研究灯电流、狭缝宽度、乙炔/空气流量比和燃烧器高度4个因素对籽粒苋根系中镉吸光度值的影响。用响应面分析法得出最优的测定条件为:灯电流5.67 mA;狭缝宽度0.62 nm;乙炔/空气流量比0.17(1/6);燃烧器高度5.14 mm,此时的理论预测吸光度值为0.2094。通过验证实验证实:吸光度的理论预测值与真实测定值接近,样品检测中的相对标准偏差0.94%,加标回收率在96.3%~103.7%之间,说明该检测方法重现性好,数据准确可靠。本实验将为下一步准确检测籽粒苋不同部

  14. Sensitivity-based finite element model updating using constrained optimization with a trust region algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Pelin Gundes; Reynders, Edwin; De Roeck, Guido

    2007-08-01

    The use of changes in dynamic system characteristics to detect damage has received considerable attention during the last years. Within this context, FE model updating technique, which belongs to the class of inverse problems in classical mechanics, is used to detect, locate and quantify damage. In this study, a sensitivity-based finite element (FE) model updating scheme using a trust region algorithm is developed and implemented in a complex structure. A damage scenario is applied on the structure in which the stiffness values of the beam elements close to the beam-column joints are decreased by stiffness reduction factors. A worst case and complex damage pattern is assumed such that the stiffnesses of adjacent elements are decreased by substantially different stiffness reduction factors. The objective of the model updating is to minimize the differences between the eigenfrequency and eigenmodes residuals. The updating parameters of the structure are the stiffness reduction factors. The changes of these parameters are determined iteratively by solving a nonlinear constrained optimization problem. The FE model updating algorithm is also tested in the presence of two levels of noise in simulated measurements. In all three cases, the updated MAC values are above 99% and the relative eigenfrequency differences improve substantially after model updating. In cases without noise and with moderate levels of noise; detection, localization and quantification of damage are successfully accomplished. In the case with substantially noisy measurements, detection and localization of damage are successfully realized. Damage quantification is also promising in the presence of high noise as the algorithm can still predict 18 out of 24 damage parameters relatively accurately in that case.

  15. A hybrid-stress element based on Hamilton principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Song; Zhang, Tao; Li, Chen-Feng; Fu, Xiang-Rong; Long, Yu-Qiu

    2010-08-01

    A novel hybrid-stress finite element method is proposed for constructing simple 4-node quadrilateral plane elements, and the new element is denoted as HH4-3 β here. Firstly, the theoretical basis of the traditional hybrid-stress elements, i.e., the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle, is replaced by the Hamilton variational principle, in which the number of the stress variables is reduced from 3 to 2. Secondly, three stress parameters and corresponding trial functions are introduced into the system equations. Thirdly, the displacement fields of the conventional bilinear isoparametric element are employed in the new models. Finally, from the stationary condition, the stress parameters can be expressed in terms of the displacement parameters, and thus the new element stiffness matrices can be obtained. Since the required number of stress variables in the Hamilton variational principle is less than that in the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle, and no additional incompatible displacement modes are considered, the new hybrid-stress element is simpler than the traditional ones. Furthermore, in order to improve the accuracy of the stress solutions, two enhanced post-processing schemes are also proposed for element HH4-3 β. Numerical examples show that the proposed model exhibits great improvements in both displacement and stress solutions, implying that the proposed technique is an effective way for developing simple finite element models with high performance.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope observations of cool white dwarf stars: Detection of new species of heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry; Barnhill, Maurice; Provencal, Judi; Roby, Scott; Bues, Irmela; Cordova, France; Hammond, Gordon; Hintzen, Paul; Koester, Detlev; Liebert, James

    1995-01-01

    Observations of cool white dwarf stars with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has uncovered a number of spectral features from previouslly unobserved species. In this paper we present the data on four cool white dwarfs. We present identifications, equivalent width measurements, and brief summaries of the significance of our findings. The four stars observed are GD 40 (DBZ3, G 74-7 (DAZ), L 745-46A (DZ), and LDS 749B (DBA). Many additional species of heavey elements were detected in GD 40 and G 74-7. In L 745-46A, while the detections are limited to Fe 1, Fe II, and Mg II, the quality of the Mg II h and K line profiles should permit a test of the line broadening theories, which are so crucial to abundance determinations. The clear detection of Mg II h and k in LDS 749 B should, once an abundance determination is made, provide a clear test of the hypothesis that the DBA stars are the result of accretion from the interstellar medium. This star contains no other clear features other than a tantalizing hint of C II 1335 with a P Cygni profile, and some expected He 1 lines.

  17. Stress and Deformation Analysis in Base Isolation Elements Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Iavornic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Modern tools as Finite Element Method can be used to study the behavior of elastomeric isolation systems. The simulation results obtained in this way provide a large series of data about the behavior of elastomeric isolation bearings under different types of loads and help in taking right decisions regarding geometrical optimizations needed for improve such kind of devices.

  18. Water Detection Based on Object Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2012-01-01

    Water bodies are challenging terrain hazards for terrestrial unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) for several reasons. Traversing through deep water bodies could cause costly damage to the electronics of UGVs. Additionally, a UGV that is either broken down due to water damage or becomes stuck in a water body during an autonomous operation will require rescue, potentially drawing critical resources away from the primary operation and increasing the operation cost. Thus, robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for UGV autonomous navigation. One of the properties useful for detecting still water bodies is that their surface acts as a horizontal mirror at high incidence angles. Still water bodies in wide-open areas can be detected by geometrically locating the exact pixels in the sky that are reflecting on candidate water pixels on the ground, predicting if ground pixels are water based on color similarity to the sky and local terrain features. But in cluttered areas where reflections of objects in the background dominate the appearance of the surface of still water bodies, detection based on sky reflections is of marginal value. Specifically, this software attempts to solve the problem of detecting still water bodies on cross-country terrain in cluttered areas at low cost.

  19. Occurrence of trace elements and antibiotics in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang Province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Mingrong [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, MOA Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wu, Huizhen [College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wang, Jianmei; Zhang, Hu [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, MOA Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Zhang, Zulin [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Zhang, Yongzhi [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, MOA Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Lin, Hui [Environmental Resources and Soil Fertilizer Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Ma, Junwei, E-mail: majw@mail.zaas.ac.cn [Environmental Resources and Soil Fertilizer Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang province of China. These trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium. The targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The median amounts of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg{sup −1}, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound, with a detection rate of 39.3% and concentrations ranging from 6.7 μg·kg{sup −1} to 4091 μg·kg{sup −1}. Based on the referred loading rates in agricultural soil, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizer samples might pose a high potential ecological risk due to the presence of antibiotics. - Graphical abstract: Occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers in Zhejiang province of China. The trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium; the targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The medium values of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg{sup −1}, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound with the detection rate of 39.3% and the concentrations ranged from 6.7 μg·kg{sup −1} to 4091 μg·kg{sup −1}. Based on the referred loading rates, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizers might pose a high potential ecological risk after their application onto agriculture soil due to the presence of antibiotics. - Highlight: • Antibiotics and trace elements were investigated in manure-based fertilizers. • 64% of

  20. Community detection based on network communicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2011-03-01

    We propose a new method for detecting communities based on the concept of communicability between nodes in a complex network. This method, designated as N-ComBa K-means, uses a normalized version of the adjacency matrix to build the communicability matrix and then applies K-means clustering to find the communities in a graph. We analyze how this method performs for some pathological cases found in the analysis of the detection limit of communities and propose some possible solutions on the basis of the analysis of the ratio of local to global densities in graphs. We use four different quality criteria for detecting the best clustering and compare the new approach with the Girvan-Newman algorithm for the analysis of two "classical" networks: karate club and bottlenose dolphins. Finally, we analyze the more challenging case of homogeneous networks with community structure, for which the Girvan-Newman completely fails in detecting any clustering. The N-ComBa K-means approach performs very well in these situations and we applied it to detect the community structure in an international trade network of miscellaneous manufactures of metal having these characteristics. Some final remarks about the general philosophy of community detection are also discussed.

  1. A powerful molecular engineering tool provided efficient Chlamydomonas mutants as bio-sensing elements for herbicides detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya D; Giardi, Maria Teresa; Rambaldi, Irene; Antonacci, Amina; Pastorelli, Sandro; Bertalan, Ivo; Husu, Ivan; Johanningmeier, Udo; Rea, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    This study was prompted by increasing concerns about ecological damage and human health threats derived by persistent contamination of water and soil with herbicides, and emerging of bio-sensing technology as powerful, fast and efficient tool for the identification of such hazards. This work is aimed at overcoming principal limitations negatively affecting the whole-cell-based biosensors performance due to inadequate stability and sensitivity of the bio-recognition element. The novel bio-sensing elements for the detection of herbicides were generated exploiting the power of molecular engineering in order to improve the performance of photosynthetic complexes. The new phenotypes were produced by an in vitro directed evolution strategy targeted at the photosystem II (PSII) D1 protein of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using exposures to radical-generating ionizing radiation as selection pressure. These tools proved successful to identify D1 mutations conferring enhanced stability, tolerance to free-radical-associated stress and competence for herbicide perception. Long-term stability tests of PSII performance revealed the mutants capability to deal with oxidative stress-related conditions. Furthermore, dose-response experiments indicated the strains having increased sensitivity or resistance to triazine and urea type herbicides with I(50) values ranging from 6 × 10(-8) M to 2 × 10(-6) M. Besides stressing the relevance of several amino acids for PSII photochemistry and herbicide sensing, the possibility to improve the specificity of whole-cell-based biosensors, via coupling herbicide-sensitive with herbicide-resistant strains, was verified.

  2. Study of packaging design based on Chinese traditional elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蓝幻

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Chinese traditional culture of China’s packaging design workers provide material inexhaustible creative ideas. In recent years, most of the fusion of traditional elements in the international and domestic importance of packaging in the design. By analyzing the elements of traditional Chinese and international best packaging design combined with each other, its essence applied to packaging design in the past.

  3. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing

    2015-02-12

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  4. [Application of ICP-MS to the detection of 22 elements in transgenic soybean oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wel, Zhen-lin; Shen, Lin; Rui, Yu-kui; Jiao, Chuan-zhen

    2008-06-01

    With the rapid development of transgenic food, more and more transgenic food has been pouring into the market, and much attention has been paid to the edible safety of transgenic food. Transgenic soybean oils were studied by ICP-MS to detect 22 kinds of elements. The results showed that the contents of 7 kinds of macroelements range from 0. 13 to 12.52 microg x g(-1) in transgenic soybean oils, the range of the rest 15 kinds of microelements is from 0.15 ng x g(-1) to 7)0.00 ng x g(-1). The sequence of macroelement concentration is Ca>Na>K>Mg>Al>P>Si. There are 5 kinds of micoelements whose concentrations were higher than 200 ng x g(-1), including Zn>Ba>Cr>Fe>Ti, especially Zn, Ba, Cr and Fe.

  5. Fuel element failure detection experiments, evaluation of the experiments at KNK II/1 (Intermediate Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Bruetsch, D

    1983-01-01

    In the frame of the fuel element failure detection experiments at KNK II with its first core the measurement devices of INTERATOM were taken into operation in August 1981 and were in operation almost continuously. Since the start-up until the end of the first KNK II core operation plugs with different fuel test areas were inserted in order to test the efficiency of the different measuring devices. The experimental results determined during this test phase and the gained experiences are described in this report and valuated. All three measuring techniques (Xenon adsorption line XAS, gas-chromatograph GC and precipitator PIT) could fulfil the expectations concerning their susceptibility. For XAS and GC the nuclide specific sensitivities as determined during the preliminary tests could be confirmed. For PIT the influences of different parameters on the signal yield could be determined. The sensitivity of the device could not be measured due to a missing reference measuring point.

  6. Detection and characterization of regulatory elements using probabilistic conditional random field and hidden Markov models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Wang; Xiaobo Zhou

    2013-01-01

    By altering the electrostatic charge of histones or providing binding sites to protein recognition molecules,Chromatin marks have been proposed to regulate gene expression,a property that has motivated researchers to link these marks to cis-regulatory elements.With the help of next generation sequencing technologies,we can now correlate one specific chromatin mark with regulatory elements (e.g.enhancers or promoters) and also build tools,such as hidden Markov models,to gain insight into mark combinations.However,hidden Markov models have limitation for their character of generative models and assume that a current observation depends only on a current hidden state in the chain.Here,we employed two graphical probabilistic models,namely the linear conditional random field model and multivariate hidden Markov model,to mark gene regions with different states based on recurrent and spatially coherent character of these eight marks.Both models revealed chromatin states that may correspond to enhancers and promoters,transcribed regions,transcriptional elongation,and low-signal regions.We also found that the linear conditional random field model was more effective than the hidden Markov model in recognizing regulatory elements,such as promoter-,enhancer-,and transcriptional elongation-associated regions,which gives us a better choice.

  7. Plagiarism Detection Based on SCAM Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzelmi, Daniele; Carlone, Domenico; Rizzello, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex problem and considered one of the biggest in publishing of scientific, engineering and other types of documents. Plagiarism has also increased with the widespread use of the Internet as large amount of digital data is available. Plagiarism is not just direct copy but also...... paraphrasing, rewording, adapting parts, missing references or wrong citations. This makes the problem more difficult to handle adequately. Plagiarism detection techniques are applied by making a distinction between natural and programming languages. Our proposed detection process is based on natural language...

  8. Magnesium-based biodegradable alloys: Degradation, application, and alloying elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorielov, Maksym; Husak, Eugenia; Solodivnik, Alexandr; Zhdanov, Sergii

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, the paradigm about the metal with improved corrosion resistance for application in surgery and orthopedy was broken. The new class of biodegradable metal emerges as an alternative for biomedical implants. These metals corrode gradually with an appropriate host response and release of corrosion products. And it is absolutely necessary to use essential metals metabolized by hosting organism with local and general nontoxic effect. Magnesium serves this aim best; it plays the essential role in body metabolism and should be completely excreted within a few days after degradation. This review summarizes data from Mg discovery and its first experimental and clinical application of modern concept of Mg alloy development. We focused on biodegradable metal application in general surgery and orthopedic practice and showed the advantages and disadvantages Mg alloys offer. We focused on methods of in vitro and in vivo investigation of degradable Mg alloys and correlation between these methods. Based on the observed data, a better way for new alloy pre-clinical investigation is suggested. This review analyzes possible alloying elements that improve corrosion rate, mechanical properties, and gives the appropriate host response.

  9. Elliptical formation control based on relative orbit elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jianfeng; Han Chao

    2013-01-01

    A new set of relative orbit elements (ROEs) is used to derive a new elliptical formation flying model. In-plane and out-of-plane motions can be completely decoupled, which benefits ellip-tical formation design. The inverse transformation of the state transition matrix is derived to study the relative orbit control strategy. Impulsive feedback control laws are developed for both in-plane and out-of-plane relative motions. Control of in-plane and out-of-plane relative motions can be completely decoupled using the ROE-based feedback control law. A tangential impulsive control method is proposed to study the relationship of fuel consumption and maneuvering positions. An optimal analytical along-track impulsive control strategy is then derived. Different typical orbit maneuvers, including formation establishment, reconfiguration, long-distance maneuvers, and for-mation keeping, are taken as examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed control laws. The effects of relative measurement errors are also considered to validate the high accuracy of the proposed control method.

  10. Finite element based simulation of dry sliding wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegadekatte, V.; Huber, N.; Kraft, O.

    2005-01-01

    In order to predict wear and eventually the life-span of complex mechanical systems, several hundred thousand operating cycles have to be simulated. Therefore, a finite element (FE) post-processor is the optimum choice, considering the computational expense. A wear simulation approach based on Archard's wear law is implemented in an FE post-processor that works in association with a commercial FE package, ABAQUS, for solving the general deformable-deformable contact problem. Local wear is computed and then integrated over the sliding distance using the Euler integration scheme. The wear simulation tool works in a loop and performs a series of static FE-simulations with updated surface geometries to get a realistic contact pressure distribution on the contacting surfaces. It will be demonstrated that this efficient approach can simulate wear on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface topologies. The wear on both the interacting surfaces is computed using the contact pressure distribution from a two-dimensional or three-dimensional simulation, depending on the case. After every wear step the geometry is re-meshed to correct the deformed mesh due to wear, thus ensuring a fairly uniform mesh for further processing. The importance and suitability of such a wear simulation tool will be enunciated in this paper.

  11. CFD-Based Design Optimization for Single Element Rocket Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin; Papila, Nilay; Shyy, Wei

    2003-01-01

    To develop future Reusable Launch Vehicle concepts, we have conducted design optimization for a single element rocket injector, with overall goals of improving reliability and performance while reducing cost. Computational solutions based on the Navier-Stokes equations, finite rate chemistry, and the k-E turbulence closure are generated with design of experiment techniques, and the response surface method is employed as the optimization tool. The design considerations are guided by four design objectives motivated by the consideration in both performance and life, namely, the maximum temperature on the oxidizer post tip, the maximum temperature on the injector face, the adiabatic wall temperature, and the length of the combustion zone. Four design variables are selected, namely, H2 flow angle, H2 and O2 flow areas with fixed flow rates, and O2 post tip thickness. In addition to establishing optimum designs by varying emphasis on the individual objectives, better insight into the interplay between design variables and their impact on the design objectives is gained. The investigation indicates that improvement in performance or life comes at the cost of the other. Best compromise is obtained when improvements in both performance and life are given equal importance.

  12. Acoustic analysis of lightweight auto-body based on finite element method and boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xinhua; ZHU Ping; LIN Zhongqin; ZHANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    A lightweight automotive prototype using alter- native materials and gauge thickness is studied by a numeri- cal method. The noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance is the main target of this study. In the range of 1-150 Hz, the frequency response function (FRF) of the body structure is calculated by a finite element method (FEM) to get the dynamic behavior of the auto-body structure. The pressure response of the interior acoustic domain is solved by a boundary element method (BEM). To find the most contrib- uting panel to the inner sound pressure, the panel acoustic contribution analysis (PACA) is performed. Finally, the most contributing panel is located and the resulting structural optimization is found to be more efficient.

  13. MEDEA: a multi element detector array for gamma ray and light charged particle detection at the LNS-Catania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raia, G.; Sapienza, P.

    1992-04-01

    A 4 π highly granular Mutli Element DEtector Array (MEDEA) for γ-rays and light charged particles is described. Its basic configuration consists of 180 barium fluoride scintillator crystals, arranged in the shape of a ball, plus a forward angle wall of 120 phoswich detectors. The inner radius of the ball (22 cm) and the distance of the wall from the target (55 cm) allow the placement of other detectors.in the inner volume. The whole detection system operates under vacuum inside a large scattering chamber. Dedicated electronics has been designed and realized. It includes a powerful hardware second level trigger and preanalysis system, which allows on-line event selection, and a modular VME-bus based data acquisition system. In-beam performances of the system are also described.

  14. DATA-MINING BASED FAULT DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hongguang; Han Chongzhao; Wang Guohua; Xu Jianfeng; Zhu Xiaofei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a fault-detection method based on the phase space reconstruction and data mining approaches for the complex electronic system. The approach for the phase space reconstruction of chaotic time series is a combination algorithm of multiple autocorrelation and Γ-test, by which the quasi-optimal embedding dimension and time delay can be obtained.The data mining algorithm, which calculates the radius of gyration of unit-mass point around the centre of mass in the phase space, can distinguish the fault parameter from the chaotic time series output by the tested system. The experimental results depict that this fault detection method can correctly detect the fault phenomena of electronic system.

  15. Regional principal color based saliency detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lou

    Full Text Available Saliency detection is widely used in many visual applications like image segmentation, object recognition and classification. In this paper, we will introduce a new method to detect salient objects in natural images. The approach is based on a regional principal color contrast modal, which incorporates low-level and medium-level visual cues. The method allows a simple computation of color features and two categories of spatial relationships to a saliency map, achieving higher F-measure rates. At the same time, we present an interpolation approach to evaluate resulting curves, and analyze parameters selection. Our method enables the effective computation of arbitrary resolution images. Experimental results on a saliency database show that our approach produces high quality saliency maps and performs favorably against ten saliency detection algorithms.

  16. Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F.

    2015-08-01

    Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.

  17. Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Arafa H., E-mail: arafa16@yahoo.com, E-mail: arafa.hussien@science.bsu.edu.eg; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)

    2015-08-14

    Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.

  18. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  19. Water Detection Based on Color Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.

    2012-01-01

    This software has been designed to detect water bodies that are out in the open on cross-country terrain at close range (out to 30 meters), using imagery acquired from a stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This detector exploits the fact that the color variation across water bodies is generally larger and more uniform than that of other naturally occurring types of terrain, such as soil and vegetation. Non-traversable water bodies, such as large puddles, ponds, and lakes, are detected based on color variation, image intensity variance, image intensity gradient, size, and shape. At ranges beyond 20 meters, water bodies out in the open can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. But at closer range, the color coming out of a water body dominates sky reflections, and the water cue from sky reflections is of marginal use. Since there may be times during UGV autonomous navigation when a water body does not come into a perception system s field of view until it is at close range, the ability to detect water bodies at close range is critical. Factors that influence the perceived color of a water body at close range are the amount and type of sediment in the water, the water s depth, and the angle of incidence to the water body. Developing a single model of the mixture ratio of light reflected off the water surface (to the camera) to light coming out of the water body (to the camera) for all water bodies would be fairly difficult. Instead, this software detects close water bodies based on local terrain features and the natural, uniform change in color that occurs across the surface from the leading edge to the trailing edge.

  20. Feasibility of the detection of trace elements in particulate matter using online High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, D.; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2012-08-10

    The feasibility of using an online thermal-desorption electron-ionization high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for the detection of particulate trace elements was investigated analyzing data from Mexico City obtained during the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign, where relatively high concentrations of trace elements have been reported. This potential application is of interest due to the real-time data provided by the AMS, its high sensitivity and time resolution, and the widespread availability and use of this instrument. High resolution mass spectral analysis, isotopic ratios, and ratios of different ions containing the same elements are used to constrain the chemical identity of the measured ions. The detection of Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sn, and Sb is reported. There was no convincing evidence for the detection of other trace elements commonly reported in PM. The elements detected tend to be those with lower melting and boiling points, as expected given the use of a vaporizer at 600oC in this instrument. Operation of the AMS vaporizer at higher temperatures is likely to improve trace element detection. The detection limit is estimated at approximately 0.3 ng m-3 for 5-min of data averaging. Concentration time series obtained from the AMS data were compared to concentration records determined from offline analysis of particle samples from the same times and locations by ICP (PM2.5) and PIXE (PM1.1 and PM0.3). The degree of correlation and agreement between the three instruments (AMS, ICP, and PIXE) varied depending on the element. The AMS shows promise for real-time detection of some trace elements, although additional work including laboratory calibrations with different chemical forms of these elements are needed to further develop this technique and to understand the differences with the ambient data from the other techniques. The trace elements peaked in the morning as expected for primary sources, and the many detected plumes suggest the presence of multiple

  1. An FPGA-Based People Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Clark

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an FPGA-based system for detecting people from video. The system is designed to use JPEG-compressed frames from a network camera. Unlike previous approaches that use techniques such as background subtraction and motion detection, we use a machine-learning-based approach to train an accurate detector. We address the hardware design challenges involved in implementing such a detector, along with JPEG decompression, on an FPGA. We also present an algorithm that efficiently combines JPEG decompression with the detection process. This algorithm carries out the inverse DCT step of JPEG decompression only partially. Therefore, it is computationally more efficient and simpler to implement, and it takes up less space on the chip than the full inverse DCT algorithm. The system is demonstrated on an automated video surveillance application and the performance of both hardware and software implementations is analyzed. The results show that the system can detect people accurately at a rate of about 2.5 frames per second on a Virtex-II 2V1000 using a MicroBlaze processor running at 75 MHz, communicating with dedicated hardware over FSL links.

  2. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  3. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  4. Finite element analysis of rotating beams physics based interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the solution of rotating beam free-vibration problems using the finite element method. It provides an introduction to the governing equation of a rotating beam, before outlining the solution procedures using Rayleigh-Ritz, Galerkin and finite element methods. The possibility of improving the convergence of finite element methods through a judicious selection of interpolation functions, which are closer to the problem physics, is also addressed. The book offers a valuable guide for students and researchers working on rotating beam problems – important engineering structures used in helicopter rotors, wind turbines, gas turbines, steam turbines and propellers – and their applications. It can also be used as a textbook for specialized graduate and professional courses on advanced applications of finite element analysis.

  5. Elemental and Molecular Heritage: An Internet-based Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Rzepa

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The background to a Web page describing elemental and molecular heritage at Imperial College chemistry department is described. Photographs are shown of the original samples of elemental bromine and crystalline silicon, and molecular ferrocene and mauveine. 3D "Hyperactive" models of these systems are shown, together with a recently discovered heterocyclic systems scorpionine, which like mauveine is made by a deceptively simple chemical synthesis.

  6. A Finite Circular Arch Element Based on Trigonometric Shape Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saffari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The curved-beam finite element formulation by trigonometric function for curvature is presented. Instead of displacement function, trigonometric function is introduced for curvature to avoid the shear and membrane locking phenomena. Element formulation is carried out in polar coordinates. The element with three nodal parameters is chosen on curvature. Then, curvature field in the element is interpolated as the conventional trigonometric functions. Shape functions are obtained as usual by matrix operations. To consider the boundary conditions, a transformation matrix between nodal curvature and nodal displacement vectors is introduced. The equilibrium equation is written by minimizing the total potential energy in terms of the displacement components. In such equilibrium equation, the locking phenomenon is eliminated. The interesting point in this method is that for most problems, it is sufficient to use only one element to obtain the solution. Four examples are presented in order to verify the element formulation and to show the accuracy and efficiency of the method. The results are compared with those of other concepts.

  7. A reconstructed edge-based smoothed DSG element based on global coordinates for analysis of Reissner-Mindlin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Hu, De'an; Long, Shuyao

    2017-02-01

    A reconstructed edge-based smoothed triangular element, which is incorporated with the discrete shear gap (DSG) method, is formulated based on the global coordinate for analysis of Reissner-Mindlin plates. A symbolic integration combined with the smoothing technique is implemented to calculate the smoothed finite element matrices, which is integrated along the boundaries of each smoothing cell. Numerical results show that the proposed element is free from shear locking, and its results are in good agreement with the exact solutions, even for very thin plates with extremely distorted elements. The proposed element gives more accurate results than the original DSG element without smoothing, and it can be taken as an alternative element for analysis of Reissner-Mindlin plates. The prominent feature of the present element is that the integration scheme is unified in the smoothed form for all of the finite element matrices.

  8. Stochastic structural model of rock and soil aggregates by continuum-based discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yuannian; ZHAO; Manhong; LI; Shihai; J.G.; Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper first presents a stochastic structural model to describe the random geometrical features of rock and soil aggregates. The stochastic structural model uses mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape to construct the microstructures of aggregates,and introduces two types of structural elements (block element and jointed element) and three types of material elements (rock element, soil element, and weaker jointed element)for this microstructure. Then, continuum-based discrete element method is used to study the deformation and failure mechanism of rock and soil aggregate through a series of loading tests. It is found that the stress-strain curve of rock and soil aggregates is nonlinear, and the failure is usually initialized from weaker jointed elements. Finally, some factors such as mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape are studied in detail. The numerical results are in good agreement with in situ test. Therefore, current model is effective for simulating the mechanical behaviors of rock and soil aggregates.

  9. Study on the Cost Calculation of Local Fixed Telecom Network Based on Unbundled Network Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang; LIANG Xiong-jian; HUANG Xiu-qing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, according to the practical condition of local fixed telecom network, based on the method of the realistic total element long-run incremental cost, the practical methods of dividing the network elements, calculating the cost of network elements and services are given, to provide reference for the cost calculation in telecom industry.

  10. Implementation of Free-Formulation-Based Flat Shell Elements into NASA Comet Code and Development of Nonlinear Shallow Shell Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, A.; Madenci, Erdogan; Tessler, A.

    1997-01-01

    This study presents a transient nonlinear finite element analysis within the realm of a multi-body dynamics formulation for determining the dynamic response of a moderately thick laminated shell undergoing a rapid and large rotational motion and nonlinear elastic deformations. Nonlinear strain measure and rotation, as well as 'the transverse shear deformation, are explicitly included in the formulation in order to capture the proper motion-induced stiffness of the laminate. The equations of motion are derived from the virtual work principle. The analysis utilizes a shear deformable shallow shell element along with the co-rotational form of the updated Lagrangian formulation. The shallow shell element formulation is based on the Reissner-Mindlin and Marguerre theory.

  11. System to Detect Racial-Based Bullying through Gamification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Álvarez-Bermejo, José A; Belmonte-Ureña, Luis J; Martos-Martínez, Africa; Barragán-Martín, Ana B; del Mar Simón-Marquez, María

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and detection of bullying due to racial stigma was studied in school contexts using a system designed following gamification principles and integrating less usual elements, such as social...

  12. Scenario based approach to structural damage detection and its value in a risk and reliability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Mads Knude; Hansen, Jannick Balleby; Brincker, Rune

    2013-01-01

    A scenario- and vibration based structural damage detection method is demonstrated though simulation. The method is Finite Element (FE) based. The value of the monitoring is calculated using structural reliability theory. A high cycle fatigue crack propagation model is assumed as the damage mecha...

  13. Validation of the performance of a GMO multiplex screening assay based on microarray detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leimanis, S.; Hamels, S.; Naze, F.; Mbongolo, G.; Sneyers, M.; Hochegger, R.; Broll, H.; Roth, L.; Dallmann, K.; Micsinai, A.; Dijk, van J.P.; Kok, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new screening method for the detection and identification of GMO, based on the use of multiplex PCR followed by microarray, has been developed and is presented. The technology is based on the identification of quite ubiquitous GMO genetic target elements first amplified by PCR, followed by direct

  14. Validation of the performance of a GMO multiplex screening assay based on microarray detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leimanis, S.; Hamels, S.; Naze, F.; Mbongolo, G.; Sneyers, M.; Hochegger, R.; Broll, H.; Roth, L.; Dallmann, K.; Micsinai, A.; Dijk, van J.P.; Kok, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new screening method for the detection and identification of GMO, based on the use of multiplex PCR followed by microarray, has been developed and is presented. The technology is based on the identification of quite ubiquitous GMO genetic target elements first amplified by PCR, followed by direct

  15. NO2 Detection Using Microcantilever Based Potentiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Koley

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and novel sensor platform for gases and volatile chemicals using microcantilever based potentiometry is reported. A resonant cantilever is used to detect the changes in surface work functions of functionalized substrates caused by adsorption of target gas molecules. Surface work function (SWF changes were measured for different functionalization layers made of transition metal oxide thin films with the flow of NO2. The rate of change in SWF for In2O3 and SnO2 were found to be ~80 and ~100 μV/sec, respectively, for 70 ppm NO2. A sensitivity of 64 μV/sec for SWF change was also found for 70 ppm NO2 concentration for isolated clusters of ZnO nanowires, indicating that this technique is applicable even for nano-clusters of sensing materials where amperometric detection is impossible due to material discontinuity. NO2 detection as low as 400 ppb was possible using highly insulating In2O3 and SnO2 thin films (resistivity > 1 TΩ/⎕. Two different forms of nano scale graphite were compared with the transition oxide based functionalization layer for sensing sub-ppm NO2 sensing. It was observed that nanostructured graphite (NG shows much higher sensitivity and lower response time than transition metal oxides.

  16. Bacteriophage based probes for pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Arutyunov, Denis; Szymanski, Christine M; Evoy, Stephane

    2012-08-01

    Rapid and specific detection of pathogenic bacteria is important for the proper treatment, containment and prevention of human, animal and plant diseases. Identifying unique biological probes to achieve a high degree of specificity and minimize false positives has therefore garnered much interest in recent years. Bacteriophages are obligate intracellular parasites that subvert bacterial cell resources for their own multiplication and production of disseminative new virions, which repeat the cycle by binding specifically to the host surface receptors and injecting genetic material into the bacterial cells. The precision of host recognition in phages is imparted by the receptor binding proteins (RBPs) that are often located in the tail-spike or tail fiber protein assemblies of the virions. Phage host recognition specificity has been traditionally exploited for bacterial typing using laborious and time consuming bacterial growth assays. At the same time this feature makes phage virions or RBPs an excellent choice for the development of probes capable of selectively capturing bacteria on solid surfaces with subsequent quick and automatic detection of the binding event. This review focuses on the description of pathogen detection approaches based on immobilized phage virions as well as pure recombinant RBPs. Specific advantages of RBP-based molecular probes are also discussed.

  17. Teaching Memory Circuit Elements via Experiment-Based Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Pershin, Y V

    2011-01-01

    The class of memory circuit elements which comprises memristive, memcapacitive, and meminductive systems, is gaining considerable attention in a broad range of disciplines. This is due to the enormous flexibility these elements provide in solving diverse problems in analog/neuromorphic and digital/quantum computation; the possibility to use them in an integrated computing-memory paradigm, massively-parallel solution of different optimization problems, learning, neural networks, etc. The time is therefore ripe to introduce these elements to the next generation of physicists and engineers with appropriate teaching tools that can be easily implemented in undergraduate teaching laboratories. In this paper, we suggest the use of easy-to-build emulators to provide a hands-on experience for the students to learn the fundamental properties and realize several applications of these memelements. We provide explicit examples of problems that could be tackled with these emulators that range in difficulty from the demonst...

  18. Stochastic Finite Elements in Reliability-Based Structural Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1995-01-01

    Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect to optimi......Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect...

  19. Stochastic Finite Elements in Reliability-Based Structural Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect to optimi......Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect...

  20. An Adaptive Combinatorial Morphological Filter Based on Omnidirectional Structuring Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunhui; HUI Junying; SUN Shenghe

    2001-01-01

    A new adaptive morphological filter is proposed in this paper. The filter utilizes the omnidirectional structuring elements and morphological open-closing or clos-opening operations. The outputs of the morphological operations by each structuring element are linear weighted processed by means of the adaptive method under the constrained least mean absolute (CLMA) error criterion. The new filter is applied to restore a noisy image and compared with the traditional morphological filters. The simulation results have shown that the new filter possesses effective noise suppression without blurring the geometrical features of the image.

  1. Frequency Based Fault Detection in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain lower cost of energy for wind turbines fault detection and accommodation is important. Expensive condition monitoring systems are often used to monitor the condition of rotating and vibrating system parts. One example is the gearbox in a wind turbine. This system is operated...... in parallel to the control system, using different computers and additional often expensive sensors. In this paper a simple filter based algorithm is proposed to detect changes in a resonance frequency in a system, exemplified with faults resulting in changes in the resonance frequency in the wind turbine...... gearbox. Only the generator speed measurement which is available in even simple wind turbine control systems is used as input. Consequently this proposed scheme does not need additional sensors and computers for monitoring the condition of the wind gearbox. The scheme is evaluated on a wide-spread wind...

  2. An immune based dynamic intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    With the dynamic description method for self and antigen, and the concept of dynamic immune tolerance for lymphocytes in network-security domain presented in this paper, a new immune based dynamic intrusion detection model (Idid) is proposed. In Idid, the dynamic models and the corresponding recursive equations of the lifecycle of mature lymphocytes, and the immune memory are built. Therefore, the problem of the dynamic description of self and nonself in computer immune systems is solved, and the defect of the low efficiency of mature lymphocyte generating in traditional computer immune systems is overcome. Simulations of this model are performed, and the comparison experiment results show that the proposed dynamic intrusion detection model has a better adaptability than the traditional methods.

  3. Lane Detection Based on Machine Learning Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve accuracy and robustness of the lane detection in complex conditions, such as the shadows and illumination changing, a novel detection algorithm was proposed based on machine learning. After pretreatment, a set of haar-like filters were used to calculate the eigenvalue in the gray image f(x,y and edge e(x,y. Then these features were trained by using improved boosting algorithm and the final class function g(x was obtained, which was used to judge whether the point x belonging to the lane or not. To avoid the over fitting in traditional boosting, Fisher discriminant analysis was used to initialize the weights of samples. After testing by many road in all conditions, it showed that this algorithm had good robustness and real-time to recognize the lane in all challenging conditions.

  4. An SPR based sensor for allergens detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J; Piekarska, M; Segers, C; Trinh, L; Rodgers, T; Willey, R; Tothill, I E

    2017-02-15

    A simple, sensitive and label-free optical sensor method was developed for allergens analysis using α-casein as the biomarker for cow's milk detection, to be used directly in final rinse samples of cleaning in place systems (CIP) of food manufacturers. A Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor chip consisting of four sensing arrays enabling the measurement of samples and control binding events simultaneously on the sensor surface was employed in this work. SPR offers several advantages in terms of label free detection, real time measurements and superior sensitivity when compared to ELISA based techniques. The gold sensor chip was used to immobilise α-casein-polyclonal antibody using EDC/NHS coupling procedure. The performance of the assay and the sensor was first optimised and characterised in pure buffer conditions giving a detection limit of 58ngmL(-1) as a direct binding assay. The assay sensitivity can be further improved by using sandwich assay format and amplified with nanoparticles. However, at this stage this is not required as the detection limit achieved exceeded the required allergens detection levels of 2µgmL(-1) for α-S1-casein. The sensor demonstrated good selectivity towards the α-casein as the target analyte and adequate recoveries from CIP final rinse wash samples. The sensor would be useful tool for monitoring allergen levels after cleaning procedures, providing additional data that may better inform upon wider food allergen risk management decision(s) that are made by food manufacturer. In particular, this sensor could potentially help validate or optimise cleaning practices for a given food manufacturing process.

  5. Detection and Characterization of Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements in “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Tan, Jin; Bai, Ziqin; Su, Huanan; Deng, Xiaoling; Li, Zhongan

    2013-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are nonautonomous transposons (devoid of the transposase gene tps) that affect gene functions through insertion/deletion events. No transposon has yet been reported to occur in “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,” an alphaproteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease). In this study, two MITEs, MCLas-A and MCLas-B, in “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” were detected, and the genome was characterized using 326 isolates collected in China and Florida. MCLas-A had three variants, ranging from 237 to 325 bp, and was inserted into a TTTAGG site of a prophage region. MCLas-A had a pair of 54-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), which contained three tandem repeats of TGGTAACCAC. Both “filled” (with MITE) and “empty” (without MITE) states were detected, suggesting the MITE mobility. The empty sites of all bacterial isolates had TIR tandem repeat remnants (TRR). Frequencies of TRR types varied according to geographical origins. MCLas-B had four variants, ranging from 238 to 250 bp, and was inserted into a TA site of another “Ca. Liberibacter” prophage. The MITE, MCLas-B, had a pair of 23-bp TIRs containing no tandem repeats. No evidence of MCLas-B mobility was found. An identical open reading frame was found upstream of MCLas-A (229 bp) and MCLas-B (232 bp) and was predicted to be a putative tps, suggesting an in cis tps-MITE configuration. MCLas-A and MCLas-B were predominantly copresent in Florida isolates, whereas MCLas-A alone or MCLas-B alone was found in Chinese isolates. PMID:23813735

  6. Piezoelectric Accelerometers Modification Based on the Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Kriegbaum, B.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the modification of piezoelectric accelerometers using a Finite Element (FE) method. Brüel & Kjær Accelerometer Type 8325 is chosen as an example to illustrate the advanced accelerometer development procedure. The deviation between the measurement and FE simulation results...

  7. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  8. Porphyrin-based sensor nanoarchitectonics in diverse physical detection modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Shinsuke; Labuta, Jan; Van Rossom, Wim; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Minami, Kosuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2014-06-07

    Porphyrins and related families of molecules are important organic modules as has been reflected in the award of the Nobel Prizes in Chemistry in 1915, 1930, 1961, 1962, 1965, and 1988 for work on porphyrin-related biological functionalities. The porphyrin core can be synthetically modified by introduction of various functional groups and other elements, allowing creation of numerous types of porphyrin derivatives. This feature makes porphyrins extremely useful molecules especially in combination with their other interesting photonic, electronic and magnetic properties, which in turn is reflected in their diverse signal input-output functionalities based on interactions with other molecules and external stimuli. Therefore, porphyrins and related macrocycles play a preeminent role in sensing applications involving chromophores. In this review, we discuss recent developments in porphyrin-based sensing applications in conjunction with the new advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics, which creates functional nanostructures based on a profound understanding of mutual interactions between the individual nanostructures and their arbitrary arrangements. Following a brief explanation of the basics of porphyrin chemistry and physics, recent examples in the corresponding fields are discussed according to a classification based on physical modes of detection including optical detection (absorption/photoluminescence spectroscopy and energy and electron transfer processes), other spectral modes (circular dichroism, plasmon and nuclear magnetic resonance), electronic and electrochemical modes, and other sensing modes.

  9. A Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensor for Odorant Detection Using Single Bioengineered Olfactory Sensory Neurons as Sensing Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Liping; Tian, Yulan; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), a silicon-based surface potential detector, is combined with bioengineered olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) for odorant detection. A LAPS chip is used as a transducer to monitor cell membrane potential changes. In addition, a focused movable laser with a diameter comparable to cell sizes is employed to select the desirable single cell for measurement under a microscope. Bioengineered OSNs are coupled to the LAPS surface and employed as sensing elements, which are prepared by the expression of an olfactory receptor of C. elegans, ODR-10, on the plasma membrane of rat primary OSNs via transient transfection. The responses of bioengineered OSNs to diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, and acetic acid are monitored by extracellular recording using the LAPS chip. Features of the recorded extracellular potential firings are analyzed in frequency and time domains. We have shown that bioengineered OSNs can generate specific response signals upon the stimulation of diacetyl, which is the natural ligand of ODR-10. Moreover, different concentrations of diacetyl can elicit different temporal firing patterns in bioengineered OSNs, which permits the concentration detection of specific odorant molecules in solution.

  10. Plagiarism Detection Using Graph-Based Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, Ahmed Hamza; Binwahlan, Mohammed Salem

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism of material from the Internet is a widespread and growing problem. Several methods used to detect the plagiarism and similarity between the source document and suspected documents such as fingerprint based on character or n-gram. In this paper, we discussed a new method to detect the plagiarism based on graph representation; however, Preprocessing for each document is required such as breaking down the document into its constituent sentences. Segmentation of each sentence into separated terms and stop word removal. We build the graph by grouping each sentence terms in one node, the resulted nodes are connected to each other based on order of sentence within the document, all nodes in graph are also connected to top level node "Topic Signature". Topic signature node is formed by extracting the concepts of each sentence terms and grouping them in such node. The main advantage of the proposed method is the topic signature which is main entry for the graph is used as quick guide to the relevant nodes. ...

  11. A Hybrid FPGA/Tilera Compute Element for Autonomous Hazard Detection and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Werner, Robert A.; Carson, John M., III; Khanoyan, Garen; Stern, Ryan A.; Trawny, Nikolas

    2013-01-01

    To increase safety for future missions landing on other planetary or lunar bodies, the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) program is developing an integrated sensor for autonomous surface analysis and hazard determination. The ALHAT Hazard Detection System (HDS) consists of a Flash LIDAR for measuring the topography of the landing site, a gimbal to scan across the terrain, and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), along with terrain analysis algorithms to identify the landing site and the local hazards. An FPGA and Manycore processor system was developed to interface all the devices in the HDS, to provide high-resolution timing to accurately measure system state, and to run the surface analysis algorithms quickly and efficiently. In this paper, we will describe how we integrated COTS components such as an FPGA evaluation board, a TILExpress64, and multi-threaded/multi-core aware software to build the HDS Compute Element (HDSCE). The ALHAT program is also working with the NASA Morpheus Project and has integrated the HDS as a sensor on the Morpheus Lander. This paper will also describe how the HDS is integrated with the Morpheus lander and the results of the initial test flights with the HDS installed. We will also describe future improvements to the HDSCE.

  12. A hybrid FPGA/Tilera compute element for autonomous hazard detection and navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, C. Y.; Werner, R. A.; Carson, J. M.; Khanoyan, G.; Stern, R. A.; Trawny, N.

    To increase safety for future missions landing on other planetary or lunar bodies, the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) program is developing an integrated sensor for autonomous surface analysis and hazard determination. The ALHAT Hazard Detection System (HDS) consists of a Flash LIDAR for measuring the topography of the landing site, a gimbal to scan across the terrain, and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), along with terrain analysis algorithms to identify the landing site and the local hazards. An FPGA and Manycore processor system was developed to interface all the devices in the HDS, to provide high-resolution timing to accurately measure system state, and to run the surface analysis algorithms quickly and efficiently. In this paper, we will describe how we integrated COTS components such as an FPGA evaluation board, a TILExpress64, and multi-threaded/multi-core aware software to build the HDS Compute Element (HDSCE). The ALHAT program is also working with the NASA Morpheus Project and has integrated the HDS as a sensor on the Morpheus Lander. This paper will also describe how the HDS is integrated with the Morpheus lander and the results of the initial test flights with the HDS installed. We will also describe future improvements to the HDSCE.

  13. Recent trends in nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems for the speciation of trace elements: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chang; Hsu, Keng-Chang; Shiea, Christopher Stephen; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2015-07-16

    Trace element speciation in biomedical and environmental science has gained increasing attention over the past decade as researchers have begun to realize its importance in toxicological studies. Several nanomaterials, including titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), have been used as sorbents to separate and preconcentrate trace element species prior to detection through mass spectrometry or optical spectroscopy. Recently, these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques have been integrated with microfluidics to minimize sample and reagent consumption and simplify analyses. This review provides a critical look into the present state and recent applications of nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems in the speciation of trace elements. The adsorption and preconcentration efficiencies, sample volume requirements, and detection limits of these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques are detailed, and their applications in environmental and biological analyses are discussed. Current perspectives and future trends into the increasing use of nanomaterial-based microfluidic techniques for trace element speciation are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mobile Recommendation Based on Link Community Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since traditional mobile recommendation systems have difficulty in acquiring complete and accurate user information in mobile networks, the accuracy of recommendation is not high. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel mobile recommendation algorithm based on link community detection (MRLD. MRLD executes link label diffusion algorithm and maximal extended modularity (EQ of greedy search to obtain the link community structure, and overlapping nodes belonging analysis (ONBA is adopted to adjust the overlapping nodes in order to get the more accurate community structure. MRLD is tested on both synthetic and real-world networks, and the experimental results show that our approach is valid and feasible.

  15. IMU Fault Detection Based on 2-CUSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élcio Jeronimo de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    IMU strapdown platforms using fiber optic gyros (FOG or micro electro mechanical systems (MEMSs. A way to solve this problem makes use of sensor redundancy and parity vector (PV analysis. However, the actual sensor outputs can include some anomalies, as impulsive noise which can be associated with the sensors itself or data acquisition process, committing the elementary threshold criteria as commonly used. Therefore, to overcome this problem, in this work, it is proposed an algorithm based on median filter (MF for prefiltering and chi-square cumulative sum (2-CUSUM only for fault detection (FD applied to an IMU composed by four FOGs.

  16. Global contrast based salient region detection

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2011-08-25

    Reliable estimation of visual saliency allows appropriate processing of images without prior knowledge of their contents, and thus remains an important step in many computer vision tasks including image segmentation, object recognition, and adaptive compression. We propose a regional contrast based saliency extraction algorithm, which simultaneously evaluates global contrast differences and spatial coherence. The proposed algorithm is simple, efficient, and yields full resolution saliency maps. Our algorithm consistently outperformed existing saliency detection methods, yielding higher precision and better recall rates, when evaluated using one of the largest publicly available data sets. We also demonstrate how the extracted saliency map can be used to create high quality segmentation masks for subsequent image processing.

  17. SVM multiuser detection based on heuristic kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Tao; Hu Bo

    2007-01-01

    A support vector machine (SVM) based multiuser detection (MUD) scheme in code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system is proposed. In this scheme, the equivalent support vector (SV) is obtained through a kernel sparsity approximation algorithm, which avoids the conventional costly quadratic programming (QP) procedure in SVM. Besides, the coefficient of the SV is attained through the solution to a generalized eigenproblem. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has almost the same bit error rate (BER) as the standard SVM and is better than minimum mean square error (MMSE) scheme. Meanwhile, it has a low computation complexity.

  18. Neutron Detection Using Gadolinium-Based Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    U Uranium UNL The University of Nebraska, Lincoln XRD X-Ray Diffraction 1 NEUTRON DETECTION USING GADOLINIUM-BASED DIODES I...detector volume of approximately 3.46x10-6 cm3. 6 4 2 0 2 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Applied BiasV De ple tio nW idt hm  Si SiC 22...Layer deposition on the SiC substrate was confirmed by x-ray diffraction ( XRD ), however, no ellipsometry or other characterization measurements were

  19. DNA & Protein detection based on microbead agglutination

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-06-06

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microparticles in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Agglutination-based tests are most often used to explore the antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for mode protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin two-component system, as well as a hybridization based two-component assay; however, as our work shows, two-component systems are prone to self-termination of the linking analyte and thus have a lower sensitivity. Three component systems have also been used with DNA hybridization, as in our work; however, their assay requires 48 hours for incubation, while our assay is performed in 5 minutes making it a real candidate for POC testing. We demonstrate three assays: a two-component biotin/streptavidin assay, a three-component hybridization assay using single stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules and a stepped three-component hybridization assay. The comparison of these three assays shows our simple stepped three-component agglutination assay to be rapid at room temperature and more sensitive than the two-component version by an order of magnitude. An agglutination assay was also performed in a PDMS microfluidic chip where agglutinated beads were trapped by filter columns for easy observation. We developed a rapid (5 minute) room temperature assay, which is based on microbead agglutination. Our three-component assay solves the linker self-termination issue allowing an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity over two–component assays. Our stepped version of the three-component assay solves the issue with probe site saturation thus enabling a wider range of detection. Detection of the agglutinated beads with the naked eye by trapping in microfluidic channels has been shown.

  20. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  1. Overlapping Community Detection based on Network Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Xingyi; Sun, Dengdi; Luo, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Community detection in complex network has become a vital step to understand the structure and dynamics of networks in various fields. However, traditional node clustering and relatively new proposed link clustering methods have inherent drawbacks to discover overlapping communities. Node clustering is inadequate to capture the pervasive overlaps, while link clustering is often criticized due to the high computational cost and ambiguous definition of communities. So, overlapping community detection is still a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new overlapping community detection algorithm based on network decomposition, called NDOCD. Specifically, NDOCD iteratively splits the network by removing all links in derived link communities, which are identified by utilizing node clustering technique. The network decomposition contributes to reducing the computation time and noise link elimination conduces to improving the quality of obtained communities. Besides, we employ node clustering technique rather than link similarity measure to discover link communities, thus NDOCD avoids an ambiguous definition of community and becomes less time-consuming. We test our approach on both synthetic and real-world networks. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach both in computation time and accuracy compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.

  2. Detection and Identification of potentially toxic elements in urban soil using in situ spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, Lea

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic urban soils are the foundation of the urban green infrastructure, the green net quality is as good as each of its patches. In early days of pedology urban soil has been recognized with respect to contamination and the risks for human health but in study performed since the 70s, the importance of urban soil for the urban ecology became increasingly significant. Urban soils are highly disturbed land that was created by the process of urbanization. The dominant agent in the creation of urban soils is human activity which modifies the natural soil through mixing, filling or by contamination of land surfaces so as to create a layer of urban soil which can be more than 50 cm thick. The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which field spectroscopy methods can be used to extend the knowledge of toxic elements in urban soils. The majority of the studies on urban soils concentrate on identifying and mapping of known pollution mostly certain heavy metals, we are focusing on almost non disturbed soils where no direct disturbance occurred but the urban matrix inflicted on it. The elements in those soils where an-knowns features. In this study a top-down analysis is applied for detecting the presence of minerals, organic matter and pollutants in mixed soil samples. Results of the proposed top-down unmixing method suggest that the analysis is made very fast due to the simplified hierarchy which avoids the high-learning curve associated with unmixing algorithms showed that the most abundant components were coarse organic matter 12% followed by concrete dust, plastic crumbs, other man made materials, clay and other minerals. The results of the soils pH, measured electrometrically and the particle size distribution, measured by Laser diffraction, indicate there is no big different between the samples particle size distribution and the pH values of the samples but they are not significantly different from the expected, except for the OM percentage which

  3. Large Aperture Scanning Lidar Based on Holographic Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Miller, David O.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Guerra, David V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Lidar remote sensing instruments can make a significant contribution to satisfying many of the required measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters for future spaceborne platforms, including topographic altimeters, atmospheric profiles of, wind, humidity, temperature, trace molecules, aerosols, and clouds. It is highly desirable to have wide measurement swaths for rapid coverage rather than just the narrow ribbon of data that is obtained with a nadir only observation. For most applications global coverage is required, and for wind measurements scanning or pointing is required in order to retrieve the full 3-D wind vector from multiple line-of-sight Doppler measurements. Conventional lidar receivers make up a substantial portion of the instrument's size and weight. Wide angle scanning typically requires a large scanning mirror in front of the receiver telescope, or pointing the entire telescope and aft optics assembly, Either of these methods entails the use of large bearings, motors, gearing and their associated electronics. Spaceborne instruments also need reaction wheels to counter the torque applied to the spacecraft by these motions. NASA has developed simplified conical scanning telescopes using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) to reduce the size, mass, angular momentum, and cost of scanning lidar systems. NASA has developed two operating lidar systems based on 40 cm diameter HOEs. The first such system, named Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS) was a joint development between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the University of Maryland College Park. PHASERS is based on a reflection HOE for use at the doubled Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 532 nm and has recently undergone a number of design changes in a collaborative effort between GSFC and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. The next step was to develop IR transmission HOEs for use with the Nd:YAG fundamental in the Holographic Airborne

  4. A powerful molecular engineering tool provided efficient Chlamydomonas mutants as bio-sensing elements for herbicides detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya D Lambreva

    Full Text Available This study was prompted by increasing concerns about ecological damage and human health threats derived by persistent contamination of water and soil with herbicides, and emerging of bio-sensing technology as powerful, fast and efficient tool for the identification of such hazards. This work is aimed at overcoming principal limitations negatively affecting the whole-cell-based biosensors performance due to inadequate stability and sensitivity of the bio-recognition element. The novel bio-sensing elements for the detection of herbicides were generated exploiting the power of molecular engineering in order to improve the performance of photosynthetic complexes. The new phenotypes were produced by an in vitro directed evolution strategy targeted at the photosystem II (PSII D1 protein of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using exposures to radical-generating ionizing radiation as selection pressure. These tools proved successful to identify D1 mutations conferring enhanced stability, tolerance to free-radical-associated stress and competence for herbicide perception. Long-term stability tests of PSII performance revealed the mutants capability to deal with oxidative stress-related conditions. Furthermore, dose-response experiments indicated the strains having increased sensitivity or resistance to triazine and urea type herbicides with I(50 values ranging from 6 × 10(-8 M to 2 × 10(-6 M. Besides stressing the relevance of several amino acids for PSII photochemistry and herbicide sensing, the possibility to improve the specificity of whole-cell-based biosensors, via coupling herbicide-sensitive with herbicide-resistant strains, was verified.

  5. Point pattern match-based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.

    2016-06-07

    A method and system is provided that applies attribute- and topology-based change detection to objects that were detected on previous scans of a medium. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, detection strength, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The locations define a three-dimensional network topology forming a constellation of previously detected objects. The change detection system stores attributes of the previously detected objects in a constellation database. The change detection system detects changes by comparing the attributes and topological consistency of newly detected objects encountered during a new scan of the medium to previously detected objects in the constellation database. The change detection system may receive the attributes of the newly detected objects as the objects are detected by an object detection system in real time.

  6. Network Intrusion Detection based on GMKL Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the 31th statistical reports of China Internet network information center (CNNIC, by the end of December 2012, the number of Chinese netizens has reached 564 million, and the scale of mobile Internet users also reached 420 million. But when the network brings great convenience to people's life, it also brings huge threat in the life of people. So through collecting and analyzing the information in the computer system or network we can detect any possible behaviors that can damage the availability, integrity and confidentiality of the computer resource, and make timely treatment to these behaviors which have important research significance to improve the operation environment of network and network service. At present, the Neural Network, Support Vector machine (SVM and Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy inference and Genetic Algorithms are introduced into the research of network intrusion detection, trying to build a healthy and secure network operation environment. But most of these algorithms are based on the total sample and it also hypothesizes that the number of the sample is infinity. But in the field of network intrusion the collected data often cannot meet the above requirements. It often shows high latitudes, variability and small sample characteristics. For these data using traditional machine learning methods are hard to get ideal results. In view of this, this paper proposed a Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method to applied to network intrusion detection. The Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method can be well applied to large scale sample data, dimension complex, containing a large number of heterogeneous information and so on. The experimental results show that applying GMKL to network attack detection has high classification precision and low abnormal practical precision.

  7. Biosensor based on Butyrylcholinesterase for Detection of Carbofuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Mousumi; Bhuvanagayathri, R.; Daniel, David K.

    2015-04-01

    Esterase enzymes play an important role in biology because they are responsible for the hydrolysis of choline esters. In their absence, the original state of the post synaptic membranes cannot be reestablished. Therefore, the aim of the work is to study the inhibiting action exerted by the group of compounds on these enzymes. Among these class of inhibiting compounds, pesticides are important because of the potential danger as a result of their large scale use in agriculture. Pesticides are generally determined using liquid or gas chromatography methods with various detection techniques. These methods are very sensitive and discriminating, however they require sample pretreatment such as extraction, preconcentration and clean up, which are skilled techniques and high cost treatment and also time consuming. In this study, acetyl cholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase based biosensors have emerged as a promising tool for the detection and characterization of pesticides which are inhibitors of these enzymes. Although the physiological function of butyrylcholinesterase in comparison with acetyl cholinesterase is ambiguous, it has larger substrate specificity towards choline esters. Therefore, the development of a more selective electrode against choline, can lead to more sensitive determination of the inhibitor being investigated. Hence in the present work, a method based on inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was attempted for quantification of carbofuran on the basis of cholinesterase inhibition. Butyrylcholinesterase with an activity of 10.2 units/mg was immobilized on a solid surface by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. The immobilized system was calibrated by correlating the inhibition of the butyrylcholinesterase activity with varying concentrations of the butyryl choline chloride and carbofuran. The sensing mechanism was investigated for its response to carbofuran concentrations ranging from 125 to 1,000 ppm. The effects of butyryl choline chloride

  8. Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  9. Elemental Analysis of Nanomaterial Using Photon-Atom Interaction Based EDXRF Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Presence of trace amount of foreign impurities (both metallic and non-metallic in standard salts used for sample preparation and during the synthesis process can alter the physical and chemical behavior of the pure and doped nano-materials. Therefore, it becomes important to determine concentration of various elements present in synthesized nano-material sample. In present work, the elemental and compositional analysis of nano-materials synthesized using various methods has been performed using photon-atom interaction based energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF technique. This technique due to its multielement analytical capability, lower detection limit, capability to analyze metals and non-metals alike and almost no sample preparation requirements can be utilized for analysis of nano-materials. The EDXRF spectrometer involves a 2.4 kW Mo anode x-ray tube (Pananalytic, Netherland equipped with selective absorbers as an excitation source and an LEGe detector (FWHM = 150 eV at 5.895 keV, Canberra, US coupled with PC based multichannel analyzer used to collect the fluorescentx-ray spectra. The analytical results showed good agreements with the expected values calculated on the basis of the precursor used in preparation of nano-materials.

  10. Element-Partition-Based Methods for Visualization of 3D Unstructured Grid Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Element-partition-based methods for visualization of 3D unstructured grid data are presented.First,partition schemes for common elements,including curvilinear tetrahedra,pentahedra,hexahedra,etc.,are given,so that complex elements can be divided into several rectilinear tetrahedra,and the visualization processes can be simplified.Then,a slice method for cloud map and an iso-surface method based on the partition schemes are described.

  11. Finite element modeling of plasmon based single-photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland;

    2011-01-01

    A finite element method (FEM) approach of calculating a single emitter coupled to plasmonic waveguides has been developed. The method consists of a 2D model and a 3D model: (I) In the 2D model, we have calculated the spontaneous emission decay rate of a single emitter into guided plasmonic modes...... waveguides with different geometries, as long as only one guided plasmonic mode is predominantly excited....

  12. Finite element based model of parchment coffee drying

    OpenAIRE

    Preeda Prakotmak

    2015-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in the parchment coffee during convective drying represents a complicated phenomena since it is important to consider not only the transport phenomena during drying but also the various changes of the drying materials. In order to describe drying of biomaterials adequately, a suitable mathematical model is needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a 3-D finite element model to simulate the transport of heat and mass within parchment coffee during the thin laye...

  13. Elements affecting wound healing time: An evidence based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Cullen, Marianne; Chambers, Helen; Carroll, Matthew; Walker, Judi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant client factors and comorbidities that affected the time taken for wounds to heal. A prospective study design used the Mobile Wound Care (MWC) database to capture and collate detailed medical histories, comorbidities, healing times and consumable costs for clients with wounds in Gippsland, Victoria. There were 3,726 wounds documented from 2,350 clients, so an average of 1.6 wounds per client. Half (49.6%) of all clients were females, indicating that there were no gender differences in terms of wound prevalence. The clients were primarily older people, with an average age of 64.3 years (ranging between 0.7 and 102.9 years). The majority of the wounds (56%) were acute and described as surgical, crush and trauma. The MWC database categorized the elements that influenced wound healing into 3 groups--factors affecting healing (FAH), comorbidities, and medications known to affect wound healing. While there were a multitude of significant associations, multiple linear regression identified the following key elements: age over 65 years, obesity, nonadherence to treatment plan, peripheral vascular disease, specific wounds associated with pressure/friction/shear, confirmed infection, and cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Wound healing is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of influencing elements to improve healing times.© 2015 by the Wound Healing Society. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. An Adaptive Finite Element Method Based on Optimal Error Estimates for Linear Elliptic Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤雁

    2004-01-01

    The subject of the work is to propose a series of papers about adaptive finite element methods based on optimal error control estimate. This paper is the third part in a series of papers on adaptive finite element methods based on optimal error estimates for linear elliptic problems on the concave corner domains. In the preceding two papers (part 1:Adaptive finite element method based on optimal error estimate for linear elliptic problems on concave corner domain; part 2:Adaptive finite element method based on optimal error estimate for linear elliptic problems on nonconvex polygonal domains), we presented adaptive finite element methods based on the energy norm and the maximum norm. In this paper, an important result is presented and analyzed. The algorithm for error control in the energy norm and maximum norm in part 1 and part 2 in this series of papers is based on this result.

  15. Hyperspectral REE (Rare Earth Element Mapping of Outcrops—Applications for Neodymium Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kristine Boesche

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an in situ application for identifying neodymium (Nd enriched surface materials that uses multitemporal hyperspectral images is presented (HySpex sensor. Because of the narrow shape and shallow absorption depth of the neodymium absorption feature, a method was developed for enhancing and extracting the necessary information for neodymium from image spectra, even under illumination conditions that are not optimal. For this purpose, the two following approaches were developed: (1 reducing noise and analyzing changing illumination conditions by averaging multitemporal image scenes and (2 enhancing the depth of the desired absorption band by deconvolving every image spectrum with a Gaussian curve while the rest of the spectrum remains unchanged (Richardson-Lucy deconvolution. To evaluate these findings, nine field samples from the Fen complex in Norway were analyzed using handheld X-ray fluorescence devices and by conducting detailed laboratory-based geochemical rare earth element determinations. The result is a qualitative outcrop map that highlights zones that are enriched in neodymium. To reduce the influences of non-optimal illumination, particularly at the studied site, a minimum of seven single acquisitions is required. Sharpening the neodymium absorption band allows for robust mapping, even at the outer zones of enrichment. From the geochemical investigations, we found that iron oxides decrease the applicability of the method. However, iron-related absorption bands can be used as secondary indicators for sulfidic ore zones that are mainly enriched with rare earth elements. In summary, we found that hyperspectral spectroscopy is a noninvasive, fast and cost-saving method for determining neodymium at outcrop surfaces.

  16. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  17. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION METHOD OF ELEMENTS PRIORITY OF CARTOGRAPHIC GENERALIZATION BASED ON TAXI TRAJECTORY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Long

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the lack of quantitative criteria for the selection of elements in cartographic generalization, this study divided the hotspot areas of passengers into parts at three levels, gave them different weights, and then classified the elements from the different hotspots. On this basis, a method was proposed to quantify the priority of elements selection. Subsequently, the quantitative priority of different cartographic elements was summarized based on this method. In cartographic generalization, the method can be preferred to select the significant elements and discard those that are relatively non-significant.

  18. Elements loss analysis based on spectral diagnosis in laser-arc hybrid welding of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Tao; Shen, Lin

    2017-07-01

    Aluminum alloy has been widely used in automobiles, high-speed trains, aerospace and many other fields. The loss of elements during welding process causes welding defects and affects the microstructure and properties of the joints. This paper discusses the correlation between welding process, spectral intensity and loss of elements in laser-arc hybrid welding of Al alloys. The results show that laser power and arc current have a significant impact on the spectral intensity and loss of elements. Compared with the base metal, the contents of alloying elements in the weld area are lower. The burning losses of alloy elements increase with the welding heat input.

  19. Simultaneous detection of electronic structure changes from two elements of a bifunctional catalyst using wavelength-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy and in situ electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sheraz; Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Anzenberg, Eitan; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Gorlin, Yelena; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H; Zhang, Jin Z; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal K; Jaramillo, Thomas F; Yano, Junko

    2015-04-14

    Multielectron catalytic reactions, such as water oxidation, nitrogen reduction, or hydrogen production in enzymes and inorganic catalysts often involve multimetallic clusters. In these systems, the reaction takes place between metals or metals and ligands to facilitate charge transfer, bond formation/breaking, substrate binding, and release of products. In this study, we present a method to detect X-ray emission signals from multiple elements simultaneously, which allows for the study of charge transfer and the sequential chemistry occurring between elements. Kβ X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) probes charge and spin states of metals as well as their ligand environment. A wavelength-dispersive spectrometer based on the von Hamos geometry was used to disperse Kβ signals of multiple elements onto a position detector, enabling an XES spectrum to be measured in a single-shot mode. This overcomes the scanning needs of the scanning spectrometers, providing data free from temporal and normalization errors and therefore ideal to follow sequential chemistry at multiple sites. We have applied this method to study MnOx-based bifunctional electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In particular, we investigated the effects of adding a secondary element, Ni, to form MnNiOx and its impact on the chemical states and catalytic activity, by tracking the redox characteristics of each element upon sweeping the electrode potential. The detection scheme we describe here is general and can be applied to time-resolved studies of materials consisting of multiple elements, to follow the dynamics of catalytic and electron transfer reactions.

  20. Creative elements: network-based predictions of active centres in proteins, cellular and social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Csermely, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Active centres and hot spots of proteins have a paramount importance in enzyme action, protein complex formation and drug design. Recently a number of publications successfully applied the analysis of residue networks to predict active centres in proteins. Most real-world networks show a number of properties, such as small-worldness or scale-free degree distribution, which are rather general features of networks from molecules to the society. Based on extensive analogies I propose that the existing findings and methodology enable us to detect active centres in cells, social networks and ecosystems. Members of these active centres are creative elements of the respective networks, which may help them to survive unprecedented, novel challenges, and play a key role in the development, survival and evolvability of complex systems.

  1. Rapid Separation of Elemental Species by Fast Multicapillary Gas Chromatography with Multichannel Optical Spectrometry Detection following Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Giersz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for conducting fast and efficient gas chromatography based on short multicapillaries in straight alignment combined with atomic emission detection was developed for field analysis. The strategy enables for speciation analysis of organometallic compounds. The analytes are simultaneously ethylated and preconcentrated on a solid phase microextraction (SPME fiber placed in the headspace over the sample for 25 min. The ethylated species are then completely separated and selectively quantified within 25 s under isothermal conditions. A new miniaturized speciation analyzer has been constructed and evaluated. The system consists of a GC injection port and a lab-made miniaturized GC unit directly coupled with miniaturized plasma excitation source. The emitted light is transferred via optical fiber and registered with a miniaturized charged coupled device (CCD based spectrometer. Working parameters for multicapillary column gas chromatography with atomic emission detector, including carrier gas flow rate, desorption temperature, and GC column temperature, were optimized to achieve good separation of analytes. Basic investigations of the fundamental properties of 5 cm-long multicapillary column, to evaluate its potential and limitations as a rapid separation unit, are presented. The adaptation of the technique for use with a SPME system and with a multichannel element-selective plasma-emission detector is highlighted.

  2. Structural Anomalies Detected in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Combined Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis (NDE and FEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2003-01-01

    Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object and then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. The rapid prototyping technique builds high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer-aided design files. This fundamental technique for interpreting and interacting with large data sets is being used here via Velocity2 (an integrated image-processing software, ref. 1) using computed tomography (CT) data to produce a prototype three-dimensional test specimen model for analyses. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center proposes to use these capabilities to conduct a combined nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) to screen pretest and posttest structural anomalies in structural components. A tensile specimen made of silicon nitrite (Si3N4) ceramic matrix composite was considered to evaluate structural durability and deformity. Ceramic matrix composites are being sought as candidate materials to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine engine applications. They have the unique characteristics of being able to withstand higher operating temperatures and harsh combustion environments. In addition, their low densities relative to metals help reduce component mass (ref. 2). Detailed three-dimensional volume rendering of the tensile test specimen was successfully carried out with Velocity2 (ref. 1) using two-dimensional images that were generated via computed tomography. Subsequent, three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed, and the results obtained were compared with those predicted by NDE-based calculations and experimental tests. It was shown that Velocity2 software can be used to render a three-dimensional object from a series of CT scan images with a minimum level of complexity. The analytical results (ref. 3) show that the high-stress regions correlated well with the damage sites identified by the CT scans

  3. Base force element method of complementary energy principle for large rotation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yijiang Peng; Yinghua Liu

    2009-01-01

    Using the concept of the base forces, a new finite element method (base force element method, BFEM) based on the complementary energy principle is presented for accurate modeling of structures with large displacements and large rotations. First, the complementary energy of an element is described by taking the base forces as state variables, and is then separated into deformation and rotation parts for the case of large deformation. Second, the control equations of the BFEM based on the complementary energy principle are derived using the Lagrange multiplier method. Nonlinear procedure of the BFEM is then developed. Finally, several examples are analyzed to illustrate the reliability and accuracy of the BFEM.

  4. Large area MEMS based ultrasound device for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodnicki, Robert, E-mail: wodnicki@research.ge.com [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Thomenius, Kai [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Ming Hooi, Fong; Sinha, Sumedha P.; Carson, Paul L. [Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lin Dersong; Zhuang Xuefeng; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Woychik, Charles [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

    2011-08-21

    We present image results obtained using a prototype ultrasound array that demonstrates the fundamental architecture for a large area MEMS based ultrasound device for detection of breast cancer. The prototype array consists of a tiling of capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (cMUTs) that have been flip-chip attached to a rigid organic substrate. The pitch on the cMUT elements is 185 {mu}m and the operating frequency is nominally 9 MHz. The spatial resolution of the new probe is comparable to those of production PZT probes; however the sensitivity is reduced by conditions that should be correctable. Simulated opposed-view image registration and Speed of Sound volume reconstruction results for ultrasound in the mammographic geometry are also presented.

  5. Detection of small RNAs in Bordetella pertussis and identification of a novel repeated genetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulbrecht Bérénice

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small bacterial RNAs (sRNAs have been shown to participate in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in numerous prokaryotic species. Some of them are involved in the regulation of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. So far, little is known about sRNAs in Bordetella, and only very few sRNAs have been identified in the genome of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Results An in silico approach was used to predict sRNAs genes in intergenic regions of the B. pertussis genome. The genome sequences of B. pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella avium were compared using a Blast, and significant hits were analyzed using RNAz. Twenty-three candidate regions were obtained, including regions encoding the already documented 6S RNA, and the GCVT and FMN riboswitches. The existence of sRNAs was verified by Northern blot analyses, and transcripts were detected for 13 out of the 20 additional candidates. These new sRNAs were named Bordetella pertussis RNAs, bpr. The expression of 4 of them differed between the early, exponential and late growth phases, and one of them, bprJ2, was found to be under the control of BvgA/BvgS two-component regulatory system of Bordetella virulence. A phylogenetic study of the bprJ sequence revealed a novel, so far undocumented repeat of ~90 bp, found in numerous copies in the Bordetella genomes and in that of other Betaproteobacteria. This repeat exhibits certain features of mobile elements. Conclusion We shown here that B. pertussis, like other pathogens, expresses sRNAs, and that the expression of one of them is controlled by the BvgA/BvgS system, similarly to most virulence genes, suggesting that it is involved in virulence of B. pertussis.

  6. Quest for the Sun's siblings based on elemental abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Ruchti, G.; Feltzing, S.; Martínez-Barbosa, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    We present stellar parameters, stellar ages, and detailed elemental abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni for 32 solar sibling candidates. Technique of chemical tagging gives us a high probability that four stars might be from the same open cluster. Only one candidate HIP 40317 which has solar metallicity and age could be a solar sibling. We performed simulations of the Sun's birth cluster in analytical Galactic model and found that there is quite low probability to find solar siblings with radial velocity up to Vr = 34.2 km s-1.

  7. Field programmable gate array based data digitisation with commercial elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, Cahit; Koenig, Wolfgang; Traxler, Michael [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research (Germany); Michel, Jan [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Korcyl, Grzegorz; Palka, Marek [Jagiellonian University (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most important aspects of particle identification experiments is the digitisation of time, amplitude and charge data from detectors. These conversions are done mostly with Application Specific ICs (ASICs). However, the recent developments in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology allow us to use commercial electronic components for the required Front-End Electronics (FEE) and do the digitisation in the FPGA. It is possible to do Time-of-Flight (ToF), Time-over-Threshold (ToT), amplitude and charge measurements with converters implemented in FPGA. We call this principle COME and KISS: Use COMplex COMmercial Elements and Keep It Small and Simple.

  8. Electric field calculations in brain stimulation based on finite elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windhoff, Mirko; Opitz, Alexander; Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    , allowing for the creation of tetrahedral volume head meshes that can finally be used in the numerical calculations. The pipeline integrates and extends established (and mainly free) software for neuroimaging, computer graphics, and FEM calculations into one easy-to-use solution. We demonstrate...... elements. The latter is crucial to guarantee the numerical robustness of the FEM calculations. The pipeline will be released as open-source, allowing for the first time to perform realistic field calculations at an acceptable methodological complexity and moderate costs....

  9. Field programmable gate array based data digitisation with commercial elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, C.; Koening, W.; Michel, J.; Palka, M.; Traxler, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of particle identification experiments is the digitisation of time, amplitude and charge data from detectors. These conversions are mostly undertaken with Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). However, recent developments in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology allow us to use commercial electronic components for the required Front-End Electronics (FEE) and to do the digitisation in the FPGA. It is possible to do Time-of-Flight (ToF), Time-over-Threshold (ToT), amplitude and charge measurements with converters implemented in FPGA. We call this principle come & kiss: use COmplex ComMErcial Elements & Keep It Small and Simple.

  10. SELF-ADAPTIVE STRATEGY FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD BASED ON ELEMENT ENERGY PROJECTION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Si; HE Xue-feng

    2006-01-01

    Based on the newly-developed element energy projection (EEP) method for computation of super-convergent results in one-dimensional finite element method (FEM),the task of self-adaptive FEM analysis was converted into the task of adaptive piecewise polynomial interpolation. As a result, a satisfactory FEM mesh can be obtained, and further FEM analysis on this mesh would immediately produce an FEM solution which usually satisfies the user specified error tolerance. Even though the error tolerance was not completely satisfied, one or two steps of further local refinements would be sufficient.This strategy was found to be very simple, rapid, cheap and efficient. Taking the elliptical ordinary differential equation of second order as the model problem, the fundamental idea,implementation strategy and detailed algorithm are described. Representative numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed approach.

  11. Edge detection based on directional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Wei-qi; LI De-sheng

    2006-01-01

    A new method for edge detection based on directional space is proposed.The principle is that:firstly,the directional differential space is set up in which the ridge edge pixels and valley edge pixels are abstracted with the help of the method of logical judgments along the direction of differential function,forming a directional roof edge map;secondly,step edge pixels are abstracted between the neighboring directional ridge edge and directional valley edge along the direction of differential function;finally,the ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map gained along different directions are combined into corresponding ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map.This method is different from classical algorithms in which the gray differential values of the mutual vertical direction are combined into one gradient value.The experiment of edge detection is made for the images of nature scenery,human body and accumulative raw material,whose result is compared with the one of classical algorithms and showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  12. Conformal Array Pattern Synthesis and Activated Elements Selection Strategy Based on PSOGSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern synthesis and activated element selection for conformal array is investigated based on hybrid particle swarm optimization-gravitational search algorithm (PSOGSA in this paper. With the introduction of PSOGSA algorithm which is a novel hybrid optimization technique, the element excitations are optimized to obtain the desired pattern for conformal array in the case of considering uncoupled and coupled element pattern. Numerical simulation and full-wave electromagnetic calculation verify the advantage and efficiency of our method. Then, a novel strategy of activated element selection based on PSOGSA algorithm is proposed for saving the energy consumption in conformal array.

  13. Statistical Change Detection for Diagnosis of Buoyancy Element Defects on Moored Floating Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Fang, Shaoji; Galeazzi, Roberto;

    2012-01-01

    Floating platforms with mooring systems are used extensively in off-shore operations. Part of the mooring systems are underwater buoyancy elements that are attached to the mooring lines. Loss or damage of a buoyancy element is invisible but changes the characteristics of the mooring system...

  14. A beta ray spectrometer based on a two-, or three-element silicon detector coincidence telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S.; Weizman, Y. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Physics; Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The operation of a beta ray energy spectrometer based on a two-or three-element silicon detector telescope is described. The front detector (A) is a thin, totally depleted, silicon surface barrier detector either 40 {mu}m, 72 {mu}m or 98 {mu}m thick. The back detector (C) is a Li compensated silicon detector, 5000 {mu}m thick. An additional thin detector can be inserted between these two detectors when additional photon rejection capability is required in intense photon fields. The capability of the spectrometer to reject photons is based on the fact that incident photons will have a small probability of simultaneously losing detectable energy in two detectors and an even smaller probability of losing detectable energy in all three detectors. Electrons, however, above a low energy threshold, will always record simultaneous, events in all three detectors. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from a lower energy coincidence threshold of 70 keV with 60% efficiency increasing to 100% efficiency in the energy region between 150 keV and 2.5 MeV. (Author).

  15. Error detection based on MB types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yong; JEONG JeChang; WU ChengKe

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a method of error detection based on macroblock (MB) types for video transmission. For decoded inter MBs, the absolute values of received residues are accumulated. At the same time, the intra textural complexity of the current MB is estimated by that of the motion compensated reference block. We compare the inter residue with the intra textural complexity. If the inter residue is larger than the intra textural complexity by a predefined threshold, the MB is con-sidered to be erroneous and errors are concealed. For decoded intra MBs, the connective smoothness of the current MB with neighboring MBs is tested to find erroneous MBs. Simulation results show that the new method can remove those seriously-corrupted MBs efficiently. Combined with error concealment, the new method improves the recovered quality at the decoder by about 0.5-1 dB.

  16. Comic image understanding based on polygon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luyuan; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Liu, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Comic image understanding aims to automatically decompose scanned comic page images into storyboards and then identify the reading order of them, which is the key technique to produce digital comic documents that are suitable for reading on mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a novel comic image understanding method based on polygon detection. First, we segment a comic page images into storyboards by finding the polygonal enclosing box of each storyboard. Then, each storyboard can be represented by a polygon, and the reading order of them is determined by analyzing the relative geometric relationship between each pair of polygons. The proposed method is tested on 2000 comic images from ten printed comic series, and the experimental results demonstrate that it works well on different types of comic images.

  17. Detecting Soft Errors in Stencil based Computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gopalkrishnan, G. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bronevetsky, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    Given the growing emphasis on system resilience, it is important to develop software-level error detectors that help trap hardware-level faults with reasonable accuracy while minimizing false alarms as well as the performance overhead introduced. We present a technique that approaches this idea by taking stencil computations as our target, and synthesizing detectors based on machine learning. In particular, we employ linear regression to generate computationally inexpensive models which form the basis for error detection. Our technique has been incorporated into a new open-source library called SORREL. In addition to reporting encouraging experimental results, we demonstrate techniques that help reduce the size of training data. We also discuss the efficacy of various detectors synthesized, as well as our future plans.

  18. Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Fan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer asreceptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface ismodified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivityfor thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectralposition of the microsphere’s whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on theorder of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments with non-aptameroligonucleotide and BSA are also carried out to confirm the specific binding betweenaptamer and thrombin. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development ofhighly sensitive biomarker sensors based on aptamer with lower cost and higher throughputthan current technology.

  19. Multiple-image encryption algorithm based on mixed image element and permutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-05-01

    To improve encryption efficiency and facilitate the secure transmission of multiple digital images, by defining the pure image element and mixed image element, this paper presents a new multiple-image encryption (MIE) algorithm based on the mixed image element and permutation, which can simultaneously encrypt any number of images. Firstly, segment the original images into pure image elements; secondly, scramble all the pure image elements with the permutation generated by the piecewise linear chaotic map (PWLCM) system; thirdly, combine mixed image elements into scrambled images; finally, diffuse the content of mixed image elements by performing the exclusive OR (XOR) operation among scrambled images and the chaotic image generated by another PWLCM system. The comparison with two similar algorithms is made. Experimental results and algorithm analyses show that the proposed MIE algorithm is very simple and efficient, which is suitable for practical image encryption.

  20. Smartphone-based low light detection for bioluminescence application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huisung; Jung, Youngkee; Doh, Iyll-Joon; Lozano-Mahecha, Roxana Andrea; Applegate, Bruce; Bae, Euiwon

    2017-01-01

    We report a smartphone-based device and associated imaging-processing algorithm to maximize the sensitivity of standard smartphone cameras, that can detect the presence of single-digit pW of radiant flux intensity. The proposed hardware and software, called bioluminescent-based analyte quantitation by smartphone (BAQS), provides an opportunity for onsite analysis and quantitation of luminescent signals from biological and non-biological sensing elements which emit photons in response to an analyte. A simple cradle that houses the smartphone, sample tube, and collection lens supports the measuring platform, while noise reduction by ensemble averaging simultaneously lowers the background and enhances the signal from emitted photons. Five different types of smartphones, both Android and iOS devices, were tested, and the top two candidates were used to evaluate luminescence from the bioluminescent reporter Pseudomonas fluorescens M3A. The best results were achieved by OnePlus One (android), which was able to detect luminescence from ~106 CFU/mL of the bio-reporter, which corresponds to ~107 photons/s with 180 seconds of integration time.

  1. Smartphone-based low light detection for bioluminescence application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huisung; Jung, Youngkee; Doh, Iyll-Joon; Lozano-Mahecha, Roxana Andrea; Applegate, Bruce; Bae, Euiwon

    2017-01-01

    We report a smartphone-based device and associated imaging-processing algorithm to maximize the sensitivity of standard smartphone cameras, that can detect the presence of single-digit pW of radiant flux intensity. The proposed hardware and software, called bioluminescent-based analyte quantitation by smartphone (BAQS), provides an opportunity for onsite analysis and quantitation of luminescent signals from biological and non-biological sensing elements which emit photons in response to an analyte. A simple cradle that houses the smartphone, sample tube, and collection lens supports the measuring platform, while noise reduction by ensemble averaging simultaneously lowers the background and enhances the signal from emitted photons. Five different types of smartphones, both Android and iOS devices, were tested, and the top two candidates were used to evaluate luminescence from the bioluminescent reporter Pseudomonas fluorescens M3A. The best results were achieved by OnePlus One (android), which was able to detect luminescence from ~106 CFU/mL of the bio-reporter, which corresponds to ~107 photons/s with 180 seconds of integration time. PMID:28067287

  2. Rugged single domain antibody detection elements for Bacillus anthracis spores and vegetative cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Walper

    Full Text Available Significant efforts to develop both laboratory and field-based detection assays for an array of potential biological threats started well before the anthrax attacks of 2001 and have continued with renewed urgency following. While numerous assays and methods have been explored that are suitable for laboratory utilization, detection in the field is often complicated by requirements for functionality in austere environments, where limited cold-chain facilities exist. In an effort to overcome these assay limitations for Bacillus anthracis, one of the most recognizable threats, a series of single domain antibodies (sdAbs were isolated from a phage display library prepared from immunized llamas. Characterization of target specificity, affinity, and thermal stability was conducted for six sdAb families isolated from rounds of selection against the bacterial spore. The protein target for all six sdAb families was determined to be the S-layer protein EA1, which is present in both vegetative cells and bacterial spores. All of the sdAbs examined exhibited a high degree of specificity for the target bacterium and its spore, with affinities in the nanomolar range, and the ability to refold into functional antigen-binding molecules following several rounds of thermal denaturation and refolding. This research demonstrates the capabilities of these sdAbs and their potential for integration into current and developing assays and biosensors.

  3. Rugged single domain antibody detection elements for Bacillus anthracis spores and vegetative cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walper, Scott A; Anderson, George P; Brozozog Lee, P Audrey; Glaven, Richard H; Liu, Jinny L; Bernstein, Rachel D; Zabetakis, Dan; Johnson, Linwood; Czarnecki, Jill M; Goldman, Ellen R

    2012-01-01

    Significant efforts to develop both laboratory and field-based detection assays for an array of potential biological threats started well before the anthrax attacks of 2001 and have continued with renewed urgency following. While numerous assays and methods have been explored that are suitable for laboratory utilization, detection in the field is often complicated by requirements for functionality in austere environments, where limited cold-chain facilities exist. In an effort to overcome these assay limitations for Bacillus anthracis, one of the most recognizable threats, a series of single domain antibodies (sdAbs) were isolated from a phage display library prepared from immunized llamas. Characterization of target specificity, affinity, and thermal stability was conducted for six sdAb families isolated from rounds of selection against the bacterial spore. The protein target for all six sdAb families was determined to be the S-layer protein EA1, which is present in both vegetative cells and bacterial spores. All of the sdAbs examined exhibited a high degree of specificity for the target bacterium and its spore, with affinities in the nanomolar range, and the ability to refold into functional antigen-binding molecules following several rounds of thermal denaturation and refolding. This research demonstrates the capabilities of these sdAbs and their potential for integration into current and developing assays and biosensors.

  4. [Analyzer Design of Atmospheric Particulate Matter's Concentration and Elemental Composition Based on β and X-Ray's Analysis Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang-quan; Liu, He-fan; Zeng, Guo-qiang; Zhang, Qing-xian; Ren, Mao-qiang; Li, Dan; Gu, Yi; Luo, Yao-yao; Zhao, Jian-kun

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter requires real-time analysis, such as particulate matter's concentrations, their element types and contents. An analyzer which is based on β and X rays analysis techniques is designed to meet those demands. Applying β-ray attenuation law and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis principle, the paper introduces the analyzer's overall design scheme, structure, FPGA circuit hardware and software for the analyzer. And the analyzer can measure atmospheric particulate matters' concentration, elements and their contents by on-line analysis. Pure elemental particle standard samples were prepared by deposition, and those standard samples were used to set the calibration for the analyzer in this paper. The analyzer can monitor atmospheric particulate matters concentration, 30 kinds of elements and content, such as TSP, PM10 and PM2.5. Comparing the measurement results from the analyzer to Chengdu Environmental Protection Agency's monitoring results for monitoring particulate matters, a high consistency is obtained by the application in eastern suburbs of Chengdu. Meanwhile, the analyzer are highly sensitive in monitoring particulate matters which contained heavy metal elements (such as As, Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb and so on). The analyzer has lots of characteristics through technical performance testing, such as continuous measurement, low detection limit, quick analysis, easy to use and so on. In conclusion, the analyzer can meet the demands for analyzing atmospheric particulate matter's concentration, elements and their contents in urban environmental monitoring.

  5. Fast preconcentration of trace rare earth elements from environmental samples by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid grafted magnetic nanoparticles followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    In this work, di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (P204) grafted magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by fabricating P204 onto Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles based on Lewis acid-base interaction between Ti and phosphate group under weakly acidic condition. The prepared Fe3O4@TiO2@P204 nanoparticles exhibited excellent selectivity for rare earth elements, and good anti-interference ability. Based on it, a method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for fast preconcentration and determination of trace rare earth elements in environmental samples. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits of rare earth elements were in the range of 0.01 (Tm)-0.12 (Nd) ng L- 1 with an enrichment factor of 100-fold, and the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.9 (Pr) to 10.7% (Er). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of rare earth elements in environmental samples, including river water, lake water, seawater and sediment.

  6. Finite element based optimization study on hydroformed stepped tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisankar, K. R.; Omar, A.; Narasimhan, K.

    2016-08-01

    Tube hydroforming process is an advanced manufacturing process in which tube is placed in between the dies and deformed with the help of hydraulic pressure. A sound tube hydroformed part depends upon die conditions, material properties and process conditions. In this work, a finite element study, along with response surface methodology (RSM) for designing the simulation, has been used to construct models with loading path, friction, anisotropic index, strain hardening exponent and tube thickness. The responses studied are the die corner radius filling and strain non-uniformity index (SNI) chosen in each step of the tube with maximum 30% thinning as stopping criteria. The factors effect and their interactions on each response were determined and analysed.

  7. Flexible ferroelectric element based on van der Waals heteroepitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Bitla, Yugandhar; Huang, Chun-Wei; Do, Thi Hien; Liu, Heng-Jui; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hao; Jang, Chi-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Hong; Chiu, Po-Wen; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-06-01

    We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2.5 mm) and cycling tests (1000 times). This study marks the technological advancement toward realizing much-awaited flexible yet single-crystalline nonvolatile electronic devices for the design and development of flexible, lightweight, and next-generation smart devices with potential applications in electronics, robotics, automotive, health care, industrial, and military systems.

  8. Inverse boundary element calculations based on structural modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    2007-01-01

    The inverse problem of calculating the flexural velocity of a radiating structure of a general shape from measurements in the field is often solved by combining a Boundary Element Method with the Singular Value Decomposition and a regularization technique. In their standard form these methods solve...... for the unknown normal velocities of the structure at the relatively large number of nodes in the numerical model. Efficiently the regularization technique smoothes the solution spatially, since a fast spatial variation is associated with high index singular values, which is filtered out or damped...... in the regularization. Hence, the effective number of degrees of freedom in the model is often much lower than the number of nodes in the model. The present paper deals with an alternative formulation possible for the subset of radiation problems in which a (structural) modal expansion is known for the structure...

  9. Smartphone-based colorimetric detection of glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobornikova, Irena; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2016-12-18

    Glutathione belongs to the family of small-molecular weight antioxidants like ascorbic acid, cysteine, α-tocopherol, uric acid, etc. These molecules play important role in the neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress may lead to ageing and the development of large scale of pathological states of organism. This low molecular weight antioxidant´s level can alter under pathological conditions from reduced (GSH, thiols) to oxidized (oxidized glutathione -GSSG, disulfides) form. A GSSG-to-GSH ratio is indicative marker of oxidative stress. There is a large scale of methods how to determine this biomarker. The trend of the analysis is to minimalize the instrument equipment, sample application volume and analysis cost. Reduced glutathione (GSH) solutions were prepared in water in the concentration 0-16 mmol/L. Other small-molecular weight antioxidants like 0.25 mmol/L ascorbic acid, 0.15 mmol/L TROLOX and 0.02 mmol/L N-acetyl-cysteine (NAcCys) were studied as possible interferents. The samples were mixed with 5,5´-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic) acid (DTNB) resulting in yellow colored drops forming. Coloration was assayed using camera integrated in a smartphone and color channels analysis. The total volume of 10 µl of sample was applied for one analysis. The smartphone-based data were compared with the reference Ellman assay. The calibration of glutathione was evaluated. The blue channel intensity data were decreasing according to the increasing glutathione concentration. Red and green channel intensities were stagnating during the whole concentration scale of glutathione. Limits of detection were 0.4 mmol/l for glutathione. Addition of 0.25 mmol/L of ascorbic acid, 0.15 mmol/L of TROLOX and 0.02mmol/L of N-acetylcysteine to GSH in final concentration 0-16 mmol/L had minimal influence on the assay. The results from smartphone-based analysis correlate with the standard Ellman method. The detection limit for GSH was 0.03 mmol

  10. Neutron-based techniques for detection of explosives and drugs

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraly, B; Csikai, J

    2001-01-01

    Systematic measurements were carried out on the possible use of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons combined with the thermal neutron reflection method for the identification of land mines and illicit drugs via he detection of H, C, N, and O elements as their major constituents. While ur present results show that these methods are capable of indicating the anomalies in bulky materials and observation of the major elements, e termination of the exact atom fractions needs further investigation.

  11. Rapid detection by multiplex PCR of Genomic Islands, prophages and Integrative Conjugative Elements in V. cholerae 7th pandemic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoletti, Matteo; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Colombo, Mauro M

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae poses a threat to human health, and new epidemic variants have been reported so far. Seventh pandemic V. cholerae strains are characterized by highly related genomic sequences but can be discriminated by a large set of Genomic Islands, phages and Integrative Conjugative Elements. Classical serotyping and biotyping methods do not easily discriminate among new variants arising worldwide, therefore the establishment of new methods for their identification is required. We developed a multiplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of the major 7th pandemic variants of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Three specific genomic islands (GI-12, GI-14 and GI-15), two phages (Kappa and TLC), Vibrio Seventh Pandemic Island 2 (VSP-II), and the ICEs of the SXT/R391 family were selected as targets of our multiplex PCR based on a comparative genomic approach. The optimization and specificity of the multiplex PCR was assessed on 5 V. cholerae 7th pandemic reference strains, and other 34 V. cholerae strains from various epidemic events were analyzed to validate the reliability of our method. This assay had sufficient specificity to identify twelve different V. cholerae genetic profiles, and therefore has the potential to be used as a rapid screening method.

  12. Tacholess Envelope Order Analysis and Its Application to Fault Detection of Rolling Element Bearings with Varying Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibration analysis is an effective tool for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. Conventional diagnostic methods are based on the stationary assumption, thus they are not applicable to the diagnosis of bearings working under varying speed. This constraint limits the bearing diagnosis to the industrial application significantly. In order to extend the conventional diagnostic methods to speed variation cases, a tacholess envelope order analysis technique is proposed in this paper. In the proposed technique, a tacholess order tracking (TLOT method is first introduced to extract the tachometer information from the vibration signal itself. On this basis, an envelope order spectrum (EOS is utilized to recover the bearing characteristic frequencies in the order domain. By combining the advantages of TLOT and EOS, the proposed technique is capable of detecting bearing faults under varying speeds, even without the use of a tachometer. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by both simulated signals and real vibration signals collected from locomotive roller bearings with faults on inner race, outer race and rollers, respectively. Analyzed results show that the proposed method could identify different bearing faults effectively and accurately under speed varying conditions.

  13. Continuum Mechanics Based Bi-linear Shear Deformable Shell Element Using Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-07

    the convergent solution in the case of the continuum mechanics based bi- linear shear deformable ANCF shell element. 5.3 Slit Annular Plate Subjected...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. #24515 CONTINUUM MECHANICS BASED BI- LINEAR SHEAR DEFORMABLE SHELL ELEMENT...MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED 07-01-2014 to 04-03-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CONTINUUM MECHANICS BASED BI- LINEAR

  14. Finite element based model of parchment coffee drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeda Prakotmak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer in the parchment coffee during convective drying represents a complicated phenomena since it is important to consider not only the transport phenomena during drying but also the various changes of the drying materials. In order to describe drying of biomaterials adequately, a suitable mathematical model is needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a 3-D finite element model to simulate the transport of heat and mass within parchment coffee during the thin layer drying. Thin layer drying experiments of coffee bean and parchment coffee were conducted in the temperature range of 40-60o C, the relative humidity ranged from 14 to 28% and drying air velocity of 1.4 m/s. The moisture diffusivities in different coffee’s components (parchment and coffee bean were determined by minimizing the RMSE between the predicted and the experimental data of moisture contents. The simulated results showed that the moisture diffusivities of coffee bean were three orders of magnitude higher than those of the parchment. Moisture diffusivities of coffee components were found to significantly increase (P<0.05 with the increase in drying air temperature and were expressed by Arrhenius-type equations. Moreover, the model was also used to predict the moisture gradient in coffee bean during drying. The model simulates the moisture contents in different components of parchment coffee well and it provides a better understanding of the transport processes in the different components of the parchment coffee

  15. A NEW QUADRILATERAL THIN PLATE ELEMENT BASED ON THE MEMBRANE-PLATE SIMILARITY THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄若煜; 郑长良; 钟万勰; 姚伟岸

    2002-01-01

    A new effective path has been proposed to formulate thin plate element by using the similarity theory between plane elasticity and plate bending. Because of avoiding the difficulty of c1 continuity , the construction of thin plate elements becomes easier. The similarity theory and its applications were discussed more deeply, and a new four nodes, sixteen D. O. F. ( degree of fieedom) thin plate element was presented on the base of the similarity theory. Numerical results for typical problems show that this new element can pass the patch test and has a very good convergence and a high precision.

  16. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Maria Luiza Chiste Flaquer da; Dias, June Ferraz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecologia Reprodutiva e do Recrutamento de Organismos Marinhos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, ES (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  17. Aptamer-based Field-Effect Biosensor for Tenofovir Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarinodehi, N.; Jolly, P.; Bhalla, N.; Miodek, A.; De Micheli, G.; Estrela, P.; Carrara, S.

    2017-01-01

    During medical treatment it is critical to maintain the circulatory concentration of drugs within their therapeutic range. A novel biosensor is presented in this work to address the lack of a reliable point-of-care drug monitoring system in the market. The biosensor incorporates high selectivity and sensitivity by integrating aptamers as the recognition element and field-effect transistors as the signal transducer. The drug tenofovir was used as a model small molecule. The biointerface of the sensor is a binary self-assembled monolayer of specific thiolated aptamer and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH), whose ratio was optimized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to enhance the sensitivity towards the specific target. Surface plasmon resonance, performed under different buffer conditions, shows optimum specific and little non-specific binding in phosphate buffered saline. The dose-response behavior of the field-effect biosensor presents a linear range between 1 nM and 100 nM of tenofovir and a limit of detection of 1.2 nM. Two non-specific drugs and one non-specific aptamer, tested as stringent control candidates, caused negligible responses. The applications were successfully extended to the detection of the drug in human serum. As demonstrated by impedance measurements, the aptamer-based sensors can be used for real-time drug monitoring. PMID:28294122

  18. Outlier Detection Method in Linear Regression Based on Sum of Arithmetic Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikaram, K. K. L. B.; Hussein, M. A.; Effenberger, M.; Becker, T.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new nonparametric outlier detection method for linear series, which requires no missing or removed data imputation. For an arithmetic progression (a series without outliers) with n elements, the ratio (R) of the sum of the minimum and the maximum elements and the sum of all elements is always 2/n : (0,1]. R ≠ 2/n always implies the existence of outliers. Usually, R outlier, and R > 2/n implies that the maximum is an outlier. Based upon this, we derived a new method for identifying significant and nonsignificant outliers, separately. Two different techniques were used to manage missing data and removed outliers: (1) recalculate the terms after (or before) the removed or missing element while maintaining the initial angle in relation to a certain point or (2) transform data into a constant value, which is not affected by missing or removed elements. With a reference element, which was not an outlier, the method detected all outliers from data sets with 6 to 1000 elements containing 50% outliers which deviated by a factor of ±1.0e − 2 to ±1.0e + 2 from the correct value. PMID:25121139

  19. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.

  20. Detection of highly toxic elements (lead and chromium) in commercially available eyeliner (kohl) using laser induced break down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, M. A.; Dastageer, M. A.; Al-Adel, F. F.; Naqvi, A. A.; Habibullah, Y. B.

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive laser induced breakdown spectroscopic system was developed and optimized for using it as a sensor for the detection of trace levels of lead and chromium present in the cosmetic eyeliner (kohl) of different price ranges (brands) available in the local market. Kohl is widely used in developing countries for babies as well adults for beautification as well eyes protection. The atomic transition lines at 405.7 nm and 425.4 nm were used as the marker lines for the detection of lead and chromium respectively. The detection system was optimized by finding the appropriate gate delay between the laser excitation and the data acquisition system and also by achieving optically thin plasma near the target by establishing the local thermodynamic equilibrium condition. The detection system was calibrated for these two hazardous elements and the kohl samples under investigation showed 8-15 ppm by mass of lead and 4-9 ppm by mass of Chromium, which are higher than the safe permissible levels of these elements. The limits of detection of the LIBS system for lead and chromium were found to be 1 and 2 ppm respectively.

  1. Water Pollution Detection Based on Hypothesis Testing in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution detection is of great importance in water conservation. In this paper, the water pollution detection problems of the network and of the node in sensor networks are discussed. The detection problems in both cases of the distribution of the monitoring noise being normal and nonnormal are considered. The pollution detection problems are analyzed based on hypothesis testing theory firstly; then, the specific detection algorithms are given. Finally, two implementation examples are given to illustrate how the proposed detection methods are used in the water pollution detection in sensor networks and prove the effectiveness of the proposed detection methods.

  2. Functional analysis of a large set of BRCA2 exon 7 variants highlights the predictive value of hexamer scores in detecting alterations of exonic splicing regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Daniela; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Abuli, Anna; Abdat, Julie; Frébourg, Thierry; Tosi, Mario; Martins, Alexandra

    2013-11-01

    Exonic variants can alter pre-mRNA splicing either by changing splice sites or by modifying splicing regulatory elements. Often these effects are difficult to predict and are only detected by performing RNA analyses. Here, we analyzed, in a minigene assay, 26 variants identified in the exon 7 of BRCA2, a cancer predisposition gene. Our results revealed eight new exon skipping mutations in this exon: one directly altering the 5' splice site and seven affecting potential regulatory elements. This brings the number of splicing regulatory mutations detected in BRCA2 exon 7 to a total of 11, a remarkably high number considering the total number of variants reported in this exon (n = 36), all tested in our minigene assay. We then exploited this large set of splicing data to test the predictive value of splicing regulator hexamers' scores recently established by Ke et al. (). Comparisons of hexamer-based predictions with our experimental data revealed high sensitivity in detecting variants that increased exon skipping, an important feature for prescreening variants before RNA analysis. In conclusion, hexamer scores represent a promising tool for predicting the biological consequences of exonic variants and may have important applications for the interpretation of variants detected by high-throughput sequencing.

  3. Reliability-Based Shape Optimization using Stochastic Finite Element Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Ib; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sigurdsson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Application of first-order reliability methods FORM (see Madsen, Krenk & Lind [8)) in structural design problems has attracted growing interest in recent years, see e.g. Frangopol [4), Murotsu, Kishi, Okada, Yonezawa & Taguchi [9) and Sørensen [14). In probabilistically based optimal design...

  4. Multiscale approach for bone remodeling simulation based on finite element and neural network computation

    CERN Document Server

    Hambli, Ridha

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a multiscale hierarchical hybrid model based on finite element analysis and neural network computation to link mesoscopic scale (trabecular network level) and macroscopic (whole bone level) to simulate bone remodelling process. Because whole bone simulation considering the 3D trabecular level is time consuming, the finite element calculation is performed at macroscopic level and a trained neural network are employed as numerical devices for substituting the finite element code needed for the mesoscale prediction. The bone mechanical properties are updated at macroscopic scale depending on the morphological organization at the mesoscopic computed by the trained neural network. The digital image-based modeling technique using m-CT and voxel finite element mesh is used to capture 2 mm3 Representative Volume Elements at mesoscale level in a femur head. The input data for the artificial neural network are a set of bone material parameters, boundary conditions and the applied str...

  5. Implementation of a strain energy-based nonlinear finite element in the object-oriented environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Tadeusz; Pęczak, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the paper is to describe a novel finite element computational method based on a strain energy density function and to implement it in the object-oriented environment. The original energy-based finite element was put into the known standard framework of classes and handled in a different manner. The nonlinear properties of material are defined with a modified strain energy density function. The local relaxation procedure proposed as a method used to resolve a nonlinear problem is implemented in C++ language. The hexahedral element with eight nodes as well as the adaptation of the nonlinear finite element is introduced. The chosen numerical model is made of nearly incompressible hyperelastic material. The application of the proposed element is shown on the example of a rectangular parallelepiped with a hollow port.

  6. Adaptive nodeless variable finite elements with flux-based formulation for thermal-structural analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sutthisak Phongthanapanich; Pramote Dechaumphai

    2008-01-01

    A nodeless variable element method with the flux-based formulation is developed to analyze two-dimensional thermal-structural problems. The nodeless variable formula-tion provides accurate temperature distributions to yield more accurate thermal stress solutions. The flux-based formula-tion is used to reduce the complexity in deriving the finite element equations as compared to the conventional finite element method. The solution accuracy is further improved by implementing an adaptive meshing technique to generate finite element meshes that can adapt and move along with the transient solution behavior. A version of a nearly opti- mal element size determination is proposed to provide high convergence rate of the predicted solutions. The combined procedure is evaluated by solving several thermal, structural,and thermal stress problems.

  7. Detection of Elemental Composition of Lubricating Grease Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Dhiman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of lubricating soft grease used in rail engines are studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS technique. LIBS spectra of fresh, partially used and fully used grease samples are recorded using time-gated ICCD spectrometer for verification of compositional degradation of the used grease. LIBS spectra of grease samples are analyzed by comparing with emission spectra of elements published by NIST standard database. Many spectral lines of impurity elements like Fe, Cu, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ni, S, Zn, Si, Pb, Ti, Ca and Al present in the grease in ppm or ppb level in trace level concentrations are observed in excess in the used grease mainly due to wear and tear. On the other hand in fresh grease, spectral lines of Ca, Al and Na are observed predominantly.

  8. Nucleic Acid-Based Approaches for Detection of Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    BEHZADI, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Results: Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensit...

  9. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE BASED ON TWO SURFACE ELASTOPLASTIC MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯继玲; 王世文

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents finite element formulas based on two surface elastoplastic yielding model. The study also discusses the numerical procedures and develops the corresponding software. These formulas have provided accurate elastoplastic method for analysing concrete, rock and soil like materials.

  10. [Detection of trace elements in the sediment of Lop Nur samples by ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; An, Deng-Di; Dlinur, Mlik; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ji, Heng-Ying; Zhu, Yan-Lei

    2012-06-01

    Twenty eight trace elements in the sediment of Lop Nur in different latitude and longitude were tested by ICP-MS. The results showed that the metal contents in the soil profile followed a growing trend from the surface to the bottom. And the essential element P for living body in each sample was very low, and was the lowest on the surface, while was matched in the other four layers. The results will help to understand the ecosystem evolution of Lop Nur drying up after the sediment deposition.

  11. Effective Steganography Detection Based On Data Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Nechta, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes novel text steganalysis method. The archiver "Bzip2" used for detection stegotext generated by Texto stegosystem. Experiments show that proposed approach gets better performance than typical existing methods. The detection accuracy exceeds 99.98% for text segments with size 400 bytes.

  12. Dependence-Based Anomaly Detection Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    tricks the user to enter their Netflix login. Detecting it is out of our scope and requires site authentication (i.e., certification verification... Netflix login. Detecting it is out of our scope and requires site authentication (i.e., certification verification) and user education. The preliminary

  13. Construction of elements data base of JRR-3, 4 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akira; Iwata, Yoshihiro [Akita Univ. (Japan); Sawahata, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    Two kinds of the basic data base were constructed. One of them contains stable isotope information (atomic number, mass number, atomic weight and isotope ratio) and other consists of radionuclide information (atomic number, mass number, half-life, {gamma}-ray average energy, {beta}-ray average energy and {beta}+ray release rate). We tried to add the spectrum data determined by experiments, but many kinds of radionuclide in the sample could not separated. (S.Y.)

  14. Chaotic signal detection and estimation based on attractor sets: applications to secure communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, G K; Nichols, J M; Bucholtz, F

    2008-03-01

    We consider the problem of detection and estimation of chaotic signals in the presence of white Gaussian noise. Traditionally this has been a difficult problem since generalized likelihood ratio tests are difficult to implement due to the chaotic nature of the signals of interest. Based on Poincare's recurrence theorem we derive an algorithm for approximating a chaotic time series with unknown initial conditions. The algorithm approximates signals using elements carefully chosen from a dictionary constructed based on the chaotic signal's attractor. We derive a detection approach based on the signal estimation algorithm and show, with simulated data, that the new approach can outperform other methods for chaotic signal detection. Finally, we describe how the attractor based detection scheme can be used in a secure binary digital communications protocol.

  15. Chaotic signal detection and estimation based on attractor sets: Applications to secure communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, G. K.; Nichols, J. M.; Bucholtz, F.

    2008-03-01

    We consider the problem of detection and estimation of chaotic signals in the presence of white Gaussian noise. Traditionally this has been a difficult problem since generalized likelihood ratio tests are difficult to implement due to the chaotic nature of the signals of interest. Based on Poincare's recurrence theorem we derive an algorithm for approximating a chaotic time series with unknown initial conditions. The algorithm approximates signals using elements carefully chosen from a dictionary constructed based on the chaotic signal's attractor. We derive a detection approach based on the signal estimation algorithm and show, with simulated data, that the new approach can outperform other methods for chaotic signal detection. Finally, we describe how the attractor based detection scheme can be used in a secure binary digital communications protocol.

  16. Network Anomaly Detection Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Ghorbani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing techniques have been applied recently for analyzing and detecting network anomalies due to their potential to find novel or unknown intrusions. In this paper, we propose a new network signal modelling technique for detecting network anomalies, combining the wavelet approximation and system identification theory. In order to characterize network traffic behaviors, we present fifteen features and use them as the input signals in our system. We then evaluate our approach with the 1999 DARPA intrusion detection dataset and conduct a comprehensive analysis of the intrusions in the dataset. Evaluation results show that the approach achieves high-detection rates in terms of both attack instances and attack types. Furthermore, we conduct a full day's evaluation in a real large-scale WiFi ISP network where five attack types are successfully detected from over 30 millions flows.

  17. Aesthetic Design as an Element of Service Innovation in New Technology-based Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Candi, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this thesis are to examine new technology-based firms’ use of aesthetic design as an element of service innovation and to explore potential relationships between aesthetic design and performance in this same context. There is a scarcity of research on aesthetic design as an element of service innovation, particularly in new technology-based firms. Because of this scarcity, a hybrid research strategy is appropriate and the empirical basis for this research encompasses multiple cas...

  18. New Detections of Arsenic, Selenium, and Other Heavy Elements in Two Metal-poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Schatz, Hendrik; Lawler, James E.; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.

    2014-08-01

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range -2.8 < [Fe/H] <-0.6, lang[As/Fe]rang = +0.28 ± 0.14 (σ = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, lang[Se/Fe]rang = +0.16 ± 0.09 (σ = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 <=A <= 82) may be the point at which a different nucleosynthetic mechanism begins to dominate the quasi-equilibrium α-rich freezeout of the iron peak. lang[Cu II/Cu I]rang = +0.56 ± 0.23 in HD 108317 and HD 128279, and we infer that lines of Cu I may not be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium in these stars. The [Zn/Fe], [Mo/Fe], [Cd/Fe], and [Os/Fe] ratios are also derived from neutral and ionized species, and each ratio pair agrees within the mutual uncertainties, which range from 0.15 to 0.52 dex. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-12268 and GO-12976.

  19. Hybrid Semiloof elements for plates and shells based upon a modified Hu-Washizu principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, T. H. H.; Sumihara, K.

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid SemiLoof elements for plates and shells are developed based upon modified Hu-Washizu principle. In the new version of the assumed stress hybrid formulation the equilibrium equations are satisfied through the introduction of internal displacement parameters as Lagrange multipliers. The inversion of the resulting H-matrices is simplified particularly when the stresses are expressed in terms of natural coordinates. A 24-DOF triangular element and a 32-DOF quadrilateral element based on shallow shell theory are derived and evaluated.

  20. A New Integrated Design Method Based on Fuzzy Matter-Element Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new integrated design met ho d based on fuzzy matter-element optimization.On the based of analyzing the mod el of multi-objective fuzzy matter-element , the paper defines the m atter-element weightily and changes solving multi-objective fuzzy optimization into solving dependent function K(x) of the single-objective optimization according to the optimization criterion. The paper particularly describes the realization approach of GA process of multi -objective fuzzy matter-eleme...

  1. Molecular Design of Ionization-Induced Proton Switching Element Based on Fluorinated DNA Base Pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-03-10

    To design theoretically the high-performance proton switching element based on DNA base pair, the effects of fluorine substitution on the rate of proton transfer (PT) in the DNA model base pair have been investigated by means of direct ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method. The 2-aminopyridine dimer, (AP)2, was used as the model of the DNA base pair. One of the hydrogen atoms of the AP molecule in the dimer was substituted by a fluorine (F) atom, and the structures of the dimer, expressed by F-(AP)2, were fully optimized at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The direct AIMD calculations showed that the proton is transferred within the base pair after the vertical ionization. The rates of PT in F-(AP)2(+) were calculated and compared with that of (AP)2(+) without an F atom. It was found that PT rate is accelerated by the F-substitution. Also, the direction of PT between F-AP and AP molecules can be clearly controlled by the position of F-substitution (AP)2 in the dimer.

  2. Sleep Spindles as an Electrographic Element: Description and Automatic Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Coppieters ’t Wallant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindle is a peculiar oscillatory brain pattern which has been associated with a number of sleep (isolation from exteroceptive stimuli, memory consolidation and individual characteristics (intellectual quotient. Oddly enough, the definition of a spindle is both incomplete and restrictive. In consequence, there is no consensus about how to detect spindles. Visual scoring is cumbersome and user dependent. To analyze spindle activity in a more robust way, automatic sleep spindle detection methods are essential. Various algorithms were developed, depending on individual research interest, which hampers direct comparisons and meta-analyses. In this review, sleep spindle is first defined physically and topographically. From this general description, we tentatively extract the main characteristics to be detected and analyzed. A nonexhaustive list of automatic spindle detection methods is provided along with a description of their main processing principles. Finally, we propose a technique to assess the detection methods in a robust and comparable way.

  3. A real-time PCR assay with improved specificity for detection and discrimination of all clinically relevant Bordetella species by the presence and distribution of three Insertion Sequence elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossewaarde Jacobus M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Dutch laboratories molecular detection of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis is commonly based on insertion sequences IS481 and IS1001, respectively. Both IS elements are more widely spread among Bordetella species. Both Bordetella holmesii, and B. bronchiseptica can harbour IS481. Also, IS1001 is found among B. bronchiseptica. IS481, and IS1001 based PCR thus lacks specificity when used for detection of specific Bordetella spp. Findings We designed a PCR based on IS1002, another IS element that is present among Bordetella species, and exploited it as a template in combination with PCR for IS481, and IS1001. In combining the PCRs for IS481, IS1001, and IS1002, and including an inhibition control, we were able to detect and discriminate all clinically relevant Bordetella species. Conclusions We developed an improved PCR method for specific detection of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, B. holmesii, and B. bronchiseptica.

  4. The algorithm of malicious code detection based on data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubo; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Xiabi

    2017-08-01

    Traditional technology of malicious code detection has low accuracy and it has insufficient detection capability for new variants. In terms of malicious code detection technology which is based on the data mining, its indicators are not accurate enough, and its classification detection efficiency is relatively low. This paper proposed the information gain ratio indicator based on the N-gram to choose signature, this indicator can accurately reflect the detection weight of the signature, and helped by C4.5 decision tree to elevate the algorithm of classification detection.

  5. Extension of silo discharge model based on discrete element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldal, Istvan; Safranyil, Ferenc [Szent Istvan University, Goedoelloe (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    Silos are containers used by almost all fields of industry for storing granular materials and generally classified in two types: mass flow and funnel flow. One of the most important design parameter of these equipment is the discharge rate which depends on the flow mode. There are high numbers of analytical and empirical models used for determine this parameter, however none of them is suitable for both flow modes; moreover the accuracy of mass flow models is not acceptable. Recently a few numerical discharge models are made for certain geometries; but the applicability of these models in case of different flow modes was not examined. Aim of our work is the creation of an experimentally validated numerical discharge model based on others work and examination of this in term of different flow modes. We prove that our modified model is suitable for determine silos discharge rate independently from flow mode.

  6. Optimization of Energy Conversion Efficiency Betavoltaic Element Based on Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Krasnov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was developed the technology of manufacturing planar betavoltaic converter based on silicon, providing a higher rate of conversion of ionizing radiation into electrical energy by reducing reverse currents. The active region of silicon p-i-n structure is 1 cm2, which is irradiated by the of radionuclide 63Ni with the activity 2,7 mCi/cm2. The results of experimental studies of C-V samples are presented. The values of the open-circuit voltage (Voc 0.111 V are presented and short circuit current density (Jsc 27 nA/cm2. The ma-ximum density of output power (Pmax was 1.52 nW/cm2.

  7. Tourism attractions: Key elements of tourism resource base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that theory of tourism lags behind increased tourism practice. In order to decrease such gap, theoretical work in tourism must be intensified and permanently reconsidered in future period. Consequently, it is necessary to pay attention to complex analysis and explicit interpretation of important notions that are integral parts of tourism practice, as well as objects of scientific investigations. The subject of this paper is analysis of complex structure of tourism resource base. Specially are focused two relevant tourism notions - tourist resources and tourist attractions (tourist motives. Analysis of their meaning, interrelationship and differences is made, relying on basic tourismological principles and critical review of contemporary experts opinions in this domain. Correct interpretation, setting the correlation and distinction between tourism relevant notions, at the same time require great responsibility and duty of tourismologists, tourism geographers, economists and other experts in the field of tourism to contribute to strengthening of tourism theory, adequately influencing on growing tourism practice.

  8. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Daehak-ro 291, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701) (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  9. Mechanism of interaction relation between the rare-earth element Ce and impurity elements Pb and Bi in Ag-based filler metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of interaction relation between the rare-earth element Ce and elements Pb and Bi in Ag-based filler metal has been studied. The results show that the compounds CePb and CeBi with high melting point can be easily produced between these three elements in the filler metal, which greatly limited the formation of the isolated phase Pb or Bi and also eliminated the bad effect of impurity elements Pb and Bi on the spreading property of Ag-based filler metal. The metallurgical and quantum-mechanical bond formation analysis show that a strong chemical affinity was existed between the rare-earth element Ce and impurity elements Pb and Bi, which was proved by the XRD analysis results.

  10. 48 CFR 2937.602 - Elements of performance-based contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... listed in FAR 37.102.) Generally, when contract performance risk under a PBC specification can be shifted... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CONTRACTING Preference for Performance-Based Contracting (PBC) 2937.602 Elements of performance-based contracting. (a) Performance-based contracting is defined in...

  11. Anomica: Fast Support Vector Based Novelty Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we propose ν-Anomica, a novel anomaly detection technique that can be trained on huge data sets with much reduced running time compared to the...

  12. Detecting Bots Based on Keylogging Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Hammadi, Yousof

    2010-01-01

    A bot is a piece of software that is usually installed on an infected machine without the user's knowledge. A bot is controlled remotely by the attacker under a Command and Control structure. Recent statistics show that bots represent one of the fastest growing threats to our network by performing malicious activities such as email spamming or keylogging. However, few bot detection techniques have been developed to date. In this paper, we investigate a behavioural algorithm to detect a single bot that uses keylogging activity. Our approach involves the use of function calls analysis for the detection of the bot with a keylogging component. Correlation of the frequency of a specified time-window is performed to enhance he detection scheme. We perform a range of experiments with the spybot. Our results show that there is a high correlation between some function calls executed by this bot which indicates abnormal activity in our system.

  13. A Monte-Carlo based extension of the Meteor Orbit and Trajectory Software (MOTS) for computations of orbital elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, T.; Koschny, D.; Soja, R.; Srama, R.; Poppe, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Canary Islands Long-Baseline Observatory (CILBO) is a double station meteor camera system (Koschny et al., 2013; Koschny et al., 2014) that consists of 5 cameras. The two cameras considered in this report are ICC7 and ICC9, and are installed on Tenerife and La Palma. They point to the same atmospheric volume between both islands allowing stereoscopic observation of meteors. Since its installation in 2011 and the start of operation in 2012 CILBO has detected over 15000 simultaneously observed meteors. Koschny and Diaz (2002) developed the Meteor Orbit and Trajectory Software (MOTS) to compute the trajectory of such meteors. The software uses the astrometric data from the detection software MetRec (Molau, 1998) and determines the trajectory in geodetic coordinates. This work presents a Monte-Carlo based extension of the MOTS code to compute the orbital elements of simultaneously detected meteors by CILBO.

  14. A new method for splice site prediction based on the sequence patterns of splicing signals and regulatory elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN ZongXiao; SANG LingJie; JU LiNing; ZHU HuaiQiu

    2008-01-01

    It is of significance for splice site prediction to develop novel algorithms that combine the sequence patterns of regulatory elements such as enhancers and silencers with the patterns of splicing signals. In this paper, a statistical model of splicing signals was built based on the entropy density profile (EDP) method, weight array method (WAM) and κ test; moreover, the model of splicing regulatory elements was developed by an unsupervised self-learning method to detect motifs associated with regulatory elements. With two models incorporated, a multi-level support vector machine (SVM) system was de-vised to perform ab initio prediction for splice sites originating from DNA sequence in eukaryotic ge-home. Results of large scale tests on human genomic splice sites show that the new method achieves a comparative high performance in splice site prediction. The method is demonstrated to be with at least the same level of performance and usually better performance than the existing SpliceScan method based on modeling regulatory elements, and shown to have higher accuracies than the traditional methods with modeling splicing signals such as the GeneSplicer. In particular, the method has evident advantage over splice site prediction for the genes with lower GC content.

  15. Detection of Atmospheric Composition Based on Lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinye; Tong Yala; Yang Xiaoling; Gong Jiaoli [School of science, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China); Gong Wei, E-mail: yezi.zh@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A summary overview about the types of lidar and their own applications on atmosphere detection is presented. Measurement of atmospheric aerosols by Mie lidar and Raman lidar is focused. The vertical profiles of aerosols in the atmosphere are retrieved. And at the same time, through analyzing aerosol vertical content distribution, the atmosphere boundary layer and the cloud are also observed. All the results show that the lidar has good performance on detecting the atmospheric composition.

  16. Torsional inertia moment of beam element with complex section analysis based on FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao An; Huang Jun; Lu Jianming

    2012-01-01

    Currently, for the analysis of complex bridge based on beam element, the calculation of cross-section torsional inertia moment is still an unresolved technical problem. Most current calculation of section torsional inertia moment is an approximate analytic method for two-dimensional cross-section, which is not fully consistent with the actual situation, and do not consider the effects of diaphragm in bridge. In order to analyze accurately cable-stayed bridge, suspension bridge and other complex bridge structures based on beam element, the calculation method of section torsional inertia moment based on finite element method (FEM) is invented in this paper. Firstly, setting up local cantilever fine model with solid element or shell element and applying torsion on the end of cantilever. Secondly, calculating the torsion angle of cantilever by FEM method and then the torsional moment through equivalent beam method. Finally, the examples of the section torsional moment calculation of concrete model with solid element with diaphragm and steel girder box model with shell element with diaphragm are used to verify the calculation method, which is applied to the suspension bridge design and construction control special software SBNA developed by Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport. Taizhou Bridge under construction is one of the examples.

  17. Design of Intrusion Detection Model Based on FP-Growth and Dynamic Rule Generation with Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Somani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. If we think of the current scenario then several new intrusion that cannot be prevented by the previous algorithm, IDS is introduced to detect possible violations of a security policy by monitoring system activities and response in all times for betterment. If we detect the attack type in a particular communication environment, a response can be initiated to prevent or minimize the damage to the system. So it is a crucial concern. In our framework we present an efficient framework for intrusion detection which is based on Association Rule Mining (ARM and K-Means Clustering. K- Means clustering is use for separation of similar elements and after that association rule mining is used for better detection. Detection Rate (DR, False Positive Rate (FPR and False Negative Rate (FNR are used to measure performance and analysis experimental results.

  18. A Study of Coal Miners’ Safety Psychological Elements Based on Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zeng-bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the production process, the instability of safety psychological elements of coal miners contributes to unsafe behaviors that may result in fatal accident. To search the dominant psychological elements, three types of unsafe psychology, comprising 18 unsafe psychological elements, are obtained by theoretical analysis and site survey. Then, an assessment model is established, and a matched questionnaire is applied to two large modern coal mines in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Based on questionnaire survey results and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, assessment judgment matrixes are constructed, effect weight is calculated, and consistency check is conducted. The analysis results show that safety psychology elements of defective type are the dominant elements that trigger unsafe behaviors of coal miners.

  19. ESL Based Cylindrical Shell Elements with Hierarchical Shape Functions for Laminated Composite Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae S. Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce higher-order cylindrical shell element based on ESL (equivalent single-layer theory for the analysis of laminated composite shells. The proposed elements are formulated by the dimensional reduction technique from three-dimensional solid to two-dimensional cylindrical surface with plane stress assumption. It allows the first-order shear deformation and considers anisotropic materials due to fiber orientation. The element displacement approximation is established by the integrals of Legendre polynomials with hierarchical concept to ensure the C0-continuity at the interface between adjacent elements as well as C1-continuity at the interface between adjacent layers. For geometry mapping, cylindrical coordinate is adopted to implement the exact mapping of curved shell configuration with a constant curvature with respect to any direction in the plane. The verification and characteristics of the proposed element are investigated through the analyses of three cylindrical shell problems with different shapes, loadings, and boundary conditions.

  20. Finite element model updating of concrete structures based on imprecise probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, S.; Ramaswamy, A.

    2017-09-01

    Imprecise probability based methods are developed in this study for the parameter estimation, in finite element model updating for concrete structures, when the measurements are imprecisely defined. Bayesian analysis using Metropolis Hastings algorithm for parameter estimation is generalized to incorporate the imprecision present in the prior distribution, in the likelihood function, and in the measured responses. Three different cases are considered (i) imprecision is present in the prior distribution and in the measurements only, (ii) imprecision is present in the parameters of the finite element model and in the measurement only, and (iii) imprecision is present in the prior distribution, in the parameters of the finite element model, and in the measurements. Procedures are also developed for integrating the imprecision in the parameters of the finite element model, in the finite element software Abaqus. The proposed methods are then verified against reinforced concrete beams and prestressed concrete beams tested in our laboratory as part of this study.

  1. Constructal optimization for a solid-gas reactor based on triangular element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Entropy generation minimization for heat and mass transfer process in a solid-gas reactor is carried out based on constructal theory by using triangular elemental area. The aspect ratio of the triangular elemental area is optimized under constraint conditions. A number of optimal triangular elements are assembled to a new large rectangular area, which is optimised again. The procedure is repeated until the control-volume is covered, and the complete analytical results are obtained. The effects of some parameters on minimum entropy generation are analysed by nu-merical examples. The results show that smaller entropy generation can be ob-tained when the optimization for a given volume is carried out on the basis of tri-angular elements than those obtained on the basis of rectangular elements.

  2. A study on urban road traffic safety based on matter element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure.

  3. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  4. Detecting element specific electrons from a single cobalt nanocluster with synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersell, Heath; Shirato, Nozomi; Cummings, Marvin; Chang, Hao; Miller, Dean; Rosenmann, Daniel; Hla, Saw-Wai; Rose, Volker

    2017-09-01

    We use a nanofabricated scanning tunneling microscope tip as a detector to investigate local X-ray induced tunneling and electron emission from a single cobalt nanocluster on a Au(111) surface. The tip-detector is positioned a few angstroms above the nanocluster, and ramping the incident X-ray energy across the Co photoabsorption K-edge enables the detection of element specific electrons. Atomic-scale spatial dependent changes in the X-ray absorption cross section are directly measured by taking the X-ray induced current as a function of X-ray energy. From the measured sample and tip currents, element specific X-ray induced current components can be separated and thereby the corresponding yields for the X-ray induced processes of the single cobalt nanocluster can be determined. The detection of element specific synchrotron X-ray induced electrons of a single nanocluster opens an avenue for materials characterization on a one particle at-a-time basis.

  5. 3D finite element analysis to detect stress distribution: spiral family implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, Matteo; Zollino, Ilaria; Paracchini, Luigi; Riccardo, Guidi; Fanali, Stefano; Carinci, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Spiral family implants are a root-form fixtures with increasing thickness of tread. This characteristic gives a self-tapping and self-condensing bone properties to implants. To study spiral family implant inserted in different bone quality and connected with abutments of different angulations a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed. Once drawn the systems that were object of the study by CAD (Computer Aided Design), the FEA discretized solids composing the system in many infinitesimal little elementary solids defined finite elements. This lead to a mesh formation where the single finite elements were connected among them by nodes. For the 3 units bone-implant-abutments several thousand of tetrahedral elements having 10 parabolic nodes were employed. The biomechanical behaviour of 4.2 mm × 13 mm dental implants, connecting screw, straight and 15° and 25° angulated abutment subjected to static loads, in contact with high and poor bone quality was evaluated by FEA. A double system was analyzed: a) FY strength acting along Y axis and having 200 N intensity; b) FY and FZ couple of strengths applied along Y and Z directions and having respectively 200N and 140N intensity. The materials were considered as homogeneous, linear and isotropic. Then the FEA simulation was performed hypothesizing a linearity between loads and deformations. The lowest stress value was found in the system composed by implants and straight abutments loaded with a vertical strength, while the highest stress value were found in implants and 15° angulated abutment loaded with a angulated strength. In addition, the lower is the bone quality (i.e. D4) the higher is the distribution of the stress within the bone. Spiral family implants can be used successfully in low bone quality but a straight force is recommended.

  6. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndimba, R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available . In the present study, the effect of this targeted kafirin suppression on other grain quality parameters was investigated. Several significant changes in the proximate composition, amino acid profile and the bulk mineral content were detected. Importantly...

  7. A NOVEL THRESHOLD BASED EDGE DETECTION ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. RAMADEVI,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is the process of partitioning/subdividing a digital image into multiple meaningful regions or sets of pixels regions with respect to a particular application. Edge detection is one of the frequently used techniques in digital image processing. The level to which the subdivision is carried depends on theproblem being viewed. Edges characterize boundaries and are therefore a problem of fundamental importance in image processing. There are many ways to perform edge detection. In this paper different Edge detection methods such as Sobel, Prewitt, Robert, Canny, Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG are used for segmenting the image. Expectation-Maximization (EM algorithm, OSTU and Genetic algorithms are also used. A new edge detection technique is proposed which detects the sharp and accurate edges that are not possible with the existing techniques. The proposed method with different threshold values for given input image is shown that ranges between 0 and 1 and it are observed that when the threshold value is 0.68 the sharp edges are recognised properly.

  8. Metallomics approach to trace element analysis in ustilago maydis using cellular fractionation, atomic absorption spectrometry, and size exclusion chromatography with ICP-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alma Hortensia Serafin; Kubachka, Kevin; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Corona, Felix Gutierrez; Yathavakilla, Santha K V; Caruso, Joseph A; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2005-06-29

    Huitlacoche is the ethnic name of the young fruiting bodies of Ustilago maydis, a common parasite of maize. In Mexico and other Latin American countries, this fungus has been traditionally appreciated as a local delicacy. In this work a metallomics approach was used with the determination of eight elements in huitlacoche by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry as one facet of this approach. The results obtained indicated relatively lower concentrations of commonly analyzed metals, as referred to the data reported for other mushroom types. This effect was ascribed to different accessibilities of elements, depending on fungus substrate (lower from plant than from soil). Subcellular fractionation was accomplished by centrifugation of cell homogenates suspended in Tris-HCl buffer. Recoveries of the fractionation procedure were in the range of 71-103%. For six elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Pb), the mean relative contributions in cytosol, cell walls, and mixed membrane fraction were 50.7, 48.2, and 1.1% respectively. To attain the molecular weight distribution of compounds containing target elements as an additional aspect of the metallomics approach, the fungus extract (1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in Tris-HCl, 30 mmol L(-)(1), pH 7.0) was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography with UV and ICP-MS detection. With spectrophotometric detection (280 nm), the elution of high molecular weight compounds was observed in the form of one peak (MW > 10 kDa), and several lower peaks appeared at higher retention times (MW < 10 kDa). On ICP-MS chromatograms, a coelution of (59)Co, (63)Cu, (57)Fe, (202)Hg, (60)Ni, and (80)Se with the first peak on the UV chromatogram was clearly observed, indicating that a fraction of each element incorporated with high molecular weight compounds (12.7, 19.8, 33.7, 100, 19.4, and 45.8%, respectively, based on the peak area measurements). From a comparison of (80)Se and (33)S chromatograms (for sulfur analysis, the extract was obtained in

  9. Antibody-based biological toxin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menking, D.E.; Goode, M.T. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a direct competition assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin, Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B or ricin were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) - labeled toxins. In the indirect competition assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified anti-toxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or anti-toxin IgG in a dose dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

  10. Adaptive skin detection based on online training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Rong, Gang

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a widely used cue for porn image classification. Most conventional methods are off-line training schemes. They usually use a fixed boundary to segment skin regions in the images and are effective only in restricted conditions: e.g. good lightness and unique human race. This paper presents an adaptive online training scheme for skin detection which can handle these tough cases. In our approach, skin detection is considered as a classification problem on Gaussian mixture model. For each image, human face is detected and the face color is used to establish a primary estimation of skin color distribution. Then an adaptive online training algorithm is used to find the real boundary between skin color and background color in current image. Experimental results on 450 images showed that the proposed method is more robust in general situations than the conventional ones.

  11. Community Detection Based on Link Prediction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Community detection and link prediction are both of great significance in network analysis, which provide very valuable insights into topological structures of the network from diffrent perspectives. In this paper, we propose a novel community detection algorithm with inclusion of link prediction, motivated by the question whether link prediction can be devoted to improve the accuracy of community partition. For link prediction, we propose two novel indices to compute the similarity between each pair of nodes, one of which aims to add missing links, and the other tries to remove spurious edges. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark data sets, and the results of our proposed algorithm are compared with two classes of baselines. In conclusion, our proposed algorithm is competitive, revealing that link prediction does improve the precision of community detection.

  12. Dynamic test and finite element model updating of bridge structures based on ambient vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of bridge structures are the basis of structural dynamic response and seismic analysis,and are also an important target of health condition monitoring.In this paper,a three-dimensional finite-element model is first established for a highway bridge over a railroad on No.312 National Highway.Based on design drawings,the dynamic characteristics of the bridge are studied using finite element analysis and ambient vibration measurements.Thus,a set of data is selected based on sensitivity analysis and optimization theory;the finite element model of the bridge is updated.The numerical and experimental results show that the updated method is more simple and effective,the updated finite element model can reflect the dynamic characteristics of the bridge better,and it can be used to predict the dynamic response under complex external forces.It is also helpful for further damage identification and health condition monitoring.

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Characteristics of Dropped Eggs Based on Fluid-Solid Coupling Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Song Haiyan; Wang Fang; Zhang Jianguo; Zhang Yinong; Yang Shugang

    2017-01-01

    It is important to study the properties and mechanics of egg drop impacts in order to reduce egg loss during processing and logistics and to provide a basis for the protective packaging of egg products. In this paper, we present the results of our study of the effects of the structural parameters on the mechanical properties of an egg using a finite element model of the egg. Based on Fluid-Solid coupling theory, a finite element model of an egg was constructed using ADINA, a finite element ca...

  14. NONCONFORMING STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS BASED ON RIESZ-REPRESENTING OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuanHuoyuan

    1999-01-01

    Following the framework of the finite element methods based on Riesz-representingoperators developed by Duan Huoyuan in 1997,through discrete Rieszonsome virtual(non-) conforming finite-dimensional subspaces,a stabilization formulation is presented for the Stokes problem by employing nonconforming elements. This formulation is uni-tormly coercive and not subject to the Babus Ka-Brezzi condition,and the resulted linearalgebraic system is positive definite with the spectral condition number O(h-2).Quasi-optimal error bounds are obtained,which is consistent with the interpolation properties of the finite elements used.

  15. Element-sensitive computed tomography by fine tuning of PXR-based X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y., E-mail: yahayak@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Hayakawa, K.; Inagaki, M. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Kaneda, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Nakao, K.; Nogami, K. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Sakae, T.; Sakai, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Sato, I. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba 305-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Element-sensitive computed tomography (CT) experiments were carried out based on the absorption edge of a specific element using a finely tunable X-ray beam generated by parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). Tomographic images of specimens containing strontium were measured at energies both lower and higher than that of the Sr absorption edge. The difference between the images of the two energies successfully reveals the three-dimensional distributions of Sr. The results demonstrate that this method is effective for elemental analysis of considerably thick samples and could complement X-ray fluorescence analysis.

  16. Bridging Creativity and Group by Elements of Problem-Based Learning (PBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2015-01-01

    As the recent studies have discussed Problem-Based Learning (PBL) as popular model of fostering creativity, this paper aims to provide a theoretical framework bridging creativity and student group context by elements of PBL. According to the literature review, the elements at least include group...... learning, problem solving, interdisciplinary learning, project management and facilitation. The main five elements construct PBL as a suitable learning environment to develop individual creativity and to stimulate interplay of individual creativity and group creativity. Thus, a theoretical model...

  17. Recapturing Graphite-Based Fuel Element Technology for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    ORNL is currently recapturing graphite based fuel forms for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). This effort involves research and development on materials selection, extrusion, and coating processes to produce fuel elements representative of historical ROVER and NERVA fuel. Initially, lab scale specimens were fabricated using surrogate oxides to develop processing parameters that could be applied to full length NTP fuel elements. Progress toward understanding the effect of these processing parameters on surrogate fuel microstructure is presented.

  18. DIFFERENCE SCHEME AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION BASED ON MIXED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR NATURAL CONVECTION PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振东; 朱江; 谢正辉; 张桂芳

    2003-01-01

    The non-stationary natural convection problem is studied. A lowest order finite difference scheme based on mixed finite element method for non-stationary natural convection problem, by the spatial variations discreted with finite element method and time with finite difference scheme was derived, where the numerical solution of velocity, pressure, and temperature can be found together, and a numerical example to simulate the close square cavity is given, which is of practical importance.

  19. A microfluidic based optical particle detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, James; Chen, Lu; Nayyar, Rakesh; Aitchison, Stewart

    2012-03-01

    An optical particle detection and analysis method is presented. This method combines the capillary microfluidics, integrated optics and novel image acquisition and analysis algorithms to form the basis of a portable or handheld cytometer instrument. Experimental results provided shows the testing results are closely matched with conventional flow cytometer data.

  20. On Bitstream Based Edge Detection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods, Digital Image Processing , Addison-Wesley...Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA, 2001. [6] William K Pratt, Digital image processing , Wiley, New York :, 1991. [7] Miguel Segui Prieto and...bitstream processing 1. INTRODUCTION Edge detection is a vital part of image processing , which is used for extracting important features from an image

  1. Flow-based detection of DNS tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Zuraniewski, P.W.; Sperotto, A.; Schotanus, H.A.; Mandjes, M.; Meeuwissen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    DNS tunnels allow circumventing access and security policies in firewalled networks. Such a security breach can be misused for activities like free web browsing, but also for command & control traffic or cyber espionage, thus motivating the search for effective automated DNS tunnel detection techniq

  2. Flow-Based Detection of DNS Tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Żuraniewski, P.; Sperotto, A.; Schotanus, H.; Mandjes, M.; Meeuwissen, E.

    2013-01-01

    DNS tunnels allow circumventing access and security policies in firewalled networks. Such a security breach can be misused for activities like free web browsing, but also for command & control traffic or cyber espionage, thus motivating the search for effective automated DNS tunnel detection techniq

  3. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Bennett; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262) tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin) and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal) autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  4. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Kleinberg

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24, and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262 tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  5. Model Based Fault Detection in a Centrifugal Pump Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Cocquempot, Vincent; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2006-01-01

    A model based approach for fault detection in a centrifugal pump, driven by an induction motor, is proposed in this paper. The fault detection algorithm is derived using a combination of structural analysis, observer design and Analytical Redundancy Relation (ARR) design. Structural consideration...... is capable of detecting four different faults in the mechanical and hydraulic parts of the pump.......A model based approach for fault detection in a centrifugal pump, driven by an induction motor, is proposed in this paper. The fault detection algorithm is derived using a combination of structural analysis, observer design and Analytical Redundancy Relation (ARR) design. Structural considerations...

  6. Output Characteristics of Photoelectric Slip Sensor Based on Micro-vibration Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Zhen-dong; HAN Hong-biao; DENG Xiao-zhong; XU Xian-hong

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve the manipulator's soft grasp function, the key is to have slip sensors with fine performance. Depending on the elastomer and photoelectric elements installed in the hand, the sensor transforms the slippage between the grasped object and the robot's hand to electric signal, thus the slippage can be detected. It will cause elastomers' micro-vibration when the object is slippage. Based on the vibration theory, dynamic theory, light intensity theory and elastic deformation theory, derived is the conclusion that the object's slippage acceleration relativing to the robot's hand has linear relationship with the photoelectric elements' output voltage's differential, and then the model for slippage distinguishing is set up.

  7. Effective analysis of cloud based intrusion detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Ram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of IDS is to analyze events on the network and identify attacks. The increasing number of network security related incidents makes it necessary for organizations to actively protect their sensitive data with the installation of intrusion detection systems (IDS. People are paid more attention on intrusion detection which as an important computer network security technology. According to the development trend of intrusion detection, detecting all kinds of intrusions effectively requires a global view of the monitored network, Here, discuss about new intrusion detection mechanism based on cloud computing, which can make up for the deficiency of traditional intrusion detection, and proved to be great scalable.

  8. Fuzzy Based Advanced Hybrid Intrusion Detection System to Detect Malicious Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Advanced Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (AHIDS that automatically detects the WSNs attacks is proposed. AHIDS makes use of cluster-based architecture with enhanced LEACH protocol that intends to reduce the level of energy consumption by the sensor nodes. AHIDS uses anomaly detection and misuse detection based on fuzzy rule sets along with the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network. The Feed Forward Neural Network along with the Backpropagation Neural Network are utilized to integrate the detection results and indicate the different types of attackers (i.e., Sybil attack, wormhole attack, and hello flood attack. For detection of Sybil attack, Advanced Sybil Attack Detection Algorithm is developed while the detection of wormhole attack is done by Wormhole Resistant Hybrid Technique. The detection of hello flood attack is done by using signal strength and distance. An experimental analysis is carried out in a set of nodes; 13.33% of the nodes are determined as misbehaving nodes, which classified attackers along with a detection rate of the true positive rate and false positive rate. Sybil attack is detected at a rate of 99,40%; hello flood attack has a detection rate of 98, 20%; and wormhole attack has a detection rate of 99, 20%.

  9. A Fluorescence Based Miniaturized Detection Module for Toxin Producing Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, S. E.; Mistlberger, G.; Troi, L.; Lang, A.; Holly, C.; Klimant, I.

    2016-12-01

    Algal blooms are sensitive to external environmental conditions and may pose a serious threat to marine and human life having an adverse effect on the ecosystem. Harmful algal blooms can produce different toxins, which can lead to massive fish kills or to human disorders. Facing these problems, miniaturized and low-cost instrumentation for an early detection and identification of harmful algae classes has become more important over the last years. 1,2Based on the characteristic pigment pattern of different algae classes, we developed a miniaturized detection module, which is able to detect and identify algae classes after analyzing their spectral behavior. Our device combines features of a flow-cytometer and fluorimeter and is build up as a miniaturized and low-cost device of modular design. Similar to a fluorimeter, it excites cells in the capillary with up to 8 different excitation wavelengths recording the emitted fluorescence at 4 different emission channels. Furthermore, the device operates in a flow-through mode similar to a flow-cytometer, however, using only low-cost elements such as LEDs and photodiodes. Due to its miniaturized design, the sensitivity and selectivity increase, whereas background effects are reduced. With a sampling frequency of 140 Hz, we try to detect and count particular cell events even at a concentration of 2 cells / 7.3 µL illuminated volume. Using a self-learning multivariate algorithm, the data are evaluated autonomously on the device enabling an in-situ analysis. The flexibility in choosing excitation and emission wavelengths as well as the high sampling rate enables laboratory applications such as measuring induction kinetics. However, in its first application, the device is part of an open and modular monitoring system enabling the sensing of chemical compounds such as toxic and essential Hg, Cd, Pb, As and Cu trace metal species, nutrients and species related to the carbon cycle, VOCs and potentially toxic algae classes (FP7

  10. A Polydiacetylene Vesicle-based Colorimetric Detection of Campylobacter jejuni Using a DNA Aptamer as Recognition Element%聚丁二炔纳米囊泡生物传感器比色检测空肠弯曲菌的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建涛; 欧阳后先; 徐柯; 吴文鹤; 吕建新

    2012-01-01

    A polydiacetylene vesicle-based biosensor for rapid colorimetric detection of Campylobacter jejuni was developed in this work. Aptamers coupled to the surface of polydiacetylene nanovesicle by chemical reaction in order to achieve vesicle functionalization. Molecular recognition between Campylobacter jejuni and aptamers on the surface of the vesicle lead to absorption spectrum transition of polydiacetylene by which quantitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni could be realized. This method can detect Campylobacter jejuni in 30 mins with high specificity and simple operation.%本实验构建一种可以快速比色检测空肠弯曲菌的聚丁二炔纳米囊泡生物传感器.适配体通过化学反应耦合到聚丁二炔纳米囊泡表面,完成对囊泡的功能化.适配体与空肠弯曲菌特异识别,引起纳米囊泡溶液吸收光谱的改变,通过比色响应值衡量检测体系中有无空肠弯曲菌.该方法特异性好,与PCR对比实验相符;操作简便,检测时间短,仅需30 min.

  11. Digital image restoration based on pixel simultaneous detection probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Grabskii, V

    2008-01-01

    Here an image restoration on the basis of pixel simultaneous detection probabilities (PSDP) is proposed. These probabilities can be precisely determined by means of correlations measurement [NIMA 586 (2008) 314-326]. The proposed image restoration is based on the solution of matrix equation. Non-zero elements of Toeplitz block matrix with ones on the main diagonal, is determined using PSDP. The number of non zero descending diagonals depends on the detector construction and is not always smaller than 8. To solve the matrix equation, the Gaussian elimination algorithm is used. The proposed restoration algorithm is studied by means of the simulated images (with and without additive noise using PSDP for General Electric Senographe 2000D mammography device detector) and a small area (160x160 pixels) of real images acquired by the above mentioned device. The estimation errors of PSDP and the additive noise magnitude permits to restore images with the precision better than 2% for the above mentioned detector. The a...

  12. [Application of ICP-MS to detection of mineral elements and heavy metals in Cassava's byproducts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hai-Teng; Zhang, Chun-Jiang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Lüi, Fei-Jie; Tai, Jian-Xiang; Li, Kai-Mian

    2009-07-01

    Cassava is a main cultivated tropical crop in China, its rich starch roots are often used to produce fuel ethanol in recent years, so it's a kind of hot biomass energy crops. But cassava's byproducts such as leaves, stems and peels are regarded as waste, and are not fully utilized. Cassava's byproducts contain many nutrients, and can be used to process high value food products. The contents of mineral elements and heavy metals in cassava's byproducts were studied by ICP-MS. The results showed that cassava's byproducts contained many elements necessary to human health, the sequence of macroelements was K>Ca>P> Mg>S>Mn>Zn>Na>Fe>B>Cu, particularly, the contents of Fe, Mn, Zn and B ranged from 10 to 800 microg x g(-1) (DW), while the contents of microelements including Mo, Co, Se and Ge ranged from 0.01 to 0.2 microg x g(-1) (DW), which are important to human health. Besides macroelements and microelements, the contents of heavy metals (As, Cr, Pb and Hg) were also important to identify the quality of farm products, and the results showed that cassava's byproducts contained little heavy metals except Pb (2.19 microg x g(-1) (DW) in stalk peels). All the data showed that cassava's byproducts accorded with the national hygiene standards.

  13. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CASINGS TO DETECT THE CRACK AT THE TONGUE REGION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Podugu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify one of the reasons for the crack to initiate at the tongue region. The design of the tongue region of the centrifugal pump casing plays an important role in influencing the pump performance and cavitation. Tongue region should have enough strength to withstand against repeated loads imparted by the impeller. Crack at the tongue region is examined under hydrostatic pressure conditions .Practically, at the site location it was observed that the crack was formed at the tongue region when the casing was tested under hydrostatic pressure. Static linear analysis is performed to identify the critical zone where the maximum stress occurs that causes failure. Maximum stress is observed at the tongue region. To reduce the maximum stress, ribs thickness was increased in addition to increasing the portion of the volute thickness. Geometrical modifications are suggested in such a way that there is no effect on the hydraulic performance and to avoid increase in manufacturing cost. Stress distribution of the centrifugal pump casing volute is simulated using finite element software like Ansys. In this paper an attempt was made to validate finite element analysisresults with test conditions and found good concurrence between FEA results and theoretical results.

  14. A Novel Chip-based Spectrophotometer for Online Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoyuan Cai; Min-Hsien Wu; Zheng Cui

    2006-01-01

    A chip-based spectrophotometer integrated with optical fiber is successfully demonstrated. Grade concentration of lactate solution flowed through the chip to perform an online detection. The response time (100s) and Limit of Detection (LOD,50mg/L) of the device were measured. This device shows comparable performance with traditional commercial instrument,while greatly decreases the sample requirement per detection and reduces the size of total system, introducing a novel method for real-time detection.

  15. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  16. Trace elements in early phase type 2 diabetes mellitus-A population-based study. The HUNT study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ailin Falkmo; Simić, Anica; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Midthjell, Kristian; Syversen, Tore; Flaten, Trond Peder

    2017-03-01

    Differences in trace elements levels between individuals with type 2 diabetes and controls have been reported in several studies in various body fluids and tissues, but results have been inconsistent. In order to examine trace element levels in the early phase of type 2 diabetes, we investigated the association between whole blood levels of 26 trace elements and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed, screening-detected type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted as a case-control study nested within the third survey of the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 Survey). Among participants without previously known diabetes, 128 cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed in people with a high diabetes risk score (FINDRISC≥15), and frequency-matched for age and sex with 755 controls. Blood samples were analyzed by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between trace element levels and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes were evaluated with multivariable conditional logistic regression controlling for age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, education, income, smoking and family history of diabetes. The prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes increased across tertiles/quartiles for cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, silver and zinc, and decreased with increasing quartiles of bromine (Ptrendzinc in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Hybrid Collision Detection Algorithm based on Image Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XueLi Shen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Collision detection is an important application in the field of virtual reality, and efficiently completing collision detection has become the research focus. For the poorly real-time defect of collision detection, this paper has presented an algorithm based on the hybrid collision detection, detecting the potential collision object sets quickly with the mixed bounding volume hierarchy tree, and then using the streaming pattern collision detection algorithm to make an accurate detection. With the above methods, it can achieve the purpose of balancing load of the CPU and GPU and speeding up the detection rate. The experimental results show that compared with the classic Rapid algorithm, this algorithm can effectively improve the efficiency of collision detection.

  18. Bearing fault detection using motor current signal analysis based on wavelet packet decomposition and Hilbert envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaouchen Yacine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect rolling element bearing defects, many researches have been focused on Motor Current Signal Analysis (MCSA using spectral analysis and wavelet transform. This paper presents a new approach for rolling element bearings diagnosis without slip estimation, based on the wavelet packet decomposition (WPD and the Hilbert transform. Specifically, the Hilbert transform first extracts the envelope of the motor current signal, which contains bearings fault-related frequency information. Subsequently, the envelope signal is adaptively decomposed into a number of frequency bands by the WPD algorithm. Two criteria based on the energy and correlation analyses have been investigated to automate the frequency band selection. Experimental studies have confirmed that the proposed approach is effective in diagnosing rolling element bearing faults for improved induction motor condition monitoring and damage assessment.

  19. Single electron based binary multipliers with overflow detection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    Multipliers with overflow detection based on serial and parallel ... current following through a tunnel junction is a series of events in which only one electron ..... Processing delay based on SED and analyzed SED for parallel prefix circuit.

  20. Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevlud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of network anomalies. Network anomalies include everything that is quite different from the normal operation. For detection of anomalies were used machine learning systems. Machine learning can be considered as a support or a limited type of artificial intelligence. A machine learning system usually starts with some knowledge and a corresponding knowledge organization so that it can interpret, analyse, and test the knowledge acquired. There are several machine learning techniques available. We tested Decision tree learning and Bayesian networks. The open source data-mining framework WEKA was the tool we used for testing the classify, cluster, association algorithms and for visualization of our results. The WEKA is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks.

  1. Parkinson's disease detection based on dysphonia measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-04-01

    Assessing dysphonic symptoms is a noninvasive and effective approach to detect Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different dysphonia measurements on PD detection by support vector machine (SVM). Seven categories of dysphonia measurements are considered. Experimental results from ten-fold cross-validation technique demonstrate that vocal fundamental frequency statistics yield the highest accuracy of 88 % ± 0.04. When all dysphonia measurements are employed, the SVM classifier achieves 94 % ± 0.03 accuracy. A refinement of the original patterns space by removing dysphonia measurements with similar variation across healthy and PD subjects allows achieving 97.03 % ± 0.03 accuracy. The latter performance is larger than what is reported in the literature on the same dataset with ten-fold cross-validation technique. Finally, it was found that measures of ratio of noise to tonal components in the voice are the most suitable dysphonic symptoms to detect PD subjects as they achieve 99.64 % ± 0.01 specificity. This finding is highly promising for understanding PD symptoms.

  2. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldonate, J; Mercuri, C; Reta, J; Biurrun, J; Bonell, C; Gentiletti, G; Escobar, S; Acevedo, R [Laboratorio de Ingenieria en Rehabilitacion e Investigaciones Neuromusculares y Sensoriales (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, Ruta 11 - Km 10, Oro Verde, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  3. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-01-01

    Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET). Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions).

  4. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET. Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions.

  5. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  6. UNIFIED MODELS OF ELEMENTS OF POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS BASED ON EQUATIONS IN PHASE COORDINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Vepryk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The models of electrical machines in the phase coordinates, the universal algorithm for the simulation of separate elements in a d-q coordinates system and in a phase-coordinates system are proposed. Methodology. Computer methods of investigation of transients in electrical systems are based on a compilation of systems of differential equations and their numerical integration solution methods. To solve differential equations an implicit method of numerical integration was chosen. Because it provides to complete structural simulation possibility: firstly developing models of separate elements and then forming a model of the complex system. For the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic transients in the elements of the electrical systems has been accepted the implicit Euler-Cauchy method, because it provides a higher precision and stability of the computing processes. Results. In developing the model elements identified two groups of elements: - Static elements and electrical machines in the d-q coordinates; - Rotating electrical machines in phase coordinates. As an example, the paper provides a model of synchronous and asynchronous electric machines in the d-q coordinates system and the phase coordinate system. The generalization algorithm and the unified notation form of equations of elements of an electrical system are obtained. It provides the possibility of using structural methods to develop a mathematical model of power systems under transient conditions. Practical value. In addition, the using of a computer model allows to implement multivariant calculations for research and study of factors affecting the quantitative characteristics of the transients.

  7. Seizure Onset Detection based on one sEMG channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor; Hoppe, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method to detect seizure onsets of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures based on surface electromyography (sEMG) data. The proposed method is generic and based on a single channel making it ideal for a small detection or monitoring device. The sEMG signal is high-pass filtered...

  8. Poseidon: a 2-tier anomaly-based intrusion detection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, Damiano; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter

    2005-01-01

    We present Poseidon, a new anomaly based intrusion detection system. Poseidon is payload-based, and presents a two-tier architecture: the first stage consists of a Self-Organizing Map, while the second one is a modified PAYL system. Our benchmarks on the 1999 DARPA data set show a higher detection r

  9. A community detection algorithm based on topology potential and spectral clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixiao; Chen, Zhaotong; Zhao, Ya; Chen, Shaoda

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is of great value for complex networks in understanding their inherent law and predicting their behavior. Spectral clustering algorithms have been successfully applied in community detection. This kind of methods has two inadequacies: one is that the input matrixes they used cannot provide sufficient structural information for community detection and the other is that they cannot necessarily derive the proper community number from the ladder distribution of eigenvector elements. In order to solve these problems, this paper puts forward a novel community detection algorithm based on topology potential and spectral clustering. The new algorithm constructs the normalized Laplacian matrix with nodes' topology potential, which contains rich structural information of the network. In addition, the new algorithm can automatically get the optimal community number from the local maximum potential nodes. Experiments results showed that the new algorithm gave excellent performance on artificial networks and real world networks and outperforms other community detection methods.

  10. A Community Detection Algorithm Based on Topology Potential and Spectral Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community detection is of great value for complex networks in understanding their inherent law and predicting their behavior. Spectral clustering algorithms have been successfully applied in community detection. This kind of methods has two inadequacies: one is that the input matrixes they used cannot provide sufficient structural information for community detection and the other is that they cannot necessarily derive the proper community number from the ladder distribution of eigenvector elements. In order to solve these problems, this paper puts forward a novel community detection algorithm based on topology potential and spectral clustering. The new algorithm constructs the normalized Laplacian matrix with nodes’ topology potential, which contains rich structural information of the network. In addition, the new algorithm can automatically get the optimal community number from the local maximum potential nodes. Experiments results showed that the new algorithm gave excellent performance on artificial networks and real world networks and outperforms other community detection methods.

  11. Three dimensional finite element analysis to detect stress distribution in spiral implants and surrounding bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, Matteo; Palmieri, Annalisa; Farinella, Francesca; Brunelli, Giorgio; Carinci, Francesco; Girardi, Ambra; Spinelli, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of research was to study spiral family implant by finite element analysis (FEA) inserted in different bone qualities connected with abutments of different angulations. The biomechanical behaviour of 4.2 × 13 mm dental implants, connecting screw, straight and 15° and 25° angulated abutments subjected to static loads, in contact with high and poor bone qualities was evaluated by FEA. The lowest stress value was found in the system composed by implants and straight abut-ments loaded with a vertical force, while the highest stress value was found in implants with 15° angulated abutment loaded with an angulated force. In addition, we found the lower the bone quality, the higher the distribution of the stress within the bone. Spiral family implants can be used successfully in low bone quality but applying a straight force is recommended.

  12. Security Analysis System to Detect Threats on a SIP VoIP Infrasctructure Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vychodil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SIP PBX is definitely the alpha and omega of any IP telephony infrastructure and frequently also provides other services than those related to VoIP traffic. These exchanges are, however, very often the target of attacks by external actors. The article describes a system that was developed on VSB-TU Ostrava as a testing tool to verify if the target VoIP PBX is adequately secured and protected against any real threats. The system tests the SIP element for several usually occurring attacks and it compiles evaluation of its overall security on the basis of successfully or unsuccessfully penetrations. The article describes the applications and algorithms that are used by system and the conclusion consists recommendations and guidelines to ensure effective protection against VoIP PBX threats. The system is designed as an open-source web application, thus allowing independent access and is fully extensible to other test modules.

  13. Automated detection of lung nodules in CT images using shape-based genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmeshki, Jamshid; Ye, Xujiong; Lin, Xinyu; Valdivieso, Manlio; Amin, Hamdan

    2007-09-01

    A shape-based genetic algorithm template-matching (GATM) method is proposed for the detection of nodules with spherical elements. A spherical-oriented convolution-based filtering scheme is used as a pre-processing step for enhancement. To define the fitness function for GATM, a 3D geometric shape feature is calculated at each voxel and then combined into a global nodule intensity distribution. Lung nodule phantom images are used as reference images for template matching. The proposed method has been validated on a clinical dataset of 70 thoracic CT scans (involving 16,800 CT slices) that contains 178 nodules as a gold standard. A total of 160 nodules were correctly detected by the proposed method and resulted in a detection rate of about 90%, with the number of false positives at approximately 14.6/scan (0.06/slice). The high-detection performance of the method suggested promising potential for clinical applications.

  14. Basic elements of an international terrestrial reply following the detection of a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, G. C. M.

    One of the most tantalizing questions human intelligence has posed itself since the beginnings of time is whether we are alone in the Universe. And if not, where are "the others," and is it possible that these "others" may contact us, with or without our knowledge? Scientific literature abounds with theories pro and con, and if any subject ever lent itself to make-believe it is this one. Connected with the scientific theories on the subject, which are so often misunderstood, popular belief has led to a steady stream of publications which have done nothing if they have not greatly hampered the real issue. In legal circles the subject of possible contacts with extraterrestrial intelligence was first discussed in the literature in the early 1960's when, among others, Andrew Haley wrote, in 1965, about "Space Law and Government." This publication appeared in the midst of the United Nations preparations for what was to become, in 1967, the Outer Space Treaty. Though the idea of an international protocol governing actions after the detection of a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence has never been on the agenda of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, space lawyers continue to think and to write about that subject. Recent advances in spaceflight, in particular the Voyager missions to the outer planets of our solar system, give the subject a new impetus. The present paper is intended to dwell upon present scientific thoughts about the likelihood that a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence will be detected in the near future. Although this likelihood appears to be remote, it seems, nevertheless, worthwhile that discussion continues in space legal circles regarding the formulation of an international protocol for activities following the detection of a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence. Since the confirmed detection of a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence could well be of crucial importance for the continuing existence of

  15. Quantitative design of regulatory elements based on high-precision strength prediction using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hailin; Wang, Jianfeng; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and controllable regulatory elements such as promoters and ribosome binding sites (RBSs) are indispensable tools to quantitatively regulate gene expression for rational pathway engineering. Therefore, de novo designing regulatory elements is brought back to the forefront of synthetic biology research. Here we developed a quantitative design method for regulatory elements based on strength prediction using artificial neural network (ANN). One hundred mutated Trc promoter & RBS sequences, which were finely characterized with a strength distribution from 0 to 3.559 (relative to the strength of the original sequence which was defined as 1), were used for model training and test. A precise strength prediction model, NET90_19_576, was finally constructed with high regression correlation coefficients of 0.98 for both model training and test. Sixteen artificial elements were in silico designed using this model. All of them were proved to have good consistency between the measured strength and our desired strength. The functional reliability of the designed elements was validated in two different genetic contexts. The designed parts were successfully utilized to improve the expression of BmK1 peptide toxin and fine-tune deoxy-xylulose phosphate pathway in Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrate that the methodology based on ANN model can de novo and quantitatively design regulatory elements with desired strengths, which are of great importance for synthetic biology applications.

  16. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes with short peptide fragments from class IIa bacteriocins as recognition elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Sarfuddin; Jiang, Keren; Stiles, Michael; Thundat, Thomas; Kaur, Kamaljit

    2015-03-09

    We employed a direct peptide-bacteria binding assay to screen peptide fragments for high and specific binding to Listeria monocytogenes. Peptides were screened from a peptide array library synthesized on cellulose membrane. Twenty four peptide fragments (each a 14-mer) were derived from three potent anti-listerial peptides, Leucocin A, Pediocin PA1, and Curvacin A, that belong to class IIa bacteriocins. Fragment Leu10 (GEAFSAGVHRLANG), derived from the C-terminal region of Leucocin A, displayed the highest binding among all of the library fragments toward several pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The specific binding of Leu10 to L. monocytogenes was further validated using microcantilever (MCL) experiments. Microcantilevers coated with gold were functionalized with peptides by chemical conjugation using a cysteamine linker to yield a peptide density of ∼4.8×10(-3) μmol/cm2 for different peptide fragments. Leu10 (14-mer) functionalized MCL was able to detect Listeria with same sensitivity as that of Leucocin A (37-mer) functionalized MCL, validating the use of short peptide fragments in bacterial detection platforms. Fragment Leu10 folded into a helical conformation in solution, like that of native Leucocin A, suggesting that both Leu10 and Leucocin A may employ a similar mechanism for binding target bacteria. The results show that peptide-conjugated microcantilevers can function as highly sensitive platforms for Listeria detection and hold potential to be developed as biosensors for pathogenic bacteria.

  17. fREDUCE: Detection of degenerate regulatory elements using correlation with expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hao

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The precision of transcriptional regulation is made possible by the specificity of physical interactions between transcription factors and their cognate binding sites on DNA. A major challenge is to decipher transcription factor binding sites from sequence and functional genomic data using computational means. While current methods can detect strong binding sites, they are less sensitive to degenerate motifs. Results We present fREDUCE, a computational method specialized for the detection of weak or degenerate binding motifs from gene expression or ChIP-chip data. fREDUCE is built upon the widely applied program REDUCE, which elicits motifs by global statistical correlation of motif counts with expression data. fREDUCE introduces several algorithmic refinements that allow efficient exhaustive searches of oligonucleotides with a specified number of degenerate IUPAC symbols. On yeast ChIP-chip benchmarks, fREDUCE correctly identified motifs and their degeneracies with accuracies greater than its predecessor REDUCE as well as other known motif-finding programs. We have also used fREDUCE to make novel motif predictions for transcription factors with poorly characterized binding sites. Conclusion We demonstrate that fREDUCE is a valuable tool for the prediction of degenerate transcription factor binding sites, especially from array datasets with weak signals that may elude other motif detection methods.

  18. PARAMETRIC VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE BASED ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS WITH VORONOI FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-wu; WANG Hui

    2006-01-01

    The Voronoi cell finite element method (VCFEM) is adopted to overcome the limitations of the classic displacement based finite element method in the numerical simulation of heterogeneous materials. The parametric variational principle and quadratic programming method are developed for elastic-plastic Voronoi finite element analysis of two-dimensional problems. Finite element formulations are derived and a standard quadratic programming model is deduced from the elastic-plastic equations. Influence of microscopic heterogeneities on the overall mechanical response of heterogeneous materials is studied in detail. The overall properties of heterogeneous materials depend mostly on the size, shape and distribution of the material phases of the microstructure. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the method developed.

  19. Finite element method based on combination of "saddle point" variational formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天孝

    1997-01-01

    A modified mixed/hybrid finite element method, which is no longer required to satisfy the Babuska-Brezzi condition, is referred to as a stabilized method Based on the duality of vanational principles in solid mechanics, a new type of stabilized method, called the combinatorially stabilized mixed/hybrid finite element method, is presented by weight-averaging both the primal and the dual "saddle-point" schemes. Through a general analysis of stability and convergence under an abstract framework, it is shown that for the methods only an inf-sup inequality much weaker than Babuska-Brezzi condition needs to be satisfied. As a concrete application, it is concluded that the combinatorially stabilized Raviart and Thomas mixed methods permit the C -elements to replace the H(div; Ω)-elements.

  20. Recent advances in bacteriophage based biosensors for food-borne pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Evoy, Stephane

    2013-01-30

    Foodborne diseases are a major health concern that can have severe impact on society and can add tremendous financial burden to our health care systems. Rapid early detection of food contamination is therefore relevant for the containment of food-borne pathogens. Conventional pathogen detection methods, such as microbiological and biochemical identification are time-consuming and laborious, while immunological or nucleic acid-based techniques require extensive sample preparation and are not amenable to miniaturization for on-site detection. Biosensors have shown tremendous promise to overcome these limitations and are being aggressively studied to provide rapid, reliable and sensitive detection platforms for such applications. Novel biological recognition elements are studied to improve the selectivity and facilitate integration on the transduction platform for sensitive detection. Bacteriophages are one such unique biological entity that show excellent host selectivity and have been actively used as recognition probes for pathogen detection. This review summarizes the extensive literature search on the application of bacteriophages (and recently their receptor binding proteins) as probes for sensitive and selective detection of foodborne pathogens, and critically outlines their advantages and disadvantages over other recognition elements.

  1. Recent Advances in Bacteriophage Based Biosensors for Food-Borne Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Poshtiban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are a major health concern that can have severe impact on society and can add tremendous financial burden to our health care systems. Rapid early detection of food contamination is therefore relevant for the containment of food-borne pathogens. Conventional pathogen detection methods, such as microbiological and biochemical identification are time-consuming and laborious, while immunological or nucleic acid-based techniques require extensive sample preparation and are not amenable to miniaturization for on-site detection. Biosensors have shown tremendous promise to overcome these limitations and are being aggressively studied to provide rapid, reliable and sensitive detection platforms for such applications. Novel biological recognition elements are studied to improve the selectivity and facilitate integration on the transduction platform for sensitive detection. Bacteriophages are one such unique biological entity that show excellent host selectivity and have been actively used as recognition probes for pathogen detection. This review summarizes the extensive literature search on the application of bacteriophages (and recently their receptor binding proteins as probes for sensitive and selective detection of foodborne pathogens, and critically outlines their advantages and disadvantages over other recognition elements.

  2. Gaussian Belief Propagation Based Multiuser Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bickson, Danny; Shental, Ori; Siegel, Paul H; Wolf, Jack K

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel construction for solving the linear multiuser detection problem using the Gaussian Belief Propagation algorithm. Our algorithm yields an efficient, iterative and distributed implementation of the MMSE detector. We compare our algorithm's performance to a recent result and show an improved memory consumption, reduced computation steps and a reduction in the number of sent messages. We prove that recent work by Montanari et al. is an instance of our general algorithm, providing new convergence results for both algorithms.

  3. An element-based finite-volume method approach for naturally fractured compositional reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail: marcondes@ufc.br; Varavei, Abdoljalil; Sepehrnoori, Kamy [The University of Texas at Austin (United States). Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering Dept.], e-mails: varavei@mail.utexas.edu, kamys@mail.utexas.edu

    2010-07-01

    An element-based finite-volume approach in conjunction with unstructured grids for naturally fractured compositional reservoir simulation is presented. In this approach, both the discrete fracture and the matrix mass balances are taken into account without any additional models to couple the matrix and discrete fractures. The mesh, for two dimensional domains, can be built of triangles, quadrilaterals, or a mix of these elements. However, due to the available mesh generator to handle both matrix and discrete fractures, only results using triangular elements will be presented. The discrete fractures are located along the edges of each element. To obtain the approximated matrix equation, each element is divided into three sub-elements and then the mass balance equations for each component are integrated along each interface of the sub-elements. The finite-volume conservation equations are assembled from the contribution of all the elements that share a vertex, creating a cell vertex approach. The discrete fracture equations are discretized only along the edges of each element and then summed up with the matrix equations in order to obtain a conservative equation for both matrix and discrete fractures. In order to mimic real field simulations, the capillary pressure is included in both matrix and discrete fracture media. In the implemented model, the saturation field in the matrix and discrete fractures can be different, but the potential of each phase in the matrix and discrete fracture interface needs to be the same. The results for several naturally fractured reservoirs are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method. (author)

  4. Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Beams by Cooperative Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Boonlong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based damage detection, a nondestructive method, is based on the fact that vibration characteristics such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of structures are changed when the damage happens. This paper presents cooperative coevolutionary genetic algorithm (CCGA, which is capable for an optimization problem with a large number of decision variables, as the optimizer for the vibration-based damage detection in beams. In the CCGA, a minimized objective function is a numerical indicator of differences between vibration characteristics of the actual damage and those of the anticipated damage. The damage detection in a uniform cross-section cantilever beam, a uniform strength cantilever beam, and a uniform cross-section simply supported beam is used as the test problems. Random noise in the vibration characteristics is also considered in the damage detection. In the simulation analysis, the CCGA provides the superior solutions to those that use standard genetic algorithms presented in previous works, although it uses less numbers of the generated solutions in solution search. The simulation results reveal that the CCGA can efficiently identify the occurred damage in beams for all test problems including the damage detection in a beam with a large number of divided elements such as 300 elements.

  5. MPEG recompression detection based on block artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weiqi; Wu, Min; Huang, Jiwu

    2008-02-01

    With sophisticated video editing technologies, it is becoming increasingly easy to tamper digital video without leaving visual clues. One of the common tampering operations on video is to remove some frames and then re-encode the resulting video. In this paper, we propose a new method for detecting this type of tampering by exploring the temporal patterns of the block artifacts in video sequences. We show that MPEG compression introduces different block artifacts into various types of frames and that the strength of the block artifacts as a function over time has a regular pattern for a given group of pictures (GOP) structure. When some frames are removed from an MPEG video file and the file is then recompressed, the block artifacts introduced by the previous compression would remain and affect the average of block artifact strength of the recompressed one in such a way that depends on the number of deleted frames and the type of GOP used previously. We propose a feature curve to reveal the compression history of an MPEG video file with a given GOP structure, and use it as evidence to detect tampering. Experimental results evaluated on common video benchmark clips demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. GLRT Based Anomaly Detection for Sensor Network Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-12-07

    Proper operation of antenna arrays requires continuously monitoring their performances. When a fault occurs in an antenna array, the radiation pattern changes and can significantly deviate from the desired design performance specifications. In this paper, the problem of fault detection in linear antenna arrays is addressed within a statistical framework. Specifically, a statistical fault detection method based on the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) principle is utilized for detecting potential faults in linear antenna arrays. The proposed method relies on detecting deviations in the radiation pattern of the monitored array with respect to a reference (fault-free) one. To assess the abilities of the GLR based fault detection method, three case studies involving different types of faults have been performed. The simulation results clearly illustrate the effectiveness of the GLR-based fault detection method in monitoring the performance of linear antenna arrays.

  7. A Vehicle Detection Algorithm Based on Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision based vehicle detection is a critical technology that plays an important role in not only vehicle active safety but also road video surveillance application. Traditional shallow model based vehicle detection algorithm still cannot meet the requirement of accurate vehicle detection in these applications. In this work, a novel deep learning based vehicle detection algorithm with 2D deep belief network (2D-DBN is proposed. In the algorithm, the proposed 2D-DBN architecture uses second-order planes instead of first-order vector as input and uses bilinear projection for retaining discriminative information so as to determine the size of the deep architecture which enhances the success rate of vehicle detection. On-road experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm performs better than state-of-the-art vehicle detection algorithm in testing data sets.

  8. Finite Element Method-based Design and Simulations of Micro-cantilever Platform for Chemical and Bio-sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agarwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based cantilever platform have capability for the detection of chemical and biological agents. This paper reports about the finite element method (FEM based design and simulations of MEMS-based piezoresistor cantilever platform to be used for detection of chemical and biological toxic agents. Bulk micromachining technique is adopted for the realisation of the device structure. MEMS piezoresistive biosensing platforms are having potential for a field-based label-free detection of various types of bio-molecules. Using the MEMMECH module of CoventorWare® simulations are performed on the designed model of the device and it is observed that principal stress is maximum along the length (among other dimensions of the micro-cantilever and remains almost constant for 90 per cent of the length of the micro-cantilever. The dimensions of piezoresistor are optimised and the output voltage vs. stress analysis for various lengths of the piezoresistor is performed using the MEMPZR module of the CoventorWare®.

  9. Shape Effect of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction in Structural Reinforced Concrete Elements Using a New Cement-Based Anodic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Carmona

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the research carried out by the authors focused on how the shape of structural reinforced concrete elements treated with electrochemical chloride extraction can affect the efficiency of this process. Assuming the current use of different anode systems, the present study considers the comparison of results between conventional anodes based on Ti-RuO2 wire mesh and a cement-based anodic system such as a paste of graphite-cement. Reinforced concrete elements of a meter length were molded to serve as laboratory specimens, to closely represent authentic structural supports, with circular and rectangular sections. Results confirm almost equal performances for both types of anode systems when electrochemical chloride extraction is applied to isotropic structural elements. In the case of anisotropic ones, such as rectangular sections with no uniformly distributed rebar, differences in electrical flow density were detected during the treatment. Those differences were more extreme for Ti-RuO2 mesh anode system. This particular shape effect is evidenced by obtaining the efficiencies of electrochemical chloride extraction in different points of specimens.

  10. Function-based Biosensor for Hazardous Waste Toxin Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J Hickman

    2008-07-09

    There is a need for new types of toxicity sensors in the DOE and other agencies that are based on biological function as the toxins encountered during decontamination or waste remediation may be previously unknown or their effects subtle. Many times the contents of the environmental waste, especially the minor components, have not been fully identified and characterized. New sensors of this type could target unknown toxins that cause death as well as intermediate levels of toxicity that impair function or cause long term impairment that may eventually lead to death. The primary question posed in this grant was to create an electronically coupled neuronal cellular circuit to be used as sensor elements for a hybrid non-biological/biological toxin sensor system. A sensor based on the electrical signals transmitted between two mammalian neurons would allow the marriage of advances in solid state electronics with a functioning biological system to develop a new type of biosensor. Sensors of this type would be a unique addition to the field of sensor technology but would also be complementary to existing sensor technology that depends on knowledge of what is to be detected beforehand. We integrated physics, electronics, surface chemistry, biotechnology, and fundamental neuroscience in the development of this biosensor. Methods were developed to create artificial surfaces that enabled the patterning of discrete cells, and networks of cells, in culture; the networks were then aligned with transducers. The transducers were designed to measure electromagnetic fields (EMF) at low field strength. We have achieved all of the primary goals of the project. We can now pattern neurons routinely in our labs as well as align them with transducers. We have also shown the signals between neurons can be modulated by different biochemicals. In addition, we have made another significant advance where we have repeated the patterning results with adult hippocampal cells. Finally, we

  11. Surface Crack Detection for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials Using Pulsed Eddy Current Based on Rectangular Differential Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the surface defect inspection of carbon fiber reinforced composite, the differential and the direct measurement finite element simulation models of pulsed eddy current flaw detection were built. The principle of differential pulsed eddy current detection was analyzed and the sensitivity of defect detection was compared through two kinds of measurements. The validity of simulation results was demonstrated by experiments. The simulation and experimental results show that the pulsed eddy current detection method based on rectangular differential probe can effectively improve the sensitivity of surface defect detection of carbon fiber reinforced composite material.

  12. Multi-features Based Approach for Moving Shadow Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ning; ZHOU Man-li; XU Yi-ping; FANG Bao-hong

    2004-01-01

    In the video-based surveillance application, moving shadows can affect the correct localization and detection of moving objects. This paper aims to present a method for shadow detection and suppression used for moving visual object detection. The major novelty of the shadow suppression is the integration of several features including photometric invariant color feature, motion edge feature, and spatial feature etc. By modifying process for false shadow detected, the averaging detection rate of moving object reaches above 90% in the test of Hall-Monitor sequence.

  13. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  14. Finite Elements, Design Optimization, and Nondestructive Evaluation: A Review in Magnetics, and Future Directions in GPU-based, Element-by-Element Coupled Optimization and NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    Element Coupled Optimization and NDE S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole1, Victor U. Karthik1, Sivamayam Sivasuthan1, Arunasalam Rahunanthan2, Ravi S...Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Toledo , Toledo , OH 43606-3390, USA. 3. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Paramsothy Jayakumar; Ravi Thyagarajan; Arunasalam Rahunanthan; Sivamayam Sivasuthan; Victor Karthik 5d

  15. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, T; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner , P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. The information from TileCal's last segmentation layer can assist in muon tagging and it is being considered for a near future upgrade of the level-one trigger, mainly for rejecting triggers due to cavern background at the barrel region. A muon receiver for the TileCal muon signals is being designed in order to interface with the ATLAS level-one trigger. This paper addresses the preliminary studies concerning the muon discrimination capability for the muon receiver. Monte Carlo simulations for single muons from the interaction point were used to study the effectiveness of hadronic calorimeter information on muon detection.

  16. Intrusion Detection Systems Based On Packet Sniffing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushus Maria Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present era of networks, security of network systems is becoming increasingly important, as more and more sensitive information is being stored and manipulated online. The paper entitled ’Packet Sniffing’ is a IDS where it monitors packets on the network wire and attempts to the discovery of hacker/cracker who is attempting to break into system. Packet Sniffing also finds the contents and tracks the data packet in the network system. This sniffing is being performed by comparing the captured packet with the intruder details stored in the database .If the packet is found to be an intruder it is then forwarded to the firewall with the respective message for blocking. The Emotional Ants module contains the sender and receiver .The sender will inform all the other Ants running in other machines about the detection of intruder through his pheromone (Messages. The receiver in Ants will listen for the messages from other Ants

  17. Transoesophageal detection of heart graft rejection by electrical impedance: Using finite element method simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, G.; Ribas, N.; Cinca, J.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to evaluate heart graft rejection level using a bioimpedance technique by means of an intracavitary catheter. However, this technique does not present relevant advantages compared to the gold standard for the detection of a heart rejection, which is the biopsy of the endomyocardial tissue. We propose to use a less invasive technique that consists in the use of a transoesophageal catheter and two standard ECG electrodes on the thorax. The aim of this work is to evaluate different parameters affecting the impedance measurement, including: sensitivity to electrical conductivity and permittivity of different organs in the thorax, lung edema and pleural water. From these results, we deduce the best estimator for cardiac rejection detection, and we obtain the tools to identify possible cases of false positive of heart rejection due to other factors. To achieve these objectives we have created a thoracic model and we have simulated, with a FEM program, different situations at the frequencies of 13, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 kHz. Our simulation demonstrates that the phase, at 100 and 300 kHz, has the higher sensitivity to changes in the electrical parameters of the heart muscle.

  18. Expanded envelope concepts for aircraft control-element failure detection and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jerold L.; Hsu, John Y.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop and demonstrate concepts for expanding the envelope of failure detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms for aircraft-path failures. An algorithm which uses analytic-redundancy in the form of aerodynamic force and moment balance equations was used. Because aircraft-path FDI uses analytical models, there is a tradeoff between accuracy and the ability to detect and isolate failures. For single flight condition operation, design and analysis methods are developed to deal with this robustness problem. When the departure from the single flight condition is significant, algorithm adaptation is necessary. Adaptation requirements for the residual generation portion of the FDI algorithm are interpreted as the need for accurate, large-motion aero-models, over a broad range of velocity and altitude conditions. For the decision-making part of the algorithm, adaptation may require modifications to filtering operations, thresholds, and projection vectors that define the various hypothesis tests performed in the decision mechanism. Methods of obtaining and evaluating adequate residual generation and decision-making designs have been developed. The application of the residual generation ideas to a high-performance fighter is demonstrated by developing adaptive residuals for the AFTI-F-16 and simulating their behavior under a variety of maneuvers using the results of a NASA F-16 simulation.

  19. New Detections of Arsenic, Selenium, and Other Heavy Elements in Two Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Lawler, James E; Beers, Timothy C; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 to 2360 Angstrom wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We derive abundances of Cu II, Zn II, As I, Se I, Mo II, and Cd II, which have not been detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range -2.8 = +0.28 +/- 0.14 (std. dev. = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, = +0.16 +/- 0.09 (std. dev. = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 = +0.56 +/- ...

  20. Aorta modeling with the element-based zero-stress state and isogeometric discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Sasaki, Takafumi

    2016-11-01

    Patient-specific arterial fluid-structure interaction computations, including aorta computations, require an estimation of the zero-stress state (ZSS), because the image-based arterial geometries do not come from a ZSS. We have earlier introduced a method for estimation of the element-based ZSS (EBZSS) in the context of finite element discretization of the arterial wall. The method has three main components. 1. An iterative method, which starts with a calculated initial guess, is used for computing the EBZSS such that when a given pressure load is applied, the image-based target shape is matched. 2. A method for straight-tube segments is used for computing the EBZSS so that we match the given diameter and longitudinal stretch in the target configuration and the "opening angle." 3. An element-based mapping between the artery and straight-tube is extracted from the mapping between the artery and straight-tube segments. This provides the mapping from the arterial configuration to the straight-tube configuration, and from the estimated EBZSS of the straight-tube configuration back to the arterial configuration, to be used as the initial guess for the iterative method that matches the image-based target shape. Here we present the version of the EBZSS estimation method with isogeometric wall discretization. With isogeometric discretization, we can obtain the element-based mapping directly, instead of extracting it from the mapping between the artery and straight-tube segments. That is because all we need for the element-based mapping, including the curvatures, can be obtained within an element. With NURBS basis functions, we may be able to achieve a similar level of accuracy as with the linear basis functions, but using larger-size and much fewer elements. Higher-order NURBS basis functions allow representation of more complex shapes within an element. To show how the new EBZSS estimation method performs, we first present 2D test computations with straight

  1. Aorta modeling with the element-based zero-stress state and isogeometric discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Sasaki, Takafumi

    2017-02-01

    Patient-specific arterial fluid-structure interaction computations, including aorta computations, require an estimation of the zero-stress state (ZSS), because the image-based arterial geometries do not come from a ZSS. We have earlier introduced a method for estimation of the element-based ZSS (EBZSS) in the context of finite element discretization of the arterial wall. The method has three main components. 1. An iterative method, which starts with a calculated initial guess, is used for computing the EBZSS such that when a given pressure load is applied, the image-based target shape is matched. 2. A method for straight-tube segments is used for computing the EBZSS so that we match the given diameter and longitudinal stretch in the target configuration and the "opening angle." 3. An element-based mapping between the artery and straight-tube is extracted from the mapping between the artery and straight-tube segments. This provides the mapping from the arterial configuration to the straight-tube configuration, and from the estimated EBZSS of the straight-tube configuration back to the arterial configuration, to be used as the initial guess for the iterative method that matches the image-based target shape. Here we present the version of the EBZSS estimation method with isogeometric wall discretization. With isogeometric discretization, we can obtain the element-based mapping directly, instead of extracting it from the mapping between the artery and straight-tube segments. That is because all we need for the element-based mapping, including the curvatures, can be obtained within an element. With NURBS basis functions, we may be able to achieve a similar level of accuracy as with the linear basis functions, but using larger-size and much fewer elements. Higher-order NURBS basis functions allow representation of more complex shapes within an element. To show how the new EBZSS estimation method performs, we first present 2D test computations with straight

  2. A fast and accurate FPGA based QRS detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ashish; Macchiarulo, Luca

    2008-01-01

    An accurate Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based ECG Analysis system is described in this paper. The design, based on a popular software based QRS detection algorithm, calculates the threshold value for the next peak detection cycle, from the median of eight previously detected peaks. The hardware design has accuracy in excess of 96% in detecting the beats correctly when tested with a subset of five 30 minute data records obtained from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. The design, implemented using a proprietary design tool (System Generator), is an extension of our previous work and uses 76% resources available in a small-sized FPGA device (Xilinx Spartan xc3s500), has a higher detection accuracy as compared to our previous design and takes almost half the analysis time in comparison to software based approach.

  3. P2P worm detection based on application identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chunhe; SHI Yunping; LI Xiaojian; GAO Wei

    2007-01-01

    P2P worm exploits common vulnerabilities and spreads through peer-to-peer networks.Despite being recognized as a potential and deadly threat to the Internet recently,few relevant countermeasures are found in extant literature.Once it breaks out,a P2P worm could result in unpredictable losses.Based on propagation characteristics of the worm,this paper presents a detection method called PWD (P2P Worm Detection),which is designed based on application identification and unknown worm detection.Simulation result and LAN-environment experiment result both indicate that PWD is an effective method to detect and block P2P worms.

  4. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations. PMID:26938537

  5. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  6. Model Based Incipient Fault Detection for Gear Drives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the method of model based incipient fault detection for gear drives,this method is based on parity space method. It can generate the robust residual that is maximally sensitive to the fault caused by the change of the parameters. The example of simulation shows the application of the method, and the residual waves have different characteristics due to different parameter changes; one can detect and isolate the fault based on the different characteristics.

  7. Recurrence Plot Based Damage Detection Method by Integrating  Control Chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of damage detection in manufacturing systems and other areas, many fault detection methods have been developed that are based on a vibration signal. Little work, however, has been reported in the literature on using a recurrence plot method to analyze the vibration signal for damage detection. In this paper, we develop a recurrence plot based fault detection method by integrating the statistical process control technique. The recurrence plots of the vibration signals are derived by using the recurrence plot (RP method. Five types of features are extracted from the recurrence plots to quantify the vibration signals’ characteristic. Then, the  control chart, a multivariate statistical process control technique, is used to monitor these features. The  control chart technique, however, has the assumption that all the data should follow a normal distribution. The RP based  bootstrap control chart is proposed to estimate the control chart parameters. The performance of the proposed RP based  bootstrap control chart is evaluated by a simulation study and compared with other univariate bootstrap control charts based on recurrence plot features. A real case study of rolling element bearing fault detection demonstrates that the proposed fault detection method achieves a very good performance.

  8. Aptamer-Based Technologies in Foodborne Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Teng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands, which can be selected by a method called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX; and they can specifically recognize and bind to their targets. These unique characteristics of aptamers offer great potentials in applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. Pathogen detection is the first and critical means in detecting and identifying the problems related to public health and food safety; and only the rapid, sensitive and efficient detection technologies can enable the users to make to accurate assessments on the risk of infections (humans and animals or contaminations (foods and other commodities caused by various pathogens. This article reviews the developments in the field of the aptamer-based approaches for pathogen detection, including whole-cell SELEX and Genomic SELEX. Nowadays, a variety of aptamer-based biosensors have been developed for pathogen detection. Thus, in this review, we also cover the development of aptamer-based biosensors including optical biosensors for multiple pathogen detection in multiple-labeling or label-free models such as fluorescence detection and surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical biosensors, and lateral chromatography test strips, and their applications in the pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. While notable progress has been made in the field in the last decade, challenges or drawbacks in their applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening, remain to be overcome.

  9. Aptamer-Based Technologies in Foodborne Pathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jun; Yuan, Fang; Ye, Yingwang; Zheng, Lei; Yao, Li; Xue, Feng; Chen, Wei; Li, Baoguang

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands, which can be selected by a method called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX); and they can specifically recognize and bind to their targets. These unique characteristics of aptamers offer great potentials in applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. Pathogen detection is the critical means in detecting and identifying the problems related to public health and food safety; and only the rapid, sensitive and efficient detection technologies can enable the users to make the accurate assessments on the risks of infections (humans and animals) or contaminations (foods and other commodities) caused by various pathogens. This article reviews the development in the field of the aptamer-based approaches for pathogen detection, including whole-cell SELEX and Genomic SELEX. Nowadays, a variety of aptamer-based biosensors have been developed for pathogen detection. Thus, in this review, we also cover the development in aptamer-based biosensors including optical biosensors for multiple pathogen detection by multiple-labeling or label-free models such as fluorescence detection and surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical biosensors and lateral chromatography test strips, and their applications in pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. While notable progress has been made in the field in the last decade, challenges or drawbacks in their applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening remain to be overcome. PMID:27672383

  10. Local Projection-Based Stabilized Mixed Finite Element Methods for Kirchhoff Plate Bending Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehai Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on stress-deflection variational formulation, we propose a family of local projection-based stabilized mixed finite element methods for Kirchhoff plate bending problems. According to the error equations, we obtain the error estimates of the approximation to stress tensor in energy norm. And by duality argument, error estimates of the approximation to deflection in H1-norm are achieved. Then we design an a posteriori error estimator which is closely related to the equilibrium equation, constitutive equation, and nonconformity of the finite element spaces. With the help of Zienkiewicz-Guzmán-Neilan element spaces, we prove the reliability of the a posteriori error estimator. And the efficiency of the a posteriori error estimator is proved by standard bubble function argument.

  11. Study of Automatic Fiber Placement Manipulator’s Robotic Kinematics Manipulability Based on Volume Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed based on volume element in order to measure the manipulator’s robotic kinematics manipulability. Then studied the series redundant automatic fiber placement robotic manipulator’s operation space, draw the conclusion that the greater of the robotic manipulator’s operation space volume, the better of the robotic manipulator’s manipulability, volume element based on redundant robotic manipulator’s kinematics is proposed as an operational performance index. n-DOF serial robotic manipulator’s operation space is n-dimensional Riemannian manifold, the n-dimensional Riemannian manifold volume is calculated using the moving coordinate system and the exterior product definition in differential geometry and get the robotic manipulator’s operation space volume then compared the obtained results with the operation space volume using inner product determinant in the literature, it shows that the volume element as a kinematics operational performance index is feasible.

  12. A unified quadrature-based superconvergent finite element formulation for eigenvalue computation of wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Xiwei; Pan, Feixu

    2016-11-01

    A simple and unified finite element formulation is presented for superconvergent eigenvalue computation of wave equations ranging from 1D to 3D. In this framework, a general method based upon the so called α mass matrix formulation is first proposed to effectively construct 1D higher order mass matrices for arbitrary order elements. The finite elements discussed herein refer to the Lagrangian type of Lobatto elements that take the Lobatto points as nodes. Subsequently a set of quadrature rules that exactly integrate the 1D higher order mass matrices are rationally derived, which are termed as the superconvergent quadrature rules. More importantly, in 2D and 3D cases, it is found that the employment of these quadrature rules via tensor product simultaneously for the mass and stiffness matrix integrations of Lobatto elements produces a unified superconvergent formulation for the eigenvalue or frequency computation without wave propagation direction dependence, which usually is a critical issue for the multidimensional higher order mass matrix formulation. Consequently the proposed approach is capable of computing arbitrary frequencies in a superconvergent fashion. Meanwhile, numerical implementation of the proposed method for multidimensional problems is trivial. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is systematically demonstrated by a series of numerical examples. Numerical results revealed that a superconvergence with 2(p+1)th order of frequency accuracy is achieved by the present unified formulation for the pth order Lobatto element.

  13. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence, imaging and elemental mapping from biological samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D V Rao; M Swapna; R Cesareo; A Brunetti; T Akatsuka; T Yuasa; T Takeda; G E Gigante

    2011-02-01

    The present study utilized the new hard X-ray microspectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS, BNL, USA, for elemental mapping. This facility provided the primary beam in a small spot of the order of ∼ 10 m, for focussing. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescent intensities for Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ti and Cu were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The sample is scanned in a `step-and-repeat’ mode for fast elemental mapping measurements and generated elemental maps at 8, 10 and 12 keV, from a small animal shell (snail). The accumulated trace elements, from these biological samples, in small areas have been identified. Analysis of the small areas will be better suited to establish the physiology of metals in specific structures like small animal shell and the distribution of other elements.

  14. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging and elemental mapping from biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Rao; M Swapna; R Cesareo; A Brunetti; T Akatsuka; T Yuasa; T Takeda; G Gigante

    2011-12-31

    The present study utilized the new hard X-ray microspectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS, BNL, USA, for elemental mapping. This facility provided the primary beam in a small spot of the order of {approx}10 {mu}m, for focussing. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescent intensities for Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ti and Cu were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The sample is scanned in a 'step-and-repeat' mode for fast elemental mapping measurements and generated elemental maps at 8, 10 and 12 keV, from a small animal shell (snail). The accumulated trace elements, from these biological samples, in small areas have been identified. Analysis of the small areas will be better suited to establish the physiology of metals in specific structures like small animal shell and the distribution of other elements.

  15. 一个基于数据挖掘的入侵检测系统模型%A Data Mining Based Intrusion Detection System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莘; 刘恒; 吕述望

    2003-01-01

    Applying data mining technique to intrusion detection and building a relevant model is the hotpot of studycurrently. This paper presents a typical data mining based IDS model, including data gathering and selection, datamining algorithm compare, system elements and model structure.

  16. Mapping multidimensional electronic structure and ultrafast dynamics with single-element detection and compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Austin P; Spokoyny, Boris; Ray, Supratim; Sarvari, Fahad; Harel, Elad

    2016-01-25

    Compressive sensing allows signals to be efficiently captured by exploiting their inherent sparsity. Here we implement sparse sampling to capture the electronic structure and ultrafast dynamics of molecular systems using phase-resolved 2D coherent spectroscopy. Until now, 2D spectroscopy has been hampered by its reliance on array detectors that operate in limited spectral regions. Combining spatial encoding of the nonlinear optical response and rapid signal modulation allows retrieval of state-resolved correlation maps in a photosynthetic protein and carbocyanine dye. We report complete Hadamard reconstruction of the signals and compression factors as high as 10, in good agreement with array-detected spectra. Single-point array reconstruction by spatial encoding (SPARSE) Spectroscopy reduces acquisition times by about an order of magnitude, with further speed improvements enabled by fast scanning of a digital micromirror device. We envision unprecedented applications for coherent spectroscopy using frequency combs and super-continua in diverse spectral regions.

  17. Intrusion detection based on system calls and homogeneous Markov chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xinguang; Duan Miyi; Sun Chunlai; Li Wenfa

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for detecting anomalous program behavior is presented, which is applicable to hostbased intrusion detection systems that monitor system call activities. The method constructs a homogeneous Markov chain model to characterize the normal behavior of a privileged program, and associates the states of the Markov chain with the unique system calls in the training data. At the detection stage, the probabilities that the Markov chain model supports the system call sequences generated by the program are computed. A low probability indicates an anomalous sequence that may result from intrusive activities. Then a decision rule based on the number of anomalous sequences in a locality frame is adopted to classify the program's behavior. The method gives attention to both computational efficiency and detection accuracy, and is especially suitable for on-line detection. It has been applied to practical host-based intrusion detection systems.

  18. GNSS Spoofing Detection Based on Signal Power Measurements: Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A threat to GNSS receivers is posed by a spoofing transmitter that emulates authentic signals but with randomized code phase and Doppler values over a small range. Such spoofing signals can result in large navigational solution errors that are passed onto the unsuspecting user with potentially dire consequences. An effective spoofing detection technique is developed in this paper, based on signal power measurements and that can be readily applied to present consumer grade GNSS receivers with minimal firmware changes. An extensive statistical analysis is carried out based on formulating a multihypothesis detection problem. Expressions are developed to devise a set of thresholds required for signal detection and identification. The detection processing methods developed are further manipulated to exploit incidental antenna motion arising from user interaction with a GNSS handheld receiver to further enhance the detection performance of the proposed algorithm. The statistical analysis supports the effectiveness of the proposed spoofing detection technique under various multipath conditions.

  19. Shape-Based Plagiarism Detection for Flowchart Figures in Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senosy Arrish

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism detection is well known phenomenon in the academic arena. Copying other people is considered as serious offence that needs to be checked. There are many plagiarism detection systems such as turn-it-in that has been developed to provide this checks. Most, if not all, discard the figures and charts before checking for plagiarism. Discarding the figures and charts results in look holes that people can take advantage. That means people can plagiarized figures and charts easily without the current plagiarism systems detecting it. There are very few papers which talks about flowcharts plagiarism detection. Therefore, there is a need to develop a system that will detect plagiarism in figures and charts. This paper presents a method for detecting flow chart figure plagiarism based on shape-based image processing and multimedia retrieval. The method managed to retrieve flowcharts with ranked similarity according to different matching sets.

  20. Evidence-based detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: the DETECT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coghlan, J.G.; Denton, C.P.; Grunig, E.; Bonderman, D.; Distler, O.; Khanna, D.; Muller-Ladner, U.; Pope, J.E.; Vonk, M.C.; Doelberg, M.; Chadha-Boreham, H.; Heinzl, H.; Rosenberg, D.M.; McLaughlin, V.V.; Seibold, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Earlier detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), facilitates earlier treatment. The objective of this study was to develop the first evidence-based detection algorithm for PAH in SSc. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, intern

  1. Evidence-based detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: the DETECT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coghlan, J.G.; Denton, C.P.; Grunig, E.; Bonderman, D.; Distler, O.; Khanna, D.; Muller-Ladner, U.; Pope, J.E.; Vonk, M.C.; Doelberg, M.; Chadha-Boreham, H.; Heinzl, H.; Rosenberg, D.M.; McLaughlin, V.V.; Seibold, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Earlier detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), facilitates earlier treatment. The objective of this study was to develop the first evidence-based detection algorithm for PAH in SSc. METHODS: In this cross-sectional,

  2. Finite-element-based discretization and regularization strategies for 3-D inverse electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dafang; Kirby, Robert M; Johnson, Chris R

    2011-06-01

    We consider the inverse electrocardiographic problem of computing epicardial potentials from a body-surface potential map. We study how to improve numerical approximation of the inverse problem when the finite-element method is used. Being ill-posed, the inverse problem requires different discretization strategies from its corresponding forward problem. We propose refinement guidelines that specifically address the ill-posedness of the problem. The resulting guidelines necessitate the use of hybrid finite elements composed of tetrahedra and prism elements. Also, in order to maintain consistent numerical quality when the inverse problem is discretized into different scales, we propose a new family of regularizers using the variational principle underlying finite-element methods. These variational-formed regularizers serve as an alternative to the traditional Tikhonov regularizers, but preserves the L(2) norm and thereby achieves consistent regularization in multiscale simulations. The variational formulation also enables a simple construction of the discrete gradient operator over irregular meshes, which is difficult to define in traditional discretization schemes. We validated our hybrid element technique and the variational regularizers by simulations on a realistic 3-D torso/heart model with empirical heart data. Results show that discretization based on our proposed strategies mitigates the ill-conditioning and improves the inverse solution, and that the variational formulation may benefit a broader range of potential-based bioelectric problems.

  3. Smoothing Algorithm for Planar and Surface Mesh Based on Element Geometric Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing is one of the basic procedures for improvement of mesh quality. In this paper, a novel and efficient smoothing approach for planar and surface mesh based on element geometric deformation is developed. The presented approach involves two main stages. The first stage is geometric deformation of all the individual elements through a specially designed two-step stretching-shrinking operation (SSO, which is performed by moving the vertices of each element according to a certain rule in order to get better shape of the element. The second stage is to determine the position of each node of the mesh by a weighted average strategy according to quality changes of its adjacent elements. The suggested SSO-based smoothing algorithm works efficiently for triangular mesh and can be naturally expanded to quadrilateral mesh, arbitrary polygonal mesh, and mixed mesh. Combined with quadratic error metric (QEM, this approach may be also applied to improve the quality of surface mesh. The proposed method is simple to program and inherently very suitable for parallelization, especially on graphic processing unit (GPU. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of this method.

  4. Discrimination of trait-based characteristics by trace element bioaccumulation in riverine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, T.M.; DeWeese, L.R.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between tissue trace element concentrations and species traits were examined for 45 fish species to determine the extent to which trait-based characteristics accounted for relative differences among species in trace element bioaccumulation. Percentages of fish species correctly classified by discriminant analysis according to traits predicted by tissue trace element concentrations ranged from 72% to 87%. Tissue concentrations of copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc appeared to have the greatest overall influence on differentiating species according to trait characteristics. Discrimination of trait characteristics did not appear to be strongly influenced by local sources of trace elements in the streambed sediment. Bioaccumulation was greatest for those species classified as primarily detritivores, having relatively large adult body size, considered nonmigratory with respect to reproductive strategy, occurring mostly in large or variable size streams and rivers, preferring depositional areas within the stream channel, and preferring benthic rather than open-water habitats. Our findings provide evidence of the strong relationship between bioaccumulation of environmental trace elements and trait-based factors that influence contaminant exposure. ?? 2008 NRC.

  5. Nanopore-based sequencing and detection of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yi-Lun; Zhang, Junji; Gao, Rui; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-12-09

    Nanopore-based techniques, which mimic the functions of natural ion channels, have attracted increasing attention as unique methods for single-molecule detection. The technology allows the real-time, selective, high-throughput analysis of nucleic acids through both biological and solid-state nanopores. In this Minireview, the background and latest progress in nanopore-based sequencing and detection of nucleic acids are summarized, and light is shed on a novel platform for nanopore-based detection. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. ROLE OF HCL IN ADSORPTION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY VAPOR BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study to identify active sites and surface functional groups that may contribute to the adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg?) by relatively inexpensive calcium (Ca)-based sorbents. (NOTE: Hg? capture has been mostly investigated using high-surface-ar...

  7. Finite element based electrostatic-structural coupled analysis with automated mesh morphing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OWEN,STEVEN J.; ZHULIN,V.I.; OSTERGAARD,D.F.

    2000-02-29

    A co-simulation tool based on finite element principles has been developed to solve coupled electrostatic-structural problems. An automated mesh morphing algorithm has been employed to update the field mesh after structural deformation. The co-simulation tool has been successfully applied to the hysteric behavior of a MEMS switch.

  8. Miniature wideband filter based on coupled-line sections and quasi-lumped element resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A new design of a wideband bandpass filter is proposed, based on coupled-line sections and quasi-lumped element resonator, taking advantage of the last one to introduce two transmission zeros and suppress a spurious response. The proposed filter demonstrates significantly improved characteristics...

  9. In vitro evaluation of a double-membrane-based voice-producing element for laryngectomized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, Johannes W.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van der Houwen, Eduard B.; Mahieu, Hans F.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    Background. A sound generator based on a double-membrane design that fits into a regular tracheoesophageal shunt valve may improve voice quality after total laryngectomy in patients rehabilitated with surgical voice prostheses. Methods. Voice-producing element (VPE) prototypes were manufactured

  10. Single-phase Phase-locked Loop Based on Derivative Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Qingxin; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Yong;

    2017-01-01

    High performance phase locked loops (PLLs) are critical for power control in grid-connected systems. This paper presents a new method of designing a PLL for single-phase systems based on derivative elements (DEs). The quadrature signal generator (QSG) is constructed by two DEs with the same main ...

  11. A finite element-based perturbation method for nonlinear free vibration analysis of composite cylindrical shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, T.; Jansen, E.L.; Tiso, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a finite element-based approach for nonlinear vibration analysis of shell structures is presented. The approach makes use of a perturbation method that gives an approximation for the amplitude-frequency relation of the structure. The method is formulated using a functional notation an

  12. A Game-Based Approach to Learning the Idea of Chemical Elements and Their Periodic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín; Oliva-Martínez, José María; Blanco-López, Ángel; España-Ramos, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics and results of a teaching unit based on the use of educational games to learn the idea of chemical elements and their periodic classification in secondary education are analyzed. The method is aimed at Spanish students aged 15-16 and consists of 24 1-h sessions. The results obtained on implementing the teaching…

  13. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian; Gehrchen, P Martin; Kiaer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws....

  14. A finite element-based perturbation method for nonlinear free vibration analysis of composite cylindrical shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, T.; Jansen, E.L.; Tiso, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a finite element-based approach for nonlinear vibration analysis of shell structures is presented. The approach makes use of a perturbation method that gives an approximation for the amplitude-frequency relation of the structure. The method is formulated using a functional notation

  15. Spike Detection Based on Normalized Correlation with Automatic Template Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jyi Hwang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel feedback-based spike detection algorithm for noisy spike trains is presented in this paper. It uses the information extracted from the results of spike classification for the enhancement of spike detection. The algorithm performs template matching for spike detection by a normalized correlator. The detected spikes are then sorted by the OSortalgorithm. The mean of spikes of each cluster produced by the OSort algorithm is used as the template of the normalized correlator for subsequent detection. The automatic generation and updating of templates enhance the robustness of the spike detection to input trains with various spike waveforms and noise levels. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm operating in conjunction with OSort is an efficient design for attaining high detection and classification accuracy for spike sorting.

  16. Saliency-based abnormal event detection in crowded scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanjiao; Liu, Yunxiang; Zhang, Qing; Yi, Yugen; Li, Wenju

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal event detection plays a critical role for intelligent video surveillance, and detection in crowded scenes is a challenging but more practical task. We present an abnormal event detection method for crowded video. Region-wise modeling is proposed to address the inconsistent detected motion of the same object due to different depths of field. Comparing to traditional block-wise modeling, the region-wise method not only can reduce heavily the number of models to be built but also can enrich the samples for training the normal events model. In order to reduce the computational burden and make the region-based anomaly detection feasible, a saliency detection technique is adopted in this paper. By identifying the salient parts of the image sequences, the irrelevant blocks are ignored, which removes the disturbance and improves the detection performance further. Experiments on the benchmark dataset and comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms validate the advantages of the proposed method.

  17. SVM Intrusion Detection Model Based on Compressed Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanxiong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection needs to deal with a large amount of data; particularly, the technology of network intrusion detection has to detect all of network data. Massive data processing is the bottleneck of network software and hardware equipment in intrusion detection. If we can reduce the data dimension in the stage of data sampling and directly obtain the feature information of network data, efficiency of detection can be improved greatly. In the paper, we present a SVM intrusion detection model based on compressive sampling. We use compressed sampling method in the compressed sensing theory to implement feature compression for network data flow so that we can gain refined sparse representation. After that SVM is used to classify the compression results. This method can realize detection of network anomaly behavior quickly without reducing the classification accuracy.

  18. Unsupervised abnormality detection using saliency and Retinex based color enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farah; Mohammed, Shahed K; Bui, Francis M; Wahid, Khan A

    2016-08-01

    An efficient and automated abnormality detection method can significantly reduce the burden of screening of the enormous visual information resulting from capsule endoscopic procedure. As a pre-processing stage, color enhancement could be useful to improve the image quality and the detection performance. Therefore, in this paper, we have proposed a two-stage automated abnormality detection algorithm. In the first stage, an adaptive color enhancement method based on Retinex theory is applied on the endoscopic images. In the second stage, an efficient salient region detection algorithm is applied to detect the clinically significant regions. The proposed algorithm is applied on a dataset containing images with diverse pathologies. The algorithm can successfully detect a significant percentage of the abnormal regions. From our experiment, it was evident that color enhancement method improves the performance of abnormality detection. The proposed algorithm can achieve a sensitivity of 97.33% and specificity of 79%, higher than state-of-the-art performance.

  19. A real time vehicles detection algorithm for vision based sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Płaczek, Bartłomiej

    2011-01-01

    A vehicle detection plays an important role in the traffic control at signalised intersections. This paper introduces a vision-based algorithm for vehicles presence recognition in detection zones. The algorithm uses linguistic variables to evaluate local attributes of an input image. The image attributes are categorised as vehicle, background or unknown features. Experimental results on complex traffic scenes show that the proposed algorithm is effective for a real-time vehicles detection.

  20. QRS Detection Based on an Advanced Multilevel Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wissam Jenkal; Rachid Latif; Ahmed Toumanari; Azzedine Dliou; Oussama El B’charri; Fadel Mrabih Rabou Maoulainine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced multilevel algorithm used for the QRS complex detection. This method is based on three levels. The first permits the extraction of higher peaks using an adaptive thresholding technique. The second allows the QRS region detection. The last level permits the detection of Q, R and S waves. The proposed algorithm shows interesting results compared to recently published methods. The perspective of this work is the implementation of this method on an embedded system ...