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Sample records for detecting abnormal cells

  1. Segmentation and abnormality detection of cervical cancer cells using fast elm with particle swarm optimization

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    Sukumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer arises when the anomalous cells on the cervix mature unmanageable obviously in the renovation sector. The most probably used methods to detect abnormal cervical cells are the routine and there is no difference between the abnormal and normal nuclei. So that the abnormal nuclei found are brown in color while normal nuclei are blue in color. The spread or cells are examined and the image denoising is performed based on the Iterative Decision Based Algorithm. Image Segmentation is the method of paneling a digital image into compound sections. The major utilize of segmentation is to abridge or modify the demonstration of an image. The images are segmented by applying anisotropic diffusion on the Denoised image. Image can be enhanced using dark stretching to increase the quality of the image. It separates the cells into all nuclei region and abnormal nuclei region. The abnormal nuclei regions are further classified into touching and non-touching regions and touching regions undergoes feature selection process. The existing Support Vector Machines (SVM is classified few nuclei regions but the time to taken for execution is high. The abnormality detected from the image is calculated as 45% from the total abnormal nuclei. Thus the proposed method of Fast Particle Swarm Optimization with Extreme Learning Machines (Fast PSO-ELM to classify all nuclei regions further into touching region and separated region. The iterative method for to training the ELM and make it more efficient than the SVM method. In experimental result, the proposed method of Fast PSO-ELM may shows the accuracy as above 90% and execution time is calculated based on the abnormality (ratio of abnormal nuclei regions to all nuclei regions image. Therefore, Fast PSO-ELM helps to detect the cervical cancer cells with maximum accuracy.

  2. Comparison of three cell block techniques for detection of low frequency abnormal cells

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    McCormack M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steven A Hecht, Matthew McCormackHologic Inc, Marlborough, MA, USABackground: The Cellient® Automated Cell Block System rapidly creates paraffin-embedded cell blocks by using vacuum filtration to deposit a layer of cells on a filter and infiltrate those cells with reagents and paraffin. This study used a “tracer” cell model to mimic low frequency abnormal cells and compare detection and representative sampling with simple sedimentation, Richard-Allan HistoGel™, and Cellient cell block techniques.Methods: Tracer cells were a cultured cell line (CaSki fixed in methanol, prestained in solution with hematoxylin, and quantified using a hemacytometer. Tracer cells were diluted in a 10-fold dilution series ranging from 100 to 0.1 tracer/mL in a background of pooled clinical serous effusion specimens. Ten replicates of each dilution were processed using each cell block method, and the resulting blocks were cut to produce two slides from each block. The slides were deparaffinized, counterstained with eosin, cover-slipped, and screened for the presence of tracer cells. Blocks were considered to be representative of the specimen if tracer cells were detected on either of the slides. If no tracer cells were observed on either slide, the block was recut to generate a third slide. If tracer cells were seen on the third slide, the block was considered representative of the specimen.Results: Tracer cells were identified on the initial slides for 20 of 40 (50.0% simple sedimentation, 21 of 40 (52.5% of HistoGel, and 25 of 40 (62.5% of Cellient cell blocks. Representative sampling of the 1 tracer/mL specimen was 10.0% for simple sedimentation and 30.0% for HistoGel and Cellient. Only Cellient showed representative sampling of the 0.1 tracer/mL specimen.Conclusion: The Cellient System blocks demonstrated representative sampling at the lowest tracer cell concentration compared with simple sedimentation and HistoGel.Keywords: Cellient®, HistoGel™, simple

  3. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

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    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities.

  4. DASAF: An R Package for Deep Sequencing-Based Detection of Fetal Autosomal Abnormalities from Maternal Cell-Free DNA

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    Baohong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. With the development of massively parallel sequencing (MPS, noninvasive prenatal diagnosis using maternal cell-free DNA is fast becoming the preferred method of fetal chromosomal abnormality detection, due to its inherent high accuracy and low risk. Typically, MPS data is parsed to calculate a risk score, which is used to predict whether a fetal chromosome is normal or not. Although there are several highly sensitive and specific MPS data-parsing algorithms, there are currently no tools that implement these methods. Results. We developed an R package, detection of autosomal abnormalities for fetus (DASAF, that implements the three most popular trisomy detection methods—the standard Z-score (STDZ method, the GC correction Z-score (GCCZ method, and the internal reference Z-score (IRZ method—together with one subchromosome abnormality identification method (SCAZ. Conclusions. With the cost of DNA sequencing declining and with advances in personalized medicine, the demand for noninvasive prenatal testing will undoubtedly increase, which will in turn trigger an increase in the tools available for subsequent analysis. DASAF is a user-friendly tool, implemented in R, that supports identification of whole-chromosome as well as subchromosome abnormalities, based on maternal cell-free DNA sequencing data after genome mapping.

  5. Detection of Hepatitis C virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with abnormal alanine transaminase in Ahvaz

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    M Makvandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important agent for chronic and acute hepatitis. Occult hepatitis C remains a major health problem worldwide. Patients with chronic occult HCV may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of occult hepatitis C by IS-PCR-ISH (in situ PCR in situ hybridisation in the patients with abnormal ALT. Materials and Methods: The blood samples were taken from 53 patients including 17 females (32.1% and 36 (67.9% males who had abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT for more than 1 year. The mean ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST level were 41.02 ± 9.3 and 24.17 ± 7.3, respectively. The patients′ age were between 4 and 70-years old with mean age 38 ± 13. All the patients were negative for HCV antibody, HCV RNA and HBs Ag. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were separated with ficoll gradient from each blood sample, then the cells were fixed on slides by cold acetone and followed by IS-PCR-ISH for HCV RNA detection. Results: Seventeen (32% patients including 6 (11.3% females and 11 (20.7% males showed positive results for HCV RNA by in situ-PCR in situ hybridisation. Ten (18.8% positive cases were between 20 and 40-years old and 6 (11.3% positive patients were between 40 and 60 years old. Ten (19.6% patients who were positive for IS-PCR-ISH also had positive anti-HBc IgG and 7 (13.2% patients were negative for HBc-IgG. Conclusion: In the present study high rate of 32% occult hepatitis C were found among the patients with elevated ALT.

  6. Intelligent System for Detection of Abnormalities in Human Cancerous Cells and Tissues

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    Jamil Ahmed Chandio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the latest advances in the field of MML (Medical Machine Learning a significant change has been witnessed and traditional diagnostic procedures have been converted into DSS (Decision Support Systems. Specially, classification problem of cancer discovery using DICOM (Digital Communication in Medicine would assume to be one of the most important problems. For example differentiation between the cancerous behaviours of chromatin deviations and nucleus related changes in a finite set of nuclei may support the cytologist during the cancer diagnostic process. In-order to assist the doctors during the cancer diagnosis, this paper proposes a novel algorithm BCC (Bag_of_cancerous_cells to select the most significant histopathological features from the well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Methodology of proposed system comprises upon three layers. In first layer data preparation have been done by using BMF (Bag of Malignant Features where each nuclei is separated with its related micro-architectural components and behaviours. In second layer decision model has been constructed by using CNN (Convolutional Neural Network classifier and to train the histopathological behaviours such like BCP (Bags of chromatin Paches and BNP (Bags of Nuclei Patches. In final layer, performance evaluation is done. A total number of 4520 nuclei observations were trained to construct the decision models from which BCP (Bags of Chromatin Patches consists upon the 2650 and BNP (Bags of Nuclei Patches comprises upon 1870 instances. Best measured accuracy for BCP was recorded as 97.93% and BNP accuracy was measured as 97.86%.

  7. Performance of the CellaVision ® DM96 system for detecting red blood cell morphologic abnormalities

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    Christopher L Horn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red blood cell (RBC analysis is a key feature in the evaluation of hematological disorders. The gold standard light microscopy technique has high sensitivity, but is a relativity time-consuming and labor intensive procedure. This study tested the sensitivity and specificity of gold standard light microscopy manual differential to the CellaVision ® DM96 (CCS; CellaVision, Lund, Sweden automated image analysis system, which takes digital images of samples at high magnification and compares these images with an artificial neural network based on a database of cells and preclassified according to RBC morphology. Methods: In this study, 212 abnormal peripheral blood smears within the Calgary Laboratory Services network of hospital laboratories were selected and assessed for 15 different RBC morphologic abnormalities by manual microscopy. The same samples were reassessed as a manual addition from the instrument screen using the CellaVision ® DM96 system with 8 microscope high power fields (×100 objective and a 22 mm ocular. The results of the investigation were then used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the CellaVision ® DM96 system in reference to light microscopy. Results: The sensitivity ranged from a low of 33% (RBC agglutination to a high of 100% (sickle cells, stomatocytes. The remainder of the RBC abnormalities tested somewhere between these two extremes. The specificity ranged from 84% (schistocytes to 99.5% (sickle cells, stomatocytes. Conclusions: Our results showed generally high specificities but variable sensitivities for RBC morphologic abnormalities.

  8. [Value of detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities].

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    Wang, Shu-juan; Gao, Zhi-ying; Lu, Yan-ping; Li, Ya-li; You, Yan-qin; Zhang, Li-wen; Wang, Long-xia; Xu, Hong

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the value of detection of fetal cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. The plasma from 3200 gravidas (singleton with 20.3 ± 3.8 gestational weeks) was collected from April 1(st) 2011 to May 30(th) 2012. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) To tally 1720 cases were included in the high-risk serological screening group, in which women were younger than 35 years and got high-risk results in serological screening; (2) To tally 1310 cases were included in the advanced age group, in which women's age was more than 35 years; (3) To tally 170 cases were included in the supplementary group, in which women were younger than 35 years and got low-risk results in serological screening, or women who didn't take serological screening tests. All the 3030 gravidas in group 1 and 2 didn't take invasive prenatal diagnosis because of fear of abortion or short of prenatal diagnosis. Cff-DNA were detected by next generation sequencing in Shenzhen BGI Genomics Center for clinical laboratory. Amniocentesis and karyotype analysis were provided to the positive cases and women with negative results were followed-up by telephone. (1) The 3200 cases took cff-DNA detection, and 31 cases got positive results, including 27 cases of trisomy 21 and 4 cases of trisomy 18. Sixteen cases of trisomy 21 and 1 case of trisomy 18 were in the high-risk serological screening group. 7 cases of trisomy 21 and 2 cases of trisomy 18 were in the advanced age group. Four cases of trisomy 21 and 1 case of trisomy 18 were in the supplementary group. (2) And the 84% (26/31) cff-DNA detecting positive cases received amniocentesis. In the 27 trisomy 21 positive cases, 23 received amniocentesis and got karyotype of 47XN, +21, with the diagnostic accordance rate of 100%. In the 4 cases who didn't take karyotype analysis, fetal anomaly (ventricular septal defect, dextrocardia and choroid plexus cyst) was found in 1 case before 20

  9. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality measurem...... is found that satisfies: the distance between its local space and the normal space is large. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets: UCSD and Subway Entrance datasets. The comparison to the state-of-the-art methods validate our method's effectiveness....

  10. Detecting abnormalities in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smati, A. (Institut National des Hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Bournerdes (Azerbaijan))

    1994-12-01

    The results of the measurement of the principal operating parameters can contain precious information on the condition of gas pipelines. This article explains how statistical tests may be useful in detecting anomalies that can occur on lines and in compressor stations. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

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    Xiaomu Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  12. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors.

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    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-06-03

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  13. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

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    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  14. Establishment of a simple cell-based ELISA for the direct detection of abnormal isoform of prion protein from prion-infected cells without cell lysis and proteinase K treatment.

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    Shan, Zhifu; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akio; Hasebe, Rie; Horiuchi, Motohiro

    2016-07-01

    Prion-infected cells have been used for analyzing the effect of compounds on the formation of abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)). PrP(Sc) is usually detected using anti-prion protein (PrP) antibodies after the removal of the cellular isoform of prion protein (PrP(C)) by proteinase K (PK) treatment. However, it is expected that the PK-sensitive PrP(Sc) (PrP(Sc)-sen), which possesses higher infectivity and conversion activity than the PK-resistant PrP(Sc) (PrP(Sc)-res), is also digested through PK treatment. To overcome this problem, we established a novel cell-based ELISA in which PrP(Sc) can be directly detected from cells persistently infected with prions using anti-PrP monoclonal antibody (mAb) 132 that recognizes epitope consisting of mouse PrP amino acids 119-127. The novel cell-based ELISA could distinguish prion-infected cells from prion-uninfected cells without cell lysis and PK treatment. MAb 132 could detect both PrP(Sc)-sen and PrP(Sc)-res even if all PrP(Sc) molecules were not detected. The analytical dynamic range for PrP(Sc) detection was approximately 1 log. The coefficient of variation and signal-to-background ratio were 7%-11% and 2.5-3.3, respectively, demonstrating the reproducibility of this assay. The addition of a cytotoxicity assay immediately before PrP(Sc) detection did not affect the following PrP(Sc) detection. Thus, all the procedures including cell culture, cytotoxicity assay, and PrP(Sc) detection were completed in the same plate. The simplicity and non-requirement for cell lysis or PK treatment are advantages for the high throughput screening of anti-prion compounds.

  15. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells.

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    Ando, Wataru; Fujie, Hiromichi; Moriguchi, Yu; Nansai, Ryosuke; Shimomura, Kazunori; Hart, David A; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Norimasa

    2012-09-28

    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  16. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Ando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  17. Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities.

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    Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet

    2016-10-17

    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  18. Identification of Abnormal Stem Cells Using Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Novikov, Sergey M; Beermann, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells in cell-based therapeutics for degenerative diseases requires development of criteria for defining normal stem cells to ensure safe transplantation. Currently, identification of abnormal from normal stem cells is based on extensive ex vivo and in vivo testing. Raman...... microscopy is a label-free method for rapid and sensitive detection of changes in cells' bio-molecular composition. Here, we report that by using Raman spectroscopy, we were able to map the distribution of different biomolecules within 2 types of stem cells: adult human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells...... and human embryonic stem cells and to identify reproducible differences in Raman's spectral characteristics that distinguished genetically abnormal and transformed stem cells from their normal counterparts. Raman microscopy can be prospectively employed as a method for identifying abnormal stem cells in ex...

  19. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, W.; FUJIE, H; Moriguchi, Y.; Nansai, R.; Shimomura, K.; DA Hart; Yoshikawa, H; Nakamura, N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-...

  20. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  1. Abnormal traffic flow data detection based on wavelet analysis

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    Xiao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the traffic flow data of non-stationary, the abnormal data detection is difficult.proposed basing on the wavelet analysis and least squares method of abnormal traffic flow data detection in this paper.First using wavelet analysis to make the traffic flow data of high frequency and low frequency component and separation, and then, combined with least square method to find abnormal points in the reconstructed signal data.Wavelet analysis and least square method, the simulation results show that using wavelet analysis of abnormal traffic flow data detection, effectively reduce the detection results of misjudgment rate and false negative rate.

  2. Real-time Multiple Abnormality Detection in Video Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Simon Hartmann; Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in video sequences has recently gained an increasing attention within the research community. Although progress has been seen, there are still some limitations in current research. While most systems are designed at detecting specific abnormality, others which...... are capable of detecting more than two types of abnormalities rely on heavy computation. Therefore, we provide a framework for detecting abnormalities in video surveillance by using multiple features and cascade classifiers, yet achieve above real-time processing speed. Experimental results on two datasets...

  3. How Does Structured Sparsity Work in Abnormal Event Detection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    behavior. Otherwise, it should be detected as an abnormal frame. However, it is infeasible to apply structured sparsity algorithms directly in abnormal event detection, which are mainly due to two reasons: 1) abnormal event detection has a highly biased training data - only normal videos are used during...... the training, which is the due to the fact that abnormal videos are limited or even unavailable in advance in most video surveillance applications. As a result, there could be only one label in the training data which hampers supervised learning; 2) Even though there are multiple types of normal behaviors, how...... structure learned from the training data could have a high bias and ruin the precision of abnormal event detection. Therefore, we in the paper propose an algorithm to solve the abnormality detection problem by sparse representation, in which local structured sparsity is preserved in coefficients. To better...

  4. Unsupervised abnormality detection using saliency and Retinex based color enhancement.

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    Deeba, Farah; Mohammed, Shahed K; Bui, Francis M; Wahid, Khan A

    2016-08-01

    An efficient and automated abnormality detection method can significantly reduce the burden of screening of the enormous visual information resulting from capsule endoscopic procedure. As a pre-processing stage, color enhancement could be useful to improve the image quality and the detection performance. Therefore, in this paper, we have proposed a two-stage automated abnormality detection algorithm. In the first stage, an adaptive color enhancement method based on Retinex theory is applied on the endoscopic images. In the second stage, an efficient salient region detection algorithm is applied to detect the clinically significant regions. The proposed algorithm is applied on a dataset containing images with diverse pathologies. The algorithm can successfully detect a significant percentage of the abnormal regions. From our experiment, it was evident that color enhancement method improves the performance of abnormality detection. The proposed algorithm can achieve a sensitivity of 97.33% and specificity of 79%, higher than state-of-the-art performance.

  5. Online Detection of Abnormal Events in Video Streams

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    Tian Wang

    2013-01-01

    an image descriptor and online nonlinear classification method. We introduce the covariance matrix of the optical flow and image intensity as a descriptor encoding moving information. The nonlinear online support vector machine (SVM firstly learns a limited set of the training frames to provide a basic reference model then updates the model and detects abnormal events in the current frame. We finally apply the method to detect abnormal events on a benchmark video surveillance dataset to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  6. Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2008-03-01

    Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

  7. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

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    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  8. Kidney abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

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    López Revuelta, K; Ricard Andrés, M P

    2011-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease exhibits numerous kidney structural and functional abnormalities, changes that are seen along the entire length of the nephron. Changes are most marked in patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia, but are also seen in those with compound heterozygous states and the sickle cell trait. The renal features of sickle cell disease include some of the most common reasons for referral to nephrologists, such as hematuria, proteinuria, tubular disturbances and chronic kidney disease. Therapy of these conditions requires specialized knowledge of their distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Spanish Haemathology and Hemotherapy Association has recently publicated their Clinical Practice Guidelines of SCD management. Renal chapter is reproduced in this article for Nefrología difussion.

  9. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  10. Saliency-based abnormal event detection in crowded scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanjiao; Liu, Yunxiang; Zhang, Qing; Yi, Yugen; Li, Wenju

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal event detection plays a critical role for intelligent video surveillance, and detection in crowded scenes is a challenging but more practical task. We present an abnormal event detection method for crowded video. Region-wise modeling is proposed to address the inconsistent detected motion of the same object due to different depths of field. Comparing to traditional block-wise modeling, the region-wise method not only can reduce heavily the number of models to be built but also can enrich the samples for training the normal events model. In order to reduce the computational burden and make the region-based anomaly detection feasible, a saliency detection technique is adopted in this paper. By identifying the salient parts of the image sequences, the irrelevant blocks are ignored, which removes the disturbance and improves the detection performance further. Experiments on the benchmark dataset and comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms validate the advantages of the proposed method.

  11. Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes by trajectory cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shifu; Zhang, Zhijiang; Zeng, Dan; Shen, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes has been a challenge due to volatility of the definitions for both normality and abnormality, the small number of pixels on the target, appearance ambiguity resulting from the dense packing, and severe inter-object occlusions. A novel framework was proposed for the detection of unusual events in crowded scenes using trajectories produced by moving pedestrians based on an intuition that the motion patterns of usual behaviors are similar to these of group activity, whereas unusual behaviors are not. First, spectral clustering is used to group trajectories with similar spatial patterns. Different trajectory clusters represent different activities. Then, unusual trajectories can be detected using these patterns. Furthermore, behavior of a mobile pedestrian can be defined by comparing its direction with these patterns, such as moving in the opposite direction of the group or traversing the group. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm could be used to reliably locate the abnormal events in crowded scenes.

  12. Retinal Image Analysis for Abnormality Detection-An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthikeyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Classification plays a major role in retinal image analysis for detecting the various abnormalities in retinal images. Classification refers to one of the mining concepts using supervised or unsupervised learning techniques. Approach: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the common complications of diabetes. Unfortunately, in many cases, the patient is not aware of any symptoms until it is too late for effective treatment. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness. Diabetic retinopathy results in retinal disorders that include microaneursyms, drusens, hard exudates and intra-retinal micro-vascular abnormalities. Results: Automatic methods to detect various lesions associated with diabetic retinopathy facilitate the opthalmologists in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Abnormal retinal images fall into four different classes namely Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR, Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO, Choroidal Neo-Vascularization Membrane (CNVM and Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR.. Conclusion: In this study, we have analysed the various methodologies for detecting the abnormalities in retinal images automatically along with their merits and demerits and proposed the new framework for detection of abnormalities using Cellular Neural Network (CNN.

  13. Outlier Mining Based Abnormal Machine Detection in Intelligent Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; CAO Qi-xin; LEE Jay

    2009-01-01

    Assessing machine's performance through comparing the same or similar machines is important to implement intelligent maintenance for swarm machine. In this paper, an outlier mining based abnormal machine detection algorithm is proposed for this purpose. Firstly, the outlier mining based on clustering is introduced and the definition of cluster-based global outlier factor (CBGOF) is presented. Then the modified swarm intelligence clustering(MSIC) algorithm is suggested and the outlier mining algorithm based on MSIC is proposed. The algorithm can not only cluster machines according to their performance but also detect possible abnormal machines. Finally, a comparison of mobile soccer robots' performance proves the algorithm is feasible and effective.

  14. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-10-21

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  15. Prenatal detection of rare chromosomal autosomal abnormalities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baena, N; De Vigan, C; Cariati, E; Clementi, M; Stoll, C; Caballin, MR; Guitart, M

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prenatal detection of rare chromosomal autosomal abnormalities by ultrasound (US) examination. Data were obtained from 19 congenital malformation registries from 11 European countries, between 01/07/96 and 31/12/98. A total of 664,340 births were cove

  16. Prenatal detection of rare chromosomal autosomal abnormalities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baena, N; De Vigan, C; Cariati, E; Clementi, M; Stoll, C; Caballin, MR; Guitart, M

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prenatal detection of rare chromosomal autosomal abnormalities by ultrasound (US) examination. Data were obtained from 19 congenital malformation registries from 11 European countries, between 01/07/96 and 31/12/98. A total of 664,340 births were

  17. Detection of Respiratory Abnormalities Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi J. Baemani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Lung disease is a major threat to the human health regarding the industrial life, air pollution, smoking, and infections. Lung function tests are often performed using spirometry. Approach: The present study aims at detecting obstructive and restrictive pulmonary abnormalities. Lung function tests are often performed using spirometry. In this study, the data were obtained from 250 volunteers with standard recording protocol in order to detect and classify pulmonary diseases into normal, obstructive and restrictive. Firstly, spirometric data was statistically analyzed concerning its significance for neural networks. Then, such parameters were presented as input to MLP and recurrent networks. Results: These two networks detected normal and abnormal disorders as well as obstructive and restrictive patterns, respectively. Moreover, the output data was confirmed by measuring accuracy and sensitivity. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed method could be useful for detecting the function of respiratory system.

  18. Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities by semiconductor sequencing of maternal plasma DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ai-hua; Peng, Chun-fang; Zhao, Xin; Caughey, Bennett A; Yang, Jie-xia; Liu, Jian; Huang, Wei-wei; Liu, Chang; Luo, Dong-hong; Liu, Hai-liang; Chen, Yang-yi; Wu, Jing; Hou, Rui; Zhang, Mindy; Ai, Michael; Zheng, Lianghong; Xue, Rachel Q; Mai, Ming-qin; Guo, Fang-fang; Qi, Yi-ming; Wang, Dong-mei; Krawczyk, Michal; Zhang, Daniel; Wang, Yu-nan; Huang, Quan-fei; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2015-11-24

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using sequencing of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal plasma has enabled accurate prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy and become increasingly accepted in clinical practice. We investigated whether NIPT using semiconductor sequencing platform (SSP) could reliably detect subchromosomal deletions/duplications in women carrying high-risk fetuses. We first showed that increasing concentration of abnormal DNA and sequencing depth improved detection. Subsequently, we analyzed plasma from 1,456 pregnant women to develop a method for estimating fetal DNA concentration based on the size distribution of DNA fragments. Finally, we collected plasma from 1,476 pregnant women with fetal structural abnormalities detected on ultrasound who also underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure. We used SSP of maternal plasma DNA to detect subchromosomal abnormalities and validated our results with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). With 3.5 million reads, SSP detected 56 of 78 (71.8%) subchromosomal abnormalities detected by aCGH. With increased sequencing depth up to 10 million reads and restriction of the size of abnormalities to more than 1 Mb, sensitivity improved to 69 of 73 (94.5%). Of 55 false-positive samples, 35 were caused by deletions/duplications present in maternal DNA, indicating the necessity of a validation test to exclude maternal karyotype abnormalities. This study shows that detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities is a viable extension of NIPT based on SSP. Although we focused on the application of cell-free DNA sequencing for NIPT, we believe that this method has broader applications for genetic diagnosis, such as analysis of circulating tumor DNA for detection of cancer.

  19. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

    2011-03-22

    Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

  20. Unsupervised behaviour-specific dictionary learning for abnormal event detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal event detection has been a challenge due to the lack of complete normal information in the training data and the volatility of the definitions of both normality and abnormality. Recent research applying sparse representation has shown its effectiveness in the expression of normal patterns...... the training data is only a small proportion of the surveillance data. Therefore, we propose behavior-specific dictionaries (BSD) through unsupervised learning, pursuing atoms from the same type of behavior to represent one behavior dictionary. To further improve the dictionary by introducing information from....... Despite progress in this area, the relationship of atoms within the dictionary is commonly neglected, thereafter anomalies which are detected based on reconstruction error could brings high false alarm - noise or infrequent normal visual features could be wrongly detected as anomalies, especially when...

  1. RED BLOOD CELL ABNORMALITIES IN DECOMPENSATED CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE (DCLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbazhagan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver plays an important role in normal erythropoiesis, especially in formation and destruction of RBC’s. Chronic liver diseases are frequently associated with hematological abnormalities. Anemia of diverge etiology occurs in about 75% patients with DCLD ( 36. This can ultimately culminate in grave complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: To detect various abnormalities in Red Blood Cells and to assess the type of anemia in DCLD. METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 patients of DCLD, in Meenakshi Medical College. A detailed History, clinical examination and also Ultrasound Abdomen, GI endoscopy to establish DCLD and complete Red Blood Cell assessment was done. RESULTS AND OBSERVATION : Among the 50 patients, 40 patients (80% had anemia and only 10 pts had normal h emoglobin above 13 gms%. About 15 patients (30% had severe Anemia of less than 6 gm%. Among the 40 patients, 25 patients had normocytic normochronic anemia, 10 patients had microcytic anemia, and 4 patients had macrocytosis and only one had dimorphic anem ia. CONCLUSION : Most common Red Blood Cell abnormality in DCLD is anemia (80% and most common anemia is normochronic normocytic anemia (62.5%, while microcytic anemia and macrocytosis were common among females and Alcoholics, respectively

  2. Malignancy and Abnormality Detection of Mammograms using Classifier Ensembling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawazish Naveed

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The breast cancer detection and diagnosis is a critical and complex procedure that demands high degree of accuracy. In computer aided diagnostic systems, the breast cancer detection is a two stage procedure. First, to classify the malignant and benign mammograms, while in second stage, the type of abnormality is detected. In this paper, we have developed a novel architecture to enhance the classification of malignant and benign mammograms using multi-classification of malignant mammograms into six abnormality classes. DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transformation features are extracted from preprocessed images and passed through different classifiers. To improve accuracy, results generated by various classifiers are ensembled. The genetic algorithm is used to find optimal weights rather than assigning weights to the results of classifiers on the basis of heuristics. The mammograms declared as malignant by ensemble classifiers are divided into six classes. The ensemble classifiers are further used for multiclassification using one-against-all technique for classification. The output of all ensemble classifiers is combined by product, median and mean rule. It has been observed that the accuracy of classification of abnormalities is more than 97% in case of mean rule. The Mammographic Image Analysis Society dataset is used for experimentation.

  3. Detecting Botnet Activities Based on Abnormal DNS traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Manasrah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The botnet is considered as a critical issue of the Internet due to its fast growing mechanism and affect. Recently, Botnets have utilized the DNS and query DNS server just like any legitimate hosts. In this case, it is difficult to distinguish between the legitimate DNS traffic and illegitimate DNS traffic. It is important to build a suitable solution for botnet detection in the DNS traffic and consequently protect the network from the malicious Botnets activities. In this paper, a simple mechanism is proposed to monitors the DNS traffic and detects the abnormal DNS traffic issued by the botnet based on the fact that botnets appear as a group of hosts periodically. The proposed mechanism is also able to classify the DNS traffic requested by group of hosts (group behavior and single hosts (individual behavior, consequently detect the abnormal domain name issued by the malicious Botnets. Finally, the experimental results proved that the proposed mechanism is robust and able to classify DNS traffic, and efficiently detects the botnet activity with average detection rate of 89%.

  4. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion in fetuses with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Wang, Shuyu

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion are implicated in congenital heart defects (CHDs). This study was designed to detect these abnormalities in fetuses and determine the effect of genetic factors on CHD etiology. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 113 fetuses with CHD treated at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were investigated, using chromosome karyotyping of either amniotic fluid cell or umbilical cord blood cell samples. Fetuses with a normal result were then investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of the 113 patients, 12 (10.6%) exhibited chromosomal abnormalities, while 6 (5.3%) of the remaining 101 cases presented with a 22q11 microdeletion. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly higher in the group of fetuses presenting with extracardiac malformations in addition to CHD (Pdefects, additional chromosomal analysis is required to detect extracardiac abnormalities. Fetuses with heart defects should also be considered for 22q11 microdeletion detection to evaluate fetal prognosis, particularly prior to surgery.

  5. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  6. Detection of Fetal Abnormalities Based on Three Dimensional Nuchal Translucency

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Khin Wee

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) prenatal screening has been proposed as the most effective technique for Trisomy 21 early assessment. Assessment of Nuchal Translucency (NT) offers promising non-invasive method for fetal abnormalities detection up to 75%. Nevertheless, current clinician practice of NT examination by locating the sonogram calipers on 2D US image requires highly trained and competent operators by adhering to a standard tedious protocol; therefore it is prone to errors and hence it decreases the reliability in intra- and inter-observer repeatability. This Brief provides the basic knowledge regarding Trisomy 21 diseases and its existing detection methods. The restrictions and disadvantages of each method are discussed accordingly. Therefore, a non-invasive early detection method using 3D ultrasound reconstruction of Nuchal Translucency is introduced. This new method for 3D NT assessments has an edge over the previous 2D methods, and entails the composite function in visualizing the explicit internal marker struct...

  7. Detecting Botnet Activities Based on Abnormal DNS traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Manasrah, Ahmed M; Abouabdalla, Omar Amer; Ramadass, Sureswaran

    2009-01-01

    IThe botnet is considered as a critical issue of the Internet due to its fast growing mechanism and affect. Recently, Botnets have utilized the DNS and query DNS server just like any legitimate hosts. In this case, it is difficult to distinguish between the legitimate DNS traffic and illegitimate DNS traffic. It is important to build a suitable solution for botnet detection in the DNS traffic and consequently protect the network from the malicious Botnets activities. In this paper, a simple mechanism is proposed to monitors the DNS traffic and detects the abnormal DNS traffic issued by the botnet based on the fact that botnets appear as a group of hosts periodically. The proposed mechanism is also able to classify the DNS traffic requested by group of hosts (group behavior) and single hosts (individual behavior), consequently detect the abnormal domain name issued by the malicious Botnets. Finally, the experimental results proved that the proposed mechanism is robust and able to classify DNS traffic, and effi...

  8. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities by comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2005-04-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a modified in-situ hybridization technique. In this type of analysis, two differentially labeled genomic DNAs (study and reference) are cohybridized to normal metaphase spreads or to microarray. Chromosomal locations of copy number changes in the DNA segments of the study genome are revealed by a variable fluorescence intensity ratio along each target chromosome. Thus, CGH allows detection and mapping of DNA sequence copy differences between two genomes in a single experiment. Since its development, comparative genomic hybridization has been applied mostly as a research tool in the field of cancer cytogenetics to identify genetic changes in many previously unknown regions. It is also a powerful tool for detection and identification of unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities in prenatal, postnatal and preimplantation diagnostics. The development of comparative genomic hybridization and increase in resolution analysis by using the microarray-based technique offer new information on chromosomal pathologies and thus better management of patients.

  9. Visualizing how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attac

  10. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza;

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells......, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have...

  11. Unsupervised Behavior-Specific Dictionary Learning for Abnormal Event Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    the task very challenging. Sparse representation, as one of solutions, has shown its effectiveness. The basic principle is to find a collection (a dictionary) of atoms so that each training sample can only be represented by a few atoms. However, the relationship of atoms within the dictionary is commonly...... neglected, which brings a high risk of false alarm rate: atoms from infrequent normal patterns are difficult to be distinguished from real anomalies. In this paper, we propose behavior-specific dictionaries (BSD) through unsupervised learning, in which atoms from the same dictionary representing one type...... of normal behavior in the training video. Moreover, ‘missed atoms’ that are potentially from infrequent normal features are used to refine these behavior dictionaries. To further reduce false alarms, the detection of abnormal features is not only dependent on reconstruction error from the learned...

  12. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells...... also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation......, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have...

  13. Modeling and Analysis of Abnormality Detection in Biomolecular Nano-Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghavami, Siavash; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for detection of abnormality in molecular nano-networks is proposed. This is motivated by the fact that early diagnosis, classification and detection of diseases such as cancer play a crucial role in their successful treatment. The proposed nano-abnormality detection scheme (NADS) comprises of a two-tier network of sensor nano-machines (SNMs) in the first tier and a data gathering node (DGN) at the sink. The SNMs detect the presence of competitor cells as abnormality that is captured by variations in parameters of a nano-communications channel. In the second step, the SNMs transmit micro-scale messages over a noisy micro communications channel (MCC) to the DGN, where a decision is made upon fusing the received signals. The detection performance of each SNM is analyzed by setting up a Neyman-Pearson test. Next, taking into account the effect of the MCC, the overall performance of the proposed NADS is quantified in terms of probabilities of misdetection and false alarm. A design problem is formulated, ...

  14. Noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Hull, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ENGINE study evaluated noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT. The AGT detection performance of SFS was compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG and hemoglobin A1C (A1C. The study was a head-to-head comparison of SFS to FPG and A1C in an at-risk population of 507 subjects, with no prior diagnosis of diabetes, each of whom received a 75 g, two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Subjects were measured by SFS on multiple days in fasting and non-fasting states. SFS data were acquired and analyzed with the SCOUT DS® device (VeraLight, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Disease truth was AGT, defined as OGTT ≥ 7.8 mmol/L. Sensitivity, false positive rate (FPR, ROC area, and equal error rate (EER for detection of AGT were computed. The reproducibility of SFS and FPG was assessed. The AGT sensitivity of SFS at the device's recommended screening threshold of 50 was 75.2%, higher than that of FPG (thresholds of 5.6 mmol/L or 6.1 mmol/L and A1C (thresholds of 5.7% or 6.0%. The SFS FPR was 42.1%, comparable to an A1C threshold of 5.7% (FPR = 43.5%. The EERs of SFS, FPG and A1C were similar, as were the partial ROC areas for FPRs of 20–50%. The reproducibility of SFS was 7.7% versus 8.1% for FPG. SFS had similar AGT detection performance to FPG and A1C and is a viable alternative to screening individuals for AGT.

  15. Abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi-Fan; OuYang, Qi; Dai, Can; Lu, Chang-Fu; Lin, Ge; Gong, Fei; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2016-05-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are common in human embryos. Previous studies have suggested links between centrosome number and chromosome abnormalities, but information regarding abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos is limited. We analyzed abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos and embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Following normal fertilization, supernumerary centrosomes were present at rates of 7.3% in two-pronucleus (2PN)-stage zygotes and 6.5% in first-cleavage zygotes. Supernumerary centrosomes were also detected in 24.4% of blastomeres from 60% of embryos derived from 2PN zygotes. Conversely, in mono- (1PN) and tri-pronucleus (3PN) zygotes, the frequency of abnormal centrosome number increased substantially at first cleavage. Rates in blastomeres of Day-3 embryos, however, were about the same between embryos derived from 1PN and 2PN zygotes, whereas abnormalities in centrosome number were higher in those from 3PN zygotes. By comparison, the rate of abnormal centrosome numbers in hESCs was 1.5-11.2%. Thus, abnormalities in centrosome number existed in human zygotes and cleaved embryos-especially those resulting from aberrant fertilization-but the frequency of such abnormalities was lower in hESCs derived from these embryos. These findings identify a source of the chromosomal instability in human embryos and hESCs, and highlight new safety issues for human assisted reproductive technology. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 392-404, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN THE ABNORMAL SQUAMOUS CELLS AND MILDY DYSKARYOTIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Vrtačnik Bokal

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. A persistent infection with high-risk genotypes of human papilloma viruses (HPV represents the most important etiologic factor for the development of cervical cancer, the second most frequent cancer in women in Slovenia as well as elsewhere in the world. In the detection of precancerous lesions the cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smear screening is used in Slovenia and worldwide. Management of patients with repeat abnormal smears (Pap II represents a great and complex clinical and public health problem; repeat cytologic examinations are the routine procedure in many countries, also in Slovenia, although the sensitivity of Pap smear testing in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasms (CIN II and III is relatively low. In cases of abnormal squamous cells and mildly dyskaryotic cells the presence of infections with high-risk HPV genotypes is being increasingly used as a complementary method to Pap smear testing.Methods and patients. In the study we enrolled 148 women who within two years had three subsequent Pap II smears (abnormal squamous cells or mildly dyskaryotic cells. The prevalence of HPV infections was determined using three molecular tests: Hybrid Capture II (HCII (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, USA and two variants of polymerase chain reaction (PCR-PGMY11/PGMY09 and PCR-CPI/CPIIG. HPV genotypes were determined using the method of enzyme restriction of PCR products multiplied by group-specific oligonucleotid primers PGMY11/PGMY09.Results. HPV infection was detected in 25.7% of women. In women aged ≤ 30 years a statistically significantly higher incidence of HPV infections was found (37.8% than in women aged ≥ 30 years (20.4%. In women aged ≤ 30 years most frequent infections, and also equally distributed, were the ones with high-risk genotypes HPV 16 and HPV 73 and with a potentially high-risk genotype HPV 26. In women aged ≥ 30 years most frequent infections, and also equally distributed, were the ones with

  17. Robust PCA-Based Abnormal Traffic Flow Pattern Isolation and Loop Detector Fault Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xuexiang; ZHANG Yi; LI Li; HU Jianming

    2008-01-01

    One key function of intelligent transportation systems is to automatically detect abnormal traffic phenomena and to help further investigations of the cause of the abnormality. This paper describes a robust principal components analysis (RPCA)-based abnormal traffic flow pattern isolation and loop detector fault detection method. The results show that RPCA is a useful tool to distinguish regular traffic flow from abnor-mal traffic flow patterns caused by accidents and loop detector faults. This approach gives an effective traffic flow data pre-processing method to reduce the human effort in finding potential loop detector faults. The method can also be used to further investigate the causes of the abnormality.

  18. Abnormal Trichuris trichiura eggs detected during an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Iván; Kozek, Wieslaw J

    2007-09-01

    Abnormal eggs of Trichuris trichiura were found in the stools of one of the patients during a study on the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses among an institutionalized population. The abnormalities observed included great variation in shape, size, and color. Similar atypical whipworm eggs have been reported in patients after treatment with mebendazole, thiabendazole, tetracloroethylene, and dithiazanine. Apparently some anthelminthics have an effect on the reproductive system of female T. trichiura, resulting in production of abnormal eggs, which could lead to misdiagnosis of the infection, since they can be mistaken as eggs of other parasites or artifacts.

  19. Diagnostic value of saline contrast sonohysterography comparing with hysteroscopy for detecting endometrial abnormalities in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Goharzad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presentation of uterine abnormalities among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for detecting the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.Materials and Methods: A total of 65 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in this study. A prior saline contrast sonohysetrography followed by a hysteroscopy was performed in all cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and test accuracy were calculated.Results: As the most common abnormality, SCSH showed hyperplasia in 19 patients while hysteroscopy diagnosed polyp in 15 cases. A sensitivity of 73.3%, 71.4% and 90.9% were reported for polyp, hyperplasia and submucous myoma respectively whereas the specificity was calculated 96% for polyps, 82.3% for hyperplasia and 90.7% for submucous myoma.Conclusion: Comparing with hysteroscopy, sonohysterography showed a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting submucous myoma but not for endometrial polyp and endometrial hyperplasia

  20. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and abnormal cell-free DNA results in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring-Blom, Heleen; Lichtenbelt, Klaske; van Galen, Karin; Elferink, Martin; Weiss, Marjan; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Page-Christiaens, Lieve

    2016-01-01

    What's Already Known about this Topic? Prenatal testing with cell-free DNA may incidentally identify maternal genetic anomalies and malignancies. What does this Study Add? Profound vitamin B12 deficiency with intramedullary hemolysis may cause abnormal genomic patterns that can be detected by

  1. Abnormalities in human pluripotent cells due to reprogramming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Morey, Robert; O'Neil, Ryan C; He, Yupeng; Daughtry, Brittany; Schultz, Matthew D; Hariharan, Manoj; Nery, Joseph R; Castanon, Rosa; Sabatini, Karen; Thiagarajan, Rathi D; Tachibana, Masahito; Kang, Eunju; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Ahmed, Riffat; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Van Dyken, Crystal; Polat, Alim; Sugawara, Atsushi; Sparman, Michelle; Gokhale, Sumita; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Ecker, Joseph R; Laurent, Louise C; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-07-10

    Human pluripotent stem cells hold potential for regenerative medicine, but available cell types have significant limitations. Although embryonic stem cells (ES cells) from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF ES cells) represent the 'gold standard', they are allogeneic to patients. Autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations. To determine whether such abnormalities are intrinsic to somatic cell reprogramming or secondary to the reprogramming method, genetically matched sets of human IVF ES cells, iPS cells and nuclear transfer ES cells (NT ES cells) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were subjected to genome-wide analyses. Both NT ES cells and iPS cells derived from the same somatic cells contained comparable numbers of de novo copy number variations. In contrast, DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of NT ES cells corresponded closely to those of IVF ES cells, whereas iPS cells differed and retained residual DNA methylation patterns typical of parental somatic cells. Thus, human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT and are therefore ideal for cell replacement therapies.

  2. Abnormality of regulatory T cells in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Hafezi, Nasim; Mohammadi, Hamed; Yazdani, Reza; Alinia, Tina; Tavakol, Marzieh; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies (PAD) which is defined by recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and defects in B-cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory B cells. T cell abnormalities have also been described in CVID patients. Several studies reported that Treg frequencies and their functional characteristics are disturbed and might account for the aberrant immune responses observed in CVID patients. The aim of this review is to describe phenotypic and functional characteristics of Treg cells, and to review the literature with respect to the reported Treg defects and its association with the clinical manifestation in CVID. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

  4. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  5. Fetal Sonography for the Detection of Chromosomal Abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Over the past decade, women's health clinicians have witnessed a shift of the paradigm for the approach to prenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities. From an emphasis on age-based invasive diagnostic tests, women are now being offered a variety of noninvasive screening tests. Although there is exciting research and innovation in the field of noninvasive testing for fetal aneuploidy, there are currently two tests, and both are invasive, that are used in a routine manner to determine the presence of fetal aneuploidy: chorionic villous sampling and amniocentesis. The aim of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of prenatal sonography, including first trimester nuchal translucency screening and second trimester genetic sonography, for obtaining valid chromosomal abnormality screening test results

  6. A computational method for reliable gait event detection and abnormality detection for feedback in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Chathuri; Senanayake, S M N Arosha

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a gait event detection algorithm is presented that uses computer intelligence (fuzzy logic) to identify seven gait phases in walking gait. Two inertial measurement units and four force-sensitive resistors were used to obtain knee angle and foot pressure patterns, respectively. Fuzzy logic is used to address the complexity in distinguishing gait phases based on discrete events. A novel application of the seven-dimensional vector analysis method to estimate the amount of abnormalities detected was also investigated based on the two gait parameters. Experiments were carried out to validate the application of the two proposed algorithms to provide accurate feedback in rehabilitation. The algorithm responses were tested for two cases, normal and abnormal gait. The large amount of data required for reliable gait-phase detection necessitate the utilisation of computer methods to store and manage the data. Therefore, a database management system and an interactive graphical user interface were developed for the utilisation of the overall system in a clinical environment.

  7. MRI detected prevalence of abnormalities in patients of knee pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Mehta

    2015-10-01

    Results: In this present study 72% patients were males and 28% patients females and their ages ranging from (11-80 years. Knee pain was found common in age group 31-40 years. Menisci lesions (44% were more common as compared to ligament lesions (14% in patients of knee pain. Osteoarthritis was found in 40 % of patients of knee pain. Joint effusion and marrow edema was found with incidence of 74% and 62% respectively. 4% patients were suffering from intraarticular tumors. Conclusions: Knee pain can occur at any stage of life due to various causative factors. MRI can demonstrate the exact nature and extent of bony as well as soft tissue abnormality. This has increase the use of MRI in evaluation of patients of knee pain. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2572-2575

  8. Advanced microtechnologies for detection of chromosome abnormalities by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses, which aim to detect chromosome abnormalities, are routinely performed in cytogenetic laboratories all over the world. Traditional cytogenetic studies are performed by analyzing the banding pattern of chromosomes, and are complemented by molecular cy...

  9. Abnormalities Detection in Digital Mammography Using Template Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Farrag

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer affects 1 in 8 women in the United States. Early detection and diagnosis is key to recovery. Computer-Aided Detection (CAD of breast cancer helps decrease morbidity and mortality rates. In this study we apply Template Matching as a method for breast cancer detection to a novel data set comprised of mammograms annotated according to ground truth. Performance is evaluated in terms of Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve (Area Under ROC and Free-response ROC.

  10. ETOPOSIDE INDUCES CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN SPERMATOCYTES AND SPERMATOGONIAL STEM CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Pearson, F S; Bishop, J B; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-07-15

    Etoposide (ET) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of leukemia, lymphomas and many solid tumors, such as testicular and ovarian cancers, that affect patients in their reproductive years. The purpose of the study was to use sperm FISH analyses to characterize the long-term effects of ET on male germ cells. We used a mouse model to characterize the induction of chromosomal aberrations (partial duplications and deletions) and whole chromosomal aneuploidies in sperm of mice treated with a clinical dose of ET. Semen samples were collected at 25 and 49 days after dosing to investigate the effects of ET on meiotic pachytene cells and spermatogonial stem-cells, respectively. ET treatment resulted in major increases in the frequencies of sperm carrying chromosomal aberrations in both meiotic pachytene (27- to 578-fold) and spermatogonial stem-cells (8- to 16-fold), but aneuploid sperm were induced only after treatment of meiotic cells (27-fold) with no persistent effects in stem cells. These results demonstrate that male meiotic germ cells are considerably more sensitive to ET than spermatogonial stem-cell and that increased frequencies of sperm with structural aberrations persist after spermatogonial stem-cell treatment. These findings predict that patients who undergo chemotherapy with ET may have transient elevations in the frequencies of aneuploid sperm, but more importantly, may have persistent elevations in the frequencies of sperm with chromosomal aberrations, placing them at higher risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes long after the end of their chemotherapy.

  11. Cardiac abnormalities in children with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, L A; Sodt, P C; Hutcheon, N; Arcilla, R A

    1990-11-01

    The cardiac status of 64 children (ages 0.2 to 18 yr) with sickle cell anemia documented by hemoglobin electrophoresis was evaluated by echocardiography. Left atrial, left ventricular and aortic root dimensions were significantly increased in over 60 percent of these children at all ages compared to values for 99 normal black (non-SCA) control subjects. Left ventricular wall thickness was increased in only 20 percent of older children with sickle cell anemia. Estimated LV mass/m2 and left ventricular cardiac index were increased compared to control subjects (p less than 0.001). Left heart abnormalities expressed as a single composite function, derived from multivariate regression analysis, correlated well with severity of anemia expressed as grams of hemoglobin (r = -0.52, p = less than 0.001) and with percentage of hemoglobin S (r = 0.51, p less than 0.001), but not to the same extent with age. Echocardiographically assessed left ventricular function at rest was comparable to that of control subjects. These data suggest that the major cardiac abnormalities in children are related to the volume overload effects of chronic anemia, and that in this age group, there is no evidence for a distinct "sickle cell cardiomyopathy" or cardiac dysfunction.

  12. Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Tkachuk, Douglas (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  13. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  14. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  15. Automatic recognition of abnormal cells in cytological tests using multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertych, A.; Galliano, G.; Bose, S.; Farkas, D. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic disease-related death worldwide, but is almost completely preventable with regular screening, for which cytological testing is a method of choice. Although such testing has radically lowered the death rate from cervical cancer, it is plagued by low sensitivity and inter-observer variability. Moreover, its effectiveness is still restricted because the recognition of shape and morphology of nuclei is compromised by overlapping and clumped cells. Multispectral imaging can aid enhanced morphological characterization of cytological specimens. Features including spectral intensity and texture, reflecting relevant morphological differences between normal and abnormal cells, can be derived from cytopathology images and utilized in a detection/classification scheme. Our automated processing of multispectral image cubes yields nuclear objects which are subjected to classification facilitated by a library of spectral signatures obtained from normal and abnormal cells, as marked by experts. Clumps are processed separately with reduced set of signatures. Implementation of this method yields high rate of successful detection and classification of nuclei into predefined malignant and premalignant types and correlates well with those obtained by an expert. Our multispectral approach may have an impact on the diagnostic workflow of cytological tests. Abnormal cells can be automatically highlighted and quantified, thus objectivity and performance of the reading can be improved in a way which is currently unavailable in clinical setting.

  16. An automatic cells detection and segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ligong; Le, T. Hoang Ngan; Savvides, Marios

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an end-to-end framework for automatically detecting and segmenting blood cells including normal red blood cells (RBCs), connected RBCs, abnormal RBCs (i.e. tear drop, burr cell, helmet, etc.) and white blood cells (WBCs). Our proposed system contains several components to solve different problems regarding RBCs and WBCs. We first design a novel blood cell color representation which is able to emphasize the RBCs and WBCs in separate channels. Template matching technique is then employed to individually detect RBCs and WBCs in our proposed representation. In order to automatically segment the RBCs and nuclei from WBCs, we develop an adaptive level set-based segmentation method which makes use of both local and global information. The detected and segmented RBCs, however, can be a single RBC, a connected RBC or an abnormal RBC. Therefore, we first separate and reconstruct RBCs from the connected RBCs by our suggested modified template matching. Shape matching by inner distance is later used to classify the abnormal RBCs from the normal RBCs. Our proposed method has been tested and evaluated on different images from ALL-IDB,10 WebPath,24 UPMC,23 Flicker datasets, and the one used by Mohamed et al.14 The precision and recall of RBCs detection are 98.43% and 94.99% respectively, whereas those of WBCs detection are 99.12% and 99.12%. The F-measure of our proposed WBCs segmentation gets up to 95.8%.

  17. Renal Abnormalities in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Single Center Report from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Aamer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD. We prospectively studied 73 patients with SCD followed up at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2005 to November 2006,. All patients underwent evaluation of kidney function and urine examination to detect proteinuria and other urinary abnormalities. In addition, 53 patients from the cohort had 24-hour urine collection to measure creatinine clearance and to quantitate proteinuria. The patient population consisted of 34 males (46.5% and 39 females (53.5% with a median age of 23 years (range 14-40. Proteinuria was present in 30 patients (41%. Creatinine clearance was low in 12 patients (22.5% and seven of these patients had low or low-normal serum creatinine despite reduced creatinine clearance. Low serum creatinine was common and present in 28 patients (38%. Two patients had chronic renal failure and one of them is on regular dialysis. Other abnormalities detected include hematuria in seven patients (8.5% and hemoglobinuria in 12 patients (14.5%. In conclusion, renal abnormalities are present in a significant number of Saudi patients with SCD and proteinuria is the most common abnormality. Serum creatinine may remain low or within low-normal range in SCD patients despite reduced creatinine clearance. As proteinuria is a risk factor for developing renal failure in future, routine screening of SCD patients is recommended for timely intervention in order to prevent or delay renal damage.

  18. Detection of Wind Turbine Power Performance Abnormalities Using Eigenvalue Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2014-01-01

    Condition monitoring of wind turbines is a field of continu- ous research and development as new turbine configurations enter into the market and new failure modes appear. Systems utilising well established techniques from the energy and in- dustry sector, such as vibration analysis, are commerci......Condition monitoring of wind turbines is a field of continu- ous research and development as new turbine configurations enter into the market and new failure modes appear. Systems utilising well established techniques from the energy and in- dustry sector, such as vibration analysis...... in order to achieve better resolution and thus identify the most proba- ble root cause of the power deviation. An important aspect of the proposed technique is its independence of the power curve provided by the turbine manufacturer. It is shown that by detecting any changes of the two eigenvalues trends...

  19. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  20. Herbicide effects on freshwater benthic diatoms: Induction of nucleus alterations and silica cell wall abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenest, T. [Ecolab UMR 5245 (INP ENSAT, CNRS, UPS), Equipe ECOGEN, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole - BP 32607 Auzeville Tolosane, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); Cemagref, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas Cedex (France); Silvestre, J. [Ecolab UMR 5245 (INP ENSAT, CNRS, UPS), Equipe ECOGEN, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole - BP 32607 Auzeville Tolosane, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); Coste, M.; Delmas, F. [Cemagref, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas Cedex (France); Pinelli, E. [Ecolab UMR 5245 (INP ENSAT, CNRS, UPS), Equipe ECOGEN, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole - BP 32607 Auzeville Tolosane, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France)], E-mail: pinelli@ensat.fr

    2008-06-02

    Benthic diatoms are well known bio-indicators of river pollution by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Biological indexes, based on diatom sensitivity for non-toxic pollution, have been developed to assess the water quality. Nevertheless, they are not reliable tools to detect pollution by pesticides. Many authors have suggested that toxic agents, like pesticides, induce abnormalities of the diatom cell wall (frustule). High abnormal frustule abundances have been reported in natural diatom communities sampled in streams contaminated by pesticides. However, no direct link was found between the abundances of abnormal frustules in these communities and the pesticide concentrations in stream water. In the present study, a freshwater benthic diatom community, isolated from natural biofilm and cultured under controlled conditions, was treated with a known genotoxic herbicide, maleic hydrazide (MH). Cells were exposed to three concentrations of MH (5 x 10{sup -6}, 10{sup -6}, 10{sup -7} M) for 6 h followed by a 24 h-recovery time. After MH treatments, nucleus alterations were observed: abnormal nucleus location, micronucleus, multinuclear cell or disruption of the nuclear membrane. A dose-dependent increase of nuclear alterations was observed. The difference between the control (9.65 nuclear alterations per 1000 cells observed (9.65 per mille), S.D. = 4.23) and the highest concentrations (29.40 per mille, S.D. = 8.49 for 10{sup -6} M and 35.96 per mille , S.D. = 3.71 for 5 x 10{sup -6} M) was statistically significant (Tukey test, P < 0.05). Diatoms also exhibited frustules with deformed morphology and abnormal ornamentation. Significantly increased abundances of abnormal frustules were observed for the highest concentrations (10{sup -6} and 5 x 10{sup -6} M; Tukey test, P < 0.05). These two parameters tended to increase together (Pearson correlation = 0.702, P < 0.05). The results suggest that the induction of abnormal frustules could be associated with the genotoxic

  1. Herbicide effects on freshwater benthic diatoms: induction of nucleus alterations and silica cell wall abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenest, T; Silvestre, J; Coste, M; Delmas, F; Pinelli, E

    2008-06-02

    Benthic diatoms are well known bio-indicators of river pollution by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Biological indexes, based on diatom sensitivity for non-toxic pollution, have been developed to assess the water quality. Nevertheless, they are not reliable tools to detect pollution by pesticides. Many authors have suggested that toxic agents, like pesticides, induce abnormalities of the diatom cell wall (frustule). High abnormal frustule abundances have been reported in natural diatom communities sampled in streams contaminated by pesticides. However, no direct link was found between the abundances of abnormal frustules in these communities and the pesticide concentrations in stream water. In the present study, a freshwater benthic diatom community, isolated from natural biofilm and cultured under controlled conditions, was treated with a known genotoxic herbicide, maleic hydrazide (MH). Cells were exposed to three concentrations of MH (5x10(-6), 10(-6), 10(-7)M) for 6h followed by a 24h-recovery time. After MH treatments, nucleus alterations were observed: abnormal nucleus location, micronucleus, multinuclear cell or disruption of the nuclear membrane. A dose-dependent increase of nuclear alterations was observed. The difference between the control (9.65 nuclear alterations per 1000 cells observed (9.65 per thousand), S.D.=4.23) and the highest concentrations (29.40 per thousand, S.D.=8.49 for 10(-6)M and 35.96 per thousand, S.D.=3.71 for 5x10(-6)M) was statistically significant (Tukey test, P<0.05). Diatoms also exhibited frustules with deformed morphology and abnormal ornamentation. Significantly increased abundances of abnormal frustules were observed for the highest concentrations (10(-6) and 5x10(-6)M; Tukey test, P<0.05). These two parameters tended to increase together (Pearson correlation=0.702, P<0.05). The results suggest that the induction of abnormal frustules could be associated with the genotoxic effects of MH. The alterations observed could be

  2. DETECTING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR IN SOCIAL NETWORK WEBSITES BY USING A PROCESS MINING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sahlabadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting abnormal user activity in social network websites could prevent from cyber-crime occurrence. The previous research focused on data mining while this research is based on user behavior process. In this study, the first step is defining a normal user behavioral pattern and the second step is detecting abnormal behavior. These two steps are applied on a case study that includes real and syntactic data sets to obtain more tangible results. The chosen technique used to define the pattern is process mining, which is an affordable, complete and noise-free event log. The proposed model discovers a normal behavior by genetic process mining technique and abnormal activities are detected by the fitness function, which is based on Petri Net rules. Although applying genetic mining is time consuming process, it can overcome the risks of noisy data and produces a comprehensive normal model in Petri net representation form.

  3. Effectiveness of Increased Nuchal Translucency in Detecting Pregnancies at Risk for Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna González Herrera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: assessment of embryonic anatomy by ultrasound since early ages leads to the detection of pregnancies at risk for chromosomal abnormalities. Advanced maternal age alone is not enough. Objective: to assess the results of the nuchal translucency measurement at the first trimester ultrasound as a sonographic marker of chromosomal abnormalities.Methods: a sample of 29 334 pregnant women was studied from September 2006 to December 2010. General performance of the sonographic marker was assessed taking into account the years and maternal age. Effectiveness of increased nuchal translucency in the indirect detection of chromosomal abnormalities was determined using the common parameters. Results: the net number of increased nuchal translucencies diminished over the years, as well as the absolute amount of prenatal karyotypes performed; but its proportion increased along with the positive prenatal karyotypes among women with increased nuchal translucency. Among the 71 fetuses with increased translucency, seven cases of chromosomal abnormalities were confirmed by other elements of the prenatal program. The sensitivity of the isolated nuchal translucency was 14.6%; specificity was high (99.8%; positive and negative predictive values were 18.4% and 99.9%, respectively. Rates of false positives were very low. Conclusions: high specificity reaffirms nuchal translucency as a good early marker of risk for chromosomal abnormalities, particularly Down syndrome and Trisomy 18, with a minimum rate of indications for invasive testing and an extra increase in the detection of fetal defects.

  4. Morphological and functional platelet abnormalities in Berkeley sickle cell mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Arun S; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A; Stevens, Jacqueline R M; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37+/-3.2 vs. 27+/-1.4, mean+/-SD; p<0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505+/-49 x 10(3)/microl vs. 1151+/-162 x 10(3)/microl; p<0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and "pocked" erythrocytes (p<0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5+/-1% vs. 1+/-1%; p<0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease.

  5. Sequence-dependent abnormal aggregation of human Tau fragment in an inducible cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ling; Hu, Ji-Ying; Hu, Meng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Hong, Zheng-Yuan; Cheng, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jie; Pang, Dai-Wen; Liang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the accumulation of misfolded hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein Tau within neurons, forming neurofibrillary tangles and leading to synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Here we study sequence-dependent abnormal aggregation of human fragment Tau244-372 in an inducible cell model. As evidenced by confocal laser scanning microscopy, Western blot, and immunogold electron microscopy, fibril-forming motifs are essential and sufficient for abnormal aggregation of Tau244-372 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells induced by Congo red: when its two fibril-forming segments PHF6 and PHF6* are deleted, Tau244-372 does lose its ability to form fibrils in SH-SY5Y cells, and the replacement of PHF6 and PHF6* with an unrelated amyloidogenic sequence IFQINS from human lysozyme does rescue the fibril-forming ability of Tau244-372 in SH-SY5Y cells. By contrast, insertion of a non-fibril forming peptide GGGGGG does not drive the disabled Tau244-372 to misfold in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, as revealed by quantum dots based probes combined with annexin V staining, annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection assay, and immunofluorescence, fibril-forming motifs are essential and sufficient for early apoptosis of living SH-SY5Y cells induced by abnormal aggregation of Tau244-372. Our results suggest that fibril-forming motifs could be the determinants of Tau protein tending to misfold in living cells, thereby inducing neuronal apoptosis and causing the initiation and development of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mastitis therapy and control - Automatic on-line detection of abnormal milk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Automated online detection of mastitis and abnormal milk is an important subject in the dairy industry, especially because of the introduction of automatic milking systems and the growing farm sizes with consequently less labor available per cow. Demands for performance, which is expressed as sensit

  7. 76 FR 22925 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Abnormal Behavior Detection Finds Malicious Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Assumption Buster Workshop: Abnormal Behavior Detection Finds Malicious Actors AGENCY: The National... assumptionbusters@nitrd.gov . Travel expenses will be paid at the government rate for selected participants who live... behavioral models to monitor the size and destinations of financial transfers, and/or on-line...

  8. An approach to detecting abnormal vehicle events in complex factors over highway surveillance video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The detection of abnormal vehicle events is a research hotspot in the analysis of highway surveillance video.Because of the complex factors,which include different conditions of weather,illumination,noise and so on,vehicle’s feature extraction and abnormity detection become difficult.This paper proposes a Fast Constrained Delaunay Triangulation(FCDT) algorithm to replace complicated segmentation algorithms for multi-feature extraction.Based on the video frames segmented by FCDT,an improved algorithm is presented to estimate background self-adaptively.After the estimation,a multi-feature eigenvector is generated by Principal Component Analysis(PCA) in accordance with the static and motional features extracted through locating and tracking each vehicle.For abnormity detection,adaptive detection modeling of vehicle events(ADMVE) is presented,for which a semi-supervised Mixture of Gaussian Hidden Markov Model(MGHMM) is trained with the multi-feature eigenvectors from each video segment.The normal model is developed by supervised mode with manual labeling,and becomes more accurate via iterated adaptation.The abnormal models are trained through the adapted Bayesian learning with unsupervised mode.The paper also presents experiments using real video sequence to verify the proposed method.

  9. Detection of chromosomal abnormality and Y chromosome microdeletion in patients with azoospermia and oligozoospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yun-fang; Shao Min-jie; Zhang Ying; Zhang Xiu-ling; Li Yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the chromosomal abnormality and Y chromosome microdeletion in patients with azoospermia and oligozoospermia.Methods:Cytogenetic karyotype analysis and multiplex PCR were used to detect chromosomal abnormality and Y chromosome microdeletion in 99 azoospermic and 57 oligospermic patients(total 156).45 fertile men were includ-ed as controls.Results:31 patients were found with chromosomal abnormalities in 156 cases(31/156,19.9 %),20 cases showed 47,XXY,2 cases showed 46,XY/47,XXY,7 cases had Y chromosome structural abnormalities and 2 had autosomal chromosome abnormalities.There were significant differences between the frequency of AZF microde-letion in 125 cases with normal karyotype and 45 controls(P0.05).AZFa,AZFb,AZFa+b,AZFb+c,AZFa+b+d and AZFb+c+d mierodeletions were found in azoospermic patients.AZFb,AZFc,AZFd,AZFb+c+d and AZFc+d microdeletions were found in oligo-spermic patients.Conxlusion:The frequency of chromosomal abnormality was 19.9% and the frequency of Y chromosome mi-crodeletion was 15.2% in patient with azoospermia and oligozoospermia.We should pay close attention to this prob-lem.

  10. Cell Phone Detection Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2007-10-01

    A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phone’s electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

  11. Based on Wide Area Environment Abnormal Behavior Analysis and Anomaly Detection Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Group anomaly identification and location is an important issue in the field of artificial intelligence. Capture of the accident source and rapid prediction of mass incidents in public places are difficult problems in intelligent video identification and processing, but the traditional group anomaly detection research has many limitations when it comes to accident source detection and intelligent recognition. We are to research on the algorithms of accident source location and abnormal group identification based on behavior analysis in the condition of dramatically changing group geometry appearance, including: 1 to propose a logic model of image density based on the social force model, and to build the crowd density trend prediction model integrating “fast and fuzzy matching at front-end” and “accurate and classified training at back-end”; 2 to design a fast abnormal source flagging algorithm based on support vector machine, and to realize intelligent and automatic marking of abnormal source point; 3 to construct a multi-view human body skeleton invariant moment model and a motion trajectory model based on linear parametric equations. The expected results of the research will help prevent abnormal events effectively, capture the first scene of incidents and the abnormal source point quickly, and play a decision support role in the proactive national security strategy.

  12. A Subspace Identification Method for Detecting Abnormal Behavior in HVAC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Sklavounos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the detection of abnormal behavior in HVAC systems is presented. The method combines deterministic subspace identification for each zone independently to create a system model that produces the anticipated zone’s temperature and the sequential test CUSUM algorithm to detect drifts of the rate of change of the difference between the real and the anticipated measurements. Simulation results regarding the detection of infiltration heat losses and the detection of exogenous heat gains such as fire demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. AUTOMATED DIGITAL MAMMOGRAM SEGMENTATION FOR DETECTION OF ABNORMAL MASSES USING BINARY HOMOGENEITY ENHANCEMENT ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Kanta Maitra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many image processing techniques have been developed over the past two decades to help radiologists in diagnosing breast cancer. At the same time, many studies proven that an early diagnosis of breastcancer can increase the survival rate, thus making screening programmes a mandatory step for females.Radiologists have to examine a large number of images. Digital Mammogram has emerged as the most popular screening technique for early detection of Breast Cancer and other abnormalities. Raw digital mammograms are medical images that are difficult to interpret so we need to develop Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD systems that will improve detection of abnormalities in mammogram images. Extraction of the breast region by delineation of the breast contour and pectoral muscle allows the search for abnormalities to be limited to the region of the breast without undue influence from the background of the mammogram. We need to performessential pre-processing steps to suppress artifacts, enhance the breast region and then extract breast region by the process of segmentation. In this paper we present a fully automated scheme for detection of abnormal masses by anatomical segmentation of Breast Region of Interest (ROI. We are using medio-lateral oblique (MLO view of mammograms. We have proposed a new homogeneity enhancement process namely Binary Homogeneity Enhancement Algorithm (BHEA, followed by an innovative approach for edge detection (EDA. Then obtain the breast boundary by using our proposed Breast Boundary Detection Algorithm (BBDA. After we use our proposed Pectoral Muscle Detection Algorithm (PMDA to suppress the pectoral muscle thus obtaining the breast ROI, we use our proposed Anatomical Segmentation of Breast ROI (ASB algorithm to differentiate various regions within the breast. After segregating the different breast regions we use our proposed Seeded Region Growing Algorithm (SRGA to isolate normal and abnormal regions in the breast tissue. If any

  14. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  15. CAFE: an R package for the detection of gross chromosomal abnormalities from gene expression microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Sander; Leddin, Mathias; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Mah, Nancy

    2014-05-15

    The current methods available to detect chromosomal abnormalities from DNA microarray expression data are cumbersome and inflexible. CAFE has been developed to alleviate these issues. It is implemented as an R package that analyzes Affymetrix *.CEL files and comes with flexible plotting functions, easing visualization of chromosomal abnormalities. CAFE is available from https://bitbucket.org/cob87icW6z/cafe/ as both source and compiled packages for Linux and Windows. It is released under the GPL version 3 license. CAFE will also be freely available from Bioconductor. sander.h.bollen@gmail.com or nancy.mah@mdc-berlin.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Transmission of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells surviving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Daniela, E-mail: d.kraft@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Ritter, Sylvia, E-mail: s.ritter@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco, E-mail: m.durante@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Physics Department, Technical University Darmstadt, Hochschulstraße 6-8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Seifried, Erhard, E-mail: e.seifried@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Fournier, Claudia, E-mail: c.fournier@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tonn, Torsten, E-mail: t.tonn@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Med. Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Institute for Transfusion Medicine Dresden, German Red Cross Blood Donation Service North-East, Blasewitzer Straße 68/70, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Radiation induced formation and transmission of chromosomal aberrations were assessed. • Cytogenetic analysis was performed in human CD34+ HSPC by mFISH. • We report transmission of stable aberrations in irradiated, clonally expanded HSPC. • Unstable aberrations in clonally expanded HSPC occur independently of irradiation. • Carbon ions and X-rays bear a similar risk for propagation of cytogenetic changes. - Abstract: In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (rAML), clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often observed in bone marrow cells of patients, suggesting that their formation is crucial in the development of the disease. Since rAML is considered to originate from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), we investigated the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in human CD34{sup +} cells. We then measured stable chromosomal abnormalities, a possible biomarker of leukemia risk, in clonally expanded cell populations which were grown for 14 days in a 3D-matrix (CFU-assay). We compared two radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions (29 and 60–85 keV/μm, doses between 0.5 and 4 Gy). Only a negligible number of de novo arising, unstable aberrations (≤0.05 aberrations/cell, 97% breaks) were measured in the descendants of irradiated HSPC. However, stable aberrations were detected in colonies formed by irradiated HSPC. All cells of the affected colonies exhibited one or more identical aberrations, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of the clonal rearrangements (92%) were simple exchanges such as translocations (77%) and pericentric inversions (15%), which are known to contribute to the development of rAML. Carbon ions were more efficient in inducing cell killing (maximum of ∼30–35% apoptotic cells for 2 Gy carbon ions compared to ∼25% for X-rays) and chromosomal aberrations in the first cell-cycle after exposure (∼70% and

  17. Detection of left ventricular motion abnormality via information measures and bayesian filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Ross, Ian G; Islam, Ali; Chong, Jaron; Li, Shuo

    2010-07-01

    We present an original information theoretic measure of heart motion based on the Shannon's differential entropy (SDE), which allows heart wall motion abnormality detection. Based on functional images, which are subject to noise and segmentation inaccuracies, heart wall motion analysis is acknowledged as a difficult problem, and as such, incorporation of prior knowledge is crucial for improving accuracy. Given incomplete, noisy data and a dynamic model, the Kalman filter, a well-known recursive Bayesian filter, is devised in this study to the estimation of the left ventricular (LV) cavity points. However, due to similarity between the statistical information of normal and abnormal heart motions, detecting and classifying abnormality is a challenging problem, which we investigate with a global measure based on the SDE. We further derive two other possible information theoretic abnormality detection criteria, one is based on Rényi entropy and the other on Fisher information. The proposed methods analyze wall motion quantitatively by constructing distributions of the normalized radial distance estimates of the LV cavity. Using 269 x 20 segmented LV cavities of short-axis MRI obtained from 30 subjects, the experimental analysis demonstrates that the proposed SDE criterion can lead to a significant improvement over other features that are prevalent in the literature related to the LV cavity, namely, mean radial displacement and mean radial velocity.

  18. Heart motion abnormality detection via an information measure and Bayesian filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Li, Shuo; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Ross, Ian; Islam, Ali; Chong, Jaron

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates heart wall motion abnormality detection with an information theoretic measure of heart motion based on the Shannon's differential entropy (SDE) and recursive Bayesian filtering. Heart wall motion is generally analyzed using functional images which are subject to noise and segmentation inaccuracies, and incorporation of prior knowledge is crucial in improving the accuracy. The Kalman filter, a well known recursive Bayesian filter, is used in this study to estimate the left ventricular (LV) cavity points given incomplete and noisy data, and given a dynamic model. However, due to similarities between the statistical information of normal and abnormal heart motions, detecting and classifying abnormality is a challenging problem which we proposed to investigate with a global measure based on the SDE. We further derive two other possible information theoretic abnormality detection criteria, one is based on Rényi entropy and the other on Fisher information. The proposed method analyzes wall motion quantitatively by constructing distributions of the normalized radial distance estimates of the LV cavity. Using 269 x 20 segmented LV cavities of short-axis magnetic resonance images obtained from 30 subjects, the experimental analysis demonstrates that the proposed SDE criterion can lead to significant improvement over other features that are prevalent in the literature related to the LV cavity, namely, mean radial displacement and mean radial velocity.

  19. Utility of the Thin Prep Imaging System® in the detection of squamous intraepithelial abnormalities on retrospective evaluation: can we trust the imager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroeta, Julieta E; Reilly, Mary E; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Lawrence, W Dwayne

    2012-02-01

    Prospective studies analyzing the ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) have demonstrated a significant decrease in screening time and detection rates comparable or better than manual screening. We retrospectively analyzed the accuracy of the TIS in detecting cervical abnormalities. Our study included all new HSIL diagnoses in 2007 with previous negative (NIL) pap tests screened with TIS. The original 22 fields of view (FOV) were reviewed by 2 blinded screeners followed by manual screening of all slides. Any ASC-US or above was considered "abnormal." Of a total of 111,080 pap tests performed in 2007, 180 were reported as HSIL. Of these, 45 cases had a previous NIL pap diagnosed within the last year, screened with TIS. Following re-examination of the NIL pap, 31 diagnoses remained unchanged and 9 were reclassified as abnormal on the basis of cells present within the original FOV. When manually reviewed, all nine cases were confirmed as abnormal. Four cases were reclassified as abnormal on the basis of the manual screen (abnormal cells absent in the FOV). The sensitivity of TIS for the detection of abnormality was 99.95% (false-negative rate FNR: 0.05%) and the sensitivity for detection of HSIL was 99.07% (FNR: 0.92%). When analyzing the cytotechnologist interpretation of the FOV, the sensitivity for detection of abnormality and HSIL was 99.89% (FNR: 0.1%), and 99.53% (FNR: 0.4%), respectively. On retrospective analysis based on newly diagnosed HSIL cases, the sensitivity of TIS was comparable to that of manual screening with a slightly decreased rate of false negatives. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reactivation of Lysosomal Ca2+ Efflux Rescues Abnormal Lysosomal Storage in FIG4-Deficient Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianlong; Hu, Bo; Arpag, Sezgi; Yan, Qing; Hamilton, Audra; Zeng, Yuan-Shan; Vanoye, Carlos G; Li, Jun

    2015-04-29

    Loss of function of FIG4 leads to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 4J, Yunis-Varon syndrome, or an epilepsy syndrome. FIG4 is a phosphatase with its catalytic specificity toward 5'-phosphate of phosphatidylinositol-3,5-diphosphate (PI3,5P2). However, the loss of FIG4 decreases PI3,5P2 levels likely due to FIG4's dominant effect in scaffolding a PI3,5P2 synthetic protein complex. At the cellular level, all these diseases share similar pathology with abnormal lysosomal storage and neuronal degeneration. Mice with no FIG4 expression (Fig4(-/-)) recapitulate the pathology in humans with FIG4 deficiency. Using a flow cytometry technique that rapidly quantifies lysosome sizes, we detected an impaired lysosomal fission, but normal fusion, in Fig4(-/-) cells. The fission defect was associated with a robust increase of intralysosomal Ca(2+) in Fig4(-/-) cells, including FIG4-deficient neurons. This finding was consistent with a suppressed Ca(2+) efflux of lysosomes because the endogenous ligand of lysosomal Ca(2+) channel TRPML1 is PI3,5P2 that is deficient in Fig4(-/-) cells. We reactivated the TRPML1 channels by application of TRPML1 synthetic ligand, ML-SA1. This treatment reduced the intralysosomal Ca(2+) level and rescued abnormal lysosomal storage in Fig4(-/-) culture cells and ex vivo DRGs. Furthermore, we found that the suppressed Ca(2+) efflux in Fig4(-/-) culture cells and Fig4(-/-) mouse brains profoundly downregulated the expression/activity of dynamin-1, a GTPase known to scissor organelle membranes during fission. This downregulation made dynamin-1 unavailable for lysosomal fission. Together, our study revealed a novel mechanism explaining abnormal lysosomal storage in FIG4 deficiency. Synthetic ligands of the TRPML1 may become a potential therapy against diseases with FIG4 deficiency.

  1. An Operational Method for Fast Detecting Abnormal Channels in Imaging Spectrometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Data from abnormal channels in an imaging spectrometer almost always exerts an undesired impact on spectrum matching,classification,pattern recognition and other applications in hyperspectral remote sensing.To solve this problem,researchers should get rid of the data acquired by these channels.Selecting abnormal channels just in the way of visually examining each band image in a imaging data set is a conceivably hard and boring job.To relieve the burden,this paper proposes a method which exploits the spatial and spectral autocorrelations inherent in imaging spectrometer data,and can be used to speed up and,to a great degree,automate the detection of abnormal channels in an imaging spectrometer.This method is applied easily and successfully to one PHI data set and one Hymap data set,and can be applied to remotely sensed data from other hyperspectral sensors.

  2. A simple infrared-augmented digital photography technique for detection of pupillary abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Tarek A; Bonhomme, G R

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe a simple infrared photography technique to aid in the diagnosis and documentation of pupillary abnormalities. An unmodified 12-megapixel "point and shoot" digital camera was used to obtain binocular still photos and videos under different light conditions with near-infrared illuminating frames. The near-infrared light of 850 nm allows the capture of clear pupil images in both dim and bright light conditions. It also allows easy visualization of the pupil despite pigmented irides by augmenting the contrast between the iris and the pupil. The photos and videos obtained illustrated a variety of pupillary abnormalities using the aforementioned technique. This infrared-augmented photography technique supplements medical education, and aids in the more rapid detection, diagnosis, and documentation of a wide spectrum of pupillary abnormalities. Its portability and ease of use with minimal training complements the education of trainees and facilitates the establishment of difficult diagnoses.

  3. Detection of abnormalities in dyspneic patients using a new lung imaging modality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Xiong Yingxia

    2014-01-01

    Background Although chest radiography is a useful examination tool,it has limitations.Because not all chest conditions can be detected on a radiograph,radiography cannot necessarily rule out all irregularities in the chest.Therefore,further imaging studies may be required to clarify the results of a chest radiograph,or to identify abnormalities that are not readily visible.The aim of this study was to compare traditional chest radiography with acoustic-based imaging (vibration response imaging) for the detection of lung abnormalities in patients with acute dyspnea.Methods The current investigation was a pilot study.Respiratory sounds throughout the respiratory cycle were captured using an acoustic-based imaging technique.Consecutive patients who presented to the emergency department with acute dyspnea and a normal chest radiograph on admission were enrolled and underwent imaging at the time of presentation.Dynamic and static images of vibration (breath sounds) and a dynamic image score were generated,and assessments were made using an evaluation form.Results In healthy volunteer controls (n=61),the mean dynamic image score was 6.3±1.9.In dyspneic patients with normal chest radiographs (n=51) and abnormal chest radiographs (n=48),the dynamic image scores were 4.7±2.7 and 5.1±2.5,respectively (P <0.05).The final assessment of the vibration images indicated abnormal findings in 15%,86% and 90% of the participants in the above groups,respectively (P <0.05).Conclusions In patients with acute dyspnea who present with normal chest radiographs,respiratory sound analyses often showed abnormal values.Hence,the ability of acoustic-based recordings to offer objective and noninvasive measurements of abnormal sound transmission may be useful in the clinical setting for patients presenting with acute dyspnea.

  4. [Distribution of abnormal cell clone with deletion of chromosome 20q in marrow cell lineages and apoptosis cells in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Wang, Chun; Qin, You-Wen; Xie, Kuang-Cheng; Yan, Shi-Ke; Gao, Yan-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Rui; Zhao, Chu-Xian

    2008-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of abnormal clone in marrow cell lineages and apoptosis cells in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 20q. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing myeloid precursors (CD15), erythroid precursors (GPA), T cells (CD3(+)CD56(-)CD16(-)), B cells (CD19), NK cells (CD3(-)CD56(+)CD16(+)) were used to sort bone marrow cells in a MDS patient with del (20q) by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Annexin V-FITC and PI were used to sort bone marrow Annexin V(+)PI(-) and Annexin V(-)PI(-) cells by FACS. The sorted positive cells were detected by interphase dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) using a LSI D20S108 probe (Spectrum Orange) and a Telvysion TM 20p probe (Spectrum Green). FACS and FISH analysis were also performed on the samples from 4 cases with normal karyotype. The results showed that the proportions of MDS clone in the myeloid and erythroid precursors were 70.50% and 93.33% respectively, in the RAEB-1 patient with del (20q) and were obviously higher than that in control group (5.39% and 6.17%). The proportions of abnormal clone in T, B and NK cells were 3.23%, 4.32% and 5.77% respectively and were less than that in control group (5.76%, 4.85%, 6.36%). The percentage of apoptotic cells in the bone marrow nucleated cells was 16.09%. The proportions of MDS clone in Annexin V(+)PI(-) and Annexin V(-)PI(-) cells were 32.48% and 70.11%, respectively. It is concluded that most myeloid and erythroid precursors are originated from the abnormal clone in MDS with del (20q). A little part of apoptotic cells are derived from the abnormal clone.

  5. EMPIRICAL EVALUATION OF LBP AND ITS DERIVATES FOR ABNORMALITY DETECTION IN MAMMOGRAM IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing techniques are useful in abnormality detection in mammogram images. Recently, texture based image segmentation of mammogram images has become popular due to its better precision and accuracy. Local Binary Pattern has been a recently proposed texture descriptor which attracted the research community rigorously towards texture based analysis of digital images. Many texture descriptors have been developed as variants of Local Binary Pattern, because of its success. In this work, the performance of Local Binary Pattern descriptor and its variants namely Local Ternary pattern, Extended Local Ternary Pattern, Local Texture Pattern and Local Line Binary Pattern are evaluated for mammogram image segmentation using a supervised KNN algorithm. Performance metrics such as accuracy, error rate, sensitivity, specificity, Under Estimation Fraction and Over Estimation Fraction are used for comparison purpose. The results show that Local Binary Pattern outperforms other descriptors in terms of abnormality detection in mammogram images.

  6. Abnormal quality detection and isolation in water distribution networks using simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nejjari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model based detection and localisation method to deal with abnormal quality levels based on the chlorine measurements and chlorine sensitivity analysis in a water distribution network. A fault isolation algorithm which correlates on line the residuals (generated by comparing the available chlorine measurements with their estimations using a model with the fault sensitivity matrix is used. The proposed methodology has been applied to a District Metered Area (DMA in the Barcelona network.

  7. Detection of Cardiac Abnormalities from Multilead ECG using Multiscale Phase Alternation Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, R K; Dandapat, S

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac activities such as the depolarization and the relaxation of atria and ventricles are observed in electrocardiogram (ECG). The changes in the morphological features of ECG are the symptoms of particular heart pathology. It is a cumbersome task for medical experts to visually identify any subtle changes in the morphological features during 24 hours of ECG recording. Therefore, the automated analysis of ECG signal is a need for accurate detection of cardiac abnormalities. In this paper, a novel method for automated detection of cardiac abnormalities from multilead ECG is proposed. The method uses multiscale phase alternation (PA) features of multilead ECG and two classifiers, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and fuzzy KNN for classification of bundle branch block (BBB), myocardial infarction (MI), heart muscle defect (HMD) and healthy control (HC). The dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is used to decompose the ECG signal of each lead into complex wavelet coefficients at different scales. The phase of the complex wavelet coefficients is computed and the PA values at each wavelet scale are used as features for detection and classification of cardiac abnormalities. A publicly available multilead ECG database (PTB database) is used for testing of the proposed method. The experimental results show that, the proposed multiscale PA features and the fuzzy KNN classifier have better performance for detection of cardiac abnormalities with sensitivity values of 78.12 %, 80.90 % and 94.31 % for BBB, HMD and MI classes. The sensitivity value of proposed method for MI class is compared with the state-of-art techniques from multilead ECG.

  8. Automated contralateral subtraction of dental panoramic radiographs for detecting abnormalities in paranasal sinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takeshi; Mori, Shintaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Inflammation in the paranasal sinus is often observed in seasonal allergic rhinitis or with colds, but is also an indication for odontogenic tumors, carcinoma of the maxillary sinus or a maxillary cyst. The detection of those findings in dental panoramic radiographs is not difficult for radiologists, but general dentists may miss the findings since they focus on treatments of teeth. The purpose of this work is to develop a contralateral subtraction method for detecting the odontogenic sinusitis region on dental panoramic radiographs. We developed a contralateral subtraction technique in paranasal sinus region, consisting of 1) image filtering of the smoothing and sobel operation for noise reduction and edge extraction, 2) image registration of mirrored image by using mutual information, and 3) image display method of subtracted pixel data. We employed 56 cases (24 normal and 32 abnormal). The abnormal regions and the normal cases were verified by a board-certified radiologist using CT scans. Observer studies with and without subtraction images were performed for 9 readers. The true-positive rate at a 50% confidence level in 7 out of 9 readers was improved, but there was no statistical significance in the difference of area-under-curve (AUC) in each radiologist. In conclusion, the contralateral subtraction images of dental panoramic radiographs may improve the detection rate of abnormal regions in paranasal sinus.

  9. Online Least Squares One-Class Support Vector Machines-Based Abnormal Visual Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The abnormal event detection problem is an important subject in real-time video surveillance. In this paper, we propose a novel online one-class classification algorithm, online least squares one-class support vector machine (online LS-OC-SVM, combined with its sparsified version (sparse online LS-OC-SVM. LS-OC-SVM extracts a hyperplane as an optimal description of training objects in a regularized least squares sense. The online LS-OC-SVM learns a training set with a limited number of samples to provide a basic normal model, then updates the model through remaining data. In the sparse online scheme, the model complexity is controlled by the coherence criterion. The online LS-OC-SVM is adopted to handle the abnormal event detection problem. Each frame of the video is characterized by the covariance matrix descriptor encoding the moving information, then is classified into a normal or an abnormal frame. Experiments are conducted, on a two-dimensional synthetic distribution dataset and a benchmark video surveillance dataset, to demonstrate the promising results of the proposed online LS-OC-SVM method.

  10. A Macro-Observation Scheme for Abnormal Event Detection in Daily-Life Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Wei-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a macro-observation scheme for abnormal event detection in daily life. The proposed macro-observation representation records the time-space energy of motions of all moving objects in a scene without segmenting individual object parts. The energy history of each pixel in the scene is instantly updated with exponential weights without explicitly specifying the duration of each activity. Since possible activities in daily life are numerous and distinct from each other and not all abnormal events can be foreseen, images from a video sequence that spans sufficient repetition of normal day-to-day activities are first randomly sampled. A constrained clustering model is proposed to partition the sampled images into groups. The new observed event that has distinct distance from any of the cluster centroids is then classified as an anomaly. The proposed method has been evaluated in daily work of a laboratory and BEHAVE benchmark dataset. The experimental results reveal that it can well detect abnormal events such as burglary and fighting as long as they last for a sufficient duration of time. The proposed method can be used as a support system for the scene that requires full time monitoring personnel.

  11. Helium II calorimetry for the detection of abnormal resistive zones in LHC sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tavian, L

    2010-01-01

    Following the incident on a LHC sector due to an electrical arc on the main dipole bus-bar circuit, postmortem analysis of previous current plateaus has shown abnormal temperature drift in the helium II baths of some magnets in the concerned area. In order to identify other possible risky areas, a detection system based on calorimety using available precision cryogenic thermometers has been first validated by applying calibrated heating in the magnet cold-mass and then implemented in the different sectors. On the 3-km long continuous helium II cryostat of each LHC sector, this method allows detecting abnormal dissipation in the W-range, i.e. additional resistive heating due to abnormal resistance of about 40 nΩ at 7 kA and less than 15 nΩ at the nominal current of 12 kA. The paper describes the principle and the methodology of this calorimetric method and gives the results obtained on the LHC sectors.

  12. Abnormal Cell Responses and Role of TNF-α in Impaired Diabetic Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired diabetic wound healing constitutes a major health problem. The impaired healing is caused by complex factors such as abnormal keratinocyte and fibroblast migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, abnormal macrophage polarization, impaired recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, and decreased vascularization. Diabetes-enhanced and prolonged expression of TNF-α also contributes to impaired healing. In this paper, we discuss the abnormal cell responses in diabetic wound healing and the contribution of TNF-α.

  13. An observer study methodology for evaluating detection of motion abnormalities in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalush, David S; Jatko, Megan K; Segars, W Paul

    2005-03-01

    To address the task of detecting nonischemic motion abnormalities from animated displays of gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography data, we performed an observer study to evaluate the difference in detection performance between gating to 8 and 16 frames. Images were created from the NCAT mathematical phantom with a realistic heart simulating hypokinetic motion in the left lateral wall. Realistic noise-free projection data were simulated for both normal and defective hearts to obtain 16 frames for the cardiac cycle. Poisson noise was then simulated for each frame to create 50 realizations of each heart, All datasets were processed in two ways: reconstructed as a 16-frame set, and collapsed to 8 frames and reconstructed. Ten observers viewed the cardiac images animated with a realistic real-time frame rate. Observers trained on 100 images and tested on 100 images, rating their confidence on the presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. None of the observers showed a significant difference in performance between the two gating methods. The 95% confidence interval on the difference in areas under the ROC curve (Az8 - Az16) was -0.029-0.085. Our test did not find a significant difference in detection performance between 8-frame gating and 16-frame gating. We conclude that, for the task of detecting abnormal motion, increasing the number of gated frames from 8 to 16 offers no apparent advantage.

  14. CYTO - HISTO CORRELATION OF ATYPICAL GLANDULAR CELLS OF ENDOMETRIAL ORIGIN ON CERVICAL CYTOLOGY IN ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopa Mudra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association has been reported with presence of endometrial cells on cervical smears and clinically significant uterine lesions. Hence for early detection of endometrial pathology , t he 2001 Bethesda system has suggested the mandatory reporting of presence of any atypical endometrial cells regardless of age and menstrual status and out of phase normal looking endometrial cells in women aged 40 years or more. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between atypical glandular cells of endometrial origin in cervical cytology and histopathological findings in abnormal uterine bleeding cases . SETTINGS AND DESIGN : The study was conducted at JSS hospital , Mysore in the department of pathology. This was a descriptive type of study. The sample was collected fro m patients attending the gynecology OPD with the complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding in JSS hospital . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Smears for cervical cytology are collected using either pap smear or manual liquid based smear from 82 patients in the age grou p of 20 - 75 years with complaints of abnormal bleeding history. The results of cervical cytology were compared and confirmed with the endometrial pathology. RESULTS : Out of 82 abnormal uterine bleeding cases 14 showed atypical endometrial cells. On follow u p of these cases , the results indicated an association between atypical endometrial cells in cervical cytology with endometrial carcinoma in 8 cases (60% , 1 case with complex hyperplasia with atypia (10% . CONCLUSION : Presence of atypical endometrial cell s in all women with abnormal uterine bleeding has considerable clinical implications & further diagnostic evaluation by endometrial sampling is of utmost importance.

  15. Diastolic abnormalities detected by velocity vector imaging in the presence of coronary ischemia: A pilot stress echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Edward Miller

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Significant diastolic abnormalities were detected using a semi-automated VVI analysis in the poststress recovery period. A prospective study is now required in a larger number of patients to correlate the development of diastolic strain abnormalities with extent and location of CAD.

  16. Centrosomal and mitotic abnormalities in cell lines derived from papillary thyroid cancer harboring specific gene alterations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maric, Irena; Viaggi, Silvia; Caria, Paola; Frau, Daniela V; Degan, Paolo; Vanni, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    .... We investigated the centrosome status and mitotic abnormalities in three thyroid carcinoma-derived cell lines, each maintaining the specific, biologically relevant gene alteration harbored by the parental tumors...

  17. Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2006-04-30

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.

  18. Abnormality detection in retinal images using ant colony optimization and artificial neural networks - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Ganesan; Ramakrishnan, Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    Optic disc and retinal vasculature are important anatomical structures in the retina of the eye and any changes observed in these structures provide vital information on severity of various diseases. Digital retinal images are shown to provide a meaningful way of documenting and assessing some of the key elements inside the eye including the optic nerve and the tiny retinal blood vessels. In this work, an attempt has been made to detect and differentiate abnormalities of the retina using Digital image processing together with Optimization based segmentation and Artificial Neural Network methods. The retinal fundus images were recorded using standard protocols. Ant Colony Optimization is employed to extract the most significant objects namely the optic disc and blood vessel. The features related to these objects are obtained and corresponding indices are also derived. Further, these features are subjected to classification using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks and compared with conventional training algorithms. Results show that the Ant Colony Optimization is efficient in extracting useful information from retinal images. The features derived are effective for classification of normal and abnormal images using Radial basis function networks compared to other methods. As Optic disc and blood vessels are significant markers of abnormality in retinal images, the method proposed appears to be useful for mass screening. In this paper, the objectives of the study, methodology and significant observations are presented.

  19. Detection of dermatological abnormalities in the rheumatology clinic using a standardized screening exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Newton Wai Kwan; Towheed, Tanveer Ezad; Hopman, Wilma; Kirchhof, Mark Gajda

    2017-06-14

    To develop a standardized practical screening tool for rheumatologists to assess for underlying dermatological manifestations of rheumatic conditions. A relevant screening tool was developed by consensus between dermatology and rheumatology authors. Patients visiting the general rheumatology clinic for routine care were systematically assessed based on the standardized screening tool. One hundred patients were recruited with 76 being female. The most prevalent rheumatic conditions seen in the clinic were rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The standardized integumentary assessment took a mean of 2.75 (SD 1.61) min. Most patients, 74%, reported no concerns with their hair or nails, while 60% reported no concerns with their skin. The majority of patients had one abnormality identified, 65%, and of those diagnoses, most affected the skin with 71% of patients having an identified skin abnormality, compared with the hair (10%) or nails (13%). The standardized integumentary assessment tool can be successfully incorporated into routine clinical practice for rheumatologists without significant extension of consultation time and may detect relevant abnormalities important for diagnosis which may have been unnoticed by patients. It may encourage collaborative care and enhance clinical outcomes. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics (FICTION) detects BCL6 abnormalities, including gene amplification, in most cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhirev, Alexei G; Vasef, Mohammad A; Zhang, Qian-Yun; Reichard, Kaaren K; Czuchlewski, David R

    2014-04-01

    BCL6 translocations are a frequent finding in B-cell lymphomas of diverse subtypes, including some cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL). However, reliable analysis of BCL6 rearrangements using fluorescence in situ hybridization is difficult in NLPHL because of the relative paucity of neoplastic cells. Combined immunofluorescence microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization, or fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for the investigation of neoplasms (FICTION), permits targeted analysis of neoplastic cells. To better define the spectrum of BCL6 abnormalities in NLPHL using FICTION analysis. We performed an optimized FICTION analysis of 24 lymph nodes, including 11 NLPHL, 5 follicular hyperplasia with prominent progressive transformation of germinal centers, and 8 follicular hyperplasia without progressive transformation of germinal centers. BCL6 rearrangement was identified in 5 of 11 cases of NLPHL (46%). In addition, BCL6 gene amplification, with large clusters of BCL6 signals in the absence of chromosome 3 aneuploidy, was detected in 3 of 11 cases of NLPHL (27%). One NLPHL showed extra copies of BCL6 present in conjunction with multiple copies of chromosome 3. Altogether, we detected BCL6 abnormalities in 9 of 11 cases of NLPHL (82%). None of the progressive transformation of germinal centers or follicular hyperplasia cases showed BCL6 abnormalities by FICTION. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BCL6 gene amplification in NLPHL. Our optimized protocol for FICTION permits detection of cytogenetic abnormalities in most NLPHL cases and may represent a useful ancillary diagnostic technique.

  1. Abnormal mitosis triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in human tetraploid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffer, Christian; Kuznetsova, Anastasia Yurievna; Storchová, Zuzana

    2013-08-01

    Erroneously arising tetraploid mammalian cells are chromosomally instable and may facilitate cell transformation. An increasing body of evidence shows that the propagation of mammalian tetraploid cells is limited by a p53-dependent arrest. The trigger of this arrest has not been identified so far. Here we show by live cell imaging of tetraploid cells generated by an induced cytokinesis failure that most tetraploids arrest and die in a p53-dependent manner after the first tetraploid mitosis. Furthermore, we found that the main trigger is a mitotic defect, in particular, chromosome missegregation during bipolar mitosis or spindle multipolarity. Both a transient multipolar spindle followed by efficient clustering in anaphase as well as a multipolar spindle followed by multipolar mitosis inhibited subsequent proliferation to a similar degree. We found that the tetraploid cells did not accumulate double-strand breaks that could cause the cell cycle arrest after tetraploid mitosis. In contrast, tetraploid cells showed increased levels of oxidative DNA damage coinciding with the p53 activation. To further elucidate the pathways involved in the proliferation control of tetraploid cells, we knocked down specific kinases that had been previously linked to the cell cycle arrest and p53 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates p53 in tetraploid cells after abnormal mitosis and thus contributes to proliferation control of human aberrantly arising tetraploids.

  2. Risk of Abnormal Red Blood Cell to Get Malarial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Malarial infection in red blood cell disorder is an interesting topic in tropical medicine. In this work, the author proposes a new idea on the physical property of red blood cell and risk for getting malarial infection. The study on scenario of red blood cell disorders is performed. Conclusively, the author found that physical property of red blood cell is an important determinant for getting malarial infection

  3. Mathematical impairment associated with high-contrast abnormalities in change detection and magnocellular visual evoked response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2015-10-01

    The cause of developmental dyscalculia, a specific deficit in acquisition of arithmetic skills, particularly of enumeration, has never been investigated with respect to the patency of the visual magnocellular system. Here, the question of dysfunction of the afferent magnocellular cortical input and its dorsal stream projections was tested directly using nonlinear analysis of the visual evoked potential (VEP) and through the psychophysical ability to rapidly detect visual change. A group of young adults with self-reported deficiencies of arithmetical ability, showed marked impairment in magnitude estimation and enumeration performance-though not in lexical decision reaction times when compared with an arithmetically capable group controlled for age and handedness. Multifocal nonlinear VEPs were recorded at low (24 %) and high (96 %) contrast. First- and second-order VEP kernels were comparable between groups at low contrast, but not at high contrast. The mathematically impaired group showed an abnormal lack of contrast saturation in the shortest latency first-order peak (N60) and a delayed P100 positivity in the first slice of the second-order kernel. Both features have previously been argued to be physiological markers of magnocellular function. Mathematically impaired participants also performed worse on a gap paradigm change detection for digit task showing increased reaction times for high-contrast stimuli but not for low-contrast stimuli compared with controls. The VEP results give direct evidence of abnormality in the occipital processing of magnocellular information in those with mathematical impairment. The anomalous high visual contrast physiological and psychophysical performance suggests an abnormality in the inhibitory processes that normally result in saturation of contrast gain in the magnocellular system.

  4. Detection of Abnormal Item Based on Time Intervals for Recommender Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from “shilling” attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (χ2. We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users.

  5. Detection of abnormal item based on time intervals for recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from "shilling" attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (χ(2)). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users.

  6. Abnormal red cell structure and function in neuroacanthocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C A Cluitmans

    Full Text Available Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN belongs to a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders known as neuroacanthocytosis (NA. This genetically heterogeneous group of diseases is characterized by degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia and by the presence of deformed red blood cells with thorny protrusions, acanthocytes, in the circulation.The goal of our study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant red cell morphology and the corresponding functional consequences. This could shed light on the etiology of the neurodegeneration.We performed a qualitative and semi-quantitative morphological, immunofluorescent, biochemical and functional analysis of the red cells of several patients with PKAN and, for the first time, of the red cells of their family members.We show that the blood of patients with PKAN contains not only variable numbers of acanthocytes, but also a wide range of other misshapen red cells. Immunofluorescent and immunoblot analyses suggest an altered membrane organization, rather than quantitative changes in protein expression. Strikingly, these changes are not limited to the red blood cells of PKAN patients, but are also present in the red cells of heterozygous carriers without neurological problems. Furthermore, changes are not only present in acanthocytes, but also in other red cells, including discocytes. The patients' cells, however, are more fragile, as observed in a spleen-mimicking device.These morphological, molecular and functional characteristics of red cells in patients with PKAN and their family members offer new tools for diagnosis and present a window into the pathophysiology of neuroacanthocytosis.

  7. Subtle Sensory Abnormalities Detected by Quantitative Sensory Testing in Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Herta; Rasche, Dirk; Islamian, Ariyan Pirayesh; Rolko, Claudia; Yilmaz, Pinar; Ruppolt, Marc; Capelle, H Holger; Tronnier, Volker; Krauss, Joachim K

    2016-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by paroxysmal pain attacks affecting the somatosensory distributions of the trigeminal nerve. It is thought to be associated with a neurovascular conflict most frequently, but pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In general, no sensory deficit is found in routine clinical examination. There is limited data available, however, showing subtle subclinical sensory deficits upon extensive testing. We used quantitative sensory testing (QST) to detect abnormalities in sensory processing in patients with TN by comparing the affected and non-affected nerve branches with their contralateral counterparts and by comparing the results of the patients with those of controls. Observational study. University Hospital, Departments of Neurosurgery, Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience. QST was conducted on 48 patients with idiopathic TN and 27 controls matched for age and gender using the standardized protocol of the German Neuropathic Pain Network. Stimulations were performed bilaterally in the distribution of the trigeminal branches. The patients had no prior invasive treatment, and medications at the time of examination were noted. In patients with TN deficits in warm and cold sensory detection thresholds in the affected and also the non-affected nerve branches were found. Tactile sensation thresholds were elevated in the involved nerve branches compared to the contralateral side. More data are needed on the correlation of such findings with the length of history of TN and with changes of the morphology of the trigeminal nerve. QST shows subtle sensory abnormalities in patients with TN despite not being detected in routine clinical examination. Our data may provide a basis for further research on the development of TN and also on improvement after treatment. Quantitative sensory testing, trigeminal neuralgia, facial pain, neuropathic pain, microvascular decompression, cranial nerve.

  8. Factors influencing the detection of abnormalities in barium enemas performed by junior radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, T. [Department of Occupational Medicine, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: tapio.vehmas@ttl.fi

    2006-03-15

    Aim: To study the effects of patient variability, technical examination and radiologist-related factors on the radiological diagnosis of barium enema studies. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one residents (12 women and nine men, age 26-39 years) performed 523 double contrast barium enemas in a university hospital. Diagnoses were classified as normal (n=203), diverticulosis (n=224), polyps (n=25), tumours (n=20) and other (n=46); five were missing diagnoses. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were used to study the relations between the independent variables and the radiological diagnoses. Results: Patients' advanced age (p<0.001) and obesity (p=0.041) were significant positive predictors for the detection of any abnormalities, as was good or moderate study quality (p=0.023). However, patients' obesity was negatively associated with the detection of polyps (p=0.037). Pathological findings were associated with higher dose-area products (p=0.047) than normal cases. Residents' advanced age (p=0.029) and experience (a high number of previously performed barium enemas; p=0.009) were negative predictors for the detection of pathological findings. Conclusion: Patients' obesity hampers polyp detection, possibly due to decreased image quality or coexisting diverticula. The most experienced and oldest residents missed positive findings, possibly due to insufficient consultation of supervising radiologists, emphasizing the need for their optimal cooperation.

  9. Improving the performance of univariate control charts for abnormal detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiakopoulos, Christos; Koutsoudaki, Maria; Gryllias, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    Bearing failures in rotating machinery can cause machine breakdown and economical loss, if no effective actions are taken on time. Therefore, it is of prime importance to detect accurately the presence of faults, especially at their early stage, to prevent sequent damage and reduce costly downtime. The machinery fault diagnosis follows a roadmap of data acquisition, feature extraction and diagnostic decision making, in which mechanical vibration fault feature extraction is the foundation and the key to obtain an accurate diagnostic result. A challenge in this area is the selection of the most sensitive features for various types of fault, especially when the characteristics of failures are difficult to be extracted. Thus, a plethora of complex data-driven fault diagnosis methods are fed by prominent features, which are extracted and reduced through traditional or modern algorithms. Since most of the available datasets are captured during normal operating conditions, the last decade a number of novelty detection methods, able to work when only normal data are available, have been developed. In this study, a hybrid method combining univariate control charts and a feature extraction scheme is introduced focusing towards an abnormal change detection and classification, under the assumption that measurements under normal operating conditions of the machinery are available. The feature extraction method integrates the morphological operators and the Morlet wavelets. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is validated on two different experimental cases with bearing faults, demonstrating that the proposed approach can improve the fault detection and classification performance of conventional control charts.

  10. Renal Abnormalities in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Single Center Report from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleem Aamer

    2008-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD. We prospectively studied 73 patients with SCD followed up at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2005 to November 2006,. All patients underwent evaluation of kidney fu...

  11. AUTOMATED SEGMENTATION OF CORTICAL NECROSIS USING A WAVELET BASED ABNORMALITY DETECTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Erus, Guray; Pohl, Kilian M; Tanwar, Manoj; Margiewicz, Stefan; Bryan, R Nick; Davatzikos, Christos

    2011-03-01

    We propose an automated method to segment cortical necrosis from brain FLAIR-MR Images. Cortical necrosis are regions of dead brain tissue in the cortex caused by cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The accurate segmentation of these regions is difficult as their intensity patterns are similar to the adjoining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We generate a model of normal variation using MR scans of healthy controls. The model is based on the Jacobians of warps obtained by registering scans of normal subjects to a common coordinate system. For each patient scan a Jacobian is obtained by warping it to the same coordinate system. Large deviations between the model and subject-specific Jacobians are flagged as `abnormalities'. Abnormalities are segmented as cortical necrosis if they are in the cortex and have the intensity profile of CSF. We evaluate our method by using a set of 72 healthy subjects to model cortical variation.We use this model to successfully detect and segment cortical necrosis in a set of 37 patients with CVD. A comparison of the results with segmentations from two independent human experts shows that the overlap between our approach and either of the human experts is in the range of the overlap between the two human experts themselves.

  12. Immunophenotypic analysis of abnormal plasma cell clones in bone marrow of primary systemic light chain amyloidosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yang; Wang Mangju; Chen Yan; Chen Xue; Fang Fang; Liu Shiqin; Zhang Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a rare plasma cell disease,our purpose was to analyze the immunophenotypic characteristics of the plasma cells in bone marrow in AL patients,and explore whether the detection of abnormal plasma cell clones in bone marrow by flow cytometry (FCM) could be used as an important indicator of AL diagnosis.Methods Fresh bone marrow samples were collected from 51 AL,21 multiple myeloma (MM),and 5 Waldenstr(o)m's macroglobulinemia (WM) patients.The immunophenotype of bone marrow cells were analyzed and compared by FCM using a panel of antibodies including CD45,CD38,CD138,CD117,CD56,and CD19.Results In AL,light chain restriction could be identified in 31 cases (60.9%),in which the λ light chain restriction was found in 24 cases (77.4%).In MM,κ light chain restriction was found in 13 cases (61.9%),and λ light chain restriction in eight cases.CD45 on abnormal plasma cells was negative to weakly positive in both AL and MM,but was positive to strongly positive in WM.In the bone marrow plasma cells of the 51 AL,78.4% were CD56+,68.6% were CD117+,and 88.2% were CD19-.While in the 21 MM cases,66.7% were CD56+,38.1% were CD117+,and 90.4% were CD19-.The plasmacytoid lymphocytes in the five WM patients were CD19+ and CD56-,CD117-.Conclusion Detection of abnormal plasma cell clones in bone marrow by FCM is valuable for the diagnosis of AL.

  13. Focal adhesion protein abnormalities in myelodysplastic mesenchymal stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aanei, Carmen Mariana, E-mail: caanei@yahoo.com [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania); Eloae, Florin Zugun [Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania); Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); Tavernier, Emmanuelle [Service Hematologie Clinique, Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire, 42270, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); Carasevici, Eugen [Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania); Guyotat, Denis [Service Hematologie Clinique, Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire, 42270, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); Campos, Lydia [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2011-11-01

    Direct cell-cell contact between haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and their cellular microenvironment is essential to maintain 'stemness'. In cancer biology, focal adhesion (FA) proteins are involved in survival signal transduction in a wide variety of human tumours. To define the role of FA proteins in the haematopoietic microenvironment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), CD73-positive mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were immunostained for paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and p130CAS, and analysed for reactivity, intensity and cellular localisation. Immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to identify qualitative and quantitative differences, and subcellular localisation analysis revealed that in pathological MSCs, paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} formed nuclear molecular complexes. Increased expression of paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and enhanced nuclear co-localisation of these proteins correlated with a consistent proliferative advantage in MSCs from patients with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and negatively impacted clonogenicity of HPCs. These results suggest that signalling via FA proteins could be implicated in HPC-MSC interactions. Further, because FAK is an HSP90{alpha}/{beta} client protein, these results suggest the utility of HSP90{alpha}/{beta} inhibition as a target for adjuvant therapy for myelodysplasia.

  14. Detecting abnormal vasculature from photoacoustic signals using wavelet-packet features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalev, Jason; Kolios, Michael C.

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic systems can produce high-resolution, high-contrast images of vascular structures. To reconstruct images at very high-resolution, signals must be collected from many transducer locations, which can be time consuming due to limitations in transducer array technology. A method is presented to quickly discriminate between normal and abnormal tissue based on the structural morphology of vasculature. To demonstrate that the approach may be useful for cancer detection, a special simulator that produces photoacoustic signals from 3D models of vascular tissue is developed. Results show that it is possible to differentiate tissue classes even when it is not possible to resolve individual blood vessels. Performance of the algorithm remains strong as the number of transducer locations decreases and in the presence of noise.

  15. An efficient sampling algorithm for uncertain abnormal data detection in biomedical image processing and disease prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Xi; Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a computer information processing algorithm that can be used for biomedical image processing and disease prediction. A biomedical image is considered a data object in a multi-dimensional space. Each dimension is a feature that can be used for disease diagnosis. We introduce a new concept of the top (k1,k2) outlier. It can be used to detect abnormal data objects in the multi-dimensional space. This technique focuses on uncertain space, where each data object has several possible instances with distinct probabilities. We design an efficient sampling algorithm for the top (k1,k2) outlier in uncertain space. Some improvement techniques are used for acceleration. Experiments show our methods' high accuracy and high efficiency.

  16. Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccomanno, G.

    2000-06-30

    ''Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology'' was funded by the Department of Energy to monitor the health effects of radon exposure and/or cigarette smoke on uranium workers from the Colorado Plateau. The resulting Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive and data base has been used as a source of information to prove eligibility for compensation under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act and as the source of primary data tissue for a subcontract and other collaborations with outside investigators. The latter includes a study of radon exposure and lung cancer risk in a non-smoking cohort of uranium miners (subcontract); a study of genetic markers for lung cancer susceptibility; and a study of {sup 210}Pb accumulation in the skull as a biomarker of radon exposure.

  17. Application of the FICTION technique for the simultaneous detection of immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities in routinely fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow trephines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korac, P; Jones, M; Dominis, M; Kusec, R; Mason, D Y; Banham, A H; Ventura, R A

    2005-12-01

    The use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to study cytogenetic abnormalities in routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue has become commonplace over the past decade. However, very few studies have applied FISH to routinely fixed bone marrow trephines (BMTs). This may be because of the acid based decalcification methods that are commonly used during the processing of BMTs, which may adversely affect the suitability of the sample for FISH analysis. For the first time, this report describes the simultaneous application of FISH and immunofluorescent staining (the FICTION technique) to formalin fixed, EDTA decalcified and paraffin wax embedded BMTs. This technique allows the direct correlation of genetic abnormalities to immunophenotype, and therefore will be particularly useful for the identification of genetic abnormalities in specific tumour cells present in BMTs. The application of this to routine clinical practice will assist diagnosis and the detection of minimal residual disease.

  18. Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools.

  19. [Detecting the abnormal expression of PDGFRA gene in eosinophilia by FISH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Fang; Xi, Lian-Yong; Wang, Hua; Dong, Fei; Zhao, Wei; Ke, Xiao-Yan

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the abnormal expression of PDGFRA gene in eosinophilia by FISH. Translocations of PDGFRA gene in 13 patients with eosinophilia were detected by using 4q12 three-color probe and FISH technology. Fifteen people were used as control to establish the normal cut-off value of fluorescence signal of PDGFRA. The results indicated that 1 out of 13 patients with eosinophilia was corrected and was diagnosed as CML. The fusion gene of FIP1L1-PDGFRA (F/P) was found in 2 patients and the positive rate of F/P fusion gene detected by probe 4q12 was 17% in the 12 patients with eosinophilia. Other translocation forms involving PDGFRA gene were not found. It is concluded that a variety of translocation forms of PDGFRA gene can be detected in patients with eosinophilia by using 4q12 three-color probe and FISH technology, which can provide important information for assessing diagnosis and treatment.

  20. A Nanodot Array Modulates Cell Adhesion and Induces an Apoptosis-Like Abnormality in NIH-3T3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Yao-Ching

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Micro-structures that mimic the extracellular substratum promote cell growth and differentiation, while the cellular reaction to a nanostructure is poorly defined. To evaluate the cellular response to a nanoscaled surface, NIH 3T3 cells were grown on nanodot arrays with dot diameters ranging from 10 to 200 nm. The nanodot arrays were fabricated by AAO processing on TaN-coated wafers. A thin layer of platinum, 5 nm in thickness, was sputtered onto the structure to improve biocompatibility. The cells grew normally on the 10-nm array and on flat surfaces. However, 50-nm, 100-nm, and 200-nm nanodot arrays induced apoptosis-like events. Abnormality was triggered after as few as 24 h of incubation on a 200-nm dot array. For cells grown on the 50-nm array, the abnormality started after 72 h of incubation. The number of filopodia extended from the cell bodies was lower for the abnormal cells. Immunostaining using antibodies against vinculin and actin filament was performed. Both the number of focal adhesions and the amount of cytoskeleton were decreased in cells grown on the 100-nm and 200-nm arrays. Pre-coatings of fibronectin (FN or type I collagen promoted cellular anchorage and prevented the nanotopography-induced programed cell death. In summary, nanotopography, in the form of nanodot arrays, induced an apoptosis-like abnormality for cultured NIH 3T3 cells. The occurrence of the abnormality was mediated by the formation of focal adhesions.

  1. Hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species cause chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyako Kondoh

    Full Text Available There is much evidence that hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor progression. In an earlier study, we reported abnormal phenotypes of tumor-associated endothelial cells such as those resistant to chemotherapy and chromosomal instability. Here we investigated the role of hypoxia in the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells. Tumor-associated endothelial cells isolated from human tumor xenografts showed chromosomal abnormalities, >30% of which were aneuploidy. Aneuploidy of the tumor-associated endothelial cells was also shown by simultaneous in-situ hybridization for chromosome 17 and by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD31 antibody for endothelial staining. The aneuploid cells were surrounded by a pimonidazole-positive area, indicating hypoxia. Human microvascular endothelial cells expressed hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A in response to either hypoxia or hypoxia-reoxygenation, and in these conditions, they acquired aneuploidy in 7 days. Induction of aneuploidy was inhibited by either inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor or by inhibition of reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. These results indicate that hypoxia induces chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells through the induction of reactive oxygen species and excess signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor microenvironment.

  2. Hypoxia-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Cause Chromosomal Abnormalities in Endothelial Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Yasuhiro; Maishi, Nako; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Inoue, Nobuo; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    There is much evidence that hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor progression. In an earlier study, we reported abnormal phenotypes of tumor-associated endothelial cells such as those resistant to chemotherapy and chromosomal instability. Here we investigated the role of hypoxia in the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells. Tumor-associated endothelial cells isolated from human tumor xenografts showed chromosomal abnormalities, >30% of which were aneuploidy. Aneuploidy of the tumor-associated endothelial cells was also shown by simultaneous in-situ hybridization for chromosome 17 and by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD31 antibody for endothelial staining. The aneuploid cells were surrounded by a pimonidazole-positive area, indicating hypoxia. Human microvascular endothelial cells expressed hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A in response to either hypoxia or hypoxia-reoxygenation, and in these conditions, they acquired aneuploidy in 7 days. Induction of aneuploidy was inhibited by either inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor or by inhibition of reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. These results indicate that hypoxia induces chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells through the induction of reactive oxygen species and excess signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24260373

  3. Tumor-derived endothelial cells exhibit aberrant Rho-mediated mechanosensing and abnormal angiogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kaustabh; Thodeti, Charles K; Dudley, Andrew C; Mammoto, Akiko; Klagsbrun, Michael; Ingber, Donald E

    2008-08-12

    Tumor blood vessels exhibit abnormal structure and function that cause disturbed blood flow and high interstitial pressure, which impair delivery of anti-cancer agents. Past efforts to normalize the tumor vasculature have focused on inhibition of soluble angiogenic factors, such as VEGF; however, capillary endothelial (CE) cell growth and differentiation during angiogenesis are also influenced by mechanical forces conveyed by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we explored the possibility that tumor CE cells form abnormal vessels because they lose their ability to sense and respond to these physical cues. These studies reveal that, in contrast to normal CE cells, tumor-derived CE cells fail to reorient their actin cytoskeleton when exposed to uniaxial cyclic strain, exhibit distinct shape sensitivity to variations in ECM elasticity, exert greater traction force, and display an enhanced ability to retract flexible ECM substrates and reorganize into tubular networks in vitro. These behaviors correlate with a constitutively high level of baseline activity of the small GTPase Rho and its downstream effector, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). Moreover, decreasing Rho-mediated tension by using the ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, can reprogram the tumor CE cells so that they normalize their reorientation response to uniaxial cyclic strain and their ability to form tubular networks on ECM gels. Abnormal Rho-mediated sensing of mechanical cues in the tumor microenvironment may therefore contribute to the aberrant behaviors of tumor CE cells that result in the development of structural abnormalities in the cancer microvasculature.

  4. Automated Abnormal Mass Detection in the Mammogram Images Using Chebyshev Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Talebpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among women after lung cancer. Early diagnosis of this disease has a major role in its treatment. Thus the use of computer systems as a detection tool could be viewed as essential to helping with this disease. In this study a new system for automated mass detection in mammography images is presented as being more accurate and valid. After optimization of the image and extracting a better picture of the breast tissue from the image and applying log-polar transformation, Chebyshev moments can be calculated in all areas of breast tissue. Then after extracting effective features in the diagnosis of mammography images, abnormal masses, which are important for the physician and specialists, can be determined with applying the appropriate threshold. To check the system performance, images in the MIAS (Mammographic Image Analysis Society mammogram database have been used and the results allowed us to draw a FROC (Free Response Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. When compared the FROC curve with similar systems experts, the high ability of our system was confirmed. In this system, images of different thresholds, specifically 445, 450, 455 are processed and then put through a sensitivity analysis. The process garnered good results 100, 92 and 84%, respectively and a false positive rate per image 2.56, 0.86, 0.26, respectively have been calculated. Comparing other automatic mass detection systems, the proposed method has a few advantages over prior systems: Our process allows us to determine the amount of false positives and/or sensitivity parameters within the system. This can be determined by the importance of the detection work being done. The proposed system achieves 100% sensitivity and 2.56 false positive for every image.

  5. Basic Characteristics of a Macroscopic Measure for Detecting Abnormal Changes in a Multiagent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Kinoshita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiagent application systems must deal with various changes in both the system and the system environment at runtime. Generally, such changes have undesirable negative effects on the system. To manage and control the system, it is important to observe and detect negative effects using an appropriate observation function of the system’s behavior. This paper focuses on the design of this function and proposes a new macroscopic measure with which to observe behavioral characteristics of a runtime multiagent system. The proposed measure is designed as the variance of fluctuation of a macroscopic activity factor of the whole system, based on theoretical analysis of the macroscopic behavioral model of a multiagent system. Experiments are conducted to investigate basic characteristics of the proposed measure, using a test bed system. The results of experiments show that the proposed measure reacts quickly and increases drastically in response to abnormal changes in the system. Hence, the proposed measure is considered a measure that can be used to detect undesirable changes in a multiagent system.

  6. Basic Characteristics of a Macroscopic Measure for Detecting Abnormal Changes in a Multiagent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Multiagent application systems must deal with various changes in both the system and the system environment at runtime. Generally, such changes have undesirable negative effects on the system. To manage and control the system, it is important to observe and detect negative effects using an appropriate observation function of the system’s behavior. This paper focuses on the design of this function and proposes a new macroscopic measure with which to observe behavioral characteristics of a runtime multiagent system. The proposed measure is designed as the variance of fluctuation of a macroscopic activity factor of the whole system, based on theoretical analysis of the macroscopic behavioral model of a multiagent system. Experiments are conducted to investigate basic characteristics of the proposed measure, using a test bed system. The results of experiments show that the proposed measure reacts quickly and increases drastically in response to abnormal changes in the system. Hence, the proposed measure is considered a measure that can be used to detect undesirable changes in a multiagent system. PMID:25897499

  7. Abnormal hepatic copper accumulation of spheroid composed of liver cells from LEC rats in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, K; Yoshizawa, M; Satoh, T; Yoneda, S; Ohmichi, M; Yamazaki, M; Mori, Y; Suzuki, K T

    1995-11-01

    The LEC rat is a mutant strain displaying hereditary hepatitis, and shows abnormal accumulation of copper (Cu) similar to that occurring in Wilson's disease. We prepared a multicellular spheroid composed of LEC rat liver cells to investigate the mechanism for abnormal accumulation of Cu. These multicellular spheroids were prepared by detaching the monolayer on the collagen-conjugated thermo-responsive polymer coated culture dish at a temperature below the critical solution temperature and culturing on the non-adhesive substratum. Long-term cultured spheroids of LEC rat liver cells as well as SD rat liver cells were attempted. Non-parenchymal cells obtained by collagenase perfusion from the LEC liver were fewer than those from the SD liver. Cells from the LEC rat, over 11 weeks of age, did not form a cell sheet; however, a mixture of parenchymal cells from LEC rats over aged 11 weeks and non-parenchymal cells from SD rats of any age yielded intact spheroids. We examined the toxicity, the accumulation and distribution of Cu in spheroids. The accumulation of Cu in LEC spheroids was higher than that in SD spheroids. Results suggest that spheroids consisting of LEC liver cells are useful as an alternative model to in vivo tests to investigate the mechanism for abnormal accumulation of Cu in liver.

  8. Abnormal response to mental stress in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy detected by gated single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciagra, Roberto; Genovese, Sabrina; Pupi, Alberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Florence (Italy); Parodi, Guido; Bellandi, Benedetta; Antoniucci, David [Careggi Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Florence (Italy); Del Pace, Stefano; Zampini, Linda; Gensini, Gian Franco [Careggi Hospital, Department of Heart and Vessels, Unit of General Cardiology, Florence (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Persistent abnormalities are usually not detected in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). Since sympathetically mediated myocardial damage has been proposed as a causative mechanism of TTC, we explored whether mental stress could evoke abnormalities in these patients. One month after an acute event, 22 patients fulfilling all TTC diagnostic criteria and 11 controls underwent resting and mental stress gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion, wall motion, transient ischaemic dilation (TID) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) were evaluated. None of the controls showed stress-induced abnormalities. Mental stress evoked regional changes (perfusion defects and/or wall motion abnormality) in 16 TTC subjects and global abnormalities (LVEF fall >5% and/or TID >1.10) in 13; 3 had a completely negative response. TID, delta LVEF and delta wall motion score were significantly different in TTC vs control patients: 1.08 {+-} 0.20 vs 0.95 {+-} 0.11 (p < 0.05), -1.7 {+-} 6% vs 4 {+-} 5% (p < 0.02) and 2.5 (0, 4.25) vs 0 (0, 0) (p < 0.002), respectively. Mental stress may evoke regional and/or global abnormalities in most TTC patients. The abnormal response to mental stress supports the role of sympathetic stimulation in TTC. Mental stress could thus be helpful for TTC evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Cell death associated with abnormal mitosis observed by confocal imaging in live cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiel, Asher; Visochek, Leonid; Mittelman, Leonid; Zilberstein, Yael; Dantzer, Francoise; Izraeli, Shai; Cohen-Armon, Malka

    2013-08-21

    Phenanthrene derivatives acting as potent PARP1 inhibitors prevented the bi-focal clustering of supernumerary centrosomes in multi-centrosomal human cancer cells in mitosis. The phenanthridine PJ-34 was the most potent molecule. Declustering of extra-centrosomes causes mitotic failure and cell death in multi-centrosomal cells. Most solid human cancers have high occurrence of extra-centrosomes. The activity of PJ-34 was documented in real-time by confocal imaging of live human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with vectors encoding for fluorescent γ-tubulin, which is highly abundant in the centrosomes and for fluorescent histone H2b present in the chromosomes. Aberrant chromosomes arrangements and de-clustered γ-tubulin foci representing declustered centrosomes were detected in the transfected MDA-MB-231 cells after treatment with PJ-34. Un-clustered extra-centrosomes in the two spindle poles preceded their cell death. These results linked for the first time the recently detected exclusive cytotoxic activity of PJ-34 in human cancer cells with extra-centrosomes de-clustering in mitosis, and mitotic failure leading to cell death. According to previous findings observed by confocal imaging of fixed cells, PJ-34 exclusively eradicated cancer cells with multi-centrosomes without impairing normal cells undergoing mitosis with two centrosomes and bi-focal spindles. This cytotoxic activity of PJ-34 was not shared by other potent PARP1 inhibitors, and was observed in PARP1 deficient MEF harboring extracentrosomes, suggesting its independency of PARP1 inhibition. Live confocal imaging offered a useful tool for identifying new molecules eradicating cells during mitosis.

  10. Model observer design for detecting multiple abnormalities in anatomical background images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Park, Subok

    2016-03-01

    As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Existing model observers were typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g., multifocal and multicentric breast cancers (MMBC)), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori. As new imaging techniques have the potential to improve multiple-signal detection (e.g., digital breast tomosynthesis may be more effective for diagnosis of MMBC than planar mammography), image quality assessment approaches addressing such tasks are needed. In this study, we present a model-observer mechanism to detect multiple signals in the same image dataset. To handle the high dimensionality of images, a novel implementation of partial least squares (PLS) was developed to estimate different sets of efficient channels directly from the images. Without any prior knowledge of the background or the signals, the PLS channels capture interactions between signals and the background which provide discriminant image information. Corresponding linear decision templates are employed to generate both image-level and location-specific scores on the presence of signals. Our preliminary results show that the model observer using PLS channels, compared to our first attempts with Laguerre-Gauss channels, can achieve high performance with a reasonably small number of channels, and the optimal design of the model observer may vary as the tasks of clinical interest change.

  11. Significance of sagittal reformations in routine thoracic and abdominal multislice CT studies for detecting osteoporotic fractures and other spine abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Dirk; Bauer, Jan S.; Zeile, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, TU Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, UCSF, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-08-15

    The purpose was to assess osteoporotic vertebral fractures and other spinal lesions in sagittal reformations obtained from routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) studies of the thorax and abdomen, to compare sagittal reformations with axial images in detecting these lesions and to investigate how frequently they were missed in the official radiology report. Routine abdominal or thoracoabdominal MDCT using a standard protocol was performed in 112 postmenopausal women. Axial images and sagittal reformations were analyzed separately by two radiologists in consensus and were compared in order to evaluate how often spinal lesions could be detected. In addition the official radiology reports were assessed to determine how many of those abnormalities were identified. Spine abnormalities were visualized in 101/112 postmenopausal women. In 27 patients osteoporotic vertebral deformities were found; 6 of these were shown in the axial images, but none of these were diagnosed in the official radiology report. Additional abnormalities included degenerative disc disease, osteoarthritis of the facet joints, scoliosis, hemangiomas and bone metastases. In only 9/101 patients spine abnormalities were mentioned in the radiology report. Sagittal reformations of standard MDCT images provide important additional information on spinal abnormalities; in particular, osteoporotic vertebral deformities are substantially better detected. (orig.)

  12. Cytogenetic abnormalities and clinical stage in testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, W E; van Echten-Arends, J; Oosterhuis, J W; de Jong, B; te Meerman, G J; Wiersema-Buist, J; Sleijfer, D T; Schraffordt Koops, H

    1993-01-01

    To study the impact of chromosomal abnormalities on the clinical behavior of testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (TNSGCTs), we compared the chromosomal constitution of primary tumors of patients who initially presented and remained without metastases to those with metastatic disease. Further

  13. Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq, a Herbal Preparation of Traditional Uighur Medicine, Inhibits Caco-2 Cells Proliferation via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdiryim Yusup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Study the effect of Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq ethanol extract on the proliferation, apoptosis, and correlative gene, expression in colon cancer cells (Caco-2 to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anticancer property of Abnormal Savda Munziq. Materials and Methods. ASMq ethanol extract was prepared by a professional pharmacist. Caco-2 cells were treated with different concentration of ASMq ethanol extract (0.5–7.5 mg/mL for different time intervals (48 and 72 h. Antiproliferative effect of ASMq ethanol extract was determined by MTT assay; DNA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis assay; cell cycle analysis was detected by flow cytometer; apoptosis-related gene expression was detected by RT-PCR assay. Results. ASMq ethanol extract possesses an inhibition effect on Caco-2 cells proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in sub-G1 phase, and downregulation of bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax gene expression. Conclusion. The anticancer mechanism of ASMq ethanol extract may be involved in antiproliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and regulation of apoptosis-related gene expression such as bcl-2 and Bax activity pathway.

  14. Expanded polyglutamines in Caenorhabditis elegans cause axonal abnormalities and severe dysfunction of PLM mechanosensory neurons without cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J A; Connolly, J B; Wellington, C; Hayden, M; Dausset, J; Neri, C

    2001-11-06

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the protein huntingtin (htt). HD pathogenesis appears to involve the production of mutated N-terminal htt, cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregation of htt, and abnormal activity of htt interactor proteins essential to neuronal survival. Before cell death, neuronal dysfunction may be an important step of HD pathogenesis. To explore polyQ-mediated neuronal toxicity, we expressed the first 57 amino acids of human htt containing normal [19 Gln residues (Glns)] and expanded (88 or 128 Glns) polyQ fused to fluorescent marker proteins in the six touch receptor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Expanded polyQ produced touch insensitivity in young adults. Noticeably, only 28 +/- 6% of animals with 128 Glns were touch sensitive in the tail, as mediated by the PLM neurons. Similar perinuclear deposits and faint nuclear accumulation of fusion proteins with 19, 88, and 128 Glns were observed. In contrast, significant deposits and morphological abnormalities in PLM cell axons were observed with expanded polyQ (128 Glns) and partially correlated with touch insensitivity. PLM cell death was not detected in young or old adults. These animals indicate that significant neuronal dysfunction without cell death may be induced by expanded polyQ and may correlate with axonal insults, and not cell body aggregates. These animals also provide a suitable model to perform in vivo suppression of polyQ-mediated neuronal dysfunction.

  15. Cell Junction Pathology of Neural Stem Cells Is Associated With Ventricular Zone Disruption, Hydrocephalus, and Abnormal Neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montserrat Guerra, Maria; Henzi, Roberto; Ortloff, Alexander; Lichtin, Nicole; Vio, Karin; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Dolores Dominguez-Pinos, Maria; Gonzalez, Cesar; Clara Jara, Maria; Hinostroza, Fernando; Rodriguez, Sara; Jara, Maryoris; Ortega, Eduardo; Guerra, Francisco; Sival, Deborah A.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Perez-Figares, Jose M.; McAllister, James P.; Johanson, Conrad E.; Rodriguez, Esteban M.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal-onset hydrocephalus affects 1 to 3 per 1,000 live births. It is not only a disorder of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics but also a brain disorder that corrective surgery does not ameliorate. We hypothesized that cell junction abnormalities of neural stem cells (NSCs) lead to the inseparable phenom

  16. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  17. Improved detection of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by conventional cytogenetics using CpG oligonucleotide and interleukin-2 stimulation: A Belgian multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Put, Natalie; Konings, Peter; Rack, Katrina; Jamar, Mauricette; Van Roy, Nadine; Libouton, Jeanne-Marie; Vannuffel, Pascal; Sartenaer, Daniel; Ameye, Geneviève; Speleman, Frank; Herens, Christian; Poirel, Hélène A; Moreau, Yves; Hagemeijer, Anne; Vandenberghe, Peter; Michaux, Lucienne

    2009-10-01

    We performed a multicentric study to assess the impact of two different culture procedures on the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in 217 consecutive unselected cases with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) referred for routine analysis either at the time of diagnosis (n = 172) or during disease evolution (n = 45). Parallel cultures of peripheral blood or bone marrow were set up with the addition of either the conventional B-cell mitogen 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or a combination of CpG oligonucleotide (CpG) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Cytogenetic analyses were performed on both cultures. Clonal abnormalities were identified in 116 cases (53%). In 78 cases (36%), the aberrant clone was detected in both cultures. Among these, the percentages of aberrant metaphases were similar in both conditions in 17 cases, higher in the CpG/IL-2 culture in 43 cases, and higher in the TPA culture in 18 cases. Clonal aberrations were detected in only one culture, either in CpG/IL-2 or TPA in 33 (15%) and 5 (2%) cases, respectively. Taken together, abnormal karyotypes were observed in 51% with CpG/IL-2 and 38% with TPA (P cytogenetic analysis in 80 cases: del(13q) (n = 71), del(11q) (n = 5), +12 (n = 2), del(14q) (n = 1), and del(17p) (n = 1). In conclusion, our results confirm that CpG/IL-2 stimulation increases the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in CLL compared with TPA and that further improvement can be obtained by FISH. However, neither conventional cytogenetics nor FISH detected all aberrations, demonstrating the complementary nature of these techniques.

  18. Abnormal Ventral and Dorsal Attention Network Activity During Single and Dual Target Detection in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Jimenez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early visual perception and attention are impaired in schizophrenia, and these deficits can be observed on target detection tasks. These tasks activate distinct ventral and dorsal brain networks which support stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention, respectively. We used single and dual target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP tasks during fMRI with an ROI approach to examine regions within these networks associated with target detection and the attentional blink (AB in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls. In both tasks, letters were targets and numbers were distractors. For the dual target task, the second target (T2 was presented at 3 different lags after the first target (T1 (lag1=100ms, lag3=300ms, lag7=700ms. For both single and dual target tasks, patients identified fewer targets than controls. For the dual target task, both groups showed the expected AB effect with poorer performance at lag 3 than at lags 1 or 7, and there was no group by lag interaction. During the single target task, patients showed abnormally increased deactivation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, a key region of the ventral network. When attention demands were increased during the dual target task, patients showed overactivation of the posterior intraparietal cortex, a key dorsal network region, along with failure to deactivate TPJ. Results suggest inefficient and faulty suppression of salience-oriented processing regions, resulting in increased sensitivity to stimuli in general, and difficulty distinguishing targets from non-targets.

  19. Patient-centered clinical impact of incidentally detected abnormalities on chest CT scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine G. Moftah

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The clinically significant different incidental abnormalities on chest CT scans represented 10.4% of all incidental findings, 3.3% were due to malignancies. The clinical impact of incidental abnormalities on chest CT may be of utmost importance on patient care.

  20. Dendritic Cells for Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems, more specifically the negative selection algorithm, have previously been applied to intrusion detection. The aim of this research is to develop an intrusion detection system based on a novel concept in immunology, the Danger Theory. Dendritic Cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells and key to the activation of the human signals from the host tissue and correlate these signals with proteins know as antigens. In algorithmic terms, individual DCs perform multi-sensor data fusion based on time-windows. The whole population of DCs asynchronously correlates the fused signals with a secondary data stream. The behaviour of human DCs is abstracted to form the DC Algorithm (DCA), which is implemented using an immune inspired framework, libtissue. This system is used to detect context switching for a basic machine learning dataset and to detect outgoing portscans in real-time. Experimental results show a significant difference between an outgoing portscan and normal traffic.

  1. FISH studies of chromosome abnormalities in germ cells and its relevance in reproductive counseling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaida Sarrate; Joan Blanco; Ester Anton; Susana Egozcue; Josep Egozcue; Francesca Vidal

    2005-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are one of the major causes of human infertility. In infertile males, abnormal karyotypes are more frequent than in the general population. Furthermore, meiotic disorders affecting the germ cell-line have been observed in men with normal somatic karyotypes consulting for infertility. In both cases, the production of unbalanced spermatozoa has been demonstrated. Basically addressed to establish reproductive risks, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on decondensed sperm heads has become the most frequently used method to evaluate the chromosomal constitution of spermatozoa in carriers of numerical sex chromosome abnormalities, carriers of structural chromosome reorganizations and infertile males with normal karyotype. The aim of this review is to present updated figures of the information obtained through sperm FISH studies with an emphasis on its clinical significance. Furthermore, the incorporation of novel FISH-based techniques (Multiplex-FISH; Multi-FISH) in male infertility studies is also discussed.

  2. Human mesenchymal stem cells are sensitive to abnormal gravity and exhibit classic apoptotic features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Meng; Hui-yun Xu; Sheng-meng Di; Dong-yan Shi; Ai-rong Qian; Jin-fu Wang; Peng Shang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of abnormal gravity on human mesenchymal stem cells(hMSCs).Strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient generate a magnetic force that can add to or subtract from the gravitational force.In this study,this is defined as a high-magneto-gravitational environment(HMGE).The HMGE provides three apparent gravity levels,i.e.hypogravity(μg),hypergravity(2g)and normal gravity with strong magnetic field(1g)conditions.After hMSCs were subject to HMGE for 12 h,the proliferation,morphology,structure and apoptosis were investigated.Results showed that the proliferation of hMSCs was inhibited under μg condition The abnormal gravity induced morphologic characterishcs of apoptosis cells,such as cell shrinkage,membrane blebbing,nuclear chromatin condensation and margination,decreased cell viability,and increased caspase-3/7 activity.The rate of apoptosis underμg condition is up to 56.95%.The F-actin stress fibers and microtubules were disrupted under abnormal gravity condition.Under μg-condition,the expression of p53 at mRNA and protein levels was up-regulated more than 9-and 6 folds,respectively.The Pifithrin-a,an specific inhibitor of p53,inhibited the apoptosis and prevented the disruption of cytoskeleton induced by abnormal gravity.These results implied that hMSCs were sensitive to abnormal gravity and exhibited classic apoptotic features,which might be associated with p53 signaling.

  3. Development of detective system for abnormal wear of engine bearings; Engine suberi jikuuke ijo mamo kenshutsu system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, N.; Kumagai, Y.; Nakamura, K. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    A technique has been developed for sensing abnormal wear of engine bearings at its incipient stage, and the result of application of the technique to a real engine on the bench is outlined. The abnormal wear sensor unit comprises an ultrasonic microphone for collecting AE signals and a detector including a signal processing circuit. The ultrasonic microphone senses ultrasonic waves in the air in the direction that it faces, and the detector converts them into voltage signals and amplify them. The detector next squares the amplified signals and gets the absolute values. AE signals that are emitted during normal operation are used to establish the detection threshold, and AE signals that are beyond the threshold value are fed into a counter circuit for the numerical representation of the frequency of occurrence. So as to observe quantitavely the increase in the frequency of AE signals as abnormal wear advances, the number per unit time of acoustic signals that are beyond the threshold value is counted. The bearing performance aboard the real engine is checked by stopping the supply of lubricant for purposely producing abnormal wear. The result is that abnormal wear can be definitely detected at its incipient stage. 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Cell Cycle Phase Abnormalities Do Not Account for Disordered Proliferation in Barrett's Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lao-Sirieix

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE epithelium is the precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cell cycle proteins have been advocated as biomarkers to predict the malignant potential in BE. However, whether disruption of the cell cycle plays a causal role in Barrett's carcinogenesis is not clear. Specimens from the Barrett's dysplasia—carcinoma sequence were immunostained for cell cycle phase markers (cyclin D1 for G1; cyclin A for S, G2, and M; cytoplasmic cyclin B1 for G2; and phosphorylated histone 3 for M phase and expressed as a proportion of proliferating cells. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle phase of prospective biopsies was also performed. The proliferation status of nondysplastic BE was similar to gastric antrum and D2, but the proliferative compartment extended to the luminal surface. In dysplastic samples, the number of proliferating cells correlated with the degree of dysplasia (P < .001. The overall levels of cyclins A and B1 correlated with the degree of dysplasia (P < .001. However, the cell cycle phase distribution measured with both immunostaining and flow cytometry was conserved during all stages of BE, dysplasia, and cancer. Hence, the increased proliferation seen in Barrett's carcinogenesis is due to abnormal cell cycle entry or exit, rather than a primary abnormality within the cell cycle.

  5. Abnormal spatial diffusion of Ca2+ in F508del-CFTR airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becq Frédéric

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In airway epithelial cells, calcium mobilization can be elicited by selective autocrine and/or paracrine activation of apical or basolateral membrane heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors linked to phospholipase C (PLC stimulation, which generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG and induces Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER stores. Methods In the present study, we monitored the cytosolic Ca2+ transients using the UV light photolysis technique to uncage caged Ca2+ or caged IP3 into the cytosol of loaded airway epithelial cells of cystic fibrosis (CF and non-CF origin. We compared in these cells the types of Ca2+ receptors present in the ER, and measured their Ca2+ dependent activity before and after correction of F508del-CFTR abnormal trafficking either by low temperature or by the pharmacological corrector miglustat (N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. Results We showed reduction of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R dependent-Ca2+ response following both correcting treatments compared to uncorrected cells in such a way that Ca2+ responses (CF+treatment vs wild-type cells were normalized. This normalization of the Ca2+ rate does not affect the activity of Ca2+-dependent chloride channel in miglustat-treated CF cells. Using two inhibitors of IP3R1, we observed a decrease of the implication of IP3R1 in the Ca2+ response in CF corrected cells. We observed a similar Ca2+ mobilization between CF-KM4 cells and CFTR-cDNA transfected CF cells (CF-KM4-reverted. When we restored the F508del-CFTR trafficking in CFTR-reverted cells, the specific IP3R activity was also reduced to a similar level as in non CF cells. At the structural level, the ER morphology of CF cells was highly condensed around the nucleus while in non CF cells or corrected CF cells the ER was extended at the totality of cell. Conclusion These results suggest reversal of the IP3R dysfunction in F508del-CFTR epithelial

  6. Detection and Type-Distribution of Human Papillomavirus in Vulva and Vaginal Abnormal Cytology Lesions and Cancer Tissues from Thai Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkham, Jarunya; Boonmark, Krittika; Phansri, Thainsang

    2016-01-01

    Vulva and Vaginal cancers are rare among all gynecological cancers worldwide, including Thailand, and typically affect women in later life. Persistent high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is one of several important causes of cancer development. In this study, we focused on HPV investigation and specific type distribution from Thai women with abnormality lesions and cancers of the vulva and Vaginal. A total of ninety paraffin-embedded samples of vulva and Vaginal abnormalities and cancer cells with histologically confirmed were collected from Thai women, who were diagnosed in 2003-2012 at the National Cancer Institute, Thailand. HPV DNA was detected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay with GP5+/ bio 6+ consensus specific primers and digoxigenin-labeled specific oligoprobes, respectively. The human β-globin gene was used as an internal control. Overall results represented that HPV frequency was 16/34 (47.1%) and 8/20 (40.0%) samples of vulva with cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, while, 3/5 (60%) and 16/33 (51.61%) samples of Vaginal cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, were HPV DNA positive. Single HPV type and multiple HPV type infection could be observed in both type of cancers and abnormal lesion samples in the different histological categorizes. HPV16 was the most frequent type in all cancers and abnormal cytology lesions, whereas HPV 18 was less frequent and could be detected as co-infection with other high risk HPV types. In addition, low risk types such as HPV 6, 11 and 70 could be detected in Vulva cancer and abnormal cytology lesion samples, whereas, all Vaginal cancer samples exhibited only high risk HPV types; HPV 16 and 31. In conclusion, from our results in this study we suggest that women with persistent high risk HPV type infection are at risk of developing vulva and Vaginal cancers and HPV 16 was observed at the highest frequent both of these, similar to the cervical

  7. Detection of protozoal Trichomonas vaginalis and abnormal vaginal flora in high vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wills G. Sheela

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study reflects on our responsibility to create awareness among women regarding abnormal vaginal discharge through proper health education routine screening targeted treatment to envisage healthy quality life.

  8. Cytomorphological evaluation of squamous cell abnormalities observed on cervical smears in government medical college, Jabalpur, India: a five year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Rajesh Nandwani

    2016-03-01

    Results: The overall frequency of normal, inadequate, inflammatory, and abnormal smears was 11.86%, 5.73%, 74.98% and 13.2% respectively. Atypical squamous cell carcinoma of undermined significance (ASCUS was seen in 3.61%, squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL was seen in 5.36%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL was seen in 2.59% while high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL was seen in 2.77%. Invasive carcinoma was seen in 3.69%. The premalignant epithelial abnormalities like ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL were found to be highest in the age group of 31-50 years in our study, which correlated well with other similar studies. Conclusions: Hence we should advocate regular cervical cytology (PAP smear study, which can help to treat cervix lesions early before the progress into cervical cancer. Early detection is the only key to saving a woman's life as the later the abnormalities are discovered; mortality, morbidity and treatment cost all increase. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 794-799

  9. Immune Dysfunction Associated with Abnormal Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stroma Cells in Senescence Accelerated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Senescence accelerated mice (SAM are a group of mice that show aging-related diseases, and SAM prone 10 (SAMP10 show spontaneous brain atrophy and defects in learning and memory. Our previous report showed that the thymus and the percentage of T lymphocytes are abnormal in the SAMP10, but it was unclear whether the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stroma cells (BMMSCs were abnormal, and whether they played an important role in regenerative medicine. We thus compared BMMSCs from SAMP10 and their control, SAM-resistant (SAMR1, in terms of cell cycle, oxidative stress, and the expression of PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Our cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle arrest occurred in the G0/G1 phase in the SAMP10. We also found increased reactive oxygen stress and decreased PI3K and MAPK on the BMMSCs. These results suggested the BMMSCs were abnormal in SAMP10, and that this might be related to the immune system dysfunction in these mice.

  10. Regulatory mechanisms for abnormal expression of the human breast cancer specific gene 1 in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Aiping; LI; Qing; LIU; Jingwen

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer-specific gene 1 (BCSG1), also referred as synuclein γ, was originally isolated from a human breast cancer cDNA library and the protein is mainly localized to presynaptic terminals in the nervous system. BCSG1 is not expressed in normal or benign breast lesions, but expressed at an extremely high level in the vast majority of the advanced staged breast carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas. Overexpression of BCSG1 in cancer cells led to significant increase in cell proliferation, motility and invasiveness, and metastasis. To elucidate the molecular mechanism and regulation for abnormal transcription of BCSG1, a variety of BCSG1 promoter luciferase reporters were constructed including 3' end deleted sequences, Sp1 deleted, and activator protein-1 (AP1) domains mutated. Transient transfection assay was used to detect the transcriptional activation of BCSG1 promoters. Results showed that the Sp1 sequence in 5'-flanking region was involved in the basal transcriptional activities of BCSG1 without cell-type specificity. In comparison to pGL3-1249, the reporter activities of pGL3-1553 in BCSG1-negative MCF-7 cells and pGL3-1759 in HepG2 cells were notably decreased. Mutations at AP1 sites in BCSG1 intron 1 significantly reduced the promoter activity in all cell lines. Transcription factors, c-jun, c-fos and cyclin AMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein, could markedly enhance the promoter activities. Thus, our results suggest that the abnormal expression of BCSG1 in breast cancer cells is likely regulated by multiple mechanisms. The 5' flanking region of BCSG1 provides the basal transcriptional activity without cell type specificity. A critical promoter element involved in abnormal expression of BCSG1 presents in the first exon. The cell type specificity of BCSG1 transcription is probably affected through intronic cis-regulatory sequences. AP1 domains in the first intron play an important role in control of BCSG1 transcription.

  11. Occurrence of maxillary sinus abnormalities detected by cone beam CT in asymptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rege Inara Carneiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images of the maxillofacial region allow the inspection of the entire volume of the maxillary sinus (MS, identifying anatomic variations and abnormalities in the image volume, this is frequently neglected by oral radiologists when interpreting images of areas at a distance from the dentoalveolar region, such as the full anatomical aspect of the MS. The aim of this study was to investigate maxillary sinus abnormalities in asymptomatic patients by using CBCT. Methods 1113 CBCT were evaluated by two examiners and identification of abnormalities, the presence of periapical lesions and proximity to the lower sinus wall were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and Kappa statistics. Results Abnormalities were diagnosed in 68.2% of cases (kappa = 0.83. There was a significant difference between genders (p Conclusions Abnormalities in maxillary sinus emphasizes how important it is for the dentomaxillofacial radiologist to undertake an interpretation of the whole volume of CBCT images.

  12. Abnormal mitochondrial function impairs calcium influx in diabetic mouse pancreatic beta cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fei; D. Marshall Porterfield; ZHENG Xi-yan; WANG Wen-jun; XU Yue; ZHANG Zong-ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal insulin secretion of pancreatic beta cells is now regarded as the more primary defect than the insulin function in the etiology of type 2 diabetes.Previous studies found impaired mitochondrial function and impaired Ca2+ influx in beta cells in diabetic patients and animal models,suggesting a role for these processes in proper insulin secretion.The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed relationship of mitochondrial function,Ca2+ influx,and defective insulin secretion.Methods We investigated mitochondrial function and morphology in pancreatic beta cell of diabetic KK-Ay mice and C57BL/6J mice.Two types of Ca2+ channel activities,L-type and store-operated Ca2+ (SOC),were evaluated using whole-cell patch-clamp recording.The glucose induced Ca2+ influx was measured by a non-invasive micro-test technique (NMT).Results Mitochondria in KK-Ay mice pancreatic beta cells were swollen with disordered cristae,and mitochondrial function decreased compared with C57BL/6J mice.Ca2+ channel activity was increased and glucose induced Ca2+ influx was impaired,but could be recovered by genipin.Conclusion Defective mitochondrial function in diabetic mice pancreatic beta cells is a key cause of abnormal insulin secretion by altering Ca2+ influx,but not via Ca2+ channel activity.

  13. Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: A general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, A.O.M.

    1993-09-01

    Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here the author describes and analyzes a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, [approximately]50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomers should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. 73 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. [Diagnostic evaluation of endouterine manual aspiration for the detection of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez Rincón, A E; Arévalo Lagunas, I; Cerpa Batres, M G; Díaz Rodríguez, M C

    2000-01-01

    The objective was to determinate the diagnostic value of manual vacuum aspiration with Karman cannula (MVA) for the detection of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Fifty patients with abnormal uterine bleeding were evaluated with MVA prior to dilatation and curettage (D&C). The needing of cervical dilatation was noted. A matched analysis of the histological reports with Wilcoxon contrast test was performed. In order to calculate the diagnostic value, the histological examination of the tissue recollected by D&C was defined as gold-standard. Sensitivity, specificity, pre-test probability (prevalence), post-test probabilities (predictive values) and likelihood-ratios were calculated. No significant difference between either histological reports in matched analysis and the insufficient samples proportion was detected. Cervical dilatation was performed more frequently to D&C (p = 0.0002). The pre-test probability (prevalence) of endometrial hyperplasia/cancer was 20%. Two cases of hyperplasia were not detected by MVA (negative false 20%). The endometrial biopsy for MVA showed a sensitivity of 71% and specificity 93%. The post-test probabilities for an abnormal and normal biopsy (positive and negative predictive values) were 62.5% and 95.2%, respectively. The corresponding likelihood-ratios were 10.23 and 0.3, respectively. The endometrial biopsy for MVA has a high diagnostic value, similar to D&C, in the detection of endometrial hyperplasia/cancer in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding with the advantage to be an office procedure without either risks and costs of D&C.

  15. Canine cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell counts and cytology associations with the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo TB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timothy B Hugo, Kathryn L Heading, Robert H Labuc Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, Glen Waverley, Vic, Australia Introduction: The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are often used to investigate intracranial disease in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if the total nucleated cell count (TNCC or cytology findings in abnormal CSF are associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. Materials and methods: For each case, the TNCC was categorized into one of three groups: A (<25×106/L; B (25–100×106/L; and C (>100×106/L. Cytology findings were categorized by the predominant cell type as lymphocytic, monocytoid, neutrophilic, or eosinopilic. MRI descriptions were classified as either normal or abnormal, and abnormal studies were further evaluated for the presence of specific characteristics (multifocal or diffuse disease versus focal disease, positive T2-weighted hyperintensity, positive FLAIR hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, mass effect, and the presence of poorly or well-defined lesion margins. Results: Forty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria and MRI abnormalities were found in 29/45 (64% dogs. TNCCs were not associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities or specific characteristics. Cytology categories were significantly associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities (P<0.001. Specifically, monocytoid cytology was 22.8 times more likely to have an abnormal MRI than lymphocytic cytology. CSF cytology was not significantly associated with specific abnormal MRI characteristics. Conclusion: There are minimal associations between CSF abnormalities and the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. These results support the continued importance of utilizing both tests when investigating intracranial disease. When CSF analysis must be performed initially, this study has demonstrated that an abnormal CSF with a monocytoid cytology supports the value of

  16. Sonic Hedgehog: A Good Gene Gone Bad? Detection and Treatment of Genetic Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaich, Lauren E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case of a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly in which students explore the "Sonic hedgehog" gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. Presents a two-part assignment that features students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality,…

  17. Spirometry and impulse oscillometry (IOS) for detection of respiratory abnormalities in metropolitan firefighters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.J.; Malbon, W.; Newbury, W.; Holton, C.; Smith, M.; Morgan, M.; Crockett, A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: As firefighters are at increased risk of adverse health effects, periodic examination of their respiratory health is important. The objective of this study was to establish whether the use of impulse oscillometry (IOS) reveals respiratory abnormalities in metropolitan firef

  18. Abnormal Gait Behavior Detection for Elderly Based on Enhanced Wigner-Ville Analysis and Cloud Incremental SVM Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cloud based health care system is proposed in this paper for the elderly by providing abnormal gait behavior detection, classification, online diagnosis, and remote aid service. Intelligent mobile terminals with triaxial acceleration sensor embedded are used to capture the movement and ambulation information of elderly. The collected signals are first enhanced by a Kalman filter. And the magnitude of signal vector features is then extracted and decomposed into a linear combination of enhanced Gabor atoms. The Wigner-Ville analysis method is introduced and the problem is studied by joint time-frequency analysis. In order to solve the large-scale abnormal behavior data lacking problem in training process, a cloud based incremental SVM (CI-SVM learning method is proposed. The original abnormal behavior data are first used to get the initial SVM classifier. And the larger abnormal behavior data of elderly collected by mobile devices are then gathered in cloud platform to conduct incremental training and get the new SVM classifier. By the CI-SVM learning method, the knowledge of SVM classifier could be accumulated due to the dynamic incremental learning. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and can be applied to aged care, emergency aid, and related fields.

  19. Optimizing Detection Rate and Characterization of Subtle Paroxysmal Neonatal Abnormal Facial Movements with Multi-Camera Video-Electroencephalogram Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Francesco; Pavlidis, Elena; Cattani, Luca; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Raheli, Riccardo; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-06-01

    Objectives We retrospectively analyze the diagnostic accuracy for paroxysmal abnormal facial movements, comparing one camera versus multi-camera approach. Background Polygraphic video-electroencephalogram (vEEG) recording is the current gold standard for brain monitoring in high-risk newborns, especially when neonatal seizures are suspected. One camera synchronized with the EEG is commonly used. Methods Since mid-June 2012, we have started using multiple cameras, one of which point toward newborns' faces. We evaluated vEEGs recorded in newborns in the study period between mid-June 2012 and the end of September 2014 and compared, for each recording, the diagnostic accuracies obtained with one-camera and multi-camera approaches. Results We recorded 147 vEEGs from 87 newborns and found 73 episodes of paroxysmal facial abnormal movements in 18 vEEGs of 11 newborns with the multi-camera approach. By using the single-camera approach, only 28.8% of these events were identified (21/73). Ten positive vEEGs with multicamera with 52 paroxysmal facial abnormal movements (52/73, 71.2%) would have been considered as negative with the single-camera approach. Conclusions The use of one additional facial camera can significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy of vEEGs in the detection of paroxysmal abnormal facial movements in the newborns.

  20. Induced pluripotent stem cells as a model for telomeric abnormalities in ICF type I syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagie, Shira; Ellran, Erika; Katzir, Hagar; Shaked, Rony; Yehezkel, Shiran; Laevsky, Ilana; Ghanayim, Alaa; Geiger, Dan; Tzukerman, Maty; Selig, Sara

    2014-07-15

    Human telomeric regions are packaged as constitutive heterochromatin, characterized by extensive subtelomeric DNA methylation and specific histone modifications. ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) type I patients carry mutations in DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) that methylates de novo repetitive sequences during early embryonic development. ICF type I patient fibroblasts display hypomethylated subtelomeres, abnormally short telomeres and premature senescence. In order to study the molecular mechanism by which the failure to de novo methylate subtelomeres results in accelerated telomere shortening, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from 3 ICF type I patients. Telomeres were elongated in ICF-iPSCs during reprogramming, and the senescence phenotype was abolished despite sustained subtelomeric hypomethylation and high TERRA levels. Fibroblast-like cells (FLs) isolated from differentiated ICF-iPSCs maintained abnormally high TERRA levels, and telomeres in these cells shortened at an accelerated rate, leading to early senescence, thus recapitulating the telomeric phenotype of the parental fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that the abnormal telomere phenotype associated with subtelomeric hypomethylation is overridden in cells expressing telomerase, therefore excluding telomerase inhibition by TERRA as a central mechanism responsible for telomere shortening in ICF syndrome. The data in the current study lend support to the use of ICF-iPSCs for modeling of phenotypic and molecular defects in ICF syndrome and for unraveling the mechanism whereby subtelomeric hypomethylation is linked to accelerated telomeric loss in this syndrome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Influence of different chromosomal abnormalities in Ph-positive bone marrow cells on the chronic myeloid leukemia course during tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Vinogradova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The additional molecular and chromosomal abnormalities (ACA in Phositive cells usually considered as a genetic marker of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML progression. 457 patients in different CML phases received tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1st and 2nd generation were studied. During therapy 50 cases with additional chromosomal abnormalities in Ph+ clone (22 of them in chronic CML phase were revealed (median follow-up from CML diagnosis – 117 months, median imatinib therapy – 62 months. 86 % of patients in chronic phase with Ph+- cell abnormalities were cytogenetic resistance, and their 5-years overall survival was 80 % which was significantly lower than in patients without ACA (p < 0.005. The treatment results depend on chromosomal abnormalities detected. In patients with additional chromosome 8 imatinib therapy is effective, although complete cytogenetic response (CCR is achieved only in the later therapy stages. In patients with additional translocations CCR also achieved with imatinib or 2nd generation TKI. Only a third of patients with additional Ph-chromosome or BCR/ABL amplification achieved complete suppression of Ph+ clone using 2nd generation TKI. The presence of additional chromosome 7 abnormalities and complex karyotype disorders involving isochromosome i(17(q10 are poor prognostic factors of TKI treatment failures.

  2. Influence of different chromosomal abnormalities in Ph-positive bone marrow cells on the chronic myeloid leukemia course during tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Vinogradova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The additional molecular and chromosomal abnormalities (ACA in Phositive cells usually considered as a genetic marker of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML progression. 457 patients in different CML phases received tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1st and 2nd generation were studied. During therapy 50 cases with additional chromosomal abnormalities in Ph+ clone (22 of them in chronic CML phase were revealed (median follow-up from CML diagnosis – 117 months, median imatinib therapy – 62 months. 86 % of patients in chronic phase with Ph+- cell abnormalities were cytogenetic resistance, and their 5-years overall survival was 80 % which was significantly lower than in patients without ACA (p < 0.005. The treatment results depend on chromosomal abnormalities detected. In patients with additional chromosome 8 imatinib therapy is effective, although complete cytogenetic response (CCR is achieved only in the later therapy stages. In patients with additional translocations CCR also achieved with imatinib or 2nd generation TKI. Only a third of patients with additional Ph-chromosome or BCR/ABL amplification achieved complete suppression of Ph+ clone using 2nd generation TKI. The presence of additional chromosome 7 abnormalities and complex karyotype disorders involving isochromosome i(17(q10 are poor prognostic factors of TKI treatment failures.

  3. Only a minority of sex chromosome abnormalities are detected by a national prenatal screening program for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, Mette Hansen; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How does a national prenatal screening program for Down syndrome (DS) perform in detecting sex chromosome abnormalities (SCAs)-Turner syndrome (TS), Klinefelter syndrome, 47,XXX and 47,XYY syndromes. SUMMARY ANSWER: The SCA detection rate resulting from DS screening was below 50...... screening procedure detected 87 per 100 000 TS (42% of expected), 19 per 100 000 Klinefelter syndrome (13% of expected), 16 per 100 000 47,XXX (16% of cases) and 5 per 100 000 47,XYY (5% of expected) SCAs, with an overall detection rate of 27%. Compared with controls, all four SCA groups showed...... significantly higher NT and lower PAPP-A compared with controls (all P syndromes (47,XXX: 24%; 47,XYY: 29%; Klinefelter syndrome: 48%, TS: 84%). For SCA fetuses carried to term, only TS fetuses had consistently lower birthweights...

  4. Brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder detected by quantitative T1ρ mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Follmer, R L; Oguz, I; Warren, L A; Christensen, G E; Fiedorowicz, J G; Magnotta, V A; Wemmie, J A

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism has been reported in bipolar disorder, however, these studies have been limited to specific regions of the brain. To investigate whole-brain changes potentially associated with these processes, we applied a magnetic resonance imaging technique novel to psychiatric research, quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ). This method is sensitive to proton chemical exchange, which is affected by pH, metabolite concentrations and cellular density with high spatial resolution relative to alternative techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography. Study participants included 15 patients with bipolar I disorder in the euthymic state and 25 normal controls balanced for age and gender. T1ρ maps were generated and compared between the bipolar and control groups using voxel-wise and regional analyses. T1ρ values were found to be elevated in the cerebral white matter and cerebellum in the bipolar group. However, volumes of these areas were normal as measured by high-resolution T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Interestingly, the cerebellar T1ρ abnormalities were normalized in participants receiving lithium treatment. These findings are consistent with metabolic or microstructural abnormalities in bipolar disorder and draw attention to roles of the cerebral white matter and cerebellum. This study highlights the potential utility of high-resolution T1ρ mapping in psychiatric research.

  5. Detection of unsuspected colonic abnormalities using the pneumocolon technique during small bowel meal examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, S.; Skehan, S.J.; Brown, A.L.; Rawlinson, J.; Somers, S

    2000-06-01

    AIMS: The pneumocolon technique in small bowel meal examination is used to obtain double-contrast views of the distal ileum. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of cases in which an overhead pneumocolon radiograph demonstrated clinically relevant findings in the colon. METHODS: The overhead pneumocolon radiographs in 151 patients who underwent small bowel meals were evaluated retrospectively. A chart review was performed on those patients with positive colonic findings to determine if the suspected abnormalities affected patient management. RESULTS: Colonic abnormalities were identified in 34 of the 151 patients. One patient had a previously undiagnosed ascending colonic cancer; 17 had evidence of acute or chronic colitis; 13 had diverticulosis; one had a caecal polyp; one had an ileosigmoid fistula; one had a filling defect in the ascending colon. In 25 cases the colonic abnormality was visible only on the pneumocolon radiograph and not on the preceding single-contrast images. Management was altered by the colonic findings in seven cases. False-positive findings occurred in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: A routine overhead radiograph following use of the pneumocolon technique is a useful adjunct to small bowel meal examination as it can yield unsuspected and clinically significant colonic findings. Chou, S. (2000)

  6. Asymmetric cell-matrix and biomechanical abnormalities in elastin insufficiency induced aortopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Varun K; Evans, Ashlie N; Wansapura, Janaka P; Osinska, Hanna; Maddy, Kelsey E; Biechler, Stefanie V; Narmoneva, Daria A; Goodwin, Richard L; Hinton, Robert B

    2014-10-01

    Aortopathy is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) abnormalities and elastic fiber fragmentation. Elastin insufficient (Eln (+/-)) mice demonstrate latent aortopathy similar to human disease. We hypothesized that aortopathy manifests primarily in the aorto-pulmonary septal (APS) side of the thoracic aorta due to asymmetric cardiac neural crest (CNC) distribution. Anatomic (aortic root vs. ascending aorta) and molecular (APS vs. non-APS) regions of proximal aorta tissue were examined in adult and aged wild type (WT) and mutant (Eln (+/-)) mice. CNC, VSMCs, elastic fiber architecture, proteoglycan expression, morphometrics and biomechanical properties were examined using histology, 3D reconstruction, micropipette aspiration and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the APS side of Eln (+/-) aorta, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is decreased while SM22 is increased. Elastic fiber architecture abnormalities are present in the Eln (+/-) aortic root and APS ascending aorta, and biglycan is increased in the aortic root while aggrecan is increased in the APS aorta. The Eln (+/-) ascending aorta is stiffer than the aortic root, the APS side is thicker and stiffer than the non-APS side, and significant differences in the individual aortic root sinuses are observed. Asymmetric structure-function abnormalities implicate regional CNC dysregulation in the development and progression of aortopathy.

  7. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines: correlation between cytogenetic abnormalities and allelic deletions associated with multistep tumorigenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hans Gerdes; Abul Elahi; Quanguang Chen; Suresh C. Jhanwar

    2000-01-01

    We have established a series of 20 colorectal cancer cell lines and performed cytogenetic and RFLP analyses to show that the recurrent genetic abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 5, 17 and 18 associated with multistep tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, and frequently detected as recurrent abnormalities in primary tumours, are also retained in long-term established cell lines. Earlier studies by us and other investigators showed that allelic losses of chromosomes 1 and 17 in primary colorectal cancers predicted poorer survival for the patients $(P = 0.03)$. We utilized the cell lines to identify specific chromosomal sites or gene(s) on chromosomes 1 and 17 which confer more aggressive phenotype. Cytogenetic deletions of chromosome 1p were detected in 14 out of the 20 (70%) cell lines, whereas allelic deletions for 1p using polymorphic markers were detected in 13 out of 18 (72%) informative cell lines for at least one polymorphic marker. We have performed Northern blotting, immunohistochemical staining (p53 mRNA, protein) and RFLP analysis using several probes including p53 and nm23. RFLP analysis using a total of seven polymorphic markers located on 17p and 17q arms showed allelic losses around the p53 locus in 16 out of the 20 cell lines (80%), four of which were losses of the p53 locus itself. In addition, seven cell lines (out of nine informative cases) also showed losses of the nm23 gene, four with concurrent losses of the p53 locus, while the remaining three were homozygous. In addition, five out of seven cell lines with nm23 deletions were derived from hepatic metastatic tumours, and one cell line was obtained from recurrent tumour. A comparison between allelic deletions of 1p and functional loss of nm23 gene revealed a close association between these two events in cell lines derived from hepatic metastasis. Following immunohistochemical staining, nine out of the twenty cell lines showed high levels (25–80%) of mutant p53, four showed intermediate levels (< 20

  8. Extent of resection of peritumoral diffusion tensor imaging-detected abnormality as a predictor of survival in adult glioblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiun-Lin; van der Hoorn, Anouk; Larkin, Timothy J; Boonzaier, Natalie R; Matys, Tomasz; Price, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to detect tumor invasion in glioblastoma patients and has been applied in surgical planning. However, the clinical value of the extent of resection based on DTI is unclear. Therefore, the correlation between the extent of resection of DTI abnormalities and patients' outcome was retrospectively reviewed. METHODS A review was conducted of 31 patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma who underwent standard 5-aminolevulinic acid-aided surgery with the aim of maximal resection of the enhancing tumor component. All patients underwent presurgical MRI, including volumetric postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DTI, and FLAIR. Postsurgical anatomical MR images were obtained within 72 hours of resection. The diffusion tensor was split into an isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) component. The extent of resection was measured for the abnormal area on the p, q, FLAIR, and postcontrast T1-weighted images. Data were analyzed in relation to patients' outcome using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models controlling for possible confounding factors including age, O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltrans-ferase methylation status, and isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 mutation. RESULTS Complete resection of the enhanced tumor shown on the postcontrast T1-weighted images was achieved in 24 of 31 patients (77%). The mean extent of resection of the abnormal p, q, and FLAIR areas was 57%, 83%, and 59%, respectively. Increased resection of the abnormal p and q areas correlated positively with progression-free survival (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006, respectively). Additionally, a larger, residual, abnormal q volume predicted significantly shorter time to progression (p = 0.008). More extensive resection of the abnormal q and contrast-enhanced area improved overall survival (p = 0.041 and 0.050, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Longer progression-free survival and overall survival were seen in glioblastoma patients in whom more DTI

  9. Abnormal Trajectory Detection of Pedestrian Based on SOM%基于SOM的行人异常轨迹检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云飞; 陈临强

    2015-01-01

    实现了一种实时视频监控中行人的异常轨迹检测方法。提取出行人轨迹的位置、速度及加速度等特征,利用自组织神经网络对正常轨迹进行训练学习,得到正常轨迹点的一般特征并用优胜神经元表示。通过比较正常轨迹点与待检测轨迹点的响应函数值来判断异常。实验结果表明该方法能较好地反映轨迹特征,具有较高的异常轨迹识别率,可以实时监测行为异常。%This paper implements a real-time video monitoring method to detect abnormal trajectory of pedestrians.Some characteristics like position, velocity, and acceleration of trajectories were extracted , then we use self-organizing neural network to train on the normal trajectory of pedestrians .Finally , we get the general characteristics of the normal trajectory points and expressed by the winning neuron which generated in the self-learning process of self-organizing neural network .Determine abnormalities by comparing the response function values of the normal track points and the track points to be detected .The experimental results show that this method can reflect the characteristics of the trajectory better , with a high rate of abnormal trajectory recognition, and can monitor abnormal behavior in real-time.

  10. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: Clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, Cengiz, E-mail: drcengizerol@yahoo.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Koplay, Mustafa, E-mail: koplaymustafa@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Olcay, Ayhan, E-mail: drayhanolcay@gmail.com [29 May Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Vatan Street, Fatih, 34150 Istanbul (Turkey); Kivrak, Ali Sami, E-mail: alisamikivrak@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Ozbek, Seda, E-mail: dsadr@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Seker, Mehmet, E-mail: hikmet.irfan@hotmail.com [29 May Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vatan Street, Fatih, 34150 Istanbul (Turkey); Paksoy, Yahya, E-mail: yahyapaksoy@yahoo.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Materials and methods: Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. Results: The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P = 0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal-apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Conclusion: Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two.

  11. An In-depth Study of Sparse Codes on Abnormality Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2016-01-01

    are carried out from various angles to better understand the applicability of sparse codes, including computation time, reconstruction error, sparsity, detection accuracy, and their performance combining various detection methods. The experiment results show that combining OMP codes with maximum coordinate...

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging detects early cerebral cortex abnormalities in neuronal architecture induced by bilateral neonatal enucleation: An experimental model in the ferret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Bock

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a technique that non-invasively provides quantitative measures of water translational diffusion, including fractional anisotropy (FA, that are sensitive to the shape and orientation of cellular elements, such as axons, dendrites and cell somas. For several neurodevelopmental disorders, histopathological investigations have identified abnormalities in the architecture of pyramidal neurons at early stages of cerebral cortex development. To assess the potential capability of DTI to detect neuromorphological abnormalities within the developing cerebral cortex, we compare changes in cortical FA with changes in neuronal architecture and connectivity induced by bilateral enucleation at postnatal day 7 (BEP7 in ferrets. We show here that the visual callosal pattern in BEP7 ferrets is more irregular and occupies a significantly greater cortical area compared to controls at adulthood. To determine whether development of the cerebral cortex is altered in BEP7 ferrets in a manner detectable by DTI, cortical FA was compared in control and BEP7 animals on postnatal day 31. Visual cortex, but not rostrally-adjacent non-visual cortex, exhibits higher FA than control animals, consistent with BEP7 animals possessing axonal and dendritic arbors of reduced complexity than age-matched controls. Subsequent to DTI, Golgi staining and analysis methods were used to identify regions, restricted to visual areas, in which the orientation distribution of neuronal processes is significantly more concentrated than in control ferrets. Together, these findings suggest that DTI can be of utility for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders at early stages of cerebral cortical development, and that the neonatally-enucleated ferret is a useful animal model system for systematically assessing the potential of this new diagnostic strategy.

  13. Contour Detection of Leukocyte Cell Nucleus Using Morphological Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, R.; Satrio, G. P.; Ramadhani, Y.; Siswandari, W.

    2017-04-01

    Leukocytes are blood cells that do not contain color pigments. Leukocyte function to the tool body’s defenses. Abnormal forms of leukocytes can be a sign of serious diseases such example is leukemia. Most laboratories still use cell morphology examination to assist the diagnosis of illness associated with white blood cells such example is leukemia because of limited resources, both infrastructure, and human resources as happens in developing nations, such as Indonesia. This examination is less expensive and quicker process. However, morphological review requires the expertise of a specialist clinical pathology were limited. This process is sometimes less valid cause in some cases trying to differentiate morphology blast cells into the type of myoblasts, lymphoblast, monoblast, or erythroblast thus potentially misdiagnosis. The goal of this research is to develop a detection device types of blood cells automatically as lower-priced, easy to use and accurate so that the tool can be distributed across all units in existing health services throughout Indonesia and in particular for remote areas. However, because the variables used in the identification of abnormal leukocytes are very complex, in this paper, we emphasize on the contour detection of leukocyte cell nucleus using the morphological image. The results show that this method is promising for further development.

  14. Use of a Novel High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Neurography Protocol to Detect Abnormal Dorsal Root Ganglia in Sjögren Patients With Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C.; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional “stocking-and-glove” distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system—the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain. We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients

  15. Chk1 prevents abnormal mitosis of S-phase HeLa cells containing DNA damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XiaoFang; WARD Tarsha; YAO XueBiao; WU JiaRui

    2009-01-01

    To explore effects of DNA damage on cell-cycle progression in p53-deficient tumor cells,synchronized HeLa cells at G1,S and G2/M phases were treated with methyl methanesulfnate (MMS).The results showed that the MMS treatment resulted in the cell-cycle arrest or delay in all 3 phases,while the S-phase cells were the most sensitive to MMS.Further studies demonstrated that ATM-Chk2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were activated in all 3 phases when the cells were treated with MMS;whereas Chk1 was activated only in S phase under the drug treatment,indicating that Chk1 specifically participated in S-phase checkpoints.To analyze the role of Chk1 in S-phase checkpoints,we administered a specific Chk1 inhibitor,UCN-01,to the S-phase cells.The results showed that the S-phase cells treated with MMS+UCN-01 could enter aberrant mitosis without finishing DNA replication,indicating that Chk1 mainly functions in the DNA damage checkpoint rather than in the replication checkpoint.In addition,MMS treatment alone inhibited the accumulation of cyclin B1,a key component of M-phase CDK-cyclin complex,in the S-phase cells,whereas the inhibition of Chk1 activation resulted in the accumulation of cyclin B1 in the MMS-treated S-phase cells.This observation further supports the view that DNA-damaged S-phase cells enter abnormal mitosis when Chk1 activation is inhibited.Our results demonstrate that Chk1 is a specific kinase that plays an important role in the MMS-induced S-phase DNA damage checkpoint.As p53 is not involved in this process,Chk1 may be a potential target for p53-deficient tumor therapy.

  16. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  17. Activation of the transcription factor EB rescues lysosomal abnormalities in cystinotic kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, Laura R; Polishchuk, Elena; Montefusco, Sandro; Napolitano, Gennaro; Tozzi, Giulia; Zhang, Jinzhong; Bellomo, Francesco; Taranta, Anna; Pastore, Anna; Polishchuk, Roman; Piemonte, Fiorella; Medina, Diego L; Catz, Sergio D; Ballabio, Andrea; Emma, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by accumulation of cystine into lysosomes secondary to mutations in the cystine lysosomal transporter, cystinosin. The defect initially causes proximal tubular dysfunction (Fanconi syndrome) which in time progresses to end-stage renal disease. Cystinotic patients treated with the cystine-depleting agent, cysteamine, have improved life expectancy, delayed progression to chronic renal failure, but persistence of Fanconi syndrome. Here, we have investigated the role of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, in conditionally immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells derived from the urine of a healthy volunteer or a cystinotic patient. Lack of cystinosin reduced TFEB expression and induced TFEB nuclear translocation. Stimulation of endogenous TFEB activity by genistein, or overexpression of exogenous TFEB lowered cystine levels within 24 hours in cystinotic cells. Overexpression of TFEB also stimulated delayed endocytic cargo processing within 24 hours. Rescue of other abnormalities of the lysosomal compartment was observed but required prolonged expression of TFEB. These abnormalities could not be corrected with cysteamine. Thus, these data show that the consequences of cystinosin deficiency are not restricted to cystine accumulation and support the role of TFEB as a therapeutic target for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, in particular of cystinosis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of a begomoviral DNAβ gene in transgenic Nicotiana plants induced abnormal cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-feng; LI Yun-qin; HU Dong-wei; ZHOU Xue-ping

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of monopartite begomoviruses are being identified that a satellite molecule (DNAβ) is required to induce typical symptoms in host plants. DNAβ encodes a single gene (termed βC1) encoded in the complementary-sense. We have produced transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum plants expressing theβC1 gene of a DNAβ associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Transgenic plants expressing βC1 showed severe developmental abnormalities in both species. Microscopic analysis of sections of both transgenic and non-transgenic N. tabacum leaves showed abnormal outgrowths of transgenic N. tabacum to be due to disorganized cell division (hyperplasia) of spongy and palisade parenchyma. Immuno-gold labeling of sections with a polyclonal antibody against the βC1 protein showed that the βC1 protein accumulated in the nuclei of cells. The possible biological function of the βC1 protein was discussed.

  19. [Prevalence of epithelial squamous cell abnormalities and associated factors in women of a rural town of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisales, Hugo; Vanegas, Angela Patricia; Gaviria, Angela M; Castaño, Jorge; Mora, Martín Alonso; Borrero, Mauricio; Rojas, Carlos; Arbeláez, María Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria I

    2008-06-01

    In spite of implementation of cytology-based cervical cancer screening in Colombia, mortality rates remain stable. The description of factors associated to cervical pre-neoplasic lesions is needed to establish strategies for mortality prevention. The prevalence of epithelial squamous cell abnormalities was determined to explore the association of cytology abnormalities with described risk factors. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 739 women randomly selected by age. A validated face-to-face questionnaire and conventional cervical cytology were used to collect the information. To establish the association between cervical abnormalities and some qualitative variables, the independent chi squared test was used. We also calculated prevalence ratio with their 95% confidence intervals. A logistic regression model was used to explore variables that potentially explain cytology abnormalities. The prevalence of squamous cell abnormality was 15.8%. Among women with abnormal cytology, 10% presented atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 3.9% low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and 1.9% high grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion. The adjusted logistical regression analysis showed that history of sexual transmitted disease, two or more sexual partners during entire life and previous abnormal cytology were associated with cytology abnormalities. The relation of epithelial squamous cell abnormalities with sexual behavior history reflexes the link between human papiloma virus infection and cervical cancer pre-neoplasic lesions. The frequency of use and knowledge about the purpose of cytology were factors that suggested other diagnostic limitations such as quality of cervical cytology or barriers to access health care. These latter factors may be the underlying basis for the high cervical cancer mortality rates.

  20. Mathematical Description with Fractals Dimensions of Normal Cells and Cytological Abnormality's of Uterine Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The fractal geometry has shownto be adapted in the mathematical description ofirregular objects; this measurement has denominatedfractal dimension. The application of thefractal analysis to measure the contours of thenormal cells as well as those that present sometype of abnormality, has shown the possibility of mathematical characterization of itsirregularity. Objectives. To measure, from thefractal geometry cells of the squamous epitheliumof uterine neck classified like normal,atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance(ASC-US and Low Grade IntraepitelialLesion (L-SIL, diagnosed by means of microscopicobservation, in search of mathematicalmeasurements that distinguish them. Methodology.This is an exploratory descriptive studyin which the fractal dimensions were calculated,with the simplified and the conventional boxcounting method, of the cellular and nuclearcontours of 13 normal and with abnormalitiescells of the scaly epithelium of uterine neck likeASC-US and L-SIL, from digital photographiesof 7 normal cells, 2 ASC-US and 4 L-SIL diagnosedwith cytomorphologic criteria by meansof microscopic conventional observation. Results.There developed a quantitative, objective and reproduciblemeasurement of the degree of irregularityin the cells of the scaly epithelium of uterineneck identified microscopically like normal, ASCUSy LEI BG. Conclusions an fractal organizationwas demonstrated in the cellular normal architecture,as well as in cells ASC-US and the injuriesintraepiteliales of low degree L-SIL. They did notfind differences between the cellular studied types.

  1. Axonal abnormalities in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the Ts65Dn mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi, Daniela; Lomoio, Selene; Scherini, Elda

    2008-10-31

    Ts65Dn mice are a genetic model for Down syndrome. Among others, these mice have cerebellar pathology features which parallel those seen in Down syndrome patients. Both individuals with Down syndrome and Ts65Dn mice have reduced cerebellar volume and numbers of granule and Purkinje cells. In this report, we describe morphological abnormalities of axons of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of Ts65Dn mice, by using anti-calbindin immunocytochemistry. A consistent number of Purkinje cells shows axons bearing giant varicosities along their transit through the granular layer. The cerebellar arbor vitae made by fasciculated Purkinje cell axons has a patchy appearance, some tracks being devoid of calbindin staining. The infraganglionic plexus, formed by recurrent collaterals of Purkinje cell axons, has enormously increased density, which is evidence for a compensatory reaction to degeneration of distal segments of axons. These alterations are accompanied by strong glial reaction as evidenced by GFAP immunocytochemistry. Moreover, the alterations are more consistent in the anterior lobules of the vermis and intermediate cortex. The axonal pathology of Purkinje cells may explain the impairment in cerebellar functions observed in Ts65Dn mice at the adulthood.

  2. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  3. Detection of structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2004-06-01

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of ICSI, which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published reporting aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolour ACM fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome 1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities, suggesting that oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  4. Technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography detects subclinical myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, O. [Nuclear Medicine, University of l`Aquila (Italy); Lagana, B.; Gentile, R.; Tubani, L.; Baratta, L. [Department of Clinical Medicine, University ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy); Danieli, R.; Scopinaro, F. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, involvement of the cardiovascular system is the third leading cause of death. However, although autopsy studies have demonstrated a high incidence of abnormalities in both the myocardium and coronary vessels, clinical manifestations have been reported in only a small percentage of cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial perfusion in asymptomatic lupus patients using technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Twenty-eight patients without overt cardiac involvement and risk factors were studied with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPET at rest and after dipyridamole infusion. Perfusion abnormalities were detected in 18 cases: six had persistent defects, three had reversible defects, seven had both persistent and reversible defects, and two showed rest defects which normalized on dipyridamole images (``reverse redistribution pattern``). Coronary angiography was performed in eight patients with positive {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPET, and showed normal epicardial vessels in all the cases. These results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPET reveals a high prevalence (18 out of 28 patients in this study, i.e. 64%) of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic lupus patients, probably due to the primary immunological damage of this autoimmune disease. In conclusion, rest/dipyridamole {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPET can be a useful non-invasive method to identify subclinical myocardial involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus, and patients potentially at risk of later cardiac events. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 21 refs.

  5. The usefulness of three-dimensional helical CT for the detection of abnormalities of the auditory ossicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Honghan; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Uesugi, Yasuo; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) helical CT for the detection of abnormalities of the auditory ossicles, 3D helical CT of the middle ear was performed in seven patients with hearing disorder. It revealed that 4 patients had congenital deficiency of the auditory ossicles, 2 patients with chronic otitis media had shortening of the incus and one patient with head injury had doubtful fracture of the incus. This study indicated that 3D helical CT of the middle ear can represent the auditory ossicles objectively and can offer detailed diagnosis. (author).

  6. Abnormal glycometabolism in tumor cells%肿瘤细胞的异常糖代谢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁; 孟祥军

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal glucose metabolism of tumor cells is associated with a variety of mechanisms.Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is able to activate the glycolytic enzymes,which is conducive to getting energy through glycolysis.The dysfunction or the depletion in numbers of mitochondria can inhibit the oxidative phosphorylation pathway of glucose to some extent.The activation of oncogenes and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes are also involved in the regulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain and glycolytic enzymes,thus affecting the process of glucose metabolism.Compared with normal cells,the synthesis of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes is inhibited in cancer cells.In addition,the abnormal glucose metabolism plays an important role in the growth,invasion and metastasis of tumor cells.%肿瘤细胞糖代谢异常与多种机制有关,如缺氧诱导因子(HIF)的参与可激活糖酵解相关酶类,有利于肿瘤细胞采取糖酵解方式获能;线粒体功能低下或数量减少可一定程度抑制葡萄糖氧化磷酸化途径;某些癌基因的激活及抑癌基因的失活也参与调节线粒体氧化呼吸链及糖酵解相关酶类,从而影响糖代谢过程;肿瘤细胞氧化磷酸化的相关酶类合成受到抑制等.此外,糖代谢异常对肿瘤细胞的生长、侵袭和转移具有重要作用.

  7. Modeling abnormal early development with induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Xianming; Fan, Wenxia; Zhao, Ping; Chan, Yau-Chi; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Ya; Li, Yanhua; Cai, Jinglei; Qin, Dajiang; Li, Xingyan; Yang, Jiayin; Peng, Tianran; Zychlinski, Daniela; Hoffmann, Dirk; Zhang, Ruosi; Deng, Kang; Ng, Kwong-Man; Menten, Bjorn; Zhong, Mei; Wu, Jiayan; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yonglong; Schambach, Axel; Tse, Hung-Fat; Pei, Duanqing; Esteban, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases share a developmental origin that manifests during childhood or maturity. Aneuploid syndromes are caused by supernumerary or reduced number of chromosomes and represent an extreme example of developmental disease, as they have devastating consequences before and after birth. Investigating how alterations in gene dosage drive these conditions is relevant because it might help treat some clinical aspects. It may also provide explanations as to how quantitative differences in gene expression determine phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility among natural populations. Here, we aimed to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that can be used to improve our understanding of aneuploid syndromes. We have generated iPSCs from monosomy X [Turner syndrome (TS)], trisomy 8 (Warkany syndrome 2), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and partial trisomy 11;22 (Emanuel syndrome), using either skin fibroblasts from affected individuals or amniocytes from antenatal diagnostic tests. These cell lines stably maintain the karyotype of the donors and behave like embryonic stem cells in all tested assays. TS iPSCs were used for further studies including global gene expression analysis and tissue-specific directed differentiation. Multiple clones displayed lower levels of the pseudoautosomal genes ASMTL and PPP2R3B than the controls. Moreover, they could be transformed into neural-like, hepatocyte-like and heart-like cells, but displayed insufficient up-regulation of the pseudoautosomal placental gene CSF2RA during embryoid body formation. These data support that abnormal organogenesis and early lethality in TS are not caused by a tissue-specific differentiation blockade, but rather involves other abnormalities including impaired placentation.

  8. Risk of newly detected infections and cervical abnormalities in women seropositive for naturally acquired human papillomavirus type 16/18 antibodies: analysis of the control arm of PATRICIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M; Salmerón, Jorge; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Julio C; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S; Peters, Klaus; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Raillard, Alice; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2014-08-15

    We examined risk of newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV type 16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults; NCT00122681). Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative vs seropositive women (15-25 years) in the control arm (DNA negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n = 8193; HPV-18: n = 8463]). High titers of naturally acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASCUS+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1/2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, although seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASCUS+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval [CI], 242-794), 204 (95% CI, 129-480), and 480 (95% CI, 250-5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASCUS+, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with FDG accumulation in the lung lacking CT/(67)gallium scintigraphy abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanaka, Akira; Kubota, Yoshitsugu; Imataki, Osamu; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Terukazu

    2009-03-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare lymphoma characterized by the presence of large tumour cells within the blood vessels. It has been considered that IVLBCL is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis. However, it has been shown that a therapeutic effect resembling that of conventional B-cell lymphomas may be obtained with the application of systemic chemotherapy at the early stage of this disease. Although involvement in the lung is often detected at autopsy, early diagnosis is quite difficult. In this report, we present a case of IVLBCL with pulmonary involvement where 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was useful in the early diagnosis. Neither computed tomography (CT) nor (67)gallium scintigraphy could reveal the presence of disease in the lung. Histological evidence of IVLBCL was obtained by TBLB after FDG uptake in the lung was confirmed by FDG-PET. The patient exhibited a good response to the subsequent combination chemotherapy. We propose that FDG-PET is a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of IVLBCL with pulmonary involvement, if the possibility of this disease presents in the patient with respiratory symptoms without abnormal findings by CT and (67)gallium scintigraphy. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Easiness of Use and Validity Testing of VS-SENSE Device for Detection of Abnormal Vaginal Flora and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert G. G. Donders

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessing vaginal pH is fundamental during gynaecological visit for the detection of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF, but use of pH strips may be time-consuming and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to evaluate the VS-SENSE test (Common Sense Ltd, Caesarea, Israel as a tool for the diagnosis of AVF and its correlation with abnormal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV. The study population consisted of 45 women with vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and 45 women with normal pH. Vaginal samples were evaluated by VS-SENSE test, microscopy and microbiologic cultures. Comparing with pH strips results, VS-SENSE test specificity was 97.8% and sensitivity of 91%. All severe cases of BV and aerobic vaginitis (AV were detected by the test. Only one case with normal pH had an unclear result. Concluding, VS-SENSE test is easy to perform, and it correlates with increased pH, AVF, and the severe cases of BV and AV.

  11. Abnormal regulation of DNA replication and increased lethality in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to carcinogenic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, N.G.; de Wit, J.; Regulski, M.R.; Bootsma, D.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of different carcinogenic agents on the rate of semiconservative DNA replication in normal and ataxia telangiectasis (AT) cells was investigated. The rate of DNA synthesis in all AT cell strains tested was depressed to a significantly lesser extent than in normal cells after exposure to X-rays under oxia or hypoxia or to bleomycin, agents to which AT cells are hypersensitive. In contrast, inhibition of DNA replication in normal human and AT cells was similar after treatment with some DNA-methylating agents or mitomycin C. Colony-forming ability of AT cells treated with these agents was not different from normal cells. Treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide elicited a variable response in both AT and normal cell strains. In some strains, including those shown to be hypersensitive to the drug by other workers, the inhibition of DNA synthesis was more pronounced than in other cell strains, but no significant difference between AT and normal cells could be detected. The rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by X-rays, measured by DNA elution techniques, occurred within l2 hr after treatment and could not be correlated with the difference in DNA synthesis inhibition in AT and normal cells. After low doses of X-rays, AT cells rejoined single-strand breaks slightly more slowly than did normal cells. The rate of DNA replication in X-irradiation AT and normal cells was not affected by nicotinamide, an inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) synthesis. These data indicate that the diminished inhibition of DNA replication in carcinogen-treated AT cells (a) is a general characteristic of all AT cell strains, (b) correlates with AT cellular hypersensitivity, (c) is not directly caused by the bulk of the DNA strand breaks produced by carcinogenic agents, and (d) is not based on differences in the induction of poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) synthesis between X-irradiated AT and normal cells.

  12. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  13. Placental abnormalities associated with post-natal mortality in sheep somatic cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Clinton, Michael; Vackova, Irena; Fulka, Josef; Feil, Robert; Palmieri, Chiara; Della Salda, Leonardo; Ptak, Grazyna

    2006-04-01

    We report on cloning experiments designed to explore the causes of peri- and post-natal mortality of cloned lambs. A total of 93 blastocysts obtained by nuclear transfer of somatic cells (granulosa cells) were transferred into 41 recipient ewes, and pregnancies were monitored by ultrasound scanning. In vitro derived, fertilized embryos (IVF, n=123) were also transferred to assess oocyte competence, and naturally mated ewes (n=120) were analysed as well. Cloned embryos developed to the blastocyst stage and implanted at the same rate as IVF embryos. After day 30 of gestation, however, dramatic losses occurred, and only 12 out of 93 (13%) clones reached full-term development, compared to 51 out of 123 (41.6%) lambs born from the IVF control embryos. Three full-term lamb clones were delivered stillborn, as a result of placental degeneration. A further five clone recipients developed hydroallantois. Their lambs died within 24h following delivery by caesarian section, and displayed degenerative lesions in liver and kidney resulting from the severe hydroallantois. One set of twins was delivered by assisted parturition at day 150, but died 24h later due to respiratory distress syndrome. The remaining two clone recipients underwent caesarian section, and the corresponding two lambs displayed signs of respiratory dysfunction and died at approximately 1 month of age due to a bacterial complication. Blood samples collected from the cloned lambs after birth revealed a wide range of abnormalities indicative of kidney and liver dysfunction. Macroscopical and histopathological examination of the placentae revealed a marked reduction in vascularization, particularly at the apex of the villous processes, as well as a loss of differentiation of the trophoblastic epithelium. Our results strongly suggest that post-mortality in cloned lambs is mainly caused by placental abnormalities.

  14. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  15. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  16. Decidual Stromal Cell Necroptosis Contributes to Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid-Triggered Abnormal Murine Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Xing Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious agents can reach the placenta either via the maternal blood or by ascending the genito-urinary tract, and then initially colonizing the maternal decidua. Decidual stromal cells (DSCs are the major cellular component of the decidua. Although DSCs at the maternal–fetal interface contribute to the regulation of immunity in pregnancy in the face of immunological and physiological challenges, the roles of these DSCs during viral infection remain ill defined. Here, we characterized the response of DSCs to a synthetic double-stranded RNA molecule, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C], which is a mimic of viral infection. We demonstrated that both transfection of cells with poly(I:C and addition of extracellular (non-transfected poly(I:C trigger the necroptosis of DSCs and that this response is dependent on RIG-I-like receptor/IPS-1 signaling and the toll-like receptor 3/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β pathway, respectively. Furthermore, following poly(I:C challenge, pregnant mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein-deficient mice had fewer necrotic cells in the mesometrial decidual layer, as well as milder pathological changes in the uterine unit, than did wild-type mice. Collectively, our results establish that necroptosis is a contributing factor in poly(I:C-triggered abnormal pregnancy and thereby indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for reducing the severity of the adverse effects of viral infections in pregnancy.

  17. Increased cytogenetic abnormalities in exfoliated oral mucosal cells of South Indian foundry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, Saranya Ramalingam; Sellappa, Sudha

    2015-02-01

    Biomonitoring offers a valuable tool to estimate the genetic risk as of exposure to genotoxic agents. Here, we intend to assess the potential cytogenetic damage related with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by evaluating the genetic damages in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of foundry workers via counting micronucleus (MNs) and other nuclear abnormalities (NAs). This was a cross-sectional study and all study subjects were male . Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were obtained from 100 subjects involved in either foundry molding or melting processes, and 100 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking from the area of Coimbatore city, Southern India. For each individual, 2000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. Significantly, there was a higher frequency of MN in the exposed workers than in the controls (P Smoking was associated with the increased frequencies of micronuclei and NAs in the buccal epithelium of both the control and the exposed groups. Smoking represented significant factors in terms of increasing the production of MN when the control and the exposed groups were compared (P periodical biological monitoring and proper care which is essential for them.

  18. Strain-Dependent Effect of Macroautophagy on Abnormally Folded Prion Protein Degradation in Infected Neuronal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ishibashi

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by the accumulation of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc in the central nervous system. With the aim of elucidating the mechanism underlying the accumulation and degradation of PrPSc, we investigated the role of autophagy in its degradation, using cultured cells stably infected with distinct prion strains. The effects of pharmacological compounds that inhibit or stimulate the cellular signal transduction pathways that mediate autophagy during PrPSc degradation were evaluated. The accumulation of PrPSc in cells persistently infected with the prion strain Fukuoka-1 (FK, derived from a patient with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, was significantly increased in cultures treated with the macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA but substantially reduced in those treated with the macroautophagy inducer rapamycin. The decrease in FK-derived PrPSc levels was mediated, at least in part, by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/MEK signalling pathway. By contrast, neither rapamycin nor 3MA had any apparently effect on PrPSc from either the 22L or the Chandler strain, indicating that the degradation of PrPSc in host cells might be strain-dependent.

  19. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enterocolitis mimicking enteropathic γδ T-cell lymphoma with abnormal clonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imataki, Osamu; Uemura, Makiko; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Naoko

    2014-01-27

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis generally infects the gastrointestinal tract and causes enteropathy symptoms suggesting infection. Y. pseudotuberculosis infections are often complicated with intraceliac lymphoadenopathy mimicking malignant lymphoma. This is a first case of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enteropathy mimicking enteropathic γδ T-cell lymphoma. This case highlighted the γδ T-cell reaction to Yersinia enterocolitis sometimes mimicking malignant lymphoma clinically. A 72-year-old female was referred to our institute due to abdominal pain with skin rush, fever and diarrhea. Computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed mucosal swelling of the cecum with enlargement of regional lymph nodes. Laboratory data showed elevated CRP (7.74 mg/dL), an increased level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R 3095 IU/mL), and CD3+ γδ T-cell circulation in peripheral blood and bone marrow (10.9% and 3.9%, respectively). Increased proportions of γδ T-cells supported the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. Colonoscopy demonstrated hemorrhagic mucosal erosion with partial ulceration, and the subsequent pathological findings at the inflammation site suggested malignant lymphoma histopathology in the colon. These objective findings were entirely consistent with enteropathic γδ T-cell lymphoma. Thereafter, however, the microbiological results of the patient's stool at admission showed Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and she was diagnosed as having Yersinia enterocolitis. All abnormal findings including subjective symptoms were in remission or mitigated within 2 weeks after her onset. Even the γδ T-cell circulation disappeared (0.04% in peripheral blood), and we speculate that those cells were a reaction to the Yersinia infection. In this case, a differential diagnosis included infectious enterocolitis from other immunogenic or malignant diseases. Although a measurement of sIL-2R is critical in differentiating malignant lymphoma in patients suffering with lymph adenopathy, that

  20. 孕妇外周血中游离胎儿DNA检测在诊断胎儿染色体异常中的应用价值%Value of detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪淑娟; 高志英; 卢彦平; 李亚里; 游艳琴; 张立文; 汪龙霞; 徐虹

    2012-01-01

    细胞占羊水总细胞的2%,未行引产,胎儿出生后未发现结构异常;有l例因在穿刺手术前已发生胎死宫内,未能进行核型验证,其前超声提示胎儿较孕周小3周,且全身水肿.(3)3组孕妇血浆中游离胎儿DNA检测结果阴性者3173例,经电话随访,截止至2012年5月30日,已有1230例新生儿出生,经检查均未发现唐氏综合征患儿.结论 游离胎儿DNA检测是一种安全、准确、高通量的21三体产前检测方法,与染色体核型分析结果相符;作为唐氏综合征患儿血清学筛查高风险孕妇的进一步筛选方法,可大幅度减少介入性产前诊断,并可作为临床诊断唐氏综合征的依据.%Objective To investigate the value of detection of fetal cell-free fetal DNA(cff-DNA)in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities.Methods The plasma from 3200 gravidas(singleton with 20.3 ± 3.8 gestational weeks)was collected from April 1st 2011 to May 30th 2012.They were divided into 3 groups:(1)To tally 1720 cases were included in the high-risk serological screening group,in which women were younger than 35 years and got high-risk results in serological screening;(2)To tally 1310 cases were included in the advanced age group,in which women's age was more than 35 years;(3)To tally 170 cases were included in the supplementary group,in which women were younger than 35 years and got low-risk results in serological screening,or women who didn't take serological screening tests.All the 3030 gravidas in group 1 and 2 didn't take invasive prenatal diagnosis because of fear of abortion or short of prenatal diagnosis.Cff-DNA were detected by next generation sequencing in Shenzhen BGI Genomics Center for clinical laboratory.Amniocentesis and karyotype analysis were provided to the positive cases and women with negative results were followed-up by telephone.Results(1)The 3200 cases took cff-DNA detection,and 31 cases got positive results,including 27 cases of trisomy 21 and 4 cases of

  1. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation enhances H-RAS protein stability and causes abnormal cell cycle progression in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells treated with hydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linhua; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Tang, Huanwen; Chen, Jialong; Wen, Qiaosheng; Zou, Fei

    2015-08-05

    Hydroquinone (HQ), one of the most important benzene-derived metabolites, can induce aberrant cell cycle progression; however, the mechanism of this induction remains unclear. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which is catalysed primarily by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), participates in various biological processes, including cell cycle control. The results of the present study show an accumulation in G1 phase versus S phase of TK6 human lymphoblast cells treated with HQ for 48h compared with PBS-treated cells; after 72h of HQ treatment, the cells transitioned from G1 arrest to S phase arrest. We examined the expression of six genes related to the cell cycle or leukaemia to further explore the reason for this phenomenon. Among these genes, H-RAS was found to be associated with this phenomenon because its mRNA and protein expression decreased at 48h and increased at 72h. Experiments for PARP activity induction and inhibition revealed that the observed PARylation was positively associated with H-RAS expression. Moreover, in cells treated with HQ in conjunction with PARP-1 knockdown, expression of the H-RAS protein decreased and the number of cells in G1 phase increased. The degree of poly(ADP-ribosyl) modification of the H-RAS protein increased in cells treated with HQ for 72h, further supporting that changes in PARylation contributed to the rapid alteration of H-RAS protein expression, followed by abnormal progression of the cell cycle. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were employed to determine whether protein complexes were formed by PARP-1 and H-RAS proteins, and the direct interaction between these proteins indicated that PARylation regulated H-RAS expression. As detected by confocal microscopy, the H-RAS protein was found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal that H-RAS protein can be modified by PARylation.

  2. Quantitative Gait Analysis Using a Motorized Treadmill System Sensitively Detects Motor Abnormalities in Mice Expressing ATPase Defective Spastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, James W; Allison, Rachel; Reid, Evan

    2016-01-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are genetic conditions in which there is progressive axonal degeneration in the corticospinal tract. Autosomal dominant mutations, including nonsense, frameshift and missense changes, in the gene encoding the microtubule severing ATPase spastin are the most common cause of HSP in North America and northern Europe. In this study we report quantitative gait analysis using a motorized treadmill system, carried out on mice knocked-in for a disease-associated mutation affecting a critical residue in the Walker A motif of the spastin ATPase domain. At 4 months and at one year of age homozygous mutant mice had a number of abnormal gait parameters, including in stride length and stride duration, compared to heterozygous and wild-type littermates. Gait parameters in heterozygous animals did not differ from wild-type littermates. We conclude that quantitative gait analysis using the DigiGait system sensitively detects motor abnormalities in a hereditary spastic paraplegia model, and would be a useful method for analyzing the effects of pharmacological treatments for HSP.

  3. Architecture design of the multi-functional wavelet-based ECG microprocessor for realtime detection of abnormal cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Fang; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2012-01-01

    Most of the abnormal cardiac events such as myocardial ischemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and fatal arrhythmia can be diagnosed through continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. According to recent clinical research, early detection and alarming of such cardiac events can reduce the time delay to the hospital, and the clinical outcomes of these individuals can be greatly improved. Therefore, it would be helpful if there is a long-term ECG monitoring system with the ability to identify abnormal cardiac events and provide realtime warning for the users. The combination of the wireless body area sensor network (BASN) and the on-sensor ECG processor is a possible solution for this application. In this paper, we aim to design and implement a digital signal processor that is suitable for continuous ECG monitoring and alarming based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) through the proposed architectures--using both programmable RISC processor and application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for performance optimization. According to the implementation results, the power consumption of the proposed processor integrated with an ASIC for CWT computation is only 79.4 mW. Compared with the single-RISC processor, about 91.6% of the power reduction is achieved.

  4. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beers, Eduard J; van der Plas, Mart N; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P; Biemond, Bart J; Bresser, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age (interquartile range) of 26 (21-41) years underwent pulmonary function tests, CPET, chest x-ray, and echocardiography to further characterize exercise limitation in SCD. Peak oxygen uptake (V'O2 -peak), expressing maximum exercise capacity, was decreased in 83% of the studied patients. V'O2 -peak correlated with hemoglobin levels (R = 0.440, P = 0.005), forced vital capacity (FVC) (R = 0.717, P anemia (n = 17), cardiovascular dysfunction (n = 2), musculoskeletal function (n = 10), pulmonary ventilatory abnormalities (n = 1), pulmonary vascular exercise limitation (n = 1), and poor effort (n = 3). In the present study we demonstrate that anemia is the most important determinant of reduced exercise tolerance observed in SCD patients without signs of pulmonary hypertension. We found a strong correlation between various parameters of lung volume and cardiothoracic ratio and we hypothesize that cardiomegaly and relative small chest size may be important causes of the impairment in pulmonary function, that is, reduced long volumes and diffusion capacity, in SCD. Taking into account anthropomorphic differences between SCD patients and controls could help to interpret lung function studies in SCD better.

  5. Aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormality utilizing SPECT atlas and images registration: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padua, Rodrigo Donizete Santana de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Cardiologia]. E-mail: rodrigo_dsp@hcrp.fmrp.usp.br; Oliveira, Lucas Ferrari de [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Tecnologia da Informacao; Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Groote, Jean-Jacques Georges Soares de [Instituto de Ensino Superior COC, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Lab. of Artifical Intelligence and Applications; Castro, Adelson Antonio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Ana, Lauro Wichert [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Divisao de Cardiologia

    2008-11-15

    To develop an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and evaluating its applicability in computer-aided detection of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with ischemic heart disease. The atlas was created with rest-stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic images of 20 patients of both genders with low probability of coronary artery disease and considered as normal by two experienced observers. Techniques of image registration and mathematical operations on images were utilized for obtaining template images depicting mean myocardial uptake and standard deviation for each gender and physiological condition. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images of one male and one female patient were aligned with the corresponding atlas template image, and voxels with myocardial uptake rates two standard deviations below the mean voxel value of the respective region in the atlas template image were highlighted on the tomographic sections and confirmed as perfusion defects by both observe. The present study demonstrated the creation of an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with promising results of this tool as an aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. However, further prospective validation with a more representative sample is recommended. (author)

  6. Complex cell cycle abnormalities caused by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liangpeng; Kotomura, Naoe; Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bixler, Sandra; Schell, Michael J; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2011-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a malignancy of CD4(+) T cells whose etiology is thought to be associated with the viral trans-activator Tax. We have shown recently that Tax can drastically upregulate the expression of p27(Kip1) and p21(CIP1/WAF1) through protein stabilization and mRNA trans-activation and stabilization, respectively. The Tax-induced surge in p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(Kip1) begins in S phase and results in cellular senescence. Importantly, HeLa and SupT1 T cells infected by HTLV-1 also arrest in senescence, thus challenging the notion that HTLV-1 infection causes cell proliferation. Here we use time-lapse microscopy to investigate the effect of Tax on cell cycle progression in two reporter cell lines, HeLa/18x21-EGFP and HeLa-FUCCI, that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of 18 copies of the Tax-responsive 21-bp repeat element and fluorescent ubiquitin cell cycle indicators, respectively. Tax-expressing HeLa cells exhibit elongated or stalled cell cycle phases. Many of them bypass mitosis and become single senescent cells as evidenced by the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase. Such cells have twice the normal equivalent of cellular contents and hence are enlarged, with exaggerated nuclei. Interestingly, nocodazole treatment revealed a small variant population of HeLa/18x21-EGFP cells that could progress into mitosis normally with high levels of Tax expression, suggesting that genetic or epigenetic changes that prevent Tax-induced senescence can occur spontaneously at a detectable frequency.

  7. Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Gillian; Jeffrey, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are associated with accumulations of disease specific PrP (PrP(d)) in the central nervous system (CNS) and often the lymphoreticular system (LRS). Accumulations have additionally been recorded in other tissues including the peripheral nervous system and adrenal gland. Here we investigate the effect of sheep scrapie on the morphology and the accumulation of PrP(d) in the adrenal medulla of scrapie affected sheep using light and electron microscopy. Using immunogold electron microscopy, non-fibrillar forms of PrP(d) were shown to accumulate mainly in association with chromaffin cells, occasional nerve endings and macrophages. PrP(d) accumulation was associated with distinctive membrane changes of chromaffin cells including increased electron density, abnormal linearity and invaginations. Internalisation of PrP(d) from the chromaffin cell plasma membrane occurred in association with granule recycling following hormone exocytosis. PrP(d) accumulation and internalisation from membranes is similarly associated with perturbations of membrane structure and trafficking in CNS neurons and tingible body macrophages of the LRS. These data suggest that a major toxic effect of PrP(d) is at the level of plasma membranes. However, the precise nature of PrP(d)-membrane toxicity is tissue and cell specific suggesting that the normal protein may act as a multi-functional scaffolding molecule. We further suggest that the co-localisation of PrP(d) with exocytic granules of the hormone trafficking system may provide an additional source of infectivity in blood.

  8. Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are associated with accumulations of disease specific PrP (PrP(d in the central nervous system (CNS and often the lymphoreticular system (LRS. Accumulations have additionally been recorded in other tissues including the peripheral nervous system and adrenal gland. Here we investigate the effect of sheep scrapie on the morphology and the accumulation of PrP(d in the adrenal medulla of scrapie affected sheep using light and electron microscopy. Using immunogold electron microscopy, non-fibrillar forms of PrP(d were shown to accumulate mainly in association with chromaffin cells, occasional nerve endings and macrophages. PrP(d accumulation was associated with distinctive membrane changes of chromaffin cells including increased electron density, abnormal linearity and invaginations. Internalisation of PrP(d from the chromaffin cell plasma membrane occurred in association with granule recycling following hormone exocytosis. PrP(d accumulation and internalisation from membranes is similarly associated with perturbations of membrane structure and trafficking in CNS neurons and tingible body macrophages of the LRS. These data suggest that a major toxic effect of PrP(d is at the level of plasma membranes. However, the precise nature of PrP(d-membrane toxicity is tissue and cell specific suggesting that the normal protein may act as a multi-functional scaffolding molecule. We further suggest that the co-localisation of PrP(d with exocytic granules of the hormone trafficking system may provide an additional source of infectivity in blood.

  9. Abnormal Mitochondrial Function and Impaired Granulosa Cell Differentiation in Androgen Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Sheng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the ovary, the paracrine interactions between the oocyte and surrounded granulosa cells are critical for optimal oocyte quality and embryonic development. Mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR−/− were noted to have reduced fertility with abnormal ovarian function that might involve the promotion of preantral follicle growth and prevention of follicular atresia. However, the detailed mechanism of how AR in granulosa cells exerts its effects on oocyte quality is poorly understood. Comparing in vitro maturation rate of oocytes, we found oocytes collected from AR−/− mice have a significantly poor maturating rate with 60% reached metaphase II and 30% remained in germinal vesicle breakdown stage, whereas 95% of wild-type AR (AR+/+ oocytes had reached metaphase II. Interestingly, we found these AR−/− female mice also had an increased frequency of morphological alterations in the mitochondria of granulosa cells with reduced ATP generation (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 µM/mg protein; p < 0.05 and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis. Mechanism dissection found loss of AR led to a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ co-activator 1-β (PGC1-β and its sequential downstream genes, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM, in controlling mitochondrial biogenesis. These results indicate that AR may contribute to maintain oocyte quality and fertility via controlling the signals of PGC1-β-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in granulosa cells.

  10. Non-invasive prenatal cell-free fetal DNA testing for down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Strah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis as definitive diagnostic procedures represent a gold standard for prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. The methods are invasive and lead to a miscarriage and fetal loss in approximately 0.5–1 %. Non-invasive prenatal DNA testing (NIPT is based on the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA from maternal blood. It represents a highly accurate screening test for detecting the most common fetal chromosomal abnormalities. In our study we present the results of NIPT testing in the Diagnostic Center Strah, Slovenia, over the last 3 years.Methods: In our study, 123 pregnant women from 11th to 18th week of pregnancy were included. All of them had First trimester assessment of risk for trisomy 21, done before NIPT testing.Results: 5 of total 6 high-risk NIPT cases (including 3 cases of Down syndrome and 2 cases of Klinefelter’s syndrome were confirmed by fetal karyotyping. One case–Edwards syndrome was false positive. Patau syndrome, triple X syndrome or Turner syndrome were not observed in any of the cases. Furthermore, there were no false negative cases reported. In general, NIPT testing had 100 % sensitivity (95 % confidence interval: 46.29 %–100.00 % and 98.95 % specificity (95 % confidence interval: 93.44 %–99.95 %. In determining Down syndrome alone, specificity (95 % confidence interval: 95.25 %- 100.00 % and sensitivity (95 % confidence interval: 31.00 %–100.00 % turned out to be 100 %. In 2015, the average turnaround time for analysis was 8.3 days from the day when the sample was taken. Repeated blood sampling was required in 2 cases (redraw rate = 1.6 %.Conclusions: Our results confirm that NIPT represents a fast, safe and highly accurate advanced screening test for most common chromosomal abnormalities. In current clinical practice, NIPT would significantly decrease the number of unnecessary invasive procedures and the rate of fetal

  11. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  12. Nuclear abnormalities in cells from nasal epithelium: a promising assay to evaluate DNA damage related to air pollution in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergener, Michelle; Rhoden, Cláudia R; Amantéa, Sérgio L

    2014-01-01

    This study intends to provide a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to assess nuclear abnormalities such as micronuclei and bud frequencies; binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic, pycnotic, and condensed chromatin cells in nasal scrapings of infants, which are particularly important for conducting genotoxic studies related to the inhaled atmosphere in pediatric populations. Nasal swab samples were collected from 40 infants under 12 months of age using a small cytobrush. 2,000 cells from each infant sample were analyzed and classified according to the frequency of nuclear abnormalities. Rates of nuclear abnormalities found agree with values reported in other studies of neonates and children. This study found 0.13% of cells with micronuclei; 1.20% karyorrhexis; 0.03% pyknosis; 10.85% karyolysis; 1.11% condensed chromatin; 0.54 binucleated cells; and 0.02% nuclear bud. Differences were not observed between genders or environmental passive smoking, nor was any age correlation found. The assay proposed here is suitable for assessing the frequency of nuclear abnormalities from nasal cells in infants. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear abnormalities in cells from nasal epithelium: a promising assay to evaluate DNA damage related to air pollution in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Mergener

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study intends to provide a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to assess nuclear abnormalities such as micronuclei and bud frequencies; binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic, pycnotic, and condensed chromatin cells in nasal scrapings of infants, which are particularly important for conducting genotoxic studies related to the inhaled atmosphere in pediatric populations. METHODS: Nasal swab samples were collected from 40 infants under 12 months of age using a small cytobrush. 2,000 cells from each infant sample were analyzed and classified according to the frequency of nuclear abnormalities. RESULTS: Rates of nuclear abnormalities found agree with values reported in other studies of neonates and children. This study found 0.13% of cells with micronuclei; 1.20% karyorrhexis; 0.03% pyknosis; 10.85% karyolysis; 1.11% condensed chromatin; 0.54 binucleated cells; and 0.02% nuclear bud. Differences were not observed between genders or environmental passive smoking, nor was any age correlation found. CONCLUSION: The assay proposed here is suitable for assessing the frequency of nuclear abnormalities from nasal cells in infants.

  14. Weakly coupled map lattice models for multicellular patterning and collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    We present a weakly coupled map lattice model for patterning that explores the effects exerted by weakening the local dynamic rules on model biological and artificial networks composed of two-state building blocks (cells). To this end, we use two cellular automata models based on (i) a smooth majority rule (model I) and (ii) a set of rules similar to those of Conway's Game of Life (model II). The normal and abnormal cell states evolve according to local rules that are modulated by a parameter κ . This parameter quantifies the effective weakening of the prescribed rules due to the limited coupling of each cell to its neighborhood and can be experimentally controlled by appropriate external agents. The emergent spatiotemporal maps of single-cell states should be of significance for positional information processes as well as for intercellular communication in tumorigenesis, where the collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states by a predominantly normal neighborhood may be crucial.

  15. Neurologic, neuropsychologic, and computed cranial tomography scan abnormalities in 2- to 10-year survivors of small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B E; Becker, B; Goff, W B; Petronas, N; Krehbiel, M A; Makuch, R W; McKenna, G; Glatstein, E; Ihde, D C

    1985-12-01

    In order to evaluate the relationship between neurologic function and cranial irradiation, 20 patients treated on National Cancer Institute (NCI) small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) trials who were alive and free of cancer 2.4 to 10.6 years (median, 6.2) from the start of therapy were studied. All were tested with a neurologic history and examination, mental status examination, neuropsychologic testing, and review of serial computed cranial tomography (CCT) scans. Fifteen patients had been treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI), two patients with therapeutic cranial irradiation, and three received no cranial irradiation. All patients but one were ambulatory and none were institutionalized. Fifteen patients (75%) had neurologic complaints, 13 (65%) had abnormal neurologic examinations, 12 (60%) had abnormal mental status examinations, 13 (65%) had abnormal neuropsychologic testing, and 15 (75%) had abnormal CCT scans. Compared with those given low-dose maintenance chemotherapy during PCI using 200 to 300 rad per fraction, patients who were given high-dose induction chemotherapy during the time of cranial irradiation or large radiotherapy fractions (400 rad) were more likely to have abnormal mental status examinations (6/6 v 4/9) and abnormal neuropsychologic tests (6/6 v 4/9), but no major difference in CCT findings was present. CCT scans in the majority of cases (11/18) showed progressive ventricular dilatation or cerebral atrophy up to 8 years after stopping therapy. We conclude neurologic abnormalities are common in long-term survivors of SCLC, and may be more prominent in patients given high-dose chemotherapy during cranial irradiation or treated with large radiotherapy fractions. The CCT scan abnormalities are common and progressive years after prophylactic cranial irradiation and chemotherapy are stopped.

  16. Influence of detection of pretreatment cytogenetic abnormalities on first complete remission and survival in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgieva Velizarova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adults focuses on the initial assessment of the prognostic relevant cytogenetic features as well as a response-guided therapy based on molecular data. We examined the importance of molecular-cytogenetic abnormalities for complete remission (CR rates and the overall survival (OS in adult ALLs.Materials and Methods: Conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed on bone marrow cells from 33 newly-diagnosed ALL adults. Two karyotype categories [standard- risk group- normal karyotype, hyperdiplody and other structural aberrations, and high-risk group-t(11q23/MLL, t(9;22/bcr-abl, t(1;19, t(8;14, C-MYC and complex karyotype] and the biologically and clinically relevant ALL ploidy subgroups were prospectively defined.Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 52% of the cases with a high rate of poor-risk translocations - t(9;22, t(8q24, t(11q23, t(1;19. The total CR rate was 67% and the median time for achievement 2.33 months. Male sex, an age below 35 years and the absence of high risk translocations might have contributed to the high CR rates. Female patients, hyperdiplody, low white blood cells (WBC, and random cytogenetic aberrations had the longest OS. OS, 3- and 5-years survival periods were significantly shorter for poor-risk than standard risk group (p=.015, p=.001 and p=.005, respectively.Conclusion: This study emphasizes the lack of influence of cytogenetic aberrations on the CR and the time to achieve CR. However, our observations show that these aberrations are an independent prognostic factor in adult ALL - they allow predicting therapy resistance and the OS time after intensetreatment.

  17. Abnormal dosage of ultraconserved elements is highly disfavored in healthy cells but not cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B McCole

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultraconserved elements (UCEs are strongly depleted from segmental duplications and copy number variations (CNVs in the human genome, suggesting that deletion or duplication of a UCE can be deleterious to the mammalian cell. Here we address the process by which CNVs become depleted of UCEs. We begin by showing that depletion for UCEs characterizes the most recent large-scale human CNV datasets and then find that even newly formed de novo CNVs, which have passed through meiosis at most once, are significantly depleted for UCEs. In striking contrast, CNVs arising specifically in cancer cells are, as a rule, not depleted for UCEs and can even become significantly enriched. This observation raises the possibility that CNVs that arise somatically and are relatively newly formed are less likely to have established a CNV profile that is depleted for UCEs. Alternatively, lack of depletion for UCEs from cancer CNVs may reflect the diseased state. In support of this latter explanation, somatic CNVs that are not associated with disease are depleted for UCEs. Finally, we show that it is possible to observe the CNVs of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells become depleted of UCEs over time, suggesting that depletion may be established through selection against UCE-disrupting CNVs without the requirement for meiotic divisions.

  18. Neuroradiological advances detect abnormal neuroanatomy underlying neuropsychological impairments: the power of PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayempour, Benjamin Jacob; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Medical imaging has made a major contribution to cerebral dysfunction due to inherited diseases, as well as injuries sustained with modern living, such as car accidents, falling down, and work-related injuries. These injuries, up until the introduction of sensitive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), were overlooked because of heavy reliance on structural imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. These techniques are extremely insensitive for dysfunction caused by such underlying disorders. We believe that the use of these highly powerful functional neuroimaging technologies, such as PET, has substantially improved our ability to assess these patients properly in the clinical setting, to determine their natural course, and to assess the efficacy of various interventional detections. As such the contribution from the evolution of PET technology has substantially improved our knowledge and ability over the past 3 decades to help patients who are the victims of serious deficiencies due to these injuries. In particular, in recent years the use of PET/CT and soon PET/MRI will provide the best option for a structure-function relationship in these patients. We are of the belief that the clinical effectiveness of PET in managing these patients can be translated to the use of this important approach in bringing justice to the victims of many patients who are otherwise uncompensated for disorders that they have suffered without any justification. Therefore, legally opposing views about the relevance of PET in the court system by some research groups may not be justifiable. This has proven to be the case in many court cases, where such imaging techniques have been employed either for criminal or financial compensation purposes in the past 2 decades. (orig.)

  19. LUPEOL PROTECTS ABNORMALITIES IN CELL SURFACE MOITIES DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Palanimuthu and S. Manoharan*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, possesses diverse pharmacological and biochemical activities including anticancer and antioxidant effects. Abnormalities in the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in the cell results in malignant transformation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of lupeol on cell surface glycoconjugates and lipids abnormalities during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in the buccal pouches of golden Syrian hamsters by treating with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin, three times a week, for 14 weeks. The status of glycoconjugates and lipids were measured using specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100% tumor formation with marked abnormalities in the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of lupeol at a dose of 50mg/kg bw, completely prevented the formation of tumors and restored the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in hamsters treated with DMBA. The results of the present study thus suggest that lupeol has the potential to protect cell surface abnormalities during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

  20. Dendritic Cells for SYN Scan Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems have previously been applied to the problem of intrusion detection. The aim of this research is to develop an intrusion detection system based on the function of Dendritic Cells (DCs). DCs are antigen presenting cells and key to activation of the human immune system, behaviour which has been abstracted to form the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA). In algorithmic terms, individual DCs perform multi-sensor data fusion, asynchronously correlating the the fused data signals with a secondary data stream. Aggregate output of a population of cells, is analysed and forms the basis of an anomaly detection system. In this paper the DCA is applied to the detection of outgoing port scans using TCP SYN packets. Results show that detection can be achieved with the DCA, yet some false positives can be encountered when simultaneously scanning and using other network services. Suggestions are made for using adaptive signals to alleviate this uncovered problem.

  1. XT-2000i血细胞分析仪白细胞分类异常报警的临床分析%Clinical analysis of abnormal alarm in white blood cell classification of XE-2000i blood cell analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书永

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the Sysmex XE-2000i blood cell analyzer leukocyte classification anomaly reliability. Methods; Random XT-2000i detected no abnormal alarm specimens in 300 cases and abnormal alarm specimens from 285 patients, respectively, making blood smears with Wright's staining after artificial microscopy, analytical instruments detection results with artificial microscopy results the coincidence rate. Results: XT-2000i blood cell analyzer for alarm and manual analysis of abnormal cells positive rate was 73.3%, no abnormal alarm apparatus and its classification and artificial microscopy are basically the same, with the rate of 99%. Conclusion: XT-2000i blood cell analyzer as a morphologic abnormalities warnings of the initial screening tools, high sensitivity, white blood cell classification without abnormal alarm when the result is credible, abnormal alarm and declaration nuclear cell high alarm specimens should be artificial lens review.%目的:探讨sysmex XT-2000i血细胞分析仪白细胞分类异常报警的可靠性.方法:随机抽取XT-2000i检测无异常报警标本300例及异常报警标本285例,分别制作血涂片经瑞氏染色后人工镜检,分析仪器检测结果与人工镜检结果的符合率.结果:XT-2000i血细胞分析仪对异常细胞报警与人工分析阳性符合率为73.3%,仪器无异常报警时其分类与人工镜检基本一致,符合率为99%.结论:XT-2000i血液细胞分析仪作为异常细胞报警的初筛工具,灵敏度极高,白细胞分类无异常报警时结果可信,有异常报警及报单核细胞过高报警的标本应人工镜检复查.

  2. Clinical values for abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the head and neck region of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwan Seo [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Jong-Lyel, E-mail: rohjl@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptakes in the head and neck (HN) region can be carefully interpreted as being index primary, second primary cancer (SP) or benign. • {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT identified 91.9% primary HN squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). • The specificity and negative predictive value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for identification of SP were as high as 98.7% and 99.3%, respectively. • Proper detection of primary tumors and SP in the HN region may promote appropriate therapeutic planning of HNSCC patients. - Abstract: Purpose: Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used to identify index or second primary cancer (SP) of the head and neck (HN) through changes in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. However, both physiologic and abnormal lesions increase {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Therefore, we evaluated {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the HN region to determine clinical values of abnormal tracer uptake. Methods: A prospective study approved by the institutional review board was conducted in 314 patients with newly diagnosed HN squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and informed consent was obtained from all enrolled patients. The patients received initial staging workups including {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and biopsies. All lesions with abnormal HN {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were recorded and most of those were confirmed by biopsies. Diagnostic values for abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were calculated. Results: Abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was identified in primary tumors from 285 (91.9%) patients. False-negative results were obtained for 22.3% (23/103) T1 tumors and 2.2% (2/93) T2 tumors (P < 0.001). Thirty-eight regions of abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were identified in 36 (11.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 13), maxillary sinus (n = 7), palatine tonsil (n = 6), nasopharynx (n = 5), parotid gland (n = 2) and others (n = 5). Synchronous SP of the HN was identified in eight (2.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 5), palatine

  3. [Evaluation study of abnormal detectability with Thurstone and Scheffé (Nakaya) of paired comparison method using chest phantom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Monitors are increasingly being used as diagnostic imaging devices. In this study, using an all-purpose liquid-crystal display (LCD), the rate of detection of abnormalities was investigated using Thurstone's and Scheffé's (Nakaya) paired comparison methods. A chest phantom was prepared as a test sample with acryl and aluminum plates and intensities suggesting small adenocarcinomas. For the acquisition conditions for computed radiography, after setting the baseline at a dose at which the film density of the standard screen-film system at the same as those for the lung, costal bone, and mediastinum, 5 steps of 2-fold serial doses were then set: 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, and 4. The test sample was observed by 10 students. On the Thurstone scale, detectability decreased with a decrease in the dose in the lung, costal bone, and mediastinum. When the significance of differences between the values at adjacent doses was investigated using the yardstick method, using Scheffé's method revealed a significant difference between the 4- and 2-fold doses and between the 1/2 and 1/4 doses in the pulmonary region. A significant difference was also noted between the baseline and 1/2 doses in the mediastinum. Changes in the order of the scale values may not occur in the intervals in which significant differences were noted using Scheffé's methods.

  4. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Torres-Bugarín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormalities (NA technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique.

  5. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

    2014-08-15

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pentoxifylline reverses chronic experimental Chagasic cardiomyopathy in association with repositioning of abnormal CD8+ T-cell response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Resende Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC, the main clinical sign of Chagas disease, is associated with systemic CD8+ T-cell abnormalities and CD8-enriched myocarditis occurring in an inflammatory milieu. Pentoxifylline (PTX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has immunoregulatory and cardioprotective properties. Here, we tested PTX effects on CD8+ T-cell abnormalities and cardiac alterations using a model of experimental Chagas' heart disease.C57BL/6 mice chronically infected by the Colombian Trypanosoma cruzi strain and presenting signs of CCC were treated with PTX. The downmodulation of T-cell receptors on CD8+ cells induced by T. cruzi infection was rescued by PTX therapy. Also, PTX reduced the frequency of CD8+ T-cells expressing activation and migration markers in the spleen and the activation of blood vessel endothelial cells and the intensity of inflammation in the heart tissue. Although preserved interferon-gamma production systemically and in the cardiac tissue, PTX therapy reduced the number of perforin+ cells invading this tissue. PTX did not alter parasite load, but hampered the progression of heart injury, improving connexin 43 expression and decreasing fibronectin overdeposition. Further, PTX reversed electrical abnormalities as bradycardia and prolonged PR, QTc and QRS intervals in chronically infected mice. Moreover, PTX therapy improved heart remodeling since reduced left ventricular (LV hypertrophy and restored the decreased LV ejection fraction.PTX therapy ameliorates critical aspects of CCC and repositioned CD8+ T-cell response towards homeostasis, reinforcing that immunological abnormalities are crucially linked, as cause or effect, to CCC. Therefore, PTX emerges as a candidate to treat the non-beneficial immune deregulation associated with chronic Chagas' heart disease and to improve prognosis.

  7. Abnormal expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in brain glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    positive expressions of both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein. Automatic imaging analytic system was used to quantitatively analyze staining results of tumor.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To compare the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in brain glioma tissues and non-tumor brain tissues and investigate the effect of various sexes, ages,survival periods and severities on the expressions of them in brain tissues.RESULTS: There was no significant difference of sexes and ages in the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein (P > 0.05); however, the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein were milder in non-tumor brain tissues than those in the brain glioma tissues (P < 0.05).Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in brain tissue of grade Ⅲ - Ⅳ severity was stronger than that of grade Ⅰ - Ⅱ severity, and the expression in ≥ 5-year survival periods were also stronger than that in < 5-year survival periods (P < 0.05). In addition, expression of P27 protein in brain tissue of grade Ⅲ - Ⅳ severity was stronger than that of grade Ⅰ - Ⅱ severity, and the expression in ≥ 5-year survival periods were also stronger than that in < 5-year survival periods (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Abnormal expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in human brain glioma are closely related to onset, development and prognosis of tumor.

  8. Detection of the fingerprint of the electrophysiological abnormalities that increase vulnerability to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Michael E; Arthur, R Martin; Trobaugh, Jason W

    2003-10-01

    Reduction of sudden death requires accurate identification of patients at risk for ventricular tachycardia (VT) and effective therapies. The Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial and Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trials demonstrate that the implantable cardioverter defibrillator impacts favorably on the incidence of VT in patients with myocardial infarction, underscoring the need to detect the electrophysiologic abnormalities required for the development of VT. Methods used for this purpose include: Holter monitoring, ejection fraction, signal-averaged ECG, heart rate variability, T-wave alternans, baroreflex sensitivity, and programmed stimulation. Performance of each method alone has demonstrated high-negative but low-positive predictive values. Recent studies confirm that their use in combination augments performance.A second approach for improving performance has been to reexamine how well each method detects the electrophysiological derangements that lead to VT. Our recent work has focused on the signal-averaged ECG. Judging from transmural maps of ventricular activation during VT and sinus rhythm obtained from patients, late potentials fail to detect completely signals from myocardium responsible for VT. To obviate this limitation we developed an approach based on inferred epicardial potentials in the frequency domain from 190-surface ECGs using individualized heart-torso models. Torso geometry and electrode positions are measured with a 3-armed digitizer. The location of cardiac structures is determined using echocardiography. The pericardial surface is approximated by a sphere that encloses the heart. Epicardial potentials are inferred using the boundary element method with zero-order Tikhonov regularization and the Composite Residual Smoothing Operator over the QRS complex. Studies are underway to determine if analysis of bioelectrical signals enveloping arrhythmogenic tissue improves identification of patients vulnerable to VT.

  9. Detection of Temperature Difference in Neuronal Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanimoto, Ryuichi; Hiraiwa, Takumi; Nakai, Yuichiro; Shindo, Yutaka; Oka, Kotaro; Hiroi, Noriko; Funahashi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    .... Several methods for detecting intracellular temperature have recently been established. Here we develop a novel method for sensing temperature in living cells based on the imaging technique of fluorescence of quantum dots...

  10. Utility and limitations of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique in the detection of cytogenetic abnormalities in products of conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Introduction: Chromosomal abnormality is found in about half of first-trimester abortions. Karyotype is the gold standard to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA offers advantage over karyotype in terms of lower failure rate, faster turnaround time, and much higher resolution than conventional karyotyping and found to be 98% concordant with conventional karyotype. Aim: We performed this study to look for the utility of MLPA in diagnosing chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester abortions. Materials and Methods: MLPA using subtelomeric SALSA probe sets (P036 and P070 was used to detect cytogenetic abnormalities in products of conception in missed/spontaneous abortions. Results: A total of ninety abortus samples were analyzed by MLPA. Successful results were provided in (67 74.4% of the cases while no conclusion could be drawn in 25.6% (23 of the cases. Fifty-five (82.1% cases were cytogenetically normal and 17.9% (12 had some abnormality. Aneuploidy was detected in 8 (66.7% cases, 3 (25% had double-segment imbalance, and one (8.3% had partial aneuploidy. Conclusion: We suggest that MLPA is a good substitute to traditional karyotype.

  11. 基于光流能量的人体异常行为检测研究%Research on Human Abnormal Behavior Detection Based on Optical Flow Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超宇; 李小曼; 李浩

    2014-01-01

    研究并比较了当前常用的3种异常行为检测算法,分析了的各算法的研究现状,介绍了当前光流能量用于异常行为检测技术中的研究进展,提出一种基于区域光流能量的人体异常行为检测算法。采用Lucas-Kanade算法计算区域光流特征,实现对视频中打斗等剧烈异常行为的检测。仿真实验表明,算法具有较高的识别率和较低的误检率,具有一定研究意义。%This paper studies and compares three commonly-used kinds of abnormal behavior detection algorithms, analyzes their research status, introduces the research progress of optical flow energy used in abnormal behavior detection technology, proposes a human abnormal behavior detection algorithm based on regional optical flow energy. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is used to calculate the regional optical flow characteristics and realize the severe abnormal behavior detection in the video such as fighting. The simulation test shows that the algorithm has such features as higher recognition rate and lower false detecting rate and presents certain research significance.

  12. MRI and 1H-MRS detects volumetric and metabolic abnormalities of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To further investigate the ability of MRI and 1H-MRS techniques for presurgical evaluation of hippocampal sclerosis. Methods:MRI and 1H-MRS were performed on 30 healthy subjects to determine the confidence levels. Eight patients who were pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis were then studied using the same protocols. The difference of hippocampal formation (DHF) was used to determine atrophy of hippocampus. Areas under the peak of N-acetylaspartate(NAA) ,Creatine(Cr) and Choline (Cho) were measured, and the ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cr+Cho were calculated. NAA/Cr+Cho value was applied to localize the seizure focus. Results:Two patients showed hippocampal atrophy according to DHF value. NAA/Cr ratio decreased significantly in ipsilateral hippocampus compared to that in contralateral hippocampus and control subjects(P<0.01). Cho/Cr value increased in both ipsi-and contralateral hippocampus in comparison with that in control subjects(P<0.01). NAA/Cr+Cho ratio, however, significantly reduced in both ipsi-and contralateral hippocampus(P<0.01) with lowest NAA/Cr+Cho ratio in seizure foci. Six patients could be lateralized by reduced and/or asymmetric NAA/Cr+Cho value. Conclusion:1H-MRS should be a promising diagnostic tool to detect neuron abnormality.1H-MRS and MRI complement each other hi presurgical lateralization of epileptogenic lesion in epilepsy patients.

  13. Agent based Detecting Abnormal and Dynamic Coupled Behavior in Customer Relationship System use of Combined-Interestingness based Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N.V.R SWARUP KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Customer Relationship Management (CRM for short System emerged in the last decade to reveal the central role of the customer for the strategic positioning of a company. One of the most significant changes in the practice of marketing during the last decade is the shift in emphasis from a transaction orientation customer to the CRM. Now a day’s it is an important edge but now a necessary utensil for endurance. CRM competence is very important source for enterprises to build and sustain competitive advantage. With the extensive applications in CRM enterprises have plenty of customer data. Main vision of CRM is customer understanding, which is accurately done will helps to value customers and thus increases customer life time value. Effectively build CRM will maintain good relationships with customers. Companies have invested or are planning to empower huge amounts to implement CRM strategies, tools and infrastructures in-order to magnetize and retain profitable customers in today’s increasingly competitive markets. This paper introduces the detecting abnormal and dynamic coupled behavior in the CRM system and general architecture of CRM based on Domain Driven Data Mining (D3M for short and with advanced technologies for knowing winning strategies. It also discusses the important steps of designing the data warehouse and describes the meaning of D3M applied to the CRM and finally evolving of D3M to individual service are presented.

  14. Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, Imad S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Setting: Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Adult patients (12 years and older admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. Results: 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9% of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. Conclusion: D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray.

  15. Probes for anionic cell surface detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley D.

    2013-03-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  16. First-trimester detection of surface abnormalities: A comparison of 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound and 3-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Baken (Leonie); M. Rousian (Melek); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); A.J. Eggink (Alex); J.M.J. Cornette (Jérôme); E.M. Schoonderwaldt (Ernst); M. Husen-Ebbinge (Margreet); K. Teunissen (Katinka); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); N. Exalto (Niek)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe aim was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound (3D-VR-US) and conventional 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound (2D/3D-US) for first-trimester detection of structural abnormalities. Forty-eight first trimester cases (gold standard available, 22

  17. Detection of Abnormal Resting-state Networks in Individual Patients Suffering from Focal Epilepsy: An Initial Step toward Individual Connectivity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eDansereau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial coherence of spontaneous slow fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal at rest is routinely used to characterize the underlying resting-state networks (RSNs. Studies have demonstrated that these patterns are organized in space and highly reproducible from subject to subject. Moreover, RSNs reorganizations have been suggested in pathological conditions. Comparisons of RSNs organization have been performed between groups of subjects but have rarely been applied at the individual level, a step required for clinical application. Defining the notion of modularity as the organization of brain activity in stable networks, we propose DANI - Detection of Abnormal Networks in Individuals - to identify modularity changes at the individual level. The stability of each RSN was estimated using a spatial clustering method: BASC Bootstrap Analysis of Stable Clusters (Bellec et al Neuroimage,51(3,2010. Our contributions consisted in (i providing functional maps of the most stable cores of each networks and (ii in detecting abnormal individual changes in networks organization when compared to a population of healthy controls. DANI was first evaluated using realistic simulated data, showing that focussing on a conservative core size (50% most stable regions improved the sensitivity to detect modularity changes. DANI was then applied to resting state fMRI data of six patients with focal epilepsy who underwent multimodal assessment using simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition followed by surgery. Only patient with a seizure free outcome were selected and the resected area was identified using a post-operative MRI. DANI automatically detected abnormal changes in 5 out of 6 patients, with excellent sensitivity, showing for each of them at least one abnormal lateralized network closely related to the epileptic focus. For each patient, we also detected some distant networks as abnormal, suggesting some remote reorganization in the epileptic

  18. High Goblet Cell Count Is Inversely Associated with Ploidy Abnormalities and Risk of Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Srivastava

    Full Text Available Goblet cells may represent a potentially successful adaptive response to acid and bile by producing a thick mucous barrier that protects against cancer development in Barrett's esophagus (BE. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between goblet cells (GC and risk of progression to adenocarcinoma, and DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities, in BE patients.Baseline mucosal biopsies (N=2988 from 213 patients, 32 of whom developed cancer during the follow up period, enrolled in a prospective dynamic cohort of BE patients were scored in a blinded fashion, for the total number (# of GC, mean # of GC/crypt (GC density, # of crypts with ≥ 1 GC, and the proportion of crypts with ≥1 GC, in both dysplastic and non-dysplastic epithelium separately. The relationship between these four GC parameters and DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities and adenocarcinoma outcome was compared, after adjustment for age, gender, and BE segment length.High GC parameters were inversely associated with DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities, such as aneuploidy, ploidy >2.7N, and an elevated 4N fraction > 6%, and with risk of adenocarcinoma. However, a Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the total # of GC and the total # crypts with ≥1 GC were the only significant GC parameters (p<0.001 and 0.003, respectively.The results of this study show, for the first time, an inverse relationship between high GC counts and flow cytometric abnormalities and risk of adenocarcinoma in BE. Further studies are needed to determine if GC depleted foci within esophageal columnar mucosa are more prone to neoplastic progression or whether loss of GC occurs secondary to underlying genetic abnormalities.

  19. Abnormal Expression of Eukaryotic Translation Factors in Malignant Transformed Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Induced by Crystalline Nickel Sulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the oncogenic potential of mouse translation initiation factor 3 (TIF3) and elongation factor-1δ (TEF-1δ) in malignant transformed human bronchial epithelial cells induced by crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS). Methods Abnormal expressions of human TIF3 and TEF-1δ genes in two kinds of NiS-transformed cells and NiS-tumorigenic cell lines were investigated and analyzed by the reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR), respectively. Results RT-PCR analysis primarily showed that both human TIF3 and TEF-1δ mRNA expressions in two kinds of NiS-transformed cells and NiS-tumorigenic cell lines were increased as compared with controls. FQ-PCR assay showed that the levels of TIF3 expressions in the transformed cells and tumorigenic cells were 3 and 4 times higher respectively, and the elevated expressions of TEF-1δ cDNA copies were 2.7- to 3.5-fold in transformed cells and 4.1- to 5.2-fold in tumorigenic cells when compared with non-transformed cells, indicating that the over-expressions of human TIF3 and TEF-1δ genes were related to malignant degree of the cells induced by nickel. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that there are markedly abnormal expressions of TIF3 and TEF-1δ genes during malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cell lines induced by crystalline NiS. They seem to be the molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for human carcinogensis due to nickel.

  20. CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES IN INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Smogavec

    2009-08-01

    Conclusions Chromosomal analysis is an important method in diagnostic procedures of infertility, because chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions. Sex chromosome aneuploidies are highly correlated to infertility of females and males.

  1. Detection of apoptotic cells using immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-11-03

    Immunohistochemistry is commonly used to show the presence of apoptotic cells in situ. In this protocol, B-cell lymphoma cells are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with the apoptosis inducer vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor). Tumor samples are fixed and sectioned, and fragmented DNA (a feature of apoptotic cells) is end-labeled by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Immunohistochemical methods are then used to detect the labeled DNA and identify B-cell lymphoma cells in the last stage of apoptosis. Because the assay can lead to false-positive results, it is advisable to carry out an additional assay (e.g., immunohistochemistry for active caspase-3) to confirm the presence of apoptotic cells.

  2. Detecting Danger: The Dendritic Cell Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Cayzer, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is inspired by the function of the dendritic cells of the human immune system. In nature, dendritic cells are the intrusion detection agents of the human body, policing the tissue and organs for potential invaders in the form of pathogens. In this research, and abstract model of DC behaviour is developed and subsequently used to form an algorithm, the DCA. The abstraction process was facilitated through close collaboration with laboratory- based immunologists, who performed bespoke experiments, the results of which are used as an integral part of this algorithm. The DCA is a population based algorithm, with each agent in the system represented as an 'artificial DC'. Each DC has the ability to combine multiple data streams and can add context to data suspected as anomalous. In this chapter the abstraction process and details of the resultant algorithm are given. The algorithm is applied to numerous intrusion detection problems in computer security including the detection of p...

  3. Elevated endogenous expression of the dominant negative basic helix-loop-helix protein ID1 correlates with significant centrosome abnormalities in human tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutmann Anja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ID proteins are dominant negative inhibitors of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that have multiple functions during development and cellular differentiation. Ectopic (over-expression of ID1 extends the lifespan of primary human epithelial cells. High expression levels of ID1 have been detected in multiple human malignancies, and in some have been correlated with unfavorable clinical prognosis. ID1 protein is localized at the centrosomes and forced (over-expression of ID1 results in errors during centrosome duplication. Results Here we analyzed the steady state expression levels of the four ID-proteins in 18 tumor cell lines and assessed the number of centrosome abnormalities. While expression of ID1, ID2, and ID3 was detected, we failed to detect protein expression of ID4. Expression of ID1 correlated with increased supernumerary centrosomes in most cell lines analyzed. Conclusions This is the first report that shows that not only ectopic expression in tissue culture but endogenous levels of ID1 modulate centrosome numbers. Thus, our findings support the hypothesis that ID1 interferes with centrosome homeostasis, most likely contributing to genomic instability and associated tumor aggressiveness.

  4. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for fanconi anemia in patients with pretransplantation cytogenetic abnormalities, myelodysplastic syndrome, or acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayas, Mouhab; Saber, Wael; Davies, Stella M; Harris, Richard E; Hale, Gregory A; Socie, Gerard; LeRademacher, Jennifer; Thakar, Monica; Deeg, H Joachim J; Al-Seraihy, Amal; Battiwalla, Minoo; Camitta, Bruce M; Olsson, Richard; Bajwa, Rajinder S; Bonfim, Carmem M; Pasquini, Ricardo; Macmillan, Margaret L; George, Biju; Copelan, Edward A; Wirk, Baldeep; Al Jefri, Abdullah; Fasth, Anders L; Guinan, Eva C; Horn, Biljana N; Lewis, Victor A; Slavin, Shimon; Stepensky, Polina; Bierings, Marc; Gale, Robert Peter

    2013-05-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can cure bone marrow failure in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA). Data on outcomes in patients with pretransplantation cytogenetic abnormalities, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or acute leukemia have not been separately analyzed. We analyzed data on 113 patients with FA with cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 54), MDS (n = 45), or acute leukemia (n = 14) who were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 1985 to 2007. Neutrophil recovery occurred in 78% and 85% of patients at days 28 and 100, respectively. Day 100 cumulative incidences of acute graft-versus-host disease grades B to D and C to D were 26% (95% CI, 19% to 35%) and 12% (95% CI, 7% to 19%), respectively. Survival probabilities at 1, 3, and 5 years were 64% (95% CI, 55% to 73%), 58% (95% CI, 48% to 67%), and 55% (95% CI, 45% to 64%), respectively. In univariate analysis, younger age was associated with superior 5-year survival (≤ v > 14 years: 69% [95% CI, 57% to 80%] v 39% [95% CI, 26% to 53%], respectively; P = .001). In transplantations from HLA-matched related donors (n = 82), younger patients (≤ v > 14 years: 78% [95% CI, 64% to 90%] v 34% [95% CI, 20% to 50%], respectively; P < .001) and patients with cytogenetic abnormalities only versus MDS/acute leukemia (67% [95% CI, 52% to 81%] v 43% [95% CI, 27% to 59%], respectively; P = .03) had superior 5-year survival. Our analysis indicates that long-term survival for patients with FA with cytogenetic abnormalities, MDS, or acute leukemia is achievable. Younger patients and recipients of HLA-matched related donor transplantations who have cytogenetic abnormalities only have the best survival.

  5. Abnormal lysosomal trafficking and enhanced exosomal export of cisplatin in drug-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Roohangiz; Larson, Barrett J; Cheng, Timothy C; Gibson, Michael A; Otani, Shinji; Naerdemann, Wiltrud; Howell, Stephen B

    2005-10-01

    Previous work has shown that cisplatin (CDDP) becomes concentrated in lysosomes, and that acquired resistance to CDDP is associated with abnormalities of protein trafficking and secretion. The lysosomal compartment in CDDP-sensitive 2008 human ovarian carcinoma cells was compared with that in CDDP-resistant 2008/C13*5.25 subline using deconvoluting imaging and specific dyes and antibodies. The lysosomal compartment in CDDP-resistant cells was reduced to just 40% of that in the parental CDDP-sensitive cells (P<0.002). This was accompanied by a reduced expression of the lysosome-associated proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP1 and LAMP2) as determined by both microscopy and Western blot analysis. The CDDP-resistant cells released more protein as exosomes and Western blot analysis revealed that these exosomes contained substantially more LAMP1 than those released by the CDDP-sensitive cells. Following loading of the whole cell with CDDP, the exosomes released from 2008/C13*5.25 cells contained 2.6-fold more platinum than those released from sensitive cells. Enhanced exosomal export was accompanied by higher exosomal levels of the putative CDDP export transporters MRP2, ATP7A, and ATP7B. Expression profiling identified significant increases in the expression of several genes whose products function in membrane fusion and vesicle trafficking. This study shows that the lysosomal compartment of human ovarian carcinoma cells selected for stable resistance to CDDP is markedly reduced in size, and that these cells abnormally sort some lysosomal proteins and the putative CDDP transporters into an exosomal pathway that also exports CDDP.

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  7. Differential gene expression profile associated with the abnormality of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in aplastic anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Li

    Full Text Available Aplastic anemia (AA is generally considered as an immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome with defective hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and marrow microenvironment. Previous studies have demonstrated the defective HSCs and aberrant T cellular-immunity in AA using a microarray approach. However, little is known about the overall specialty of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. In the present study, we comprehensively compared the biological features and gene expression profile of BM-MSCs between AA patients and healthy volunteers. In comparison with healthy controls, BM-MSCs from AA patients showed aberrant morphology, decreased proliferation and clonogenic potential and increased apoptosis. BM-MSCs from AA patients were susceptible to be induced to differentiate into adipocytes but more difficult to differentiate into osteoblasts. Consistent with abnormal biological features, a large number of genes implicated in cell cycle, cell division, proliferation, chemotaxis and hematopoietic cell lineage showed markedly decreased expression in BM-MSCs from AA patients. Conversely, more related genes with apoptosis, adipogenesis and immune response showed increased expression in BM-MSCs from AA patients. The gene expression profile of BM-MSCs further confirmed the abnormal biological properties and provided significant evidence for the possible mechanism of the destruction of the bone marrow microenvironment in AA.

  8. Abnormal production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by lupus monocytes in response to apoptotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sule

    Full Text Available Monocytes are a key component of the innate immune system involved in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Previous studies have focused on apoptotic cell clearance abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE monocytes. However, whether SLE monocytes might express unique patterns of cytokine secretion in response to apoptotic cells is still unknown. Here, we used monocytes from healthy controls and SLE patients to evaluate the production of TNF-α and TGF-β in response to apoptotic cells. Upon recognition of apoptotic material, monocytes from healthy controls showed prominent TGF-β secretion (mean ± SD: 824.6±144.3 pg/ml and minimal TNF-α production (mean ± SD: 32.6±2.1 pg/ml. In contrast, monocytes from SLE patients had prominent TNF-α production (mean ± SD: 302.2±337.5 pg/ml and diminished TGF-β secretion (mean ± SD: 685.9±615.9 pg/ml, a difference that was statistically significant compared to normal monocytes (p≤10(-6 for TNF-α secretion, and p = 0.0031 for TGF-β, respectively. Interestingly, the unique cytokine response by SLE monocytes was independent of their phagocytic clearance efficiency, opsonizing autoantibodies and disease activity. We further showed that nucleic acids from apoptotic cells play important role in the induction of TNF-α by lupus monocytes. Together, these observations suggest that, in addition to potential clearance defects, monocytes from SLE patients have an abnormal balance in the secretion of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to apoptotic cells. Since the abnormal cytokine response to apoptotic material in SLE is not related to disease activity and opsonizing autoantibodies, it is possible that this response might be an intrinsic property of lupus monocytes. The studies focus attention on toll-like receptors (TLRs and their downstream pathways as mediators of this response.

  9. Reversal of Phenotypic Abnormalities by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Correction in Huntington Disease Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in HTT. Here we report correction of HD human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs using a CRISPR-Cas9 and piggyBac transposon-based approach. We show that both HD and corrected isogenic hiPSCs can be differentiated into excitable, synaptically active forebrain neurons. We further demonstrate that phenotypic abnormalities in HD hiPSC-derived neural cells, including impaired neural rosette formation, increased susceptibility to growth factor withdrawal, and deficits in mitochondrial respiration, are rescued in isogenic controls. Importantly, using genome-wide expression analysis, we show that a number of apparent gene expression differences detected between HD and non-related healthy control lines are absent between HD and corrected lines, suggesting that these differences are likely related to genetic background rather than HD-specific effects. Our study demonstrates correction of HD hiPSCs and associated phenotypic abnormalities, and the importance of isogenic controls for disease modeling using hiPSCs.

  10. Effector and naturally occurring regulatory T cells display no abnormalities in activation induced cell death in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Kaminitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disturbed peripheral negative regulation might contribute to evolution of autoimmune insulitis in type 1 diabetes. This study evaluates the sensitivity of naïve/effector (Teff and regulatory T cells (Treg to activation-induced cell death mediated by Fas cross-linking in NOD and wild-type mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both effector (CD25(-, FoxP3(- and suppressor (CD25(+, FoxP3(+ CD4(+ T cells are negatively regulated by Fas cross-linking in mixed splenocyte populations of NOD, wild type mice and FoxP3-GFP trangeneess. Proliferation rates and sensitivity to Fas cross-linking are dissociated in Treg cells: fast cycling induced by IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation improve Treg resistance to Fas-ligand (FasL in both strains. The effector and suppressor CD4(+ subsets display balanced sensitivity to negative regulation under baseline conditions, IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation, indicating that stimulation does not perturb immune homeostasis in NOD mice. Effective autocrine apoptosis of diabetogenic cells was evident from delayed onset and reduced incidence of adoptive disease transfer into NOD.SCID by CD4(+CD25(- T cells decorated with FasL protein. Treg resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis retain suppressive activity in vitro. The only detectable differential response was reduced Teff proliferation and upregulation of CD25 following CD3-activation in NOD mice. CONCLUSION: These data document negative regulation of effector and suppressor cells by Fas cross-linking and dissociation between sensitivity to apoptosis and proliferation in stimulated Treg. There is no evidence that perturbed AICD in NOD mice initiates or promotes autoimmune insulitis.

  11. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  12. Monosomal karyotype predicts poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in chromosome 7 abnormal myelodysplastic syndrome and secondary acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M. van; Wreede, L.C. de; Schetelig, J.; Biezen, A. van; Volin, L.; Maertens, J.; Robin, M.; Petersen, E.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Kroger, N.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment algorithms for poor cytogenetic-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), defined by chromosome 7 abnormalities or complex karyotype (CK), include allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We studied outcome of alloSCT in chromosome 7 abnormal MDS patients as this data are scarce in liter

  13. Deletion(20q) as the sole abnormality in plasma cell myeloma is not associated with plasma cells as identified by cIg FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joanne S; Zordan, Adrian; Batzios, Crisoula; Campbell, Lynda J

    2012-12-01

    Deletion of 20q is a common finding in myeloid disorders but it is also observed in plasma cell myeloma (PCM). As a del(20q) in a patient receiving treatment for myeloma may indicate therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS), it is important to differentiate chromosome abnormalities associated with myeloma from those reflecting t-MDS. We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a 20q12 probe (D20S108) in conjunction with cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) staining in 20 PCM cases with a del(20q) in order to confirm the cell type involved. Of the nine cases studied with a clone showing a del(20q) as the sole abnormality, 8 of 9 demonstrated loss of the D20S108 signals in non-plasma cells only and 5 of 9 had either a confirmed myeloid malignancy in addition to PCM or showed evidence of dysplastic changes in the marrow; however, of the 11 patients with a del(20q) within a complex PCM karyotype, 4 of 11 showed loss of the D20S108 signals in plasma cells only and 7 of 11 showed no significant loss in either plasma cells or non-plasma cells. Therefore, our results indicate that a del(20q) as the sole abnormality in PCM is present in non-plasma cells and, therefore, suggests the presence of an associated myeloid malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lithium-Ion Battery Cell-Balancing Algorithm for Battery Management System Based on Real-Time Outlier Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhao Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel cell-balancing algorithm which was used for cell balancing of battery management system (BMS was proposed in this paper. Cell balancing algorithm is a key technology for lithium-ion battery pack in the electric vehicle field. The distance-based outlier detection algorithm adopted two characteristic parameters (voltage and state of charge to calculate each cell’s abnormal value and then identified the unbalanced cells. The abnormal and normal type of battery cells were acquired by online clustering strategy and bleeding circuits (R = 33 ohm were used to balance the abnormal cells. The simulation results showed that with the proposed balancing algorithm, the usable capacity of the battery pack increased by 0.614 Ah (9.5% compared to that without balancing.

  15. 改进的CUSUM网络流量异常检测%Abnormal Detection on Network Traffic Based on the Improved CUSUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓绯; 韩文智; 朱倩; 钱立

    2014-01-01

    The network is an integral part in people living and learning. It is an assurance of a normal network running how to be able to detect the abnormal network traffic accurately and fast, and to make a reasonable response. This paper put forward the algorithm for an abnormal network traffic detection based on the improved CUSUM, it was improved through two parts of the warning judgement and improvement constraints according to the detection algorithm. Finally, experimental results showed that CUSUM algorithm was a simple, had a great of improvement in the aspects of improving traffic abnormal detection false positive negative rate.%网络已是人们学习生活不可缺少的一部分,如何能够准确、快速地检测出网络流量异常,并做出合理的响应,是网络正常运行的保证。本文提出改进的CUSUM流量异常检测算法,通过对CUSUM算法对网络流量进行检测,在警告判断条件和增加约束条件两方面进行改进。最后实验结果表明,CUSUM算法实现简单,在提高异常流量检测的误报率和漏报率方面有较大改进。

  16. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Helena J. van der, E-mail: h.j.vanderpal@amc.uva.nl [Department of Medical Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dijk, Irma W. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geskus, Ronald B. [Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kok, Wouter E. [Department of Cardiology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koolen, Marianne; Sieswerda, Elske [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Koning, Caro C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities

  17. CellTracks cell analysis system for rare cell detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagan, Michael T.; Trainer, Michael N.; Bendele, Teresa; Rao, Chandra; Horton, Allen; Tibbe, Arjan G.; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The CellTracks system is a Compact Disk-based cell analyzer that, similar to flow cytometry, differentiates cells that are aligned while passing through focused laser beams. In CellTracks, only immuno-magnetically labeled cells are aligned and remain in position for further analysis. This feature is

  18. Automatic Detection of Cervical Cancer Cells by a Two-Level Cascade Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a method for automatic detection of cervical cancer cells in images captured from thin liquid based cytology slides. We selected 20,000 cells in images derived from 120 different thin liquid based cytology slides, which include 5000 epithelial cells (normal 2500, abnormal 2500, lymphoid cells, neutrophils, and junk cells. We first proposed 28 features, including 20 morphologic features and 8 texture features, based on the characteristics of each cell type. We then used a two-level cascade integration system of two classifiers to classify the cervical cells into normal and abnormal epithelial cells. The results showed that the recognition rates for abnormal cervical epithelial cells were 92.7% and 93.2%, respectively, when C4.5 classifier or LR (LR: logical regression classifier was used individually; while the recognition rate was significantly higher (95.642% when our two-level cascade integrated classifier system was used. The false negative rate and false positive rate (both 1.44% of the proposed automatic two-level cascade classification system are also much lower than those of traditional Pap smear review.

  19. A Comprehensive Update on Molecular and Cytogenetic Abnormalities in T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia (T-pll).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Paul; Starshak, Phillip; Rao, Nagesh; Tirado, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare form of leukemia composed of mature T-cells that usually presents in older people (median age of 65) with initial high white cell counts, massive splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and skin lesions. One of the cornerstones for diagnosing T-PLL includes cytogenetic studies. Most cases of T-PLL will harbor characteristic chromosomal abnormalities involving 14q11. 2 (TCR alpha/delta), 14q32 (TCL1 gene) or Xq28 (MTCP-1 gene), abnormalities of chromosome 8, 12p, and deletions of the long arm of chromosomes 5, 6, 11, and 13. In searching for new T-PLL target genes, recent studies have used techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), 50k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays with gene expression analysis. More recently, SNP arrays with higher resolution analysis have frequently provided more precise information about submicroscopic gene and genomic lesions as well as breakpoints involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Herein, we summarize a review of the current literature of cytogenetic findings in T-PLL emphasizing those that may relate to the underlying mechanisms of leukemogenesis in T-PLL. Additionally, we stress the importance of karyotype characterization to accurately diagnose this disease because it usually carries a dismal prognosis that requires aggressive treatment strategies as it is poorly responsive to conventional chemotherapy used for other mature T-cell malignancies.

  20. A RAS oncogene imparts growth factor independence to myeloid cells that abnormally regulate protein kinase C: a nonautocrine transformation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, H S; Nahreini, T S; Burgess, G S; Srivastava, A; Gabig, T G; Inhorn, L; Srour, E F; Harrington, M A

    1990-06-01

    The factor-dependent cell line FDC-P1 has been utilized as a model of interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent myeloid cell proliferation. However, it has been recently observed that active phorbol esters (e.g., phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) may entirely replace IL-3 to promote its proliferation. These observations reveal abnormal regulation of protein kinase C (pkC) (absence of downregulation or overexpression). This property allowed a test of the hypothesis that the T24 RAS (codon 12) oncogene acts by constitutive and persistent pkC activation, driving proliferation. FDC-P1 cells were transfected by electroporation with the T24 RAS-containing vector pAL 8, or with a control vector pSVX Zip Neo, and neomycin-resistant clones were selected. Multiple RAS-transfectant clones were categorized for their growth factor requirement and incorporation of the 6.6-kb human mutant H-RAS genome. IL-3-independent clones had incorporated multiple (more than two) copies of the entire 6.6-kb RAS genome. The incorporation of multiple 6.6-kb RAS genomes was correlated with high-level p21 RAS expression. No evidence for autostimulatory growth factor production by clones containing the RAS oncogene was observed. Thus, acquisition of growth factor independence in myeloid cells by abundant expression of a RAS oncogene is linked, in part, to abnormal regulation of pkC, which acts as a collaborating oncogene.

  1. SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y; LI, X; Merchant, T [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Indelicato, D [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Boop, F [Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from the mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with persistent and

  2. Novel Application of a Multiscale Entropy Index as a Sensitive Tool for Detecting Subtle Vascular Abnormalities in the Aged and Diabetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Tsai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have shown the successful use of pressure-induced reactive hyperemia as a tool for the assessment of endothelial function, its sensitivity remains questionable. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and sensitivity of a novel multiscale entropy index (MEI in detecting subtle vascular abnormalities in healthy and diabetic subjects. Basic anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, serum lipid profiles, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were recorded. Arterial pulse wave signals were acquired from the wrist with an air pressure sensing system (APSS, followed by MEI and dilatation index (DI analyses. MEI succeeded in detecting significant differences among the four groups of subjects: healthy young individuals, healthy middle-aged or elderly individuals, well-controlled diabetic individuals, and poorly controlled diabetic individuals. A reduction in multiscale entropy reflected age- and diabetes-related vascular changes and may serve as a more sensitive indicator of subtle vascular abnormalities compared with DI in the setting of diabetes.

  3. Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities are detected on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in HIV-infected subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Alan; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D. [Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Duncombe, Chris [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); Li, Patrick C.K. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Gill, John M. [Calgary Regional Health Authority, Calgary (Canada); Kerr, Stephen J. [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Puls, Rebekah L.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A. [University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Collaboration: for the Altair Study Group

    2012-12-15

    Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent {sup 1}H MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed. Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014). Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Greater inflammatory metabolite ratios (Cho/Cr and MI/Cr) associated with lower markers of peripheral immune markers (CD4+ lymphocyte count) in the FGM and lower neuronal metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho) associated with greater HIV viraemia in the RBG were present in HIV-infected subjects. (orig.)

  4. Clinical significance of abnormal protein bands in multiple myeloma treated with bortezmib-based induction regimen and autologous stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荷花

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical significance of abnormal protein bands(APB)in multiple myeloma(MM) patients treated with bortezomib-based induction regimen and autologous stem cell transplantation(ASCT)

  5. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Høst, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2017-01-01

    transferred to each patient showed similar to results. In conclusion, good morphology blastocysts presenting ACDs can result in live birth although lower compared to blastocysts with solely regular cell division. Pre-implantation embryos in vitro may undergo self-selection or correcting processes...... a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd......: 18.5%; 4th: 18.1%). More blastocysts presented failed cell divisions (no. 95) than multi-cell divisions (no. 14). Live births were achieved from blastocysts showing multi-cell divisions at any cell cycle and failed cell divisions from the 2nd cell cycle. Analyses of the subgroup of first blastocyst...

  6. Pathological concentration of zinc dramatically accelerates abnormal aggregation of full-length human Tau and thereby significantly increases Tau toxicity in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji-Ying; Zhang, De-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Li, Xue-Shou; Cheng, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jie; Du, Hai-Ning; Liang, Yi

    2017-02-01

    A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles mainly composed of bundles of fibrils formed by microtubule-associated protein Tau. Here we study the effects of Zn(2+) on abnormal aggregation and cytotoxicity of a pathological mutant ΔK280 of full-length human Tau. As revealed by Congo red binding assays, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and immunogold electron microscopy, pathological concentration of Zn(2+) dramatically accelerates the fibrillization of ΔK280 both in vitro and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. As evidenced by annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection assay and MTT reduction assay, pathological concentration of Zn(2+) remarkably enhances ΔK280 fibrillization-induced apoptosis and toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Substitution of Cys-291 and Cys-322 with Ala, however, essentially eliminates such enhancing effects of Zn(2+) on the fibrillization and the consequent cytotoxicity of ΔK280. Furthermore, Zn(2+) is co-localized with and highly enriched in amyloid fibrils formed by ΔK280 in SH-SY5Y cells. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that Zn(2+) binds to full-length human Tau by interacting with Cys-291 and Cys-322, forming a 1:1 Zn(2+)-Tau complex. Our data demonstrate that zinc dramatically accelerates abnormal aggregation of human Tau and significantly increases Tau toxicity in neuronal cells mainly via bridging Cys-291 and Cys-322. Our findings could explain how pathological zinc regulates Tau aggregation and toxicity associated with Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The other side of abnormal: a case series of low transcranial Doppler velocities associated with stroke in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Iris D; James-Herry, Anne; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of cerebrovascular events in sickle cell disease (SCD) can be as low as 10% by the age of 18 for overt cerebral infarction or strokes, up to 35% for silent cerebral infarction, and as high as 43/100 patient years for acute silent cerebral ischemic events. These events typically occur during childhood with a peak incidence between the age of 4 and 7 years. The cumulative risk of central nervous system events in SCD increases with age. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is an established screening tool for detecting children with SCD at highest risk for stroke by measuring the flow velocity in the large intracranial vessels. Velocities are considered abnormal with readings >200 cm/s and chronic red cell transfusions are recommended to reduce further risk or progression. Red cell transfusions have reduced the rate of cerebrovascular accidents by 90%. We describe the case of 5 children with sickle cell anemia, whose antecedent screening TCD velocities were measured to be ≤70 cm/s in the study. All patients developed some form of cerebral insults, an overt cerebral infarctions, silent stroke or transient ischemic attack, and are now receiving chronic transfusion to prevent further progression. On the basis of these cases, low TCD velocities may identify another group of children at risk for cerebrovascular disease. We suggest TCD velocities <70 cm/s in major vessels (MCA, ACA, and ICA) be considered another type of "abnormal," prompting more sensitive evaluations (such as a brain MRI and MRA) for the presence of central nervous system disease, and, if negative, decrease intervals between subsequent TCD assessments.

  8. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J.; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S.; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-02-01

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells.

  10. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J.; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S.; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells. PMID:28224984

  11. Sub-chronic exposure toEOMABRSleachate induces germinal epithelial cell lesions, sperm abnormalities and oxidative damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akintunde JK; ObohG; AkindahunsiAA

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the possible link between reproductive abnormalities among men and exposure of toxic chemicals in the environment.Methods:The study investigated the sperm functions and the antioxidant defence system of rats exposed to leachate obtained from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling site (EOMABRSL) via oral route.Results:EOMABRSL had significant effects on both absolute and relative testicular weight. Formation of sperm abnormalities was observed following EOMABRSL exposure. Antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly altered in the testes resulting into increased lipid peroxidation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were found to be significantly (P<0.05) depleted relative to the control group. Considerable necrosis of leydig cells and loss of germ cells in the seminiferous tubules with the clumping of interstitial space were seen in EOMABRSL-treated rats. The mechanism of toxicity is linked to individual, synergistic, antagonistic, competitive or collective interaction of the metals with normal testicular biochemical processes.Conclusion:The study concluded that possible mechanisms by which EOMABRSL at the investigated doses elicits spermatotoxicity could be linked to the testicular oxidative stress and damage to germinal epithelial cells by mixed-metal exposure. However, this may suggest possible reproductive health hazards in subjects with environmental or industrial exposure.

  12. Incidentally detected clear cell renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation (RCC-R has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis. A recent consensus statement of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP proposed a nucleolar grading system (ISUP grade for RCC to replace Fuhrman system and recommended reporting the presence of rhabdoid differentiation and considering tumors with rhabdoid differentiation to be ISUP Grade 4. We report a case of incidentally detected clear cell RCC-R in a 52-year-old man. This is one of the earliest cases of RCC-R (pT1b detected and first such case from Indian subcontinent.

  13. Incidentally detected clear cell renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh; Gowda, Kiran Krishne; Rao, Raman Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation (RCC-R) has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis. A recent consensus statement of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) proposed a nucleolar grading system (ISUP grade) for RCC to replace Fuhrman system and recommended reporting the presence of rhabdoid differentiation and considering tumors with rhabdoid differentiation to be ISUP Grade 4. We report a case of incidentally detected clear cell RCC-R in a 52-year-old man. This is one of the earliest cases of RCC-R (pT1b) detected and first such case from Indian subcontinent.

  14. LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS - EXPRESSION OF LEUKOCYTE CELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULES SUGGESTS ABNORMAL HOMING AND DIFFERENTIATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, JH; TAMMINGA, RYJ; KAMPS, WA; TIMENS, W

    1994-01-01

    Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by an accumulation of cells with a Langerhans' cell (LC) phenotype. Most patients present with solitary skin or bone lesions, but multi-organ lesions may appear Twenty-two LCH-tissue sections from 13 children and adolescents, with lesions at diff

  15. Abnormal Detection for Harmonic Currents Based on Cloud Model%基于云模型的谐波电流异常检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余南华; 李兰芳; 王玲; 杨洪耕; 谭丹

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Monitoring harmonics of power system are the main tasks of power quality monitoring system, and the harmonic current detection can provide the basis for the analysis of equipment operating status, so a method of abnormal detection for harmonic current based on cloud model was proposed. The normal cloud models were constructed by the daily 95% probability value and daily maximum of harmonic current under the normal operating conditions respectively. The entropy of the cloud model was applied to measure the normal range of the harmonic current, and the abnormal threshold was determined by the normal cloud outside belonging curve’s'3Enboundary.At the same time, the revised algorithm and simplified formulas for abnormal detection of harmonic current were proposed. Abnormal detection of harmonic current can be implemented by comparing the harmonic current needing to be detected with abnormal threshold. Determining the abnormal threshold value of harmonic current based on cloud model can overcome the problem that the abnormal threshold determined by the general sample method is influenced by sample random uncertainty problem. Also, this method can take into account the fluctuations of normal data, thus the abnormal threshold is more in line with the objective reality, and it is not easy to cause misjudgment of the normal data. Practical engineering examples prove the method is correct and the disadvantages of the general sample method are also illustrated.%电力系统谐波监测是电能质量监测系统的主要工作内容,谐波电流检测能为分析设备运行状态提供依据,提出了一种基于云模型检测谐波电流是否异常的方法。根据正常运行条件下谐波电流的日95%概率值和日最大值分别建立正态云模型,利用云模型的熵来衡量正常运行方式时谐波电流的波动范围,根据正态云外隶属曲线的'3En外边界确定谐波电流的异常阈值。同时提出了谐波电流异常检

  16. Cerebellar cortex development in the weaver condition presents regional and age-dependent abnormalities without differences in Purkinje cells neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, María C; Hervás, José P; Bayer, Shirley A; Villegas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ataxias are neurological disorders associated with the degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). Homozygous weaver mice (wv/wv) have been proposed as a model for hereditary cerebellar ataxia because they present motor abnormalities and PC loss. To ascertain the physiopathology of the weaver condition, the development of the cerebellar cortex lobes was examined at postnatal day (P): P8, P20 and P90. Three approaches were used: 1) quantitative determination of several cerebellar features; 2) qualitative evaluation of the developmental changes occurring in the cortical lobes; and 3) autoradiographic analyses of PC generation and placement. Our results revealed a reduction in the size of the wv/wv cerebellum as a whole, confirming previous results. However, as distinguished from these reports, we observed that quantified parameters contribute differently to the abnormal growth of the wv/wv cerebellar lobes. Qualitative analysis showed anomalies in wv/wv cerebellar cytoarchitecture, depending on the age and lobe analyzed. Such abnormalities included the presence of the external granular layer after P20 and, at P90, ectopic cells located in the molecular layer following several placement patterns. Finally, we obtained autoradiographic evidence that wild-type and wv/wv PCs presented similar neurogenetic timetables, as reported. However, the innovative character of this current work lies in the fact that the neurogenetic gradients of wv/wv PCs were not modified from P8 to P90. A tendency for the accumulation of late-formed PCs in the anterior and posterior lobes was found, whereas early-generated PCs were concentrated in the central and inferior lobes. These data suggested that wv/wv PCs may migrate properly to their final destinations. The extrapolation of our results to patients affected with cerebellar ataxias suggests that all cerebellar cortex lobes are affected with several age-dependent alterations in cytoarchitectonics. We also propose that PC loss may be regionally

  17. Detecting Abnormal Word Utterances in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Machine-Learning-Based Voice Analysis Versus Speech Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Matsui, Gakuyo; Yamaoka, Noriko; Takada, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal prosody is often evident in the voice intonations of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. We compared a machine-learning-based voice analysis with human hearing judgments made by 10 speech therapists for classifying children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 30) and typical development ( n = 51). Using stimuli limited to single-word utterances, machine-learning-based voice analysis was superior to speech therapist judgments. There was a significantly higher true-positive than false-negative rate for machine-learning-based voice analysis but not for speech therapists. Results are discussed in terms of some artificiality of clinician judgments based on single-word utterances, and the objectivity machine-learning-based voice analysis adds to judging abnormal prosody.

  18. Respiratory symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to pulmonary abnormalities detected by high-resolution CT and pulmonary functional testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Amir A; Machaly, Shereen A; El-Dosoky, Mohammed E; El-Maghraby, Nermeen M

    2012-07-01

    Pulmonary disease is the most frequent and among the most severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, this issue has not been sufficiently studied in Egyptian patients. The objectives of the present study are to investigate the prevalence and types of pulmonary involvement using high-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) and evaluate the association between respiratory symptoms and RA-lung disease in a group of Egyptian RA patients. Thirty-six RA patients were recruited; 34 females (94.4%) and 2 males (5.6%) with median age of 48.5 years, and none of them was smoker. Detailed medical and drug histories were obtained. PFT, plain X-ray of the chest, and HRCT were performed to all subjects involved. Nearly 64% of RA patients demonstrated abnormalities in PFT and 47% in HRCT. Mixed restrictive and obstructive pattern was the commonest. Nearly two-thirds of our patients reported one or more pulmonary symptom whether dyspnea, cough, wheezing, or phlegm. Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom. Respiratory symptoms were statistically more common in patients with lung disease. The advanced age, high radiological score, and severity of rheumatoid disease were found to be predictive of lung involvement. Among respiratory symptoms, dyspnea and cough were associated with any pulmonary abnormalities. When specific pulmonary abnormalities were considered, only dyspnea was identified as predictor for restriction. For obstructive abnormality, both cough and wheezing provided valid prediction. We conclude that pulmonary involvement is a common manifestation in Egyptian RA patients, and the pattern of involvement is generally consistent with other studies that were performed worldwide. Specific respiratory symptoms could be used as practical, easy, and cost-effective method, especially in older and with more severe RA patients, to discriminate patients in need of subsequent PFT and HRCT imaging.

  19. The Development of Prostate Palpation Skills through Simulation Training May Impact Early Detection of Prostate Abnormalities and Early Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    diagnostic cues, and diagnosis of prostate cancer . 10 Figure 5. Upper and Lower Average Prostate Stiffness Bounds from human-subjects...versus false alarm rate for each participant. L.A. Baumgart et al. / Cancer Epidemiology 34 (2010) 79–84 83independent of prostate stiffness or abnormality...Randy Jones, School of Nursing – both of whom have particular expertise as relates to prostate cancer and disease. We have worked also in conjunction

  20. Human glioblastoma cells persistently infected with simian virus 40 carry nondefective episomal viral DNA and acquire the transformed phenotype and numerous chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, L C; Steinberg, V I; Kosz-Vnenchak, M

    1985-02-01

    A stable, persistent infection of A172 human glioblastoma cells with simian virus 40 (SV40) was readily established after infection at an input of 450 PFU per cell. Only 11% of the cells were initially susceptible to SV40, as shown by indirect immunofluorescent staining for the SV40 T antigen at 48 h. However, all cells produced T antigen by week 11. In contrast, viral capsid proteins were made in only about 1% of the cells in the established carrier system. Weekly viral yields ranged between 10(4) and 10(6) PFU/ml. Most of the capsid protein-producing cells contained enormous aberrant (lobulated or multiple) nuclei. Persistent viral DNA appeared in an episomal or "free" state exclusively in Southern blots and was indistinguishable from standard SV40 DNA by restriction analysis. Viral autointerference activity was not detected, and yield reduction assays did not indicate defective interfering particle activity, further implying that variant viruses were not a factor in this carrier system. Interferon was also not a factor in the system, as shown by direct challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus. Persistent infection resulted in cellular growth changes (enhanced saturation density and plating efficiency) characteristic of SV40 transformation. Persistent infection also led to an increased frequency of cytogenetic effects. These included sister chromatid exchanges, a variety of chromosomal abnormalities (ring chromosomes, acentric fragments, breaks, and gaps), and an increase in the chromosome number. Nevertheless, the persistently infected cells continued to display a bipolar glial cell-like morphology with extensive process extension and intercellular contacts.

  1. Construction of 3D micropatterned surfaces with wormlike and superhydrophilic PEG brushes to detect dysfunctional cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianwen; Shi, Qiang; Ye, Wei; Fan, Qunfu; Shi, Hengchong; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2014-12-10

    Detection of dysfunctional and apoptotic cells plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy. To develop a portable and user-friendly platform for dysfunctional and aging cell detection, we present a facile method to construct 3D patterns on the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) with poly(ethylene glycol) brushes. Normal red blood cells (RBCs) and lysed RBCs (dysfunctional cells) are used as model cells. The strategy is based on the fact that poly(ethylene glycol) brushes tend to interact with phosphatidylserine, which is in the inner leaflet of normal cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cell membranes. We demonstrate that varied patterned surfaces can be obtained by selectively patterning atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiators on the SEBS surface via an aqueous-based method and growing PEG brushes through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The relatively high initiator density and polymerization temperature facilitate formation of PEG brushes in high density, which gives brushes worm-like morphology and superhydrophilic property; the tendency of dysfunctional cells adhered on the patterned surfaces is completely different from well-defined arrays of normal cells on the patterned surfaces, providing a facile method to detect dysfunctional cells effectively. The PEG-patterned surfaces are also applicable to detect apoptotic HeLa cells. The simplicity and easy handling of the described technique shows the potential application in microdiagnostic devices.

  2. Abnormal cell-clearance and accumulation of autophagic vesicles in lymphocytes from patients affected with Ataxia-Teleangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Assante, Roberta; Fusco, Anna; Palamaro, Loredana; Polishchuk, Elena; Polishchuk, Roman; Bianchino, Gabriella; Grieco, Vitina; Prencipe, Maria Rosaria; Ballabio, Andrea; Pignata, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Ataxia-Teleangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to mutations in ATM gene. ATM in the nucleus ensures DNA repair, while its role in the cytosol is still poorly clarified. Abnormal autophagy has been documented in other neurodegenerative disorders, thus we evaluated whether alteration in this process may be involved in the pathogenesis of A-T by analyzing the autophagic vesicles and the genes implicated in the different stages of autophagy. Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence analysis we observed an accumulation of APs associated with a LC3 puncta pattern, and a reduced number of ALs. We also documented an increased expression of genes involved in AP and lysosome biogenesis and function, and a decrease of Vps18 expression, involved in their vesicular trafficking and fusion. mTORC1-controlled proteins were hyperphosphorylated in A-T, in keeping with an increased mTOR inhibitory influence of autophagy. Betamethasone is able to promote the degradation of SQSTM1, a biomarker of autophagy. Collectively, our results indicate that in cells from A-T patients, the APs maturation is active, while the fusion between APs and lysosomes is inappropriate, thus implying abnormalities in the cell-clearance process. We also documented a positive effect of Betamethasone on molecules implicated in autophagosome degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Male-to-female sex ratios of abnormalities detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a population of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Cantú

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Distorted sex ratios occur in hematologic disorders. For example, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL displays disproportionate sex ratios with a large male excess. However, the underlying genetics for these disparities are poorly understood, and gender differences for specific cytogenetic abnormalities have not been carefully investigated. We sought to provide an initial characterization of gender representation in genetic abnormalities in CLL by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. We confirm the well known skewed male-to-female (M/F sex ratio of ~1.5 in our CLL study population, but also determine the genotypic M/F sex ratio values corresponding to specific FISH DNA probes. Genetic changes in CLL detectable by four FISH probes were statistically compared with respect to gender. Initial FISH evaluations of 4698 CLL patients were retrospectively examined and new findings of the genotypic M/F sex ratios for these probes are reported. This study represents the largest CLL survey conducted in the United States using FISH probes. The CLL database demonstrated that FISH abnormalities (trisomy 12, 13q14.3 deletion and 17p13.1 deletion probes had skewed M/F ratios of ~1.5. Also, by statistical analysis it was shown that ATM gene loss (11q22.3q23.1 deletion solely or with other abnormalities was considerably higher in males with an M/F ratio of 2.5 and significantly different from M/F ratios of 1.0 or 1.5. We hypothesize that interactions involving these autosomal abnormalities (trisomy 12, and deletions of 11q22.3, 13q14.3, and 17p13.1, and the sex chromosomes may provide the genetic basis for the altered phenotypic M/F ratio in CLL.

  4. Disruption of Endothelial Cell Homeostasis Plays a Key Role in the Early Pathogenesis of Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kentaro; Ninomiya, Yumiko; Hazeki, Daisuke; Masuda, Kiminori; Nomura, Yuichi; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of endothelial cell homeostasis may be associated with the pathogenesis of coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) in Kawasaki disease (KD). We sought to clarify the poorly understood pathogenic role of endothelial cell survival and death in KD vasculitis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated with sera from KD patients, compared with sera from patients with bacterial infections, exhibited significant increases in cytotoxicity, high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB-1), and caspase-3/7 and a decrease in phosphorylated Akt/Akt (pAkt/Akt) ratios. HUVECs stimulated with sera from KD patients treated with immunoglobulin (IG) showed significantly decreased cytotoxicity, HMGB-1, and caspase-3/7 levels and increased pAkt/Akt ratios, as compared with results for untreated HUVECs (P < 0.001, P = 0.008, P = 0.040, and P < 0.001, respectively). In HUVECs stimulated with sera from KD patients, the increased cytotoxicity levels and the suppression of increased pAkt/Akt ratios after subsequent IG treatment were closely related to the development of CAA (P = 0.002 and P = 0.035). Our data reveal that shifting the balance toward cell death rather than survival appears to perturb endothelial cell homeostasis and is closely related to the development of CAA. The cytoprotective effects of IG treatment appear to ameliorate endothelial cell homeostasis. PMID:28255175

  5. Enteric glial cells and their role in gastrointestinal motor abnormalities: Introducing the neuro-gliopathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Vincenzo Villanacci; Simona Fisogni; Elisa Rossi; Paola Baronio; Carlo Clerici; Christoph A Maurer; Gieri Cathomas; Elisabetta Antonelli

    2007-01-01

    The role of enteric glial cells has somewhat changed from that of mere mechanical support elements, gluing together the various components of the enteric nervous system, to that of active participants in the complex interrelationships of the gut motor and inflammatory events. Due to their multiple functions, spanning from supporting elements in the myenteric plexuses to neurotransmitters, to neuronal homeostasis, to antigen presenting cells, this cell population has probably more intriguing abilities than previously thought. Recently,some evidence has been accumulating that shows how these cells may be involved in the pathophysiological aspects of some diseases. This review will deal with the properties of the enteric glial cells more strictly related to gastrointestinal motor function and the human pathological conditions in which these cells may play a role, suggesting the possibility of enteric neurogliopathies.

  6. NKCC1-deficiency results in abnormal proliferation of neural progenitor cells of the lateral ganglionic eminence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cathia Magalhães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC1 is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced PH3-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia.

  7. Alterações renais nas doenças falciformes Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Q. Magalhães

    2007-09-01

    abnormalities, hemodynamic changes and renal hormone synthesis alterations (erythropoietin, renin, prostaglandins. These changes appear in childhood with consequences including chronic anemia, increased blood flow and vaso-occlusion, especially within the renal medulla. In SS disease, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR is markedly higher in young patients but this drops with age. As a consequence of abnormalities in the distal nephron function there is reduced capacity of urine acidification, potassium excretion and hyposthenuria. Among the clinical effects of the latter are polyuria, nocturia, enuresis and a susceptability for dehydration. Abnormalities of the proximal tubular function include increased reabsorption of phosphates and b2 microglobulin and incresed secretion of uric acid and creatinine. For this reason, creatinine clearance significantly overestimates the glomerular filtration rate making creatinine learance inappropriate to detect early renal function impairment. Proteinuria occurs in 29-50% of over 10-years-old SS patients with 2/3 progressing to chronic renal failure. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor proves to be successful to reduce proteinuria which may have an impact of the progression of renal failure. Microalbuminuria is a sensitive marker of sickle nephropathy that precedes proteinuria. In pediatric population a prevalence of 19% of microbuminuria was observed; a percentage that increases with age and has a positive association with lower hemoglobin levels, higher leucocyte counts and acute chest syndrome. Screening for microalbuminuria is recommended from the age of 10 years old. A multicentric trial is ongoing with the aim of demonstrate potential benefits of early hydroxyurea therapy in the prevention of chronic organic lesions. (BabyHUG.

  8. Abnormalities of quantities and functions of natural killer cells in severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Li, Zhishang; Sheng, Weiwei; Fu, Rong; Li, Lijuan; Zhang, Tian; Wu, Yuhong; Xing, Limin; Song, Jia; Wang, Huaquan; Shao, Zonghong

    2014-01-01

    Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a rare disease characterized by severe pancytopenia and bone marrow failure. Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). They play a key role in n the innate immunity and adaptive immune. In this study, the quantitative and functional changes of natural killer (NK) cell subsets in peripheral blood of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients before and after immunosuppressive therapy (IST) were investigated. Results showed that the percentage of NK cells and its subsets in peripheral blood lymphocytes was decreased in SAA patients. After IST, the percentage of NK cells and their subsets increased dramatically. The median expressions of CD158a, NKG2D and NKp46 on NK cells were higher in SAA patients compared to that in normal controls, and the expressions of perforin in newly diagnosed and recovery SAA patients were higher than that in controls. Therefore, we concluded that the decrease of total NK cells, and CD56(bright), CD56(dim) NK cell subsets and the higher expressions of NKp46 and perforin on NK cells may cause the over-function of T lymphocytes and thus lead to hematopoiesis failure in SAA.

  9. Meiotic prophase abnormalities and metaphase cell death in MLH1-deficient mouse spermatocytes: insights into regulation of spermatogenic progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Shannon; Cobb, John; Pyle, April; Handel, Mary Ann

    2002-09-01

    The MLH1 protein is required for normal meiosis in mice and its absence leads to failure in maintenance of pairing between bivalent chromosomes, abnormal meiotic division, and ensuing sterility in both sexes. In this study, we investigated whether failure to develop foci of MLH1 protein on chromosomes in prophase would lead to elimination of prophase spermatocytes, and, if not, whether univalent chromosomes could align normally on the meiotic spindle and whether metaphase spermatocytes would be delayed and/or eliminated. In spite of the absence of MLH1 foci, no apoptosis of spermatocytes in prophase was detected. In fact, chromosomes of pachytene spermatocytes from Mlh1(-/-) mice were competent to condense metaphase chromosomes, both in vivo and in vitro. Most condensed chromosomes were univalents with spatially distinct FISH signals. Typical metaphase events, such as synaptonemal complex breakdown and the phosphorylation of Ser10 on histone H3, occurred in Mlh1(-/-) spermatocytes, suggesting that there is no inhibition of onset of meiotic metaphase in the face of massive chromosomal abnormalities. However, the condensed univalent chromosomes did not align correctly onto the spindle apparatus in the majority of Mlh1(-/-) spermatocytes. Most meiotic metaphase spermatocytes were characterized with bipolar spindles, but chromosomes radiated away from the microtubule-organizing centers in a prometaphase-like pattern rather than achieving a bipolar orientation. Apoptosis was not observed until after the onset of meiotic metaphase. Thus, spermatocytes are not eliminated in direct response to the initial meiotic defect, but are eliminated later. Taken together, these observations suggest that a spindle assembly checkpoint, rather than a recombination or chiasmata checkpoint, may be activated in response to meiotic errors, thereby ensuring elimination of chromosomally abnormal gamete precursors.

  10. Comparison of I-FISH and G-banding for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities during the evolution of myelodysplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Pinheiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS patients with a normal karyotype constitute a heterogeneous group from a biological standpoint and their outcome is often unpredictable. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH studies could increase the rate of detection of abnormalities, but previous reports in the literature have been contradictory. We performed I-FISH and conventional karyotyping (G-banding on 50 MDS patients at diagnosis, after 6 and 12 months or at any time if a transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML was detected. Applying a probe-panel targeting the centromere of chromosomes 7 and 8, 5q31, 5p15.2 and 7q31, we observed one case with 5q deletion not identified by G-banding. I-FISH at 6 and 12 months confirmed the karyotype results. Eight cases transformed to AML during follow-up, but no hidden clone was detected by I-FISH in any of them. The inclusion of I-FISH during follow-up of MDS resulted in a small improvement in abnormality detection when compared with conventional G-banding.

  11. First trimester Down's syndrome screening shows high detection rate for trisomy 21, but poor performance in structural abnormalities--regional outcome results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Anne; Niemimaa, Marko; Suonpää, Mikko; Ryynänen, Markku; Heinonen, Seppo

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether first trimester screening markers are altered in pregnancies affected both by other chromosomal defects than trisomy 21 and structural anomalies and whether it is possible to detect these pregnancies by combined ultrasound and biochemical screening test. Altogether 4,776 singleton pregnancies underwent first trimester screening. Of them, 3,101 women were screened using a combination of maternal serum free hCG, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and nuchal translucency and 1,361 women with first trimester biochemistry without ultrasound. Nuchal translucency screening was performed between the 11th and 13+6th gestational weeks, and biochemistry 1-2 weeks earlier. Using a fixed cut-off rate of 1:250 for Down's syndrome, the detection rate of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 were 92, 67 and 0%, respectively. All open defects, 85% of cardiac defects and other minor defects were not detected in first trimester screening. Majority of these structural abnormalities occurred in women under 35 years of age. First trimester Down's syndrome screening is effective in trisomy screening, but its performance in structural abnormalities is low, when used as a part of routine clinical practice. We conclude that it is too early to drop second trimester screening ultrasound entirely from antenatal care programs if a high detection rate is to be achieved also in structural defects.

  12. Diagnostic value of prenatal ultrasonography in detection the fetal eye abnormalities%产前超声检测胎儿眼部异常的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄苑铭; 饶金; 黄冬平; 陈燕; 马小燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of prenatal ultrasonography in detection the fetal eye abnormalities. Methods Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in 3400 fetuses, 20 cases of fetal eye abnormalities were found. The fetal eye abnormalities were classified according to the sonographic characteristics and autopsy results. Results Among the 20 cases of fetal eye abnormalities, 2 microph thalmia, 6 ocular hypotelorism and cyclopia all combined with holoprosencephaly, 5 anophthalmos( including 2 bilateral anophthalmos and 3 unilateral anophthalmia ), 1 persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, 6 ocular hypertelorism ( including 4 cases concomitant multiple abnormalities, 1 case of minor anomaly and 1 case of median cleft face syndrome ). Fifteen cases were determined after termination of pregnancy and 5 cases missed following up. Conclusion Ultrasonography can directly display the fetal eye structures, and play an important role in detecting and diagnosing for type of fetal eye abnormalities.%目的 探讨产前超声诊断胎儿眼部结构畸形的应用价值.方法 应用二维超声对3400例胎儿眼部进行检查,结合声像图特征及引产后尸解结果对眼部异常病例进行分类诊断.结果 3400例胎儿中检出眼部结构异常20例,其中小眼畸形2例,眼距过窄及独眼6例(均合并全前脑),无眼畸形5例(双侧无眼2例,单侧无眼3例),原始玻璃体残留组织增生症(PHPV)1 例,眼距过宽6例(4例合并多发畸形,1例合并微小畸形,1例为正中面裂综合征);经引产后证实产前超声诊断眼部异常正确15例,5例失随访.结论 超声能直观显示胎儿眼部结构,在胎儿眼部畸形的检出及分类诊断方面有重要作用.

  13. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  14. Hsp70 protects mitotic cells against heat-induced centrosome damage and division abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, HMJ; Kampinga, HH; Sibon, OCM

    2005-01-01

    The effect of heat shock on centrosomes has been mainly studied in interphase cells. Centrosomes play a key role in proper segregation of DNA during mitosis. However, the direct effect and consequences of heat shock on mitotic cells and a possible cellular defense system against proteotoxic stress d

  15. Hsp70 protects mitotic cells against heat-induced centrosome damage and division abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, HMJ; Kampinga, HH; Sibon, OCM

    The effect of heat shock on centrosomes has been mainly studied in interphase cells. Centrosomes play a key role in proper segregation of DNA during mitosis. However, the direct effect and consequences of heat shock on mitotic cells and a possible cellular defense system against proteotoxic stress

  16. Smartphones for cell and biomolecular detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lin, Tung-Yi; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2014-11-01

    Recent advances in biomedical science and technology have played a significant role in the development of new sensors and assays for cell and biomolecular detection. Generally, these efforts are aimed at reducing the complexity and costs associated with diagnostic testing so that it can be performed outside of a laboratory or hospital setting, requiring minimal equipment and user involvement. In particular, point-of-care (POC) testing offers immense potential for many important applications including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, food safety, and biosecurity. When coupled with smartphones, POC systems can offer portability, ease of use and enhanced functionality while maintaining performance. This review article focuses on recent advancements and developments in smartphone-based POC systems within the last 6 years with an emphasis on cell and biomolecular detection. These devices typically comprise multiple components, such as detectors, sample processors, disposable chips, batteries, and software, which are integrated with a commercial smartphone. One of the most important aspects of developing these systems is the integration of these components onto a compact and lightweight platform that requires minimal power. Researchers have demonstrated several promising approaches employing various detection schemes and device configurations, and it is expected that further developments in biosensors, battery technology and miniaturized electronics will enable smartphone-based POC technologies to become more mainstream tools in the scientific and biomedical communities.

  17. Hippocampal cell loss and propagation of abnormal discharges accompanied with the expression of tonic convulsion in the spontaneously epileptic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sasa, Masashi; Sugata, Sei; Tokudome, Mai; Serikawa, Tadao; Kurisu, Kaoru; Arita, Kazunori

    2010-04-30

    Spontaneously epileptic rats (SER) are double mutants with both tonic convulsion and absence-like seizures from the age of 8 weeks. Hippocampal CA3 neurons in SER display a long-lasting depolarizing shift accompanied by repetitive firing (attributed to abnormalities of the Ca(2+) channels) with a single stimulation of the mossy fibers. In the present investigation, we examined if the seizure discharges of SER were correlated with the hippocampal abnormality of SER using electrophysiological and histological methods. In CA1 neurons of seizure-susceptible mature SER, higher-voltage (<8-11 V) stimulations induced a long depolarization shift (in 25% of neurons) with repetitive firing (in 12.5% of neurons). However, the tremor rat, one of the parent strains of SER, did not exhibit such abnormal firing in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The number of CA3 neurons in SER was significantly (p<0.01) lower than that in tremor rats and Wistar rats, although no significant difference was established in the hilus. Sprouting of mossy fiber was observed in the dentate of mature SER; however, negligible staining was spotted in the dentate of both mature tremor and Wistar rats. Interestingly, expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor was higher in the hilus, CA3, and granular cell layer of dentate gyrus in SER than normal Wistar rats. The expression levels of TUNEL, bax, and Caspase-3 did not show significant changes between the SER and Wistar rats. SER exhibited hippocampal sclerosis-like changes which did not have enough potential for epileptogenesis. Repetitive tonic seizures and vulnerable CA3 neurons of SER could be involved in the induction of sclerosis-like changes in the hippocampus.

  18. [Additional phragmoplast corrects abnormal cytokinesis in wheat x rye hybrid pollen mother cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, E I; Shamina, N V; Dudka, L F; Kovtunenko, V Ia; Bolobolova, E U

    2009-01-01

    The phragmoplast dysfunction in wheat x rye hybrid F1 male meiosis has been described. The pollen mother cells (PMCs) show the phenotype where transition from central spindle fibers (forming a solid bundle) to a phragmoplast (hollow cylinder) is blocked. The blockade suppresses centrifugal movement of the phragmoplast and cell plate formation. The resulting cells occur to be binucleate. Sometimes, the two nuclei join and form one restitution nucleus. PMCs of wheat x rye F1 hybrid N D-144gp 06r. F1 (T. aestivum c. 93-60 T 9 x S. cereale c. Saratovskaya 7) showing this phenotype have an additional phragmoplast at late telophase. This happens like that in the case of immobile phragmoplast formation in meiosis in bicotyledons: the new phragmoplast arises by the aid of microtubules polymerization starting from the spindle poles. The new additional phragmoplast builds a new cell plate and accomplishes cytokinesis.

  19. Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheung, Anthony T W; Chen, Peter C Y; Larkin, Edward C; Duong, Patricia L; Ramanujam, Sahana; Tablin, Fern; Wun, Ted

    2002-01-01

    The conjunctival microcirculation of 18 homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD) patients during steady-state, painful crisis, and postcrisis conditions was recorded on high-resolution videotapes using intravital microscopy...

  20. Primary intracranial germ cell tumor with abnormal high value of alpha-fetoprotein after the radiation therapy. Report of case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Aida, Toshimitsu; Mabuchi, Shouji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Nishio (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-02-01

    A 7-year-old boy was admitted to Hokkaido University Hospital complaining of headache and vomiting. On admission he was slightly confused and presented Parinaud's sign. CT scan revealed abnormal high density mass with contrast enhancement effect at the pineal region and obstructive hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies showed the normal value of human chorionic gonadotropin and no trace of alphafetoprotein. Germinoma was most suspected based on the findings of CT scan and laboratory studies. The radiation therapy was carried out for a month and CT scan taken after the radiation therapy revealed marked reduction of the size of the tumor at the pineal region, and he was discharged. But he was re-admitted 3 months after the discharge complaining of headache and vomitting again. CT scan showed the recurrence of the tumor and laboratory studies showed abnormal high value of A.F.P. After the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the sub-occipital craniectomy was performed by the Stein's approach, and the tumor was removed. Pathologically the tumor was a typical yolk sac tumor. This case is a very interesting case because it suggests an alternation of the element of the germ cell tumor by the radiation therapy. At first admission, germinoma was the main element of the tumor judging from the effectiveness of the radiation therapy and laboratory studies. But the main element of the tumor seemed to have changed to yolk sac tumor after the radiation therapy. The relation between the tumor markers and the types of the germ cell tumor and histopathological characters of the intracranial germ cell tumor were discussed.

  1. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Marc D. (Ames, IA); Lipert, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Doyle, Robert T. (Ames, IA); Grubisha, Desiree S. (Corona, CA); Rahman, Salma (Ames, IA)

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  2. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  3. Correlation of abnormal DNMT1 and MeCP2 expression with cell biological characteristics in cervical lesion tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Lin; Sha Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation of abnormal DNMT1 and MeCP2 expression with cell biological characteristics in cervical lesion tissue.Methods:Cervical cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were collected from cervical cancer patients who received surgery in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015, and HPV types as well as the expression levels of DNMTs, MeCP2, PBK, TOPK, Snail, Slug, SALL4 and Cat L were determined.Results:Protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3l and MeCP2 in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue, and the rising trend of DNMT1 expression level was the most significant; protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3l and MeCP2 in cervical cancer tissue with high-risk HPV infection were significantly higher than those in cervical cancer tissue with normal HPV infection; in cervical cancer tissue with high expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2, PBK, TOPK, Snail, Slug, SALL4 and Cat L levels were significantly higher than those in cervical cancer tissue with low expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2.Conclusions:Abnormally high expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2 in cervical cancer tissue may up-regulate the expression of a variety of malignant biological molecules by increasing methylation level.

  4. PON中异常发光ONU的检测技术研究%Research on Abnormal Light Emitting ONU Detection Technologies in PON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋铭; 沈成彬; 张军; 曹敏

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal light emitting ONU is a critical failure in PON due to the nature that more than one subscribers share PON upstream bandwidth, especially in mass deployment of PON. This article describes the typical phenomenon in real network and analyses the root causes that ONU launch abnormal light. Based on the hands-on experience in network management, it also defines the technical requirements on PON equipment capability and the mechanism and procedure to detect any ONU who emits light abnormally.%PON规模运营后,由于其多用户共享上行带宽的技术特性,使得异常发光ONU成为网络运营中的凸显故障.本文主要介绍现网中发现的典型故障,分析异常发光ONU的产生原因,并且结合实际网络运维经验,对PON设备能力提出了技术要求,提出了适用于现网的异常发光ONU的检测机制和流程.

  5. 人群异常状态检测的图分析方法%A Graph Analysis Method for Abnormal Crowd State Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海龙; 刘鹏; 刘家锋; 唐降龙

    2012-01-01

    提出一种图分析方法用于动态人群场景异常状态检测.使用自适应Mean shift算法对场景速度场进行非参数概率密度估计聚类,聚类结果构成以聚类中心为顶点、各聚类中心之间距离为边权重的无向图.通过分析图顶点的空间分布及边权重矩阵动态系统的预测值与观测值之间的离散程度,对动态场景中的异常事件进行检测和定位.使用多个典型动态场景视频数据库进行对比实验,结果表明图分析方法适应性强、可有效监控动态人群场景中的异常状态.%An abnormity detection method for a dynamic crowd scene is proposed based on graph analysis. After the non-parametric clustering in velocity space via an adaptive mean shift algorithm, we get the clustering results containing some cluster centers and Euclidean distances between them, and they can form a graph whose vertexes are the cluster centers and edge weights are the distances. Through analyzing the vertexes' distribution in feature space and the state transform of a dynamic system made by the sequence of the edge weight matrix, we can detect and locate the abnormal events in the scenario. To testify the method's effectiveness, we conducted experiments on several well-known datasets and obtained good performance in both abnormal events detection and location. The results show that the graph analysis method has strong adaptability and can efficiently detect the abnormal states in dynamic crowd scene.

  6. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  7. Abnormal expression of c-Myc in human bronchial epithelial cells malignantly transformed by anti-BPDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan FU; Yiguo JIANG; Xuemin CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (anti-BPDE) is a metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a] P) and acts as a potent mutagen in mammalian systems. However, molecular mechanisms related to anti-BPDE-induced carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression of proto-oncogene c-myc in human bronchial epithelial cells (16H BE-T) transformed by exposure to anti-BPDE. The levels ofmRNA and pro-tein of c-M yc were examined in the 16HBE-T and vehicle-treated control cells (16HBE-N) by using different meth-ods respectively, including reverse transcriptase-polymer-ase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), western blot and immunocytochemical meth-ods. The level of c-myc mRNA appeared to be signifi-cantly increased in 16HBE-T, as compared with those of the 16H BE-N. Likewise, the expression of c-Myc protein was significantly enhanced as compared with those of the control cells. Moreover, the localization of c-Myc protein shows mainly nuclear staining in 16HBE-T. In conclu-sion, the abnormal expression of c-Myc was present in anti-BPDE malignantly transformed 16HBE cells, which may be involved in the carcinogenesis molecular mech-anism of anti-BPDE.

  8. Detection of intracellular phosphatidylserine in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Frances; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2008-03-01

    To demonstrate the intracellular phosphatidylserine (PS) distribution in neuronal cells, neuroblastoma cells and hippocampal neurons expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP)-AnnexinV were stimulated with a calcium ionophore and localization of GFP-AnnexinV was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, GFP-AnnexinV distributed evenly in the cytosol and nucleus. Raising the intracellular calcium level with ionomycin-induced translocation of cytoplasmic GFP-AnnexinV to the plasma membrane but not to the nuclear membrane, indicating that PS distributes in the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. Nuclear GFP-AnnexinV subsequently translocated to the nuclear membrane, indicating PS localization in the nuclear envelope. GFP-AnnexinV also localized in a juxtanuclear organelle that was identified as the recycling endosome. However, minimal fluorescence was detected in any other subcellular organelles including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and lysosomes, strongly suggesting that PS distribution in the cytoplasmic face in these organelles is negligible. Similarly, in hippocampal primary neurons PS distributed in the inner leaflet of plasma membranes of cell body and dendrites, and in the nuclear envelope. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of intracellular PS localization in living cells, providing an insight for specific sites of PS interaction with soluble proteins involved in signaling processes.

  9. Cancer-associated immunodeficiency and dendritic cell abnormalities mediated by the prostaglandin EP2 receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Li YANG; Yamagata, Noboru; Yadav, Rajwardhan; Brandon, Suzanne; Courtney, Regina L.; Morrow, Jason D.; Shyr, Yu; Boothby, Mark; Joyce,Sebastian; Carbone, David P.; Breyer, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX metabolite, plays important roles in several facets of tumor biology. We characterized the contribution of the PGE2 EP2 receptor to cancer-associated immune deficiency using EP2–/– mice. EP2–/– mice exhibited significantly attenuated tumor growth and longer survival times when challenged with MC26 or Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines as compared with their wild-type littermates. While no differences in T cell function were observed, PGE2 suppressed different...

  10. Protective effects of Ca2+ handling drugs against abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis and cell damage in myopathic skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yuko; Katanosaka, Yuki; Shijun, Zhu; Kobayashi, Yuko; Hanada, Hironori; Shigekawa, Munekazu; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2005-09-01

    Deficiency of delta-sarcoglycan (delta-SG), a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), causes skeletal muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy in BIO14.6 hamsters. Here, we studied the involvement of abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in muscle degeneration and the protective effect of drugs against Ca2+ handling proteins in vivo as well as in vitro. First, we characterized the properties of cultured myotubes from muscles of normal and BIO14.6 hamsters (30-60 days old). While there were no apparent differences in the levels of expression of various Ca2+ handling proteins (L-type Ca2+ channel, ryanodine receptor, SR-Ca2+ ATPase, and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger), muscle-specific proteins (contractile actin and acetylcholine receptor), or DGC member proteins except SGs, BIO14.6 myotubes showed a high degree of susceptibility to mechanical stressors, such as cyclic stretching and hypo-osmotic stress as compared to normal myotubes, as evidenced by marked increases in creatine phosphokinase (CK) release and bleb formation. BIO14.6 myotubes showed abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis characterized by elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, frequent Ca2+ oscillation, and increased 45Ca2+ uptake. These abnormal Ca2+ events and CK release were significantly prevented by Ca2+ handling drugs, tranilast, diltiazem, and FK506. The calpain inhibitor E64 prevented CK release, but not 45Ca2+ uptake. Some of these drugs (tranilast, diltiazem, and FK506) also exerted a significant protective effect for muscle degeneration in BIO14.6 hamsters and mdx mice in vivo. These observations suggest that elevated Ca2+ entry through sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels predominantly contributes to muscle degeneration and that the drugs tested here may have novel therapeutic potential against muscular dystrophy.

  11. Autoimmune gastritis and parietal cell reactivity in two children with abnormal intestinal permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, Deanne L. V.; Crock, Patricia; Braye, Stephen; Davidson, Patricia; Sentry, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the gastric submucosa, with loss of parietal and chief cells and achlorhydria. Often, gastritis is expressed clinically as cobalamin deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia, which is generally described as a disease of the elderly. H

  12. Autoimmune gastritis and parietal cell reactivity in two children with abnormal intestinal permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, Deanne L. V.; Crock, Patricia; Braye, Stephen; Davidson, Patricia; Sentry, John W.

    Autoimmune gastritis is characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the gastric submucosa, with loss of parietal and chief cells and achlorhydria. Often, gastritis is expressed clinically as cobalamin deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia, which is generally described as a disease of the elderly.

  13. Abnormal expression of calcyphosine is associated with poor prognosis and cell biology function in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weiwei; Wang, Quhui; Wang, Feiran; Jiang, Yasu; Xu, Meirong; Xu, Junfei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the calcyphosine (CAPS) expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore its clinical and prognostic significances. CAPS expression was measured by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The relationships between the CAPS expression levels and the clinicopathological factors were investigated. The Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used to investigate the overall survival of the patients. Moreover, the effects of CAPS on biological roles of CRC cells were also evaluated by MTT assay, colony formation assay, and transwell assay. CAPS was significantly overexpressed in cancerous tissue and CRC cell lines compared with adjacent nontumor tissue and a normal human intestinal epithelial cell line. Overexpression of CAPS was significantly associated with histological grade (P=0.004), invasive depth (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.003), tumor node metastasis stage (P=0.017), and distant metastasis (P=0.042). Furthermore, silencing of CAPS expression in CRC cells inhibited their proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that high CAPS expression might demonstrate poor prognosis in CRC patients. Cox regression analysis revealed that CAPS expression was an independent prognostic factor of CRC. Our data suggested that the upregulation of CAPS might play a role in the carcinogenesis and progression of CRC. CAPS could be used as a potential diagnostic factor and be an independent good prognostic indicator for CRC patients. PMID:26889086

  14. The Effect of Prolonged Culture of Chromosomally Abnormal Human Embryos on The Rate of Diploid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Bazrgar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A decrease in aneuploidy rate following a prolonged co-culture of human blastocysts has been reported. As co-culture is not routinely used in assisted reproductive technology, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the prolonged single culture on the rate of diploid cells in human embryos with aneuploidies. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to reanalyze surplus blastocysts undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD on day 3 postfertilization. They were randomly studied on days 6 or 7 following fertilization. Results: Of the 30 analyzed blastocysts, mosaicism was observed in 26(86.6%, while 2(6.7% were diploid, and 2(6.7% were triploid. Of those with mosaicism, 23(88.5% were determined to be diploid-aneuploid and 3(11.5% were aneuploid mosaic. The total frequency of embryos with more than 50% diploid cells was 33.3% that was lower on day 7 in comparison with the related value on day 6 (P<0.05; however, there were no differences when the embryos were classified according to maternal age, blastocyst developmental stage, total cell number on day 3, and embryo quality. Conclusion: Although mosaicism is frequently observed in blastocysts, the prolonged single culture of blastocysts does not seem to increase the rate of normal cells.

  15. Abnormal red cell features associated with hereditary neurodegenerative disorders: the neuroacanthocytosis syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschi, L. De; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Mohandas, N.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the mechanisms involved in the generation of thorny red blood cells (RBCs), known as acanthocytes, in patients with neuroacanthocytosis, a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative hereditary disorders that include chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and McLeod syndro

  16. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  17. Visual detection of Akt mRNA in living cell using gold nanoparticle beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Tian, Caiping; Li, Siwen; Wang, Zhaohui; Gu, Yueqing

    2014-09-01

    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway plays the key role in cell apoptosis and survival, and the components of PI3K /Akt signaling pathway are often abnormally expressed in human tumors. Therefore, determination of the Akt (protein kinase B, PKB) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression is significantly important in understanding the mechanism of tumor progression. In this study, we designed a special hairpin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) functionalized with gold nanoparticles and fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC) as a beacon for detecting human Akt mRNA. Spectrofluorometer was used to detect the fluorescence quenching and recovery of the beacons, and laser confocal scanning microscopy was adopted to image Akt mRNA in cells. The results showed that this beacon could sensitively and quantitatively measure the Akt mRNA in living cells . This strategy is potentially useful for the cellular imaging of RNA or protein expression in living cells.

  18. Abnormal phenotypic distribution of regulatory and effector T cells in octogenarian and nonagenarian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson de Melo Cruvinel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryIntroduction:aging is associated with several immunologic changes. Regulatory (Treg and effector T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of infectious, neoplastic, and autoimmune diseases. Little is known about the effects of aging on the frequency and function of these T cell subpopulations.Methods:peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from 26 young (under 44 years old and 18 elderly (above 80 years old healthy women. T cell subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry.Results:elderly individuals had lower frequency of several activated effector T cell phenotypes as compared with young individuals: CD3+CD4+CD25+ (3.82±1.93 versus 9.53±4.49; p<0.0001; CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127+(2.39±1.19 versus 7.26±3.84; p<0.0001; CD3+CD4+CD25+ (0.41±0.22 versus 1.86±0.85, p<0.0001; and CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127+(0.06±0.038 versus 0.94±0.64, p<0.0001. Treg (CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127øFoxp3+ presented lower frequency in elderly individuals as compared to young adults (0.34±0.18 versus 0.76±0.48; p=0.0004 and its frequency was inversely correlated with age in the whole group (r=-0.439; p=0.013. The elderly group showed higher frequency of two undefined CD25øFoxp3+ phenotypes: CD3+CD4+CD25øFoxp3+(15.05±7.34 versus 1.65±1.71; p<0.0001 and CD3+CD4+CD25øCD127øFoxp3+(13.0±5.52 versus 3.51±2.87; p<0.0001.Conclusions:the altered proportion of different T cell subsets herein documented in healthy elderly women may be relevant to the understanding of the immunologic behavior and disease susceptibility patterns observed in geriatric patients.

  19. Abnormal expression of calcyphosine is associated with poor prognosis and cell biology function in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao W

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weiwei Shao,* Quhui Wang,* Feiran Wang, Yasu Jiang, Meirong Xu, Junfei XuDepartment of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the calcyphosine (CAPS expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC and to explore its clinical and prognostic significances. CAPS expression was measured by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The relationships between the CAPS expression levels and the clinicopathological factors were investigated. The Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used to investigate the overall survival of the patients. Moreover, the effects of CAPS on biological roles of CRC cells were also evaluated by MTT assay, colony formation assay, and transwell assay. CAPS was significantly overexpressed in cancerous tissue and CRC cell lines compared with adjacent nontumor tissue and a normal human intestinal epithelial cell line. Overexpression of CAPS was significantly associated with histological grade (P=0.004, invasive depth (P<0.001, lymph node metastasis (P=0.003, tumor node metastasis stage (P=0.017, and distant metastasis (P=0.042. Furthermore, silencing of CAPS expression in CRC cells inhibited their proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that high CAPS expression might demonstrate poor prognosis in CRC patients. Cox regression analysis revealed that CAPS expression was an independent prognostic factor of CRC. Our data suggested that the upregulation of CAPS might play a role in the carcinogenesis and progression of CRC. CAPS could be used as a potential diagnostic factor and be an independent good prognostic indicator for CRC patients.Keywords: calcyphosine, colorectal cancer, prognosis

  20. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  1. Abnormal Behavior Detection Based on Collectiveness Feature%基于集群性特征的异常行为检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 郭立君; 张荣

    2015-01-01

    在异常行为检测中,群体行为难以描述.针对该情况,提出了一种基于个体与群体中其他个体的行为相似性(集群性特征)的异常行为检测方法.该方法首先采用混合高斯模型提取出视频的背景;然后,使用 KLT (Kanade–Lucas– Tomasi)算法追踪运动人群;接着,从群体的运动方向和速度两个角度提取出集群性特征;最后,利用集群性特征直方图描述行为,计算直方图的熵值来判断行为的异常.基于不同场景下的视频序列所进行的测试结果验证了所提方法的有效性.%Amongthe abnormal behavior detection methods, it is difficult to describe the crowd behavior. For this case, an abnormal behavior detection approach based on behavioral similarity (collectiveness features) between individual and other individuals in the group is proposed. Firstly, Gaussians mixture model was used to extract the background of the video. Then, Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm was used to track the moving crowd. Next, collectiveness features integrated the motion information of the whole crowd are extracted from the direction and speed of the crowd movement. Finally, a histogram derived from the collectiveness features was defined to measure the anomaly of crowd activity, and the entropy of the histogram was computed to recognize abnormal events. Experiments were conducted on various video datasets, and results were presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  2. A Human Neural Crest Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neuronal Model Recapitulates Biochemical Abnormalities in GBA1 Mutation Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yu Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerically the most important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD is the presence of mutations in the glucocerebrosidase GBA1 gene. In vitro and in vivo studies show that GBA1 mutations reduce glucocerebrosidase (GCase activity and are associated with increased α-synuclein levels, reflecting similar changes seen in idiopathic PD brain. We have developed a neural crest stem cell-derived dopaminergic neuronal model that recapitulates biochemical abnormalities in GBA1 mutation-associated PD. Cells showed reduced GCase protein and activity, impaired macroautophagy, and increased α-synuclein levels. Advantages of this approach include easy access to stem cells, no requirement to reprogram, and retention of the intact host genome. Treatment with a GCase chaperone increased GCase protein levels and activity, rescued the autophagic defects, and decreased α-synuclein levels. These results provide the basis for further investigation of GCase chaperones or similar drugs to slow the progression of PD.

  3. 13N-ammonia PET/CT detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in Beagle dogs after local heart irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianbo; Yan, Rui; Wu, Zhifang; Li, Jianguo; Yan, Min; Hao, Xinzhong; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Sijin

    2016-12-01

    To determine the potential value of (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for detection of myocardial perfusion changes at early stage induced by radiation damage.

  4. Information Fusion for Anomaly Detection with the Dendritic Cell Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Tedesco, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells that provide a vital link between the innate and adaptive immune system, providing the initial detection of pathogenic invaders. Research into this family of cells has revealed that they perform information fusion which directs immune responses. We have derived a Dendritic Cell Algorithm based on the functionality of these cells, by modelling the biological signals and differentiation pathways to build a control mechanism for an artificial immune system. We present algorithmic details in addition to experimental results, when the algorithm was applied to anomaly detection for the detection of port scans. The results show the Dendritic Cell Algorithm is sucessful at detecting port scans.

  5. Red blood cell abnormalities and the pathogenesis of anemia in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgatzakou, Hara T; Antonelou, Marianna H; Papassideri, Issidora S; Kriebardis, Anastasios G

    2016-08-01

    Anemia is the most common hematologic complication in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is ascribed to decreased erythropoietin production, shortened red blood cell (RBC) lifespan, and inflammation. Uremic toxins severely affect RBC lifespan; however, the implicated molecular pathways are poorly understood. Moreover, current management of anemia in ESRD is controversial due to the "anemia paradox" phenomenon, which underlines the need for a more individualized approach to therapy. RBCs imprint the adverse effects of uremic, inflammatory, and oxidative stresses in a context of structural and functional deterioration that is associated with RBC removal signaling and morbidity risk. RBCs circulate in hostile plasma by raising elegant homeostatic defenses. Variability in primary defect, co-morbidity, and therapeutic approaches add complexity to the pathophysiological background of the anemic ESRD patient. Several blood components have been suggested as biomarkers of anemia-related morbidity and mortality risk in ESRD. However, a holistic view of blood cell and plasma modifications through integrated omics approaches and high-throughput studies might assist the development of new diagnostic tests and therapies that will target the underlying pathophysiologic processes of ESRD anemia.

  6. Analysis of Biopsies From Duodenal Bulbs of All Endoscopy Patients Increases Detection of Abnormalities but has a Minimal Effect on Diagnosis of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoven, Samantha A; Choung, Rok Seon; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Absah, Imad; Lam-Himlin, Dora M; Harris, Lucinda A; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Vazquez Roque, Maria I; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Murray, Joseph A

    2016-11-01

    In patients with positive results from serologic tests for celiac disease, analysis of tissues samples from the duodenal bulb, in addition to those from other parts of the small bowel, might increase the diagnostic yield. However, biopsies are not routinely collected from the duodenal bulb because of concerns that villous atrophy detected there could be caused by other disorders (Brunner glands or peptic duodenitis, gastric metaplasia, shorter villi, or lymphoid follicles). We investigated whether analysis of biopsies from duodenal bulbs of all patients undergoing endoscopy (a population with a low probability for celiac disease) increases diagnoses of celiac disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 679 patients (63% female; mean age, 50 years) from whom duodenal bulb and small bowel biopsies were collected during endoscopy at 3 Mayo Clinic sites, from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011. Records were reviewed for age, sex, pathology findings, serology test results (HLA DQ2 or DQ), indications for biopsy analyses, and adherence to a gluten-free diet. Patients with celiac disease were identified on the basis of increased intraepithelial lymphocytosis, with or without villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia, and results from serology tests. Findings from duodenal bulbs were compared with diagnoses using the Fisher exact test. Of all patients undergoing endoscopy, 16 patients (2%) were found to have celiac disease. Analysis of the duodenal bulb biopsies identified 1 patient (0.1%) with celiac disease limited to this region. Of 399 patients whose celiac serology was not known before endoscopic examination, only 2 patients had histologic changes consistent with celiac disease but not limited to duodenal bulb. Abnormal duodenal histology was detected in 265 patients (39%), most commonly in the bulb (n = 241; P celiac disease detection. Abnormal histologic findings are more commonly detected in the duodenal bulb; although they do not seem to impair

  7. 基于单类支持向量机的异常声音检测%Abnormal sound detection based on one class support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志全; 杨骏; 乔树山

    2016-01-01

    提出基于单类支持向量机的异常声音在线检测算法。该算法针对公共场合正常的环境声音,训练一个单类支持向量机模型,用来判断声音是否属于正常的环境声音,若不是则属于需要进一步识别的异常声音。采用窗长2秒的滑动窗对声音进行分窗,对每一个窗内的声音分帧并提取梅尔倒谱系数,短时能量,频谱质心,短时平均过零率等特征。采用基于帧之间互相关系数的方法对声音自动分段。最后对分段声音的判别结果进行中值滤波。当有连续多个帧被判别为异常时判定有异常声音出现。最后检验了算法在地铁背景条件下六类异常声音的漏检率和每小时误检次数,结果表明算法能有效检测到异常声音的发生而且误检次数较低。%This paper proposes an abnormal sound detection method based on one-class support vector machine. For the normal sound in the public environment, we build an one-class support vector machine model to detect whether a piece of audio belong to the normal environment, if not, it is an abnormal sound needed to recognize. We apply a slipping window of two seconds length on the sound, frame the sound and extract features including Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC), Spectral Centroid(SC) , Short term energy(STE). We calculate the Cross Correlation Coefficient of the adjacent two frames, and use the Cross Correlation Coefficients to implement the segmentation automatically. Then distinguish whether one frame is abnormal, finally we apply median filter on the result. If there are more than certain successive frames are abnormal, we think the sound is a abnormal sound. Then we examine our algorithm on the background sound of subway, the result shows that our method can detect abnormal sounds effectively and the false alarm time is low.

  8. Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davegårdh, Cajsa; Broholm, Christa; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA......BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity...... methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals. Functional follow-up experiments were performed using siRNA mediated gene silencing in primary human myoblasts and a transgenic mouse model. RESULTS: We observed genome...

  9. Development of a new biomonitoring method to detect the abnormal activity of Daphnia magna using automated Grid Counter device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Junho; Kim, Joon Ha; Lee, Byung Cheun; Kim, Sang Don

    2008-01-25

    The aim of the present study was to develop a biological early warning system (BEWS), equipped with six monitoring channels to individually observe the activity of Daphnia magna, using a digital 'Grid Counter', which would trigger an alarm within an appropriate time, and examine the functional performance of the newly developed BEWS for detecting unusual water quality. In order to detect the changes in the activity of D. magna, six relative activity parameter values (Z(a)) were computed from the 6 individual monitoring channels; with the activity data for D. magna calculated every 5 min. The Student's t-test was used to verify the difference between the mean value of the system in a steady state, as a control, and the exposure values during a sudden pollution event. The test results illustrate that the threshold value for the alarm can be at p=0.0093 for 3 consecutive detections. The time period, defined as the average time taken from the detection of hyper to retarded activity of the organism, for Cu concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppb were 7.17+/-1.75, 3.94+/-2.02, 1.85+/-0.49 and 1.00+/-0.18 h, respectively. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that p values from the t-test, with Z(a), are more accurate, stable and predictable parameters for the detection of chemical exposures than the other values, such as the swimming speed and trajectory, etc. Consequently, it would be possible to reduce the number of false alarms and achieve confidence for a system, with the ability of highly accurate detection, such as with the six-channel monitoring system developed in this study.

  10. Abnormal cell properties and down-regulated FAK-Src complex signaling in B lymphoblasts of autistic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongen; Malik, Mazhar; Sheikh, Ashfaq M; Merz, George; Ted Brown, W; Li, Xiaohong

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that one of the major pathways to the pathogenesis of autism is reduced cell migration. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has an important role in neural migration, dendritic morphological characteristics, axonal branching, and synapse formation. The FAK-Src complex, activated by upstream reelin and integrin β1, can initiate a cascade of phosphorylation events to trigger multiple intracellular pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling. In this study, by using B lymphoblasts as a model, we tested whether integrin β1 and FAK-Src signaling are abnormally regulated in autism and whether abnormal FAK-Src signaling leads to defects in B-lymphoblast adhesion, migration, proliferation, and IgG production. To our knowledge, for the first time, we show that protein expression levels of both integrin β1 and FAK are significantly decreased in autistic lymphoblasts and that Src protein expression and the phosphorylation of an active site (Y416) are also significantly decreased. We also found that lymphoblasts from autistic subjects exhibit significantly decreased migration, increased adhesion properties, and an impaired capacity for IgG production. The overexpression of FAK in autistic lymphoblasts countered the adhesion and migration defects. In addition, we demonstrate that FAK mediates its effect through the activation of Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades and that paxillin is also likely involved in the regulation of adhesion and migration in autistic lymphoblasts. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A phase II clinical study to assess the feasibility of self and partner anal examinations to detect anal canal abnormalities including anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G; Hicks, Joseph T; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Baraniuk, Sarah; White, Margaret; Millas, Stefanos; Onwuka, Nkechi; Zhang, Xiaotao; Brown, Eric L; Ross, Michael W; Chiao, Elizabeth Y

    2017-08-23

    Anal cancer is a common cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is no standard screening protocol for anal cancer. We conducted a phase II clinical trial to assess the feasibility of teaching MSM to recognise palpable masses in the anal canal which is a common sign of anal cancer in men. A clinician skilled in performing digital anorectal examinations (DARE) used a pelvic manikin to train 200 MSM, aged 27-78 years, how to do a self-anal examination (SAE) for singles or a partner anal examination (PAE) for couples. The clinician then performed a DARE without immediately disclosing results, after which the man or couple performed an SAE or PAE, respectively. Percentage agreement with the clinician DARE in addition to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the SAE, PAE and overall. Men had a median age of 52 years, 42.5% were African American and 60.5% were HIV positive. DARE detected abnormalities in 12 men while the men's SAE/PAEs detected 9 of these. A total of 93.0% of men classified the health of their anal canal correctly (95% CI 89.5 to 96.5). Overall percentage agreement, sensitivity and specificity were 93.0%, 75.0% and 94.2%, respectively, while PPV and NPV were 45.0% and 98.3%, respectively. The six men who detected the abnormality had nodules/masses ≥3 mm in size. More than half of men (60.5%) reported never checking their anus for an abnormality; however, after performing an SAE/PAE, 93.0% said they would repeat it in the future. These results suggest that tumours of ≥3 mm may be detectable by self or partner palpation among MSM and encourage further investigation given literature suggesting a high cure rate for anal cancer tumours ≤10 mm. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Extent of resection of peritumoral diffusion tensor imaging-detected abnormality as a predictor of survival in adult glioblastoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Jiun-Lin; van der Hoorn, Anouk; Larkin, Timothy J.; Boonzaier, Natalie R.; Matys, Tomasz; Price, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to detect tumor invasion in glioblastoma patients and has been applied in surgical planning. However, the clinical value of the extent of resection based on DTI is unclear. Therefore, the correlation between the extent of resection of DTI abnor

  13. Extent of resection of peritumoral diffusion tensor imaging-detected abnormality as a predictor of survival in adult glioblastoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Jiun-Lin; van der Hoorn, Anouk; Larkin, Timothy J; Boonzaier, Natalie R; Matys, Tomasz; Price, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to detect tumor invasion in glioblastoma patients and has been applied in surgical planning. However, the clinical value of the extent of resection based on DTI is unclear. Therefore, the correlation between the extent of resection of DTI abnor

  14. Plasma abnormal prothrombin (PIVKA-II): a new and reliable marker for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Y; Suzuki, K; Yamazaki, K; Goto, T; Madarame, T; Miura, Y; Yoshida, T; Kashiwabara, T; Sato, S

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of a protein induced by vitamin K absence, antagonist-prothrombin (PIVKA-II), in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specifically in patients with liver cirrhosis, and the possible correlation between levels of PIVKA-II and pathological features of HCC. Plasma levels of PIVKA-II and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured in 628 patients with various diseases, including 253 with liver cirrhosis and 116 with HCC. PIVKA-II was detected (greater than or equal to 0.1 arbitrary unit/mL) in 54.3% of HCC and the concentration showed a positive correlation with the tumour size. As a screening test for the detection of HCC, PIVKA-II produced values comparable with those of AFP with a sensitivity, specificity and validity of 52.8, 98.8 and 51.6% respectively. Sixteen of 45 patients (37%) with HCC who had low AFP (less than 100 ng/mL) levels were positive for PIVKA-II. No apparent relationship, however, could be found between the levels of PIVKA-II and the aetiology or pathological findings of HCC. These results suggest that PIVKA-II can be a reliable marker for detecting HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  15. Role of contrast enhanced ultrasound in detection of abdominal aortic abnormalities in comparison with multislice computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk-André Clevert; Kerstin Schick; CHEN Min-hua; ZHU Qing-li; Maximilian Reiser

    2009-01-01

    @@ dissection;abdominal aortic aneurysm;aorto-caval fistula;inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm Conventional ultrasound (US) is the most widely used imaging modality in routine clinical practice worldwide.The limitations of conventional ultrasound in the detection of aortic lesions versus multi-slice computed tomography angiography (MS-CTA) are well known.

  16. Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe congenital immunodeficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titman, Penny; Pink, Elizabeth; Skucek, Emily; O'Hanlon, Katherine; Cole, Tim J; Gaspar, Jane; Xu-Bayford, Jinhua; Jones, Alison; Thrasher, Adrian J; Davies, E Graham; Veys, Paul A; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2008-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a highly successful treatment for severe congenital immunodeficiencies. However, some studies have suggested that children may experience cognitive difficulties after HSCT. This large-scale study assessed cognitive and behavioral function for the cohort of children treated by HSCT at one center between 1979 and 2003 to determine the frequency and severity of problems and to identify risk factors. A total of 105 patients were assessed on standardized measures of cognitive and emotional and behavioral function together with a control group of unaffected siblings. The average IQ for the cohort was 85 (95% confidence interval, 81-90), significantly lower than both the population average of 100 (P severe combined immunodeficiency, and consanguinity were associated with worse outcome but that age at transplantation and chemotherapy conditioning were not. Children treated by HSCT for severe immunodeficiency have an increased risk of long-term cognitive difficulties and associated emotional and behavioral difficulties. The specific genetic diagnosis, consanguinity, and severe clinical course are associated with poor outcome. Long-term follow-up of these patients should include screening to identify and manage these problems more effectively.

  17. Validity of acoustic quantification colour kinesis for detection of left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities: a transoesophageal echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, T; Kolev, N; Blaicher, A; Spiss, C; Zimpfer, M

    1997-10-01

    Transoesophageal echocardiography is a sensitive monitor for intraoperative myocardial ischaemia. Colour kinesis is a new technology for echocardiographic assessment of regional wall motion based on acoustic quantification. We have examined the feasibility and accuracy of quantitative segmental analysis of colour kinesis images to provide objective evaluation of systolic regional wall motion during the perioperative period using transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE). Two-dimensional echocardiograms were obtained in the transgastric short-axis and long-axis views in 60 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. End-systolic colour overlays superimposed on the grey scale images were obtained with colour kinesis to colour encode left ventricular endocardial motion throughout systole. These colour-encoded images were divided into segments and compared with corresponding conventional two-dimensional images. Six hundred of a potential 720 left ventricular wall segments were of sufficient resolution for grading by experts; they diagnosed wall motion abnormalities in 61 of these segments by a conventional method. In comparing the conventional TOE method with colour kinesis, there were 60 true positives, 482 true negatives, 57 false positives and 1 false negative result. This yielded a sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 89%, positive predictive value of 51% and negative predictive value of 100%. Translational and rotational movement of the heart and papillary muscle interference were common problems accounting for false positive diagnoses. We conclude that colour kinesis provides a basis for objective and on-line evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion which is a sensitive but non-specific method. It may be a useful aid for the less experienced because it can potentially direct the anaesthetist's attention towards specific segments.

  18. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrier, Nicole; Engeland, William C; Kofuji, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF) visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR) via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay) in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods). Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light.

  19. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Purrier

    Full Text Available Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods. Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light.

  20. Abnormal integrity of the nucleolus associated with cell cycle arrest owing to the temperature-sensitive ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, T; Tsuji, H; Sameshima, M; Matsuda, Y; Kaneda, S; Nagai, Y; Yamao, F; Seno, T

    1995-03-01

    A mouse cell mutant, ts85, containing the temperature-sensitive ubiquitin-activating enzyme was arrested in G2 phase at the non-permissive temperature. In the arrested cells, azure C, a nucleolus-specific stain, revealed a U-shaped or ring-shaped arrangement of nucleolar lobes with an unstained region in the center. Silver staining of the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rDNA both gave signals in azure C-positive regions. Electron microscopic examination revealed a cloud of unidentified electron-dense particles (diameter approximately 70 nm) in the azure C-negative center space. When the arrested cells were released into M-phase, we observed the association of NOR-bearing chromosomes with a pulverization-like abnormality. FISH with rDNA and NOR silver staining demonstrated that the pulverization-like abnormality was restricted to NORs. The frequent occurrence of persistent nucleolar material in prophase and prometaphase of the stressed cells after release indicated a delayed dissociation of the nucleolus that brought about the abnormal chromosomes in M-phase. ts85 cells transfected with the mouse E1 cDNA recovered growth at the non-permissive temperature and no longer showed abnormal nucleolar morphology. It seems that the ubiquitin system plays a role in the dissolution of the nucleolus, possibly involving the NOR-bearing chromosomes.

  1. Chromosome Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are two kinds of cell division, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis results in two cells that are duplicates ... make up our body are made and replaced. Meiosis results in cells with half the number of ...

  2. Comparing voxel-based iterative sensitivity and voxel-based morphometry to detect abnormalities in T2-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-de-Grenu, Lara Z; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Williams, Guy B; Nestor, Peter J

    2014-10-15

    This study aimed to test the superiority proposed by Abbott et al. (2011) of their Voxel based iterative sensitivity (VBIS) method over Voxel Based Morphometry using T2-weighted images (T2-VBM), in detecting intensity changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A comparison was made first in simulated intensity lesions and then in AD patients. Intensity changes were evaluated in the whole-brain with VBIS and with a simple intensity-based approach and in specific tissue classes with the conventional VBM method of using tissue probability segments. Results showed that VBIS performed well in the simulated environment though it showed no superiority in detecting the lesion compared to the much simpler VBM approach. The VBIS method, however, failed to detect any meaningful signal intensity reduction in AD patient data. Moreover, its whole brain approach was contaminated by the excess cerebrospinal fluid signal (very bright on T2-weighted scans) in areas of maximal measurable atrophy (mesial temporal lobes); this gave rise to spurious signal intensity increases in these regions in AD. The same artefact was observed for both intensity-based methods but not with the conventional VBM approach of performing statistics on grey matter segments. In conclusion, no evidence was found to indicate that VBIS offers benefits over T2-VBM in AD, nor in simulation intensity lesions. The study highlights the necessity of empirically testing voxel-based analysis techniques rather than merely claiming superiority of one method over another on theoretical grounds.

  3. Effector and Naturally Occurring Regulatory T Cells Display No Abnormalities in Activation Induced Cell Death in NOD Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ayelet Kaminitz; Esma S Yolcu; Askenasy, Enosh M.; Jerry Stein; Isaac Yaniv; Haval Shirwan; Nadir Askenasy

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbed peripheral negative regulation might contribute to evolution of autoimmune insulitis in type 1 diabetes. This study evaluates the sensitivity of naïve/effector (Teff) and regulatory T cells (Treg) to activation-induced cell death mediated by Fas cross-linking in NOD and wild-type mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both effector (CD25(-), FoxP3(-)) and suppressor (CD25(+), FoxP3(+)) CD4(+) T cells are negatively regulated by Fas cross-linking in mixed splenocyte populations of NOD...

  4. 早孕期超声筛查胎儿畸形的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of first trimester screening for detecting congenital abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄政文; 彭软

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of first trimester screening with ultrasound in the detection of congenital abnormalities. Methods 1031 pregnant women undergoing first trimester screening with ultrasound from Jan. 2009 to June 2011 were enrolled in this study, a total of 1 085 fetuses, including 54 twins. The pregnancy outcome was recorded. The ultrasound markers were documented in the first trimester screening, including nuchal translucency, nasal bone, the Doppler waveform of ductus venous and tricuspid valve. The fetal organs were carefully screened, including skull, limbs, heart, and stomach. The fetuses with major abnormalities were terminated according (he choice of the parents after consultation. Results Among the 1 085 fetuses, 72 fetuses (6.6%, 72/1085) were detected with abnormalities in the first trimester, 40 fetuses (55.6%, 40/72) were diagnosed with severe malformations, including 17 fetuses with fetal hydrops, 4 fetuses with exencephaly, 4 fetuses with amniotic band syndrome, 3 fetuses with omphalocele, 2 fetuses with megabladder, 2 fetuses with thanatophoric dysplasia and 8 fetuses with multiple malformations. The rest 32 fetuses (44.4%, 32/72) were detected with minor malformations. 1 045 fetuses which continued to pregnancy underwent the second trimester. Fifty-five fetuses (5.3%, 55/1045) were diagnosed with abnormalities, including 12 fetuses with cardiac defects, 11 fetuses with urinary system abnormalities, 8 fetuses with facial deformities, 7 fetuses with limb abnormalities, 7 fetuses with central nervous system abnormalities, and 10 fetuses with other abnormalities. Conclusion Although the first trimester screening with ultrasound could detect the fetuses with critical anomalies or major malformations, it can not replace the second trimester screening.%目的 评估早孕期超声检查对胎儿畸形的诊断价值.方法 研究对象为2009年1月至2011年6月行早孕期胎儿超声检查的孕妇共1031例,其中双胎54例,共1085例

  5. Prognostic implications of post-stress ejection fraction decrease detected by gated SPECT in the absence of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dona, Manjola; Massi, Lucia; Settimo, Leonardo; Bartolini, Matteo; Gianni, Gianluca; Pupi, Alberto; Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Florence (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The prognostic meaning of a post-stress ejection fraction (EF) decrease detected by perfusion gated SPECT is still unclear. We therefore followed up patients with post-stress EF decrease in the absence of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. We prospectively enrolled 57 consecutive patients with post-stress EF drop {>=} 5 EF units and summed difference score (SDS) {<=} 1. They were followed up for more than 1 year and their outcome was compared with a group of sex- and age-matched controls with the same SDS but without EF decrease. During follow-up there were 13 events (1 cardiac death, 1 non-fatal myocardial infarction, 1 congestive heart failure and 10 late revascularizations). In the control group we registered six events. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the event-free survival curves of the two groups. The event rate of patients with post-stress EF decrease {>=} 5 EF units is relatively high and is significantly worse than that of a control group of patients with similarly normal SDS but without EF changes. Therefore, a post-stress EF decrease without stress-induced perfusion abnormalities should be cautiously interpreted. (orig.)

  6. Aberrant gene expression patterns in placentomes are associated with phenotypically normal and abnormal cattle cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, Robin E; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Razzak, Anthony; Hue, Isabelle; Green, Cheryl A; Oliveira, Rosane; Vignon, Xavier; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Tian, X Cindy; Yang, Xiangzhong; Renard, Jean-Paul; Lewin, Harris A

    2008-03-14

    Transcription profiling of placentomes derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, n = 20), in vitro fertilization (IVF, n = 9), and artificial insemination (AI, n = 9) at or near term development was performed to better understand why SCNT and IVF often result in placental defects, hydrops, and large offspring syndrome (LOS). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to distinguish the effects of SCNT, IVF, and AI on gene expression, taking into account the effects of parturition (term or preterm), sex of fetus, breed of dam, breed of fetus, and pathological finding in the offspring (hydrops, normal, or other abnormalities). Differential expression of 20 physiologically important genes was confirmed with quantitative PCR. The largest effect on placentome gene expression was attributable to whether placentas were collected at term or preterm (i.e., whether the collection was because of disease or to obtain stage-matched controls) followed by placentome source (AI, IVF, or SCNT). Gene expression in SCNT placentomes was dramatically different from AI (n = 336 genes; 276 >2-fold) and from IVF (n = 733 genes; 162 >2-fold) placentomes. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that IVF has significant effects on genes associated with cellular metabolism. In contrast, DEG associated with SCNT are involved in multiple pathways, including cell cycle, cell death, and gene expression. Many DEG were shared between the gene lists for IVF and SCNT comparisons, suggesting that common pathways are affected by the embryo culture methods used for IVF and SCNT. However, the many unique gene functions and pathways affected by SCNT suggest that cloned fetuses may be starved and accumulating toxic wastes due to placental insufficiency caused by reprogramming errors. Many of these genes are candidates for hydrops and LOS.

  7. Patterns of abnormal FDG uptake by various histological types of non-small cell lung cancer at initial staging by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.O.; Nunez, R.; Bohdiewicz, P.; Fink-Bennett, D.; Balon, H.; Dickinson, C.; Dworkin, H.J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Welsh, R.J.; Chmielewski, G.W.; Pursel, S.E. [Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Ravikrishnan, K.P. [Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Hill, J.C. [Information Service, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify useful patterns of abnormal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by different types of non-small cell (NSC) lung cancer and to assess their clinical implications. One hundred and three sequential patients with newly diagnosed, pathology-proven NSC lung cancer were included. FDG positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired using a dedicated PET scanner. There were 35 squamous cell carcinomas (SQC), 17 large cell cancers (LGC), 38 adenocarcinomas (ADC), 1 bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and 12 non-classified NSC cancers. PET images were categorized into detectable patterns of necrotic center in the primary tumor, satellite lesions (T4), hilar lymph nodes (N1), and N2, N3, and M1 lesions by visual interpretation of PET images for SQC, LGC, and ADC (n=90; BAC and non-classified NSC cancers were excluded). The PET lesions were correlated with surgical pathology and with CT findings in inoperable cases. Necrosis was more commonly present in the primary tumors of LGC (53%) and SQC (43%) than in those of ADC (26%) (P<0.0001 and <0.01, respectively). The frequencies of nodal uptake in ADC, SQC and LGC were similar (71%, 60%, and 59%, respectively). However, M1 lesions were present significantly more often in LGC (41%) and ADC (34%) than in SQC (3%) (both P<0.0001). Significantly more surgically inoperable cases were found by PET (T4, N3, M1) in ADC (50%) and LGC (41%) than in SQC (26%) (P<0.001 and <0.02, respectively). Our results suggest a wide variation of PET findings for different types of NSC lung cancer. Identification of these patterns is useful in clinical PET interpretation, in that knowledge of the most probable association between the PET patterns and the histological types will facilitate initial staging and planning of management. (orig.)

  8. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who have chromosome 5 and/or 7 abnormalities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, H.M. van der; Biezen, A. van; Brand, R.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Egeler, R.M.; Barge, R.M.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Schouten, H.C.; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; Verdonck, L.F.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chromosome 5 and/or 7 abnormalities are cytogenetic findings indicative of a poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The only potential cure for such patients is allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). As data on

  9. Detection of Left Ventricular Regional Dysfunction and Myocardial Abnormalities Using Complementary Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis without Cardiac Symptoms: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Hitomi; T Giles, Jon; Yokoe, Isamu; Hirano, Masaharu; Nakajima, Yasuo; Takei, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Objective We sought to detect the presence of left ventricular regional dysfunction and myocardial abnormalities in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients without cardiac symptoms using a complementary cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging approach. Methods Consecutive patients with SSc without cardiac symptoms and healthy controls underwent CMR on a 1.5 T scanner. The peak systolic regional function in the circumferential and radial strain (Ecc, % and Err, %) were calculated using a feature tracking analysis on the mid-left ventricular slices obtained with cine MRI. In addition, we investigated the myocardial characteristics by contrast MRI. Pharmacological stress and rest perfusion scans were performed to assess perfusion defect (PD) due to micro- or macrovascular impairment, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images were obtained for the assessment of myocarditis and/or fibrosis. Results We compared 15 SSc patients with 10 healthy controls. No statistically significant differences were observed in the baseline characteristics between the patients and healthy controls. The mean peak Err and Ecc of all segments was significantly lower in the patients than the controls (p=0.011 and p=0.003, respectively). Four patients with LGE (28.6%) and seven patients with PD (50.0%) were observed. PD was significantly associated with digital ulcers (p=0.005). Utilizing a linear regression model, the presence of myocardial LGE was significantly associated with the peak Ecc (p=0.024). After adjusting for age, the association between myocardial LGE and the peak Ecc was strengthened. Conclusion A subclinical myocardial involvement, as detected by CMR, was prevalent in the SSc patients without cardiac symptoms. Regional dysfunction might predict the myocardial abnormalities observed in SSc patients without cardiac symptoms.

  10. Hypothyroidism in Noninterferon Treated-HCV Infected Individuals Is Associated with Abnormalities in the Regulation of Th17 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Luis A; Garcia-Samper, Xóchitl; Suarez-Carpio, Rafael; Jimenez-Martínez, María C; Rendón-Huerta, Erika P; Masso, Felipe A; Fortoul, Teresa I; Montaño, Luis F

    2010-01-01

    HCV-Ag-specific TH17 cells secrete IL17, a cytokine involved in autoimmune diseases and regulated by IL10 and TGF-b. 5-12% of patients with chronic HCV infection have hypothyroidism. We evaluated the role of these cytokines in this patients by determining serum concentration of TsH, T3, free T4, IL2, IL10, IL12, IL17, TGF-b, anti-TG, TPO, CCP, GBM, and cardiolipin antibodies in 87 chronically noninterferon treated HCV-infected patients. 20 patients (group A) had elevated TsH values (>5 μUI/ml) whereas the remaining 67 (group B) had normal values. The percentage of anti-TPO, TG, GBM, and cardiolipin antibodies in group A patients (33%, 41%, 5% and 5%, resp.) as well as IL17, IL2 and TGF-b concentrations (25 ± 23 pg/ml, 643 ± 572 pg/ml, and 618 ± 221 pg/ml, resp.) were significantly higher than group B. Abnormal Th17 regulation mediated by IL-2 and low TGF-b concentrations is associated with hypothyroidism in chronically-infected HCV patients.

  11. Augmented Indian hedgehog signaling in cranial neural crest cells leads to craniofacial abnormalities and dysplastic temporomandibular joint in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Gu, Shuping; Ye, Wenduo; Song, Yingnan; Chen, YiPing

    2016-04-01

    Extensive studies have pinpointed the crucial role of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling in the development of the appendicular skeleton and the essential function of Ihh in the formation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this study, we have investigated the effect of augmented Ihh signaling in TMJ development. We took a transgenic gain-of-function approach by overexpressing Ihh in the cranial neural crest (CNC) cells using a conditional Ihh transgenic allele and the Wnt1-Cre allele. We found that Wnt1-Cre-mediated tissue-specific overexpression of Ihh in the CNC lineage caused severe craniofacial abnormalities, including cleft lip/palate, encephalocele, anophthalmos, micrognathia, and defective TMJ development. In the mutant TMJ, the glenoid fossa was completely absent, whereas the condyle and the articular disc appeared relatively normal with slightly delayed chondrocyte differentiation. Our findings thus demonstrate that augmented Ihh signaling is detrimental to craniofacial development, and that finely tuned Ihh signaling is critical for TMJ formation. Our results also provide additional evidence that the development of the condyle and articular disc is independent of the glenoid fossa.

  12. Morphological abnormalities, impaired fetal development and decrease in myostatin expression following somatic cell nuclear transfer in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Jeong, Yeon-Woo; Shin, Taeyoung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ki, Mi-Ran; Han, Seon-Young; Park, Se-Il; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; You, Sang-Young; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2011-05-01

    Several mammals, including dogs, have been successfully cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), but the efficiency of generating normal, live offspring is relatively low. Although the high failure rate has been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei during the cloning process, the exact cause is not fully known. To elucidate the cause of death in cloned offspring, 12 deceased offspring cloned by SCNT were necropsied. The clones were either stillborn just prior to delivery or died with dyspnea shortly after birth. On gross examination, defects in the anterior abdominal wall and increased heart and liver sizes were found. Notably, a significant increase in muscle mass and macroglossia lesions were observed in deceased SCNT-cloned dogs. Interestingly, the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth during embryogenesis, was down-regulated at the mRNA level in tongues and skeletal muscles of SCNT-cloned dogs compared with a normal dog. Results of the present study suggest that decreased expression of myostatin in SCNT-cloned dogs may be involved in morphological abnormalities such as increased muscle mass and macroglossia, which may contribute to impaired fetal development and poor survival rates.

  13. Hypothyroidism in Noninterferon Treated-HCV Infected Individuals Is Associated with Abnormalities in the Regulation of Th17 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Salazar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HCV-Ag-specific TH17 cells secrete IL17, a cytokine involved in autoimmune diseases and regulated by IL10 and TGF-b. 5–12% of patients with chronic HCV infection have hypothyroidism. We evaluated the role of these cytokines in this patients by determining serum concentration of TsH, T3, free T4, IL2, IL10, IL12, IL17, TGF-b, anti-TG, TPO, CCP, GBM, and cardiolipin antibodies in 87 chronically noninterferon treated HCV-infected patients. 20 patients (group A had elevated TsH values (>5 μUI/ml whereas the remaining 67 (group B had normal values. The percentage of anti-TPO, TG, GBM, and cardiolipin antibodies in group A patients (33%, 41%, 5% and 5%, resp. as well as IL17, IL2 and TGF-b concentrations (25±23 pg/ml, 643±572 pg/ml, and 618±221 pg/ml, resp. were significantly higher than group B. Abnormal Th17 regulation mediated by IL-2 and low TGF-b concentrations is associated with hypothyroidism in chronically-infected HCV patients.

  14. Comparison of In Vivo and Ex Vivo MRI for the Detection of Structural Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Holly E; Powell, Nick M; Ma, Da; Ismail, Ozama; Harrison, Ian F; Wells, Jack A; Colgan, Niall; O'Callaghan, James M; Johnson, Ross A; Murray, Tracey K; Ahmed, Zeshan; Heggenes, Morten; Fisher, Alice; Cardoso, M Jorge; Modat, Marc; O'Neill, Michael J; Collins, Emily C; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Ourselin, Sébastien; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2017-01-01

    With increasingly large numbers of mouse models of human disease dedicated to MRI studies, compromises between in vivo and ex vivo MRI must be fully understood in order to inform the choice of imaging methodology. We investigate the application of high resolution in vivo and ex vivo MRI, in combination with tensor-based morphometry (TBM), to uncover morphological differences in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy. The rTg4510 mouse also offers a novel paradigm by which the overexpression of mutant tau can be regulated by the administration of doxycycline, providing us with a platform on which to investigate more subtle alterations in morphology with morphometry. Both in vivo and ex vivo MRI allowed the detection of widespread bilateral patterns of atrophy in the rTg4510 mouse brain relative to wild-type controls. Regions of volume loss aligned with neuronal loss and pathological tau accumulation demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. When we sought to investigate more subtle structural alterations in the rTg4510 mice relative to a subset of doxycycline-treated rTg4510 mice, ex vivo imaging enabled the detection of more regions of morphological brain changes. The disadvantages of ex vivo MRI may however mitigate this increase in sensitivity: we observed a 10% global shrinkage in brain volume of the post-mortem tissues due to formalin fixation, which was most notable in the cerebellum and olfactory bulbs. However, many central brain regions were not adversely affected by the fixation protocol, perhaps due to our "in-skull" preparation. The disparity between our TBM findings from in vivo and ex vivo MRI underlines the importance of appropriate study design, given the trade-off between these two imaging approaches. We support the utility of in vivo MRI for morphological phenotyping of mouse models of disease; however, for subtler phenotypes, ex vivo offers enhanced sensitivity to discrete morphological changes.

  15. SNP array karyotyping allows for the detection of uniparental disomy and cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in MDS/MPD-U and MPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz P Gondek

    Full Text Available We applied single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (SNP-A to study karyotypic abnormalities in patients with atypical myeloproliferative syndromes (MPD, including myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome overlap both positive and negative for the JAK2 V617F mutation and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML. In typical MPD cases (N = 8, which served as a control group, those with a homozygous V617F mutation showed clear uniparental disomy (UPD of 9p using SNP-A. Consistent with possible genomic instability, in 19/30 MDS/MPD-U patients, we found additional lesions not identified by metaphase cytogenetics. In addition to UPD9p, we also have detected UPD affecting other chromosomes, including 1 (2/30, 11 (4/30, 12 (1/30 and 22 (1/30. Transformation to AML was observed in 8/30 patients. In 5 V617F+ patients who progressed to AML, we show that SNP-A can allow for the detection of two modes of transformation: leukemic blasts evolving from either a wild-type jak2 precursor carrying other acquired chromosomal defects, or from a V617F+ mutant progenitor characterized by UPD9p. SNP-A-based detection of cryptic lesions in MDS/MPD-U may help explain the clinical heterogeneity of this disorder.

  16. Exercise protects against obesity induced semen abnormalities via downregulating stem cell factor, upregulating Ghrelin and normalizing oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhashem, Fahaid; Alkhateeb, Mahmoud; Sakr, Hussein; Alshahrani, Mesfer; Alsunaidi, Mohammad; Elrefaey, Hesham; Alessa, Riyad; Sarhan, Mohammad; Eleawa, Samy M; Khalil, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and hormonal imbalance have been hypothesized to underlie infertility in obese animals. However, recent evidence suggests that Ghrelin and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) play an important role in fertility, in lean individuals. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating whether changes in the levels of Ghrelin and SCF in rat testes underlie semen abnormal parameters observed in obese rats, and secondly, whether endurance exercise or Orlistat can protect against changes in Ghrelin, SCF, and/or semen parameters in diet induced obese rats. Obesity was modelled in male Wistar rats using High Fat Diet (HFD) 12-week protocol. Eight week-old rats (n=40) were divided into four groups, namely, Group I: fed with a standard diet (12 % of calories as fat); Group II: fed HFD (40 % of calories as fat); Group III: fed the HFD with a concomitant dose of Orlistat (200 mg/kg); and Group IV: fed the HFD and underwent 30 min daily swimming exercise. The model was validated by measuring the levels of testosterone, FSH, LH, estradiol, leptin, triglycerides, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and final change in body weight. Levels were consistent with published obesity models (see Results). As predicted, the HFD group had a 76.8 % decrease in sperm count, 44.72 % decrease in sperm motility, as well as 47.09 % increase in abnormal sperm morphology. Unlike the control group, in the HFD group (i.e. obese rats) Ghrelin mRNA and protein were elevated, while SCF mRNA and protein were diminished in the testes. Furthermore, in the HFD group, SOD and GPx activities were significantly reduced, 48.5±5.8 % (P=0.0012) and 45.6±4.6 % (P=0.0019), respectively, while TBARS levels were significantly increased (112.7±8.9 %, P=0.0001). Finally, endurance exercise training and Orlistat administration individually and differentially protected semen parameters in obese rats. The mechanism includes, but is not limited to, normalizing the levels of Ghrelin, SCF, SOD, GPx and TBARS. In rat

  17. Exercise protects against obesity induced semen abnormalities via downregulating stem cell factor, upregulating Ghrelin and normalizing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhashem, Fahaid; Alkhateeb, Mahmoud; Sakr, Hussein; Alshahrani, Mesfer; Alsunaidi, Mohammad; Elrefaey, Hesham; Alessa, Riyad; Sarhan, Mohammad; Eleawa, Samy M; Khalil, Mohammad A

    2014-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and hormonal imbalance have been hypothesized to underlie infertility in obese animals. However, recent evidence suggests that Ghrelin and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) play an important role in fertility, in lean individuals. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating whether changes in the levels of Ghrelin and SCF in rat testes underlie semen abnormal parameters observed in obese rats, and secondly, whether endurance exercise or Orlistat can protect against changes in Ghrelin, SCF, and/or semen parameters in diet induced obese rats. Obesity was modelled in male Wistar rats using High Fat Diet (HFD) 12-week protocol. Eight week-old rats (n=40) were divided into four groups, namely, Group I: fed with a standard diet (12 % of calories as fat); Group II: fed HFD (40 % of calories as fat); Group III: fed the HFD with a concomitant dose of Orlistat (200 mg/kg); and Group IV: fed the HFD and underwent 30 min daily swimming exercise. The model was validated by measuring the levels of testosterone, FSH, LH, estradiol, leptin, triglycerides, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and final change in body weight. Levels were consistent with published obesity models (see Results). As predicted, the HFD group had a 76.8 % decrease in sperm count, 44.72 % decrease in sperm motility, as well as 47.09 % increase in abnormal sperm morphology. Unlike the control group, in the HFD group (i.e. obese rats) Ghrelin mRNA and protein were elevated, while SCF mRNA and protein were diminished in the testes. Furthermore, in the HFD group, SOD and GPx activities were significantly reduced, 48.5±5.8 % (P=0.0012) and 45.6±4.6 % (P=0.0019), respectively, while TBARS levels were significantly increased (112.7±8.9 %, P=0.0001). Finally, endurance exercise training and Orlistat administration individually and differentially protected semen parameters in obese rats. The mechanism includes, but is not limited to, normalizing the levels of Ghrelin, SCF, SOD, GPx and TBARS. In rat

  18. 基于微簇的在线网络异常检测方法%Micro-cluster-based online network abnormal detection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖三; 杨雅辉; 沈晴霓

    2013-01-01

    Since online abnormal detection for backbone network with large flow currently is a research hotspot in network security field, an online network abnormal detection method is proposed to handle big data stream properly. The method processes big data stream into micro-clusters with density-based cluster method, and then micro-clusters absorb data stream directly to enhance the performance. The method regularly executes outlier detection process to find intrusion. The method does not require offline training process and can find any arbitrary clusters. It also supports big data stream and can balance between detection precision and resources with great performance. In the experiment, the prototype system finishes analysis task in 20 s over MIT Lincoln Laboratory LLS_DDOS_1.0 data, with 82% TPR and 6% FPR, which is equivalent to K-means.%针对大流量骨干网的在线网络异常检测是目前网络安全研究的热点之一,提出一种网络异常检测方法,有效在线处理大数据流,利用密度聚类算法把大数据流转换成微簇,通过微簇提高处理效率,定时调用孤立点检测算法发现攻击行为.方法具有不需线下训练、能发现任意行为模式、支持大数据流、可以平衡检测精度与系统资源要求、处理效率高等优点.实验表明,原型系统在20 s完成2000年LLS DDOS 1.0数据集分析,检测率为82%,误报率为6%,效果与K-means相当.

  19. Detection of parenchymal abnormalities in experimentally induced acute pyelonephritis in rabbits using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seung Kwon; Seo, Jin Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Laboratory Animal Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) using the rabbit kidney model and compared it with CT and MRI. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. In a total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits, APN was induced experimentally. CEUS, CT, and MRI were performed on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. After imaging studies, the subjects were sacrificed and the pathological diagnosis of APN was confirmed in each animal by a pathologist. Imaging studies were obtained in eight animals, including eight CEUS, four computed tomography (CT), and four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. CEUS depicted diffuse renal enlargement (7), diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement (6), and focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement (6). These findings were well correlated with the CT and MRI findings in five cases in which these studies were available. CT and MRI showed diffuse renal enlargement, diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement, focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement, focal contour bulging, and the finding of perinephric spread of infection. In a rabbit model, CEUS could depict the parenchymal lesions of APN similar to CT or MRI; however, it was limited in depicting the perinephric extension of inflammation.

  20. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  1. Simulation-Based Evaluation of the Performances of an Algorithm for Detecting Abnormal Disease-Related Features in Cattle Mortality Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Durand, Benoît; Gay, Emilie; Ducrot, Christian; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    We performed a simulation study to evaluate the performances of an anomaly detection algorithm considered in the frame of an automated surveillance system of cattle mortality. The method consisted in a combination of temporal regression and spatial cluster detection which allows identifying, for a given week, clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths in comparison with their own historical fluctuations. First, we simulated 1,000 outbreaks of a disease causing extra deaths in the French cattle population (about 200,000 herds and 20 million cattle) according to a model mimicking the spreading patterns of an infectious disease and injected these disease-related extra deaths in an authentic mortality dataset, spanning from January 2005 to January 2010. Second, we applied our algorithm on each of the 1,000 semi-synthetic datasets to identify clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths considering their own historical fluctuations. Third, we verified if the clusters identified by the algorithm did contain simulated extra deaths in order to evaluate the ability of the algorithm to identify unusual mortality clusters caused by an outbreak. Among the 1,000 simulations, the median duration of simulated outbreaks was 8 weeks, with a median number of 5,627 simulated deaths and 441 infected herds. Within the 12-week trial period, 73% of the simulated outbreaks were detected, with a median timeliness of 1 week, and a mean of 1.4 weeks. The proportion of outbreak weeks flagged by an alarm was 61% (i.e. sensitivity) whereas one in three alarms was a true alarm (i.e. positive predictive value). The performances of the detection algorithm were evaluated for alternative combination of epidemiologic parameters. The results of our study confirmed that in certain conditions automated algorithms could help identifying abnormal cattle mortality increases possibly related to unidentified health events.

  2. Simulation-Based Evaluation of the Performances of an Algorithm for Detecting Abnormal Disease-Related Features in Cattle Mortality Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Perrin

    Full Text Available We performed a simulation study to evaluate the performances of an anomaly detection algorithm considered in the frame of an automated surveillance system of cattle mortality. The method consisted in a combination of temporal regression and spatial cluster detection which allows identifying, for a given week, clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths in comparison with their own historical fluctuations. First, we simulated 1,000 outbreaks of a disease causing extra deaths in the French cattle population (about 200,000 herds and 20 million cattle according to a model mimicking the spreading patterns of an infectious disease and injected these disease-related extra deaths in an authentic mortality dataset, spanning from January 2005 to January 2010. Second, we applied our algorithm on each of the 1,000 semi-synthetic datasets to identify clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths considering their own historical fluctuations. Third, we verified if the clusters identified by the algorithm did contain simulated extra deaths in order to evaluate the ability of the algorithm to identify unusual mortality clusters caused by an outbreak. Among the 1,000 simulations, the median duration of simulated outbreaks was 8 weeks, with a median number of 5,627 simulated deaths and 441 infected herds. Within the 12-week trial period, 73% of the simulated outbreaks were detected, with a median timeliness of 1 week, and a mean of 1.4 weeks. The proportion of outbreak weeks flagged by an alarm was 61% (i.e. sensitivity whereas one in three alarms was a true alarm (i.e. positive predictive value. The performances of the detection algorithm were evaluated for alternative combination of epidemiologic parameters. The results of our study confirmed that in certain conditions automated algorithms could help identifying abnormal cattle mortality increases possibly related to unidentified health events.

  3. Abnormal Time Series Detection in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Hadoop%基于Hadoop的异常传感数据时间序列检测∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 李斌; 刘学军; 胡平

    2014-01-01

    无线传感器网络中,异常时间序列的研究具有十分重要的意义。针对传统研究在海量数据环境中时间效率低下的问题,提出了基于Hadoop的异常时间序列检测算法。首先对时间序列进行预处理,然后在Hadoop的MapReduce操作中调用动态时间弯曲距离计算算法,实现了DTW距离计算的并行化,从而大大提高检测速度。同时针对传统DTW算法计算复杂度瓶颈问题以及传统约束方法准确率较低问题,提出了基于显著特征匹配的局部约束算法,对弯曲路径进行局部限制,在确保准确性的同时进一步降低了时间、空间复杂度。 Hadoop平台下实验结果表明,该方法既提高了检测速度,又保证了检测准确率。%In wireless sensor network,the research of abnormal time series detection is of great significance. Due to the poor time efficiency of traditional research under big data,this paper proposes an algorithm about abnormal time series detection based on Hadoop. In this paper,time series are preprocessed firstly and then the DTW algorithm is called during MapReduce operation of Hadoop to realize the parallelization calculation of DTW distance. This meas-ure improves the detection rate greatly. Meanwhile,to solve the bottleneck of computational complexity of classical DTW and the poor precision of the classical constraints,the paper also proposes locally relevant constraints based on salient feature alignments. It constraints the warping path locally to reduce the complexity of time and space further, it also ensures the precision of the algorithm at the same time. The results demonstrate that this algorithm not only decreases the time consumption,but also keeps a high precision.

  4. Comparison between allantochorion membrane and amniotic sac detection by per rectal palpation for pregnancy diagnosis on pregnancy loss, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Juan E; Pinedo, Pablo; Bryan, Kelsey; Ramos, Roney S; Solano, Karol G; Merchan, Daniel; Velez, Juan

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the pregnancy diagnosis by detection of either the allantochorion membrane (FMS) or amniotic sac (ASP) by per rectum palpation (PRP) during late embryonic or early fetal period on pregnancy loss (PRL) at reexamination, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves. A controlled randomized blind design with 800 lactating dairy pregnant cows diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) between Days 35 and 57 of gestation from one dairy farm were included. The cows were randomly divided according to detection of allantochorion membrane (FMS group; n = 264), detection of amniotic sac (ASP group; n = 266), and TRUS (control [CON] group; n = 270). TRUS was considered as the criterion standard method of comparison. The entire PRP was performed by one experienced veterinarian. Then, all the cows were reexamined only by TRUS between 2 and 4 weeks later by two independent veterinarians to assess PRL. The calving rate one (number of cows calved divided by the number of cows initially pregnant) and calving rate two (number of cows calved divided by the number of cows pregnant at reexamination) for each group was calculated. All abortions and stillborns were necropsied, and calves alive were followed for 5 days. The overall initial PRL (between initial pregnant cows and reexamination) for FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 7.4% (19/258), 8.8% (23/262), and 9.2% (24/260), respectively (P = 0.75). The overall late PRL (between reexamination and calving) for FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 4.2% (9/213), 5.7% (12/209), and 4.2% (9/216), respectively (P = 0.71). The calving rate one for FMS, ASP, and TRUS groups was 79.1% (204/258), 75.2% (197/262), and 79.6% (207/260), respectively (P = 0.63). The calving rate two for the same groups was 85.4% (204/239), 82.4% (197/239), and 87.7% (207/236), respectively (P = 0.27). The number of fetuses aborted late, premature, and mature dead from FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 6

  5. Automated Parameters for Troubled-Cell Indicators Using Outlier Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuik, M.J.; Ryan, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    In Vuik and Ryan [J. Comput. Phys., 270 (2014), pp. 138--160] we studied the use of troubled-cell indicators for discontinuity detection in nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations and introduced a new multiwavelet technique to detect troubled cells. We found that these methods perform we

  6. CRISPR/Cas9 Targets Chicken Embryonic Somatic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo and generates Phenotypic Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bonsrah, Kwaku Dad; Zhang, Dongcheng; Newgreen, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    Chickens are an invaluable model for studying human diseases, physiology and especially development, but have lagged in genetic applications. With the advent of Programmable Engineered Nucleases, genetic manipulation has become efficient, specific and rapid. Here, we show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit the chicken genome. We generated HIRA, TYRP1, DICER, MBD3, EZH2, and 6 other gene knockouts in two chicken cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, with no off-target effects detected. We also showed that very large deletions (>75 kb) could be achieved. We also achieved targeted modification by homology-directed repair (HDR), producing MEN2A and MEN2B mutations of the RET gene. We also targeted DGCR8 in neural cells of the chicken embryo by in vivo electroporation. After FACS isolation of transfected cells, we observed appropriate sequence changes in DGCR8. Wholemount and frozen section antibody labelling showed reduction of DGCR8 levels in transfected cells. In addition, there was reduced expression levels of DGCR8-associated genes DROSHA, YPEL1 and NGN2. We also observed morphological differences in neural tissue and cardiac-related tissues of transfected embryos. These findings demonstrate that precisely targeted genetic manipulation of the genome using the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be extended to the highly adaptable in vivo chicken embryo model. PMID:27694906

  7. Detection of Cell Death in Drosophila Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Deepika; Ryoo, Hyung Don

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila has served as a particularly attractive model to study cell death due to the vast array of tools for genetic manipulation under defined spatial and temporal conditions in vivo as well as in cultured cells. These genetic methods have been well supplemented by enzymatic assays and a panel of antibodies recognizing cell death markers. This chapter discusses reporters, mutants and assays used by various laboratories to study cell death in the context of development and in response to external insults. PMID:27108437

  8. Field-flow fractionation of cells with chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Roda, Barbara; Zattoni, Andrea; Casolari, Sonia; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Roda, Aldo

    2004-11-12

    Field-flow fractionation is a separation technique characterized by a retention mechanism which makes it suitable for sorting cells over a short analysis time, with low sample carry-over and preserving cell viability. Thanks to its high sensitivity, chemiluminescence detection is suitable for the quantification of just a few cells expressing chemiluminescence or bioluminescence. In this work, different formats for coupling gravitational field-flow fractionation and chemiluminescence detection are explored to achieve ultra-sensitive cell detection in the framework of cell sorting. The study is carried out using human red blood cells as model sample. The best performance is obtained with the on-line coupling format, performed in post-column flow-injection mode. Red cells are isolated from diluted whole human blood in just a few minutes and detected using the liquid phase chemiluminescent reaction of luminol catalysed by the red blood cell heme. The limit of detection is a few hundred injected cells. This is lower than the limit of detection usually achieved by means of conventional colorimetric/turbidimetric methods, and it corresponds to a red blood cell concentration in the injected sample of five orders of magnitude lower than in whole blood.

  9. A bacteriophage detection tool for viability assessment of Salmonella cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E; Martins, V C; Nóbrega, C; Carvalho, C M; Cardoso, F A; Cardoso, S; Dias, J; Deng, D; Kluskens, L D; Freitas, P P; Azeredo, J

    2014-02-15

    Salmonellosis, one of the most common food and water-borne diseases, has a major global health and economic impact. Salmonella cells present high infection rates, persistence over inauspicious conditions and the potential to preserve virulence in dormant states when cells are viable but non-culturable (VBNC). These facts are challenging for current detection methods. Culture methods lack the capacity to detect VBNC cells, while biomolecular methods (e.g. DNA- or protein-based) hardly distinguish between dead innocuous cells and their viable lethal counterparts. This work presents and validates a novel bacteriophage (phage)-based microbial detection tool to detect and assess Salmonella viability. Salmonella Enteritidis cells in a VBNC physiological state were evaluated by cell culture, flow-cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy, and further assayed with a biosensor platform. Free PVP-SE1 phages in solution showed the ability to recognize VBNC cells, with no lysis induction, in contrast to the minor recognition of heat-killed cells. This ability was confirmed for immobilized phages on gold surfaces, where the phage detection signal follows the same trend of the concentration of viable plus VBNC cells in the sample. The phage probe was then tested in a magnetoresistive biosensor platform allowing the quantitative detection and discrimination of viable and VBNC cells from dead cells, with high sensitivity. Signals arising from 3 to 4 cells per sensor were recorded. In comparison to a polyclonal antibody that does not distinguish viable from dead cells, the phage selectivity in cell recognition minimizes false-negative and false-positive results often associated with most detection methods.

  10. Red blood cells of sickle cell disease patients exhibit abnormally high abundance of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors mediating excessive calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Pascal; Makhro, Asya; Gassmann, Max; Schmugge, Markus; Goede, Jeroen S; Speer, Oliver; Bogdanova, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Recently we showed that N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are expressed in erythroid precursors (EPCs) and present in the circulating red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy humans, regulating intracellular Ca(2+) in these cells. This study focuses on investigating the possible role of NMDARs in abnormally high Ca(2+) permeability in the RBCs of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Protein levels of the NMDAR subunits in the EPCs of SCD patients did not differ from those in EPCs of healthy humans. However, the number and activity of the NMDARs in circulating SCD-RBCs was substantially up-regulated, being particularly high during haemolytic crises. The number of active NMDARs correlated negatively with haematocrit and haemoglobin levels in the blood of SCD patients. Calcium uptake via these non-selective cation channels was induced by RBC treatment with glycine, glutamate and homocysteine and was facilitated by de-oxygenation of SCD-RBCs. Oxidative stress and RBC dehydration followed receptor stimulation and Ca(2+) uptake. Inhibition of the NMDARs with an antagonist memantine caused re-hydration and largely prevented hypoxia-induced sickling. The EPCs of SCD patients showed higher tolerance to memantine than those of healthy subjects. Consequently, NMDARs in the RBCs of SCD patients appear to be an attractive target for pharmacological intervention.

  11. Highly sensitive detection using Herriott cell for laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chongyi; Song, Guangming; Du, Yang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Wenju; Zhong, Liujun; Hu, Mai

    2016-11-01

    The tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the long absorption path technique is a significant method to detect harmful gas. The long optical path could come true by Herriott cell reducing the size of the spectrometers. A 15 cm long Herriott cell with 28.8 m optical absorption path after 96 times reflection was designed that enhanced detection sensitivity of absorption spectroscopy. According to the theory data of calculation, Herriott cell is analyzed and simulated by softwares Matlab and Lighttools.

  12. A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0457 TITLE: A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Ben Stanger...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0457 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...pancreatic cancer patients. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Pancreatic cancer , metastasis, circulating tumor cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION

  13. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Belondrade

    Full Text Available The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA. This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  14. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  15. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  16. Effects of thrombopoietin (c-mpl ligand) on growth of blast cells from patients with transient abnormal myelopoiesis and acute myeloblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, H; Shimazaki, C; Yamagata, N; Goto, H; Inaba, T; Kikuta, T; Sumikuma, T; Sudo, Y; Ashihara, E; Fujita, N; Hibi, S; Imashuku, S; Ito, E; Nakagawa, M

    1997-07-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a ligand for c-mpl that promotes both proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the expression of c-mpl transcripts and the effects of recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) on the proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic cell lines or fresh samples obtained from 32 patients with transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) or acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). Cells were cultured with TPO alone or combined with rh interleukin-3 (IL-3) or stem cell factor (SCF). Expression of c-mpl was verified in 6 of 13 cases tested. All but one of the cases that showed c-mpl expression responded to TPO. Blasts from all cases of TAM or French-American-British (FAB) subtype M7 showed growth responses to TPO with higher sensitivity than cells of other FAB subtypes and these responses were increased by addition of rhIL-3 or rhSCF in some cases. Responses of cells of other FAB subtypes varied. In addition, increased expression of platelet-specific surface antigens on MO7E cells after incubation with rhTPO was observed. These data suggest that TPO may be involved in the abnormal proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic cells, especially of M7 and TAM cells, considered to be of megakaryocytic lineage.

  17. A Fluorimetric Sensor for Detection of One Living Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, studies of metabolic pathways and processes in living organisms cannot be easily done at the cellular level. That is why the development of a new analytical methods and approaches is needed, to allow detection of different biologically important species at very low concentrations levels and sample volumes, especially in individual cells. In the present work, we suggested a sensor to detect units of living cells by means determination of plant esterases (PE based on fluorimetric detection of the products of the enzymatic hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate in plant cell cultures (BY-2 tobacco cells and early somatic embryos of Norway spruce, clone 2/32. We standardized the sensor using a readily available esterase from pig liver. The detection limits were approximately 17 to 50 amol in 2 ml (8.5 to 25 femtomolar concentrations of esterases of the enzyme contained in BY-2 tobacco cells and spruce early somatic embryos, respectively, after re-computation on the amounts of pig liver esterases. We assumed that the optimised sensor for the determination of PE in cell extracts accomplishes all requirements for a sensitive analysis which could be usable for single cell analysis. The detection limit was 1.5 in case of analysing BY-2 tobacco cells and 0.5 in early somatic embryos. Moreover, we were able to detect single protoplasts.

  18. A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagiv Idit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells, and (ii early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events.

  19. RF-EMF exposure at 1800 MHz did not elicit DNA damage or abnormal cellular behaviors in different neurogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liling; Wei, Xiaoxia; Xu, Zhengping; Chen, Guangdi

    2017-04-01

    Despite many years of studies, the debate on genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) continues. To systematically evaluate genotoxicity of RF-EMF, this study examined effects of RF-EMF on DNA damage and cellular behavior in different neurogenic cells. Neurogenic A172, U251, and SH-SY5Y cells were intermittently (5 min on/10 min off) exposed to 1800 MHz RF-EMF at an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 1, 6, or 24 h. DNA damage was evaluated by quantification of γH2AX foci, an early marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and cell viability were examined by flow cytometry, hemocytometer, and cell counting kit-8 assay, respectively. Results showed that exposure to RF-EMF at an SAR of 4.0 W/kg neither significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in A172, U251, or SH-SY5Y cells, nor resulted in abnormal cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, or cell viability. Furthermore, prolonged incubation of these cells for up to 48 h after exposure did not significantly affect cellular behavior. Our data suggest that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure at 4.0 W/kg is unlikely to elicit DNA damage or abnormal cellular behaviors in neurogenic cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:175-185, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chronic sensory stroke with and without central pain is associated with bilaterally distributed sensory abnormalities as detected by quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Thomas; Asseyer, Susanna; Geisler, Frederik; Fiebach, Jochen B; Oeltjenbruns, Jochen; Kopf, Andreas; Villringer, Kersten; Villringer, Arno; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients suffering from stroke with pure or predominant sensory symptoms (referred to as sensory stroke patients) develop central poststroke pain (CPSP). It is largely unknown what distinguishes these patients from those who remain pain free. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we analyzed the somatosensory profiles of 50 patients with chronic sensory stroke, of which 25 suffered from CPSP. As compared with reference data from healthy controls, patients with CPSP showed alterations of thermal and mechanical thresholds on the body area contralateral to their stroke (P pain sensory stroke [NPSS] patients) exhibited similar albeit less pronounced contralesional changes. Paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) showed higher values in CPSP, and an elevated cold detection threshold (CDT) was seen more often in CPSP than in patients with NPSS (P pain summation (wind-up ratio) each correlated with the presence of pain (P < 0.05). On the homologous ipsilesional body area, both patient groups showed additional significant abnormalities as compared with the reference data, which strongly resembled the contralesional changes. In summary, our analysis reveals that CPSP is associated with impaired temperature perception and positive sensory signs, but differences between patients with CPSP and NPSS are subtle. Both patients with CPSP and NPSS show considerable QST changes on the ipsilesional body side. These results are in part paralleled by recent findings of bilaterally spread cortical atrophy in CPSP and might reflect chronic maladaptive cortical plasticity, particularly in patients with CPSP.

  1. CellTracks cytometer for detection of circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, A.G.J.; Kooi, van der A.; Groot, de M.R.; Vermes, I.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with carcinomas, tumor cells are shed into the circulation. The number of the circulating tumor cells is low and technology is needed that has sufficient sensitivity and specificity to enumerate and characterize these cells. The CellTracks system was developed to provide an

  2. Monosomal karyotype predicts poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in chromosome 7 abnormal myelodysplastic syndrome and secondary acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, M; de Wreede, L C; Schetelig, J; van Biezen, A; Volin, L; Maertens, J; Robin, M; Petersen, E; de Witte, T; Kröger, N

    2013-04-01

    Treatment algorithms for poor cytogenetic-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), defined by chromosome 7 abnormalities or complex karyotype (CK), include allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We studied outcome of alloSCT in chromosome 7 abnormal MDS patients as this data are scarce in literature. We specifically focused on the impact of the extra presence of CK and monosomal karyotype (MK). The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database contained data on 277 adult MDS patients with a chromosome 7 abnormality treated with alloSCT. Median age at alloSCT was 45 years. Median follow-up of patients alive was 5 years. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 22% and 28%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, statistically significant predictors for worse PFS were higher MDS stages treated, but not in complete remission (CR) (hazards ratio (HR) 1.7), and the presence of CK (HR 1.5) or MK (HR 1.8). Negative predictive factors for OS were higher MDS stages treated, but not in CR (HR 1.8), and the presence of CK (HR 1.6) or MK (HR 1.7). By means of the cross-validated log partial likelihood, MK showed to have a better predictive value than CK. The results are relevant when considering alloSCT for higher-stage MDS patients having MK including a chromosome 7 abnormality.

  3. An improved, non-isotopic method of screening cells from patients with abnormalities of sexual differentiation for Y chromosomal DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M; Michalczak, K; Latos-Bielenska, A; Jaruzelska, J; Kuczora, I; Lopez, M

    1993-04-01

    The detection of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in patients with abnormalities of sexual differentiation is of crucial diagnostic importance. Here we present application of a PCR based method of detection of alphoid repeats of Y chromosomal origin. The method detects 0.01% of male DNA on a female DNA background. Out of 28 patients studied, in all cases where the Y chromosome or a part of it containing centromeric sequences was present, a positive amplification signal of Y chromosomal alphoid repeats was detected. In five cases the Y origin of marker chromosomes was diagnosed. The pattern of amplification signal distribution of the SRY gene was identical to that of Y specific alphoid primers, which confirms applicability of this method in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. The other diagnostic advantage is the ability to use dried blood specimens as an easy to handle and efficient source of DNA.

  4. Sickle cell detection using a smartphone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knowlton, S M; Sencan, I; Aytar, Y; Khoory, J; Heeney, M M; Ghiran, I C; Tasoglu, S

    2015-01-01

    ...) based on the higher density of sickle red blood cells under deoxygenated conditions. Testing is performed with a lightweight and compact 3D-printed attachment installed on a commercial smartphone...

  5. 基于SVM的AMI环境下用电异常检测研究%SVM Based Energy Consumption Abnormality Detection in AMI System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简富俊; 曹敏; 王磊; 孙中伟; 张建伟; 王洪亮

    2014-01-01

    Electrical power system is facing serious security problems due to Advanced Metering Infrastructure(AMI) system which introduces a lot of new technologies in traditional electrical power system. As a result of smart grid, the contradiction of openness and security is increased which will give rise to the increase of electricity fraud. How to detect electricity fraud has become a new issue of grid informatization. On the basis of the AMI’s architecture, the paper adopts One-class SVM technique to detect the abnormal behavior of electricity users which works at a non-supervision Machine learning mode and can get a high accuracy of detection in small sample or unbalanced classification environment. In order to reduce the false alarm rate of the system, the system uses filtering method to handle the test results of SVM classification processing. System can improve the efficiency of electrical inspection and reduce the Non-Technical Losses(NTL) of power system. The paper also gives an implementation of the system which verifies execution efficiency and detection efficiency of the algorithm by real example.%高级测量体系的建设在传统电力系统中引入了许多新技术,对电力系统安全提出了新的考验。网络的开放性和安全性之间的矛盾加大,使得非法电力用户窃电的手段增多,如何有效检测窃电成为电网信息化的一个新问题。根据高级测量体系系统架构的特点,使用One-class SVM无监督机器学习架构对电力用户负荷异常进行检测,可以在小样本、样本分类不均衡环境下提高检测的准确性。使用对检测结果过滤的方法对检测结果进行分类处理,降低系统的虚警率。系统能提高用电稽查效率,降低电力系统的非技术性损失。最后对系统进行架构搭建实现,使用真实算例验证了算法的执行效率和检测效率。

  6. Abnormal distribution of the interstitial cells of cajal in an adult patient with pseudo-obstruction and megaduodenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Rumessen, Jüri J; de Wit, Laurens

    2002-01-01

    laparoscopic placement of a jejunostomy showed vacuolated myocytes and fibrosis predominantly in the outer third of the circular muscle layer of the duodenum, suggestive for visceral myopathy. The distribution of ICC was also strikingly abnormal: by light microscopy, ICC surrounding the myenteric plexus were...

  7. Abnormal maturation and differentiation of neocortical neurons in epileptogenic cortical malformation: unique distribution of layer-specific marker cells of focal cortical dysplasia and hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Asako; Saito, Takashi; Hanai, Sae; Sukigara, Sayuri; Nabatame, Shin; Otsuki, Taisuke; Nakagawa, Eiji; Takahashi, Akio; Kaneko, Yuu; Kaido, Takanobu; Saito, Yuko; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Itoh, Masayuki

    2012-08-27

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and hemimegalencephaly (HME) are major causes of intractable epilepsy in children. The probable pathogenesis of FCD and HMG is the abnormal migration and differentiation of neurons. The aim of the present study was to clarify the abnormal cytoarchitecture, based on neuronal immaturation. Tissue samples were obtained from 16 FCD and seven HME patients, aged between 2 months and 12 years, who had been diagnosed as typical FCD and HME, following surgical treatment for intractable epilepsy. Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with the antibodies of three layer-markers that are usually present only during the fetal period, namely SATB2 (expressed in the upper layer of the normal fetal neocortex), FOXP1 (expressed in the 5th layer), and TBR1 (expressed in the 6th layer). In FCD, SATB2-positive (+) cells located in the middle and deep regions of FCD Ia and Ib, but only in the superficial region of FCD IIa and IIb. FOXP1+ cells diffusely located in the neocortex, especially the upper layer of FCD IIa and IIb. TBR1+ cells mainly located in the middle and deep regions, and also white matter. In FCD IIb, TBR1+ cells were in the superficial region. In HME, SATB2+ and FOXP1+ cells were found diffusely. TBR1+ cells were in the middle and deep regions. On the basis of continued expression of fetal cortical layer-specific markers in FCD and HME brains, the abnormal neocortical formation in both is likely to be the result of disrupted neuronal migration and dysmaturation. The expression pattern is different between FCD and HME. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  9. Dendritic Cells for Real-Time Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic Cells (DCs) are innate immune system cells which have the power to activate or suppress the immune system. The behaviour of human of human DCs is abstracted to form an algorithm suitable for anomaly detection. We test this algorithm on the real-time problem of port scan detection. Our results show a significant difference in artificial DC behaviour for an outgoing portscan when compared to behaviour for normal processes.

  10. Detection of myocardial metabolic abnormalities by 18F-FDG PET/CT and corresponding pathological changes in beagles with local heart irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rul [Nursing College of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China); Song, Jianbo; Wu, Zhi Fang; Liu, Jian Zhang; Hao, Xin Zhong; Li, Sijin [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China); Guo, Min [Dept. of Cardiology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China); Li, Jianguo [Dept. of Radiological and Environmental Medicine, China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2015-08-15

    To determine the efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the detection of radiation-induced myocardial damage in beagles by comparing two pre-scan preparation protocols as well as to determine the correlation between abnormal myocardial FDG uptake and pathological findings. The anterior myocardium of 12 beagles received radiotherapy locally with a single X-ray dose of 20 Gy. 18F-FDG cardiac PET/CT was performed at baseline and 3 months after radiation. Twelve beagles underwent two protocols before PET/CT: 12 hours of fasting (12H-F), 12H-F followed by a high-fat diet (F-HFD). Regions of interest were drawn on the irradiation and the non-irradiation fields to obtain their maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax). Then the ratio of the SUV of the irradiation to the non-irradiation fields (INR) was computed. Histopathological changes were identified by light and electron microscopy. Using the 12H-F protocol, the average INRs were 1.18 ± 0.10 and 1.41 ± 0.18 before and after irradiation, respectively (p = 0.021). Using the F-HFD protocol, the average INRs were 0.99 ± 0.15 and 2.54 ± 0.43, respectively (p < 0.001). High FDG uptake in irradiation field was detected in 33.3% (4/12) of 12H-F protocol and 83.3% (10/12) of F-HFD protocol in visual analysis, respectively (p = 0.031). The pathology of the irradiated myocardium showed obvious perivascular fibrosis and changes in mitochondrial vacuoles. High FDG uptake in an irradiated field may be related with radiation-induced myocardial damage resulting from microvascular damage and mitochondrial injury. An F-HFD preparation protocol used before obtaining PET/CT can improve the sensitivity of the detection of cardiotoxicity associated with radiotherapy.

  11. Early cell death detection with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Digital holography provides a non-invasive measurement of the quantitative phase shifts induced by cells in culture, which can be related to cell volume changes. It has been shown previously that regulation of cell volume, in particular as it relates to ionic homeostasis, is crucially involved in the activation/inactivation of the cell death processes. We thus present here an application of digital holographic microscopy (DHM dedicated to early and label-free detection of cell death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide quantitative measurements of phase signal obtained on mouse cortical neurons, and caused by early neuronal cell volume regulation triggered by excitotoxic concentrations of L-glutamate. We show that the efficiency of this early regulation of cell volume detected by DHM, is correlated with the occurrence of subsequent neuronal death assessed with the widely accepted trypan blue method for detection of cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the phase signal by DHM provides a simple and rapid optical method for the early detection of cell death.

  12. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  13. Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Among the 194 women, in 8 subjects, the smears collected were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Analysis was done in the remaining 186 subjects. Among the latter, in 83.9%, the smears were negative for intraepithelial lesions (NIEL and 16.1% revealed epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA. Among those with ECA, Atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was identified in 66.67%, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL in 16.67%, Atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H and Atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS in 6.67% each and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL in 3.33%. Epithelial cell abnormalities were more common in women in the age group of 30-60 years (80%, they were more common in those with age at marriage between 13-18 years (63.3% and in those with age at first child birth between 15-19 years (56.7%. Conclusions: Therefore there is a need for Pap screening at regular intervals through camp based approach in these populations to motivate the women, increase their awareness, ensure follow up and referral and timely intervention in appropriate cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 300-305

  14. Review paper: a review of the pathology of abnormal placentae of somatic cell nuclear transfer clone pregnancies in cattle, sheep, and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, C; Loi, P; Ptak, G; Della Salda, L

    2008-11-01

    Cloning of cattle, sheep, and mice by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can result in apparently healthy offspring, but the probability of a successful and complete pregnancy is less than 5%. Failures of SCNT pregnancy are associated with placental abnormalities, such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium, and altered basement membrane. The pathogenesis of these changes is poorly understood, but current evidence implicates aberrant reprogramming of donor nuclei by the recipient oocyte cytoplast, resulting in epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes essential for normal placental development. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomic pathology of abnormal placentae of SCNT clones and to summarize current knowledge concerning underlying pathogenetic mechanisms.

  15. Dopamine and T cells: dopamine receptors and potent effects on T cells, dopamine production in T cells, and abnormalities in the dopaminergic system in T cells in autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levite, M

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine, a principal neurotransmitter, deserves upgrading to 'NeuroImmunotransmitter' thanks to its multiple, direct and powerful effects on most/all immune cells. Dopamine by itself is a potent activator of resting effector T cells (Teffs), via two independent ways: direct Teffs activation, and indirect Teffs activation by suppression of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The review covers the following findings: (i) T cells express functional dopamine receptors (DRs) D1R-D5R, but their level and function are dynamic and context-sensitive, (ii) DR membranal protein levels do not necessarily correlate with DR mRNA levels, (iii) different T cell types/subtypes have different DR levels and composition and different responses to dopamine, (iv) autoimmune and pro-inflammatory T cells and T cell leukaemia/lymphoma also express functional DRs, (v) dopamine (~10(-8) M) activates resting/naive Teffs (CD8(+) >CD4(+) ), (vi) dopamine affects Th1/Th2/Th17 differentiation, (vii) dopamine inhibits already activated Teffs (i.e. T cells that have been already activated by either antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies cytokines or other molecules), (viii) dopamine inhibits activated Tregs in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, dopamine 'suppresses the suppressors' and releases the inhibition they exert on Teffs, (ix) dopamine affects intracellular signalling molecules and cascades in T cells (e.g. ERK, Lck, Fyn, NF-κB, KLF2), (x) T cells produce dopamine (Tregs>Teffs), can release dopamine, mainly after activation (by antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies, PKC activators or other), uptake extracellular dopamine, and most probably need dopamine, (xi) dopamine is important for antigen-specific interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, (xii) in few autoimmune diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis/SLE/rheumatoid arthritis), and neurological/psychiatric diseases (e.g. Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and Tourette), patient's T cells seem to have abnormal DRs

  16. Prevention and Detection of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in cell culture is mycoplasma infection. It can extensively affectcell physiology and metabolism. As the applications of cell culture increase in research,industrial production and cell therapy, more concerns about mycoplasma contaminationand detection will arise. This review will provide valuable information about: 1. the waysin which cells are contaminated and the frequency and source of mycoplasma species incell culture; 2. the ways to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture; 3. the importanceof mycoplasma tests in cell culture; 4. different methods to identify mycoplasmacontamination; 5. the consequences of mycoplasma contamination in cell culture and 6.available methods to eliminate mycoplasma contamination. Awareness about the sourcesof mycoplasma and pursuing aseptic techniques in cell culture along with reliable detectionmethods of mycoplasma contamination can provide an appropriate situation to preventmycoplasma contamination in cell culture.

  17. Molecular Detection of Neuron-Specific ELAV-Like-Positive Cells in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito D’Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: n-ELAV (neuronal-Embryonic Lethal, Abnormal Vision-like genes belong to a family codifying for onconeural RNA-binding proteins. Anti-Hu-antibodies (anti-Hu-Ab are typically associated with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuropathy (PEM/PSN, and low titres of anti-Hu-Ab, were found in newly diagnosed Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC. The aim of this study is to develop a sensitive and quantitative molecular real-time PCR assay to detect SCLC cells in peripheral blood (PB through nELAV-like transcripts quantification.

  18. Simultaneous detection of mRNA and protein stem cell markers in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Gang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological studies and medical application of stem cells often require the isolation of stem cells from a mixed cell population, including the detection of cancer stem cells in tumor tissue, and isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells after eliciting the expression of specific genes in adult cells. Here we report the detection of Oct-4 mRNA and SSEA-1 protein in live carcinoma stem cells using respectively molecular beacon and dye-labeled antibody, aiming to establish a new method for stem cells detection and isolation. Results Quantification of Oct-4 mRNA and protein in P19 mouse carcinoma stem cells using respectively RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry confirmed that their levels drastically decreased after differentiation. To visualize Oct-4 mRNA in live stem cells, molecular beacons were designed, synthesized and validated, and the detection specificity was confirmed using control studies. We found that the fluorescence signal from Oct-4-targeting molecular beacons provides a clear discrimination between undifferentiated and retinoic acid-induced differentiated cells. Using deconvolution fluorescence microscopy, Oct-4 mRNAs were found to reside on one side of the cytosol. We demonstrated that, using a combination of Oct-4 mRNA-targeting molecular beacon with SSEA-1 antibody in flow cytometric analysis, undifferentiated stem cells can be clearly distinguished from differentiated cells. We revealed that Oct-4 targeting molecular beacons do not seem to affect stem cell biology. Conclusion Molecular beacons have the potential to provide a powerful tool for highly specific detection and isolation of stem cells, including cancer stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells without disturbing cell physiology. It is advantageous to perform simultaneous detection of intracellular (mRNA and cell-surface (protein stem cell markers in flow cytometric analysis, which may lead to high detection sensitivity and efficiency.

  19. Decreased SAP Expression in T Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Contributes to Early Signaling Abnormalities and Reduced IL-2 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampetsou, Maria P; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Terhorst, Cox; Kyttaris, Vasileios C; Tsokos, George C

    2016-06-15

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) display a number of abnormalities, including increased early signaling events following engagement of the TCR. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family cell surface receptors and the X-chromosome-defined signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) adaptor are important in the development of several immunocyte lineages and modulating the immune response. We present evidence that SAP protein levels are decreased in T cells and in their main subsets isolated from 32 women and three men with SLE, independent of disease activity. In SLE T cells, SAP protein is also subject to increased degradation by caspase-3. Forced expression of SAP in SLE T cells normalized IL-2 production, calcium (Ca(2+)) responses, and tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Exposure of normal T cells to SLE serum IgG, known to contain anti-CD3/TCR Abs, resulted in SAP downregulation. We conclude that SLE T cells display reduced levels of the adaptor protein SAP, probably as a result of continuous T cell activation and degradation by caspase-3. Restoration of SAP levels in SLE T cells corrects the overexcitable lupus T cell phenotype. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Comparison of two threshold detection criteria methodologies for determination of probe positivity for intraoperative in situ identification of presumed abnormal 18F-FDG-avid tissue sites during radioguided oncologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gregg J; Povoski, Stephen P; Hall, Nathan C; Murrey, Douglas A; Lee, Robert; Martin, Edward W

    2014-09-13

    Intraoperative in situ identification of (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during radioguided oncologic surgery remains a significant challenge for surgeons. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method versus the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method for determination of gamma detection probe positivity for intraoperative in situ identification of presumed abnormal (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites in a manner that was independent of the specific type of gamma detection probe used. From among 52 patients undergoing appropriate in situ evaluation of presumed abnormal (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during (18)F-FDG-directed surgery using 6 available gamma detection probe systems, a total of 401 intraoperative gamma detection probe measurement sets of in situ counts per second measurements were cumulatively taken. For the 401 intraoperative gamma detection probe measurement sets, probe positivity was successfully met by the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method in 150/401 instances (37.4%) and by the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method in 259/401 instances (64.6%) (P < 0.001). Likewise, the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method detected true positive results at target-to-background ratios much lower than the 1.5-to-1 target-to-background ratio of the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method. The three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method was significantly better than the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method for determination of gamma detection probe positivity for intraoperative in situ detection of presumed abnormal (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during radioguided oncologic surgery. This finding may be extremely important for reshaping the ongoing and future research and development of gamma detection probe systems that are necessary for optimizing the in situ detection of radioisotopes of higher-energy gamma photon emissions used during radioguided oncologic surgery.

  1. FISH技术在检测自然流产绒毛染色体异常中的应用研究%Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in detecting chromosomal abnormalities of spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲育栋; 苏焕厚; 曹金如; 陈美玲; 邓汉钊; 何淑贞

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization in detecting chromosomal abnormalities of spontaneous abortion.Methods:78 patients who suffered from spontaneous abortion were observed.All of these cases were detected chromosome 13,16,18,21,22,X and Y by FISH.Results:In 78 cases of abortion villi test results were found in 16 patients with abnormal,abnormal karyotype detection rate of 20.5%,which found triploid four cases;4 cases of trisomy 16;5 cases of trisomy 21;3 cases of trisomy 22.Conclusions:Abnormal number of chromosomes are the main factors leading to spontaneous abortion of early pregnancy,FISH technology can quickly detect chromosomal abnormalities of abortion villi.%目的 探讨荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术诊断自然流产绒毛组织染色体异常中的应用价值.方法 应用FISH技术对78例孕早期流产绒毛组织进行13/16/18/21/22/X/Y染色体检测分析.结果 78例流产绒毛FISH检测结果中,共发现16例异常,异常核型检出率20.5%,其中发现三倍体4例;16三体4例;21三体5例;22三体3例.结论 染色体数目异常是导致孕早期自然流产的主要因素,FISH技术可以快速地检测出流产绒毛组织染色体异常.

  2. Detection of DNA methylation in eucaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of molecular biology allow for analyzing the methylation pattern in the whole genome and in particular genes. We differentiate methylated sequences from unmethylated ones by means of cutting the genomic template with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes or by sodium bisulfite DNA modification. Chemical modification precedes most quantitative and qualitative PCR techniques: MS-PCR, MS-nested PCR, Real-Time PCR, QAMA, HeavyMethyl, MSHRM. Restriction enzymes, on the other hand, may be used together with PCR or hybridisation methods (Southern blot and microarrays. PCRs are conducted with primers specific for methylated and unmethylated sequences and sometimes, similarly to hybridisation techniques, with specifically labeled probes or dyes intercalating to double-stranded nucleic acids. The most advanced methylation detection techniques (MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC significantly reduce the amount of biological material used for tests, but they require specialist equipment.

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ095 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is abnormal bleeding more ...

  4. Detection threshold of single SPIO-labeled cells with FIESTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Chris; Bowen, Chris V; Rutt, Brian K; Foster, Paula J

    2005-02-01

    MRI of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled cells has become a valuable tool for studying the in vivo trafficking of transplanted cells. Cellular detection with MRI is generally considered to be orders of magnitude less sensitive than other techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT), or optical fluorescence microscopy. However, an analytic description of the detection threshold for single SPIO-labeled cells and the parameters that govern detection has not been adequately provided. In the present work, the detection threshold for single SPIO-labeled cells and the effect of resolution and SNR were studied for a balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence (3D-FIESTA). Based on the results from both theoretical and experimental analyses, an expression that predicts the minimum detectable mass of SPIO (m(c)) required to detect a single cell against a uniform signal background was derived: m(c) = 5v/(K(fsl) x SNR), where v is the voxel volume, SNR is the image signal-to-noise ratio, and K(fsl) is an empirical constant measured to be 6.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-5) microl/pgFe. Using this expression, it was shown that the sensitivity of MRI is not very different from that of PET, requiring femtomole quantities of SPIO iron for detection under typical micro-imaging conditions (100 microm isotropic resolution, SNR = 60). The results of this work will aid in the design of cellular imaging experiments by defining the lower limit of SPIO labeling required for single cell detection at any given resolution and SNR.

  5. Detection and isolation of circulating melanoma cells using photoacoustic flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine M; Rood, Kyle; Sengupta, Shramik; Gupta, Sagar K; DeSouza, Thiago; Cook, Aaron; Viator, John A

    2011-11-25

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are those cells that have separated from a macroscopic tumor and spread through the blood and lymph systems to seed secondary tumors(1,2,3). CTCs are indicators of metastatic disease and their detection in blood samples may be used to diagnose cancer and monitor a patient's response to therapy. Since CTCs are rare, comprising about one tumor cell among billions of normal blood cells in advanced cancer patients, their detection and enumeration is a difficult task. We exploit the presence of pigment in most melanoma cells to generate photoacoustic, or laser induced ultrasonic waves in a custom flow cytometer for detection of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs)(4,5). This process entails separating a whole blood sample using centrifugation and obtaining the white blood cell layer. If present in whole blood, CMCs will separate with the white blood cells due to similar density. These cells are resuspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and introduced into the flowmeter. Rather than a continuous flow of the blood cell suspension, we induced two phase flow in order to capture these cells for further study. In two phase flow, two immiscible liquids in a microfluidic system meet at a junction and form alternating slugs of liquid(6,7). PBS suspended white blood cells and air form microliter slugs that are sequentially irradiated with laser light. The addition of a surfactant to the liquid phase allows uniform slug formation and the user can create different sized slugs by altering the flow rates of the two phases. Slugs of air and slugs of PBS with white blood cells contain no light absorbers and hence, do not produce photoacoustic waves. However, slugs of white blood cells that contain even single CMCs absorb laser light and produce high frequency acoustic waves. These slugs that generate photoacoustic waves are sequestered and collected for cytochemical staining for verification of CMCs.

  6. Detecting RNA viruses in living mammalian cells by fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Divya; Biswas, Payal; Cella, Lakshmi N; Yates, Marylynn V; Chen, Wilfred

    2011-07-01

    Traditional methods that rely on viral isolation and culture techniques continue to be the gold standards used for detection of infectious viral particles. However, new techniques that rely on visualization of live cells can shed light on understanding virus-host interaction for early stage detection and potential drug discovery. Live-cell imaging techniques that incorporate fluorescent probes into viral components provide opportunities for understanding mRNA expression, interaction, and virus movement and localization. Other viral replication events inside a host cell can be exploited for non-invasive detection, such as single-virus tracking, which does not inhibit viral infectivity or cellular function. This review highlights some of the recent advances made using these novel approaches for visualization of viral entry and replication in live cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormal Behavior Detection Research Based on Reference Amount of Video Surveillance%基于视频监控参考量的异常行为检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 凌捷

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the traditional algorithm is difficult to detect a human moving target in the case of dynamic scenes , this paper proposes a new human motion abnormal behavior detection method . The method combines the use of video monitoring each of the reference amount , analyzes the video sequence into the behavior , for the purpose of the abnormal behavior to detect discrepancies , specifically related to : human moving target detection, tracking and extraction, abnormal behavior detection. It elaborated the concept of abnormal behavior detection, and introduced the method of calculating the various parameters referenced to the amount of video surveillance. The algorithm combines the advantages of detection and classification of abnormal behavior and the similarity, and made reference to the amount of video-based surveillance of aberrant behavior detection algorithm, which is calculated is given, and to determine the detection process,analysising of the characteristics and advantages of this method.%为了解决传统算法难以检测一般动态场景情形下人体运动目标的问题,文中提出了一种新的人体运动异常行为的检测方法,该方法组合利用视频监控各个的参考量.文中针对视频序列中人的行为进行分析,目的是检测出入的异常行为,具体涉及:人体运动目标的检测、跟踪与提取,异常行为检测等.文中阐述了异常行为检测的相关概念,介绍了视频监控参考量各个参数的计算方法,探讨了异常行为检测与分类技术的关系.结合异常行为检测与分类的相似性,提出了基于视频监控参考量的算法的异常行为检测方法,给出了其计算方法,并确定了检测的过程,分析了该方法的特点和优势.

  8. Cell-based detection of microbial biomaterial contaminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Toralf; Ma, Nan; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in biomaterial synthesis and functionalization is the prevention of microbial contaminations such as endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides (LPS)). In addition to LPS, which are exclusively expressed by Gram negative bacteria, also other microbial products derived from fungi or Gram positive bacteria can be found as contaminations in research laboratories. Typically, the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-test is used to determine the endotoxin levels of medical devices. However, this test fails to detect material-bound LPS and other microbial contaminations and, as demonstrated in this study, detects LPS from various bacterial species with different sensitivities.In this work, a cell-based assay using genetically engineered RAW macrophages, which detect not only soluble but also material-bound microbial contaminations is introduced.The sensitivity of this cell-line towards different LPS species and different heat-inactivated microbes was investigated. As proof of principle a soft hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate) network (cPnBA), which may due to adhesive properties strongly bind microbes, was deliberately contaminated with heat-inactivated bacteria. While the LAL-test failed to detect the microbial contamination, the cell-based assay clearly detected material-bound microbial contaminations. Our data demonstrate that a cell-based detection system should routinely be used as supplement to the LAL-test to determine microbial contaminations of biomaterials.

  9. Circulating Tumor Cells: From Theory to Nanotechnology-Based Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yue; Li, Yuanyuan; Xing, Haiyan; Luo, Minghe; Li, Ziwei; Chen, Jianhong; Mo, Jingxin; Shi, Sanjun

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells with stem-cell properties are regarded as tumor initiating cells. Sharing stem-cell properties, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for the development of metastasis, which significant affects CTC analysis in clinical practice. Due to their extremely low occurrence in blood, however, it is challenging to enumerate and analyze CTCs. Nanotechnology is able to address the problems of insufficient capture efficiency and low purity of CTCs owing to the unique structural and functional properties of nanomaterials, showing strong promise for CTC isolation and detection. In this review, we discuss the role of stem-like CTCs in metastases, provide insight into recent progress in CTC isolation and detection approaches using various nanoplatforms, and highlight the role of nanotechnology in the advancement of CTC research.

  10. Circulating Tumor Cells: From Theory to Nanotechnology-Based Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yue; Li, Yuanyuan; Xing, Haiyan; Luo, Minghe; Li, Ziwei; Chen, Jianhong; Mo, Jingxin; Shi, Sanjun

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells with stem-cell properties are regarded as tumor initiating cells. Sharing stem-cell properties, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for the development of metastasis, which significant affects CTC analysis in clinical practice. Due to their extremely low occurrence in blood, however, it is challenging to enumerate and analyze CTCs. Nanotechnology is able to address the problems of insufficient capture efficiency and low purity of CTCs owing to the unique structural and functional properties of nanomaterials, showing strong promise for CTC isolation and detection. In this review, we discuss the role of stem-like CTCs in metastases, provide insight into recent progress in CTC isolation and detection approaches using various nanoplatforms, and highlight the role of nanotechnology in the advancement of CTC research. PMID:28203204

  11. On generating cell exemplars for detection of mitotic cells in breast cancer histopathology images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraidi, Nada A; Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Khan, Adnan M; Rajpoot, Nasir M

    2014-01-01

    Mitotic activity is one of the main criteria that pathologists use to decide the grade of the cancer. Computerised mitotic cell detection promises to bring efficiency and accuracy into the grading process. However, detection and classification of mitotic cells in breast cancer histopathology images is a challenging task because of the large intra-class variation in the visual appearance of mitotic cells in various stages of cell division life cycle. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that cells in histopathology images can be effectively represented using cell exemplars derived from sub-images of various kinds of cells in an image for the purposes of mitotic cell classification. We compare three methods for generating exemplar cells. The methods have been evaluated in terms of classification performance on the MITOS dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that eigencells combined with support vector machines produce reasonably high detection accuracy among all the methods.

  12. Induction of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in bone-marrow cells and abnormalities in sperm of Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to cadmium, lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapisso, Joaquim Torres; Marques, Carla Cristina; Mathias, Maria da Luz; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça

    2009-08-01

    As a consequence of human activities, large amounts of cadmium, lead and zinc are released in the environment, often simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate under experimental conditions the DNA damage induced in Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) separately, or in selected combinations. Three cytogenetic end points were considered: the frequencies of micronucleated cells (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in the bone marrow and the frequency of sperm abnormalities. Mice were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections with 5 or 10 doses of aqueous solutions of cadmium acetate, lead acetate and zinc acetate in concentrations corresponding to 1/10 of the LD50, respectively, 21.5, 0.46 and 1.5 mg/kg bw. The control groups were injected in the same way with distilled water. With only one exception (Cd + Zn group treated with 5 doses), the results show a significant increase of MN in all groups for both treatments (5 and 10 doses). Similarly, the results concerning the SCE revealed a statistically significant increase in all treated animals, with the exception of the Zn group treated with 5 doses. The number of sperm abnormalities was significantly higher in animals treated with 5 doses, except in the group Pb + Zn. In animals treated with 10 doses the number of sperm abnormalities was always statistically higher compared with controls. This study indicates that cadmium, lead and zinc can induce MN, SCEs and sperm abnormalities in Algerian mice and that the clastogenic potential is dependent on the time of exposure and the interaction between the three elements, confirming the environmental damage that may result from the simultaneous action of several metals. Most relevant is the toxic potential for Zn, related with the dose, which may compromise its protective effect against other metal contaminations, such as cadmium.

  13. Ultrasonic Detection of Microscopic Breast Cancer in Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jeffrey B.; Patel, Hemang; Doyle, Timothy E.; Kwon, Soonjo

    2010-10-01

    A current problem in breast cancer treatment is the detection of microscopic cancer in surgical margins to ensure all of the cancer has been removed. Current methods rely on extensive pathology work that may take several days to complete. Positive findings for cancer in margins require follow-up surgery for up to 50% of lumpectomy patients to remove more tissue. A microscopic detection method for use during surgery would be preferable to reduce the risks, costs, and patient suffering of follow-up operations. Ultrasound is a promising in vivo detection method due to its low cost, portability, and ability to detect malignant tissue changes. Recent experiments have demonstrated the ultrasonic detection of microscopic cancer in cell cultures. Ultrasonic waveforms from pulse echo measurements showed significant differences between normal and malignant cell monolayers. The ultrasound also detected normal and malignant monolayer growth that displayed good correlations with cell counts. These results support the use of ultrasound as a viable method for in vivo detection. Testing of surgical samples at the Huntsman Cancer Institute is now in progress.

  14. Specific N-glycans of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Surface and the Abnormal Increase of Core-α-1, 6-fucosylated Triantennary Glycan via N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases-IVa Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Huan; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Yubao; Li, Tingting; Zhan, Chao; Huo, Wenjuan; He, Anshun; Yao, Yuanfei; Jin, Yu; Qu, Youpeng; Sun, Xue-Long; Li, Yu

    2015-11-05

    Glycosylation alterations of cell surface proteins are often observed during the progression of malignancies. The specific cell surface N-glycans were profiled in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with clinical tissues (88 tumor and adjacent normal tissues) and the corresponding serum samples of HCC patients. The level of core-α-1,6-fucosylated triantennary glycan (NA3Fb) increased both on the cell surface and in the serum samples of HCC patients (p IVa (GnT-IVa), which was related to the synthesis of the NA3Fb, was substantially increased in HCC tissues. Knockdown of GnT-IVa leads to a decreased level of NA3Fb and decreased ability of invasion and migration in HCC cells. NA3Fb can be regarded as a specific cell surface N-glycan of HCC. The high expression of GnT-IVa is the cause of the abnormal increase of NA3Fb on the HCC cell surface, which regulates cell migration. This study demonstrated the specific N-glycans of the cell surface and the mechanisms of altered glycoform related with HCC. These findings lead to better understanding of the function of glycan and glycosyltransferase in the tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis of HCC.

  15. Detection of apoptotic cells using propidium iodide staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-11-03

    Flow cytometry assays are often used to detect apoptotic cells in in vitro cultures. Depending on the experimental model, these assays can also be useful in evaluating apoptosis in vivo. In this protocol, we describe a propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry assay to evaluate B-cell lymphomas that have undergone apoptosis in vivo. B-cell lymphoma cells are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with the apoptosis inducer vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor). Tumor samples collected from the lymph nodes and/or the spleen are used to prepare a single-cell suspension that is exposed to a hypotonic solution containing the fluorochrome PI. The DNA content of the cells, now labeled with PI, is analyzed by flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA content is lost during apoptosis, resulting in a hypodiploid (or sub-G1) DNA profile during flow cytometry. In contrast, healthy cells display a sharp diploid DNA profile.

  16. Detection of circulating breast cancer cells using photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran

    According to the American Cancer Society, more than 200,000 new cases of breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed this year. Moreover, about 40,000 women died from breast cancer last year alone. As breast cancer progresses in an individual, it can transform from a localized state to a metastatic one with multiple tumors distributed through the body, not necessarily contained within the breast. Metastasis is the spread of cancer through the body by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which can be found in the blood and lymph of the diagnosed patient. Diagnosis of a metastatic state by the discovery of a secondary tumor can often come too late and hence, significantly reduce the patient's chance of survival. There is a current need for a CTC detection method which would diagnose metastasis before the secondary tumor occurs or reaches a size resolvable by current imaging systems. Since earlier detection would improve prognosis, this study proposes a method of labeling of breast cancer cells for detection with a photoacoustic flow cytometry system as a model for CTC detection in human blood. Gold nanoparticles and fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles are proposed as contrast agents for T47D, the breast cancer cell line of choice. The labeling, photoacoustic detection limit, and sensitivity are first characterized and then applied to a study to show detection from human blood.

  17. Abnormal apoptosis of trophoblastic cells is related to the up-regulation of CYP11A gene in placenta of preeclampsia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolin He

    Full Text Available Abnormal placenta trophoblast proliferation and apoptosis is related to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Emerging evidence has also indicated that key pregnancy-associated hormones, such as hCG, progesterone, are found in high concentration at the maternal-fetal interface. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of CYP11A, a key enzyme in steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism, in normal pregnancy and severe preeclampsia placenta and to explore the underlying mechanism of the relationship between the altered CYP11A expression and onset of preeclampsia. Immunohistochemistry method was used to study the localization of CYP11A-encoded protein P450scc in the placenta; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to examine CYP11A expression at mRNA and protein levels in patients with severe preeclampsia and normal placental tissue. CYP11A overexpression in trophoblastic cells was used to evaluate the effect on viability. TUNEL staining was used to determine whether overexpression of CYP11A could affect trophoblastic cell apoptosis. The results showed that CYP11A was selectively expressed in the cytoplasm of the placental trophoblastic cells. CYP11A expression were significantly increased in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy in both mRNA and protein levels. Multiple regression analysis indicated that CYP11A gene expression was positively correlated to ALT level and Plt, while negatively correlated to INR. Overexpression of CYP11A reduced trophoblastic cell proliferation and induced HTR8/SVneo cells apoptosis through activation of activated caspase-3 expression. These results suggest that abnormally high expression of CYP11A inhibits trophoblastic proliferation and increases apoptosis and therefore could be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  18. Decreased SAP expression in T cells from patients with SLE contributes to early signaling abnormalities and reduced IL-2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampetsou, Maria P.; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Terhorst, Cox; Kyttaris, Vasileios C.; Tsokos, George C.

    2016-01-01

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) display a number of functions including increased early signaling events following engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR). Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF) cell surface receptors and the X-chromosome-defined signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) adaptor are important in the development of several immunocyte lineages and modulating immune response. Here we present evidence that SAP protein levels are decreased in T cells and in their main subsets isolated from 32 women and 3 men with SLE independently of disease activity. In SLE T cells the SAP protein is also subject to increased degradation by a caspase-3. Forced expression of SAP in SLE T cells simultaneously heightened IL-2 production, calcium (Ca2+) responses and tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Exposure of normal T cells to SLE serum IgG, known to contain anti-CD3/TCR antibodies, resulted in SAP downregulation. We conclude that SLE T cells display reduced levels of the adaptor protein SAP probably as a result of continuous T cell activation and degradation by caspase-3. Restoration of SAP levels in SLE T cells corrects the overexcitable lupus T cell phenotype. PMID:27183584

  19. Accurate detection of carcinoma cells by use of a cell microarray chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Yamamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate detection and analysis of circulating tumor cells plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cancer treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cell microarray chip was used to detect spiked carcinoma cells among leukocytes. The chip, with 20,944 microchambers (105 µm width and 50 µm depth, was made from polystyrene; and the formation of monolayers of leukocytes in the microchambers was observed. Cultured human T lymphoblastoid leukemia (CCRF-CEM cells were used to examine the potential of the cell microarray chip for the detection of spiked carcinoma cells. A T lymphoblastoid leukemia suspension was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 15 min standing to allow the leukocytes to settle down into the microchambers. Approximately 29 leukocytes were found in each microchamber when about 600,000 leukocytes in total were dispersed onto a cell microarray chip. Similarly, when leukocytes isolated from human whole blood were used, approximately 89 leukocytes entered each microchamber when about 1,800,000 leukocytes in total were placed onto the cell microarray chip. After washing the chip surface, PE-labeled anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody and APC-labeled anti-CD326 (EpCAM monoclonal antibody solution were dispersed onto the chip surface and allowed to react for 15 min; and then a microarray scanner was employed to detect any fluorescence-positive cells within 20 min. In the experiments using spiked carcinoma cells (NCI-H1650, 0.01 to 0.0001%, accurate detection of carcinoma cells was achieved with PE-labeled anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, verification of carcinoma cells in the microchambers was performed by double staining with the above monoclonal antibodies. CONCLUSION: The potential application of the cell microarray chip for the detection of CTCs was shown, thus demonstrating accurate detection by double staining for cytokeratin and EpCAM at the single carcinoma cell level.

  20. A portable cell-based optical detection device for rapid detection of Listeria and Bacillus toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Rickus, Jenna L.; Morgan, Mark T.; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2005-11-01

    A mammalian cell-based optical biosensor was built to detect pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species. This sensor measures the ability of the pathogens to infect and induce cytotoxicity on hybrid lymphocyte cell line (Ped-2E9) resulting in the release of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that can be detected optically using a portable spectrophotometer. The Ped-2E9 cells were encapsulated in collagen gel matrices and grown in 48-well plates or in specially designed filtration tube units. Toxin preparations or bacterial cells were introduced and ALP release was assayed after 3-5 h. Pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains or the listeriolysin toxins preparation showed cytotoxicity ranging from 55% - 92%. Toxin preparations (~20 μg/ml) from B. cereus strains showed 24 - 98% cytotoxicity. In contrast, a non-pathogenic L. innocua (F4247) and a B. substilis induced only 2% and 8% cytotoxicity, respectively. This cell-based detection device demonstrates its ability to detect the presence of pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species and can potentially be used onsite for food safety or in biosecurity application.

  1. Abnormal levels of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in ataxia telangiectasia cells after exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, N.G.J. (Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Cell Biology and Genetics; Nederlandse Centrale Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek, Rijswijk. Medical Biological Lab.); Bootsma, D. (Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Cell Biology and Genetics)

    1982-01-01

    In cultured cells from normal individuals and from patients having ataxia telangiectasia (AT) the rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by UV light was investigated by autoradiography. The number of grains in 6 different AT cell strains was similar to that observed in normal cells. Exposure of normal cells to doses of X-rays up to 20 krad had no influence on the rate of UV-induced UDS. In contrast, the UV-induced UDS was significantly modified in AT cells by treatment with X-rays. In AT cell strains that were reported to have reduced levels of ..gamma..-ray-induced repair DNA synthesis ('excision-deficient' AT cells) the effect of X-rays on UV-induced UDS was inhibitory, whereas UV-induced UDS was stimulated by X-ray exposure in 'excision-proficient' AT cell strains. Different UV and X-ray dose-response relationships were seen in the two categories of AT cell strains.

  2. Detection method of users′abnormal behaviour oriented IaaS cloud platform%面向 IaaS云平台的用户异常行为检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑剑; 周艳丽; 刘聪

    2016-01-01

    To detect users′ abnormal behavior in IaaS cloud platform, an anomaly detection method based on users′ behavior and neural network was proposed. In order to correctly detect users′ abnormal behaviour, a users′ behavioral model was constructed based on time, place and event, and on this basis, users′ normal behavior patterns were established. By combining the model and neural network, the method can detect and identify whether the behavior is normal or not by comparing the network output of the users′ current behavior with a given threshold. The experimental results show that the proposed method can detect users′ abnormal behavior more effectively than other similar methods of users′behaviour detection.%针对IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service )云平台中用户异常行为的检测问题,提出了一种基于用户行为模型和神经网络相结合的异常检测方法。该方法通过构造一种基于时间、地点和事件的用户行为模型,在此基础上建立用户的正常行为模式,并与神经网络算法相结合,将用户当前行为网络输出值与给定阈值进行比较,以此来判断用户的行为是否异常,从而实现用户行为的异常检测。实验结果表明,相比其它类似的用户行为检测方法,该方法能更有效发现用户的异常行为。

  3. How to detect melting in laser heating diamond anvil cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨留响

    2016-01-01

    Research on the melting phenomenon is the most challenging work in the high pressure/temperature field. Until now, large discrepancies still exist in the melting curve of iron, the most interesting and extensively studied element in geoscience research. Here we present a summary about techniques detecting melting in the laser heating diamond anvil cell.

  4. PDGF receptor-α does not promote HCMV entry into epithelial and endothelial cells but increased quantities stimulate entry by an abnormal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Vanarsdall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα were reported to mediate entry of HCMV, including HCMV lab strain AD169. AD169 cannot assemble gH/gL/UL128-131, a glycoprotein complex that is essential for HCMV entry into biologically important epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and monocyte-macrophages. Given this, it appeared incongruous that EGFR and PDGFRα play widespread roles in HCMV entry. Thus, we investigated whether PDGFRα and EGFR could promote entry of wild type HCMV strain TR. EGFR did not promote HCMV entry into any cell type. PDGFRα-transduction of epithelial and endothelial cells and several non-permissive cells markedly enhanced HCMV TR entry and surprisingly, promoted entry of HCMV mutants lacking gH/gL/UL128-131 into epithelial and endothelial cells. Entry of HCMV was not blocked by a panel of PDGFRα antibodies or the PDGFR ligand in fibroblasts, epithelial, or endothelial cells or by shRNA silencing of PDGFRα in epithelial cells. Moreover, HCMV glycoprotein induced cell-cell fusion was not increased when PDGFRα was expressed in cells. Together these results suggested that HCMV does not interact directly with PDGFRα. Instead, the enhanced entry produced by PDGFRα resulted from a novel entry pathway involving clathrin-independent, dynamin-dependent endocytosis of HCMV followed by low pH-independent fusion. When PDGFRα was expressed in cells, an HCMV lab strain escaped endosomes and tegument proteins reached the nucleus, but without PDGFRα virions were degraded. By contrast, wild type HCMV uses another pathway to enter epithelial cells involving macropinocytosis and low pH-dependent fusion, a pathway that lab strains (lacking gH/gL/UL128-131 cannot follow. Thus, PDGFRα does not act as a receptor for HCMV but increased PDGFRα alters cells, facilitating virus entry by an abnormal pathway. Given that PDGFRα increased infection of some cells to 90%, PDGFRα may be very

  5. Advanced detection technology of Rayleigh wave for detection of abnormal geological structure in excavation face%瑞利波技术超前探测掘进工作面构造异常

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜; 祁晓鑫; 李军文

    2015-01-01

    In the front of excavation face, there exist abnormal geological structures such as fault, karst cave, col-lapsed pillars and aquifer, which usually bring about hazards like “pervious to water” and “roof fall” etc. How to accurately and effectively detect the geological structure in the front of excavation face has became a problem ur-gently needed to solve during production in coal mine. TYR (D) Rayleigh wave detector was adopted in advanced detection in driving face 7603 of Wuyang mine. The collected data were processed and analyzed, the conclusion is basically consistent with the engineering verification, thus obtaining good application effect.%掘进工作面前方存在断层、溶洞、陷落柱、含水层等地质构造,常常导致透水、冒顶等灾害性事故。采用YTR(D)瑞利波探测仪对山西潞安集团五阳煤矿7603掘进工作面进行超前探测,并对现场采集的数据进行处理和分析。结果显示,2个测点共发现9处异常区,通过后期工程验证,有7处探测异常区与实际揭露的结果基本一致,探测与实际揭露异常区域位置误差均在4m以内。

  6. Gene Expression Differences between Enriched Normal and Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Quiescent Stem/Progenitor Cells and Correlations with Biological Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Affer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparing gene expression of normal and CML CD34+ quiescent (G0 cell, 292 genes were downregulated and 192 genes upregulated in the CML/G0 Cells. The differentially expressed genes were grouped according to their reported functions, and correlations were sought with biological differences previously observed between the same groups. The most relevant findings include the following. (i CML G0 cells are in a more advanced stage of development and more poised to proliferate than normal G0 cells. (ii When CML G0 cells are stimulated to proliferate, they differentiate and mature more rapidly than normal counterpart. (iii Whereas normal G0 cells form only granulocyte/monocyte colonies when stimulated by cytokines, CML G0 cells form a combination of the above and erythroid clusters and colonies. (iv Prominin-1 is the gene most downregulated in CML G0 cells, and this appears to be associated with the spontaneous formation of erythroid colonies by CML progenitors without EPO.

  7. The use of molecular and cytogenetic methods as a valuable tool in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in horses: a case of sex chromosome chimerism in a Spanish purebred colt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Membrillo, A; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Anaya, G; Moreno-Millán, M

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities associated to sex chromosomes are reported as a problem more common than believed to be in horses. Most of them remain undiagnosed due to the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of interest of breeders and veterinarians in this type of diagnosis. Approximately 10 years ago, the Spanish Purebred Breeders Association implemented a DNA paternity test to evaluate the pedigree of every newborn foal. All candidates who showed abnormal or uncertain results are routinely submitted to cytogenetical analysis to evaluate the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. We studied the case of a foal showing 3 and even 4 different alleles in several loci in the short tandem repeat (STR) -based DNA parentage test. To confirm these results, a filiation test was repeated using follicular hair DNA showing normal results. A complete set of conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis was performed to determine their chromosomal complements. C-banding and FISH had shown that the foal presents a sex chimerism 64,XX/64,XY with a cellular percentage of approximately 70/30, diagnosed in blood samples. The use of a diagnostic approach combining routine parentage QF-PCR-based STR screening tested with classical or molecular cytogenetic analysis could be a powerful tool that allows early detection of foals that will have a poor or even no reproductive performance due to chromosomal abnormalities, saving time, efforts and breeders' resources.

  8. A man-made ATP-binding protein evolved independent of nature causes abnormal growth in bacterial cells.

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    Joshua M Stomel

    Full Text Available Recent advances in de novo protein evolution have made it possible to create synthetic proteins from unbiased libraries that fold into stable tertiary structures with predefined functions. However, it is not known whether such proteins will be functional when expressed inside living cells or how a host organism would respond to an encounter with a non-biological protein. Here, we examine the physiology and morphology of Escherichia coli cells engineered to express a synthetic ATP-binding protein evolved entirely from non-biological origins. We show that this man-made protein disrupts the normal energetic balance of the cell by altering the levels of intracellular ATP. This disruption cascades into a series of events that ultimately limit reproductive competency by inhibiting cell division. We now describe a detailed investigation into the synthetic biology of this man-made protein in a living bacterial organism, and the effect that this protein has on normal cell physiology.

  9. ONE-CLASS DETECTION OF CELL STATES IN TUMOR SUBTYPES

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    SOKOLOV, ARTEM; PAULL, EVAN O.; STUART, JOSHUA M.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular composition of a tumor greatly influences the growth, spread, immune activity, drug response, and other aspects of the disease. Tumor cells are usually comprised of a heterogeneous mixture of subclones, each of which could contain their own distinct character. The presence of minor subclones poses a serious health risk for patients as any one of them could harbor a fitness advantage with respect to the current treatment regimen, fueling resistance. It is therefore vital to accurately assess the make-up of cell states within a tumor biopsy. Transcriptome-wide assays from RNA sequencing provide key data from which cell state signatures can be detected. However, the challenge is to find them within samples containing mixtures of cell types of unknown proportions. We propose a novel one-class method based on logistic regression and show that its performance is competitive to two established SVM-based methods for this detection task. We demonstrate that one-class models are able to identify specific cell types in heterogeneous cell populations better than their binary predictor counterparts. We derive one-class predictors for the major breast and bladder subtypes and reaffirm the connection between these two tissues. In addition, we use a one-class predictor to quantitatively associate an embryonic stem cell signature with an aggressive breast cancer subtype that reveals shared stemness pathways potentially important for treatment. PMID:26776204

  10. Molecular phenotyping of immune cells from young NOD mice reveals abnormal metabolic pathways in the early induction phase of autoimmune diabetes.

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    Wu, Jian; Kakoola, Dorothy N; Lenchik, Nataliya I; Desiderio, Dominic M; Marshall, Dana R; Gerling, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    Islet leukocytic infiltration (insulitis) is first obvious at around 4 weeks of age in the NOD mouse--a model for human type 1 diabetes (T1D). The molecular events that lead to insulitis and initiate autoimmune diabetes are poorly understood. Since TID is caused by numerous genes, we hypothesized that multiple molecular pathways are altered and interact to initiate this disease. We evaluated the molecular phenotype (mRNA and protein expression) and molecular networks of ex vivo unfractionated spleen leukocytes from 2 and 4 week-old NOD mice in comparison to two control strains. Analysis of the global gene expression profiles and hierarchical clustering revealed that the majority (~90%) of the differentially expressed genes in NOD mice were repressed. Furthermore, analysis using a modern suite of multiple bioinformatics approaches identified abnormal molecular pathways that can be divided broadly into 2 categories: metabolic pathways, which were predominant at 2 weeks, and immune response pathways, which were predominant at 4 weeks. Network analysis by Ingenuity pathway analysis identified key genes/molecules that may play a role in regulating these pathways. These included five that were common to both ages (TNF, HNF4A, IL15, Progesterone, and YWHAZ), and others that were unique to 2 weeks (e.g. MYC/MYCN, TGFB1, and IL2) and to 4 weeks (e.g. IFNG, beta-estradiol, p53, NFKB, AKT, PRKCA, IL12, and HLA-C). Based on the literature, genes that may play a role in regulating metabolic pathways at 2 weeks include Myc and HNF4A, and at 4 weeks, beta-estradiol, p53, Akt, HNF4A and AR. Our data suggest that abnormalities in regulation of metabolic pathways in the immune cells of young NOD mice lead to abnormalities in the immune response pathways and as such may play a role in the initiation of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, targeting metabolism may provide novel approaches to preventing and/or treating autoimmune diabetes.

  11. Abnormalities of cell packing density and dendritic complexity in the MeCP2 A140V mouse model of Rett syndrome/X-linked mental retardation

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    Blue Mary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rett syndrome (RTT, a common cause of mental retardation in girls, is associated with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Most human cases of MECP2 mutation in girls result in classical or variant forms of RTT. When these same mutations occur in males, they often present as severe neonatal encephalopathy. However, some MECP2 mutations can also lead to diseases characterized as mental retardation syndromes, particularly in boys. One of these mutations, A140V, is a common, recurring missense mutation accounting for about 0.6% of all MeCP2 mutations and ranking 21st by frequency. It has been described in familial X-linked mental retardation (XLMR, PPM- X syndrome (Parkinsonism, Pyramidal signs, Macroorchidism, X-linked mental retardation and in other neuropsychiatric syndromes. Interestingly, this mutation has been reported to preserve the methyl-CpG binding function of the MeCP2 protein while compromising its ability to bind to the mental retardation associated protein ATRX. Results We report the construction and initial characterization of a mouse model expressing the A140V MeCP2 mutation. These initial descriptive studies in male hemizygous mice have revealed brain abnormalities seen in both RTT and mental retardation. The abnormalities found include increases in cell packing density in the brain and a significant reduction in the complexity of neuronal dendritic branching. In contrast to some MeCP2 mutation mouse models, the A140V mouse has an apparently normal lifespan and normal weight gain patterns with no obvious seizures, tremors, breathing difficulties or kyphosis. Conclusion We have identified various neurological abnormalities in this mouse model of Rett syndrome/X-linked mental retardation which may help to elucidate the manner in which MECP2 mutations cause neuronal changes resulting in mental retardation without the confounding effects of seizures, chronic hypoventilation, or other Rett syndrome associated symptoms.

  12. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

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    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  13. 利用混沌特征分析的大型Web数据库异常检测%Abnormal Information Detection of Big Web Database Based on Chaotic Feature Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华英

    2014-01-01

    为研究使用混沌分析的方法检测大型Web数据库的异常入侵特征新型问题,提出使用递归图分析的混沌特征分析方法检测Web数据库异常入侵。使用平均互信息算法和虚假最近邻点算法求取Web数据库信息流相空间重构的关键参数,使用递归图分析方法分析了各类异常入侵信号下真实Web数据库的检测。仿真结果表明平均互信息算法和虚假最近邻点算法能有效应用于对Web数据库信息流异常信号入侵检测的相空间重构中。递归图混沌分析的方法能有效检测出各类异常入侵特征,递归图中有规则图案,表明入侵信号和Web数据库信息流具有确定性成分存在,能对之实现有效检测和防御,研究结果证明检测算法能有效应用于网络数据安全检测实践。%Abnormal information detection of big Web database based on chaotic feature analysis was researched as a new problem. The recurrence plot analysis method was proposed in the application of detection of abnormal information for big Web database. The different types of abnormal information and signals were detected and analyzed in real Web database based on the recurrence plot analysis. Simulation result shows that the AMI and FNN algorithm can used as the calculation of the key parameters such as the delay time and embedded dimension for the phase space reconstruction in Web database flows application. Each type of intrusion abnormal signals can be detected with the recurrence plot analy-sis method. Results show that there are deterministic components in the Web database information flows, it can be de-tected and defended effectively by the proposed method, and research result shows the detection algorithm can be applied in the network database safety detection and defense in practice.

  14. Abnormal changes in NKT cells, the IGF-1 axis, and liver pathology in an animal model of ALS.

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    Arseny Finkelstein

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a rapidly progressing fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective death of motor neurons (MN in the spinal cord, and is associated with local neuroinflammation. Circulating CD4(+ T cells are required for controlling the local detrimental inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases, and for supporting neuronal survival, including that of MN. T-cell deficiency increases neuronal loss, while boosting T cell levels reduces it. Here, we show that in the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 G93A (mSOD1 mouse model of ALS, the levels of natural killer T (NKT cells increased dramatically, and T-cell distribution was altered both in lymphoid organs and in the spinal cord relative to wild-type mice. The most significant elevation of NKT cells was observed in the liver, concomitant with organ atrophy. Hepatic expression levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 decreased, while the expression of IGF binding protein (IGFBP-1 was augmented by more than 20-fold in mSOD1 mice relative to wild-type animals. Moreover, hepatic lymphocytes of pre-symptomatic mSOD1 mice were found to secrete significantly higher levels of cytokines when stimulated with an NKT ligand, ex-vivo. Immunomodulation of NKT cells using an analogue of α-galactosyl ceramide (α-GalCer, in a specific regimen, diminished the number of these cells in the periphery, and induced recruitment of T cells into the affected spinal cord, leading to a modest but significant prolongation of life span of mSOD1 mice. These results identify NKT cells as potential players in ALS, and the liver as an additional site of major pathology in this disease, thereby emphasizing that ALS is not only a non-cell autonomous, but a non-tissue autonomous disease, as well. Moreover, the results suggest potential new therapeutic targets such as the liver for immunomodulatory intervention for modifying the disease, in addition to MN-based neuroprotection and systemic

  15. Abnormal Localization and Tumor Suppressor Function of Epithelial Tissue-Specific Transcription Factor ESE3 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xing, Jie; Cheng, Rui; Shao, Ying; Li, Peng; Zhu, Shengtao; Zhang, Shutian

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still poorly understood. ESE3 is a member of the Ets transcription family, which is only expressed in epithelial tissues and acts as a tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Our study aim was to confirm whether ESE3 is involved in the carcinogenesis of ESCC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that ESE3 was mainly located in cell nuclei of normal tissues and the cytoplasm in ESCC tissues. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses of the normal esophageal cell line HEEpiC and ESCC cell lines EC9706 TE-1, KYSE150, and KYSE410 confirmed these results. pEGFP-ESE3 and pcDNA3.1-V5/HisA-ESE3 plasmids were constructed for overexpression of ESE3 in EC9706 and KYSE150 cells. The stably transfected cells showed restoration of the nuclear localization of ESE3. EC9706 cells with re-localization of ESE3 to the nucleus showed inhibition of proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. To explore the possible mechanism of the differences in localization of ESE3 in normal esophageal cells and ESCC cells, ESCC cell lines were treated with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B, transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, PKC inhibitor sphinganine, P38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190, and CK II inhibitor TBCA. These reagents were chosen according to the well-known mechanisms of protein translocation. However, the localization of ESE3 was unchanged after these treatments. The sequence of ESE3 cDNA in ESCC cells was identical to the standard sequence of ESE3 in the NCBI Genebank database, indicating that there was no mutation in the coding region of ESE3 in ESCC. Taken together, our study suggests that ESE3 plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of ESCC through changes in subcellular localization and may act as a tumor suppressor gene in ESCC, although the mechanisms require further study.

  16. Abnormal Localization and Tumor Suppressor Function of Epithelial Tissue-Specific Transcription Factor ESE3 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is still poorly understood. ESE3 is a member of the Ets transcription family, which is only expressed in epithelial tissues and acts as a tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Our study aim was to confirm whether ESE3 is involved in the carcinogenesis of ESCC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that ESE3 was mainly located in cell nuclei of normal tissues and the cytoplasm in ESCC tissues. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses of the normal esophageal cell line HEEpiC and ESCC cell lines EC9706 TE-1, KYSE150, and KYSE410 confirmed these results. pEGFP-ESE3 and pcDNA3.1-V5/HisA-ESE3 plasmids were constructed for overexpression of ESE3 in EC9706 and KYSE150 cells. The stably transfected cells showed resto